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Hand – Made Candles Multigenre Research Paper

By: Carolina E. Souffront Lopez ENGL 3231 Professor Ellen Pratt

Preziosa Luce Prologue December 28, 2012 To all my readers in every part of the world; Dear Reader:

In this project you will find valuable information to learn how to do candles; Handmade candles! Welcome to this fascinating world of creativity and invention. Here the master is you. My topic is one of so much interest since from ancient times, according to scientist and archeologist; humans have used candles or at least have done an attempt to illuminate their places. Churches have used candles since a long time ago. Most of the candles produced by 1800’s were for the churches. Candles were the way of electricity our ancestors had. There were even associations of candle makers. So candles are not new. Initially they were hand made and with some stinky and fastburning materials. Then, other accessories and resources appeared to revolutionize the candle industry, but with the invention of machines, this practice (handmade candles) disappeared. Now these days my mom has been doing candles. So she’s my inspiration for doing this job. I saw how interesting was the process and the results and I decided I will learn it and do it by myself. It surprises me the fact that there are no two identical candles. So my dear reader if you get a handmade candle, you could have for granted that your own is unique and nobody in this world will have it. Simply, you can’t repeat a candle. Also I’ve like candles and fire since always. I even found articles of people who decided to start a small business on candle making, just to prove some luck, and today the own companies that earn million dollars on profits and sell their candles to the most popular stores. In this work my beloved readers you will find a lil bit of history and also you will be going through the process of making a candle through a recipe. Also you will have the opportunity to watch my work and decide for yourself if you buy or not. I bet all that you will not repent. Enjoy it! Sincerely,

Carolina Soul Preziosa Luce Proprietary

Carolina Souffront Lopez Prof. Ellen Pratt ENGL 3231 Multigenre Paper

April 16, 2009

Introduction Handmade candles posses a magic that regular candles- those made by machines and modern technology- do not have. Things made by machinery lack effort and determination, they are soulless. In contrast, handmade candles go beyond that and they enclose the personality of his creator and his feelings and such as a human they are unrepeatable, they are unique. Candles made in fabrics are clones one of each other; there’s nothing interesting in them more than his fragrance. You buy one and lose the opportunity of going through the fascinating and entertaining process of creating with your own hands, something with a personal touch, costume made and to please the desires of each individual.

Candles have the capacity of complementing our mood whether is reflective or festive, romantic or just peaceful. They are altering-mood tools in which we can lose ourselves in their mystery just to let our mind flow and relax or simply enjoy their illumination or fragrance. They can also intensify an occasion. You can bring a totally different atmosphere to merely a dinner of macaroni and cheese just adding in your table some beautiful, attractive candles. In all of a sudden you can go from boring to romantic.

Every candle is unique. Never ever, a handmade candle is identical to other one. No matter how hard you try, there is never going to be exactly the same candles. Handmade candles are as humans; they have an exclusive DNA and as twins they could

be so alike but never the same. That is something that modern technology can’t put out on their products.

Although history of candle is not recorded, evidence of candle making has been found on prehistoric cave walls and in Egyptians tombs; even so that information is not accurate. Archeologists estimate their use since the Stone Age and also candleholder were found at the tomb of Tutankhamen reason for which Egyptians are credited for being forerunners on the art of making candles. Candles are also mentioned in the Bible, meaning they are used since biblical times.

However, the oldest candle fragment ever found was discovered by archeologist on Avignon, France. It also dates the first century A.D. David Constable and M.J. Abadie, both in their respective books mentioned that Romans have also been given some credit for the development of candles.

Chandlers (as candle makers were called) began to work around the 13th century in Paris. They used to travel from door to door carrying out the demanding of each client. There were registered around 72 chandlers around 1292. Initially, in those times, candles were made from tallow (animal fat, usually pork, lamb, and cow) which had a very unpleasant odor by the way. In 1462, the chandlers in England join together as the English Tallow Chandlers. Animal fat candles were for the poorest and wax candleswhich were minimum- were for the upper crust of candle makers. This material was more expensive and less affordable. As beeswax was a difficult material to handle, they were

only used at churches and monastery chapels who also had candle making facilities on their properties.

Candles had been used around the entire world and in all places, since Palladio’s indoor theatre in Italy to Shakespeare plays at the Blackfriars theatre in England causing a higher impact on the demand of candles. But by that time the Industrial Revolution began and this had a enormous economically and socially impact on chandlery since candle making machines were invented. In 1834, Joseph Morgan invented a machine that could produce molded candles at a rate of 1,500 per hour and for the first time candles were affordable to almost everyone. Obviously, this movement affected the chandlers of that time.

In 1850, paraffin was introduced as an alternative to tallow. Then a scientist invented stearin, which added to paraffin, produced harder, longer- burning candles as we know them today. Sadly, factory-made candles ended the tremendous effort of making candles by hand.

Today, machines and factories produce most commercial candles, but even though handcrafting is largely a thing of the past, the candlemaking process is pretty much the same it was. (M.J. Abadie p.27) Even when you can purchase candles at shops or mail catalogs, you can create them according to your own desires and that’s what makes this activity so interesting and so entertaining. Obviously, before the electricity, candles were the principal source of light in the communities and in many houses. Even

when the chandlers were not welcomed as neighbors because of their stinky and unpleasant work, they were vital and necessary to the well-living of the society. (Abadie 19) Maybe, with all the technology and modern techniques of having places illuminated, we could imagine that the practice of candle-making is obsolete. But certainly, people still create beautiful candles with innovating procedures. Incredibly, many are choosing candle-making as a gratifying hobby, or even profitable business as a way of earning money. Come with me through this project and learn about the basic process of making a candle and be part of my “business” Preziosa Luce Candles and also watch my work. I’m an expert at this!

Carolina E. Souffront Lopez Prof. Ellen Pratt ENGL 3231

April 21, 2009

Annotated Bibliography

Abadie, M.J. The Everything Candle Making Book: Create homemade candles in house-warming colors, interesting shapes, and appealing scents. Avon, MA: Adams Media, 2002. You will find in this book as his title suggests almost everything about candle making. There is valuable information about the history of the candle making craft, and numerous strategies to create candles of all ways and colors. M.J. Abadie (the author) collected information among the best books of candlemaking and the best authors to compile them on this book. The material presented in this book is enough for a beginner who is starting with this funny and interesting practice. Constable, David. Beginner’s guide to Candlemaking. Wellwood, Great Britain: Search Press Limited. 2004. This book gives us short and brief information about the history of candlemaking but accounts us with many techniques to create homemade candles. The author of this book was granted the Royal Warrant as Candlemaker to His Royal Highness, the Prince of Wales, so he is an expert at this art and its experimented with thirty years on the processes. It is also enriched with 60 step-by-step photographs to help the beginner with the understanding of the process. Dallas, Jesse. Candle Whiz: Learn the Simple Secrets to Making Homemade Candles. 2003-2006 by Jal Dee Marketing. Electronic book. 14 Apr. 2009 This book offers information about safety, wax, dyes, fragrances, wicks, moulds and equipment for making homemade candles. It teaches directions and guides to make your own candle. It is written in a easily, understandable language so you could comprehend what you are reading and to make easier the process. I will recommend this book if you want to learn fast and easily because it offers tips and everything you need to know about homemade candles in a very short form.

Important Facts about Candles  Candles are used since Stone Age  Oldest fragment

found in France  Chandlers (around 13th century in Paris)  Candles were made of tallow until 1850  Stearin was invented  Then, factory-made candles appeared

Genres     

Recipe Photo Gallery Brochure Newspaper column Flyer

Recipe         

1. Wax 2. Mould 3. Scissors 4. Thermometer 5. Wick 6. Boiler 7. Kitchen Scale 8. Pencil, chopstick or wicking needle 9. Colour (crayon, liquid, powder, wax block)

Recipe  

Step 1 Add the wick to the mould. Step 2 Divide your wax beads into equal parts. Then add one batch of wax to your boiler. When melted, add the appropriate amount of one dye Step 3 Once the wax has reached pouring temperature (150 aprox), aprox), carefully pour into your mould. It's important that you pour carefully. You You do not want the wax to touch the sides of the mould. Step 4 Let wax cool until it is warm to the touch. The surface of the wax wax should be, slightly rubbery as a film of "skin" will have been created. created. When the wax has cooled, repeat steps 3 and 4 again, but this time time use a different color and pour the new wax on top of the first color added added to your mould.

You will notice that a well has formed at the base of the candle. Now, you can melt some more wax and fill the well.  Step 5 Fill the well with more wax, simply pierce the surface of the candle with a sharp tool like a knife before adding more melted wax. Let cool for a few hours. 

 Step 6

Once cool, you can remove the mould seal.  Next, remove the chopstick and trim the wick at the base.  At this point, tip the candle and the candle should slide out of the mould.

Pictures courtesy of

Brochure of my company

Preziosa Luce


What is Preziosa

Preziosa Luce is a company created at the heart of Carolina Souffront (her proprietary). Carolina Soul, as she’s known in business, started 2 years ago in an attempt to earn some money making something entertaining and regretful. Soon, she discover joy and a growing passion for the art of hand made candles which are unique and special. Preziosa Luce works to satisfy the demanding of every special client whether it is for an special occasion or just a whim. Every candle is made right with the colours the client wants. No more, no less! Precise! Satisfying!

The art of creating light, with a touch of an enchanted scent Preziosa Luce by: Carolina Soul

Every piece of Preziosa Luce is not just a creation with beautiful match of colors and patterns but also a magnificent opportunity to get an enchanted scent you will love forever! We have more than 100 hundred scented oils and products to enrich every candle with a wonderful smell. Preziosa Luce is just the perfect gift, the perfect decorative item, home décor, the perfect memory, the perfect gift, the perfect whatever you want them to be…

Candles Candles have been used for light and to illuminate man’s celebrations for more than 5,000 years, yet little is known about their origin. ( National Candle Association NCA). Candles today are far from being used to light man but their use is continuously growing up as decorative item, in celebrations, to mark romance, soothe senses, aromatherapy, home decors and even massage candles. Candles are usually sold at gift shops, home décor stores or mass merchandisers, but none of them take time to please every clients whims and desire. At a store, you can get a candle which any other person could have already bought, but in Preziosa Luce that will never, ever happen. Every candle is custom made and unique. There are no two equal candles if they are handmade. What a magic! Just as people, there are not identical persons. Preziosa Luce wants to be part of that what makes Your candle special and unique. You can take for granted that when you receive a Preziosa Luce candle, you’re getting a piece of art that nobody in this entire world will have, but just you.

Rustic Pillar Candles

Teacups or Tea light Candles

Soy Candles

What can I found in Preziosa Luce?

Candles are an always-acceptable and highly appreciated gift for a wide variety of occasions.

The best materials for handmade candles are found here at Preziosa Luce.

Experience the vanilla, almond, cinnamon, apple butter, coconut, Love Spell, water melon and so many more perfumes to create the perfect and precise desired candle.

Paraffin Wax Gel Wax Refined Paraffin Wax And natural waxes: Natural Blend Soy Wax Palm Wax Bee Wax

What type of candles may I found? Gel Candles Rustic Pillar Candles Soy Candles Scented Candles Jar or Container Candles Tea cups and Votive Candles All these among others

So come now and get your Preziosa Luce and discover the greatness of their wonderful fragrances and vibrant colours. Get lost in the magic and creativity of our hand-made custom candles. Make your order and see why everyone is getting obsessed with Preziosa Luce. We are here to put in a candle that what you want to say or what you feel. We work to please you. You will never repent! That’s for granted!

Contact us at 787- 519-0565 or just communicate with us by sending an email to or visit our page at Face book: Preziosa Luce!

Newspaper Column Frequently Asked Questions

How do I make a candle? Even though modern technology has introduced greater efficiencies and quality control in candle-making, most candles are made through the timeless process of placing a cotton wick into wax, which is then molded, dipped, extruded, pressed, rolled, drawn or filled into a desired shape and size

How long I should burn a candle? A burn time varies from candle to candle. But turn off a candle if the flame gets to lose to the container. As a recommendation, discontinue the candle when 2 inches of wax remain. Are scented candles safe? Yes. When a candle burns, the wax is drawn into the wick, where it is "consumed" by the candle flame to produce water vapor and carbon dioxide. The only difference with a scented candle is that a small amount of fragrance is released as well. Why are candles so popular? Candles are perhaps one of the most enjoyable and affordable luxury items available to everyone. They are beautiful and magical, infusing the home with color and fragrance. They can create a special warmth and ambiance to bring a special sense of calm and well-being. How can I tell if I'm buying a quality candle? Unless a candle has defects that are obvious to the eye, you probably can't tell just by looking. That's why the National Candle Association strongly recommends that you purchase candles from a reputable manufacturer. All NCA members adhere to ASTM candle standards and have pledged their commitment to quality products and practices. What kinds of waxes are typically used in candles? The most commonly used candle wax is paraffin. Beeswax, soy wax, palm wax, gels, and synthetic waxes are also frequently used in candles. Different blends of these waxes are popular with many manufacturers. 1


All info at this page was obtained from NCA

Preziosa Luce Candles Inc. Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico 00622 1-800-000-0000 /

Preziosa Luce is pleased to announce the open house of his first BIG store at Cabo Rojo!! Come and celebrate with us our joy and be part of the blessing of our establishment. Get informed about the workshops Preziosa Luce is going to offer soon or just come and acquire your favorite candle before someone get it first. Remember there’s only one of a kind. Let’s get together to share a Night of Candles! When??? May 15 2009 @ Preziosa Luce Store from 6:00 to 7:00 PM Don’t miss! it!!


Well, I guess this the last thing I will be writing for this class, but I don’t want to finish without telling you how interesting doing this project was. Definitely the purpose was committed and I really become an expert at my topic. Making a multigenre project gives you a medium of developing your work from different perspectives. We went through the experience of working with – as his name suggest- many genres rather than using the classical, boring research method. It’s an innovative way of searching information but also of expressing it to an audience. I enjoy so much doing this project. It forced me to learn. I was not sure of getting involved with the hand-making candles but when I knew about the project, I did not hesitate and I started to work.

I chose the genres I used because I imagine myself having my own business and selling my candles on a beautiful boutique of my own and I decided I will use my project to in a way, practice what I will do. Besides, I chose the genres that in my opinion would best let the reader comprehend what I was trying to say without getting bored.

Although to make a candle you don’t need history, I learned so much about the origins of candles and how were they originally made. Moreover, by making the project I had the opportunity of “creating” my own business which really enthusiast me and made me make a brochure which my mom (my partner) liked so much. I learned there are so many techniques you can use to make a candle. Also, there are a great variety of waxes to make candles according to each whim and desire. You can create nearly everything with a candle and you can put in them whatever you want. Handmade candles are a fascinating world that forces you to use your creativity. As well as materials there are a lot of fragrances you can choose to work with your candles. That’s the best part of all; to create a candle that has a perfume that enchants. I hope my audience learns how to make a candle but more than that, that they could find the same interest and entertaining I found. My purpose is that others would get involved in something I consider funny and relaxing.

Multigenre Research Project  

This is the final project of my English class at UPR RUM. It is a multigenre research paper and its about hand made candles.

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