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T H E F I R S T M U LT I C U LT U R A L M I L I TA RY M A G A Z I N E
The Womenâ€™s Army Corps Top Enlisted Soldier at Walter Reed Gets Back to Basics Disabled Vets Aim for Paralympic Dreams Why I Serve: Participants Share Motivation for Military Service
Publisher’s Page Women in Uniform
omen in the military was once considered an oxymoron. There was a time when women were thought to be “out of their element” when it came to serving in the armed services. Of course, women have proven the contrary but not without a significant amount of struggle, tenacity and sacrifice. In this issue we honor the brave women trailblazers who comprised the Women’s Army Corps. Formed in 1941, WAC’s were the first women other than nurses to serve within the ranks of the United States Army. Despite the difficulty that the Army and the American public initially had toward accepting women in uniform, political and military leaders had to face the stark reality that women could offset the labor shortage caused by the inordinate numbers of men called into the war effort. Contrary to conventional wisdom, not all WAC’s were white women but there were also significant contingents of Asian, Pacific Islander and African American women who answered the call to serve their country in time of need. Since this time, women have continued to make tremendous strides in the military and enter fields that were previously considered the exclusive domain of men. While it can be said that the military still has a ways to go towards achieving parity for women I’m confident that, with the indomitable female spirit, it will eventually arrive there.
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CEO Leon Thompson, Jr. Publisher Shawn Lindsey Editor-in-Chief Brian S. Bentley Editor Geddes Ince
Entertainment Editor Mike Jones Special Features Editor Lisa Richardson-Lloyd East Coast Representative Selma Lindsey Marketing/Advertising Director Christy Harris Graphic Design COS Viva Vision Public Relations Edward Brantley Advertising & Editorial Offices: PO Box 45589, Los Angeles, CA. 90045 Phone: (310) 628-5621 Fax: (323) 294-3313 email: firstname.lastname@example.org website: www.colorofservice.com Subscriptions: Color of Service [ISSN 1520-7544] is published bimonthly by Color of Service Magazine, Inc. Domestic (includes APO/FPO addresses) subscription rates are: US $14 (6 issues) 1 year, $26 (12 issues) 2 years, $40 (18 issues) 3 years. International subscription rates are: $30 (6 issues) 1 year, US $54 (12 issues) 2 years, US$82 (18 issues) 3 years. All subscription inquiries/address changes should be directed to: Subscription Department, PO Box 45589, Los Angeles, CA. 90045, or emailed to: email@example.com. It is the responsibility of the subscriber to insure that all mailing information is correct and current. Color of Service is not liable for undeliverable magazine copies of subscription accounts that have either changed without proper notification (at least six weeks in advance) or due to the expiration of postal mail forwarding privileges. Past issue single copies may be obtained at $6 each from the Subscription Dept., PO Box 45589, Los Angeles, CA. 90045. Single article requests should be directed to: (310) 628-5621. All articles are the property of Color of Service unless stated otherwise. No portion of Color of Service may be reproduced or transmitted, in whole or in part, for mass dissemination (for profit or otherwise) by any means, graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, by any information storage or retrival system, without the expressed permission in writing from the publisher. Color of Service is a trademark of Color of Service Magazine, Inc.
COVER STORY The Womenâ€™s Army Corps
Top Enlisted Soldier at Walter Reed Gets Back to Basics Disabled Vets Aim for Paralympic Dreams DOD Reaffirms Commitment to Family & Troop Morale Programs Why I Serve: Participants Share Motivation for Military Service Photo Essay: Women in the Military
DEPARTMENTS 3 CAREER CORNER How to Become an Entrepreneur
6 FINANCIAL INDEPENDENCE Lowering Expenses 16 ENTERTAINMENT FOCUS Movie and Video/DVD Releases
SECTIONS 22 HEALTH & FITNESS Battling Boredom 28 MILITARY CUISINE Asian Noodles
Entrepreneur Guide By Reggie Thomas
want my own. I don’t think anyone, at one time or another, hasn’t felt like they wanted to own their own business. No matter how well you like what you’re doing and who you work for, there is nothing like being your own boss. How do you set yourself up to become your own boss? Do you have what it takes to become an entrepreneur to start and run your own business? It can be easier than you think: if you have the right attitude and structure in your life, you can do it. The first thing you have to do to become an entrepreneur is to think like one. You have to believe in yourself, set goals and put your plans into action. Thinking that you can’t do something will have you not doing it. You have to know what you want and believe you can get it. Having feelings that things might not happen or you can’t succeed will be your downfall in becoming an entrepreneur. When you start and run your own business, you can’t have any negative thoughts. Remember, you are responsible for every part of your business and no one else is around to motivate you. Your inspiration is what will carry you and any other people that work for you. Setting goals for your business and putting those goals into action is what will make you start living your dreams of being an e n t r e p r e n e u r. Whatever type of business you decide that
you want to start, you have to have a game plan. Have a business plan so you can start off right in setting up your company and knowing which way you want to go in the future. Without a business plan you will be lost on what you’re trying to accomplish now and the direction you want to go in. Once you have your business plan laid out, that’s when you have to start putting those plans into action.
Procrastinating about your plans will only keep you from succeeding at being your own boss. When you have decided what you want to do and have it all planned out, the next step is to jump right out there and start doing it. To be an entrepreneur you have to be willing to take chances. If you want that safety net that you have always had on your regular job, being an entrepreneur is the wrong thing for you. This business will be yours and you will have to deal with the ups and downs of the business instead of a boss: after all, you’re the boss. Plan out carefully what you want to do and do some research on whatever company you are planning to start. Studying about your new field is one of the best ways to start off on the right foot in opening up your new company. Researching and studying will help you to understand and know about your new business to give you the confidence you will needed to get started. Developing your own business can be one of the most satisfying things you can do. It’s great to be your own boss, but it’s also a lot of hard work. Be prepared to work harder for yourself than you have ever worked for anyone else.
Entrepreneurial Websites www.allbusiness.com http://bplans.com www.entrepreneur.com www.businessownersideacafe.com www.realsmallbusiness.com www.isquare.com www.valuationresources.com www.bizmove.com www.morebusiness.com
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Reaffirms Commitment to Family & TroopMoralePrograms
By Gerry J. Gilmore
tâ€™s imperative, especially during wartime, that the Defense Department continues to provide viable family and troop morale programs for servicemembers and their families, a senior Defense Department official said here yesterday. â€œOur military families are the heart and soul of troops on the battlefield,â€? Leslye A. Arsht, deputy undersecretary of defense for military community and family policy, told the House Armed Services Committee subcommittee on military personnel at a Capitol Hill hearing. The Defense Department has made family support a priority and redesigned and boosted family support in a number of ways to recognize the crucial role families play in supporting servicemembers deployed worldwide in support of the war against terrorism, Arsht said. Military 4 COLOR OF SERVICE
families cite communication with their deployed servicemembers as their No. 1 concern, Arsht said. Among other initiatives, defense officials haves established special computerized communications centers that help keep families and servicemembers connected during deployments, she noted. Military families also want easy and quick access to information that’s important to them, Arsht added, and she cited two Web-based Defense Department initiatives designed to meet that need. Military OneSource is a 24-hour information and referral service at www.militaryonesource.com that provides information about parenting, child care, educational services, financial information and counseling, Arsht said. Military Homefront is the department’s quality-oflife web portal at www.militaryhomefront .dod.mil that provides useful information about stateside or overseas moving, spouse job information, and more. These services also support National Guard and Reserve military families, Arsht added. Military family support and assistance centers established across the services remain the backbone of support provided to families in the military. The military services also provide counseling support to help families cope with separations due to servicemembers’ overseas
deployments, Arsht said. Trained family counselors can help families with life management issues such as reunion expectations, loneliness, stress, long separations, effects of deployment on children, loss and grief and more, she said.
National Guard and Reserve. The military also provides several no-cost youth activity programs through partnerships with national organizations such as the Boys and Girls Clubs, 4-H Clubs, and the Armed Services YMCA, Arsht added.
The department’s commissary, military exchange and child-care systems all provide important support to military families. Military families save more than 30 percent annually on groceries by using their local commissary and save 16 to 20 percent at their local exchange stores, she noted.
Overseas troops regularly enjoy top-name entertainment provided by the Armed Forces Entertainment. In 2006, AFE conducted 118 tours with 1,433 shows in 25 countries. Entertainers include Gary Sinise, Colin Quinn, World Wrestling Entertainment personalities, the Harlem Globetrotters, and many more groups. Additionally, the Spirit of America tour puts on shows for stateside military audiences, Arsht said. From 2002 to 2006, the Robert and Nina Rosenthal Foundation worked with the country music industry to provide 76 celebrity shows at no cost to military members and their families, she noted.
About 42 percent of junior enlisted servicemembers who use child care said they were moderately to very concerned about the issue during their last deployment, Arsht said. Accordingly, the department has provided $228 million in funding for military child care since the start of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom, she said, while creating about 7,000 more child care spaces at 37 child care centers. The department has earmarked another $82 million for expanding existing child care facilities. Another program, Operation Military Child Care, provides support for the child care needs of geographically dispersed military parents, Arsht said, and is especially helpful for members of the
Defense officials will continue to do their best to support servicemembers and their families as the war against global terrorism continues and the Defense Department restructures itself, Arsht pledged. The needs of individual servicemembers and their families must still be met. The department will continue to explore the most effective means of underwriting support to families and developing innovative new support systems. COLOR OF SERVICE 5
Lowering Expenses By Jacob Joseph
educing Your Monthly Expenses: Do you struggle with managing your finances? Does it seem like you just never have enough money? Featured below are some tips on how you can lower your monthly bills and expenditures. You may find that some of these suggestions are not going to help you. However, you will definitely be able to utilize more than one of them. Shopping Smart: Never buy anything on impulse! Ensure that you are getting the lowest price for your purchases by doing research. This will entail visiting several stores and/or websites. Locating the best deals instead of impulse buying will typically save a significant amount of money. It will take you some time and effort, but anytime you save money its worth the extra work. The money you save can be used for paying off debt, investing, or for whatever your needs are! Transfer High Interest Credit Cards to One Account: Credit card companies make their money by means of the high interest rates they charge. If you have several credit cards, it would be a good idea to apply for a card that offers an introductory rate of 0% for balance transfers. Not only will you be able to pay off your credit cards at a faster rate, youâ€™ll save money in the process. There are a wide variety of credit cards that offer 0% intro APR on balance transfers. Try and find one that offers rewards that will beneficial for you. Lowering Your Bills: This entails cutting back on utilities like cooling, lights, water, heating, etc.. For example, when you are not home, make sure all of your lights are off. Or, regulate your thermostat warmer or colder so that you are not wasting money by making your house comfortable as though you were there. This may be simpler for some, but not others. Find a routine that works for you, and stick to it. 6 COLOR OF SERVICE
Tip: A good idea would be to research your home and cell phone plans to see if you can find a new one offering the same benefits, at a less expensive rate. Try doing this with your cable or satellite TV provider. No matter if it is only a few dollars that you are saving every month, it is more money in your pocket! Avoid Dining Out: Going to eat at restaurants is costly. By eating home, not only will you be saving money, you have the potential to eat much healthier and spend more quality time with your loved ones! Tip: When shopping at the grocery store, make a list with you beforehand. It is very likely that shopping without a prepared list will result in you purchasing goods that you either donâ€™t need or do not eat. Keep Records of How and Where Your Money Is Spent: It may be difficult to do, but try and keep track of every penny that you spend for about three weeks. It is likely that you will be able to spot areas where you can tighten your belt or eliminate altogether. Change your spending habits and proceed to keep tabs on where your money is going. This will allow you to continuously evaluate your spending tactics so that you can reduce your expenses and save! Develop a Budget: Figuring out where you spend your money will help you gain control of your finances. Budgeting will help you determine areas where you can reduce spending and what areas of your spending habits need to be changed. A budget is difficult
to develop, but even more to maintain. Learn more about developing budgets. In conclusion....Over time, you will become more alert as to how and where you are spending your money and what you can do so that you spend less and save. In order to accomplish you short and long-term goals, you are going to have to make a concerted effort at changing your ways. Jacob Joseph is a financial expert for http://www.starloanservices.com. At Star Loan Services you can learn more about managing money.
history respect courage
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omen have proven to be the backbone of the armed services. The fact that they have risen to the highest ranks in all military branches and in nearly all fields of endeavor that the military offers, underscores their professionalism and can do spirit. Color of Service salutes the courageous women who comprise our armed services and their unselfish commitment and dedication towards defending our nation.
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he first book of its kind, Grace Under Fire is an inspiring and spiritual collection of letters and e-mails by U.S. troops and their families from the American Revolution through the War on Terrorism.
Andrew Carroll, editor of the bestselling War Letters, went through his massive archive of seventy-five-thousand previously unpublished wartime correspondence to pick out the most intimate, dramatic, historic, and insightful letters and e-mails ever written about God, religion, and spirituality.
uring the Iraq War, coauthor Capt. Jason Conroy commanded Charlie Company, which was part of Task Force 1-64 of the 2d Brigade Combat Team, part of the U.S. Army’s 3d Infantry Division. A tank unit equipped with mammoth M1A1 Abrams tanks, Conroy’s company was literally at the tip of the U.S. Army’s spear and one of the first elements into Baghdad. Veteran journalist Ron Martz was embedded in Charlie Company. Together, Conroy and Martz tell the unvarnished story of what went right and what went deadly wrong in Iraq.
John B. Babcock
y mid-1944, the U.S. Army was facing a critical shortage of the most important commodity in any war, the common foot soldier. Higherthan-expected casualties during the liberation of France had forced the Army to comb its ranks for replacement infantrymen. Plucked in 1944 from the safety and privilege of the Army Specialized Training Program (the World War II version of the college deferment of the Vietnam years), twenty-twoyear-old John Babcock suddenly found himself an infantry private headed to Europe.
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Mark K. Roberts
rew members tell their true stories of life under the surface-from World War II to today’s war on terror-in this exceptional illustrated volume. From the deadly undersea warfare of World War II through the silent Cold War stand-offs in the deep, to the cutting edge technology of the modern U.S. Navy, submarines have evolved into the front line of our nation’s defense at sea. And the men who sail them have become heroes above and below the waves. These are their stories-in their own words. In Sub, author Mark Roberts has compiled insightful interviews and recollections from the submarine veterans themselves-accompanied by detailed photos and illustrations of both man and machine at work.
he first written use of the word “sniper” was in a soldier’s letter from India in 1773, and in fact, the slaying of King Harold at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 by an enemy archer may well be one of the earliest recorded instances of the art of the sniper. Tracing the role played by this unique soldier, from the time of the English Civil War and the American Revolutionary War to the Gulf War and Bosnia, Sniper shows what it takes to zero in on a human target from over half a mile away and then disappear before anyone even knows
TE S W R G B B
op nlisted oldier at alter eed ets ack to asics of
By Fred W. Baker III
Army Command Sgt. Maj. Althea Green Dixon stands in front of Abrams Hall at Walter Reed Army Medical Center. The 274-room Abrams Hall became the primary facility for unaccompanied soldiers in outpatient care.
uring the past three weeks, Army Command Sgt. Maj. Althea Green Dixon has done a lot of walking and talking. She’s also done a lot of listening. As well as much inspecting, checking, moving and shaking. What she hasn’t had time to do is any packing. Sitting in her new office in the command section of the red-bricked Building 1 on the Walter Reed Army Medical Center campus, Dixon is surrounded by blank walls and bare cabinets. Her office is adorned with only the American and Army flags. All of her “stuff” is still in her old office on Fort Detrick, Md., she said. But that’s OK, because the new top NCO over the North Atlantic Regional Medical Command hasn’t spent a lot of time in her office since being handpicked for the job at Walter Reed. “I believe in management by walking around. Just stop in on people and say, ‘Hi.’ See 12 COLOR OF SERVICE
how they are doing. Check on things,” Dixon said. “I can get a lot done in this office sitting behind that computer, but I can get a lot more done by walking around and interacting with people and really seeing how things are going out there and hearing from folks directly,” she said. Army Maj. Gen. Eric B. Schoomaker, the new commander of Walter Reed and the North Atlantic Regional Medical Command, chose the 29-year career medical soldier to lead the changes in wounded soldier care at the center and within the command. The center and its previous leadership have been under fire for the past month since media reports of poor outpatient soldier care caught national attention. Dixon served as Schoomaker’s “right hand” on Fort Detrick and Fort Gordon, Ga. She found out March 2 that Schoomaker wanted her to move to
I’m about three things: basics, standards and accountability...If you stick to the basics, you generally end up OK.
sure about the basics of soldier care. Her passion for taking care of troops showed during an interview with American Forces Press Service. “I hate to talk about the past. I probably shouldn’t. But part of the reason that we have this situation that we’re in right now is because noncommissioned officers failed to do their jobs,” Dixon said. “They’re supposed to check on their soldiers,” she added. “They are supposed to know how they are living, what problems they have. I’m sorry. I get a little emotional when I talk about that because that’s basic stuff and they didn’t do it,” she said.
Photo: Fred W. Baker III
Walter Reed with him. The next day, when she was supposed to be packing her bags for a vacation in California, she was at the center helping coordinate the packing and moving of soldiers and their belongings out of Building 18 instead. The building was spotlighted in the media for poor living conditions, including moldy walls, faulty plumbing and backed-up maintenance work orders. “I needed to be here,” Dixon said. “Our first priority that weekend was to move our soldiers out of Building 18 and into suitable quarters. And we got that done.” Dixon has taken only one day off since. A native of Trinidad, Dixon speaks with a pleasant Caribbean accent, soft and
For the past three weeks, Dixon has spent countless hours making her rounds across the sprawling 113-acre campus reacquainting the center’s NCOs with the basics of soldier care as she sees them. “I’m about three things: basics, standards and accountability,” she said. “Basic things like taking care of soldiers, basic things like checking soldiers’ living quarters, basic things like keeping up with your soldiers’ whereabouts. If you stick to the basics, you generally end up OK.” Probably the biggest effort she’s taken on so far has been making sure all wounded warriors at Walter Reed are housed in “accommodations that are suitable for an American soldier,” she said. Wounded soldiers in outpatient care with families at the center now live in the 280-room Mologne House, which boasts all the amenities of a luxury hotel, as well as Delano Hall and the two popular Fisher Houses. The 274-room Abrams
Hall became the primary facility for unaccompanied soldiers in outpatient care. Each room offers a private bath—some with tubs—kitchenette, walk-in closet, a large, flat-screen television mounted on the wall, and a brand new 17-inch iMac computers. Ten of the rooms there are fitted for wheel-chair access. Brightly lit dayrooms sport large-screen televisions and pool, foosball and ping pong tables. “It’s the nicest set of barracks that I’ve ever seen since I’ve been in the Army and I’ve been in a lot of barracks,” Dixon said with a laugh as she walked from her office toward Abrams Hall to finish her room inspections.
Abrams Hall is across the street and only a short walk from Dixon’s office. The grounds look more like an apartment complex than an Army barracks. Walking down bright white halls with waxed floors, past the security desk, Dixon lightly quizzed a handful of soldiers on duty about an upcoming town hall meeting. They told her they knew about it, but not the time or the place. She kindly set them straight. “Looking forward to seeing you there,” Dixon said. To make room in Abrams hall, some permanent party and student soldiers living there were moved into furnished, two-bedroom apartments off the campus. Each has walk-in closets and private baths. A shuttle is provided for transportation. The Army paid all relocation, utility transfer and hook-up fees, Dixon said. “We don’t want our young soldiers to be subject to any financial liabilities because COLOR OF SERVICE 13
“I want our employees to know that we still care for them. We are here to take care of them the same as we are here to take care of our patient soldiers.” of decisions that their leadership has made,” Dixon said. “I don’t think any soldier lost anything in this shuffle.” Both Dixon and her boss have talked regularly to the student soldiers and have received nothing but positive feedback, she said. “I haven’t heard any major complaints so far. But we’re keeping those lines of communication open. We want to make sure we’re doing right by all of our soldiers,” she said. Regular barracks checks help keep her in touch with the soldiers and the NCOs who lead them, Dixon said. “When a new face comes in they tend to open up a little bit,” she said. “When I go over there, … I try to have a dialogue with them, just to see how they’re doing, get an azimuth check on how we’re doing and if there are any issues.”
“upswing.” At the same time, Dixon must also focus on the morale of her staff of soldiers. She said that the negative publicity has had an effect on those in uniform serving there. She said she is meeting with staff members to “get their thoughts on how they are doing and what can be done to improve their quality of
Face-to-face communication is a recurring theme in many of the changes that Dixon and Schoomaker have made. The center now has a weekly orientation for every Photos: Fred W. Baker III
new soldier-patient and family. On March 21 Schoomaker held his first town hall meeting with the soldier-patients, and more are planned. Schoomaker and Dixon also have held sensing sessions with NCOs and other leaders. “We are here for the soldier. That’s our job. They ought to not feel they are imposing on us if they come to us with an issue. We are here to deal with those issues,” Dixon said. In light of recent changes, Dixon said, morale for wounded soldiers is on an 14 COLOR OF SERVICE
life,” she said. “Although a lot of the scrutiny has been on the (care of the) patient-soldiers, I want our employees to know that we still care for them. We are here to take care of them the same as we are here to take care of our patient soldiers.” Dixon said she is pleased with the changes made already, but acknowledged much work ahead. She said she is receiving support, both from top-level leaders across the Army and DoD, as well as from her NCOs and staff. The next step is to
stand up the Wounded Warrior Transition Brigade, charged with overseeing the health, welfare and morale of patients as they recover. Army combat veterans have been chosen to stand up brigade. Its new top NCO, Command Sgt. Maj. Jeffrey Hartless, has spent time recovering at the center from wounds he suffered while serving in Afghanistan. About 600 soldiers will make up the three companies in the new brigade. Many officers and NCOs have been given only 30 days notice to report to their new assignments at the center, but haven’t complained about
Above & Left: Army Command Sgt. Maj. Althea Green Dixon and 1st Sgt. Paul Ambersley talk about soldier issues during a “walk-through” inspection of the barracks rooms at Walter Reed Army Medical Center’s Abrams Hall
the sudden change. There has been “no whining,” Dixon said. “They are just stepping up to the plate,” she said. The three company commanders for the new transition brigade are already on the ground working through issues of furniture, space, personnel restructuring, offices and so forth. By the end of this month, half of the staff is set to be in place, three-quarters by the end of April, and full staffing for the brigade should be in place by the end of May, Dixon said. In the meantime, the sergeant major makes no apologies for the standards she sets and said she will continue taking care of soldiers with “high standards with a big heart.” “I can be pretty easy going. But I’m often not, because I have high standards, because I really like people and I really care about people. Sometimes I have to correct people. I try to be nice about it. Sometimes I’m not so nice about it.”
Entertainment Focus 28 Weeks Later
This sequel to 28 Days Later picks up six months after the rage virus has annihilated the British Isles. The army declares that the war against infection has been won and that the reconstruction of the country can begin. As the first wave of refugees return, a family is reunited but one of them unwittingly carries a terrible secret.
In 1970, authors Clifford Irving (Richard Gere) and Richard Suskind (Alfred Molina) get together and devise a scheme that they’re sure will make them wealthy. After doing extensive research, Irving writes an unauthorized biography of reclusive billionaire Howard Hughes – filled with fictional events.
Down on his luck after losing his job and his girlfriend on the same day, Larry decides to join his neighbor, Bill (Bill Engvall), and his combathappy buddy, Everett (DJ Qualls), for a relaxing weekend of drinking and target practice.
Video & DVD This horror comedy proves that fast food can be deadly to more than just a healthy lifestyle. Hella-Burger’s creepy mascot, Horny the Clown, likes his burgers rare--and bloody. The masked maniac goes on a rampage through the sleepy town of Blanca.
When his idyllic existence is brutally disrupted by a violent invading force, a man is taken on a perilous journey to a world ruled by fear and oppression where a harrowing end awaits him.
The Perfect Marriage
Passion and a dark past turn a picture-perfect wife into a black widow in this thriller starring Jamie Luner (MELROSE PLACE). When a married woman named Annie (Luner) reunites with an old boyfriend, he convinces her to return to an earlier life when she killed the man she married for his money.
Las Vegas showroom magician Cris Johnson has a secret which is a gift and a curse which torments him: he can see a few minutes into the future. Sick of the examinations he underwent as a child and the interest of the government and medical establishment in his power, he lies low under an assumed name in Vegas.
Sixty-one years ago, US and Japanese armies met on Iwo Jima. Decades later, several hundred letters are unearthed from that stark island’s soil. The letters give faces and voices to the men who fought there, as well as the extraordinary general who led them. A group of friends go on a weekend getaway to an eccentric Uncle’s private island. When they arrive and find the Uncle missing, they encounter the island’s other inhabitants--dogs. Dozens of them, roaming the wild in feral packs.
Letters from Iwo Jima
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Corps By Judith A. Bellafaire
sian/Pacific-American women first entered military service during World War II. The Women’s Army Corps (WAC) recruited 50 Japanese-American and Chinese-American women and sent them to the Military Intelligence Service Language School at Fort Snelling, Minnesota, for training as military translators. Of these women, 21 were assigned, to the Pacific Military Intelligence Research Section at Camp Ritchie, Maryland. There they worked with captured Japanese documents, extracting information pertaining to military plans, as well as political and economic information that impacted Japan’s ability to conduct the war. Other WAC translators were assigned jobs helping the US Army interface with our Chinese allies. For example, Corporal Helen M. Lee of Willows, California, joined the WAC in August 1943 and was assigned as a Chinese translator of GI training films at Lowry Army Air Field in California. Not all Asian/Pacific-American WACs worked as translators. In 1943, the Women’s Army Corps recruited a unit of Chinese-American women to serve with the Army Air Forces as “Air WACs.” The Army lowered the height and weight 18 COLOR OF SERVICE
n’s Army Clockwise from left: 1) Ruth A. Tanaka joined the Army Nurse Corps in 1949 and retired as a lieutenant colonel. U.S. Army photo 2) A new group of WAC enlistees are sworn in. National Archives 3) A WAC mechanic repairing an airplane engine. National Archives 4) Not all Asian Pacific American WACs worked as translators during World War II. In 1943, a unit of Chinese American women was recruited to serve with the Army Air Forces as “Air WACs.” They performed jobs such as aerial photo interpretation, air traffic control and weather forecasting. U.S. Army photo
requirements for the women of this particular unit, referred to as the Madame Chiang Kai-Shek Air WAC unit. The first two women to enlist in the unit were Hazel (Toy) Nakashima and Jit Wong, both of California. Air WACs served in a large variety of jobs, including aerial photo interpretation, air traffic control, and weather forecasting. Sergeant Julia (Larm) Ashford joined the WAC in 1944 and served in the Pacific Theater of Operations. After the war, Sergeant Ashford was sent to Germany as part of the Army of Occupation. She remained in the Army until 1948, when she enlisted in the newly formed Air Force where she served until 1953. After the war, 11 Nisei (second generation Japanese-American) WACs, one Chinese-American WAC and one Euro-American WAC, all skilled Japanese translators who had trained at the Military Intelligence Service Language School, accepted assignments to the Allied Translator and Interpreter Section of General Douglas MacArthur’s Headquarters in the Army of Occupation in Tokyo, Japan. There they worked as clerks, secretaries and translators. The Nisei WACs, Americans “with Japanese faces,” were expected to show the Japanese what Americans of Japanese ancestry were like, and to help build bridges across a cultural gap. MacArthur, however, did not approve of enlisted WACs serving overseas. He gave the women a choice of returning to the United States as WACs or being discharged COLOR OF SERVICE 19
High School, started the war as a mechanical draftsman at Mare Island, California. However, her dream was to fly and as soon as she had saved enough money, she took flying lessons. She accumulated 50 hours of flight time and qualified for acceptance into the WASP. After graduating from the training program, Gee was assigned a training position. She took military pilots up for qualifying flights to renew their instrument ratings and copiloted B-17 Flying Fortress bombers through mock dogfights staged to train bomber gunners.
from the Army and serving one-year contracts in Japan as civilians with US federal civil service status. All 13 agreed to stay in Japan as civil servants. A unique group of civilian women, Women Air Force Service Pilots (WASP) worked directly with the Army Air Forces on the home front during World War II ferrying planes from factories to air bases, testing planes for mechanical problems, and towing targets for aerial gunnery students to practice shooting. WASPs performed these dangerous assignments willingly during the years when male pilots were needed at the front. Thirty-eight WASP died in the line of duty, one being a
ver 200 Asian/ Pacific-American women joined the US Public Health Service Cadet Nurse Corps during World War II.
Clockwise from left:
1) Chinese American Hazel Ying Lee was among 38 members of the Women Airforce Service Pilots killed in the line of duty during World War II. 2) WASPS stand at attention and salute President Franklin D. Roosevelt during an inspection. 3) A WAC at work in a photo lab during WWII. 4) Women phone operators played an indispensable role during WWII. Photos: Courtesy National Archives. Chinese-American, Hazel (Ying) Lee. Lee flew pursuit (fighter) aircraft from the production factories to air bases across the continental United States. She â€œnamedâ€? the planes she flew by inscribing Chinese characters in lipstick on the tails. Her husband was an officer in the Chinese Air Force. Lee died in a twoplane crash when her plane and that of a colleague received identical instructions from an air traffic controller on their approach to Great Falls AFB, Montana. Maggie Gee, a 1941 graduate of Berkeley
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A small number of Asian/Pacific-American women entered the Army Nurse Corps during World War II. Army nurse Helen (Pon) Onyett risked her life tending wounded soldiers from the landing craft that came ashore in North Africa. She was awarded the Legion of Merit for her actions during the war and retired from the Corps as a full colonel. Major Mildred Nouchi also elected to make the Army Nurse Corps her career. During the Vietnam War, she was stationed at an Army hospital in Japan. Over 200 Asian/Pacific-American women joined the US Public Health Service Cadet Nurse Corps during World War II. Gail (Chin) Wong, a Chinese-American, served from 1945-1949. She later worked in a Veterans Administration hospital from 1972 until her retirement in 1988. Filipino-American women worked with the underground resistance movement to help American forces in the Philippines throughout the three-year period of Japanese occupation during World War II. These courageous individuals
smuggled food and medicine to American prisoners of war (POWs) and carried information on Japanese deployments to Filipino and American forces working to sabotage the Japanese Army. Florence (Ebersole) Smith Finch, the daughter of an American soldier and a Filipino mother, was working for the US Army when the Japanese occupied Manila, the Philippines. Claiming Filipino citizenship, she avoided being imprisoned with other enemy nationals at Santo Tomas Internment Camp in Manila. Finch joined the underground resistance movement Below: After the war, 13 Japanese American WACs were sent to Japan to show the Japanese what Americans of Japanese ancestry were like and to help build bridges across a cultural gap. U.S. Army Photo Bottom: African American WAC nurses in France stand inspection. Photo: National Archives
and smuggled food, medicine and other supplies to American captives. Eventually, she was arrested by the Japanese, tortured, and sentenced to three years imprisonment. Finch was liberated by American forces after serving five months of her sentence. Returning to the United States aboard a Coast Guard transport, she headed for Buffalo, New York, her father’s hometown. She then enlisted in the Coast Guard to “avenge the death of her
he Nisei WACs, Americans “with Japanese faces,” were expected to show the Japanese what Americans of Japanese ancestry were like, and to help build bridges across a cultural gap. late husband,” a Navy PT boat crewman killed at Corregidor. Seaman First Class Finch was the first Coast Guard SPAR to receive the Asian/Pacific Campaign ribbon in recognition of her service in the Philippines. At the end of the war, she was awarded the civilian US Medal of Freedom. Another Filipino woman who received the Medal of Freedom after the war was Josefina V. Geurrero. She supplied POWs with food, clothing, and medicine, and passed them contraband messages. A member of the underground resistance, Geurrero was asked in the early days of the occupation to map Japanese fortifications at the Manila waterfront. Her map included information on secret tunnels, air raid shelters and a number of other new installations in which the allies were interested. Just before the American invasion of Manila in 1945, Geurrero was asked, by her underground contacts, to carry a map through Japanese held territory showing the location of land mines along the planned American invasion route. She walked most of the way with the map taped between her shoulder blades. She strapped a pack on her back, distracting the enemy, who concentrated their searches on the pack rather than on her. She reached the 37th Division with the map, enabling the Americans to avoid the land mines that had been laid for them. COLOR OF SERVICE 21
Health & Fitness
By Chad Tackett
re you finding it difficult to get out of bed in the morning for your daily walk and making up excuses to skip the gym on the way home? Even the most dedicated exercisers occasionally get bored with their routine. Waning motivation, cutting workouts short and not having your old enthusiasm all are signs of a stale exercise regimen. Quick Fix: First, evaluate your current routine to
determine what really bores you. A new variation on your favorite activity—such as cardio-funk or kickboxing instead of step aerobics, or hoisting free weights instead of working on machines—may be enough to reinvigorate a stale routine. If you’ve always worked out indoors, logging miles on a treadmill, stair climber or stationary bike, move your workout outside for a welcome change of scenery. Run, hike or bike on trails; swim in a lake or ocean. Bigger Changes: When tweaking your routine isn’t enough, make bigger changes. Take up an entirely new activity— especially something you never thought you’d do. If you’ve always stuck to solitary pursuits, sign up for a team sport, such as volleyball, basketball or even doubles tennis. Or tackle something you’ve always shied away from—indulge your thirst for adventure with a rock- climbing class (start on an indoor wall, then move to the real thing as your skills improve). Good Company: Working out alone often is an oasis of solitude in a busy day, but maybe you need some company. Exercise companions add a social element to any routine. Ask a friend to be your workout partner—you won’t skip a workout if someone is waiting for you. Just about every sport or activity has a club; to find one, ask around at gyms or local community centers. Keeping up with the crowd also means you’ll be challenged to improve your skills. Ask about organized workouts
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and fun runs offered by local track clubs, as well as group rides hosted by cycling clubs. Challenge Yourself: Many exercisers work out simply to stay in shape, and most of the time that’s just fine. But setting a goal, such as finishing a 10K race or completing a roughwater swim, will give your daily workouts more meaning. Start by incorporating bursts of speed into your workouts. After a gentle warmup, alternate a fast pace with a slower one for recovery. This can be as simple as sprinting to the next tree, or as structured as running intervals on a track or sprinting laps in the pool. Add Variety: Elite triathletes pioneered the cross-training concept, and it works for the rest of us, too. If you usually focus on one activity, substitute another a few days a week. Ideally, any exercise program includes elements of cardiovascular exercise, weight training and flexibility. New Toys: Small exercise gadgets aren’t necessary but they can make your workouts more fun and challenging. Heart-rate monitors, aquatic toys and safety equipment are just a few items to consider. Find out which new training gadgets are available for your favorite activity. Take a Break: Sometimes you really do need time off. In that case, cut back on your usual routine, and substitute other activities. You might even find one that you enjoy more than your old favorites. Once you’ve fought your first battle with boredom, you’ll know the tricks to keep exercise from becoming too mundane. Trying new sports, new classes and new activities—and learning how to throw a little variety into old favorites—can help you overcome the nagging inclination to devise those creative excuses for not working out.
D V A P D
isabled eterans im For aralympic reams By Donna Miles
or some participants at the National Disabled Veterans Winter Sports Clinic, it’s not enough simply to make it down the mountain. They’ve set their sights on conquering it — and any other obstacle that stands between them and the U.S. Paralympic Ski Team. Mark Mix is among about a dozen veterans at the six-day clinic, the only one of the group wounded in Iraq, who have set their sights on becoming accomplished racers and even making the 2010 Paralympic team. “My goal is to knock him off the podium,” Mix said, pointing to fellow disabled veteran Chris Devlin-Young, head coach for the clinic’s Alpine race and development program.
me adrenaline and control. It gave me my life back,” he said.
That’s a lofty goal, considering that Devlin-Young is a threetime Paralympian with two gold and two silver medals under his belt. He’s also the first U.S. athlete to win gold medals in two disability categories. And like Mix, he got his first taste of skiing at the winter sports clinic here. Devlin-Young, a Coast Guard veteran, said he reluctantly agreed to participate in the first clinic in 1985, three years after a C-130 aircraft crash left him a paraplegic. He was mad at the world at the time about losing use of his legs and had little interest in trying out skiing, he said. But the first time down the hill, he was hooked. “It gave
Three years ago, Devlin-Young might have assessed Mix differently. Mix was a self-proclaimed “couch potato” whose sporting life centered on watching drag racing and NASCAR on TV. He’d never been on skis before finding himself in a wheelchair, and tried it out for the first time during the 2005 winter sports clinic. After that, there was no turning back. “The freedom you feel when you’re out there takes the disability away and makes you feel like you’re able-bodied again,” he said. Mix said he quickly tried to get on with his life after being wounded. “I didn’t sit back and pout. My wife wouldn’t let me!” he said. Instead, he set his
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Now Devlin-Young is helping to bring that exhilaration to other disabled veterans bent on pushing their limits on the slopes. “A lot of these guys want to be racers, and a lot want to be better skiers,” he said. “They want to master the mountain in a way they never imagined.” He said he sees a lot of potential in Mix, a Navy veteran and former Seabee who was paralyzed from the waist down by a mortar blast in Baghdad in 2004. “Does he have the potential? Yes,” Devlin-Young said. “Does he have the ambition? Yes. Does he have the drive? Yes.”
sights on becoming a role model for his children and showing them that “being in a wheelchair doesn’t stop you from anything.”
Photo: Donna Miles
In fact, it’s pushing the 36-year-old to levels he never thought he would attain. He’s among three Iraqi Freedom veterans in the U.S. Olympic Committee’s Veterans’ Paralympic Performance Program Alpine Skiing program, based here, and has set his sights on the 2010 Vancouver Paralympic Games. The VPPP program, a partnership between the U.S. Olympic Committee, the Department of Veterans Affairs and Challenge Aspen, helps groom disabled veterans for national and international ski competitions, explained Houston Cowan, founder and chief executive officer of Challenge Aspen. Other Iraqi Freedom veterans participating in the program are Keith Calhoun, an Army staff sergeant who had both legs amputated when a rocket-propelled grenade hit his convoy in November 2003, and Casey Owens, a Marine Corps corporal who lost both legs when his Humvee hit a land mine.
Other veterans at the winter sports clinic here share Mix’s aspirations of refining their skiing technique and becoming champion racers. Peter Axelson, who raced on the U.S. Disabled Ski Team from 1985 to 1982 and is here working with group, said reaching that goal requires more than just the ability to ski fast. “It takes strength and a mindset to want to push through limits. It also takes patience and a willingness to do drills over and over. It’s very physical, and it’s very mental,” he said. Bruce Gibbings, a Vietnam-era Army veteran, said he’s taking in all the lessons Axelson, Devlin-Young and the other instructors here have to offer. At age 60, Gibbons acknowledges that making the Paralympic Ski Team may be a long shot. But he insists it’s not a dream he’s willing to abandon just yet. “I might be
Photo: Donna Miles
Photo: Donna Miles
Mix is taking the lessons he’s learning through the program and pushing forward with his dream. He returned last week from one of a long string of competitions toward qualifying for the Paralympics: the 2007 Hartford U.S. Disabled Alpine Championships in Waterville Valley, N.H. “I didn’t make it to the podium, but I held my own,” he said. “He not only held his own, he made a huge statement of what’s to come,” Houston said.
Mark Mix (left), a Navy veteran and Coast Guard veteran Chris Devlin-Young.
Terry Smutney, an Army veteran hits the slopes.
the oldest member of the Paralympic team, but I want to see if I can get myself there,” he said. Gibbings said he feels up to the rigors of the training. “I’m healthier and stronger than I’ve ever been,” he said. “God blessed me with a lot of energy, I still have a lot of the use of my body, and I’ve taken my skiing to a level I never dreamed of.” Terry Smutney, an Army veteran who was disabled due to chemical exposure in northern Iraq during Operation Desert Storm, said he, too, is all ears to the lessons he’s getting here. Now an adaptive ski instructor himself in Mammoth Lakes, Calif., Smutney frequently works with wounded troops returning from combat. He said the pointers he’s picking up here are helping make him a better skier, racer and teacher to other disabled skiers. Smutney remembers his first time on skis after his injury, in December 2004, as a lifechanging experience. “I was on 12 different medications, four of them narcotics for pain control. I was smoking. I was doing everything wrong,” he said. Within four months, Smutney was skiing every time he
Disabled veterans participating in the Winter Sports Clinic’s.
got the opportunity and had tossed away all his medications, as well as his cigarettes. “The only drug I was on was the mountain,” he said. Now 50, Smutney said he’s too old to think about the Paralympics, but said he wants to continue progressing and sharing the joy of skiing and racing with other disabled veterans, especially those just back from combat. “That’s my way of giving back what I’ve been given,” he said. “To see the frowns and wonderment on their faces turn to smiles and relaxation, well, that’s just not something you can put in a bottle. You have to be here and experience it, because if you can come down that mountain, you can do anything.” Devlin-Young agreed that it’s gratifying to help disabled skiers stretch beyond their comfort zones to become more confident and more capable. “My goal is to give back some of what skiing gave to me,” he said. And while he’d love to see some of the veterans he’s working with here achieve their Paralympic dreams, he said what’s happening here on Snowmass Mountain is about a lot more than racing. “This is the next level: mastering the mountain,” he said. “When you do that, you will be confident and safe—anytime, anyplace and in any condition. And ultimately, that’s what this is all about.” COLOR OF SERVICE 25
Serve Participants Share Motivation for Military Service
Photo: Gerry J. Gilmore
By Donna Miles
Deputy Defense Secretary Gordon England, left, greets a group of servicemembers participating in the “Why We Serve” public outreach program in his Pentagon office March 30. 26 COLOR OF SERVICE
sk Army Staff Sgt. Jerome MacDonald why he serves in the military, and he doesn’t talk about pay raises, tuition assistance or job security. “My biggest reason for serving is my family,” said MacDonald, a combat medic who returned in 2006 from a deployment to Iraq. “I looked at my family, and I realized that I want them and their way of life to be protected,” he said. “And one of the only ways to do that is to go overseas and take the fight to the enemy who are perfectly willing to come here and kill themselves just to kill an American. … It requires some sacrifice, but I am willing to do that.” MacDonald is among eight participants in the Defense Department’s “Why I Serve” program who will spend the next three months telling civilian groups around the country why they serve in the armed forces. The group members, all recently returned from Iraq, Afghanistan and elsewhere around the world in support of the war on terror, will also share their personal experiences and the importance of the public support they have received. In addition to sharing his on-the-ground experiences, MacDonald said he plans to talk about the deep sense of connection he and many of his fellow servicemembers feel toward their comrades. MacDonald left the military in 2003 after six years of service, and then returned less than a year later because he realized how much he missed what he had left behind. “I found out when I got out of the military that I
didn’t have that brotherhood anymore, that camaraderie,” he said. “I missed that, and I serve now also for the men and the women next to me in the foxhole and, ultimately, because I believe in the war on terror and that we are doing the right thing.” Petty Officer 1st Class Lyndon Romeo, a Navy Seabee, said he plans to tell the audiences he speaks with about how his latest deployments to Kuwait and Bahrain reaffirmed his belief in the value of military service. “I serve because I believe that the constitution needs defending and supporting, and I believe that probably the best way to do that is to service in the United States military,” he said. “That’s what I plan to tell them.” Air Force Staff Sgt. Jeramiah Poff said he looks forward to sharing with civilian groups ranging from Boy Scouts to Rotary Clubs “how I feel to be in uniform and how proud I am of what I do.” Poff said
Clockwise from Left: Air Force Capt. Michael J. Frasco, Army Capt. Jessica Murphy, Marine Sgt. Paula Payne and U.S. Marine 1st Lt. Matthew H. Hilton. Photos: Carmen Gleason
he hopes to convey through the Why I Serve program that he sees his service as a way of honoring veterans of past wars, reinforcing those who serve alongside him today, and laying a foundation for the next generation of military members. “I serve for all those who have served before me (and) all those who have fought and sacrificed in all the conflicts of the past,” he said. “I serve so (the soldier, sailor, airmen or Marine beside me) knows he has someone watching his back and able to catch him if he falls, pick him up if he gets
hurt, motivate him if it’s his bad day,” he said. “And I am also there for all my troops for the future of the military services.” As the group members fan out across the country this week to spend the next 90 days speaking to groups ranging from the Boy Scouts to local Rotary Clubs to schools and retirement community organizations, they also will emphasize the importance of public support for the troops. “We have all seen the support that regular Americans give,” MacDonald said. “The most important thing is that they are distinguishing between the soldier and the politics and the war and the soldier. … As long as that continues, they can always support the soldier.” Marine Maj. Matt Morgan, director of the Why I Serve program, said he wishes every servicemember could get an opportunity to participate in the program to see firsthand how much they’re appreciated. “Most servicemembers have a sense that Americans appreciate what they do. But until you go out in the communities where you are not usually seeing servicemembers,
traveling through regional and local airports, and meeting with members of communities who don’t see this military presence, you don’t understand how much they appreciate what you do,” This is the third “Why We Serve” group since the program began. The group members are: Air Force Capt. Michael J. Frasco, 35, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.; Air Force Tech. Sgt. Robert P. Jubie, 35, Hill Air Force Base, Utah; Army Capt. Jessica L. Murphy, 28, Fort Drum, N.Y.; Army Staff Sgt. Matt Olson, 25, Fort Jackson, S.C.; Marine 1st Lt. Matthew H. Hilton, 28, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; Marine Sgt. Paula Payne, 23, Camp Pendleton; Navy Lt. Junior Grade Katie Hagen, 24, Norfolk, Va.; and Navy Petty Officer 1st Class Virginia Marie Mayo, 29, Camp Pendleton. Morgan recalled an incident in which three participants in the program walking through a small regional airport got a standing ovation from the people awaiting
their flights. “It was a very emotional moment for all of them because they just didn’t get a sense of that in the regular media coverage, just how much Americans really appreciate what they do,” he said. The concept for the Why I Serve program originated with former Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld and Marine Gen. Peter Pace, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, who wanted a way to help reconnect troops to the American people, Morgan explained. “So we took a number of ideas, and one of them was taking troops just returned from overseas and sending them out to the American people so they could talk to community organizations and groups and interface directly without the interference of filters,” Morgan said. COLOR OF SERVICE 27
raditionally, noodles were never served at a Chinese dinner so as to not compete with rice or other starches. The consummate lunch fare, noodles make a satisfying snack between meals or for late night noshing. Typically, in Chinese teahouses, a noodle entrée such as Chicken, Shrimp and Bok Choy over Pan-fried Noodles, a Hong Kong specialty, is eaten to complement the dim sum appetizers. In Hanoi, a day without pho, Hanoi Beef and Noodle Soup, is like a day without sunshine. Pho, Vietnam’s national dish, features flat rice noodles immersed in a hot broth. Invariably, the best pho is found at makeshift hawker stalls in Vietnam. As the popularity of noodles grows and the availability of ingredients increases, there are lots of great choices for home-cooks all over the country to serve up numerous variations of tasty Asian noodle dishes. Today, traditions are acknowledged and often breached. Birthdays are no longer a prerequisite for ‘dinner’ noodles. Noodle dishes contain both meats and vegetables which make perfect one-dish meals. And what about the question of noodles or a birthday cake? My solution is to have my cake, ice cream and noodles, and eat them too.
n a large bowl, combine the rice stick noodles with warm water to cover. Let stand until soft and pliable, about 20 minutes. Drain and set aside. Meanwhile, in a small bowl, soak the tamarind pulp in the boiling water for 15 minutes. Mash with the back of a fork
to help dissolve the pulp. Pour through a fine-mesh sieve into another small bowl, pressing against the pulp to extract as much flavorful liquid as possible. Discard the pulp and set the liquid aside. Preheat a nonstick wok over mediumhigh heat. Add 1 tablespoon of the oil. When the oil is hot, add the shrimp and chicken and stir-fry until the shrimp turn pink and chicken turns white, about 1 1/2 minutes. Transfer to a plate and set aside. Add the remaining 1 1/2 tablespoons oil to the wok over medium-high heat. Add the dried shrimp and radish (if using) and the garlic; stir-fry until the garlic turns light brown, about 30 seconds. Add the tamarind liquid, fish sauce, lime juice and sugar. Raise the heat to high and cook, stirring, until well mixed and almost syrupy, about 1 minute. Crack the eggs directly into the sauce and gently scramble them just enough to break up the yolks. Cook until the eggs begin to set, 1-2 minutes, and then gently fold them into the sauce. Add the green onions, 1 cup of the bean sprouts, the red pepper flakes and the drained noodles. Toss gently until the sprouts begin to wilt, about 1 minute. Return the shrimp-chicken mixture to the wok and stir-fry until the noodles begin to stick together, 2-3 minutes. Transfer to a serving platter and top with the remaining 1/2 cup bean sprouts. Garnish with the cilantro leaves and peanuts. Serve with lime wedges. 28 COLOR OF SERVICE
R E DI E NT G S IN
1/2 lb dried flat rice stick noodles, 1/4 inch wide 1 oz tamarind pulp, coarsely chopped 1/2 cup boiling water 2 1/2 tablespoons vegetable oil, or as needed 8 large fresh shrimp (prawns), peeled, deveined and cut in half lengthwise 1 whole chicken breast, boned, skinned and cut crosswise into slices 1/4 inch thick 1 1/2 teaspoons dried small shrimp (prawns), optional 2 tablespoons chopped preserved radish, optional 1 tablespoon chopped garlic 3 tablespoons Thai fish sauce 3 tablespoons fresh lime juice 2 tablespoons sugar 3 eggs 4 green (spring) onions, cut into 1 1/2-inch lengths 1 1/2 cups bean sprouts 1/4 teaspoon red pepper flakes Fresh cilantro (fresh coriander) leaves for garnish 2 tablespoons chopped dry-roasted peanuts 1 lime, cut into wedges