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Affordable Housing for All: Redefining the Roles of Public and Private Sector

The Albanian Urban Mix-from Utility to Livability Dritan Shutina, Rudina Toto, Zenel Bajrami , Institute for Habitat Development

Tiranë, 4 September 2017

This presenta,on  is  a  milestone  in  the  ALURMIX  research  project  of  Co-­‐PLAN.  Contributors  are:  Zenel  Bajramai,  Dritan  Shu,na,  Rudina  Toto,  Rodion  Gjoka,  Silvi  Jano,  Ger,   Delli,  Ada  Lushi,  Aida  Ciro,  Franci  Linxa,  Merita  Boka,  Ani  Shtylla,  Xhesika  Hoxha,  Edlira  Xhafaj,  Alma  Ajazi,  Florian  Hoxha,  Mario  Gjimaraj,  Fiona  Imami  dhe  Kris,  Bashmili      


Popula'on change  2001-­‐2011  %   Source:  INSTAT  


Major urban areas grew twice and more in size

¯

¯ BERAT: 1988: 402 ha 2007: 521 ha 2014: 32 ha

ELBASAN: 1988: 724 ha 2007: 1547 ha 2014: 79 ha Legend

Legend

1988

1988

2007

2007

2014

2014 0

1

2

4 Km

0

1.25

2.5

5 Km

¯

¯ FIER: 1988: 844 ha 2007: 1030 ha 2014: 93 ha

LUSHNJE: 1988: 459 ha 2007: 313 ha 2014: 44 ha Legend

Legend

1988

1988

2007

2007 0

1

2

4 Km

2014

2014 0

1

2

4 Km


8,000

No. of  buildings   with  a  permit  

7,000 6,000   5,000   4,000  

Non residen,al  buildings  

3,000

Residen,al buildings  

Formal Construction: INSTAT 1995-2016

2,000

42,647 buildings or 334 km2 of construction area

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

0

1995

1,000

Approximate value of buildings versus infrastructure works: 76% vs. 24%

140,000 120,000   100,000  

80,000 Civil  Engineering  Works   60,000  

Buildings

40,000

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

0

1995

20,000

Approximate value   in  ‘000Lekë  

Informal Construction: App. 400,000 buildings


18 Func'onal  Urban  Areas  


Location Index

Connectivity Index

Size Index

IS

IS

IS

FI

NO

FI

NO

SE

SE

EE

DK

AT

HU

RS BG

VA

AL

MK PT

TR

GR

IT

GI

Location Index

77.4 - 83.5

52.1 - 57.9

83.6 - 91.6

22.3 - 32.1

58.0 - 60.5

91.7 - 100.0

32.2 - 39.3

60.6 - 77.3

no data

Natural Breaks

RS BG

AL

PT

TR

¯

Size Index

0

140 280

560

Prepared by: Co-PLAN, 2015 Source: ESPON 1.1.1, 2005, "Potentials for polycentric development in Europe"; INSTAT, 2011, own calculations

840

80.5 - 84.1

66.5 - 73.9

84.2 - 87.5

35.5 - 49.0

74.0 - 77.3

87.6 - 97.0

49.1 - 63.3

77.4 - 80.4

no data

0 140 280 560 1,120 Natural Breaks Kilometers Prepared by: Co-PLAN, 2015 Source: ESPON 1.1.1, 2005, "Potentials for polycentric development in Europe"; INSTAT, 2011, own calculations

RS BG

AL

MK GR

IT

IT

GI

Legend

MT

63.4 - 66.4

RO

ME

VA

ES

HU

BA

IT

MK

MD

HR

SM

MC AD

IT

GI

AT

CH LI

SI

GR

Legend

MT

39.4 - 52.0

FR

RO

IT

IT

Legend

SK

ME

VA

ES

HU

BA

IT

AD

CZ

MD

HR

SM

MC

ME

IT

ES

SI

BA

SM

MC AD

UA

DE

BE LU

AT

CH LI

FR

PL

NL

SK

RO

BY

CZ

MD

HR

LT

UK

UA

DE LU

SI

IE

PL

NL BE

CZ

DK

UK BY

UA

CH LI

LT

UK

PL

SK

PT

IE

DE LU

FR

DK

UK

BY

NL

LV

LV

LT

UK

BE

EE

EE

LV

IE

RU

RU

SE

UK

FI

NO

RU

¯

Connectivity Index

840

MT

46.7 - 52.7

67.2 - 70.6

52.8 - 60.9

70.7 - 73.8

18.5 - 26.4

61.0 - 63.5

73.9 - 77.1

26.5 - 46.6

63.6 - 67.1

no data

0 140 280 560 1,120 Natural Breaks Kilometers Prepared by: Co-PLAN, 2015 Source: ESPON 1.1.1, 2005, "Potentials for polycentric development in Europe"; INSTAT, 2011, own calculations

840

1,1


A MERE REFLECTION OF UTILITY ENHANCEMENT OR NET BENEFIT MAXIMISATION, RESULTING FROM INDIVIDUAL RATIONAL CHOICES


A MERE REFLECTION OF UTILITY ENHANCEMENT OR NET BENEFIT MAXIMISATION, RESULTING FROM INDIVIDUAL RATIONAL CHOICES


A MERE REFLECTION OF UTILITY ENHANCEMENT OR NET BENEFIT MAXIMISATION, RESULTING FROM INDIVIDUAL RATIONAL CHOICES


The closer  to   the  sea  


The higher  on  the  hill  


The bigger  and  the  denser  


“SINCE THE BEGINNING OF MODERN TIMES, ATTITUDES AND POSITIONS DESIGNED FOR INDIVIDUAL UTILITY

MAXIMISATION HAVE PREVAILED” (GRUNEWALD & BASTIAN, 2015B, P.27).


HEGEL’S THEORY ON PROPERTY RIGHTS ESTABLISHES A CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRIVATE PROPERTY, PERSONAL IDENTITY AND COMMUNITY (ALEXANDER & PENALVER, 2012, P. 65).

IN HIS PERSONALITY THEORY OF PROPERTY

(ALEXANDER & PENALVER, 2012) HEGEL

VIEWS HUMAN BEINGS

AS WITH FREE WILL, BUT NEEDING THE PROPERTY TO CONNECT TO THE EXTERNAL WORLD AND DEVELOP INTO A MEMBER OF AN ETHICAL COMMUNITY (RAYMOND, 2003).


A relatively new policy field A place that supports

Utility Utility

versus

Livability

For both, individuals and communities

quality of life wellbeing health Builds on social justice and equity


Livable neighborhoods: •  Compact: conserve land, density supports services and infrastructures •  Diverse: use energy and resources efficiently and generate little waste

Utility

versus

•  Green: public areas, common and private gardens, vertical greening

Livability

•  Mix: housing choices, mix social status, mix uses and businesses •  Healthy: clean, safe, social, pleasant, relaxing •  Accessible: well-connected, pedestrian, universal access


What to measure: •  Housing quality •  Accessibility and transport •  Health •  Economic & Social •  Education

Utility

versus

Livability •  Culture and leisure •  Solid waste •  Air pollutants •  Water quality & use •  Public space •  Basic services


The MIX  


Pros: Alleviates spatial mismatches Increased information & accessibility to the job market Better affordability to mobility costs Conflicting interest solved through cooperation Balance between density and infrastructures Quality of public space educates people Social exchange & bonding social capital Criminality decreases Avoids segregation

:Cons Fear of high densities – leads to worsening of infrastructures and services Social mix may lead to reduction of property value Increases social harassment, noise, odors, traffic congestion, &infrastructure dilapidation


1

2

3

4

5

6

Area

Average population: 2,780 inhabitants Average area: 2 ha

FAR

PCR

Public space  

Roads

1

4.6

75%

0

36%

2

4.3

65%

0

36%

3

5

68%

16%

10%

4

3.8

54%

0

22%

5

6.1

62%

11%

43%

6

3.3

59%

4%

29%

Average density: 420 residential units/ha


Residential

No. of floors

Residential & Services Services Public Services Parking Open space Infrastructures Sidewalk


Minimum distances between buildings: 2.6-4m, with one area of 0.5 m Maximum distances between buildings: 10 – 19.2m, with one area of 1.5 m Average distances between buildings: 8-10 m with one area of 1 m


SIDEWALKS Minimum   width:   0.5-­‐2m   Maximum   width:   2.5-­‐4m   Average   width:   1.5-­‐3m    


SIDEWALKS Minimum   width:   0.5-­‐2m   Maximum   width:   2.5-­‐4m   Average   width:   1.5-­‐3m    


SIDEWALKS Minimum   width:   0.5-­‐2m   Maximum   width:   2.5-­‐4m   Average   width:   1.5-­‐3m    


Costs of the Albanian Development Model Hypothesis: •  Unplanned mixed-use plot-based development model has placed a significant economic and social cost over the citizens as compared to the planned area-based livable model •  Utility approach costs are higher than livability approach costs


FAR: 5  

Roads: 10%    

Public Space:   16%  

PCR: 68%    


THE AREA IN 2000

UPGRADE IN 2017

THE AREA IN 2017

COST 0-­‐A  

COST A-­‐B2  

Upgrade the current situation

Unplanned & Plot-based

COST 0-­‐B   NOTE:     HYPOTHETICAL PLANNED AREABASED IN 2000, TWO OPTIONS

Development controls, such as FAR, PCR, etc. are based on the law and the Tirana 2030 Plan for the area Option B is chosen for comparison to the current situation (typology and profit)


COST of  transforma'on    0-­‐A  =  14,335,491  EUR    

COST of  transforma'on    A-­‐B2  =  3,795,889  EUR    

Total COST  for  Plot-­‐based  transforma,on  +  Upgrade  in  2017  =  18,131,381  EUR   COST  of  transforma'on    0-­‐B  =  11,078,428  EUR    

Avoided COST  if  Area-­‐based  transforma,on  would  take  place  in  2000  =  7,052,953  EUR  


Other costs • 

Time lost in traffic: 30,660 EUR/Year

• 

Health costs from traffic emissions within the area: 165,166EUR/Year

• 

Lack of O2 from lack of vegetation: 136,919 EUR

• 

Damage of vehicles from low-standard traffic calming: 12,264 EUR/Year

• 

Material damage from floods due to soil sealing: 7,880 EUR/event

• 

Heath costs due to noise levels: 18,000 EUR/Year

• 

Hypothetical cost of replacing the missing playgrounds with private solutions: 62,100/Year

• 

Cost of parking due to missing parking space: 123,500 EUR/Year


Understanding the costs The case study area had a surface of 2ha; We suppose only 10% of 30km2 from the core urban Tirana has developed with the same pattern This brings to a total of 1 Billion EUR Comparing 1Billion EUR to local budgets of 2016: Tiranë

104 Mln EUR x 10 times = 1 Billion EUR

Durrës

25.5 Mln EUR x 40 times = 1 Billion EUR

Elbasan

25 Mln EUR x 40 times = 1 Billion EUR

Fier

20 Mln EUR x 50 times = 1 Billion EUR

Sarande

7,5 Mln EUR x 140 times =1 Billion EUR

Kuçovë

4

Mln EUR x 260 times =1 Billion EUR


1 Billion EUR lost in 10% of urban core Tirana 75 Mln € X 13

125 Mln € X 8

60 Mln € X 20

61 Mln € X 16 New Boulevard of Tirana

National Arena, Tirana

250 Mln € X 4

Arbri Highway

Skandërbeg Square, Tirana

“LUNGOMARE” Project, Vlora

Kërraba Tunnel

11 Mln € X 90

10 Mln € X 100 Olympic Park of Tirana

128 Mln € X 8

Incinerator of Tirana

15 Mln € X 65

Passengers Terminal, Tirana


Development phases

Co-PLAN’s approach

2009-2017 2000-2011 1998-2006 1990-2000

The way forward Enemies or Partners

City Made by People

Energy and Chaos

Making Cities Work

Participation should be reinvented – engagement brings together private and public interests Establishment of neighborhood development funds Balance costs and benefits

Between Vacuum and Energy

Making Policies Work via Knowledge for Change

Between Utility and Livability

Making Governance Work

Territorial governance is the new path Achieve TG for neighborhoods – partnerships, land instruments, but be transparent and aware of corruption

The Albanian Urban Mix-from Utility to Livability  

Plot-based urban mix costs billions of Euros to the citizens in Albania. An area-based livability approach is the only way to upgrade neighb...

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