Page 1

CATALOGUE OF PERSIS COINAGE Ca. 280 B.C. – A.D. 228 34 Kings of 5 dynasties ruled in Iran for 500 years

P.A. van’t Haaff


Catalogue of Persis Coinage Š 2020 by P. Anne van't Haaff All rights reserved. Written permission must be secured from the heirs of P. Anne van't Haaff and the publisher to use or reproduce any part of this book, except for brief quotations in critical reviews or articles and the use of its numbering system.


Acknowledgements First of all I thank CNG and in particular Scott VanHorn who edited my manuscript and helped to improve it. Any shortcomings which may crop up later, are entirely my responsibility. Bradley Nelson of CNG put me in contact with Siamak Ahghari, who allowed me to use the photos of his important collection of extremely fine specimen in this Catalogue. This has enhanced the scope of the catalogue considerably. I am grateful to a large number of auction houses and coin dealers who permitted me to use images and information from their catalogues and sales lists. Without their generous cooperation this work could not have been made. They were: Dr Alexander Fishman (Ancient Coins Canada); Baldwin’s Auctions; Barry Murphy; Mostafa Faghfoury (Canmoose); Classical Coins; Classical Numismatic Group Inc.; Jean Elsen & ses Fils; Gemini LLC; Gorny & Mosch; Herakles Numismatics; Hess-Divo AG; Gerhard Hirsch Nachfolger; Kenneth W. Dorney; Fritz Rudolph Künker GmbH & Co and their Photographers Lübke & Wiedemann; Numismatik Lanz; Bank Leu A.G.; Dmitri Markov Coins and Medals; Morton & Eden LTD; Münzen und Medaillen GmbH; Najaf Coins and Collectibels; Pars Coins; Pegasi Numismatics; Persis Gallery; Dr. Busso Peus Nachfolger; Ponterio & Associates; Auctionhaus H.D. Rauch GmbH; Sayles & Lavender (Moneta Numismatic Services); Spink; Youssef Mishriki (Sphinx Numismatics); UBS AG. Special thanks go to Wilhelm Müseler and his co-author Dr Dietrich Klose for allowing me to use the data from their Exhibition Catalogue Statthalter, Rebellen, Könige. Wihelm Müseler honored me by writing the Preface to this work. His wide experience helped me to develop my views on certain complicated issues. Dr. Alexander Fishman and Barry Murphy drew my attention to some important over-struck Persis coins which shed new light on the relationship of Persis’ rulers with their Seleucid and Parthian overlords. Professor Parvaneh Pourshariati helped me to understand the impact of the religions of the Parthian families in the 1st and 2nd Century AD on the religion of some Persis rulers of that period, which explains the images and legends on their coins. For creating a new catalogue of Persis coinage it is essential to be familiar with the earlier works on the subject. Most of these works were written at least several decennia ago and are generally not easy to come by. I thank everyone who helped me to get access to that information. CNG provided me with copies of De Morgan’s important work “Monnaies Orientales; Numismatique de la Perse Antique”. After a request on the Internet Don Robertson and Alan Shephan de Shazo gave the golden tip to contact www.Galata.co.uk to find the rare “Manuel de Numismatique Oriental” also by De Morgan. Ans ter Woerd of the ”Geld Museum” in Utrecht sent me some important articles and Susan Tyler-Smith arranged permission from the Royal Numismatic Society to use her publication in The Numismatic Chronicle 2004. Michael Alram gave permission to use information from his Opus Magnum “Iranisches Personennamenbuch Bd IV, Nomina Propria in Numis”, which is the basis for the type numbering in my catalogue. Patrick Pasmans helped in a private communication to clear my mind on some questions.


And finally I thank my wife Marieke for her help when my computer did not do what it was supposed to do and especially for her stimulus to keep my brain active while writing this catalogue which was a challenge and great fun to do.


Pieter Anne van’t Haaff 1928-2018


Editor’s Introduction In 2007, CNG published Pieter Anne van’t Haaff ’s Catalogue of Elymaean Coinage. Shortly after that book went to print, Anne contacted us about another project – this time a catalog of the coins of the state of Persis. I was assigned to liaise with him to prepare the manuscript for publication. The possibility of assisting on a book about the coinage of Persis was an intriguing one for me. The author was well known and respected in the coinage of Central Asia and Ancient India. As the cataloger of the coinage of these regions, I had already had an interest in the coins of the state of Persis (through their successor state, the Sasanians), and I had begun to do some preliminary work of the earlier rulers – the fratarakas – including a detailed study of the dies. During this time, interest in the study of the coinage of Persis was gaining ground. Beginning with Susan Tyler-Smith’s 2004 Numismatic Chronicle article, “A parcel of Persis drachms, half drachms and obols,” included many new types of the often overlooked smaller denominations struck by the later rulers. The 2008 publication by Dietrich O. Klose and Wilhelm Müseler of Statthalter Rebellen Könige – Die Münzen aus Persepolis von Alexander dem Großen zu den Sasaniden, brought to light significant new aspects of the coinage. Since then, the appearance in the market of previously unknown frataraka tetradrachm types and overstrikes suggests a reassessment of the early period of rule in Persis. Each new aspect that came to light further delayed the publication of Anne’s manuscript. For the next ten years, until his sad passing in December 2018, we were continuing to update and edit. The recent COVID-19 pandemic has caused further delays. As a result, Anne’s widow, Marieke de Mooij, who has been both patient an helpful through all this, and I have agreed to publish Anne’s August 2010 manuscript in its present form. As it stands now, the reader may kindly allow for minor errors to appear. More significant errors will appear currently as errata to be rectified in a subsequent future edition. Because I have been working with Anne the past ten years, I intend to publish later an updated second edition with myself as co-author (something to which Anne had generously agreed). Appendices will cover new scholarship since the completion of the manuscript, the discovery of additional overstrikes, discussions of dies, as well as an updated bibliography. One ambitious intention will be to include in this update a CD-ROM of material from the major private and public collections for the purpose of future research. There are many individuals whom I would like to acknowledge for their assistance during this process. I hope to rely on them again as the next edition gets underway, when I will note each by name. For now, I am most grateful to one individual, who remains with us in spirit, if not in body – Pieter Anne van’t Haaff. His meticulous scholarship in this manuscript sets the bar high for any future edition. D. Scott VanHorn, Senior Numismatist Classical Numismatic Group LLC Lancaster, Pennsylvania


i

Table of Contents Preface

iv

Abbreviations

vi

Part One. Characteristics of Persis Coinage 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9. 10.

11. 12.

13. 14.

Introduction How to use the Catalogue Geography of Persis Political situation after Alexander Persis contingents in the Parthian army Religious and Royal Symbols 6.1 The use of Gestures 6.2 Fire temple and fire altar 6.3 Tasseled Standard 6.4 Barsom bundle 6.5 Crescent and Star 6.6 Sun rays emanating from head of Mithra 6.7 Khvarrah/Farnah 6.8 Eagle/Falcon/Veragna 6.9 Triskelis/Triskeles 6.10 Diadem Bands Coin types, denominations and weight standards Coin weights per Ruler Starting date of Persis coinage Frataraka Dynasty 10.1 Baydād (Bagadates) 10.2 Ardaxšīr I (Artaxerxes) 10.3 Vahbarz (Oborzos) 10.4 Vādfradād I (Autophradates) Persis under direct Seleucid control, no Persis minting Rulers under Seleucid sovereignty 12.1 Vādfradād II (Autophradates) 12.2 Unknown King I (X, Y and Z) 12.3 Darayan I (Darius, Dareios, Darev) 12.4 Vādfradād III (Autophradates) Persis under direct Parthian rule, no Persis minting Persis rulers under Parthian sovereignty 14.1 Vādfradād IV Dynasty 4.1.1 Vādfradād IV (Autophradates) 14.1.2 Darayan II (Darius, Dareios, Darev) 14.1.3 Ardaxšīr II Artaxerxes) 14.1.4 Vahšīr (Oxathres) 14.1.5 Unknown King II 14.1.6 Pakor I (Pakur, Pacores; Pirous) 14.1.7 Pakor II

1 1 3 3 5 7 8 9 9 9 10 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 15 17 21 24 24 27 28 28 28 29 31 32 32 33 33 33 34 36 37 38 38 39


ii 14.1.8 14.1.9 14.1.10 14.2

15. 16.

Nambed (Namopat) Napad I and Napad II (Napat, Kapat) Prince Y; Prince Z and Prince X (former Unknown King II)

Vādfradād V Dynasty 14.2.1 Vādfradād V (Autophradates) 14.2.2 Mančhir I; Ardaxšīr III and Mančhir II 14.2.2.1 Mančhir I 14.2.2.2 Ardaxšīr III 14.2.2.3 Mančhir II 14.2.3 Unknown King III 14.2.4 Unknown King IV 14.2.5 Mančhir III 14.2.6 Mančhir IV 14.2.7 Ardaxšīr IV (Artaxerxes) Shāpur Dynasty 15.1 Shāpur 15.2 Ardaxšīr V Quick Reference

40 41 43 43 44 44 46 47 48 48 49 50 50 51 51 51 54 55

Part Two. The Catalogue

61

Baydād (Bagadad) Ardaxšīr I (Artaxerxes) Vahbarz (Oborzos) Vādfradād I (Autophradates) Vādfradād II (Autophradates) Unknown King I-X , I-Y and I-Z King I-X King I-Y King I-Z Darayan I (Dareios, Darev , Darius) Vādfradād III (Autophradates) Vādfradād IV (Autophradates) Darayan II (Dareios, Darev, Darius) Ardaxšīr II (Artaxerxes) Vahšīr (Oxathres) and Unknown King II Pakor I (Pakur, Pacores, Pirous) Pakor II Nambed (Namopat) Napad I and Napad II Napad I (Napat, Kapat) Napad II Prince Y; Prince Z and Prince X Prince Y Prince Z Prince X Vādfradād V (Autophradates)

62 67 71 76 82 85 86 89 90 91 96 97 101 109 120 129 133 142 150 151 155 161 168 169 172 173


iii Mančhir (Mančhir, Minucithri, Minuchetri, Miitri) Ardaxšīr III (Artaxerxes) Mančhir II Unknown King III Unknown King IV Mančhir III Mančhir IV Ardaxšīr IV (Artaxerxes) Shāpur Ardaxšīr V

179 182 188 192 194 195 198 200 207 211

Appendix 1 – Concordances

215

Appendix 2- Sources, Die Links, Weights and Size

222

Bibliography

249


iv

PREFACE Apart from the fundamental publications on Persid coins in two of the leading public collections of Europe, the British Museum and the Bibiliothéque Nationale de France, which appeared already in the second decade of the past century, the coinage of the rulers of Persepolis between the death of Alexander the Great and the rise of the Sasanians had been neglected by the numismatic community almost entirely for a very long time. Persid coinage formed a field of remote secondary interest, for which nobody really cared. At best it was treated in short ephemeral notes, which were published in minor publications if they were published at all. This situation changed dramatically after 1986, when Michael Alram had published his supplement to the monumental work “Iranisches Namensbuch” by Ferdinand Justi under the subtitle “Nomina Propria Iranica in Nummis”. All of a sudden scientific and public interest in the fascinating side-fields of Iranian Numismatics was revived. But the main scope of Alrams work was onomastic. Consequently he had left out many variants and coins with hardly legible legends or with no legend at all. Therefore this most important publication, that has beyond any doubt huge merits, is of limited use for a thorough numismatic survey to the fields, that it strives to cover. It was Josef Wiesehöfer, who took the opportunity, to launch an in-debt analysis of the political and monetary history of Fars in Hellenistic times. But notwithstanding his profound and erudite analysis of the scarce and fragmented literary tradition in comparison with numismatic and other archeological evidence he limited his numismatic material base just to the coins published by Alram under a rather different interest. Moreover he accepted uncritically a number of misconceptions and erroneous statements from Alram, which unfortunately led him to some conclusions of dubious value in the end. Meanwhile, namely in the course of the last two decades of the 20th century, a lot of previously unknown Persid material has appeared on the international coin market. Several of the specimens known by now apparently contradict the theories formed by Alram and Wiesehöfer. Most of those coins have been published and commented on in different auction catalogues. The author of these lines has used a number of them for the arguments in his reply to Wiesehöfer, published some years ago in the German periodical Jahrbuch für Numismatik und Geldgeschichte. He based his observations mainly on material out of two substantial private collections: The collection of Theo Reuter from Locham, now donated to the Bayerische Staatssammlung at Munich and published by Dietrich Klose and the author only recently; and the collection of Siamak Ahghari from San Jose/California, which is currently prepared for publication. The material of both collections is of course included in the present corpus. Given the large number of coin-types, -subtypes and variants, which have come to light mainly in the last 30 years, Pieter Anne van’t Haaff has seen the necessity of a publication on Persid coins, that reaches beyond the limited scope of just one single collection, however vast this may be. Therefore he decided to compile and record


v systematically all the published coins from Persis as well as all the unpublished ones, that he knew of and that were within his reach, in a huge general catalogue of Persepolitan coinage, – a sequel to his marvelous Catalogue of Elymaean Coinage published in 2007. The compilation of such a corpus, which is indeed a basic requirement for all further research, is an enormous task. It requires profound knowledge, lots of diligence and last not least some patience and courage. The advantage of knowledge and diligence is self evident. But patience as well as courage is required, because the appearance of one single new variant can shed a different light on an entire group, whose order has to be totally revised thereafter. A similar thing happened to the author during the preparation of the exhibition-catalogue of the Reuter Collection in Munich. Informed by Oliver Hoover about the existence of a coin, that belonged to the second series of Baydad but was apparently struck over a coin of Ardasher, his alleged successor, the respective specimen (No. 515/519g of this corpus) was acquired for the Munich Cabinet virtually at the last moment. Subsequently an entire page of the manuscript, which was already on the verge of being sent to the printer, had to be completely rewritten. Let us hope that the present work will be received well by the public and that it deepens the knowledge and spurns the passion of everyone, scholar or collector, interested in the history and coinage of Persepolis and of ancient Iran. Frankfurt / Main, 2011

Wilhelm MĂźseler


vi

Abbreviations Ancient Coins Canada Baldwin Barry Murphy BMC Canmoose Classical Coins CNG Elsen Gemini Gorny & Mosch Herakles Hess-Divo Hirsch Kenneth Dorney Künker Lanz Leu Markov Morton & Eden M&M Najaf New York Sale Pars Coins ONS Pegasi Persis Gallery Peus Ponterio Rauch Sayles & Lavender Spink Spinx Tyler-Smith UBS

Dr. Alexander Fishman; Richmond Hill, Canada. Baldwin’s Auctions, London, England. Willow Street, PA, USA. Hill, George Francis. A Catalogue of the Greek coins in the British Museum; Catalogue of the coins of Arabia, Mesopotamia and Persia. London, 1922. Canmoose Coins, Faghfoury, Mostafa, Gatineau Quebec, Canada. Classical Coins, Galeta, CA; USA. Classical Numismatic Group, INC. Lancaster, PA, USA. Jean Elsen & ses Fils, s.a. Brussels, Belgium. Gemini LLC, presented by Harlan J.Berk Ltd and Freeman & Sear, Chicago IL/ Los Angeles CA, USA. Gorny & Mosch, Giesener Münzhandlung GmbH, München, Germany. Herakles Numismatics, Charlotte, NC, USA. Hess-Divo AG, Zürich, Switzerland. Gerhard Hirsch Nachfolger, München, Germany. Kenneth W. Dorney, Ancient Coins and Antiquities, Redding CA, USA. Fritz Rudolph Künker GmbH & Co.KG, Münzhandlung, Osnabrück, Germany. Numismatik Lanz München, München, Germany. Bank Leu A.G., Zürich, Switzerland. Dmitri Markov Coins and Medals, Watkinsville, GA, USA. Morton & Eden LTD., London, England. Münzen und Medaillen GmbH, Weil an Rhein, Germany. Najaf Coins and Collectibles, West Vancouver, Canada. The New York Sale: Baldwin’s Auctions Ltd, Dmitri Markov Coins and Medals New York, F.R. Künker e. K. Osnabrück, M&M Numismatics Ltd. Washington, DC.USA. Pars Coins, San Jose, CA, USA. Oriental Numismatic Society. Pegasi Numismatics, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Persis Gallery, Northolt, UK. Dr, Busso Peus Nachf., Franfurt am Main, Germany. Ponterio & Associates, San Diego, CA, USA. Auktionshaus H.D. Rauch GmbH, Vienna, Austria. Moneta Numismatic Services, Watkinsville, GA, USA. Spink, London, England. Youssef Mishriki, Sphinx Numismatics, Markham, Ontario, Canada. Susan Tyler Smith, Biggleswade, England. UBS AG, Zürich, Switzerland.


1

Part One. Characteristics of Persis Coinage

1. Introduction The ancient kingdom of Persis was located in the present day Fars province of Iran with the city of Shiraz located some 200 KM east of the Persian Golf. It was the homeland of the Achæmenid Empire with the major cities Persepolis, Pasargardæ and Stakhr. The ancient traditions of the Achæmenids remained a strong cultural heritage influencing not only the way of life, the art forms including the coinage, but also a strong urge for independence. Very few facts are known of the history of Persis. The scarce documents referring to Persis are written by Greeks or Romans, whose sympathy was not with Persis so their information was biased against Persis. Coins appear to be the best source for the Persis history. The early numismatic studies of Persis are George Francis Hill: Catalogue of the Greek coins of Arabia, Mesopotamia and Persia (British Museum1922) and Jacques De Morgan: Monnaies Orientale (1930) and Manuel de Numismatique Orientale (1923-1936). The most important publication is Michael Alram’s monumental work Iranisches Personennamenbuch (1986). Recent publications are by Josef Wiesehöfer (1994) and most recently Dietrich O.A. Klose and Wilhelm Müseler (2008) who in their important “Catalogue of Persis coins in the Staatliche Münzsammlung München” of 2008 have refined Alram’s research. In the last decades many new coin types, subtypes and variations have been found and published scattered over auction catalogues and sales lists. I expect this to continue in the coming years. This Catalogue endeavors to publish these new coins in a systematic way, which is based on the type numbering of Alram’s 1986 publication.

2. How to use the Catalogue In the catalogue 1423 coins are illustrated, attributed to 260 types and sub-types of which 140 are newly identified. 34 rulers belonging to 5 dynasties have been identified, 25 of whom have a name attributed to them. Nine have no or a meaningless legend and are not identified by name.


2 In the Catalogue the coin illustrations are enlarged and not in the actual size. My reason is that Persis coins with the exception of the tetradrachms are small and the legends are generally not easy to read. The Catalogue intends to help collectors and scholars to identify their coins, and publishing them in the actual size makes identification often next to impossible, certainly for the small hemi-drachms and obols and does not do justice to the often amazingly fine engraving of interesting details. For nearly each coin the weight and the actual size is given next to the coin images. The source of the images is given in Appendix 2. For most rulers more than one, sometimes even 3 or 4 names have been used in the numismatic literature. An example is Darayan, also known as Darev, Dareios or Darius. All names found in the numismatic literature are mentioned in the Catalogue This Catalogue follows the type numbering of Alram. In the last decades quite a number of new coin types and sub-types have emerged. New types not catalogued by Alram are identified by the suffix A or B etc, for example Type 567A and Type 567B. Sub-types are indicated as follows: Type XXX.1; sub-sub types by: XXX.1-2. Within each type the individual coins are identified by a letter; a.; b.; c. etc. For some early kings Alram differentiates the types according to the lay-out of the reverse legends. These legends are not easy to read as the letters and even whole words may be garbled or left out, written backwards or in an unclear alphabet. For numismatists and collectors who have no access to a large number of specimen a differentiation based on the legends is not practical. In this Catalogue these coins are identified by a combined number such as Type 570/573 or 571/574. Alram has catalogued under Unknown King I the types 551-553 and two types which were new at the time of his writing were catalogued as Types NB1 and NB2. In this Catalogue I have assigned the types 551-553 to an “Unknown King I-X” and the NB types to a different king “Unknown King I-Y”. Recently a 3rd “Unknown King I” type emerged, catalogued as “Unknown King I-Z”. Alram has attributed Type 560 to Vādfradād III, the same king that issued the first coins with a ”Parthian” obverse bust. The Catalogue follows Müseler and attributes these coins to two different kings: Type 560 is attributed to a king named Vādfradād III and the Types 561-563 to another king Vādfradād IV. Consequently Alram’s King Vādfradād IV becomes Vādfradād V in this Catalogue. In this Catalogue the Pakor coins with the triskelis on the reverse are attributed to Pakor I and the coins with bust on the reverse to Pakor II. This attribution, which is different from Alram, follows Müseler and the earlier authors Hill and De Morgan.


3 Alram assigns two basically different types: Types 608-611 and Types 612-617 to Napad. I have decided to assign the Types 608-611 to a king Napad I and the Types 612-617 to another king Napad II. Alram assigns to his “Unknown King II” (Types 618-NB1) coins with 3 different obverse types: 1) the bust in high tiara, 2) the king with a crenellated crown and 3) the coins with a bare headed diademed bust. I use Müseler’s attribution to 3 rulers: the Princes X, Y and Z.

3. Geography of Persis The geographical location of Persis makes it not easily accessible from either Mesopotamia or northern Iran. It consists of a number of very different zones. In the south is the Persian Gulf coast with an unfriendly hot and humid climate. In the west is the Zagros mountain range with several narrow valleys and difficult to cross passes. The central 1600-2000 meter high plateau with Persepolis and Pasargadae has a benign climate with fertile valleys, even more so at the time of Persis when it had extensive woods which have been cut since then. To the north is a zone of arid treeless valleys between high mountains. Due to its isolated position the Persis Kingdom existed for about 5 centuries as a rather independent client state, first of the Seleucids, later of the Arsacids and finally as an independent power that defeated the Arsacids and created the Sasanian Empire. After Alexander the Great Persis was due to its isolated position no longer along the trade routes and it had an autarchic economy.

4. Political situation in Persis after Alexander After Alexander’s conquest the great trade routes between the Mediterranean and the East bypassed Persis, which lost the dominant position it enjoyed in the Achæmenenid Empire.


4 Alexander the Great appointed Peucestas as his satrap in Persis who pacified the area by a policy of cooperation with the local aristocracy, adopting Persian customs and integrating Greek rule into the local circumstances. He was an extremely successful satrap and after Alexander’s death he remained the Persis satrap and developed into one of the most influential figures in the area. The Achæmenid philosophy of Kingship and State remained a dominating element in the relationship between Peucestas and the Persis elite. In 322 BC, soon after the death of Alexander, his generals started the Diadochi (Successor) wars, fighting over the division of Alexander’s empire among them. Three of them, Antigonos Monophtalmos (the One-eyed), Eumenes and Seleucos I were involved in the conflict over power in the Persis satrapy during 322-312 BC. The Diadochi wars were fought in changing alliances. Antigonos was the first who had Persis in his portfolio. In the beginning he followed Alexander’s policy of involving the local elite and using the existing social infrastructure. Later he changed his views and introduced a repressive regime. Fearing that the immensely popular Peucestas could become a threat to his own position he removed him. The new satrap limited the influence of the local elite and a resulting Persian revolt was crushed in blood. Eumenes got himself killed and in 312 BC Seleukos I returned from Egypt to Babylon and consolidated his power. He removed Antigonos from Persis and occupied Persis where he was welcomed as liberator. Alexander’s policy of using the local political and economic infrastructure was re-instated by Seleucos. He understood that although his military organization was superior, that this was not the case for the administrative organizational capacity. The local authority was given in the hands of dynasts who ruled as vassals of the Seleucids with a considerable range of responsibility. Political intermarriages with the Persian aristocracy and use of the existing organizational and physical infrastructure enabled the Seleucids to keep a strong hold on the widely dispersed regions in their empire. There was no uniformity in the administrative structure in the vast and heterogeneous Seleucid Empire. At the fringes in regions like Persis (and Elymais) there was a strong tendency towards autonomy which illustrates the ideological weakness of the heritage of Alexander the Great. Alexander the Great had introduced a monetary economy in his total empire. The enormous Achæmenid hoards of precious metal were the source for his prolific minting in many mint places. It is estimated that 1.4 billion drachms at the attic standard were issued. Till long after Alexander’s death they were the standard coin in the Greek world. There was no developed monetary system in the Persian heart land before Alexander. The Seleucids granted the right to mint their own coinage in his name


5 to several satraps in particular in the politically and economically important regions. The intention was to give the local dynasts more status in their regions. Persis belonged no longer to this category as it was no longer along the main transit routes and no mint was active (Houghton 1980). After Kritt (1997) had identified the providence of a group of Seleukos Nikator coins as south-west Iran, but not Susa, Houghton & Lorber (2002) proved that in Persepolis in the period 305-300 BC a mint has been active. It issued a victory coin of Seleucos I (Sear # 6833), which had apart from the Greek legend an Aramaic monogram. This bilingual coin is unique in the Seleucid Empire and indicates that in Persis the Achaemenid tradition remained strong. The Seleucid over-lords had to take into account that Persis with Persepolis was the heir of the Achæmenid culture and its religious traditions. Recognition of its status as the cradle of the Achæmenid Empire, was a strong motive for granting the right to mint to the Persis elite. Around 280 BC, soon after the Seleucids lost direct control over Persis in 285 BC, a Persis family that called themselves Frataraka (see below) started minting. Their coin images were purely Achæmenid emphasizing their role as keepers of the Achæmenid heritage and illustrating their need to keep their distance from the Seleucid influence. For practical reasons however they followed the Hellenistic denominations and weight standard. Their urge for independence was not outward oriented and led not to actions outside Persis. This was different from the neighboring Elymæans who had no affinity with the Achæmenid history but had a similar need for independence which was however outward oriented, with conflicts with neighbors. Early Elymais rulers went on campaigns in Mesopothamia. After the Seleucids were removed from the scene by the Parthians, the degree of independence remained more or less unchanged. This situation is often seen as a sign of political weakness of the Arsacids, resulting in the relatively large degree of independence of the local rulers. Curtis (2007) questions this view as it is based on a modern interpretation of the relations between the Parthian overlords and their vassals. One should consider the option that the local “independent” kingdoms were essential to the structure of the political framework of the Parthian Empire.

5. Persis contingents in the Parthian army during the Parthian/Roman wars in 1st - 2nd century BC? One of the essential characteristics of the relation between vassal states and their overlords was the obligation to provide military support in times of war. Although there are no extant written documents describing military


6 support by the Persis kings to their Parthian overlords, a small hoard of coins of the Persis Kings Ardaxšīr II and a coin of Pakor II overstruck on non-Persis coins may prove such a support obligation. Persis rulers up to Darayan I regularly over-struck their coins on their own or on those of their predecessors. Some typical late examples are Type 557 coin h. and Type 558 coin e. I have however not seen over-struck coins of later rulers except two specific examples described hereunder. Dr. Alex Fishman drew my attention to a small hoard of Ardaxšīr II drachms which are over-struck on Roman Republic denaria, which are illustrated in this Catalogue (570/573.2-3). He identified the under-type of one as a C.Nævus Balbus 79(BC). The remains of the under-type show the date XXV, with two horse heads under it. In the middle of the coin, a bit to the left, horse legs are visible. On another specimen sold by Elsen (35 # 202 in 1996) the under-type cannot be identified. The Ardaxšīr II issues are contemporary with the C. Nævis Balbus coin. The question is how did the Roman coins find their way into Persis and why were they over-struck. It is generally accepted that Persis was outside the international trade routes and had an autarchic economy so it is not likely that the coins were the result of foreign trade. It is tempting to propose that the coins entered Persis as the booty of a Persis detachment who fought as an organized force in the Parthian army during the Roman-Parthian wars in the second half of the 1st century BC. I have found no documentation of Persis units in the Parthian army, but it is quite possible that the Persis King Ardaxšīr II had to provide such a support to his Parthian overlords. It is interesting to note that the Ardaxšīr obverse images are of different types, some with the bust in armor, some with a bust in cloak. They all have the usual symbol behind the bust. One may conclude that quite a large number of denari from the booty were overstruck. A similar case of over-striking Roman coins captured as booty is known from the Parthian king Phraates IV who in 36 BC defeated the invasion army of Mark Anthony at the city of Praaspa, the capital of Media Atropatene in NW Iranian Azerbaijan. In his haste to conquer the town Mark Antony left his baggage train in the rear protected by a small guard. This fatal mistake was used by Phraates who attacked the baggage train with almost 40.000 horsemen and avoided the Roman main-force. It is likely that the Persis contingent participated in this successful raid on the baggage train and got part of the booty.


7 Ardaxšīr II drachms over-struck on Roman denaria Peus 384 # 520; C. Nævius Balbus, AR Denarius

Ardaxšīr II over-struck on Nævius Balbus

Ardaxšīr II over-struck on unknown coin

Rim left side with legend of undertype

The other example is a Pakor II Type 589 coin over-struck on a non-Persis coin. On both the obverse and the reverse the under-type seems to have a legend along the rim. I have not been able to identify the under-type but it is not a Persis coin. It is tempting, although no evidence is available, to assume that the source of the coin is again booty brought home by a Persis contingent in the army of Vologases, fighting the Romans in Armenia around 62/63 AD.

Pakor II Drachm Type 589n. struck over an unidentified non-Persis undertype; 2.03 gram 18 mm.

6. Religious and Royal Symbols Similar to their overlords, the Seleucids and later the Parthians and their Elymæan neighbors, the Persis rulers have used on their coins images and symbols with a religious or secular connotation right from the beginning in


8 280 BC. It is a well known phenomenon that symbols outlive the memory of what they originally stood for. Certain symbols continue for ages as for example the triskelis and swastika. Religious and secular authorities “borrowed” symbols and rituals from other cults and gave them a new meaning for their own use. This process is called syncretisation. Persis rulers have borrowed from their Achæmenid predecessors and their Seleucid overlords, who themselves had borrowed from early cults in Mesopothamia. The Persis rulers up to the end of the 1st century AD were Zoroastrians, so symbols and images on Persis coinage from that period must be viewed in a Zoroastrian context. A new iconography was created for Zoroastrian deities for whom images and symbols were used of Greek and Semitic deities. From the early 1st century AD onwards the Persis dynasts confessed to the Mithraic religion with Mithra as the main God. This change started possibly with Vādfradād V, but Mančhir I and his successors certainly revered Mithra and the related God Verethragna as is clear from the coin images and legends. See the paragraphs 14.2.2 for a further discussion. The iconography shows the king on the obverse and the symbols on the reverse and obverse indicate that he enjoys divine support and his rule is legitimate. The religious connotation in a coin image can have three forms; firstly in the posture or gesture of the person in the image, secondly by the use of symbols on the obverse or reverse of the coin and finally by the legend.

6.1. The use of Gestures. Gestures expressing homage or submission have a very long history in the near East going back to the Assyrians and Elamites (Choksy 1990). The Achæmenids borrowed from the early Mesopothamian cults in particular the raised hand with spread fingers and the palm turned inward toward the face of the person paying homage. Subsequently the Persis rulers from the Frataraka’s up to Vādfradād IV used this gesture on their coins.


9 The King with raised hand with spread fingers and the palm turned to his face. Baydād; Type 515f.;

Ardaxšīr I; Type 520b.

Vādfradād II; Type 547g

6.2. Fire Temple and Fire Altar The Frataraka dynasty and their successors of the Vādfradād II dynasty used a traditional Achæmenid symbol: the King praying in front of a Fire Temple. Right of the temple is a tasseled standard, a royal symbol. This image was used in a simplified form - the king in front of a Fire Altar - by Darayan II, Ardaxšīr II and Vahšīr. The illustrated coin is a tetradrachm of Vādfradād I. Hovering above the temple is the Khvarrah (see paragraph 6.7).

6.3. (Tasseled) Standard The Standard is a royal Symbol. In most case it is next to the Fire Temple. On a rare Vahbarz coin it is on the reverse as a stand-alone symbol (Type 529A).

6.4 Barsom bundle The barsom bundle is a ritual implement used by Zoraoastrian priests. The barsom ritual is intended to express gratitude to the Creator for his boundless gifts in particular of vegetarian character. The barsom bundle is made


10 of 45 cm twigs (the length of the leg till the knee) of a prescribed thickness, in an appropriate number from a specific type of tree, bound into a bundle by a part of the leaf of the date palm. The barsom bundle is mostly held by the left hand. The barsom ritual can be executed by priests and by nobles. The king holding the barsom bundle before the altar is apparently acting in his role as high-priest. The barsom bundle is first shown on the coins of Darayan II who modified the adoration scene by depicting the King before the Fire Altar, holding a barsom bundle. Also the coins of Ardaxšīr II and Vahšīr have the barsom bundle on the reverse. Nambed has it on certain coins as well. Napad and the later kings no longer have the barsom bundle on their coins. Several authors identify what I call a barsom-bundle as a scepter or sword.

Example of Barsom bundle and Fire Altar Darayan II Type 564

Altar and King with Barsom bundle on an Achæmenid seal

Drawing courtesy Müseler

6.5. Crescent and Star For ages this astral combination has been used by Semitic people to represent Semitic deities. In Elymais the Star symbolized the Sun God Šamaš who was the son of the Moon God Sîn who was symbolized by the Crescent. Hansman (1985) has established that there was no religious connection between Elymais and Persis. The former had a Semitic religion whereas Persis was Zoroastrian. Already in the pre-Achæmenid times in Iran the Sun was the symbol of the God Mithra, the “bringer of light to humanity, the mediator in the cosmic struggle” (Sinclair 2008). In Persis the Star was also the symbol of Ishtar who was syncretised with the Iranian Goddess Anāhitā from the Avesta. She was the most important Goddess of the Achæmenids. She


11 was the Mother Goddess including various elements: Goddess of the rivers and water and derived from that the Goddess of fertility, of love, healing and surprisingly of war. In her role of Mother Goddess she can also have the Moon crescent as additional symbol. Both the crescent and the star have been used on Persis coinage, separately and in combination. The crescent appears for the first time on the coins of the Unknown King I who has the crescent behind the head. Darayan II had the crescent, sometimes with a dot (= star) as decoration on his tiara. Later kings of the Vādfradād dynasty had the crescent and star separately or in combination as small secondary symbols on the obverse or reverse. Nambed created a reverse with the King (Nambed) praying in front of a prominent Crescent Star combination. His successor Napad I had the same combination on his reverse. This image reminds of the King praying in front of the fire temple and is an expression of the King honoring the Khvarra, the God Given glory.

6.6. Sun rays emanating from head of Mithra Since pre-Achæmenid times sun rays emanating from the head of the God Mithra have been used in religious presentations referring to the God Mithra. In Persis coinage we see it on the coins of Mančhir I, Ardaxšīr III and Ardaxšīr IV where the God Mithra is shown on the reverse and his name is mentioned in the legend.

6.7. Khvarra/Farnah Vādfradād I, the last Frataraka king introduced a symbol of a winged sun-disc with the upper part of a human hovering above the Fire Altar. This is not - as often thought - the image of Azura Mazda, but it is the personification of the “Khvarra” or “Farnah” (Guardian spirit or “God given Glory”) of his predecessors. This image is much used in Persepolis’ and other reliefs such as the famous Bisutun rock relief of Darius the Great (drawing after Huyse). This divine support, “The God-given Glory” legitimates the King’s authority.

6.8. Eagle/Falcon/Veragna The Eagle (or Falcon according to certain authors) stands for Veragna, the symbol of Verethragna the Iranian God of War and Victory, who is related to the God Mithra, both


12 protectors of the “God given Glory” the Farnah. The eagle is seen as a symbol of Heaven as well as a good omen. The first eagle symbol - a bird perched on the standard at the right of the Fire temple - is on a tetradrachm and a drachm of Vādfradād I. The image is based on examples in Achæmenid reliefs. Vādfradād II and the Unknown Kings I-X and I-Y have an Eagle with spread wings on top of their head. The Unknown Kings I-X and I-Y have a second religious symbol, a Crescent, at the back or top of the head. The next 3 kings all have the Eagle on the standard and the Crescent on top of the head. We have to wait about 3 centuries before we see the Eagle symbol again. Mančhir III has on the reverse a bust with a peculiar tiara. It is pointed and bent forward. Alram uses the word Theriomorphic = God image in the form of a beast, Curtis just calls it the head of a bird or Veragna.

6.9. Triskelis/Triskeles The Triskelis, also spelt Triskeles is an ancient symbol originating in Sumer (3500/3000 BC). In Iran the Assyrians used it in the 8th century BC. Later the use spread to Afghanistan, northern India, the Deccan in India, the whole near East and Greece, western, central and northern Europe including Scandinavia. There is no doubt that the triskelis symbol over the ages got different meanings. I have not found information on the meaning of the enigmatic triskelis on the Persis coins. Klose & Müseler (2008) remark that it may be a Sunsymbol related to the God Mithra. This symbol is often seen as a small auxiliary symbol on the obverse and/or reverse of many Kings from Darayan II onwards. It can be left or right turning. Pakor I has it as the main image on his reverse.

6.10. Diadem bands The diadem is a symbol of Royalty. All coins of the Princes X, Y and Z have diadem bands on the reverse. The illustrated hemi-drachm of Prince Y has an upturned dotted crescent in the tiara and a triskelis behind the bust. The Elymæan king Phraates issued a series with the same type of reverse.


13

7. Coin types, denominations and weight standards The first dynasty, the Frataraka’s, were Seleucid vassals. They issued tetradrachms, drachms, hemi-drachms and obols of good silver, following the Seleucid weight standard. They were struck in small numbers not for circulation and probably for public relations purposes. A considerable part of them are over-struck on Seleucid coins and often on another Frataraka coin. Silver was apparently a scarce commodity. The huge amount of bullion in the Achæmenid treasury was confiscated by Alexander the Great and his successors and used for their extensive coin production. All Persis dynasties issued coins of good silver. The last Persis tetradrachm was issued by Vādfradād II in the 2nd century BC. Later rulers issued drachms, hemi-drachms and obols. Over the ages the coin weights gradually decreased until in the last 100 years before the end of the Persis Kingdom in 224 AD the weight started to rise again. Apart from the very first types, the coins lost the refined images of the contemporary Greek types. Poor minting techniques and serious barbarization of the legends in which often letters are missing or wrongly engraved makes reading of the legends difficult. The celators left letters or even whole words out when they had not created enough space for them. Reading the legends is not easy, because apart from the fact that the letters may be wrongly written (illiterate celators?), in Aramaic the B, D, R and K are similar and the vowels are not written. On the coins of several Kings the reverses are increasingly stylized. In the larger series there are many sub-types and variations. On the other hand the engraving, especially on the very small obols of for example Darayan II and Vādfradād V (many of them not larger than 8-9 mm) is very good with amazingly fine details. One wonders how the celators managed with the limited techniques of 2000 years ago.

Vādfradād V; Obol; 9 mm. 0.54 gr Actual size

Family relations had a prominent role in Persis coinage, either in the legends or as a portrait of the father or the successor of the king on the reverse. The first king Baydād had the father name as part of the legend. Darayan II


14 introduced the filiation in a standard formula “King A, son of King B”. The legends on Pakor II coins do not mention the family relation, but the bust on the reverse is thought to be the portrait of his father. In the whole region ancestor worship was important already under the Achaemenids, not only in Persis but also for the Arsacids and the Elymæans. Fourée coins are known of Unknown King I-X (drachm Type 551.2; 2nd Century BC); Vādfradād IV drachm (Type 561; 1st Century BC) and Darayan II (drachm Type 564.1; hemi-drachm, BMC 218#17 and obol S.M.M # 4.7). Some are illustrated in the Catalogue. No fourée coins of other types are known to me.

8. Coin weights per Ruler The chart on page 14 provides the average weights per denomination for each ruler after the Frataraka dynasties (except the Unknown King II who issued very few coins of a relatively low weight). It is based on 945 coins including those mentioned by Hill in the British Museum Catalogue and the hoard reported by Tyler-Smith in The Numismatic Chronicle 2004. Some rulers issued coins of a lower weight as would be expected according to the trend. This was probably caused by uncertain political situations, possibly these rulers were rebels or client kings ruling in some regions. There is no information on this. The drachm weight of the last 2 kings was raised to 3.50-3.60 gram, an indication of an increased self-confidence and a stronger position in relation to the Parthians, leading to the eventual defeat of the Parthians by Ardaxšīr V, who founded the Sasanian empire. As Sasanian King he is known as Ardaxšir I.

The weight of the coins of Nambed, a ruler who probably had succession troubles, and of the Princes X, Y and Z, as well as of the Unknown King III, who may have been rebels, are below the expected level. Ardaxšīr IV’s coins show a significant drop in weight, again a sign of his political difficulties with the Pābag dynasty in Persis. Shāpur was the first king of the Pābag dynasty and toppled Ardaxšīr IV in AD 211/212. Weights, in particular of hemi-drachms and obols, vary considerably within the types. A few examples from this catalogue are: Darayan II hemi-drachm (Type 558): 2.00 and 1.67 gram; Vahšīr hemi-drachm (Type 583): 2.10 and 1.46 gram; Prince Y obol (Type 620): 0.53; 0.49; 0.30; 0.26 gram; Vādfradād IV hemi-drachm (Type 624) 1.69; 1.22 gram; Vādfradād IV (Type 625) obol: 0.50; 0.30.gram. The suggestion by De Morgan and Hill that these different weights represent different denominations (di-obols etc.) does not seem likely. Nearly without exception the size of the bust on coins of one type with quite different


15 weights seems to be more or less the same. Two typical examples are Ardaxšīr II obols: 0.33 gr. with 11x10 mm. and 0.70 gr. with 10 mm. The lighter coins were not struck by dies of different dimensions. Preparation of the flans was not careful. There are some coins on which the obverse or the reverse was struck by a die of a higher denomination, such as an obol struck by a hemi-drachm die. Examples in the catalogue are 2 obols of Ardaxšīr II with an obverse struck by a hemi-drachm die and 2 hemi-drachms of Vādfradād V with obverses struck by a drachm die. At the time of the Frataraka dynasty silver seems to have been a rare commodity. Most coins were struck on Seleucid or other Frataraka coins. There is reason to believe that during the later dynasties silver was also hard to come by. The international trade bypassed Persis and silver was not mined in important quantities in Persis. Most probably the market value per denomination was officially established higher than the metal value to avoid melting and coin export. I do not think that the coins were used on a weight basis. The small obols are considerably more numerous than the drachms and hemi-drachms. I presume they were used as small change for smaller purchases and not for adjusting the amount of silver to the needed weight. In the case of establishing the purchasing power by weight there would have been no need for so many light obols, the more so as the capability of the market participants to weigh them would have been inadequate. In money systems based on weight cut coins are generally frequent. No cut Persis coins are found. The fact that practically no Persis coins are found outside Persis and were not used in international trade supports the assumption of a fixed value per denomination higher than the silver value. This is another indication that the coins were not used on a weight basis. In sum, I am of the opinion that Persis kings (except the Frataraka kings) issued drachms, hemi-drachms and obols, which circulated with a purchasing power set by the authorities per denomination well above the silver value.

9. Starting date of Persis coinage In spite of all the research by archaeologists and historians of excavations and literature studies, the five centuries between the end of the Achæmenid Empire and the start of the Sasanian Empire are in the words of Wiesehöfer (1994)”The dark ages of Persis”. Little hard evidence like rock inscriptions or written material on this period exists, so coins are the only material evidence. Opinions of scholars on the Persis history are based on circumstantial evidence.


16 It is not surprising that significantly differing opinions were developed on the starting date of Persis coinage, the dating of the ruling dynasties and on the question whether Persis coinage was minted continuously or was interrupted by periods of direct rule, first by the Seleucids and later by the Parthians. The date of the start of Persis coinage has been under discussion for many decades, proposals range from 280 to 180 BC: * 220 BC (De Morgan, 1923-36); * 250 BC. (Hill,1922) and (Sellwood 1983); * Begin 2nd century BC. (Alram 1986/1987); * Middle 2nd century BC. (Wiesehőfer 1994); * 280 BC. (Műseler/Klose 2005). In the recent literature two opinions on the dating dominate: by Wiesehöfer and Alram and the dating proposed by Müseler and Klose. Wiesehöfer in his important 1994 publication on the “The Dark ages of Persis” follows Alram’s 1986 and 1987 publications and attempts to tie the starting date to ancient Greek/Roman publications and archeological data. He sets the starting date at early or middle 2nd century BC, linked to the defeat of Antiochos III in 190BC by the Romans or to the defeat of his son Antiochos IV in 164BC. In his view no important breaks occurred in Persis’ minting activities. A detailed discussion of this proposal goes beyond the scope of this work so I refer to Wiesehöfer’s publication. Müseler and Klose set the starting date about 1 ½ century earlier and base their opinion primarily on numismatic arguments such as hoard contents and overstrikes and less on the ancient writers. In recent decades much new numismatic material has surfaced that plays an important role in their dating proposal. Although there is no difference in both views on the ruler sequence, the Müseler/Klose identification of the dynasties differs from Wiesehöfer/Alram’s opinion. Klose & Müseler (2008, in German) gives a very detailed discussion of the dating and sequence of the Frataraka rulers, linking the coin images to the Achæmenid examples in building and seals.


17 Based on their coins 34 Rulers have been identified, 25 with a name attributed to them. Müseler has divided the rulers into 5 Dynasties, with 2 or 3 periods when the Seleucids and later the Parthians ruled Persis directly and no Persis coins were struck. * ± 280 - 220 BC

Frataraka Dynasty with 4 rulers

* 220 - 190/164 BC

No Persis coinage, direct Seleucid rule

* 190/164 - 140 BC

Dynasty of Vādfradād II with 6 rulers

* 140 – 100 BC

No Persis coinage, direct Parthian rule

* 100 BC – end 1st cent AD

Dynasty of Vādfradād IV with 13 rulers Possible break in Persis coinage after Vahšīir

* Late 1st cent – 211 AD

Dynasty of Vādfradād V with 9 rulers

* 211 – 224 AD

Dynasty of Shāpur (Pābag) with 2 rulers

There are two typological breakpoints in the coinage of Persis. Probably the first break in the Persis minting was at the time of the revolt of Molon, a Seleucid noble who tried, in co-operation with his brother Alexandros (who was satrap in Persepolis and may have inherited the Fratataka position) to carve out his own realm (222 BC). He was defeated by Antiochos who in 220 brought Media and Persis back under the Seleucid central rule and brought the Frataraka dynasty, with its typical coin images to an end. The second break in Persis coinage (± 140 – 100 BC) occurred when the Arsacid Mithradates II brought Persis (and Elymais) under direct Parthian rule. A typical Arsacid (Parthian) coin design was introduced by the Persis ruler Vadfradad IV. These breaks correspond with these two far-reaching events in the Persis history in the 3rd and 2nd century BC. These are the turning points in the 200 years long development from a somewhat privileged Seleucid vassal state to an Arsacid vassal state and finally developing into a largely independent client-kingdom in a Arsacid “federation”-state. These breakpoints cause minor differences in the attribution and sequencing of the coin types in this Catalogue compared with Alram’s sequencing and type numbering.


18

10. Frataraka Dynasty Begin 3rd century BC The first Persis dynasts that issued coins called themselves Frataraka as is mentioned on their coinage. The term frataraka is found on papyrus documents found in Elephantine (Memphis) in Egypt and was used as the title of a high level administrative and military head or local (city) authority, a kind of “under-satrap”. Frataraka can be translated as “leader, governor, forerunner”. Early philologists have read the title as fratakara (he who makes the Fire) or fratadara (guardian of the fire). Recently academics (Paul Naster, 1968) have rejected these readings as their strongly religious connotation does not fit the political aspect of the title on the coinage. There were 4 Fratarata rulers: Baydād, Ardaxšīr I, Vahbarz and Vādfradād I. In the opinion of Müseler the minting by rulers of the Frataraka dynasty in Istakr/Persepolis started ± 280 BC, maybe already during the lifetime of Seleukos I Nikator or immediately after his death. Their coinage follows the Hellenistic examples: silver tetradrachms, drachms, hemi-drachms and obols. The images however are based on the Achæmenid iconography and as such can have been a Persian reaction to the Hellenistic monetary developments in Mesopotamia and Media, be it not yet as a symbol of completely independency from the Seleucid Empire. The following arguments support the early dating: 1. For the determination of the starting date of Persis coinage it is significant that the Seleukos minting in Persepolis suddenly ended around 300 and no later Seleukos types (like e.g. the elephant types) have been found in the area. Persis appears to have been cut off from the Seleucid money circulation after 300BC, although Seleucid coins from the pre-300BC period continued to circulate in Persis. 2. The few reliable, documented hoards found in the area contain relatively fresh victory issues of Seleukos dated pre-295BC in combination with issues of the first three Frataraka dynasts in the same quality and with tetradrachms in the name of Alexander from Ekbatana or Susa and the same type in the name of Seleukos, but in worn quality. It is tempting to assume that the break in Seleucid minting in Persis was either caused by the start of the Frataraka minting or, the other way around, that the Frataraka stepped in the gap. 3. The close connection between the last issues of Seleukos and the first Persis coinage of the Frataraka Baydād - an important argument for the early dating of the start of the Persis coinage - is also apparent from the re-strike of his coins on fresh Alexander types issued in the name of Seleukos. Alram and Wiesehöfer disagree


19 with this argument for the early dating of the start of the Persis coinage as fresh under-types could have been used at a much later date than their date of issue. 4. The Frataraka coin images are clearly inspired by Achæmenid examples on the buildings or their remains. The Frataraka coinage’ main purpose was public relations, propaganda to point at their role of keepers of the Achæmenid heritage by using the iconography living in the Persis collective memory of the glorious times of the Achæmenid Empire and its traditions. It is easy to see the role of the Persepolis ruins as source for images of the fire temple on the reverse of the second Baydād coin type. The example of the satrapal headgear is less obvious from the Persepolis ruins. It is more likely that the headgear of Achæmenid Satraps as seen on the coinage of the Achæmenid satraps, like the three illustrated below, was the example for the Frataraka leather helmets. Although a collective memory can be long lived, the elapsed time between these coin examples and Alram’s starting date (180 BC) of ca. 150 years is less plausible than the Müseler date which was nearly contemporary or some decades later.

Obols of Satrap Evagoras II & AV Stater of Satrap Waxawar; with the Satrapal Kyrbasia; late 4th early 3rd century BC Evagoras; Obol; Baldwin 34 # 494; star before bust

Waxswar; Alram 383; BMC 194.2; Sear 6228; AV Stater 897 gr 18 mm.

Evagoras; Obol; CNG 58 # 689; 0.66 gr. 10 mm.

Shown are 3 examples of the satrapal Kyrbasia on coins of Achæmenid satraps of the late 4th – early 3rd century BC. Cappadocian rulers used the satrapal leather helmet well into the 3rd century. Evagores was a satrap in western Anatolia, late 4th century BC. Waxswar was a Satrap in north eastern Persia (Kapisa?), late 4th century – early 3rd century BC (BMC). The use of the traditional Achæmenid satrapal kyrbasia (headgear) on the Frataraka coinage illustrates that for the Persis rulers the Achæmenid traditions were important. They kept a clear distance from their Seleucid overlords, more than their neighbors in Elymais and Characene did, who for their coinage copied the Seleucids models.


20 Baydād coins over-struck on other coins Baydād Type 511/514d over-struck on fresh Seleucid Alexander type.

Baydād Type 515/519g over-struck on coin of another Frartaraka with a protruding visor (Ardaxšīr I)

Nearly all Baydād coins - and for that matter other Fratarka coins as well - are over-struck on Seleucid or other Frataraka coins except some of the first (Baydād Type 511/514a and b). This is surprising, as the dies of the Baydād coins are well engraved and the coinage is clearly a statement of the Frataraka elite to emphasize their status as keepers of the Achæmenid heritage and their political ambitions. One would expect that the coins would be struck on new flans. It is tempting to assume that 50 years after Alexander’s plunder of Persepolis silver was still scarce and even the Persis elite had to fall back on Seleucid coins or even cannibalize their own coins. Below I discus the remarkable Baydād coin struck over an Ardaxšīr I coin.

10.1. Baydād (Bagadates) Begin 3rd century BC The first Frataraka ruler struck 2 types in tetradrachms, drachms, hemi-drachms and obols. The first type may have had the character of an installation or coronation issue. On the obverse is the head of Baydād with a form of the traditional Achæmenid headdress (kyrbasia) which has the earcovers fastened over the top. It is the official tiara for a City-King or Dynast, who in the Achæmenid Empire ranked somewhat below a satrap. He has a diadem, an earring and a short beard and a moustache. On the reverse the ruler is wearing the same type of headdress and is seated on a throne which is a copy of a Darius relief in the treasury in Persepolis. He is wearing the traditional Achæmenid mantel (called Kandys) with long sleeves and holds a lily-scepter and a lotus flower (cup) on his knees. The use of the satrapal tiara proves that the person is Baydād himself and not a Great King. A ceremonial standard (Labarum) is in the left field similar to the royal standard of the Achæmenids.


21 Left, right and in the exergue is a legend reading outside-in in Aramaic characters. The images are strongly influenced by the Achæmenid iconography. The engraver had his model (sculptures in the Persepolis palaces) at hand as the type was most probably minted in Persepolis. The legend on Baydād’s coins reads: bgdt prtrk’ zy ‘ lhy’ br bgwrt or with the vowels: BaGaDaT FRaTaRaKa Zy ALaHYIA BaReh BaGakaRT, which is translated by De Morgan as Bagadat master of divine essence, son of Bagakert and by Klose/Müseler as Bagadad (Baydād) the Frataraka of the Gods, Son of Bagakart (or Bagawart). It is interesting to note that the legend does not mention a title like “King”. The words “of the Gods” have been differently interpreted by a number of scholars. In one version “of the Gods” is referring to the deified Achæmenid kings. This interpretation would emphasize the independence of the Frataraka dynasty from their Seleucid overlords. In another interpretation of Panaino (2003), it refers not to the deified Achæmenid kings but to the traditional Gods of Persis (= Achæmenid Gods). The Achæmenid Kings were never called God and were not deified at their death. The Frataraka kings refrained from calling themselves King, so it is unlikely that they would use “deified” Achæmenid Kings as their protectors. In this vision the Frataraka elite created a legitimation of their authority by the Gods of Persis: Azura Mazda, Mithra and Anahita. This reference to “the Gods” is a form of religious propaganda and illustrates a (re-)emerging sense of identity. The second type has the same obverse as the first. The reverse shows a building with panel doors and on top 3 battlements or altars. It is generally accepted that buildings in Persepolis or Pasargadae served as a model, some academics even point to specific buildings as the origin of the reverse image. Baydād is standing in the left field in adoration and is wearing the kyrbasia with the protruding visor; in the right field is a tasseled standard. The legend is on the right, bottom and left side, there is a small difference compared with the legend on the first type: the filiation “br” behind the father’s name is replaced by the word “prs” possibly the name of the region Fars. These letters are also seen on many coins of the next King Ardaxšīr I. The coins are concave. The image of a person in adoration in front of a fire altar is a well known feature seen on Achæmenid seals and reliefs. The Fire Temple will be a reverse feature on Persis coins up to Vādfradād IV, the first king of the Parthian period during the first century BC. Among the very few known obols of Baydād there is one with on the reverse a standard only (Type 513A). This coin illustrates the importance of the standard which represents the King and his authority. It can belong to the first or to the second series.


22 The Baydād / Ardaxšīr riddle. In 2005 in the CNG 69 auction a Baydād coin appeared which is over-struck on a coin of another Frataraka ruler wearing a kyrbasia with a protruding visor. This surprising coin has consequences for the chronology of the Frataraka rulers. Klose and Müseler (2008) opine that the under-type is an Ardaxšīr I coin. This places the Ardaxšīr I type between the first (Type 511) and the second (Type 515) Baydād series. Baydād and Ardaxšīr were apparently contemporary and may have belonged to different families competing for the Persis throne and used minting coins as a propaganda tool. It also means that it was Ardaxšīr I who introduced the “fire-temple” reverse, which Baydād adopted for his second issue. It may also explain the small difference in the legend on the first and the second Baydād issue, as the second is similar to the legend of Ardaxšīr I. The second legend is a strong indication of a strengthening feeling of religious and cultural independence of the Persis elite. The Fire altar reverse, a reference to the Zoroaster cult, emphasizes Persepolis’ position as the centre of the Iranian Achæmenid traditions and sets Persis apart from the other Seleucid satrapies. This aspect will influence the Persis attitude versus the Seleucid overlords during the whole period of Seleucid dominance. To solve the riddle of the Baydād Type 515 coin struck over a Ardaxšīr I coin Wilhelm Müseler and the author developed a hypothetical scenario of the political situation in the early 3rd century BC. The Seleucids had insufficient troops to control their vast territory and their occupation was mainly concentrated along the trade routes. Most probably in Persis, located on the outskirts and no longer along the trade routes, there was no strong Seleucid occupation force. In the west the Seleucids were in confrontation with rulers in Egypt and Anatolia whereas in the east around 280 BC in Arachosia and Gedrosia Graeco-Bactrian kingdoms seceded. In 280 Seleukos I Nikator was murdered. In this political unstable situation the Persis elite may have been eager to attempt to enhance their independence, be it within the Seleucid Empire. We have no evidence for a gradual weakening of Seleucid control over Persis as early as 280 BC, however given the rather high level of autonomy apparently granted to the area around the old centre of the Achæmenid Empire at the beginning of the Seleucid rule, including the right to strike coins, internal strife and rivalry between different factions within Persis is not only thinkable but even a strong possibility. Such an internal conflict in Persis may not have affected the relationship with the Seleucid overlords, who apparently did not interfere. That would change completely later, when under the rule of Vahbarz the relation between Persis and their overlords fatally deteriorated for the Persis elite.


23 The clan of Baydād was the first to test the possibilities of a wider range of self-government by minting coins in Baydād’s name with the title Frataraka in the region of Persepolis and Pasargadæ. None of the Baydād coins (or of most of the other Frataraka rulers) show signs of wear. They obviously were not issued for circulation but served as political propaganda instruments. In this unstable political atmosphere, it was quite possible that another clan with Ardaxšīr as chief pushed the Baydād clan aside and issued coins in his name. The obverse has a bust in another traditional Achæmenid headdress and a completely different reverse with the clan chief (Ardaxšīr) in a satrapal head-dress praying before a Fire Temple, similar to existing Achæmenid examples. The Ardaxšīr usurpation was short lived as appears from the relative small number of existing Ardaxšīr coins. The Baydād clan returned on the scene and resumed minting. The obverse of the coins of the second Baydād reign remained as those from his first reign but the reverse adopted the cleverly designed reverse of Ardaxšīr. This Fire Temple design may have had a greater credibility among the Persis elite than the person on a throne, with its emphasis on the importance of the Baydād clan chief. More specimen of the second Baydād issues have survived than of the Ardaxšīr types. The fact that Baydād over-struck Ardaxšīr coins is an insult to the Ardaxšīr clan and is another indication that his clan prevailed. That the Ardaxšīr clan lost its dominant position among the Persis elite is also illustrated by the use by Vahbarz of the Ardaxšīr dies for his coins. In sum, the ruler sequence was: * Baydād first reign * Ardaxšīr I * Baydād second reign Vesta Sarkosh Curtis (2010) quotes the opinion of Oliver D. Hoover who interprets the Baydād/Ardaxšir coin differently. He suggests that Ardaxšir I was the first Frataraka ruler preceding Baydād who ruled after Ardaxšir I and Vahbarz . In a personal communication to Curtis Hoover has suggested that Baydād and Vadfradād I may have been contemporary rivals. Hoover built his opinion on overstrikes of Frataraka coins on Seleucid or Frataraka coins and on the contents of coin hoards. I cannot follow Hoover’s suggestions for the following aspects: 1) Identifying the under-type is often not straightforward as mostly only a few details are visible. The solution of the Baydād/Ardaxšir riddle given by Müseler and Van’t Haaff of the Baydād/Ardaxšir riddle is a more credible account of the early Frataraka history without relying on often doubtful interpretations of under-types.


24 2) In this respect it is interesting to mention the remark of Klose/Müseler (2008) that some of these hoards came incomplete on the market and are dated by guess work and are not thoroughly documented. 3) Placing Baydād later in the sequence of Frataraka rulers is neglecting that the Baydād coins and certainly the type with the seated ruler on the reverse have the finest engraving of all Frateraka coins. The engraving of the – in my opinion - later Frataraka ruler gets gradually less fine and the Vādfradād I coins become somewhat crude. Such a gradual degradation of engraving and striking is not uncommon in longer series of types. The finest engraving is on the earliest type.

10.2. Ardaxšīr I (Artaxerxes) 3rd century BC This Frataraka ruler shows himself on the obverse with a Satrap kyrbasia, here the side flaps go all the way down and cover the chin and mouth and it has a protruding visor. It is the same as the king’s headdress on the reverse of the second type of Baydad. This is a traditional Achaemenid headdress as is seen on satrapal coins of the late 4th century – early 3rd century. It is also depicted on a relief in a small temple 1.5 km north-west of Persepolis. Similar head dresses were used by Achæmenid priests. The reverse of Ardaxšīr I is similar to the second issue of Baydād. The legend does no longer give the father’s name, but more importantly, still mentions the title Frataraka and not King.

10.3. Vahbarz (Oborzos) 3rd century BC The coinage of Vahbarz is similar to that of Ardaxšīr I except for the name whwbrz (Vahbarz). As the legends are often garbled it is not always easy to identify the coins of Arsaxšīr I and Vahbarz. The significantly shorter name of Vahbarz in the reverse left field can be a good indication.

Name of ruler (after Alram) Ardaxšīr I

Vahbarz

‘rthštry

whwbrz


25 Obverse dies of Ardaxšīr I have been used by Vahbarz as Alram discovered. The obverse of these Vahbarz coins looks more worn than the original Ardaxšīr I coins, however the Vahbarz reverse shows very little wear. The Vahbarz coin was struck from a worn die and the conclusion must be that, instead of previous assumptions, Vahbarz was the successor of Ardaxšīr I. There are several examples of obverse die identities between Ardaxšīr I and Vahbarz. The reverses of these coins are struck with slightly different images. The fact that Vahbarz used dies of Ardaxšr for the obverse indicates that the busts are no personal portraits of the ruler. The same is true for the obverse of Vādfradād I (Autophradates), the successor of Vahbarz. The coinage of Vahbarz has a few features that illustrate the deterioration of the relations between the Persis rulers and their Greek overlords. In the mid-1980’s 2 remarkable coins with the name Vahbarz came on the market. The obverse has a fine image of the ruler and the reverse has a unique image of a standing person in the traditional dress of the Achæmenid emperors holding a prisoner in the dress of a Greek hoplite (soldier) by the hair in the act of stabbing him to death. The legend reads whwbrz krny = Vahbarz the Karanoz.. A similar scene is illustrated on two Achæmenid seals from the 4th century BC. The first shows the same sacrificial scene as on the coin. The important aspect of the second seal is the dress of the King which is very similar to the dress on the coin. The 2nd seal illustrates the re-conquest of Egypt by Artaxerxes III Ochos. Several other seals and stone reliefs exist with similar scenes. The image can be seen as a reference to important Achæmenid traditions. In Bivar’s (1986) interpretation the scene is not a fight but a sacrifice with a religious connotation. The man in the traditional Achæmenid dress (Vahbarz ?) defeats the traditional Greek enemy to the greater glory of God. The use of the title Karanoz which means “deputy of the Great King and military Commander of the Satrapy” is close to open rebellion, just short of using the title “King”. This title will be used a century later on the coins of Darayan I. Shortly after the “sacrifice coins” were presented, Alram (1987) published an article which expresses doubts on the authenticity of the coins. His most important argument is that the reverse image does not fit in the Frataraka tradition of using a standard reverse with the king in front of a fire temple. Even on the Vahbarz “victory” type the Greek style Nike figure is embedded in the traditional King/Fire temple image. In Müseler’s opinion the cultural mix of Achaemenid and Greek features is not unusual in west Iran and can not be used to condemn the coins. The satrapal headdress used by the Frataraka’s is borrowed from satrapal coinage


26 in the western and southern Near East as is seen e.g. a coin of Waxswar, (Alram type 383), which has an Achæmenid obverse and a purely Greek reverse.

Coin Type 532Aa, now in a private collection

Seal in the Hermitage, St Petersburg

Seal in the Bibliotheque National , Paris

(Images of coin and seals courtesy Wilhelm Müseler) The coins can be seen in relation to a multi-interpretable story told by the Roman lawyer Polyainos in his “Strategemata” (military stratagem) of a rebellion of Katoics (Greek-Macedonian settlers) in which three thousand of them were killed with the help of local inn keepers where the Greek-Macedonians were billeted. The innkeepers made them drunk and killed them. How Vahlbarz was involved in this massacre is unclear but the story is an indication that the relations between the Seleucid overlords and the Persis elite were brittle. Whether the Seleucids retaliated to this incident is unknown. There are however other signs of the increasing independence of the Persian ruler. Another Vahbarz Type 526A, a unique coin in the Staatliche Münzensammlung München, has the legend whwbrz krny = Vahbarz the Karanos. As mentioned above Karanos was a title used in the Achæmenid Empire for a military official above the local satrap in peripheral regions. He was a kind of deputy of the Great King, a commander in chief of several satrapies. The fact that Vahbarz usurped this title, but did not use King illustrates the increasing independence of Persis. Type 526A carries not only the title Karanos but in the exergue of the obverse has a monogram of Greek characters. This coin is contrary to other Vahbarz coins struck with fresh dies and seems to be a special issue. Müseler opines that it may be a Persis pendent of Seleucid victory coins (Photo courtesy Müseler) to celebrate success in the relationship with the Seleucids. This coin and the drachm Type 532 both lack the Standard in the reverse right field. The Standard is considered to be a royal symbol. If we theorize that the Standard is used in honor of the Seleucid overlords, not using it may be another indication of a strained relation with the overlords.


27

10.4. Vādfradād I (Autophradates) 3rd century BC This is the last Frataraka ruler. Nearly all his coins are over-strikes on issues of the previous Frataraka’s. They are rather coarsely made, as in a hurry. The legends are generally corrupted and come in 2 (?), 3, 4 and 5 lines, in the right, bottom and left field. The coinage of Vādfradād I shows a number of surprising aspects. *1. He introduced two changes to the traditional Frataraka reverse images. Between the praying King and the temple often a double convex bow is shown. This type of bow was used by the Achæmenid army and was a royal symbol as it was for the Parthians. The other change also was a legitimation of power: above the fire temple flies a winged sun with the upper part of a man wearing a crenellated crown and holding a diadem. This is not, as often thought, the image of Azura Mazda, but it is the personification of the “Khvarra” or “Farnah” (Guardian spirit) of his famous predecessors, an image much used in Persepolis’ and other reliefs such as the well known Bistun rock relief of Darius the Great (drawing after Huyse). *2. In 2006 a tetradrachm with a 5-line legend appeared. The legend has not been understood, one word is un-deciphered and the title Frataraka is mentioned twice. To make space for the legend, the bow between the ruler and the altar was left out. *3. Another variety of the reverse image is known from one tetradrachm and a drachm which have an eagle on top of the standard in right field (Type 533A). The Eagle (in the Avesta: “Veragna”) plays an important role in the Iranian royal symbolism, it is the personification of the “Farnah”, the God-given Glory giving legitimation to the ruler. Curtis (2007 – 1) sees the eagle as a symbol of divine investiture. As mentioned above, this is the first time the eagle is seen on Persis coinage and it will return on many Persis coins, the last time as the eagle head on Mančhir III coins. We will see it again in the crowns of Sasanian rulers. *4. At the end of the reign of Vādfradād I there may have been military conflicts in Persis involving most probably the Seleucid rulers. Significant in this respect is the issue of tetradrachms and a drachm which have a purely Hellenistic element: Nike holding a wreath over the head of Vādfradād. Shabazi (1980) and Curtis opine that the “Nike” figure is in fact a form of Farnah and is an example of syncretism of deities in which icons of a foreign religion are adopted and given a new meaning in the own religion.


28 The image of the fire temple is considerably simplified to create room for Nike. The temple is narrower, the doors are less detailed and without a dented frieze above. The three fire altars on top are replaced by two stepped battlements. The coin is rather crude compared with previous Frataraka issues and may have been made in a hurry under uncomfortable circumstances. Müseler sees this coin as a reference to the victory issues of Seleukos I, so a celebration of a Persis victory over the Seleucids. In spite of this “victory” symbol there is reason to believe that the Frataraka elite was in trouble. Whatever the real meaning of the coin may be, it is the last issue of Vādfradād I. All Vādfradād’s types emphasize his “God-given” authority and refer to the guardian role of the ruler of the Achæmenid heritance. This “propaganda” may well indicate the inherent weakness of the ruling Frataraka families, which were loosing their grip on power which eventually led to their removal by the Seleucids.

Barry Murphy published a Vādfradād I coin struck over a Seleukos I Victory coin as shown here. This coin illustrates that after the Seleucids ended their direct rule in Persis their coins remained in circulation.

Vādfradād I tetradrachm struck over a Seleukos I Victory coin On the lower images the under-type is clearly visible, on the obverse the horn and Alexander’s profile can be seen. On the reverse BΛΣIΛEΛΣ is practically complete; the Σ of Seleukos and the M and AX are visible, as well as the top of Nike’s wing, her head and hand, the shield and part of the trophy.

Seleukos coin image courtesy Peus


29

11. Persis under direct Seleucid control, no Persis minting. The conflict between Molon and Antiochos around 220BC was in the opinion of Müseler the start of the first and rather long break of about a century in Persis’ minting activities. Müseler argues that the economic importance of the Frataraka coinage must have been limited. The unusual large percentage of coins that are struck on other Frataraka coins, right from the beginning and the fact that none of these issues are found outside Persis indicate its purely local character. They were not meant for circulation. They were not used in interregional trade. After the Seleucids had brought Persis under direct rule in the last quarter of the 3rd century they had no reason to continue the typical Persepolitan “propaganda” coinage, the more so as they had efficient mints elsewhere in Mesopotamia and Iran. Alram who puts the starting date of Persis coinage much later (180BC) thinks that the Persis coinage was uninterrupted and that there were no breaks.

12. Rulers under Seleucid sovereignty 12.1. Vādradād II (Autophradates) (?) 2nd century BC The resumption of the Persis coining activities is set by Müseler at sometime between 190 BC (when Antiochos III was defeated by the Romans and later in 187 was killed in Elymais) and 164 BC (when Antiochos VI was killed) or even later around 162. The coins give no information for establishing the exact date. It is interesting to note that Alram, Wiesehöfer and others assume that the Persis (Fratarata) coining activities started at this late point in time and not around 280BC. The ruler who resumed minting in Persepolis between 190 BC and 164/2 BC is named Vādfradād II, although Müseler remarks that this name is by no means certain. Vādfradād II struck the last tetradrachm of Persis coinage. The images show a typological break with the Frataraka issues, although some Frataraka characteristics were continued. The post Achæmenid traditions fade away and in the words of Müseler the “neo-Persepolitan” issues gradually changed to a Parthian orientation. The most important change in this coinage is that there are no legends except on only one known drachm (Type 547A in this catalogue) with a legend that is read by Mitchiner (1978) as VaTaFRaDaT, but differently by Bivar as an Iranian transcription of Alexandros. Alram accepts Mitchiner’s reading based on typological arguments. The reading must be confirmed by new finds.


30 On the obverse the headdress of the ruler is modified, it is flatter with the neck-protection falling to the shoulder, there are neither flaps covering the ear and cheek nor under his chin. On the top stands an eagle with spread wings, which is a Hellenistic and Achæmenid royal symbol. Like on the Frataraka coinage there is a prominent diadem which is an important royal symbol. On the reverse the fire-temple of the Frataraka coins is reduced, as Müseler remarks, to a fire-altar like those on top of the fire-temple of the Frataraka coins, with the Farnah hovering above between the stepped battlements. On the standard in the right field of the reverse stands an eagle with closed wings similar as on the Vādfradād I Types 533A and 541A. The eagle symbols and the prominent diadem possibly indicate that this new ruler had a more independent position towards the Seleucids.

12.2. Unknown Kings I-X, I-Y and I-Z 2nd century BC Next follows a second group of un-inscribed types of Unknown Kings (Types 551 – 553) which have been struck by more than one ruler. It is quite possible that at the time of the resumption of the Persis coinage by Vādfradād II, other princes have also tried to fill the vacuum caused by the weakness of the Seleucid central authority in certain regions. The three types discussed here show considerable differences and I propose to attribute them to 3 different rulers and to name the first type “Unknown King I-X”, the second “Unknown King I-Y” and the third “Unknown King I-Z”. The Kings I-X and I-Y both issued drachms, hemi-drachms and obols. Only two drachms of King I-Z are known to me.

12.2.1. Unknown King I-X. The obverse bust is in high relief and is generally coarse, the beard is drawn with fat points, the eagle on top of the head is reduced to 3 vertical lines. At the back of the head a crescent is added. On the reverse the doors of the temple are simplified and reduced to two vertical lines with horizontal lines in between. Occasionally the vertical lines have become a square with cross-lines. The battlements can be stepped or reduced to curved lines. The Farnah is deep between the battlements and poorly drawn. The same is true for the praying King on the left and the eagle in the left field stands on a simple pillar.

12.2.2. Unknown King I-Y The types 551NB1, 552NB2 and 553NB3 of the Unknown King I-Y have more refined images and have a wreath in the right obverse field 2hrs. The bust shows a prominent hook nose. The beard has much finer points


31 than the Unknown King I-X. The eagle on top of the head looks again like an eagle and is joined by the crescent which is now on top of the leather helmet and not behind the head. On the reverse the fire altar has solid stepped battlements, very different from the rather sketchy battlements of the first type. The temple has again one or two doors. The Farnah is different, clear wings, a head and no body. The eagle in the right field is standing again on a tasseled standard.

12.2.3. Unknown King I-Z Two coins of this king appeared in the first decade of the 21st century. They are very different from those of VÄ dfradÄ d II, Darayan I and the other two Unknown Kings I-X and I-Y. The coins are flatter and less convex. The cheek is prominent with a thin, sunken face. The beard is pointed without the dotted hair curls. There is a large ear without a ring. The helmet has no neck-cover and no crescent on top, only 2 minor protuberances that could be remnants of the eagle. The reverse has no legend. The Fire Temple is similar to the one on Darayan I drachms (without the legend). The battlements are curved and not stepped. The praying king and the eagle on the standard are similar to the Darayan I images. They seem to have a low silver content.

12.3. Darayan I (Darius, Dareios, Darev) 2nd century BC The concept of the coinage of Darayan I is a development of that of his predecessors. The eagle on top of the head is replaced by a crescent and the crescent behind the bust has disappeared. On some obols (Type 556A) however there seems to be a crescent behind the bust. The form of the obverse has motivated me to bring these obols under Darayan I. It is however quite possible that these coins are a transitional type issued by another ruler similar to a situation mentioned above regarding the Unknown Kings. There are variations both on the obverse as on the reverse. Obverse: There are two types of the helmet: *1. A typical leather helmet smoothly falling down into a neck-piece like on the coins of his predecessors. The diadem lies on the forehead under the curled hair locks.


32 *2. A helmet of a kausia type, which lies flat on the head and the neck piece falls down from under the kausia. The diadem seems to be tied straight under the kausia. Reverse: The variations concern the Farnah, the body of the fire altar and the battlements on top of the altar. * The Farnah is developed into a figure sometimes clearly human with a helmet but on other coins it has only a sketchy likeness to a human or is even like bird looking left. The wings sprout from the bottom part of the Farnah. * The altar is reduced to a rectangular form with mostly three panels or is a rectangle within a rectangle. * The battlements on top are either stepped or reduced to two curved lines. * The eagle now stands on vertical rectangle and not on a standard.

.

Type 554a; Leather helmet

Farnah like human, wings from bottom

Type 557a; flat Kausia

Three types of battlements and temple front

Darayan I is the first Persis ruler who uses the title King (MLK’) in the legend d’ryw MLK’. The title MLK’ belongs to lesser kings and is different from the title King of Kings used by the contemporary Parthian Great King Mithradates II. The use of the title “King” indicates that Persis had apparently declared itself independent from the Seleucids in this period when the Seleucid power crumbled after the death of Antiochos IV in 164 BC.


33

12.4. Vādfradād III (Autophradates) ca. Last quarter 2nd century BC The next king is Vādfradād III. His coins have the legend wtprdt mlk = King Vādfradād, and the obverse and reverse are similar to the coins of Darayan I, be it more coarsely engraved. From a practical point of view the legend is the only differentiation between the coins of Darayan I and Vādfradād III. There are 2 series of coins with on the reverse the name Vādfradād, which have however completely different obverse images. One series has an obverse similar to the Darayan I obverse, whereas the 2nd series has on the obverse a bareheaded diademed bust similar to the bust on the coins of Mithradates II of Parthia. Alram assigns both series to one King Vādfradād III. Müseler however is of the opinion that two different kings issued these coins. See for a discussion of this question below under Vādfradād IV.

13. Persis under direct Parthian rule, no Persis minting The period of independence in which Darayan I and Vādfradād III reigned was cut short around 140, when the Parthian Mithradates II replaced the Seleucids as rulers of Susiana and Persis and ruled these kingdoms directly. In neighboring Elymais a similar break in minting happened from ca 129 BC (the presumed date of the only tetradrachm of Dareios, the last usurper of the Kamnaskirid throne) till 82 BC when Kamnaskires III (with Anzaze) resumed minting in Elymais. After Mithradates II established direct rule in Persis there was a break in the minting of Persis of at least 40 to 50 years.

14. Persis Rulers under Parthian sovereignty The Parthians followed the Seleucid policy of leaving local dynasts a large, be it varying, degree of independence such as the right of coinage. It is interesting to note that Persis rulers have only minted in silver which kept till the end of Persis’ coinage a fairly stable fineness, although the weight gradually fell over the years. This is in clear contrast to the coinage of two other Parthian vassals, Elymais and Characene that minted only copper after they came under Parthian suzerainty. Possibly the Parthian conquerors confiscated their precious metal and left them only copper to mint.


34 This different behavior of the Parthian overlords may be related to the apparently stronger urge for independence of both the Elymaean and Characenan rulers, who have fought the Greeks and Parthians in many battles and campaigns. The Persis rulers, possibly considering themselves the “heirs” of the Achæmenids, followed a less aggressive policy towards the Seleucids and Parthians, the new masters of their homeland Persia. They did not claim authority outside the Persis region and did not call themselves “Great King”. Their coins have not been found outside the Persis region. Their trade relations with neighboring regions were limited due to the geographical circumstances.

14.1.Vādfradād IV Dynasty 14.1.1. Vādfradād IV (Autophradates) Early 1st century BC The minting was resumed by a king who also called himself Vādfradād. The obverse image of this fourth Vādfradād changed dramatically (types 561 – 563). The bust covered by a kausia is replaced by a bare-headed bust with a diadem, very similar to the bust as used on coins of Mithradates II of Parthia. The 2nd change on the obverse is that the king’s bust is now shown down to the shoulder. The king wears a coat of armor, several torques and has a long beard drawn with long vertical lines instead of dots. The crescent on top of the head is the only remainder of the Vādfradād III obverse features. The reverse is similar to the coins of Vādfradād III. Although both types (560 and 561-563) have the name Vādfradād in the legend and Alram attributes both types to one king, Müseler prefers to assign them to two different kings; Vādfradād III (Type 560) and Vādfradād IV (Types 561-563), separated by several decades. Müseler opines that although the rather scarce coins of the Parthian kings Mithradates I, Phraates II and Artabanus I had the same type of headdress, the obverse of the Vādfradād IV type is based on the example of the prolific coinage of Mithradates II after his victory over the Seleucids (140BC). In this Catalogue I follow Müseler and I will identify this second king with the types 561-563 as Vādfradād IV. He issued drachms, hemi-drachms and obols. The legend is mostly corrupt, with mirrored letters. The Parthian dominance is reflected in the coinage of both Persis and Elymais as is illustrated by the coin of Kamnaskires III with his consort Anzaze.


35

Legend Darayan I ”Darayan King” (after Alram)

corrupt legend

Type 560a; Vādfradād III; 2nd half 2nd century BC, before 140BC

correct legend

Legend Vādfradād III and IV: “King Vādfradād” (after Alram)

Legend Vādfradād III (type 560)

Type 561a; Vādfradād IV; late 2nd century BC – early 1st century BC

Legend Vādfradād IV (Types 561-563)

Mithradates II drachm; Sellwood 26.2; This type is from late 2nd century BC

Elymais Type 7; Kamnaskires III & Anzaze; Leu 86 # 448; date AΛΣ (82/81 BC)

14.1.2. Darayan II (Darius, Dareios, Darev) 1st century BC The next King Darayan II was the son of a Vādfradād, who must have been Vādfradād IV. The images on the coins of Darayan II complete the break with the coins of the previous rulers and follow a clear Parthian pattern. The new king issued drachms, hemi-drachms and obols. The coins are finely engraved. Darayan II had a long reign and issued a prolific coinage with many variations. It is possible that there was a certain minting pause before Darayan II.


36 Parthia; Mithradates II Sellwood #28.6; CNG 75 # 585; 4.21 gr. 18x21 mm.; astral symbol in tiara: star. This coin is dated ca. 100BC.

Persis; Darayan II Type 564.1-2g; astral symbol in tiara: moon crescent.

The bust on the obverse now faces left and wears the Parthian high tiara introduced by Mithradates II in the last years of his reign. The Parthian coin Sellwood 28 can be seen as a “model” for the Darayan II coins. It has a star as astral symbol in the tiara. Later Parthian rulers have either a different symbol in the tiara or a different style of tiara. From this we can conclude that the Darayan II issues date from the 1st quarter of the 1st century BC. The crescent which in the previous Persis types was on top of the head has moved into the tiara. There are several variations of the tiara, with 1, 2 or 3 rows of pearls. The size of the bust can be large and heavy or slender and small. Sometimes there is a symbol in the obverse right field. Monograms or symbols on the obverse are a new feature on Persis coinage with the earlier exception of the “one-time” monogram on a Vahbarz tetradrachm. On the reverse the legend is engraved in generally clear, readable characters arranged in a square similar as on Parthian coinage. It reads: d’ryw MLK’ BRH wtprdt MLK’ = Darayan King son of Vadfadad King. The use of the title “King” MLK’ does not imply independence from their Parthian overlords. MLK’ was a title for minor Kings. The Parthian King had the title “King of Kings”. Within the four lines of the legend is a fire altar with the king standing right or less often left of the altar holding a bar, which is most probably a “barsom bundle”. The altar is based on Achæmenid examples as pictured on seals. This arrangement was continued by Ardaxšīr II and Vahšīr. The altar images have developed over the years from detailed with clear steps and fire on the altar plate to a schematic drawing. Ardaxšīr II and Vahšīr, were sons of Darayan II. Both Hill and De Morgan place Vahšīr first. Alram and Müseler however place Ardaxšīr first. Müseler’s arguments for placing Vahšīr after Ardaxšīr II are firstly the progressively barbarization of the reverse image, the corruption of the legends which tend to be less squarely arranged around the king and altar. This degeneration set in during the last years of Ardaxšīr II and continued on Vahšīr’s coins. A second argument is a silver plate with a text reading (transliteration of Skjærvø): ‘rthštr MLKA AH’yn d’rynkn BRE d’ryn MLKA št hn /ZNE YNGDWN zl KSP s-20-20-10 / whyhštr BRNYTA NPŠE.


37 “May I be a pleasure for King Ardaxšīr, our brother descendant of Darayan, son of King Darayan! This hammered (plate in) gold and silver (weighs) 50 stater (and) belongs to Prince Vahšīr.” This legend not only confirms the sequence of the kings Ardaxšīr and Vahšīr but also proves the reading of the name of the father to be Darayan instead of Darev. The clause “descendant of Darayan” refers to Darayan I. This catalogue follows the sequence proposed by Alram and Müseler.

14.1.3. Ardaxšīr II (Artaxerxes) 2nd half 1st century BC Müseler dates Ardaxšīr II in the 1st half of the 1st century BC, or even in the 2nd quarter. Alram puts him a bit later in the 2nd half of the first century. Alram’s differentiation of the Ardaxšīr II drachms, hemi-drachms and obols is based on the sequence of the reverse legends. As these are often garbled (missing or mutilated letters) or are off flan, this feature is not practical for the collector. Tyler Smith (2004) opines that a differentiation based on the coin images on the obverse is preferred. I share this opinion and I use as type numbering 570/573 (drachm); 571/574 (hemi-drachm) and 572/575 (obol). In the Catalogue sub-types are identified for these combined types based on the form of the bust: a slender bust versus a broad bust. The legend indicates that this king was a son of Darayan II and reigned in the second half of the first century BC, the time of Orodes II and Phraates IV of Parthia. Like his father he reigned for many years. He has issued two basic types and numerous subtypes. His rare first Types 568 - 569 show on the obverse a typical Parthian bust similar to that of Orodes II (Sellwood 42). The reverse type is the same as of Darayan II with the king on the right side in front of the fire altar, within the 4 lines of the legend. On Ardaxšīr II’s second types the king wears a crenellated crown which reminds of the Achæmenid turreted crown, the ”Kidaris”. It has been suggested that Ardaxšīr II deliberately used this example to emphasize his Achæmenid roots. This would have been clear arrogance towards his


38 Parthian overlords. There is no information on this or on an eventual Parthian reaction. It seems unlikely that Ardaxšīr II challenged the Parthians in view of his prolific and long lasting minting. The king wears armor or a cloak. On the obverse in the right field is mostly a symbol in many variations of a basic type, sometimes with an additional triskelis, star or star in crescent. The reverse is similar to the reverse of the first type. The King is standing right of the altar (Types 570 -575) or left of the altar on the Types 576-578. The altar comes in different forms. On the later issues the legend begins to deteriorate and tends to become less square. On the hemi-drachms and obols many letters or even words are left out due to lack of space.

14.1.4. Vahšīr (Oxathrex) 1st century BC This king was also a son of Darayan II and was the younger brother and successor of Ardaxšīr II. His bust on the obverse is typically Parthian bare headed with a diadem. Vahšīr has issued three coin types: two variations of the reverse with the king right or left of the altar and the third type with on the reverse the letter “N” or a mirrored “N”. On the Types 579 - 581 the king is standing on the right side and on Types 582 - 586 he is standing on the left side of the altar. The differentiation by Alram between 582 and 585 respectively 583 and 586 is based on the layout of the legend. These legends and the characters are often corrupted and incomplete so this distinction is for collectors very difficult. In this Catalogue I have combined the types to 582/585 and 583/586. In the right field of the obverse is frequently a symbol, less often the symbol is in left field. On the obverse the drachms have a plain rim, the hemi-drachms and the obols mostly have a dotted circle on the rim. The hair dress develops from smoothly falling curls into a wig-type coiffure with the hair dressed on rollers. This wig-type hair dress becomes standard with his son Pakor I and grandson Pakor II. On the reverse the king and altar image are generally poorly cut and degraded. The altar gradually degenerates into a cross and the king into some dashes.


39

Vahšīr

Vahšīr

Vahšīr

Unknown King II

Type 579b

Type 582c

Type 587Bb

Type 587Ca

The third Vahšīr type (587-587B) is enigmatic and comes in 2 variations. On the obverse the king has a flat tiara. The king/altar image on the reverse is replaced by a large “N” or an “N” in mirror image, around it is the “legend” which is just a number of meaningless dashes. The attribution to Vahšīir is not assured and is based on the bust on the obverse. What the “N” on the reverse stands for is not known, it could be the Aramaic character “H” or “kh” as is seen in the legend of Vahšīr coins. Hill and later Alram, following Allotte de la Fuÿe, suggest that there may have been a break in the minting activities in Persis after Vahšīr as the Parthian Gotharzes II (AD 40-51) built a bas-relief commemorating a victory at Persepolis.

14.1.5. Unknown King II 1st century BC – 1st Century AD Recently a series of coins appeared on the market that on the reverse also have ”N“ or “N” in mirror image (series 587C and 587D). Here around the “N” are not dashes but letters in an unread legend. On the obverse there is a bust in high tiara with a hair tuft in the neck. Based on the obverse and reverse images these coins can neither be attributed to Vahšīr, nor to any of the other kings who issued coins with the high tiara (Darayan II, Napad, Mančir I and II) and must be attributed to an Unknown King ruling in 1st century BC - 1st Century AD (Müseler 2008).


40

14.1.6. Pakor I (Pakur; Pacoros; Pirous) Late 1st century BC – early 1st century AD Next are two Kings with the name Pakor. Both have on the obverse a bare headed facing bust with the head turned left. One of them, Pakor I has a on the reverse a triskeles surrounded by a legend pkwr MLK’ BRH whwhštr = Pakor King son of Vahšīr. Pakor I coins have no legend on the obverse. We have already seen the triskelis as small additional symbol on issues of Darayan II, Ardaxšīr II and Vahšīr but on Pakor I coins it has a dominant place. Klose & Müseler (2008) mention that it might be a Sunsymbol related to the God Mithra. The headdresses of both Pakor I and Pakor II look like a wig with hair fashioned around rollers. Müseler compares the form of Pakor I ‘s hair with that of the Parthian kings Phraates IV (38-2BC) and Tiridates (2927BC), who have the same wig-type hair dress covering the ear. The next Parthian king Phraataces (2BC-4AD) has more natural looking hair showing the ear. The conclusion is that Pakor I was contemporary with Phraates IV and Tiridates and reigned late 1st century BC- early 1st century AD. The diadem knot is rather big on most coins.

14.1.7. Pakor II On the reverse of the second king, Pakor II is another bust. Here the legend (if on flan) reads on both the obverse and the reverse “pkwr MLK’ ” = Pakor King. The busts on the obverse and reverse are similar. The reverse is slightly concave, which is the best feature to distinguish between obverse and reverse. There is no diadem knot. The bust on the reverse is most probably of his predecessor Pakor I. The relationship between Pakor I and II is not known, they could be brothers or more likely father and son. Many of the coins of Pakor I and Pakor II have a “nimbus” type of dotted rim. Several coins have a symbol on the obverse and/or the reverse. For the first time in Persis coinage the Pakor Kings have a front facing bust, with a left looking head. This is not visible when the breast part of the coin is off flan as on most Pakor I coins. It is interesting to see the same


41 development half a century later in Parthian coinage: Vonones II (AD 51) with a completely facing bust and Vologases I (AD 51-78) with front facing bust and a head turned left and a necklace with medallion. Persis Type 592h has the same necklace. Hill, De Morgan and Müseler attribute the coins with the triskeles on the reverse to Pakor I and identify Pakor I as the son of Vahšīr because of the legend. They attribute the type with busts on both sides to Pakor II, probably the son of Pakor I. For unexplained reasons Alram has attributed the coins with busts on the obverse and reverse to Pakor I and the coins with the triskelis on the reverse to Pakor II and he identifies Vahšīr as the father of both Pakor I and Pakor II. In this Catalogue I follow the attribution of Hill, De Morgan and Müseler but I keep the type numbering of Alram, as this is generally used in trade and by collectors. Rare “maverick” types are 595A, 595B and 595C, with on the reverse an eagle with spread wings and a diadem in its beak. Coins with an eagle (a well-known symbol of royalty) are also seen on contemporary coins of Elymais (Phraates type 14.2). Hill assigns this coin to an Uncertain King (BMC 231.1). De Morgan (1923-1936 page 283) identifies this type as Pakor I, based on the bust image. Alram has ignored this type and Müseler remarks that this type can be of Pakor I, but Pakor II is also possible. There is no diadem knot on the obverse, no dotted rim and the breast is visible, both features are typical for Pakor II coins, therefore I prefer to assign them to Pakor II.

14.1.8. Nambed (Namopat) 1st century AD This king is the successor of Pakor II and son of Ardaxšīr, most probably Ardaxšīr II. Müseler established that there must have been two friendly or competing lines of the Persis ruling family (Peus Auction Catalogue 313 # 253, 1985). Ardaxšīr II was not succeeded by his son Nambed, who may have been too young, but by his younger brother Vahšīr. This king kept the throne “in the family” and was succeeded by his son Pakor I, who in turn left the throne to his son Pakor II. After that ruler vacated the throne it came to the now older Nambed. It is also possible that the two lines ruled simultaneously in different regions of Persis, either peacefully or in competition.


42 Nambed’s coins show a radical break with the images of his three predecessors. On the obverse we see the reintroduction of the crenellated crown which was used by his father Ardaxšīr II, be it that it is less refined and rather crudely engraved. The legend on the obverse reads: nmwpt MLK’ = Nambed King. On the reverse the legend is: nmwpt MLK’ BRH ‘rthštr = Nambed King son of Artaxšīr. The legend is often garbled and is not always visible. The reverse reminds of the praying king in front of the fire altar as seen on the coins of earlier dynasties. The first series shows a king praying in front of the “astral combination”, the star in a crescent. The king can be left or right of the star/crescent. The reverse king wears the same crown as the obverse king, from which we may conclude that it is Nambed himself. The image reminds of the “king in front of the altar” types of earlier Persis rulers who prayed before the Fire temple or Fire altar. One is tempted to observe that Nambed intended to emphasize his God-given right to a throne which he had been denied for decades. The star/crescent combination is a meaningful religious symbol where the moon crescent represents the MoonGod Sîn and the star is the embodiment of the Sun-God Samaš and the planet Venus. The combination of the astral symbols represents the conjunction of Venus and the Moon and is a representation of Anāhitā. It is an important Achæmenid royalty symbol. In the first millennium BC the Goddess Anāhitā/Ishtar was seen as the daughter of Sîn. She was the most important deity of the Achaemenids and the Zoroastrians. Both the crescent and the star have been used on Persis coins before, but Nambed’s coins are the first with the astral combination. On a number of coins the King is holding a barsom bundle. Like on the coins of Pakor I and Pakor II the obverse often has a “nimbus” type dotted rim. Based on the reverse image there are 4 series of Nambed coins. On the first series (Types 599-602) the full length standing king is sometimes holding a barsom bundle and is standing left of a star in a vertical crescent. He is wearing the same type of crown as on the bust on the obverse. The legend here is in a circle and no longer in a square. The second series (Types 603 – 604A) shows the king on the right side of the star/crescent. The third series (Types 605 – 607) has on the reverse a crescent with a star surrounded by a legend without the praying king. On the fourth series, of which only one obol is known, the king is bare-headed, without the crenellated crown (Type 607A).


43

14.1.9. Napad I and Napad II (Napat; Kapat) 1st century AD Next comes a group of coins which by Alram and Müseler are attributed to a King Napad who calls himself Napad King son of Nambed. The bust on the obverse is similar to the coins of his great-grandfather Darayan II with a tiara, which is somewhat lower, but has the crescent within rows of pearls. There are several variations of the hair and ear covers. There are 2 basic series. On the first Napad series the “King in front of the star/crescent image” of the reverse of Nambed’s coins is continued but the king is reduced to a bust so there is no hand to hold a barsom bundle. The reverse king wears a different headgear than the obverse king. It is probably not Napad but his father Nambed, although he does not wear the crenellated crown as seen on the Nambed coins. The reverse legend is in a circle. Napad’s second series shows on the reverse a bare-headed, diademed bust to the right or the left. The legend originally is in square form like on the coins of Darayan II, Ardaxšīr II and Vahšīr but develops into a more or less circular form. There is a large variety of types in particular of the reverse. Over the years the attribution of the coins to one King Napad has been discussed by Hill, De Morgan and recently by Tyler-Smith. Hill and De Morgan attribute the coins with bust only on the reverse (Types 612-617) to Napād (De Morgan) or Kapat (Hill). These coins, especially the early ones have a readable legend. Hill assigns the coins with the king in front of the star in crescent (Types 608-611) to an Uncertain King. De Morgan (1923-1936) assigns these types to a Prince X. Tyler-Smith (2004) remarks that the significant style differences between the coins with on the obverse the neckpiece and those with the bushy hair may be a reason to attribute them to two different kings. In this Catalogue I propose to attribute the two series to different kings, possibly from different branches of the family, reigning contemporarily in different regions of Persis. I call them Napad I and Napad II. My argument runs as follows:


44 1). The first series with Bust/Crescent/Star reverse seems to be related to one of the Nambed series. As the legend is unreadable there is no hard evidence for the name and filiation of this king, but because of the typological similarity to the Nambed coins I attribute them to a king Napad I, successor (son ?) of Nambed. 2). The second series with the “bust only” reverse has on many specimen (probably the early ones) a legend reading “Napad King, son of Nambed King”. The legend is in the beginning in a square, on later coins the legend becomes more or less circular. These coins I attribute to a king Napad II.

14.1.10. Prince Y, Prince Z and Prince X (former Unknown King II) 1st century AD The coinage of Alram’s Unknown King II has an amazingly large variety of types and variations. There are 3 basic types based of the obverse image. Müseler has attributed the three types to different Princes, following De Morgan who attributed the tiara types to Prince Y and the crenellated crown type to Prince Z. Hill (BMC) attributed the Prince Z type coins to Namopad based on the type of crown. The bare headed, diademed bust type appeared in the mid 1980’s and was unknown to De Morgan. Müseler names the issuer Prince X. On the obverse of all tree types the bust is facing left, sometimes with symbol in the left or right field. Mostly the shoulder and part of the breast is visible, infrequently however the head is large and only the neck of the king is on flan. On a rare Prince Z hemi-drachm the bust is facing right (Type 622A). The reverse has mostly two, sometimes one or rarely three diadem bands with the knot (not always visible) outside the outer diadem band. The diadem ties can be clearly or vaguely visible across the inner field, with the knot (not always visible) outside the outer diadem band. A few coins have three ties or four ties which are crossed two by two. A group of Prince Y coins has on the reverse no ties across the diadem circle and no knot. The form of diadem varies between precisely drawn (maybe early issues?) to coarse and primitive. The legend around the diadem is illegible. The Prince Y types are the most common Persis coins, Prince Z is scarce and Prince Z is rare.


45 In neighbouring Elymais King Phraates issued a bronze drachm type with diadem bands on the reverse (Type 14.4 in Catalogue of Elymaean Coinage CNG 2007). This Phraates is dated late first – early second century AD.

14.2. Vadfradad V Dynasty End 1st century AD – ca 211/211AD

14.2.1. Vādfradād V 1st century – 2nd century AD In Hill’s and De Morgan’s chronology this king was Autophradates (Vādfrādād) III; Alram ranked him Vādfrādād IV; Müseler and this Catalogue name him Vādfradād V. See Paragraphs 12.4 and 14.1.1 for the discussion on the Kings Vādfradād III and IV. On the obverse is a bust in high tiara, like Prince Y had. The reverse shows a bust with flat diademed hair. The reverse bust is generally smaller than the one on the obverse except on some obols where both busts are about the same size. The obverse-reverse bust arrangement is similar to the second Napad type. The distinction between the coins of Napad II and Vādfradād V is not easy in particular for the hemi-drachms and obols. The much shorter legend on the reverse of Vādfradād’s coins is the best clue. There are two varieties of the obverse bust: 

Hair hanging in long curls to the shoulder

Hair in a bushy ball in the neck

The legend which is the same on the obverse and reverse is nearly always corrupted. Alram has reconstructed the legend. Drachms and hemi-drachms with an obverse legend seem to be scarce. I have not seen obols with an obverse legend. No father’s name is mentioned so the identification of the reverse image is open.

14.2. 2. Mančhir I, Ardaxšīr III and Mančhir II The coinage of the kings Mančhir I, Ardaxšīr III and Mančhir II, dating from the 1st half to the mid 2nd century BC, have several similarities. The coins of Mančhir I and Mančhir II have much in common and can easily be wrongly attributed. The best differentiations are firstly the straight nose of Mančihr I and the hook nose of Mančhir II and secondly the hair on the reverse. On the Mančhir I coins it is rather flat whereas on the Mančhir


46 II coins it is quite high. These two characteristics are not foolproof as intermediate forms exist. Mančhir II coins have no rays on the reverse. The obverse shows the bust of an elderly man in high tiara (Mančhir I and Mančhir II) or with headdress of two rows of small curls (Ardaxšīr III). The bust on the reverse is beardless or has a small beard, is radiated or nonradiated. Hill and De Morgan were of the opinion that the radiation is a symbol for deification. The radiated (deified) image should therefore represent the father or predecessor(s) of the issuing king. De Morgan however does not apply this aspect consequently, when he attributes the radiated beardless image to the issuing king. Recent scholars (Pourshariati) think that deification of deceased kings was not practiced in Persis. The legends are read and interpreted differently by Hill, De Morgan and Alram. The family relations and the sequence of the three Kings as suggested by Hill and De Morgan do not fit recent research and their attribution to the three kings is outdated. In the decades since the publications of Hill and De Morgan much new material has become available. Based on the new material Alram, followed by Müseler, has attributed coins to each of the kings and has established the sequence as represented in this work. Alram reads the Ardaxšīr III obverse legend as ‘rthštry MLK’ = Ardaxšīr King and the reverse legend as: mtry MLK’ or mihr MLK’. Alram transcribes the word mtry as Mihr = “Heir to the throne”. I have doubts about this transliteration as the reverse legend on several coins clearly shows the letter “t” in the word mtry, but more importantly, I have a completely different interpretation of the reverses based on a private communication with Parvana Pourshariati (2008). The reverse images on the Mančhir I and Ardaxšīr III coins do not represent a Prince, successor nor a deified deceased predecessor. It is the image of the God Mithra with the honorary title MLK’ = King. This title has the same meaning as the phrase in the Christian iconography “Christ King or Christus Rex” which is used in several Christian convictions. It has the purport to emphasize the righteous character and power of the King who issued the coin. Showing the image of “King Mithra” on the reverse may be paraphrased as “So help me God (King Mithra)”. Mithra has several aspects. He is the God of implementation of Contracts, of Justice, who punishes those who break agreements, hence he is also the warrior God who fights on the side of the wronged. Mithra also has the “nourishing” function of providing rain for the vegetation. Next, the King who is unfaithful to his contract with his people and country, who does not provide for their welfare or who misbehaves otherwise will be punished by Mithra by causing droughts or other disasters. Finally Mithra is known as the lord of the Fire and is linked to the Sun, hence the rays above the bust on the reverse.


47 With the image of Mithra on their coins the Persis Kings may have wanted to illustrate the distance between them and their Parthian Overlords, for whom the Mithra cult was less dominant. On the coins in the table below (all illustrated in the Catalogue) I make two observations on the reverse images of Mančhir I and Ardaxšīr III. Firstly the Mančhir I reverse are non-radiated on the 627 types and radiated on the 628 types, but illustrate a same person. This portrait we also see on the Ardaxšīr III reverses, but now all radiated. My conclusion is that the reverses of both Mančhir I (including the non-radiated busts) and Ardaxšīr III show the God Mithra. Secondly, the Mančhir II reverses are different from those of the other two Kings: the legend does not mention “Mithra King” and there are no rays. The busts on the reverses depict two distinctly different portraits. The first group has a portrait of a person with a straight nose like on the coins of Mančhir I and Ardaxšīr III but with different facial features. The second group shows on the reverse a beardless bust with a hook nose similar to the bearded obverse bust. If we assume that the coins show a reasonable true portrait - which is not proven at all the reverse images show two different persons.

Mančhir I; on reverse only straight nose; radiated or non-radiated

Ardaxšīr III; on reverse only straight nose; radiated


48

Mančhir II; first group; straight nose on reverse; non-radiated

Mančhir II; second group; hook nose on reverse; non radiated

.

14.2.2.1. Mančhir I ( Mančihr; Minucétri; Minuchetri) 1st – 2nd century AD The obverse has a diademed bust with a high tiara, the reverse shows a diademed bust (radiated or non-radiated) with a flat hair dress. The bust on the obverse has a straight nose. The drachms and hemi-drachms can have an obverse legend which reads: [m]nčtr MLK’ = Mančihr King; the reverse legend is mtry [ MLK’] = Mitri King or as read by Alram Mihr = Successor. Most legends have inverted or missing letters and are difficult to read. None of the hemi-drachms which I have recorded has the word “MLK’” on the reverse. Alram opines that the person in the high tiara with the legend Mančihr is the issuer of the coins. The beardless person on the reverse, radiated with the name mihr (as read by Alram) is according to Alram a successor. This does not fit in the theory that the radiation is an indication of deification. As discussed above the title “Mithri King” refers to the God Mithra, so the God Mithra is illustrated and not a successor or a deified predecessor.


49 Hill and De Morgan attribute no coins to Mančihr I and remark that this person is only known from the reverse legends of Ardaxšīr III and Mančihr II.

14.2.2.2. Ardaxšīr III (Ardashir; Artaxerxes) 1st – 2nd century AD The obverse of this king’s coins has a diademed bust with a hair dress made up of in most cases two rows of small curls and no high tiara. Sometimes the obverse bust wears a low crenellated crown just above the diadem. The reverse has a diademed bust with a low hair dress and is always radiated. The reverse bust is mostly younger than the obverse bust and has a beard or is beardless. The obverse and reverse can have a legend or no legend. The obverse legend reads ‘rthštry MLK’ = Ardaxšīr King. The reverse legend is mtry MLK’ = Mihr = Mithra King. The reverse image represents the God Mithra with the venerable title “King” as discussed above.

14.2.2 3. Mančhir II 2nd century AD Mančhir II’s coins have on the obverse a bust in high tiara like Ardaxšīr III with the dot/crescent astral combination or a crescent only. He has a prominent hook nose. The reverse bust has a younger face as on most of the coins of the two previous kings and is not radiated. The legend on both sides reads Mančhir King. The reverse bust wears a high hair dress with vertical ribs indicating the locks and is not radiated. The reverse bust can have a hook nose or a straight nose. I found two coins (Type 635.2 a. and 637.e) with on the reverse a crenellated crown just above the diadem similar to the “crown” seen on coins of Ardaxšīr III. In view of the young face it is not likely that the reverse person is Mančhir I. The alternatives are: 1) it is the heir possibly as co-regent or 2) it is the God Mithra (but here without radiation). The two different types of nose, the different facial features and the lack of radiation do not fit the characteristics of the God Mithra image. That leaves the heir to the


50 throne as the more logical, but certainly not “proven” answer. The different noses may indicate that the “straight nose” person respectively the “hook nose” person died before his father and was followed by someone else. Why Mančhir II no longer had the image of the God Mithra on his coinage I do not know. The legends are quite readable and the weights are increasing. Both are indications of stronger social-economic position towards their Parthian overlords, who were having a difficult time. Alram catalogues a drachm and a hemi-drachm with radiation on the reverse busts. He remarks that this attribution is under discussion and doubtful. I think these coins belong to Mančhir I.

14.2.3. Unknown King III (Mihr/Mithra/Makatta ?) 2nd century AD Of this king only a few drachms and hemi-drachms are known. The obverse has a bust in a high tiara with two rows of pearls and a crescent with 1, 2 or 3 dots. In the neck is a large hair dress with 3-8 rows of curls. There is no ear cover. The portrait is similar to Mančihr I, Mančihr II (except for the nose) and Mančihr III. The reverse image is unique for Persis coinage: a standing, front facing man looking left, with a helmet and holding a sword or barsom bundle in his right hand. The left hand rests on his hip. In the left and right field is a legend. Alram has read in the left field MLK’ but on the coins he had access to, the legend was unclear. Meanwhile more coins have emerged. Müseler opines that the right hand legend may read “mk’tt’ = Makatta. Another option according to Müseler is that this ruler is the ”Mithra/Mihr” which was identified on the reverses of previous kings (but now shown as an elderly man). In line of what I have proposed about the identity of those reverse busts (God Mithra), I can not agree with Müseler’s second suggestion. The average weight of the coins of this ruler is lower than the weights of the coins of the previous and later kings as is shown below. This may be an indication that his authority was weak or that he may have been a rebel.

Comparison of average weight Unknown King III with earlier and later kings Mančhir I Ardaxšīr Mančhir II Unknown Mančhir Ardaxšīr III King III III IV Drachm Hemidrachm

2.89 gram 1.48 gram

2.63 gram 1.27 gram

3.08 gram 1.34 gram

2.06 gram 1.21 gram

3.00 gram 1.56 gram

2.22 gram 1.24 gram


51

14.2.4 Unknown King IV

1st – 2nd Century AD

Of this king only one obol is known. The obverse has a half-length facing bust with the head turned left. The king is wearing a diadem and a high tiara with one row of pearls around an upturned crescent. The reverse is remarkable with a Parthian style seated figure to the right, with a helmet (?) and one arm raised holding an uncertain object The King may be dated in the 1st -2nd century AD, before or directly after Mančhir III who is the last king wearing a high tiara with band(s) of pearls around an upturned crescent.

14.2.5. Mančhir III

2nd century AD

The bust on the obverse has the usual high tiara with the dotted crescent similar to the busts of Mančhir I and II with the Mančhir King legend behind. The tiara of the reverse bust is new. It is pointed and bending forward. Alram describes it as theriomorphic (“God image in the form of a beast “). Curtis calls it a bird or a falcon, related to the bird Veragna, the image of the Iranian War and Victory God Verethragna, the symbol of the “Farnah or Kvarrah”, the “God given Glory” which legitimizes the King’s authority. Verethragna is closely related to Mithra the God of Justice fighting on the side of aggrieved. The reverse image of Verethragna emphasizes the righteous character of the King Mančhir III in the same way as the image if Mithra was illustrating the supreme character of the previous kings. If that is the case it is not logical that the reverse bust is of the late father of the King on the obverse. On the other hand the reverse legends read Son of Mančhir King on the drachms whereas on the hemi-drachms the word Son is left out, possibly due to lack of space. This however does not necessarily mean that the reverse image illustrates the father of Mančihr III and it may well have been an image of the God Verethragna. The legends have a good readability, like those of Mančhir II. The weight is similar to the Mančhir II coins and is higher than those of the earlier Kings.

14.2.6. Mančhir IV 2nd Century AD


52 The legends on the obverse and reverse are the same as on the coins of Mančhir III. Alram knew only one drachm and catalogued it under Mančhir III. Meanwhile more drachms, hemi-drachms and an obol are recorded. Müseler proposes to assign these coins to another King Mančhir IV in view of the obverse and reverse bust images which are radically different from the Mančhir III coins. Such attribution is not proven by other arguments. Whoever the issuer was of these coins, it is certain that they are the last struck with the name Mančhir.

Types of feather crowns of Mančhir IV and Ardaxšīr IV Mančhir IV Drachm Type 646

Mančhir IV Hemi-drachm Type 646A

Ardaxšīr IV Hemi-drachm. Type 648

The obverse bust wears a feather crown in various forms. In the neck is a large “wig-type” hair dress with three or four rows of curls. There is no ear cover, the beard is broad and not ending in a point. The reverse bust wears the high tiara with one or two bands of pearls around a dotted crescent. In the neck is a wig with three or four rows of curls or the hair is falling to the shoulder in loose curls. The reverse bust beard is broad and not pointed. The reverse bust has no radiation.

14.2.7. Ardaxšīr IV Late 2nd – early 3rd Century AD The obverse image is similar to the obverse bust of Mančhir IV, it has a feather crown with two rows of small curls. The legend reads Ardashir King. The reverse bust wears a crenellated crown like the one of Nambed who reigned a century earlier. Above the crown are rays similar to those used by Mančhir I and Ardaxšīr III. The rays are sometimes off flan. In the left and right field is a legend which reads Son of Mančhir King or Ardaxšīr King. Whether the radiated bust on the reverse represents Ardaxšīr IV - the issuer - or his father or even here the God Mithra remains an open question. Five series can be identified based on the legends and the symbols on the obverse. As discussed in the Catalogue the different series may have been issued by local governors under Ardaxšīr IV.


53 The average weight of Ardaxšīr’s coins is lower than the coins of all previous kings, except the Unknown Kings III and IV. An unstable political situation with possibly freewheeling local governors and an impending conflict with the coming dynasty may have been the cause.

15. Shāpur (Pābag) Dynasty 15.1. Shāpur son of Pābag Ca 211/212 – 213 AD We now come to the last dynasty of Persis as a client state of the Parthians. Thanks to the annals of the Persian historian al-Tabari, written some 650 years later, many details of the transition from the Parthian rule to the Sasanian Empire are known. This ended the “Dark ages of Persia”, about which no written information exists. According to al-Tabari Persis was divided in several provinces ruled by vice-kings or princes. This would be in accordance with the existence of the Unknown Kings, the co-regents and local governors mentioned before. Pābag was the son of Sasan King of Kihr, a district of the province in Fars and was head of the Anahita Temple in Istakhr, the capital of Persis. Both Sasan and Pābag were vassals of the King of Istakhr, who in his turn was a vassal of the Parthians. Pābag’s younger son Ardaxšīr was commander of the garrison of Darabgird in the southeast of the country. He started with subduing petty kingdoms in the area. According to the legend Ardaxšīr instigated his father to revolt and kill the King, who according to al-Tabari was Juzhir or Gōcihrs. There are no coins in that name. Alram and Gyselen suggest that he may have been Ardaxšīr IV. The time of Pābag’s revolt is under discussion. Pābag asked his Arsacid overlord to appoint his elder son Shāpur as the new King of Persis. Historians discuss whether this was Artabanus IV or Vologasus VI. For a detailed discussion of the various suggestions I refer to Alram/Gyselen in Syllogue Numorum Sasanidarum, Volume 1 pages 135-138. Anyway, the date of Pābag’s revolt was well chosen. Parthia was unstable after the death of Vologases V in 208. Artabanus IV and his older brother Vologases VI fought for the throne and the Romans were stirring up trouble. Soon thereafter Pābag died and Shāpur was proclaimed King of Persis. His brother Ardaxšīr who had been the instigator of the revolt did not accept Shāpur on the throne and the brothers prepared to fight for it. Ardaxšīr was lucky because Shāpur died within a year, according to the legend in an accident with a collapsing building. Coins confirm the succession process. There are no coins of Pāpag.


54 Shāpur issued drachms, hemi-drachms and obols, which have on the obverse the traditional bust in high tiara with rows of pearls around a dotted crescent, ear flaps and a neck cover. The legend on the obverse has two versions: God Shāpur King or Shāpur King. The fact that Shāpur calls himself God illustrates the increased self-confidence of the new dynasty and the rebellious mood towards their Arsacid overlords. On the reverse is a bust of Pābag also in high tiara. Of the drachms two major variations of the reverse are known, one with the 5-pointed leaf-like ornament on top and the second (very rare) with a large hair ball in fabric on top of the bust. The reverse legend is Son of the God Pāpag [of the] King or just Shāpur King. The flans are wider and thinner than was usual and the weight of the coins was raised to ca. 3.5 gram, a preamble to the coming Sasanid coinage.

15.2. Ardaxšīr V son of Pābag Ca, 213-224 AD As we have seen Ardaxšīr was the driving force behind the revolt against the Persis King Juzhir (= Ardaxšīr IV ?). He did not accept his older brother Shāpur on the Persis throne. The planned fight for the throne was cut short by the sudden death of Shāpur and Ardaxšīr ascended the Persis throne with the blessing of his other brothers. He was however not satisfied with his position of a local King under Parthian sovereignty. He founded a new capital he called Ardaxšīr-khwarra (= Glory of Ardaxšīr), and close by he built a beautiful Palace-fortress and another enormous Palace. He wrote an insulting letter to the Parthian King of Kings. Altogether, his usurpation of the Persis throne, his building activities, his conquest of other local kingdoms and the insulting letter irritated and challenged his Parthian overlord Artabanus IV, who declared war. Ardaxšīr first conquered the provinces east of Persis and next turned to Media. There on 28 of April 223/224 AD he fought Artabanus on an agreed battlefield near Hormizdagan and in this deciding battle Ardaxšīr killed the Parthian King. According to al-Tabari the legend says that after the battle Ardaxšīr dismounted and trampled on the head of the last Parthian king. Ardaxšīr was immediately, on the battlefield, proclaimed King of Kings. Ardaxšīr issued silver drachms, hemi-drachms and obols and the first and only Persis copper di-chalkon (1/6th unit).


55 On the obverse is always a facing bust of the King. Alram remarks that this was a way to distance himself from his brother Shāpur and can possibly be seen as war declaration against his overlord Artabanus IV. He is wearing the high tiara with the dotted crescent used by Persis kings since Darayan II. He has a broad curly beard and left and right large curly hair tufts cropping out of the ear covers. Long hair seems to have been a sign of power and greatness. Al-Tabari tells the legend that Pābag was born with hair longer than 20 cm. The obverse legend reads The God Ardaxšīr, the King. On the reverse is the image of Pābag with the high tiara. The reverse legend is Son of the God Pābag, the King. The flans of the silver coins like those of Shāpur are thinner and larger than those of the earlier Persis kings, weighing ca. 3.50 gram, a prelude to the later Sasanid coinage. The obverse of the copper di-chalkon and the legend of the reverse are the same as on the silver coins, but the reverse image is radically different with a fire altar that reminds of the fire altars on the early Persis coins and the Achæmenid rock carvings. This type of fire altar will be continued on later Sasanian coinage. In the Syllogue Numorum Sasanidarum Volume 1 the coins of Ardaxšīr V (Persis) are catalogued as Ardaxšīr I of the Sasanids

Investiture relief Ardaxšīr V/1 at Naqsh-I Rustam by the God Azura Mazda (courtesy Alram) Under the horse of Ardaxšīr (at left) lies the fallen King of Kings Artabanus IV, under the horse of Azura Maza lies Ahriman, the personification of the Evil.


56

16. Quick reference The coins of several rulers have similarities which make quick identification difficult. The Quick reference table illustrates a variety of coins of all rulers and is organized around the most differentiating side, the obverse or the reverse. The photo’s are not to scale and are a general illustration of the type. Details of the coin to be identified will often be different. Once the basic type has been identified the reader should consult the Type in the Catalogue.

QUICK REFERENCE TABLE Reverse: King on throne

First Persis coin, possibly inauguration issue.

Baydād first reign

Types 511513A

On reverse fire temple with praying King

Obverse: bust in helmet with upturned cheek cover, chin not covered. On an obol the Fire Temple is replaced by a Standard only (513A).

Baydād second reign

Types 515517A

Obverse: bust in helmet with protruding visor, chin covered.

Ardaxšīr I

Types 520525B

Vahbarz

Types 526532A

On reverse fire temple with Farnah hovering above

Vādfradād I

Obverse bust has eagle on top.

Obverse bust; the eagle reduced to 3 vertical lines.

Types 533541C

Vādfradād I; Victory type; Nike behind praying King Vādfradād II

Types 544-545

Unknown King I-X

Types 551-553

Types 546-549


57

Reverse has praying king right or left before small altar; legend in a square of 4 lines

Before obverse bust at 2 hrs rosette.

Unknown King I-Y

Types 551NB1553NB3

Coin flat; thin sunken face; no curls in beard, no neck cover, no crescent.

Unknown King I- Z

Type 551.3NB 4

Obverse bust with crescent on top.

Darayan I

Types 554-559

Difference between Darayan I and Vādfradād is the legend.

Vādfradād III

Type 560

Obverse bust diademed Parthian type to the right

Vādfradād IV

Types 561-563

Obverse bust to left in high tiara.

Darayan II

Types 564-567

Obverse diademed bust to left, no crown, slender neck with clear torque.

Ardaxšīr II

Types 568-569

Obverse bust to left with crenellated crown, slender neck with clear torque.

Ardaxšīr II

Types 570-578

Obverse large bust to left, neck torque right under chin.

Vahšīr

Types 579-586


58 Obverse large bust to left; neck torque right under chin.

Vahšīr

Types 587587B

Obverse bust in high tiara.

Unknown King II

Types 587C587E

Reverse with triskelis turning right or left within legend

Obverse diademed bust to left with large hair tuft in neck.

Pakor I

Types 596598A

Obverse and reverse with similar bust to left, in neck wig-type hair do with 3 – 4 prominent rolls

Two types: wide large flans or thick small flans.

Pakor II

Types 588-590

Reverse with N or mirrored N with letters or dashes around

Wide large flan

Thick small flan

Types 592-595

On reverse eagle with wide sprea d wings

Obverse bust like Pakor II.

Pakor II ?

Types 595A/B/ C

Reverse: standing king left or right before Star in Crescent.

Obverse with bust in crenellated crown.

Nambed

Types 599604A


59 Types 605607A

Reverse with Star in Crescent

Reverse with bust to waist left or right before Star/Crescent

Obverse bust to left with diadem.

Napad I

Types 608611C

Reverse: diademed bust to left or right with large hair tuft in neck, legend in 4 lines in square or in circle

Obverse bust in high tiara.

Napad II

Types 612-617

Obverse bust in high tiara

Reverse with diadem in circle with or without ties crossing.

Prince Y

Types 618620.3

Obverse bust with crenellated crown

All reverses have diadem ties crossing.

Prince Z

Types 621622A

Obverse diademed bust, no tiara no crown

All reverses have diadem ties crossing.

Prince X

Types 622B. NB 1-2

Long legend with up to 19 characters: Napad II Short legend with ± 10 characters: Vādfradād V


60 Obverse: high tiara with or without legend on obverse

Similar to Napad II but reverse legend ± 10 characters.

Vādfradād V

Types 623-625

Reverse: diademed bust with flat hair dress.

Obverse bust in high tiara.

Mančhir I

Types 627628C

Obverse: diademed bust, high hair dress 23 rows. Sometimes crenellated crown directly above diadem.

Reverse: smaller radiated, diademed bust with lower hair dress.

Ardaxšīr III

Types 629633D

Reverse: diademed bust with high hair dress in 2-3 rows, hook nose or straight nose.

Obverse bust in high tiara.

Mančhir II

Types 634638C

Reverse Standing man, legend left and right

Obverse Bust in high tiara.

Unknown King III

Types 641641A


61 Reverse: Parthian type seated figure

Obverse half length facing king looking left.

Unknown Type 641B King IV

Reverse bust in tiara with forward bent top

Obverse bust in high tiara.

Mančhir III

Types 642-645

Reverse bust in high tiara.

Mančhir IV

Type 646646B

Reverse bust in crenellated crown.

Ardaxšīr IV

Types 647652A

Obverse bust with high tiara.

Shāpur

Types 653-656

AR drachm

AR drachm with on obverse facing and on reverse profile bust to left

Ardaxšīr V

Types 657-659

Persis’ only Æ coin has Fire temple reverse.

Obverse facing bust with large hair tufts left and right

A unique Mančhir III coin (645) has a reverse in Parthian Tetradrachm style.

Obverse bust with feather crown

Reverse crown has different forms

Type 660


61

Part Two Catalogue

61


62

Baydād (Bagadad) Early 3rd century BC

Baydād was the first Persis ruler who issued coins. Two types are known with issues of tetradrachms, drachms, hemi-drachms and obols. They are all extremely rare. As is discussed in Part One Baydād’s reign was cut in two. The types 511-513 were struck during his first reign and the types 515-517 were issued in his second reign First reign The first type (511-513) may have been an installation or coronation issue. On the obverse is the head of Baydād with a traditional headdress (kyrbasia) with upturned cheek covers, a diadem and an earring. He has a short beard and a moustache. On the reverse the he is wearing the same type of headdress and is seated on a throne This type was most probably minted in Persepolis. The king holds a lily sceptre and a lotus flower (cup) on his knees. A ceremonial standard (Labarum) stands in the left field. Left, right and in the exergue is a legend reading outward in Aramaic characters. Second reign On the second type the obverse is similar but the reverse shows a turreted Fire Temple of Azura-Mazda with paneled doors. In the left field stands Baydād praying and in the right field is a labarum. On the type 517A coins the praying ruler is missing and Type 513A has on the reverse the standard only. This illustrates the importance of the standard which symbolizes the ruler and his authority. As none of the known tetradrachms show significant wear they may not have been intended for circulation, but were issued as presentation pieces to celebrate the newly achieved greater independence. This is less clear for the drachms, hemi-drachms and obols.

Reverse legend

After Alram Bgdt / prtrk’zy / ‘lhy’/ br [bgwrt] = Baydād / Frataraka of the Gods / Son [of Bagawart] Alram identifies 6 variations of the legend. As the legends are often poorly engraved or corrupted, with missing letters the variations are constructed with the help of several specimen. Differentiation of individual coins is difficult for most numismatists and collectors. Therefore the types 511 and 514 as well as the types 515, 518 and 519 are jointly catalogued.


63 Coin 515/519g. is a Baydād coin over-struck on a coin of another Frataraka ruler wearing a kyrbasia with a protruding visor. As discussed in Part One, 10.1 This surprising coin has consequences for the relative chronology of the Frataraka rulers. Klose and Müseler (2008) opine that the under-type is an Ardaxšīr I coin. This places the Ardaxšīr I type between the first (Type 511) and the second (Type 515) Baydād series. Baydād and Ardaxšīr were apparently contemporary and may have belonged to different families competing for the Persis throne and using minting coins as a propaganda tool.

Baydād First reign Type 511/514 tetradrachm; reverse king on throne a. 16.41 gr. 26 mm.

b. 16.98 gr. 31 mm.

c. 16.81 gr. 32x34 mm.

d. 16.96 gr. 29 mm.; over-struck on a fresh Seleucid Alexander type; in the obverse left field hair of under-type; in reverse right field margin rest of an under-type.

e. 16.58 gr. 24 mm.

f. 16.34 gr. 28 mm.

g. 16.86 gr. 31 mm.


64

Bayd훮d Type 512 drachm; reverse king on throne a. 4.08 gr. 18 mm.

b. 3.86 gr. 17 mm.

Type 513 hemi drachm; reverse king on throne a. 1.97 gr. 14 mm.

b. 1.94 gr. 15 mm.

Type 513A obol; reverse with standard only a. 0.30 gr. 8 mm.; this coin

can belong to the 1st Bayd훮d series or to the 2nd. .

b. 0.30 gr. 8 mm.; similar to coin a.

Bayd훮d Second reign Type 515/519 tetradrachm; reverse fire temple a. 14.76 gr.; over-struck on another Bayd훮d (?) coin or a Frataraka coin.

b. 16.85 gr. 29 mm.; 5 lines of legend and a letter above reverse King.

c. 15.62 gr. 29 mm.


65

Baydād d. 16.89 gr. 24x28 mm.

e. 26 mm.

f. 16.78 gr. 28 mm.

g. 15.96 gr. 29 mm.; this coin is over-

h. 16.28 gr. 26x28 mm.; 2 characters between King and Fire altar.

i. 17.00 gr. 32 mm.; overstruck on uncertain Alexander III.

struck on a coin with a Frataraka helmet of the later period (Ardaxšīr).

j. 16.99 gr. 29 mm.; over-struck,

k. 16.86 gr. 30 mm.

Alexander’s lion skin visible; 2 characters between King and Fire altar.

Type 516 Drachm ; reverse fire temple a. 3.11 gr. 19 mm.


66

BaydÄ d Type 517 hemi drachm; reverse fire temple a.; 2.09 gr. 14 mm.

b. 1.99 gr. 14 mm.; reverse is over struck on another BaydÄ d hemi-drachm (513?).

c. 11x 12 mm.

Type 517A obol; reverse fire temple; no praying king a. 0.68 gr. 9 mm.; the reverse is a-typical as the standard is in the left field.

b. 0.69 gr. 11 mm.; the standard is on the right side.

c. 0.60 gr. 10 mm.; the standard is on the right side.

d. 2.09 gr. 13x14 mm.


67

Ardaxšīr I (Artaxerxes I) 3rd century BC

Ardxšīr I introduced the leather satrap helmet on the obverse. This was followed by the next 2 Frataraka rulers. The reverse is similar to that of the 2nd type of Baydād: a fire temple with a standard in the right and the praying king in the left field. A new feature is the word prs (= Persis) in the right field between the standard and the temple on tetradrachms Types 520.1 and 520.2 and drachms 521.1. A unique drachm (Type 521A) has the word prs in the obverse right field. This is the only known Frataraka coin with a legend on the obverse. The word prs became a standard feature on most of the coins of his successor Vahbarz A letter between the praying ruler and the temple is another feature introduced on certain Ardaxšīr coins (Types 520.2 and 521.1) which also became standard on Vahšīr coinage (except on Types 531/532). Obverse dies of Ardaxšīr have been used by Vahbarz as Alram discovered. This is meanwhile confirmed by several examples. It means that the bust images are no personal portraits. Examples of obverse die-identity between Ardaxæīr I and Vahbarz: Ardaxšīr Type 520a.

→ Vahbarz Type 526Aa.

Ardaxšīr Type 520.1.b. Alram Tafel 17

→ Vahbarz Type 526: Alram Tafel 17

Ardaxšīr Type 520.2.b

→ Vahbarz Type 526/530.c. (die crack at 4 hrs)

Type 525A is an enigmatic coin which the CNG cataloguer has attributed to Wadashri or possibly to Ardaxšīr. The legend is unclear. A single obol has (Type 525B) has on the reverse no King in the left field and no standard in the right field. The attribution to Ardaxšīr based on the legend is uncertain, it also might be a Vahbarz coin.

Reverse legend (after Alram)

‘rthštr(y )/ prtrk’ / zy/ ‘lhy’ /br/ prs =Ardaxšīr / The Frataraka of the Gods / Son of Persis Alram distinguishes the types 521, 522 and 523 on the basis of the lay-out of the legends. As these are nearly always corrupted with letters or words left out, mirrored or retrograde it is not a practical criterion for the collector and numismatist with no access to a large number of specimen. In this catalogue these three Types are combined.


68

ArdaxĹĄÄŤr I Type 520 tetradrachm; no legend in reverse right field a. 16.88 gr. 24 mm. obverse is die-

b. 17.07gr. 25 mm.; obverse is die-

c. 16.42 gr. 28 mm. name in left field

identical with 520.b. and Vahbarz 526A.a.

identical with 520.a. and with Vahbarz 526A.a ; name in reverse left field reading inwards bottom-up.

reading down, outwards.

d. 16.98 gr. 26 mm.

Type 520.1 tetradrachm; variation with prs between standard and temple a. 16.94 gr, 26 mm.; name in left field reading down.

b. 27 mm. This coin, Alram Tafel 17 # 520, has a die-identical obverse with Alram Tafel 17 # 526.

c. 16.98 gr. 30 mm.

Type 520.2 tetradrachm; variation with letter before praying King; prs between standard and temple a. 16.14 gr. 26 mm.

b. 16.90 gr. 25 mm.; obverse dieidentical with Vahbarz 526/530.c. die crack at 4 hrs.


69

ArdaxĹĄÄŤr I Types 521/522/523/524 drachm; no legend in right field reverse a. 4.22 gr.

b. 4.10 gr. 16 mm.

c. 4.13 gr. 15 mm

d. 4.11 gr. 15 mm.; letters retrograde, some inverted

e. 4.18 gr. 15x16 mm.

f. 4.17 gr. 18 mm.

g. 4.24 gr.

h. 4.26 gr. 16 mm.

i. 4.22 gr.

j. 4.12 gr.17 mm.

k. 4.13 gr. 12 mm.

l. 3.99 gr. 17 mm.

m. 4.11 gr.

n. 3.84 gr. 15 mm.

o. 4.14 gr. 15 mm

Type 521.1 drachm; variation with letter before praying King and prs between standard and temple a. 15 mm.

b. 2.81 gr. 18 mm.

Type 521A drachm; prs in obverse right field a. 4.10 gr. 13x16 mm.; legend reads: prs = Persis.


70

Ardaxšīr I Type 525 hemi-drachm; no legend in right field reverse a. 1.93 gr.

b.; 2.03 gr. 13 mm.

Type 525A Ardaxšīr I or Wadashri; drachm; name ruler uncertain, legend on right, bottom and left side is unclear a. 3.91 gr. 17 mm.

Type 525B obol; reverse legend in exergue and left field; no king and standard left and right a. 0.60 gr


71

Vahbarz (Oborzos) 3rd century BC

The coinage of Vahbarz is similar to that of Ardaxšir I except for the name whwbrz (Vahbarz). As the legends are often garbled, letters and even words can be left out, it is not always easy to identify the coins of Arsaxšir I and Vahbarz. The significantly shorter legend in the reverse left field (the name of the ruler) can be a good indication for Vahbarz coins. Alram has constructed two variations of the legend. For those who have no access to a large number of coins it is very difficult or even impossible to differentiate between the Types 526 and 530 respectively Type 527 and 531, the more so because several variations exist: coins with or without letters between the standard and the altar. In this catalogue these coins are given the type numbers 526/530 and 527/531 As mentioned above in the discussion of the Ardaxšir I coinage, most Vahbarz coins have the word prs (Persis) in the reverse right field between the standard and the temple. The letter (or letters) right of the praying king is a second feature that started on Ardaxšir coins and has become practically standard on Vahbarz coinage. There is reason to believe that Vahbarz’ relation with his overlords was strained. The legend on Type 526A reads whwbrz krny which means “Vahbarz = Commander in Chief”. The missing standard (which is the royal symbol) may also be a sign that Vahbarz dissociates himself from his Seleucid masters. The enigmatic “Sacrifice coins” (Type 532A) which also carry the word krny could be explained in the same way. Coins can be concave. As is discussed under the Ardaxšīr I, Vahbarz used Ardaxšīr I obverse dies for some tetradrachms.

Reverse legend

After Alram whwbrz / prtk’ zy / ‘lhy’ / br / prs = Vahbarz, the Frataraka of the Gods, Son of Persis


72

Vahbarz Type 526/530 tetradrachm; prs between standard and temple a. 16.88 gr.; die crack at 4 h.; dieidentity with 526/530.b.; 526/530.c. 526/530.f. and Ardaxšīr I 520.2.b

b. 16.70 gr. 28x31 mm.; die crack at 4 h.; obverse die identical with 526/530. a.; 526/530.c; 526/530.f. and Ardxšīr I 520.2. b.

c. 16.87 gr. 27 mm.; obverse is struck with an Ardašīr I die Type 520.2.b.; die crack at 4 h. same as on coins a. b, and f,

d.; 16.89gr. 28x30 mm.

e.; 16.58 gr. 27x29 mm.

f. 16.78 gr. 27 mm; die crack at 4 h.; obverse die identical with 3 other coins in this table.

g. 17.02 gr.

h. 16.88 gr. 27 mm.

i.

j. 16.95 gr. 30 mm.

k. 15.45 gr. 28 mm.

l. 24x31 mm.

m. 16.66 gr.

n. 16.57 gr. 31 mm.

o. 16.52 gr.; legend completely

16.75 gr.

readable.


73

Vahbarz p. 16.95 gr. 31 mm.

q. 15.95 gr 27 mm.; .; legend completely readable.

Type 526A tetradrachm; no standard in reverse right field a. 17.09 gr. 25 mm.; the obverse is die- b. 17.0 gr. 25 mm.; deep test cut. identical with coin Ardaxšīr I: 520.a. and 520.b.; the legend reads “Vahbarz, the karanos”; no letter between king and temple, in exergue of reverse a Greek monogram.

Type 527/531 drachm; prs between standard and temple a.

3.85 gr. 17 mm.; reverse over-struck or double struck

b. 4.30 gr. 18 mm.; struck from worn obverse die.

Type 528 hemi-drachm a. 1.95 gr.

b. 1.97 gr.

c. 2.03 gr. 14 mm.


74

Vahbarz Type 529 obol; fire temple reverse a. 0.6 gr. 10 mm.

b; 0.66 gr. 10 mm.

c. 0.72 gr. 10 mm.

Type 529A obol; standard only on reverse a. 0.27 gr. 8 mm.; concave; as there is no legend the coin can also be from Ardashir I.

Type 531A drachm; no legend in reverse right field a. 4.12 gr. 20 mm.

b. 4.00 gr. 17 mm.

c. 4.14 gr. 15 mm.

Type 532 drachm; no standard in right field obverse a. CNG 3.58 gr. 15 mm.


75

Vahbarz Type 532A drachm; sacrifice type a. 4.24 gr. 18 mm.

b. weight ?; 18 mm.


76

Vādfradād I (Autophradates) 3rd century BC

The obverse of Vādfradād I coins is similar to that of Ardaxšīr and Vahbarz. However he introduced two changes to the traditional Frataraka reverse images. Between the praying King and the temple there often is a double convex bow. This type of bow was used by the Acheamenid army and was a royal symbol. The other change is that above the fire temple flies a winged sun with the upper part of a man wearing a crenellated crown and holding a diadem. This is the personification of the “Khvarra” or “Farnah” (Guardian spirit) of his famous predecessors. See Part One, 6.7 for further discussion. On types 540 and 542 the bow between the king and the altar is replaced by two characters. In 2006 the tetradrachm of Type 540A with a 5-line legend appeared on the market. The legend has not been understood, one word is un-deciphered and the title Frataraka is mentioned twice. To make room for the legend, the bow between the ruler and the altar is left out. Types 533A and 541A have an eagle on top of the standard in the reverse right field. The eagle (in the Avesta: “Veragana”) has an important role in the Iranian royal symbolism, it is the personification of the “Farnah”, the God-given Glory giving the legitimation to the ruler. The eagle is seen on many Persis coins, the last time as the eagle head tiara of Mančihr III. The tetradrachm and a drachm 544 and 545 show a purely Hellenistic element: Nike holding a wreath over the head of Vādfradād. Shabazi (1980) and Curtis opines that the “Nike” figure is in fact a form of Farnah. The image of the fire temple is considerably simplified. To create space for Nike the temple is narrower, the doors are less detailed and without a dented frieze above. The three fire altars on top are replaced by two dented or undented battlements. The coin is rather crude compared with previous Frataraka issues and could have been made under uncomfortable circumstances

Reverse legend (after Alram)

Wtprdt / prtrk’ zy / ‘lhy’ / br

= Vādfradād, the Frataraka of the Gods, Son

Alram has identified five different legend lay-outs which he uses to distinguish between the types. As the legends are nearly always corrupted with letters or words left out, mirrored or retrograde it is not a practical criterion for numismatists. Therefore in this catalogue the following types are combined: tetradrachms 533/535/538 and 540/542; drachms 534/536/539 and 541/543.


77 Contrary to Ardaxšīr I and Vahbarz, the word “prs (Persis)" is no longer mentioned the legend. Coins can be strongly concave. The tetradrachms are mostly over struck on Alexander tetradrachms.

Type 533/535/538 tetradrachm; bow before the praying king a. 16.62 gr. 28x29 mm.

b. 16.13 gr. 34 mm.

c. 16.75 gr. 30 mm.; clearly over-struck on coin of same type; on reverse standard of under-type in margin.

d. 16.4 gr. 31 mm.

e. Weight and size?

f. 16.76 gr. 30 mm.; concave.

g. 16.52 gr 30x33 mm.; overstruck on Alexander Tetradrachm.

h. 16.5 gr.

i. 16.43 gr

j. 16.36 gr. 29x 31 mm.; overstruck.

k. 16.77 gr. 30 mm.;

overstruck on Seleukos I Victory coin; see page 19 of Part One.


78

VÄ dfradÄ d I Type 533A tetradrachm; eagle on standard; bow before praying king a. 16.63 gr. 28 mm.

Type 534/536/539 drachm; bow before praying king a. 3.93 gr. 18 mm.

Type 537 hemi-drachm; bow before praying king a. 2.10 gr. 17 mm.; reverse

b. 1.86 gr. 14 mm.; concave.

double struck.

Type 537A obol; bow before praying king a. 0.66 gr. 9 mm.


79

VÄ dfradÄ d I Type 540/542 tetradrachm; no bow before king on reverse; with or without characters between king and altar a. 16.31 gr. 30 mm.; characters

b. 16.53 gr. 30 mm.; struck over Philip

between king and altar.

III coin, undertype visible on obverse.

d. 16.16 gr. 32 mm.; over-struck on

e. 16.45 gr. 30 mm.

f. 16.43 gr. 31 mm.

h. 16.45 gr. 28 mm.

i. 16.35gr. 30 mm.

c.; 16.33 gr. 30 mm.

Baydad coin; obverse left field at 9-12 hrs, leather helmet and face.

g. 16.59 gr. 27x28 mm.; overstruck on Alexander or Philip III coin.

j. 16.35gr. 30 mm.


80

VÄ dfradÄ d I Type 540A tetradrachm; 5-line legend;; no bow before praying king a. 16.02 gr. 27 mm.

Type 541/543 drachm; no bow before king on reverse a. 4.07 gr. 18 mm.

b. 4.10 gr. 19 mm.

c. 3.96 gr. 20 mm.

Type 541A drachm; eagle on standard; no bow before praying king a. 3.84 gr. 18 mm.

b. 3.84 gr. 18 mm.

Type 541B hemi-drachm; no bow before king on reverse a. 1.92 gr. 15x16 mm.;

b. 1.63 gr. 15 mm.;

legend in right and lower field; very concave.

indistinct legend in outer right and left; under-type visible on obverse


81

Vādfradād I Type 541C obol; no bow before king on reverse a. 0.66 gr. 9 mm.

b. 0.72 gr. 10 mm.

c. 0.46 gr. 10 mm.

Type 544 “Victory” tetradrachm a. 30 mm.; obverse struck over similar

b. 26x29 mm.

coin.

d. 16.42 gr. 28 mm.

Type 545 “Victory” drachm a. 4.21 gr. 19 mm.; overstruck; concave

c. 16.83 gr. 29x32 mm.


82

Vādfradād II (Autophradates) 2nd century BC

After a period of direct Seleucid rule (220-190/164) a new dynasty came to power in Persis which minted obols, hemi-drachms, drachms and the last Persis tetradrachm. The images show a typological break with the Frataraka issues, although some Frataraka characteristics were continued. An important difference with the Frataraka coinage is that there is no legend, except on one drachm Type 547A. It was read by Mitchiner as wtprdt (Vādfradād ) and by Bivar as šykndt (possibly an Iranian transcription of Alexandros). Alram has accepted Mitchiner’s reading which is by no means certain and named this ruler Vādfradād II. This is followed in this catalogue. On the obverse the headdress of the ruler is no longer like the Achæmenid satrapal leather helmet, it is flatter with neck-protection falling to the shoulder, no flaps covering the ear and cheek nor under his chin. On the top stands an eagle with widespread wings, which is a Hellenistic and Acheamenid royal symbol. Like on the Frataraka coinage there is a prominent diadem which is important as royal symbol. The reverse, similar to the Vādfradād I coins has the Fire temple with the Farnah hovering between the stepped battlements. In the left field is the praying King. The obols have no Farnah on the reverse. On the standard in the right field of the reverse stands an eagle with closed wings similar as on the Vādfradād I Types 533A and 541A.

Type 546 tetradrachm a.; 16.50 gr. 24 mm.

b. 16.29 gr.26 mm.

Type 547 drachm a. 4.1 gr. 15 mm.

b. 4.1 gr. 17 mm.

c. 4.21 gr. 15 mm.

d. 4.03 gr. 15 mm.


83

VÄ dfradÄ d II e. 3.99 gr. 15 mm.

f. 4.14 gr. 14x16 mm.

g. 3.95 gr. 15x16 mm.

i. 4.14 gr. 17x19 mm.

j. 4.08 gr. 14 mm.

k. 3.99gr. 17 mm.

h. 3.78 gr.

Type 547A drachm; legend on reverse a. ca 4 gr. 18 mm.

b. 4.23 gr. 15 mm.; traces of legend to inner right and outer left

Type 548 hemi drachm a. 2.12 gr. 13 mm.

1.90 gr.12 mm.

b. 1.95 gr. 12x13 mm.

c. 1.89 gr.; very fine eagle on top.

d. 2.12 gr. 13 mm.


84

VÄ dfradÄ d II Type 549 obol; no farnah on reverse; eagle on standard a. 0.49 gr. 7 mm.

b. 0.61 gr. 10 mm.

c. 0.72 gr. 9 mm.

d. 0.61 gr. 10 mm.

Type 549A obol; no farnah on reverse; no eagle on standard a. 0.72 gr. 10 mm.; no eagle on standard (?).

b. 0.73 gr. 9 mm.


85

Unknown King I-X, Unknown King I-Y and Unknown King I-Z 2nd century BC

The types discussed here have considerable differences and I propose to attribute them to three different rulers. These rulers may have been contemporary with Vādfradād II, each ruling in certain region, filling a power vacuum caused by the deteriorated authority of the Seleucids.

Unknown King I-X. The obverse bust is in high relief and generally coarse, the beard is drawn with fat points, the eagle on top of the head is reduced to three vertical lines. At the back of the head is a crescent. On the reverse the temple doors are reduced to two vertical lines with horizontal lines in between, which are frequently missing. The battlements can be stepped or curved lines. The Farnah is deep between the battlements and poorly drawn. The eagle sits on a standard, that is often reduced to a rectangle or a simple one-line pillar. On most coins the king is on the left and the eagle on the right side. The reverse is often strongly concave and not easy to photograph. Die-axes: ↑↑; ↑↓; ↑→; irregular.

Unknown King I-Y The types 551NB, 552NB and 553NB of the Unknown King I-Y have more refined images and have a rosette in the right obverse field. The bust shows a prominent hooked nose. The beard has much finer points than on the Unknown King I-X coins. The eagle on top of the head looks again like an eagle and is joined by the crescent which is now on top of the leather helmet and not behind the head. On the reverse the fire altar has solid stepped battlements. The temple has again one or two doors. The Farnah is different with clear wings, a head and no body. The eagle in the right field is standing again on a tasseled standard. The coins of Unknown King I-Y appeared on the market in 1985.

Unknown King I-Z This king is known from two drachms, one comes from an old collection and the second was sold in the Künker auction 158 (2009). The obverse head is very different from Vādfradād II, Darayan I and the other 2 Unknown Kings I-X and I-Y. The coins are flatter and less convex. The cheek is prominent with a thin, sunken face. The beard is pointed without the dotted hair curls. There is a large ear without a ring. The helmet has no neck-cover and no crescent on top, only two minor protuberances that could be remnants of the eagle. The reverse has no legend. The Fire Temple is similar to the one on Darayan I drachms (without the legend). The battlements are curved and not stepped. The silver seems to be debased.


86

Unknown King I-X Type 551.1 drachm a. 4.0 gr. 15 mm.

b. 4.2 gr. 15x17 mm.

c. 3.33 gr. 16 mm.

d. 4.18 gr. 15 mm.

e. 3.40 gr.15 mm.

f. 4.10 gr. 17 mm.

g. 3.97 gr. 17 mm.

h. 4.07 gr. 14 mm.

i. 4.13 gr. 16 mm.

j. 4.05 gr.

k. 3.84 gr. 15 mm.

l. 4.0 gr. 16 mm.

m. 4.24 gr. 15 mm.

n.; 3.58 gr. 20 mm.

o. 4.12 gr

p. 4.20 gr.

q. 3.94 gr.

r. 3.44 gr. 15x16 mm.

s. 4.15 gr.

t. 4.18 gr. 14x16 mm.


87

Unknown King I - X u. 4.08 gr. 17 mm

v. 4.10 gr. 16 mm.

w. 3.77 gr. 18 mm.

x. 4.28gr.; King on right and eagle on left side.

c. 2.02 gr. 12 mm.

d. 1.87 gr. 14 mm.; obverse die-identity with coin f.

g. 1.96 gr.

h. 2.00 gr. 12x13 mm.

y. 136; 3.61 gr.

Type 551.2 fourrĂŠĂŠ drachm a. 4.08 gr 16 mm.

Type 552 hemi-drachm a. 2.0 gr. 13 mm.

b. 2.01 gr. 12 mm.; Standard/eagle off flan(?)

e. 1.94 gr. 13 mm.

f. 1.95 gr. 11mm.


88

Unknown King I - X j. 1.91 gr. 12 mm.

k. 2.12 gr. 13 mm.

a. 0.64 gr.

b. 0.6 gr. 8x9 mm.

c. 0.8 gr. 9 mm.

d. 0.67 gr.

e. 0.63 gr. 8 mm.

f. 0.70 gr. 9x10 mm.

g. 0.76 gr. 9 mm.

h. 0.67 gr. 6 mm.

i. 0.74 gr.

j. 0.66 gr. 8x9 mm.

k. 0.71 gr. 9 mm.

l. 0.62 gr. 8 mm.; no

i. The form of the altar doors is like on later Darayan I coins

Type 553 obol

crescent behind head


89

Unknown King I-Y Type 551 NB1 drachm; rosette before bust a. 4.1 gr. 16 mm.

b. 3.70 gr. 16 mm.

c. 3.93 gr. 14 mm.

d. 4.10 gr. 17 mm.

e. 3.75 gr.

f. 3.88 gr.

g. 3.85 gr. 17 mm.

h. 4.13 gr. 16 mm.

Type 552 NB 2 hemi-drachm; rosette before bust a. 1.74 gr.

Type 553 NB3 obol; rosette before bust a. 0.56 gr. 9 mm.

b. 0.64 gr. 11 mm.


90

Unknown King I-Z Type 551.3 NB4 I-Z; drachm; thin sunken face; no crescent on top and behind the head a. 3.53 gr. 18 mm.

b. 4.18 gr. 17 mm.; obverse and reverse may be overstruck.


91

Darayan I (Dareios, Darev, Darius) 2nd century BC

The coinage of Darayan I is a development of that of his predecessors. The eagle on top of the head disappeared and the crescent moved to the top of the head dress. Obverse: There are two types of the helmet: *1. The typical leather helmet is smoothly falling down into a neck-piece like on the coins of earlier kings. The diadem lies on the forehead under the curled hair locks. *2. The helmet is of a kausia type, which lies flat on the head and the neck piece falls down from under the kausia. The diadem seems to be tied straight under the kausia. On some obols (Type 556A) there seems to be a crescent behind the bust. The form of the reverse has motivated me to catalogue this Type under Darayan I Reverse: There are variations in the Farnah, the body of the fire altar and the battlements on top of the altar. * The Farnah is sometimes clearly human with a helmet but on other coins the likeness is sketchy or is like bird looking left. The wings sprout from the bottom part of the Farnah. * The altar is reduced to a rectangular form with mostly three panels or as a rectangle within a rectangle. * The battlements on top are either stepped or two curved lines. * The eagle stands not on a standard but on a vertical rectangle or on a simple one-line pillar

Darayan I reverse legend (After Alram) d’ry’ MLK’ (Darayan King)

Corrupt legend

D’ryw MLK’ (Darayan King)

Correct legend

The legend is nearly always corrupt and never complete. The name of the ruler is probably written as d’ry’. New is the tile MLK’ = “minor” King. Alram mentions a possible filiation after MLK’. Coin Type 554b, has the corrupt form of the legend engraved twice, above each other. Certain hemi-drachms have no legend on the reverse.


92

Darayan I Altar types Darayan I Type I

Type II

Type III

Type IV

Type V

Types 554, 555 and 556, the types with the obverse head dress falling to the shoulder, have altar type I, occasionally type II Type 556A, obols with obverse head dress falling to shoulder, have altar type I Type 557, drachms with the kausia head dress, generally have altar type II, sometimes type III Type 558, hemi-drachms with the kausia head dress, have altar type II or III, occasionally type IV Type 559, obols with the kausia head dress have altar types I, II and V I expect that other altar type combinations will emerge in the future. Die-axes: ↑↑; ↑↓; ↑→; irregular.

Type 554 drachm; head dress falling to shoulder a. 4.33 gr. 17 mm; altar

b. 4.08 gr.; altar type I; the

type I.

“corrupt” legend, starting at 3 hrs is engraved in 2 rows above each other.

e. 4.03 gr. 15x17 mm.; altar type I.

f. 4.21 gr. 16 mm.; altar type I.

c. 4.00 gr. 14 mm.; altar type I.

g. 4.15 gr. 18 mm.; altar type II (?)

d. 4.17 gr.16 mm.; altar type I.


93

Darayan I Type 555 hemi-drachm; head dress falling to shoulder; legend or no legend on reverse a. 1.90 gr. 12 mm.;

b. 1.85 gr.14 mm.;

altar type I.

altar type II.

e. 1.96 gr. 12 mm.; altar type I.

f. 2.01 gr. 12 mm.;

c. 1.99 gr.; altar type I.

d. 2.07 gr. 12x13 mm.; altar type I.

altar type I

Type 556 obol; head dress falling to shoulder a. 0.64 gr. 8 mm.; very clear “Farnah�.

Type 556A obol; head dress falling to shoulder; crescent on top and behind head; altar type I a. 0.7 gr. 8 mm.

b. 0.70 gr.

c. 0.67 gr.

8 mm.

.


94

Darayan I Type 557 drachm; flat “kausia type” head dress; altar type II a. 4.19 gr. 20 mm.

b. 3.59 gr.

c. 4.00 gr.

d. 18x19 mm.

e. 3.66 gr. 19 mm

f. 4.03 gr. 18 mm.

g. 4.02 gr.

h. 3.60 gr, 17 mm.

i. 3.98 gr.

j. 4.0 gr. 16x18 mm.

k. 4.04 gr.

l. 4.15 g. 18 mm.

m. 3.51 gr. 18 mm.

o. 4.09 gr. 19 mm.

Type 558 hemi-drachm; flat “kausia type” head dress a. 1.81 gr. 13 mm.;

b. 1.97 gr. 13 mm.;

altar type II.

altar type III.

c. 2.00 gr. 13 mm.; altar type II.

d. 1.98 gr. 14 mm.; altar type II.


95

Darayan I e. 2.00 gr. 13 mm.;

f. 1.81 gr.; altar type III.

g. 1.97 gr. 13 mm.;

h. 1.67 gr. 13 mm.;

altar type III.

altar type III.

i. 1.75 gr. 12x14 mm.; altar type II.

j. 1.63 gr. 13x15 mm.; altar type II.

k. 1.97 gr.; altar type I.

l. 2.04 gr. 15 mm.; altar type III.

m. 1.92 gr. 13 mm.; altar type II.

n. 2.07 gr. 13 mm.;

o. 2.07 gr. 14 mm.

obverse overstruck, under nose standard of reverse image; altar type IV.

altar type II.

Type 559 obol; flat “kausia type� head dress a. 0.59 gr. 9x10 mm.;

b. 0.94 gr.

altar type V.

9x10 mm.; altar type II.

e. 0.75 gr. 9 mm.;

f. 0.67 gr. 9 mm.; altar

altar type IV.

type V

c. 0.74 gr. 9 mm.; altar type V.

d. 0.58 gr. 9 mm.; altar type I.


96

Vādfradād III (Autophradates) Ca. 100 BC Of this king only drachms of Type 560 have been identified. The type is similar to the Darayan I Type 557. The bust has a leather helmet with a crescent on top and the beard is close-cropped.

Legend Vādfradād III (after Alram)

wtprdt MLK’ = Vādfradād King

The legend is mostly heavily corrupted which makes it not easy to differentiate between this type and type 557 of Darayan I. The length of the legend is a differentiating feature. Another differentiating feature is the form of “Farnah”: on type 557 it has the form of a human facing left, on type 560 Farnah looks like a bird. The battlements on the temple can be stepped or curved. Alram has catalogued this coin together with the Types 561-563 which have a completely different obverse under Vādfradād III. This catalogue follows Müseler and attributes the latter types to a different King Vādfradād IV.

Type 560 drachm; bust in leather helmet a. 3.84 gr.; fire altar type II.

b. 3.27 gr. 17 mm.

c. 4.05 gr. 18 mm.

d. 3.86 gr. 15x18 mm


97

Vādfradād IV (Autofradates ) 1st century BC

The Vādfradād IV issues (Types 561-563) are the first Persis types that show a close relation to the Parthian coinage, be it still only on the obverse. Obverse: the bust, still facing right, has the typical Parthian headdress with a diadem, a crescent on top, a long beard and is clad in armor. The bust can be large and wide or small and narrow, with all variations in between. There is no legend on the obverse Reverse: The reverse image is similar to those of Darayan I and Vādfradād III: a fire altar with the winged image of Farnah in the form of a (garbled) bird hovering above. The altar has paneled doors and on top of the altar stepped or curved battlements. On the left is the King praying and right of the altar is a bird standing on a pillar which is on the obols sometimes reduced to a pole. The legend is on the bottom and left side and reads outside in VaTaFRaDaT MaLKA. It is always strongly corrupted. Die axes:↑↑; ↑↓; ↑→; irregular.

Legend Vādfradād IV (After Alram) wtprdtt ML’ (?) = Vādfradād King

Type 561.1 drachm a. 3.24 gr. 18 mm.

b. 4.65 gr. 16 mm.

c. 4.23 gr. 17 mm.

d. 4.12 gr.

e.

f. 4.67 gr. 16 mm.

g. 3.67 gr. 18 mm.

h. 3.73 gr.

4.17 gr. 19 mm.


98

VÄ dfradÄ d IV i. 14x18 mm.

j. 4.07 gr. 18 mm.

k. 3.81 gr. 15x17 mm.

l. 4.09 gr. 18 mm.

m. 3.33 gr.

n. 4.02 gr.

o. 3.28 gr. 15x17 mm.

p. 3.98 gr.

q. 4.09 gr.

r. 4.10 gr. 17 mm.

s. 3.79 gr.

t. 4.0 gr. 18 mm.

u. 3.98 gr. 18 mm.

v. 4.00 gr. 19 mm.

w. 3.95 gr. 18 mm.

x. 3.67 gr. 17x18 mm.

y. 4.08 gr. 19 mm.

z. 3.97 gr. 18 mm.; star in crescent.

aa. 4.09 gr. 15 mm.

bb. 3.98 gr. 17 mm.


99

Vādfradād IV Type 561.2 drachm, fourrée a. 3.52 gr, 18 mm.; test cut.

b. 3.73 gr. 19 mm.

c. 3.24 gr. 18 mm.

Type 562 hemi-drachm a. 1.94 gr. 13 mm.

b. 2.05 gr.

c. 1.59 gr. 12 mm.

d. 1.92 gr. 13 mm.

e. 13 mm.

f. 1.92 gr. 12x13 mm.

g. 1.97 gr. 13 mm.

h. 2.03 gr. 13 mm.

b. 0.99 gr.

c. 0.64 gr. 9 mm.

d. 0.70 gr.

i. 2.03 gr 14 mm.

Type 563 obol a. 0.72 gr. 9 mm; on obverse strong similarity to the Elymais coins of Kamnaskires III.


100

VÄ dfradÄ d IV e. 0.60 gr. 10 mm.

i. weight & size ?

f. 0.66 gr. 7x11 mm.; dot in

g. 0.54 gr. 8x9 mm.; small

h. 0.67 gr. 9 mm.; large

crescent.

bust.

bust. Hemi drachm die?

j. 0.73 gr. 10 mm.

k. 0.65 gr. 10 mm.


96

Vādfradād III (Autophradates) Ca. 100 BC Of this king only drachms of Type 560 have been identified. The type is similar to the Darayan I Type 557. The bust has a leather helmet with a crescent on top and the beard is close-cropped.

Legend Vādfradād III (after Alram)

wtprdt MLK’ = Vādfradād King

The legend is mostly heavily corrupted which makes it not easy to differentiate between this type and type 557 of Darayan I. The length of the legend is a differentiating feature. Another differentiating feature is the form of “Farnah”: on type 557 it has the form of a human facing left, on type 560 Farnah looks like a bird. The battlements on the temple can be stepped or curved. Alram has catalogued this coin together with the Types 561-563 which have a completely different obverse under Vādfradād III. This catalogue follows Müseler and attributes the latter types to a different King Vādfradād IV.

Type 560 drachm; bust in leather helmet a. 3.84 gr.; fire altar type II.

b. 3.27 gr. 17 mm.

c. 4.05 gr. 18 mm.

d. 3.86 gr. 15x18 mm


97

Vādfradād IV (Autofradates ) 1st century BC

The Vādfradād IV issues (Types 561-563) are the first Persis types that show a close relation to the Parthian coinage, be it still only on the obverse. Obverse: the bust, still facing right, has the typical Parthian headdress with a diadem, a crescent on top, a long beard and is clad in armor. The bust can be large and wide or small and narrow, with all variations in between. There is no legend on the obverse Reverse: The reverse image is similar to those of Darayan I and Vādfradād III: a fire altar with the winged image of Farnah in the form of a (garbled) bird hovering above. The altar has paneled doors and on top of the altar stepped or curved battlements. On the left is the King praying and right of the altar is a bird standing on a pillar which is on the obols sometimes reduced to a pole. The legend is on the bottom and left side and reads outside in VaTaFRaDaT MaLKA. It is always strongly corrupted. Die axes:↑↑; ↑↓; ↑→; irregular.

Legend Vādfradād IV (After Alram) wtprdtt ML’ (?) = Vādfradād King

Type 561.1 drachm a. 3.24 gr. 18 mm.

b. 4.65 gr. 16 mm.

c. 4.23 gr. 17 mm.

d. 4.12 gr.

e.

f. 4.67 gr. 16 mm.

g. 3.67 gr. 18 mm.

h. 3.73 gr.

4.17 gr. 19 mm.


98

VÄ dfradÄ d IV i. 14x18 mm.

j. 4.07 gr. 18 mm.

k. 3.81 gr. 15x17 mm.

l. 4.09 gr. 18 mm.

m. 3.33 gr.

n. 4.02 gr.

o. 3.28 gr. 15x17 mm.

p. 3.98 gr.

q. 4.09 gr.

r. 4.10 gr. 17 mm.

s. 3.79 gr.

t. 4.0 gr. 18 mm.

u. 3.98 gr. 18 mm.

v. 4.00 gr. 19 mm.

w. 3.95 gr. 18 mm.

x. 3.67 gr. 17x18 mm.

y. 4.08 gr. 19 mm.

z. 3.97 gr. 18 mm.; star in crescent.

aa. 4.09 gr. 15 mm.

bb. 3.98 gr. 17 mm.


99

Vādfradād IV Type 561.2 drachm, fourrée a. 3.52 gr, 18 mm.; test cut.

b. 3.73 gr. 19 mm.

c. 3.24 gr. 18 mm.

Type 562 hemi-drachm a. 1.94 gr. 13 mm.

b. 2.05 gr.

c. 1.59 gr. 12 mm.

d. 1.92 gr. 13 mm.

e. 13 mm.

f. 1.92 gr. 12x13 mm.

g. 1.97 gr. 13 mm.

h. 2.03 gr. 13 mm.

b. 0.99 gr.

c. 0.64 gr. 9 mm.

d. 0.70 gr.

i. 2.03 gr 14 mm.

Type 563 obol a. 0.72 gr. 9 mm; on obverse strong similarity to the Elymais coins of Kamnaskires III.


100

VÄ dfradÄ d IV e. 0.60 gr. 10 mm.

i. weight & size ?

f. 0.66 gr. 7x11 mm.; dot in

g. 0.54 gr. 8x9 mm.; small

h. 0.67 gr. 9 mm.; large

crescent.

bust.

bust. Hemi drachm die?

j. 0.73 gr. 10 mm.

k. 0.65 gr. 10 mm.


101

Darayan II (Darev, Darius, Dareios) 1st century BC

On Darayan II coins the similarity with Parthian coinage goes a step further. On the reverse the king is praying before an altar holding a barsom bundle with the legend around in a square, another Parthian feature. There are two basic Darayan II types, one with on the reverse the king standing right of the altar, the second with the king standing left of the altar. Obverse: The size of the bust varies from large and heavy to narrow and slender so there are two clearly definable subtypes: coins with a large bust and coins with a slender bust. For the drachms and hemi-drachms the easiest distinguishing feature is the beard which on the large bust coins nearly always touches the rim whereas the beard of the slender bust ends ca. two mm from the rim. For the small obols the distinction between large and slender busts is less clear. The king on the obverse wears a tiara of the type used by Mithradates II of Parthia (Sellwood 28). On the drachms the tiara has three or two rows of pearls, on the hemi-drachms and obols 1, 2 or 3 rows. Within the rows of pearls is an upwards facing crescent. Sometimes there is a pellet in the crescent. Two or three diadem bands hang down. The bust has ear covers and the hair falls down in a neck piece. The torque has two to four segments. There is often a dotted rim in a half circle like a halo. Sometimes there is symbol in the right or left field of the obverse. Reverse: There are two basic types: King right of the altar (types 564, 565 and 566) King left of the altar (types 567, 567A, 567B and 567C) The legend is arranged in square, similar to the arrangement on Parthian drachms and reads: d’ryw MLK’ BRH wtprdt MLK’ = Darayan King son of Vādfradād King. Die axes are ↑↑, ↑↓,↑→ or irregular.

Legend Darayan II (after Alram) d’ryw MLK’ BRH wtprdt MLK’ = Darayan King son of Vādfradād King.


102

Darayan II Some altar types Darayan II

Some obverse symbols

Type 564.1-1 drachm; king right of the altar; large bust; tiara with 2 rows of pearls a. 3.55 gr. 15 mm.; large bust

Type 564.1-2 drachm; king right of the altar; large bust; tiara with 3 rows of pearls a. 4.08 gr.;no dotted rim; torqu b. 4.22 gr.; no dotted rim; 3 segments.

torque 3 segments.

c. 4.2 gr.; no dotted rim; torque with 3 segments.

d. 4.05 gr. 18 mm,; dotted rim (?); torque 3 segments.


103

Darayan II e. 4.03 gr. 16x17 mm.; no

f. 4.14 gr.; no dotted rim; dotted rim; torque 4 segments torque 3 segments. symbol behind bust.

g. 3.97 gr.18 mm.; short beard h. 3.95 gr.; torque 2 segments.

i.

j. 3.88 gr. 17x19 mm.;

k. 3.97 gr. 18x20 mm.;

l. 3.83 gr. 15x17 mm.; torque

torque 4 segments.

torque 2 segments.

3 segments.

4.02 gr.; torque 3 segments

m. 3.94 gr. 15 mm.; very

n. 3.98 gr. 18x19 mm.; large head; torque 2 segments. torque 3 segments.

no dotted rim; torque 4 segments.

o. 4.04 gr. 18x20 mm.; torque p. 3.97 gr. 20 mm.; two dots 3 segments.

behind bust; torque 3 segments

q. 21 mm. very large bust; r. 3.82 gr. 17 mm.; torque 3 torque 2 segments. segments.

Type 564.1-3 drachm; king right of the altar; slender bust; tiara with 3 rows of pearls a. 3.89 gr.; dotted rim;

b. 4.2 gr.; dotted rim; torque c. 4.13 gr.; 18x19 mm.; no

d. 3.94 gr. 17 mm.; torque 4

torque with 3 segments.

with 3 segments.

segments.

dotted rim; torque 4 segments.


104

Darayan II e. 4.15 gr. 17 mm.; torque 2 segments.

f. 3.91 gr.17x 20 mm.;

g. 3.89 gr.17 mm.; torque 4

torque 3 segments.

segments.

.

Type 564.1-3-1 drachm; fourréé; king right of the altar; slender bust; tiara with 3 rows of pearls a. 2.77 gr. 17 mm.; Fourréé; light weight; on reverse at 12 and 1 hrs holes in the silver.

Type 565.1-1 hemi-drachm; king right of altar; large bust; tiara with 1 row of pearls a. 1.96 gr. 12x13 mm.;

b. 1.68 gr.; dotted rim;

torque 2 segments.

torque 2 segments.

c. 11 mm.; no dotted rim torque 3 segments.

d. 1.57 gr. 12 mm.; torque 2 segments.

Type 565.1-2 hemi-drachm; king right of altar; slender bust; tiara with 1 row of pearls a. 1.96 gr.; dotted rim;

b. 1.8 gr. 14x15 mm.;

torque 3 segments.

torque 3 segments.

c. 1.78 gr. 12x14 mm.; torque 2 segments.

d. 1.98 gr.; torque 3 segments.


105

Darayan II Type 565.2-1 hemi-drachm; large bust; tiara with 2 rows of pearls a. 1.35 gr.; 12 mm.; no

b. 1.92 gr. 12 mm.; torque 2

dotted rim; torque 3 segments.

segments; symbol behind bust.

e. 1.79 gr. 15 mm.

f. 2.04 gr. 13 mm.

c. 1.79 gr. 12x13 mm.; torque 2 segments.

d. 1.79 gr. 11 mm.; torque 2 segments.

Type 565.2-2 hemi-drachm; slender bust; tiara with 2 rows of pearls a. 1.88 gr.; dotted circle;

b. 1.80 gr.; 14x15 mm.; dotted rim; torque 3 segments.

c. 1.92 gr. 13x14 mm.; no dotted rim; torque 3 segments.

d. 2.13 gr. 13 mm.; symbol

torque 3 segments.

e. 1.76 gr. 14 mm.; torque 3 segments.

f. 1.94 gr. 13 mm.; torque 3

g. 2.11 gr. 13 mm.; torque 3

h. 2.17 gr. 13 mm.; torque 3

segments; symbol in obverse right field.

segments.

segments.

i. 1.83 gr. 13 mm.; altar looks like tree.

in obverse right field.


106

Darayan II Type 565.2-3 hemi-drachm; large bust; tiara with 3 rows of pearls a. 14 mm.

Type 566.1 obol; tiara with 1 row of pearls; king right of altar a. 0.7 gr.; no dotted rim;

b. 9 mm.; torque 2 segments.

c. 0.70 gr. 10 mm.; no dotted rim; torque 3 segments.

d. 0.75 gr. 9 mm.; dotted

torque 2 segments.

e. 0.61 gr. 10 mm.; no dotted rim; torque 2 segments.

f. 0.61 gr. 9x10 mm.; torque

g. 0.60 gr. 10 mm.; torque 2

h.; 0.69 gr. 8x9 mm.; torque

3 segments; 3 diadem bands; dotted rim.

segments.

2 segments.

i. 0.62 gr. 8x9 mm.

j. 0.69 gr. 9x10 mm.; torque 2 segments.

k. 0.74 gr. 9x10 mm.; torque 2 segments.

l. 0.7 gr. 14 mm.; Reverse die of hemi-drachm?

n. 0.34 gr. 10 mm.; torque

o. 0.70 gr. 10 mm.

p. 0.66 gr. 9 mm.

68 gr.. 10 mm.; torque 2 segments.

with 2 segments; very large bust; (hemidrachm die?)

rim.


107

Darayan II Type 566.2 obol; tiara with 2 rows of pearls; king right of altar a. 0.50 gr.10 mm.; small

b. 0.56 gr. 9 mm.; very large bust.

c. 0.45 gr. 9 mm.; no dotted rim.

d.; 0.37 gr. 8 mm.; very

bust.

e. 0.64 gr. 9 mm.

f. 0.45 gr. 9x10 mm.

g. 0.64 gr. 9 mm.; torque 3

h. 0.52 gr. 9 mm.

large bust.

segments.

i. 0.72 gr. 11 mm.

Type 566.3 obol; tiara with 3 rows of pearls; king right of altar a. 0.33 gr. 8x9 mm.

Type 567A drachm; king left of altar a. 3.88 gr. 17 mm.; 3 rows of pearls.


108

Darayan II Type 567 obol; king left of altar a. 0.77 gr. 9 mm.; dotted rim b. 0.58 gr. 8 mm.; 1 row of (?); torque 3 segments; 1 row of pearls.

e. 0.74 gr.; torque 2 segments; 1 row of pearls.

pearls.

c. 0.51 gr. 9 mm. 2 rows of pearls; torque 3 segments.

d. 0.58 gr. 8 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; torque 2 segments.


109

Ardaxšīr (Ardashir; Artaxerxes) II (second half 1st century BC)

The legend on the Ardaxšīr coins reads:’rthštr MLK BRH d’ryw” = Ardaxšīr King son of Darayan King. As Vahšīr also mentions “son of Darayan” on his coins, they must have been brothers.

Reverse legend (after Alram) Alram has identified three configurations of the word sequence

’rthštr MLK BRH d’ryw”

Ardaxšīr King son of Darayan King.

Ardaxšīr II has issued two types, his rare first Type 568/569 has on the obverse a bare headed, diademed bust similar to that of the Parthian king Orodes II (Sellwood 42). The reverse is the same as of Darayan II with the king on the right side before the fire altar, within four lines of the legend. On the second type the king wears a crenellated crown similar to the type used by the Achæmenids. The reverse is similar to the reverse of the first type. The king is standing right of the altar (Types 570-575) or left of the altar (Types 576-578). There are several variations: * The flan can be wide and thin or compact and thick *The bust can be slender or broad. * There mostly is a symbol in the right field of the obverse with many variations, all of a basic type; sometimes there is a star before the obverse bust. * The drachms have four or rarely three waves of bushy hair, the hemi-drachms and obols have three or rarely two waves. * The bust can be in armor or, less often, clad in a cloak with clasp (chlamys and a graffe). * The rim can de plain or have a ring of pearls. * The torque has mostly three segments, less often two. * Die axes are ↑↑; or ↑↓; ↑→ or irregular. * There are several types of the altar.


110 Bust in armor

Bust in cloak

Examples of Symbols found on Ardaxšīr II coins

Examples of altar types found on Ardaxīr II coins TYPE I

TYPE II

The following variations in the obverse are used in the catalogue as subtypes: 1: Slender bust 1-1: Slender bust; no Symbol in right field behind the Bust 1-2: Slender bust, Symbol in right field behind Bust 2-1: Broad bust, no Symbol in right field behind bust 2.2: Broad bust, Symbol in right field behind Bust. 2.3: Coin over-struck on Roman denarius (see Part One; Paragraph 5; Persis contingents in the Parthian army)


111

ArdaxĹĄÄŤr II Type 568 drachm; bare headed bust; bust in armor; symbol behind bust a. 3.92 gr.; 18x29 mm.;

b. 4.1 gr. 17x19 mm.; no

c. 3.74 gr. 18 mm.; no

dotted circle.

dotted circle.

dotted circle.

d. 3.70 gr 20 mm.; dotted circle.

Type 568A hemi-drachm; bare headed bust; bust in armor; symbol behind bust a. 2.03 gr. 15 mm.; symbol behind bust vague dotted circle.

Type 569 obol; bare headed bust; bust in armor; symbol behind bust a. 0.65 gr. 10x11 gr.; no dotted circle; reverse could be from a drachm die.

Type 570/573.1 drachm; crenellated crown; slender bust; symbol behind bust; King right of altar a. 3.83 gr. 20 mm.; dotted

b. 3.92 gr. 18x19 mm.;

rim; bust in armor.

dotted circle; bust in armor.


112

ArdaxĹĄÄŤr II Type 570/573.2-1 drachm; broad bust; no symbol behind bust a. 3.56 gr.; no dotted rim;

b. 18 mm.; bust in cloak.

bust in cloak.

Type 570/573.2-2 drachm; broad bust; symbol behind bust; King right of altar c. 4.02 gr.; no dotted circle;

a. 3.64 gr. 20x22 mm.; no

b. no dotted circle; bust in

dotted circle ; bust in armor; star before bust.

armor (?).

bust in armor.

d. 4.00 gr. 22x23 mm,; no

e. 4.05 gr. 18x20 mm.; no dotted circle; bust in armor (?).

f. 4.0 gr.; no dotted circle;

g. 3.82 gr. 19x22 mm.; no

h. 3.86 gr. 18x20 mm.;

bust in armor.

dotted circle; bust in armor.

dotted circle; bust in armor.

i. 3.99 gr. 19 mm.; dotted circle; bust in armor.

j. 4.02 gr.; no dotted circle;

k. 3.46 gr.20 mm.; no

bust in armor.

dotted circle; bust in armor.

l. 3.52 gr. 21 mm.; no dotted circle; bust in armor.

m. weight ?; dotted circle; bust in armor.

n. 3.55 gr. 24x25 mm.

o. 4.00 gr. 20 mm. ; no

p. 4.16 gr.; bust in cloak.

dotted circle; bust in armor; symbol and star; large thin flan.

dotted circle; bust in cloak.

dotted circle; bust in armor (?).


113

Ardaxšīr II q. 3.92 gr. 20 mm.; bust in

r. 3.53 gr. star above symbol; bust in cloak.

s. 3.49 gr.; reverse upside

t. 3.72 gr. 19x22 mm.; bust

cloak; no dotted circle.

down; bust in cloak

in armour.

u. 3.64 gr.

v. 3.66 gr. 20x22 mm.

w. 4.00 gr. 18 mm.; star in crescent in obverse left field

x. 3.71 gr. 24 mm.; star in

y. 4.02 gr. 20x21 mm.

crescent and annulet above symbol.

z. 4.08 gr. 18 mm.; bust in armour.

Type 570/573.2-3 drachm; symbol behind bust; over-struck on Roman Republic denarius, these images are ENLARGED a. over-struck on denarius C. Nævius

b. over-struck on unclear undertype.

c. over-struck on unclear undertype visible at 1 hrs

e. over-struck on unclear undertype visible at 5 hrson reverse.

f. over-struck on unclear undertype

Balbus.

d. over-struck on unclear undertype visible at 3 hrs.

visible at 3 hrs on reverse.


114

ArdaxĹĄÄŤr II g. 3.13 gr. 22x24 m.; no dotted circle; symbol; bust in cloak; reverse over-struck 9 hrs.

Type 571/574.1-1 hemi-drachm; king right of altar; slender bust; no symbol behind bust a. 1.90 gr.; dotted circle.

b. 1.91 gr. 13 mm.; no dotted circle; bust in armor (?).

e. 2.02 gr. ; dotted circle; bust in cloak.

c. 1.94 gr. 14 mm. ; dotted circle; bust in cloak.

f. 1.89 gr. 13 mm. dotted

g. 1.93 gr. 16 mm.; bust in

circle; bust in armor.

cloak.

d. 1.94 gr.

Type 571/574.1-2 hemi-drachm; king right of altar; slender bust; symbol behind bust a. 1.69 gr. 14 mm.; dotted

b. 1.64 gr. 13x14 mm.;

circle; bust in armor.

dotted circle; bust in cloak (?); dots above symbol.

c. 1.90 gr. 13 mm.; dotted circle.

d. 1.76 gr. 16x18 mm.; dotted circle; bust in armor.


115

ArdaxĹĄÄŤr II e. 1.91 gr. 14 mm.; dotted circle.

f. 1.74 gr. 15x16 mm.; bust

g. 2.07 gr. 14 mm. no

h. 1.82 gr. 16 mm.; no

in armor; reverse double struck; thin wide flan.

dotted circle; bust in armor.

dotted circle; bust in cloak.

i. 1.86 gr. 16 mm.; bust in cloak.

j. 1.68 gr.; dotted circle;

k. 1.94 gr. 14 mm.

l. 1.59 gr. 13 mm.; dotted circle; large bust in armor; star in crescent before bust; reverse double struck.

very thin and long battlements; on altar a sphere with 3 flames.

Type 571/574.2-1 hemi-drachm; king right of altar; broad bust; no symbol behind bust a. weight ?; dotted circle;

b. 1.86 gr.; bust in cloak;

bust in cloak.

dotted circle; torque 3 segments.

c. 1.92 gr. 13 mm. ; dotted circle; bust in cloak (?).

d. 1.99 gr. 14 mm.; bust in armor

Type 571/574.2-1A hemi-drachm; king right of altar; broad bust; no symbol behind bust; only 2 merlins on crown a. 2.04 gr. 14 mm.; bust in armor.


116

ArdaxĹĄÄŤr II Type 571/574.2-2 hemi-drachm; king right of altar; broad bust; symbol behind bust a. 1.84 gr. 15 mm.; dotted circle; bust in cloak.

b. 2.03 gr. 20 mm.; no dotted circle; bust in cloak.

c. 1.83 gr.; dotted circle; bust in cloak.

e. 1.18 gr.

f. 1.97 gr. 15 mm.;bust in

g. 2.03 gr. 14 mm.; bust in

armor; reverse is upside down.

cloak; star over symbol.

d. 1.38 gr. 14x15 mm.; bust in cloak; no dotted circle; symbol.

Type 571A hemi-drachm; three kings right of altar a. 1.76 gr. 15x17 mm. ; no dotted circle; bust in armor.

Type 572/575.1-1 obol; king right of altar; slender; bust; no symbol behind bust a. 0.61 gr. 11 mm.; dotted

b. 0.66 gr.; no dotted circle; c. 0.53 gr. 11 mm.; no

circle; no symbol.

no symbol.

dotted circle.

d. 0.64 gr. 10 mm.; no dotted circle.


117

ArdaxĹĄÄŤr II Type 572/575.1-2 obol; king right of altar; slender bust; symbol behind bust a. 0.55 gr. 10 mm.; no

b. 0.70 gr. 10 mm.; no

dotted circle; symbol.

dotted circle; trace of symbol.

Type 572/575.2-1 obol; king right of altar; broad bust; no symbol behind bust a. 0.53 gr.10 mm.; no

b. 0.58 gr. 10 mm.; dotted

dotted circle.

circle; bust in armor.

c. 0.63 gr. 10 mm.; no dotted circle; bust in armor.

d. 0.64 gr. 11x12 mm.;

e. 0.65 gr. 10 mm.; no dotted circle; obverse drachm die?

f. 068 gr. 12 mm.; dotted

g. 0.71 gr. 9 mm.; no dotted h. 0.54 gr. 9 mm.; dotted

circle.

circle; no symbol; bust in armor; small thick flan.

dotted circle; 5-pointed star in right field; bust in cloak.

circle; bust in armor.

Type 572/575.2-2 obol; king right of altar; broad bust; symbol behind bust a. 0.65 gr. 9x10 mm.; no

b. 0.57 gr. 9x10 mm.; no

dotted circle; bust in armor; symbol with annulet.

dotted circle; symbol with crescent.

c. 0.52 gr. 10 mm.; no dotted circle; symbol; obverse bust hemi-drachm die?

d. 0.67 gr. 10 mm.; dotted circle; symbol; bust in cloak.


118

ArdaxĹĄÄŤr II e. 0.49 gr. 12 mm.; no dotted circle; symbol; large, thin flan.

f. 0,34 gr. 11x12

mm.; no dotted circle; symbol; very thin flan.

g. 0.66 gr. 11x12 mm.; no

h. 0.60 gr. 11 mm.

dotted circle; symbol; very large bust (drachm die?).

i. 0.6 gr.

Type 576 drachm; king left of altar a. 3.49 gr. 23 mm.; dotted

b. 18x20 mm.; dotted

circle; star left of symbol.

circle; symbol.

e. 4.0 gr. 20x22 mm.; star left of symbol.

f. 3.41 gr.

c. 4.18 gr. 24 mm.; dotted circle; symbol.

d. 3.97 gr. 22 mm.; dotted circle; star left of symbol.

Type 577 hemi-drachm; king left of altar a. 1.87 gr. 15 mm. dotted

b. 1.79 gr. 16 mm.; no

circle; symbol.

dotted circle; symbol; large, thin flan.

c. 1.96 gr. 13 mm.; dotted circle; no symbol.

d. 1.71 gr. 15 mm.


119

ArdaxĹĄÄŤr II e. 1.93 gr. 15 mm.

f. 2.0 gr. 14x17 mm.

g. 2.0 gr. 15x17 mm.

h. 1.78 gr.

c. 0.56 gr. 11 mm.; triskelis in obverse right field; symbol behind bust?

d. 0.56 gr. 10 mm.; triskelis

Type 578 obol; king left of altar a. 0.57 gr. 10mm.; no

b. 0.64 gr. 10 mm.; no

dotted circle; reverse struck with hemi-drachm die?

dotted rim; no symbol.

e. 0.7 gr. 9 mm.

obverse right field.


120

Vahšīr (Oxathres) and Unknown King II 1st century BC – 1st century AD.

Vahšīr is the last of the typological group of Darayan II, Ardaxšir and Vahšīr with on the reverse the king before an altar within four lines of the legend.

Legend Vahšīr (after Alram, who identifies 3 legend configurations)

whwhšt[r] MLK’ BRH d’ryw MLK’

Vahšīr King son of Darayan king

Vahšīr and Ardaxšīr (Artaxerxes) II must have been brothers as both mention on their coins “son of Darayan”. There are two variations of the reverse. On Types 579, 580 and 581 the king is standing on the right side and on types 582-586 he is standing on the left side of the altar. The differentiation by Alram between 582 and 585 respectively 583 and 586 is based on the lay-out of the legend. These legends and the characters are often corrupted. In this catalogue the types are combined as 582/585 and 583/586. In the right field of the obverse and sometimes in the left field is a symbol. The number of diadem ties and torque segments varies from one to three. The drachms have on the obverse a plain rim, the hemi-drachms and the obols can have a dotted circle on the rim. The headdress develops from smoothly falling curls into a wig-type coiffure with the hair dressed on rollers. Most coins have three or less often two rows of hair. The beard normally is broad and less often narrow and pointed. The altar on the reverse gradually degenerates into not more than cross and the king into dashes. The 3rd Vahšīr type is enigmatic and the attribution is uncertain. On the reverse is a character “N” or “N” mirrored. There are six “N” reverse types. The Types 587; 587A and 587B can de attributed to Vahšīr . The Types 587C, 587D 587E were probably issued by a different ruler (Unknown King II). The bust on the obverse wears a high tiara and has a large hair tuft in the neck; on the reverse there is a normal N or a mirrored N. Three of the 587D coins come from the same obverse die. All the 587 types are rare. Die-axes: ↑↑; ↑↓; ↑→; irregular. Alram, following Allotte de la Fuÿe suggests that there may have been a break in the minting activities in Persis after Vahšīr as the contemporary Parthian Gotharzes II built a bas-relief commemorating a victory at Persepolis.


121

Vahšīr

Some variations of the symbol on Vahšīr coins

Type 579 drachm; King right of altar a. 3.60 gr. 17x18 mm.

b. 3.99 gr. 17x18 mm.

c. 3.64 gr.

d. 14x15 mm.

e. 4.08 gr. 18 mm.; star and symbol behind bust.

f. 3.26 gr. 17 mm.; symbol

g. 3.78 gr. 18x20 mm.

h. 3.6 gr. 18x 21 mm.;

i. 3.89 gr.

j. 3.40 gr

behind bust.

uncertain monograms on obverse left and right.

k. 3.79 gr 18 mm.; Triskelis before bust

l. 3.85 gr. 17 mm.; symbol before bust.

Type 580 hemi-drachm; King right of altar a. 1.8 gr. 13 mm.; symbol.

b. 1.97 gr. 14 mm.; symbol.

c. 1.96 gr. 13 mm.; symbol.

d. 2.02 gr. 12 mm.; symbol


122

VahĹĄÄŤr e.1.88 gr. 13 mm.; on obverse symbol and star in left field obverse.

f. 1.9 gr. 14 mm.; symbol

g. 1.98 gr.; dotted circle.

i. 13x14 mm.; symbol; dotted circle.

j. 1.91 gr. 13x14 mm.; dotted circle.

k. 2.00 gr. 12x13 mm.; dotted circle.

l. 1.72 gr. 12 mm.; symbol; dotted circle.

m. 2.02 gr. 14 mm.; symbol behind bust; dotted circle.

n. 2.00 gr. 13 mm.; no

o. 1.7 gr.14 mm.; star and

p. 2.0 gr. 11x15 mm.;

dotted circle.

symbol behind bust.

dotted circle.

q. 1.99 gr. 14 mm.; symbol

r. 2.22 gr. 14 mm.; symbol

behind obverse bust; dotted circle

behind bust;

c. 0.62 gr.; symbol; dotted circle.

d.; 8 mm.

left; dotted circle.

h. 1.93 gr.; symbol right and star left.

Type 581 obol; King right of altar a. 069 gr.; dotted circle.

b. 0.63 gr. 9 mm.; dotted circle.


123

VahĹĄÄŤr e. 0.65 gr. 9 mm.; symbol; dotted circle.

f. 0.66 gr.11 mm.; symbol;

g. 0.65 gr. 10 mm.; symbol;

h. 0.57 gr. 9x10 mm.;

dotted circle.

dotted circle.

symbol; dotted circle.

i. 0.7 gr. 9x 10 mm.; symbol at 11hrs.

j. 0.44gr. 9 mm. dotted circle.

k. 0.66 gr. 9 mm.; dotted circle.

l. 0.62 gr. 11 mm.; symbol; dotted circle

m. 0.66 gr. 9x10 mm.; symbol right and star before mouth.

n. 0.28 gr. 9 mm.

o. 0.55 gr. 10 mm.; dotted

p. 0.64 gr. 10 mm.; dotted circle.

circle

Type 582/585 drachm; King left of altar a. 3.83 gr.; star before bust.

b. 3.75 gr. 19 mm.

c. 4.02 gr.

d. 3.80 gr.

e. 15x18 mm.; very degenerated reverse.

f. 17x18 mm.

g. 16x18 mm.

h. 3.84 gr.; 19x21 mm.


124

Vahšīr i. 3.68 gr. 18x20 mm.; symbol behind bust.

j. 3.86 gr. 16 mm.

k. 4.11 gr. 18x20 mm.; symbol behind bust,

l. 15x17 mm.

m. 3.67 gr. 16 mm.

n. 3.36 gr. 20 mm.

o. 3.90 gr. 20 mm.

p. 3.94 gr. 17 mm.

q. 4.27 gr 17 mm.; symbol behind bust.

Type 583/586 hemi-drachm; King left of altar a. 2.11 gr. 13 mm.’ symbol;

b. 2.06 gr. 16 mm.; symbol; dotted circle; double king.

c. 1.90 gr.; symbol; dotted circle.

d. 12x13 mm.

dotted circle.

e. 12x13 mm.; dotted circle.

f. 1.46; 13 mm.; dotted

g. 1.51 gr. 13x15 mm.;

h. 1.83 gr. 13 mm.

circle.

dotted circle.


125

VahĹĄÄŤr i. 1.99 gr. 11 mm.; crescent in left field obverse.

j. 1.73 gr.; dotted circle.

k. 1.68 gr. 14 mm.

l. 1.56 gr. 13 mm.

m. 1.81 gr. 12x16 mm.

n. 1.96 gr. 10x14 mm.

o. 2.01 gr. 15x13 mm.

p. 1.98 gr. 13 mm.; star before bust; traces of symbol.behind.

Type 584 obol; King left of altar a. 0.72 gr.

b. 0.53 gr. 9 mm.; dotted

c. 8 mm.; reverse image

circle.

upside down.

e. 0.67 gr. 10 mm.

f. 0.66 gr. 9x10 mm.

g. 0.54 gr. 10 mm.

i. 0.65 gr. 8x9 mm.

j. 0.50 gr. 10 mm.; no symbol.

d. 0.65 gr. 8 mm.; symbol.

h. 0.59 gr. 11 mm.; symbol


126

Vahšīr Type 587 drachm; “N” with radiated dashes/letters on reverse a. 2.87 gr. 23x25 mm.

b. 3.07 gr. 15x18 mm.

e. 3.54 gr. 18 mm.; letters

.

c. 3.60 gr.

d. 3.75 gr.; letters around N.

around N.

Type 587A hemi-drachm; “N” with legend around on reverse; a. 2.12 gr. 15 mm.

Type 587B drachm; mirrored “N” with radiated dashes on reverse a. 3.7 gr. 18 mm.

b. 3.76 gr. 18 mm.

c. 3.86 gr. 17x19 mm


127

Unknown King II

1st cent BC – 1st century AD The types 587C, 587D and 587E have a similar reverse as the Vahshir “N-types” 587, 587A and 587B. The obverse has a bust in high tiara and a round hair tuft in the neck and is different from the bust on the Vahšīr coins. In Part One we have discussed the political, possibly succession problems of Vahšīr. These coins are probably issued by a different ruler of which we know nothing and who may have been a rebel. The coins 587Da, b. d and e are struck from the same obverse die.

Type 587C drachm; “N” with legend on reverse; bust with tiara on obverse a. 3.02 gr.

Type 587D drachm; mirrored “N” with legend on reverse; bust with tiara on obverse a. 3.55 gr. 17x20 mm.

e. 3.28 gr.

b. 3.29 gr. 15x17 mm.

c. 2.68 gr.18 mm.

d. 3.55 gr. 16x19 mm.


128

Unknown King II Type 587E hemi-drachm; mirrored N with legend on reverse; bust with tiara on obverse a. 1.53 gr.


129

Pakor I (Pacores, Pirouz, Pakur)

Late 1st century BC – early 1st century AD The coins of Pakor I have a left looking, bare headed bust on the obverse. The large “wig-type” hair tuft at the back has three or four rows and covers the ear. There are two diadem bands, the knot behind the head can be small or large (later type?) has mostly two loops, sometimes only one. On the obverse left field there can be a symbol like a star, dots or crescents.

Diadem knot examples

A “halo” type of dotted rim runs from shoulder to shoulder on many coins. The reverse has a left or right turning triskelis surrounded by the legend. The legend can start at different spots and is generally corrupted. Die-axes are therefore impossible to establish.

Legend Pakor I (after Alram)

Pakor King son of Vahšīr

pkwr MLK’ BRH whwhšt[r]

Type 596 drachm; triskeles turning left a. 3.88 gr.15 mm.; 3 rows

b. 3.77 gr. 18 mm.; 4 rows

of hair.

of hair; 3 dots on obverse left field.

c. 2.93 gr. 17x19 mm. 3 rows of hair.

d. 3.95 gr. 19 mm.; 4 rows of hair.


130

Pakor I e. 3.69 gr. 19 mm.

Type 596A drachm; triskeles turning right a. 3.7 gr. 17 mm.; 4 rows

b. 3.38 gr.20 mm.; 4 rows

of hair.

of hair.

e. 2.94 gr.

f. 3.82 gr. 18 mm.

c. 3.85 gr. 20 mm.; 3 rows of hair.

d. 17 mm.; 3 rows of hair; double crescent on obverse left field.

Type 597 hemi-drachm; triskeles turning left a. 2.01 gr. 14 mm.; 3 rows

b. 1.61 gr. 14x15 mm.; 3 rows of hair.

c. 1.64 gr. 14 mm.; 3 rows of hair.

d. 1.5 gr. 14 mm.; 3 rows of

of hair.

e. 1,24 gr. 14 mm.; 3 rows of hair.

f. 13 x14 mm.; 3 rows of

g. 12x14 mm.; 3 rows of

h. 1.42 gr. 13x16 mm.; 3

hair; symbol on obverse left field.

hair.

rows of hair.

hair.


131

Pakor I i. 1.95 gr. 14 mm.; 3 rows of hair.

j. 1.18 gr. 14 mm.; 3 rows

k. 1.64 gr. 15 mm.

of hair.

l. 2.10 gr. 13x15 mm.; star on obverse left field.

m. 2.03 gr. 14 mm.; 3 rows of hair.

Type 597A hemi-drachm; triskeles turning right a. 13 mm.; 3 rows of hair;

b. 1.54 gr.; 3 rows of hair.

symbol on obverse left field.

Type 598 obol; triskeles turning left a. 0.58 gr.; 3 rows of hair;

b. 0.58 gr. 10 mm.; 3 rows

symbol on obverse left field.

of hair.

c. 10 mm.; 3 rows of hair

d. 0.33 gr. 9x10 mm.; 3

e. 0.39 gr. 13 mm.; 3 rows of hair.

f. 0.51 gr. 10x11 mm.; 3

g. 0.62 gr. 9x11 mm.; 4

h. 0.66 gr. 10 mm.; star

rows of hair.

rows of hair.

before bust; 3 rows of hair.

rows of hair.


132

Pakor I i. 0.58 gr. 12 mm.; 3 rows of hair.

j. 0.43 gr.; 3 rows of hair

k. 0.9 gr. 16.5 mm.; unusual large, thin flan.

l. 0.50 gr. 10 mm.; 3 rows of hair.

m. 057 gr. 12 mm.; crude images.

Type 598A obol; triskeles turning right a. 0.59 gr. 10x12 mm.

e. 0.32 gr. 9 mm.; 3 rows of hair.

b. 0.76 gr.10 mm.; 3 rows of hair.

c. 9 mm.; 3 rows of hair; symbol on obverse left field.

f. 0.41 gr. 9 mm.; 3 rows of

g. 0.30 gr. 9 mm.; 3 rows of

hair.

hair.

d. 0.52 gr. 10x11 mm.; 3 rows of hair.


133

Pakor II (Pacoros; Pirous) The coins of Pakor II have on the obverse and reverse a left facing bust of a not so young, bearded, bare headed person who has in the neck a “wig-type” large hair tuft with three or four rows covering the ear. The torque has two or three segments. The obverse often has at the rim a circle of dots. Different from the Pakor I coins there is no diadem knot. Both the obverse and the reverse have a legend “pkwr MLK’ “ = Pakor King. The legend is often missing or off flan.

Legends Pakor II on obverse and reverse (after Alram)

Pakor King

pkwr MLK’

The coins can have a wide and thin flan or a thick and small flan. On coins struck with a large dies on a wide, thin flan the reverse is often concave, many coins have gaps at the rim. Several coins in particular of the thick, small flan types have symbols before the bust on the obverse. On the reverse symbols are only seen on the small, thick die coins. The two variations have a very different style and may have been struck by different mints.

Average weights and dimensions of the Pakor II types Coin type gram mm. sample size Δ ; 588 Δ ; 592

3.77 3.57

22-25 14-18

7 13

½ Δ; 589 ½ Δ; 593

1.69 1.84

17-21 11-17

11 18

Obol; 590 Obol; 594

0.60 0.54

10-14 8-10

17 17

From the table it is clear that the two variations can be best distinguished by their size. The weights do not show such a univocal picture, the wide-flan drachms and obols are on average 10% heavier than the compact flans. The wide-flan hemi-drachms are however 10% lighter. Generally the flans are wider than the dies. The wide-flan coins often have on the obverse and the reverse a flat rim around the image. The rare hemi-drachms Types 591 and 595 have a right looking bust on the reverse. The rare “maverick” Types 595A and 595B have on the reverse an eagle with spread wings with a diadem in its beak. Coins with an eagle (a well-known symbol of royalty) are similar to contemporary coins of Elymais (Phraates type 14.2). De Morgan identifies the “eagle” type as Pakor I, based on the bust image. Müseler


134 remarks that this type fits in the Pakor I or perhaps in the Pakor II series. As there is no diadem knot on the obverse and the breast is visible, which is typical for Pakor II coins, I prefer to catalogue these coins under Pakor II, be it understood that they may have been issued by still another ruler. Die-axes: ↑↑; ↑→; irregular.

Examples of symbols on Pakor II coins, they can be on the obverse and/or the reverse

Type 588 drachm; large die on wide flan a. 3.8 gr. 26 mm.; symbol

b. 3.72 gr. 23 mm.; symbol

left field obverse.

obverse, similar to anchor symbol on Elymais coinage.

c. 3.73 gr. 25 mm.; symbol star in crescent on obverse.

d. 3.79 gr. 19x22 mm.

e. 3.59 gr. 25 mm.; monogram before bust on obverse.

f. 3.99 gr. 25 mm.

g. 3.89 gr.22x 30 mm.

h. 3.10 gr. 29 mm.

i. 3.79 gr.

j. 2.35 gr.

k. 4.05 gr. 24 mm.;

l. 3.89 gr. 22 mm.; monogram flower before obverse bust.

monogram before obverse bust.


135

Pakor II Type 589 hemi-drachm; large die on wide flan a. Weight and size?

b. 1.60 gr.17 mm.

c. 1.31 gr.

d. 1.97 gr.

e. 1.69 gr.

f. 1.66 gr. 17x19 mm.

g. 1.69 gr. 19x21 mm.;

h. 1.76 gr. 18 mm.; on obverse star in crescent before bust.

i. 1.67 gr. 18 mm.; symbol on obverse before bust.

j. 1.40 gr. 17 mm.

k. 1.8 gr. 15x18 mm.

l. 1.94 gr. 18 mm.; dots before obverse bust.

m. 1.63 gr. 20 mm

n. 2.03 gr. 18 mm.; obverse

o. 1.84 gr, 17 mm.

p. 1.49 gr. 17 mm.

s. 1.90 gr. 18 mm.; traces

t. 1.77 gr. 18 mm.; symbol

legend or symbol before obverse bust.

obverse, similar to anchor symbol on Elymais coinage

and reverse over-struck on a non-Persis coin. See Part One par. 5

q. 1.73 gr.20 mm.

r. 2.02 gr. 17 mm.; symbol anchor (?) before bust obverse.


136

Pakor II u. 2.15 gr. 17 mm.; 2 dots before obverse bust; dieidentical with coin 589.l.

Type 590 obol; large die on wide flan a. 0.65 gr. 13 mm.

b. 0.70 gr. 12 mm.

c. 056 gr.

d.; 0.41 gr. 12 mm.

e. 0.56 gr.

f. 0.46 gr. 11x13 mm.

g. 0.73 gr. 11 mm.

h. 0.57 gr. 12 mm.

i. 0.45 gr. 11 mm.

j. 0.46 gr. 10x11 mm.

k. 0.54 gr. 10 mm.; bird behind bust obverse; traces of legend on reverse.

l. 073 gr. 10x11mm.

m. 0.50 gr. 15 mm. ; 2 very similar portraits, father /son.

n. 0.68 gr. 11x12 mm.;

o. 0.55 gr. 13 mm.

p. 0.50 gr. 10 mm.

hemi-drachm dies?


137

Pakor II q. 0,63gr. 14 mm.; Full legend on obverse and reverse.

r. 0.48 gr. 13x15 mm.

s. 0.57 gr. 10x11 mm.

t. 0.46 gr. 12 mm.

u. 0.56 gr. 11 mm.

Type 591 hemi-drachm; reverse bust facing right; no illustration is available Type 592 drachm; small die on small thick flan a. 3.32 gr.17 mm.

b. 4.13 gr. 14x17 mm.; triskelis before obverse bust.

e. 3.8 gr. 15x16 mm.

f. 3.63 gr. 15 mm.; small annulet on obverse; triskelis before bust on reverse.

c. 3.94 gr. 15x18 mm.; symbol on obverse and reverse.

d. 3.47 gr. 15x16 mm.;

g. 3.14 gr. 16 mm.; symbol

h. 3.46 gr. 15x16 mm. ;

before bust on obverse and reverse.

symbol before bust on obverse; necklace with medallion.

triskelis before obverse bust


138

Pakor II i. 3.7 gr. 16 mm.

j. 3.8 gr. 16 mm.

k. 3.88 gr. 16x17 mm.

l. 3.76 gr. 20 mm.; portraits very similar; symbol on obverse.

m. 3.88 gr.

n. 3.86 gr.; Symbol before

o. 3.82 gr. 18 mm.

p. 3.88 gr. 17 mm.; annulet before reverse chin.

obverse bust

Type 593 hemi-drachm; small die on small thick flan a. 1.81 gr. 14 mm.; star on

b. 1.72 gr. 13x14 mm.;

obverse and reverse.

symbols on obverse and reverse; dotted rim on obverse.

e. 1.94 gr. 13 mm.; symbol before bust obverse.

f. 1.97 gr.; symbol(anchor?) in obverse left field; small reverse bust.

c. 1.78 gr.; dotted rim on obverse and reverse.

d. 1.67 gr. 11x12 mm.; dot

g. 1.7 gr. 12 mm.

h. 1.67 gr. 13 mm.

before nose on obverse; symbol left field reverse.


139

Pakor II i. 1.90 gr. 13x14 mm.

m. 2.04 gr. 14 mm.

j. 1.62 gr. 13 mm.; symbol before obverse bust

k. 1.75 gr. 12x14 mm.; Symbol and traces of legend on obverse and reverse.

l. 1.92 gr.; dotted rim on obverse.

n. 5014 # 165; 1.87 gr.

Type 594 obol; small die on small, thick flan a. 0.68 gr. 9 mm.; full

b. 0.55 gr.

c. 0.56 gr.

d. 0.55 gr. 9x10 mm.

f. 0.56 gr. 9x10 mm.

g. 0.49 gr. 9 mm.; symbol

h. 0.53 gr. 9x10 mm.; + on

before obverse bust; dotted rim on reverse.

obverse.

legend on obverse and reverse.

e. 0.80 gr. 9 mm.; dotted rim on obverse and reverse.


140

Pakor II i. 0.60 gr. 11x12 mm.; symbol before obverse bust

j. 0.70 gr. 10 mm.

m. 0.58 gr.

n. 0.5 gr. 10 mm.

q. 0.64 gr. 9 mm.; legend

r. 0.54 gr. 9 mm.

k. 0.68 gr. 13x10 mm.;

l. 0.53 gr. 8 mm.

legend on obverse and reverse.

o. 0.59 gr. 9 mm.

p. 0.55 gr. 10 mm.

on obverse and reverse.

Type 595 hemi-drachm; bust on reverse facing right a. 1.84 gr. 12 mm.; symbol on obverse: crescent with dot.

Type 595A drachm; no diadem knot; on reverse eagle with spread wings and diadem in beak. Uncertain attribution a. 3.75 gr. 17 mm.; star

b. 3.49 gr. 18x20 mm.; star

before bust; 3 rows of hair.

before bust; 3 rows of hair.


141

Pakor II Type 595B hemi-drachm; on obverse eagle with diadem in beak behind bust; on reverse eagle with spread wings and diadem in beak. Uncertain attribution a. 1.71 gr. 13 mm.

Type 595C obol; on obverse eagle with diadem in beak behind bust; on reverse eagle with spread wings and diadem in beak. Uncertain attribution a. 0.50 gr.; on obverse eagle b. 0.57 gr. 9 mm.; on behind bust, no star

obverse star, eagle off flan(?).

c. 0.67 gr. 11 mm.; no eagle behind bust.


142

Nambed (Namupat, Namopat) 1st century AD

Nambed issued 4 basic types. 1.

Obverse has a bust with a turreted crown; on the reverse the king is standing left of the Star/Crescent symbol (Types 599-602).

2.

Obverse has a bust with a turreted crown; on the reverse the king is standing right of the Star/Crescent symbol (Types 603-604A).

3.

Obverse has a bust with a turreted crown; on the reverse no king but only the Star/Crescent symbol (Types 605-607).

4.

Obverse has a bust with a flat diademed hair dress and no turreted crown; on the reverse only the Star/Crescent symbol (Type 607A).

The turreted crown is similar to that of his father (Ardaxšīr II) but the form of the merlons is simplified. The large “wig-type” hair tuft in the neck has three or four rows. All types with the King before the Star/Crescent have a diadem knot above the hair tuft. The bust on the series with the Star/Crescent on the reverse has no diadem knot. The number of rays on the star varies from four to eight. The King-Star/Crescent issues have a ”halo” type dotted circle on the obverse. Sometimes the circle is off flan. The Star/Crescent types rarely have a dotted circle on the obverse. The king on the reverse wears the same type of crown as on the obverse. The king holds sometimes a barsom bundle. With the exception of the drachm Types 599 and 599A there is no legend on the obverse. The legend is in a circle around the king before the Star/Crescent and is mostly corrupted with missing or wrongly written letters or even whole words left out. Some coins have a symbol - an annulet, dots or an unclear image - before the bust on the obverse. Die-axes: ↑↑; ↑↓; ↑→; irregular.

Examples of diadem knots Type 1

Type 2

Type 3

Type 4

Type 5

Type 6

Type 7

Legend on Nambed coins (after Alram) obverse

nmwpt MLK’ = Nambed king reverse

nmwpt MLK’ BRH ‘rthštr

Nambed King son of Ardaxshir


143

Nambed Type 599 drachm; legend on obverse; king left of Star/Crescent a. 19x21 mm.; obverse: legend before bust, diadem knot type 1 reverse: 6pointed star.

b. 3.51 gr. 20 mm.; no father’s name in obverse legend.

Type 599A drachm; legend on obverse; king left of Crescent; in Crescent a triskelis a. 15x18 mm.

Type 600 drachm; no legend on obverse; diadem bands Type 2; reverse: king left of Star/Crescent a. 2.86 gr. 14 mm.; 5-

b. 3.15 gr. 17x20 mm.;

pointed star; the King holds a barsom bundle.

annulet on obverse left field; 5-pointed star.

e. 2.99 gr. 18 mm.; 5pointed star.

f. 3.36 gr. 17x18 mm.; 4pointed star; the king is holding a barsom bundle.

c. 3.84 gr. 19 mm.; obverse die-identical with 600b; 6pointed star.

g. 3.78 gr. 21 mm.

d. 2.92 gr. 19 mm.; 8pointed star.


144

Nambed Type 601 hemi-drachm; no legend on obverse; king left of Star/Crescent a. 1.64 gr. 14 mm.; 5-

b. 1.61 gr. 12x15 mm.; 6pointed star.

c. 1.6 gr. 13x14 mm.; 5pointed star.

d. 1.4 gr. 12 mm.; irregular

pointed star.

e. 1.77 gr.; 6-pointed star.

f. 1.72 gr.

g. 1.84 gr.; 6-pointed star.

h. 1.75 gr. 14 mm.; 7-

star.

pointed star.

i. 1.47 gr. 13 mm.; 7(?)pointed star.

j. 13 mm.; 7-pointed star.

k. 1.18 gr. 13 mm.; 4pointed star.

l. 1.59 gr. 14 mm.; 4pointed star.

m. 1.43 gr. 14 mm.; 5pointed star; the King holds a barsom bundle.

n. 16 mm. annulet on obverse left field; 6-pointed star.

o. 18 mm.; 6-pointed star.

p. 1.77 gr.; irregular star.

q. 2.07 gr. 14 mm.

r. 1.64 gr. 13 mm.

s. 1.18 gr. 16 mm.; 3 dots before obverse bust


145

Nambed Type 601A hemi-drachm; king left of horizontal Star/Crescent a. 1.42 gr. 13 mm.; horizontal crescent with 6pointed star.

Type 602 obol; no legend on obverse; king left of Star/Crescent a. 0.72 gr. 11mm.; 5(?)-

b. 070 gr. 12 mm.; 8-

pointed star.

pointed star.

e. 0.57 gr. 9x10 mm.; 5pointed star.

f. 0.43 gr. 9 mm.; 4-pointed star; very large reverse king.

g. 0.52 gr. 10 mm.; 6-

h. 0.52 gr. 10 mm.; 5-

pointed star.

pointed star.

i.

j. 0.39 gr. 10 mm.; dot before bust on obverse; 4pointed star.

k. 0.70 gr. 12 mm.; 4pointed star.

l. 0.50 gr. 10x11 mm. 4pointed star.

0.68 gr. 11 mm.

c. 10 mm.; 4-pointed star.

d. 0.57 gr. 9x10 mm.; 5pointed star.


146

Nambed m. 0.49 gr. 10 mm.; 5pointed star.

n. 0.52 gr. 12 mm.; 5-

o. 6-pointed star.

p. 0.63 gr. ; 4-pointed strar

pointed star.

q. 0.62 gr. 9 mm.; 8pointed star.

Type 602A obol; no legend on obverse; crown with two merlins; king left of Star/Crescent i. 0.55gr. 10 mm.; Crown with 2 merlons ; 4-pointed star.

Type 603 drachm; no legend on obverse; king right of Star/Crescent a. 2.69 gr. 17x20 mm.;

b. 2.70 gr. 19 mm.; 5-

unclear symbol before bust on obverse.

pointed star; the King holds a barsom bundle.

c. 2.36 gr.; 3 dots before bust on obverse; 8-pointed star.

f. 18 mm.; 6-pointed star.

g. 3.89 gr. 18 mm.; anchor

e. on obverse 3 dots before bust; 5-pointed star.

(?) symbol before obverse bust; 5-pointed star; King holds a barsom bundle.

d. 2.32 gr. 19 mm.; 4pointed star; King holds a barsom bundle.


147

Nambed Type 604 hemi-drachm; no legend on obverse; king right of Star/Crescent a. 2.1 gr. 15x16 mm.

e. 13 mm.; 8 (?) pointed star.

b. 1.21 gr.

f. 1.34 gr. very large bust, (drachm die?) 15 mm.; 6pointed star.

c. 1.68 gr. 14 mm.; 4pointed star.

d.10x13 mm.; 8-pointed

g. 1.68 gr. 14 mm.; 4-

h. 1.74 gr. 12x14 mm.; 4-

pointed star.

pointed star; the king holds a barsom bundle.

star.

i. 1.43 gr. 14 mm.; symbol (?) before obverse bust; 5pointed star.

Type 604A Nambed; obol; no legend on obverse; king right of the Star/Crescent a. 0.57 gr. 10 mm.; 8-

b. 0.39 gr. 10 mm.; 6-

pointed star.

pointed star.


148

Nambed Type 605 drachm; no legend on obverse; Star/Crescent only a. 3.95 gr.; 7-pointed star.

e. 3.79 gr.; 16x17 mm.; 7pointed star.

b. 19 mm.; 6-pointed star.

c. 18 mm.; 7-pointed star; symbol before bust.

d. 17x18 mm.; 8-pointed star.

f. 4.18 gr. 19 mm.; annulet before bust; 6-pointes star.

Type 606 hemi-drachm; no legend on obverse; Star/Crescent only a. 1.77 gr. 13x14 mm.; 7-

b. 1.62 gr.; 4-pointed star.

c. 13 mm.; 6-pointed star.

f. 1.63 gr. 15 mm.; symbol before bust on obverse; 6pointed star.

g. 2.24 gr. 16 mm.; floral

pointed star.

e. 1.7 gr. 16x17 mm.; 6pointed star.

symbol before bust; 7pointed star.

d. 13 mm.; 7-pointed star.


149

Nambed Type 607 obol; no legend on obverse; Star/Crescent only a. 0.65 gr. 10x13 mm.; 7-

b. 0.59gr. 10 mm.; 5-

pointed star.

pointed star.

e. 0.65 gr. 9x12 mm.; 7pointed star.

f. 0.71 gr.; 7-pointed star.

c.; 9 mm.; 4-pointed star.

d. 0.59 gr. 9x10 mm.; 5pointed star.

Type 607A obol; no legend on obverse; Star/Crescent only; obverse bust with flat diademed hair dress a.; 0.42 gr. 10x11 mm.; 4pointed star.


150

Napād I and Napad II (Kapāt)

1st Century AD

There is a large variety of types and sub-types of Napad coins. The two basic types have different reverses: 1). Star/Crescent symbol with in front a bust to the waist, to the left or to the right. The star can have four to six rays. A mostly unreadable legend is around the Bust/Crescent-Star symbol. The obol Type 611C-2 has no star in the crescent. These coins I attribute to Napad I. Die-axes: ↑↓; ↑→; based on only 2 coins. 2). No Star/Crescent symbol on the reverse but a bust to the left or to the right. The reverse bust has a flat, diademed hair. It is most probably Napad’s father, Nambed. The legend is often quite readable and in a square, which gradually degenerates into a circle. The legend can start at 5, 1 or 9 hrs. Coins with the second reverse type are attributed to Napad II. All Napad coins have on the obverse a bust in tiara to the left. The tiara has one to three rows of pearls around a dot, a dotted crescent or a plain crescent. The diadem knot can have several forms. The torque has two or three segments. There are several variations of the bust: it can be broad or narrow; the hair can fall to the shoulders, be of a wig-type with three or four prominent waves or bound in a large hair tuft in the neck. There can be an ear cover or no ear cover. The obverse can have a “halo” type of dotted rim. Sometimes there is symbol in the right or left field of the obverse. There is no legend on the obverse. Die axes of Napad II can be ↑↑, ↑↓, ↑→ or irregular. Napad II coins can be confused with coins of Vādfradād V. The best differentiating feature is the legend, which is long on Napad II coins (up to 19 characters) and short on Vādfradād V (± 10 characters).

Examples of diadem knots Type 1

Type 2

Type3

Type 4

Type 5

Type 6

Type 7

Legend on reverse of Napād type I and II (after Alram)

np’t MLK’ BRH nmwpt MLK’

Napad King son of Nambed King

.

150


151

Napad I Type 608.1 drachm; obverse broad bust, large bushy hair tuft, no ear cover; reverse with bust right before star in crescent a. 2.80 gr. 18x19 mm.; 1 row b. 2.82 gr.; 1 row of pearls; of pearls; crescent with 3 dots; diadem knot 5; 4pointed star.

crescent without dots; 5pointed star.

Type 608.2 drachm; obverse broad bust, large bushy hair tuft, with ear cover; reverse with bust right before star in crescent a. 3.06 gr. 21 mm.

b. 1 row of pearls; crescent with 1 dot; diadem knot type 1.

Type 609 hemi-drachm; obverse broad bust, large bushy hair tuft, no ear cover; reverse with bust right before star in crescent a. 12 mm.; symbol on

b. 1.72 gr. 13 mm.; symbol

obverse before bust; diadem knot type 5; 5-pointed star.

on obverse before bust; 5pointed star. This coin seems to be die-identical with coin

a.

151


152

Napad I Type 610 obol; obverse broad bust, with hair in thick waves, no ear cover; reverse with bust right before star in crescent a.; 0.65 gr. 9 mm.; 6-pointed b. 0.58 gr. 9 mm.; 6-pointed star.

star.

Type 611A drachm; obverse broad bust, large bushy hair tuft, no ear cover; reverse with bust left before star in crescent a. 2.86 gr. 18x20 mm.; 2

b. 3.99 gr. 18 mm.; diaden

rows of pearls on tiara; diadem knot type 3.

knot type 5; 5-pointed star.

c. 4.00 gr. 18 mm.; diadem knot type 6; 4-pointed star.

Type 611B-1 hemi-drachm; obverse broad bust, large bushy hair tuft, no ear cover; reverse with bust left before star in crescent a. 12 mm.

b. 14 mm.

c. 1.77 gr. 13 mm.; 2 rows of pearls with dotted crescent; diadem knot type 3.

152


153

Napad I Type 611B-2 hemi-drachm; obverse narrow bust, hair falling to shoulder, ear cover; reverse with bust left before star in crescent a. 1.65 gr. 14x15 mm.; 2 rows of pearls with dotted crescent; diadem knot type 6.

Type 611C-1 obol; obverse narrow bust, bushy hair tuft, ear cover; reverse with bust left before star in crescent . a. 0.42 gr. 10 mm.; 1 row of pearls with dotted crescent; dotted circle at rim.

Type 611C-2 obol; obverse narrow bust, hair falling to shoulder, ear cover; reverse with bust left before crescent; no star in crescent a. 0.56 gr. 10 mm.; star in

b. 0.46 gr. 9 mm.; 2 rows of

tiara field. The reverses of coin a and coin b are dieidentical.

pearls.

153


154

Napad II Type 612.1 drachm; obverse broad bust, hair in thick waves, ear cover; reverse with bust to left with diadem a. 3.75 gr.; 3 rows of pearls

b. 17 mm. 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent; diadem knot type 1.

c. 3.55 gr.; 3 rows of pearls with crescent; diadem knot type 5.

d. 16x17 mm. 2 rows of

with crescent; diadem knot type 1.

e. 3.13 gr. 16 mm. Crescent in obverse left field; 3 rows of pearls; diaden knot 1.

f. 3.67 gr. 17 mm.; 3 rows

g. 3.54 gr. 16x17 mm.; 3

h. 3.54 gr. 17 mm.; 3 rows

of pearls; dotted crescent in left field obverse diadem knot type 1.

rows of pearls; diadem knot type 1.

of pearls; obverse left field star in crescent, right field annulet diadem knot type 1.

i. 3.32 gr.; 3 rows of pearls.

j. 3.82 gr. 16 mm.; 3 rows

k. 3.44 gr. 14 mm.; diadem

of pearls; diadem knot type 1; star in crescent before bust.

knot type 1.

l. 3.71 gr. 16 mm.; 3 rows of pearls; diadem knot type 1.

pearls; dotted crescent; diadem knot type 1.

Type 612.2 drachm; obverse broad bust, hair falling to shoulder, ear cover; reverse with bust to left with diadem a. 15 mm.; 3 rows of pearls;

b. 15 mm.; 3 rows of pearls;

diadem knot type 1.

dotted crescent; diadem knot type 5.

154


155

Napad II Type 612.3 drachm; obverse narrow bust, hair falling to shoulder, ear cover; reverse with bust to left with diadem a. 2.99 gr. 15x16 mm.; 1

b. 3.58 gr.; 3 rows of pearls

row of pearls with 2 annulets; diadem knot type 1.

with dotted crescent; diadem knot type 6.

c. 3.49 gr.; 3 rows of pearls; diadem knot type 5.

d. 3.41 gr.17 mm.; diadem

e. 3.74 gr.; 3 rows of pearls with dotted crescent and 2 dots; diadem knot type 7.

f. 3.37 gr. 16 mm.; 3 rows

g. 3.51 gr. 16 mm.; 3 rows

h. 3.84 gr. 15x17 mm.; neck

of pearls with dotted crescent; diadem knot type 6 (1 tie only); neck piece.

of pearls; diadem knot type 7.

piece 3 rows of pearls; dotted crescent; diadem knoe type 5.

i. 3.74 gr.; 2 rows of pearls with crescent; diadem knot type 1.

j. 3.88 gr. 15 mm.

k. 3.10 gr. 16x18 mm. 3 rows of pearls; dotted crescent; diadem knot type 1.

knot type 5.

Type 613.1 hemi-drachm; obverse broad bust, hair in thick waves, ear cover; reverse with bust to left with diadem a. 1.68 gr.; on obverse star/crescent left and annulet right; 2 rows of pearls with dotted crescent; diadem knot type 2.

b. 1.83

gr.; 2 rows of pearls; crescent with dot; diadem knot type 1; legend starts at 1hrs.

c. 1.78 gr. 13 mm.; 2 rows of rearls with crescent; diadem knot type 1.

d. 11 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; diadem knot type 5; legend starts at 1 hrs.

155


156

Napad II e. 1.94 gr. 13 mm diadem

f. 1.59 gr. 12 mm.; dotted

g. 1.88 gr.; 2 rows of pearls;

h. 1.68 gr. 13 mm.; dotted

knot 3.

crescent in 2 rows of pearls diadem knot type 2.

dotted crescent.

crescent; 2 rows of pearls; diadem knot 1.

i. 1.80 gr. 13 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; dot only no crescent; diadem knot type 3.

Type 613.2 hemi-drachm; obverse broad bust, hair in thick waves, ear cover; reverse with large bust to left with diadem a. 1.88 gr.; 1 row of pearls with dotted crescent; diadem knot type 1.

Type 613.3 hemi-drachm; obverse broad bust, hair falling to shoulder, ear cover; reverse with large bust to left with diadem a. 2 rows of pearls; dotted

b. 1.77 gr.; 3 rows of pearls; c. 2 rows of pearls; dotted

d. 1.30 gr. 12 mm.; dotted

crescent.

diadem knot type 1.

crescent in 2 rows of pearls; diadem knot type 2.

crescent.

156


157

Napad II Type 613.4 hemi-drachm; obverse narrow bust, hair in thick waves, ear cover; reverse with bust to left with diadem a. 1.61 gr. 13 mm.; 2 rows

b. 1.58 gr. 14 mm.; 3 rows

of pearls; diadem type 2; legend starts at 1 hrs.

of pearls with dot.

c. 1.66 gr. 12 mm.; 2rows of pearls with dot; diadem knot type 1.

Type 613.5 hemi-drachm; obverse narrow bust, hair falling to shoulder, ear cover; reverse with bust to left with diadem a. 1.68 gr. 13 mm.; 3 rows

b. 1.46 gr.; 2 rows of pearls; c. 1.34 gr. 11x13 mm.; 2

d. 1.49 gr.; 2 rows of pearls;

of pearls with dot; diadem knot type 5; no cresent, dot only.

diadem knot type 1.

rows of pearls; diadem knot type 5; neck piece (?).

diadem kbnot type 5; large reverse bust with unclear nose.

e. 1.77 gr. 11 mm.; dotted crescent in 3 rows of pearls; diadem knot type 1; neck piece.

f. 1.19 gr. 11 mm.; neck

g. 1.12 gr.

h. 1.49 gr. 14 mm.; 2 rows

i. 1.48 gr. 12x14 mm.; 3 rows of pearls; diaden knot type63.

j. 1.37 gr. 13 mm.; 3 rows

piece; 2 rows of pearls diaden knot type 5.

of pearls; dotted crescent diadem knot 6.

12 mm.; neck piece; 2 rows of pearls.

of pearls diadem knot type 5.

k. 1.51 gr. 12 mm.; 3 rows of pearls; dot only, no crescent; diadem knot type 1.

157


158

Napad II Type 614.1 obol; obverse broad bust, hair in thick waves, ear cover; reverse with bust to left with diadem a. 0.64 gr. 8 mm.

b. 0.60 gr. 8 mm.; 2 rows of

c. 0.64 gr.; 2 rows of pearls with dotted crescent; diadem knot type 3.

d. 0.44 gr. 8 mm.; 1 row of

f. 0.63 gr.; diadem knot type g. 0.56 gr, 8 mm.; 2 rows of

h. 0.69 gr. 9 mm.; 1 row of

7.

pearls with dot in centre; dotted �Halo� rim.

pearls.

e. 0.55 gr. 9 mm.; dot within 2 rows of pearls diadem knot type 6.

pearls diadem not type 3.

i. 0.58 gr. 10 mm.; 3 rows of j. 0.72 gr. 9x10 mm.; 2 rows k. 0.61 gr. 9 mm.; 2 rows of pearls with dot diadem knot type 1.

of pearls; crescent with dot before bust.

pearls; diaden knot type 1.

pearls; obverse die of hemidrachm (?)

l. 0.53 gr. 9 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; dot only, no crescent; diadem knot type 6.

Type 614.2 obol; obverse broad bust, hair falling to shoulder, ear cover; reverse with bust to left with diadem a. 0.49 gr. 9 mm.; 3 rows of

b. 0.48 gr. 7 mm; diadem

pearls; diadem type 3.

knot type 3.

c. 0.41 gr. 8 mm.; 2 rows of pearls.

d. 0.53 gr. 9 mm.; 3 rows of pearls diaden type 6.

158


159

Napad II Type 614.3 obol; obverse narrow bust, hair in thick waves, ear cover; reverse with bust to left with diadem a. 0.56 gr. 10 mm.; diaden

b. 0.67 gr. 9x10 mm; diaden c. 0.55 gr. 10 mm.; diaden

d. 0.54 gr.; 2 rows of pearls

type 1.

type 1.

type 3.

with crescent; diadem knot type 3.

e. 0.54 gr.; 2 rows of pearls with crescent; diadem knot type 1; very large reverse bust.

f. 0.42 gr. 9 mm.; 3 rows of

g. 0.62 gr. 9 mm.; 2 rows of

pearls; dot only, no crescent in tiara

pearls; dot only, no crescent in tiara; dotted crescent before obverse bust;

Type 614.4 obol; obverse narrow bust, hair falling to shoulder, ear cover; reverse with bust to left with diadem a. 0.45 gr. 9 mm. 3 rows of

b. 0.37 gr. 7x8 mm.; 2 rows

pearls; diadem knot type 6.

of pearls diadem type 3.

c. 0.48 gr. 8 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; diaden type 3; reverse bust with unusual hair tuft.

d. 0.53 gr. 9x10 mm.; 2 bands of pearls with dot; right turning triskeles in obverse right field (?); diadem knot type 6.

159


160

Napad II e. 0.42 gr. 9 mm.; 2 rows of pearls.

f. 0.63 gr.; very small obverse bust with thin neck.

Type 615 drachm; reverse bust to right a. 14 x17 mm.

Type 616 hemi-drachm; obverse narrow bust, hair falling to shoulder; reverse bust to right a. 1.48 gr. 12 mm.; 2 rows of b. 1.43 gr. 13 mm.; 3 rows pearls; dotted crescent.

of pearls; diadem knot type 6.

Type 617 obol; obverse bushy hair; reverse bust to right a. 0.38 gr. 8 mm.

b. 0.51 gr. 11 mm.

160


161

Prince Y; Prince Z; Prince X; (former Unknown King II) 1st century AD

Alram has attributed the numerous variations of his “Unknown King II” to one ruler. In this catalogue these coins are assigned to three different rulers following Müseler and De Morgan. The legend on the reverse is meaningless and gives no information on the issuing rulers. On the reverses of the three Princes is a diadem in various forms, Prince Y has a tiara crown and issued drachms, hemi-drachms and obols, (Types 618, 619 and 620). Features of Prince “Y” coins: 

The number of rows of pearls on the tiara can be one, two or three.

In the field of the tiara is nearly always a crescent with a dot (or dots), a cross, a star or just a dot without the crescent.

There are three variants of the diadem knot.

The hair falls down to the shoulder.

The torque has two or three segments and can have a medallion or jewel in front.

The bust is dressed in a cloak or in armour. This is mostly not clear as the lower part of the bust is generally off flan.

In the obverse right or left field can be a triskeles turning left or right.

There can be one (rarely), two or three (rarely) diadem bands.

The reverse diadem can have the ties drawn across the circle or the circle is without the ties.

Die axes ↑↑, ↑↓, ↑→ or irregular.

Prince Z has a crenellated crown and issued hemi-drachms and obols (Types 621, 621A and 622). Features of Prince “Z” coins: 

The hair has two, three or four rows of waves

On the obverse no diadem knots at the back of the head

The torque has two or three segments and can have a medallion or a jewel in front

The bust is dressed in armour

The crown has three or less often two merlons

On reverse always two diadems and the diadem ties are shown

Die axes ↑↑, ↑↓ or irregular


162 Prince X with the diademed bare headed bust struck hemi-drachms and obols, (Types 622B/NB1, 622B/NB2). Features of Prince “X” coins: 

At the back of the head three or four rows of hair

Torque has one or two segments

Always two diadems

The diadem ties are shown.

Prince Y coins are by far the most often seen, his hemi-drachm is the most common Persis coin. Prince Z coins are scarce. Prince X coins are very rare. Special features of the Princes Y, X and Z coins Triskeles on obverse

Medallion or jewel in torque

Decoration of the tiara and diadem knots on Prince Y coins

type 1

type 2

type 3

type 4

Prince Y with tiara Type 618.1 drachm; reverse with diadem bands across diadem a. 2.34 gr.; 3 rows of pearls; b. 3.56 gr. 16 mm.; 3 rows torque 2 segments; triskeles turning right; diadem knot type 2.

of pearls; dotted crescent; torque 2 segments; triskelis turning right; diadem knot type 1.

c. 13x14 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent; torque 1 segment; no triskelis; diadem knot type 2.

d. 3.16 gr.15 mm.; 2 rows of pearls with dotted crescent; right turning triskelis in left field.


163

Prince Y e. 3.19 gr.; 3 rows of pearls; dotted crescent; torque 2 segments; left turning triskelis turning left diadem knot type 3.

f. 3.21 gr. 14 mm.; 2 rows of g. 3.56 gr. 16 mm.; 3 rows of pearls; dotted crescent; torque 3 segments; left turning triskelis behind bust diadem knot type 2.

pearls; torque 3 segments; dot only in tiara; diadem knot type 1.

Type 618.2 drachm; reverse without diadem ties across diadem; a. 2.9 gr. 15 mm.; 3 rows of

b. 2.9 gr. 15x18 mm.; 2 rows c. 2.37 gr. 16x17 mm.; dot pearls; crescent with dot; of pearls; crescent with dot; within 3 rows of pearls. triskeles; turning left; diadem torque 2 segments; behind knot type 2. bust unclear character; diadem knot type 2.

d. 2.74 gr. 14x15 mm.; crescent within 3 rows of pearls.

Type 619.1 hemi-drachm; reverse with diadem ties across diadem; a. 1.13 gr. 12 mm.; 2 rows

b. 1.28 gr.; 1 or 2 rows of

of pearls.

pearls; only dot in field; torque 1 segment; triskeles turning right; diadem knot type 2.

c. 1.4 gr. 12 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; crescent with cross; torque 3 segments; no triskeles.

d. 1.27 gr.; 2 rows of pearls;

e. 1.20 gr; 2 rows of pearls; torque 2 segments no triskelis.

f. 1.47 gr. 12x13 mm.; 2

g. 1.70 gr. 12x13 mm.; dot

h. 0.87 gr. 10x11 mm.; 2

rows of pearls with star (?) inside; left turning triskeles diadem knot type 3.

within 2 rows of pearls; diadem knot type 2; on reverse single diadem band.

rows of pearls; left turning triskeles.

crescent with dot; torque 2 segments; triskeles turning right.


164

Prince Y i. 1.09 gr. 11 mm.; 3 rows of pearls; no triskelis.

rows of pearls; crescent with dot; triskeles turning right; torque with medallion.

l. 1.51 gr. 12 mm.; large head; 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent; obverse drachm die?

m. 1.25 gr. 14 mm.; 2 rows n. 1.24 gr. 12x15 mm.; 2

o. 1.16 gr. 11x14 mm.; 2

p. 1.38 gr. 11x13 mm.; 2

of pearls; dotted crescent.

rows of pearls; dotted crescent; torque 2 segments.

rows of pearls; crescent; torque with medallion.

rows of pearls with dotted crescent; torque 2 segments.

q. 1.29 gr. 12x13 mm.; 2

r. 1.31 gr. 12 mm.; left s. 1.02 gr. 12mm.; crescent turning triskelis in right field. with star and 2 dots within 1 row of pearls; torque 2 segments and medallion.

rows of pearls; dotted crescent; right turning triskeles.

j. 1.73 gr. 13 mm.; 2 rows of k. 1.72 gr, 13x14 mm.; 2 pearls; cross in crescent; torque 3 segments, no triskelis.

t. 1.57 gr. 12 mm.; 2 rows of pearls with dotted crescent; triskeles before bust.

v. 1.07 gr. 14x15 mm.; 2 of pearls; torque 2 segments. rows of pearls with dotted crescents; torque 2 segments.

w. 1.55 gr. 12 mm.; dot within 3 rows of pearls; triskeles behind and dotted crescent before bust.

x. 1.10 gr.; 2 rows of pearls;

y. 1.38 gr.; 2 rows of pearls; z. 1.18 gr.; 3 rows of pearls,

aa. 1.28 gr. 13 mm.; crude or imitative issue.

bb. 1.37 gr. 14 mm.; 2 rows

u. 1.03 gr. 12 mm.; 3 rows

crescent with 3 dots; no triskelis.

no crescent; torque 2 segments; no triskelis.

3 diadem bands across diadem.

of pearls, crescent with 3 dots; torque 3 segments with jewel; triskelis turning right.


165

Prince Y cc. 1.25 gr. 12 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; dot only, no crescent; right turning triskelis.

Type 619.1A hemi-drachm; reverse with 3 diadem bands a. 1.36 gr. 12 mm.; 2 rows

b. 1.5 gr. 13 mm.; 2 rows of c. 1.15 gr. 13 mm.; 2 rows d. 1.45 gr. 12 mm.; 1 row of

of pearls; crescent with cross; torque 3 segments; diadem knot type 2; no triskelis.

pearls; crescent with cross

of pearls; torque 2 segments

pearls; right turning triskelis with 3 dots above and below; crescent without dots.

Type 619.1B hemi-drachm; reverse with 4 crossed diadem ties a. 1.31 gr. 12 mm.; 2 rows of pearls with dot only within; triskeles (?) behind bust; .

b. 1.42 gr. 13 mm.; 2 rows of pearls, left turning triskelis behind bust


166

Prince Y Type 619.2 hemi-drachm; reverse 2 diadem bands no diadem ties across diadems a. 1.08 gr. 12x14 mm.; 2

b. 1.31 gr. 11x13 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; crescent with rows of pearls; right turning cross and dots; medallion in triskeles. torque.

c. 1.35 gr. 11 mm.; 2 rows of d. 1.14 gr. 11x13 mm.; pearls; no triskelis. crescent with cross within 2 rows of pearls; in reverse diadem trace of cross bands.

Type 619.2-1 hemi-drachm; reverse 3 diadem bands, no diadem ties across diadems a. 1.06 gr. 13 mm.; 3 diadem bands; triskelis in left field.

Type 620.1 obol; reverse with diadem bands across diadem a. 0.4 gr. 8x9 mm.; 1 row of b. 0.46 gr.; 2 rows of pearls; c. 0.45 gr. 8 mm.; 2 rows of pearls.

e. 0.42 gr. 8x9 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; dot only in tiara; triskeles turning right behind bust.

torque 2 segments.

pearls with a dot inside; left turning triskelis behind bust.

d. 0.43 gr. 8 mm.; dot within 2 rows of pearls with dot inside; triskeles (?) behind bust.


167

Prince Y Type 620.1-1; obol; reverse with 1 diadem band a. 0.49 gr. 9 mm.; 2 rows of b. 0.53 gr. 9 mm.; 2 rows of c. 0.30 gr. 8 mm.; 1 row of pearls; torque 2 segments.

pearls; torque 1 segment.

pearls; triskeles turning right; torque 2 segments.

Type 620.2 obol; reverse without diadem bands across diadem a. 0.42 gr. 8 mm.; 1 row of

b. 0.42 gr. 9 mm.; 2 rows of c. 0.38 gr. 8x9 mm.; dotted

pearls; no crescent, only dot on tiara; torque 2 segments.

pearls no crescent, 2 dots in tiara.

e.; 0.55 gr. 9 mm.; 1 row of pearls; torque 2 segments.

crescent in tiara; torque 2 segments; light weight.

d. 0.45 gr. 7 mm.; torque 3 segments.

f. 0.37 gr. 10 mm.; 2 rows of g. 0.36 gr. 10 mm.2 rows of

h. 0.39 gr. 9 mm.;2rows of

pearls; torque 2 segments.

pearls, no dot in crescent.

pearls; dot only, no crescent.

Type 620.3 obol; very small bust on obverse, hair falling to shoulder; reverse with diadem ties across diadem bands a. 0.50 gr. 8 mm.; 2 rows of

b. 0.63 gr. 9 mm.; 1 row of

pearls; dotted crescent; triskeles (?) behind bust.

pearls with dotted crescent; left turning triskeles.

c. 0.47 gr. 8 mm.; 1 row of pearls with dotted crescent; left turning triskelis in right field.

d. 0.40 gr. 9 mm.; 1 row of pearls; dotted crescent; left turning triskelis in right field.


168

Prince Y e. 0.50 gr. 9 mm.;1 row of pearls, dotted crescent; left turning triskelis


169

Prince Z with crown

Type 621.1 hemi-drachm; reverse with 2 diadems, bands across diadems; shoulder on flan a. 1.16 gr.; 2 rows of hair;

b. 0.95 gr.; 3 rows of hair;

torque 2 segments.

torque 1 segment.

e. 1.40 gr. 10x11 mm.; 3 rows of hair; torque 2 segments.

f. 1.1 gr.; 3 rows of hair;

i. 1.28 gr. 11x13 mm.; 3 rows of hair; torque 2 segments.

j. 1.12 gr. 10x13 mm.; 3

c. 1.02 gr.; 3 rows of hair; torque 2 segments.

d. 1.42 gr. 12x13 mm.; 4 rows of hair; torque 2 segments.

g. 1.19 gr. 12 mm.; 2 rows of h. 1,25 gr. 12x14 mm.; left torque 2 segments with jewel; hair; torque 1 segment with turning triskelis in obverse large head; obverse diejewel. right field. identical with 621-1d.

rows of hair; narrow bust.

k. 1.00 gr. 12 mm.; 2 stepped merlons; 3 rows of hair; torque 1 segment; annulet on obverse right field.

Type 621.1-1 hemi-drachm; reverse with 3 diadem bands with ties across h. 1.31 gr. 12 mm.; 2 rows of hair; torque 2 segments.

m. 1.66 gr.; 3 rows of hair; torque 3 segments with jewel; dot behind bust.


170

Prince Z Type 621.2 hemi-drachm; reverse with diadem bands across diadem; large head, shoulder not or partly visible a. 1.19 gr.; 3 rows of hair;

b. 0.8 gr.; 3 rows of hair;

torque 2 segments.

torque 1 segment.

c. 1.27 gr. 12x13 mm.; 3 rows of hair; torque 2 segments; obverse dieidentical with 621.2e

d. 0.92gr.; 3 rows of hair;

e. 1.30 gr. 11x12 mm.; 3 rows of hair; torque 2 segments; obverse dieidentical with 621.2c.

f. 1.33 gr.; 3 rows of hair;

g. 1.22 gr.; 3 rows of hair;

h. 1.04 gr.; low weight; 3

torque 1 segment.

torque 1 segment with medaillion.

rows of hair.

torque 2 segments; obverse die-identical with 621.1f.

i. 1.43 gr. 12x13 mm; 3 rows j. 1.07 gr. 13 mm.; 3 rows of hair. of hair.

Type 622 obol; reverse with diadem bands across the diadem a. 0.32 gr. 8x9 mm.; 2

b. 0.54 gr.; 3 rows of hair; merlons; 2 rows of hair; light torque 3 segments; large weight. head.

c. 0.45 gr. 9 mm.; torque 1 segment; small head.

d. 0.37 gr. 8 mm.; 3 rows of hair; torque 1 segment; on reverse one band off flan ?


171

Prince Z e. 0.26 gr. 7 mm.; light weight.

f. 0.3 gr. 8 mm.

g. 0.39 gr. 8 mm.

Type 622A hemi-drachm; bust to right; reverse with diadem ties across diadem a. 1.19 gr. 11 mm.; 3 rows of hair; torque 3 segments.


172

Prince X, bare headed

Type 622B-NB1 hemi-drachm; bare headed bust; reverse diadem ties across diadem a. 1.22 gr. 13 mm.; 4 rows of b. 1.17 gr. 10x12 mm.; 3 hair; torque 2 segments.

rows of hair.

c. 11x12 mm.; 3 rows of hair.

Type 622B-NB2 obol; bare headed bust; reverse with diadem ties across diadem a. 0.51 gr. 3 rows of hair; torque 1 segment.


173

Vādfradād V (Kavad; Autophradates) 1st – 2nd century AD

Coins of Napad II can be confused with Vādfradād V. The legend on the Napad II coins is long with up to 19 characters, whereas the Vādfradād coins have ± 10 characters. Alram has reconstructed the legend which is the same on both sides and is nearly always corrupted. Alram distinguishes between Type 624 and Type 626 based on the legend, the first type has a correct legend whereas latter type has a corrupt legend. As the legend is seldom complete and generally corrupt, this distinction is not convenient for collectors, I have combined in this Catalogue Type 624 and Type 626 as Type 624/626. Drachms and hemi-drachms can have a legend or no legend on the obverse. The obols have no legend on the obverse.

Legend Vādfradād (after Alram) Obverse

Reverse

wtprdt MLK’ = Vādfradād King

wtprdt MLK’ = Vādfradād King

The obverse tiara can have one, two or three rows of pearls with a dotted crescent, just the crescent or just dots. The hair falls down on the shoulder or is a bushy hair ball in the neck. Some obols have the hair in three or two rows. There is an earflap. Normally there are two diadem bands visible. The torque has one, two or three segments. A triskeles is sometimes in the obverse right field. The reverse bust is much smaller than the obverse bust, except on obols which can have a large reverse bust. The reverse bust has a flat tiara with one or two diadem bands. The hair is bushy, there is no earflap and mostly a rather long pointed beard. Type 626A has an unusual reverse. The obverse is like the other coins of this king. The reverse bust wears a feather crown, has a diadem with knot and a tie hanging down, the hair is falling down in a narrow lock to the shoulder. In the left field is a legend reading “Vādfradād King”. Only two coins are known. The reverse is very different from the other types and the coins may have been struck by a still unidentified king. Die-axes: ↑↑; ↑↓; ↑→; irregular.


174

VÄ dfradÄ d V Type 623.1 drachm; legend behind bust on obverse a. 2.62 gr.17 mm.; 2 rows

b. 2.82 gr. 16x18 mm.; 2

of pearls with dotted crescent.

rows of pearls with dotted crescent.

Type 623.2 drachm; no legend on obverse a. 3.9 gr.; 3 rows of pearls with dotted crescent.

Type 624/626.1 hemi-drachm; legend behind bust on obverse; bushy hair ball in neck a. 1.67 gr. 12x14 mm.; 1

b. 1.39 gr. 13x15 mm.; 1

row of pearls with dotted crescent; triskeles on obverse right field.

row of pearls with dotted crescent; triskeles in obverse right field.

c. 1.44 gr. 13x14 mm.; 1 row of pearls with dotted crescent.

d. 1.54 gr, 12x14 mm.; 1 row of pearls with dotted crescent.


175

VÄ dfradÄ d V Type 624/626.2-1 hemi-drachm; no legend behind bust on obverse; hair in long curls to shoulder a. 1.55 gr.; 2 rows of pearls with dotted crescent.

e. 1.6 gr.; 3 rows of pearls.

i. Private collection. 1.22 gr. 12 mm.; 2 rows of pearls with 3 dots within.

m. Elsen 249 # 108; 1.44 gr. 13 mm.; 3 rows of pearls.

b. 1.32 gr. 12x14 mm.; 2 rows of pearls with dotted crescent.

c. 1.83 gr.; 3 rows of pearls; no crescent or dot within the pearls.

d. 1.2 gr. 14 mm.; 2 rows of

f. 1.6 gr.; 2 brows of pearls; full reverse legend.

g. 1.49 gr. 12x14 mm. 2

h. gr. 13 mm.; 2 rows of

rows of pearls with 2 dots within.

pearls with 1 dot within.

j. Private collection; 1.69

k. S.M.M. # 5/2c; 1.27 gr.

gr. 12 mm.; 2 rows of pearls.

10x12 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; the reverse bust may be from a drachm die.

l. Tyler-Smith NC 2004 # 222; 1.59 gr. 12 mm.; 2 rows of pearls.

pearls.


176

VÄ dfradÄ d V Type 624/626.2-2 hemi-drachm; no legend behind obverse bust; bushy hair ball in neck a. 1.62 gr. 12 mm.; 1 row of b. 1.67 gr. 12x13 mm.; 1 pearls with dotted crescent.

row of pearls with dotted crescent.

e. 1.40 gr.; 3 rows of pearls with a dot.

f. 1.46 gr. 13 mm.; 3 rows of pearls.

c. 1.38 gr. 13 mm.; 1 row of pearls with dotted crescent.

d. 1.66 gr. 12 mm.; 2 rows of pearls.

g. 1.53 gr. 14 mm.; 2 rows of pearls.

Type 624/626.3 hemi-drachm; no legend behind obverse bust; very large bust on obverse a. 1.55 gr. 12 mm.; obverse possibly struck by a drachm die.

Type 625.1 obol ; hair in long curves to shoulder a. 0.48 gr. 2 rows of pearls.

b. 0.4 gr.; 2 rows of pearls with crescent.

c. 0.45 gr.; 3 rows of pearls.

d. 0.5 gr.; 1 row of pearls with 3 dots within; very narrow obverse bust.


177

VÄ dfradÄ d V e. 0.61 gr. 8 mm.; 3 rows of pearls.

f. 0.40 gr. 10 mm.; 2 rows of pearls.

g. 0.49 gr. 9 mm.; 2 rows of h. 0.46 gr. 10 mm.; 2 rows pearls.

of pearls.

i. 0.37 gr. 10 mm.; 2 rows of pearls.

Type 625.2 obol; hair in rows or bushy ball in neck; reverse bust can be large or small a. 0.69 gr. 9 mm.; 2 rows of b. 0.54 gr. 9 mm.1 row of pearls; bushy hair in 3 rows on obverse.

pearls with crescent; left turning triskelis on obverse.

e. 0.50 gr. 9x10 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; obverse hair in 3 rows.

f. 0.30 gr. 8 mm.; very small; 1 row of pearls with dotted crescent; bushy hair on obverse.

c. 0.56 gr. 10 mm.; 2 rows of pearls.

d. 0.57 gr. 9 mm.; bushy hair on obverse; reverse small head.

g. 0.5 gr. 9 mm.; 3 rows of pearls.

Type 626 hemi drachm ; obverse hair in bushy ball, no ear cover; reverse large bust a. 12 mm.; 1 row of pearls.


178

V훮dfrad훮d V Type 626A hemi-drachm; obverse bust in high tiara with dotted crescent; no legend; ear cover and pointed beard; reverse diademed bust with feather crown, hair falling to shoulder; legend probably reading V훮dfrad훮d King; left turning triskelis in right field a. 1.31 gr.; left turning triskelis; legend before bust.

b. 1.38 gr. 13 mm.; left turning triskelis; legend in left field.


179

Mančhir I (Mančihr; Minucithri; Minucétri; Minuchetri; Miitri?) 1st – 2nd century AD The coinage of Mančhir I can be divided into four groups Group 1 (Type 627 and 627A). On the obverse is a left looking middle-aged king in high tiara with one or two rows of pearls and a dotted crescent. There is an earflap and the hair is in a large ball. There is a legend behind the obverse bust. The reverse shows a younger diademed non-radiated person to the left with rather flat hair and no ear flap. No legend on the reverse. Group 2 (Type 628 and 628A). The obverse is similar to Group 1 but the bust on the reverse is to the left and radiated, there is a legend before the bust. Group 3 (Type 628B). The obverse is similar to Group 1, the reverse has a radiated bust to the right. Group 4 (Type 628C and 628D). Is a separate type of which three coins have been reported. The tiara on the obverse has a unique decoration with two dots separated by curved lines within one row of pearls. The hair is falling to the shoulder and is covered by a clear neck piece. The legend is in the right field or in both the right and left obverse fields. The reverse bust is to the left and radiated. It has the legend in the right field As discussed in paragraph 14.2.2 the reverse bust on Mančhir I coins represents the God Mithri. NB1. The obverse and reverse of coin Type 627a. and 627b. are die-identical. NB2. The coins of Mančhir I and II have much in common. The differences are 1) the obverse nose of Mančhir I is straight and Mančhir II has a prominent hook nose; 2) on the Mančhir I coins the hair on the reverse is rather flat above the diadem whereas on Mančhir II coins the hair on the reverse bust bulges above the diadem. The Mančhir II reverse bust is non-radiated.

Legends Mančhir I (after Alram) Obverse

Reverse

[m]nčtr MLK’ = Mančhir King

mrty [MLK’] = Mitri (Mihr) King

The obverse legend starts at 5 hrs and the reverse legend at 10 hrs. Die-axes: ↑→; 2 coins only.

Type 627 drachm; legend on obverse; no legend on reverse; reverse bust not radiated a. 3.05 gr. 17 mm.; 2 rows

b. 2.64 gr. 15 mm.; 2 rows

of pearls.

of pearls; dotted crescent.

c. 2.71 gr.; 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent.

d. 3.12 gr. 16 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent.

179


180

ManÄ?hir I e. 2.90 gr. 17x18 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; crescent.

f. 3.27 gr. 16 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; crescent.

Type 627A hemi-drachm; legend on obverse; no legend on reverse; reverse bust not radiated a. 1.51 gr. 14x15 mm.; 2

b. 1.31 gr.; 2 rows of pearls

rows of pearls with dotted crescent.

with dotted crescent.

Type 628 hemi-drachm; no legend on obverse; reverse with legend in left field and bust radiated a. 1.57 gr. 13x14 mm.

b. 1.51 gr. 18x19 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent.

e. 1.45 gr. 14 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent.

c. 1.51 gr. 12 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent.

d. 1.33 gr. 13 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent.

f. 1.54 gr 13 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent.

180


181

Mančhir I Type 628A obol; no legend on obverse and reverse; reverse bust radiated a. 0.47 gr. 9 mm.; 1 row of

b. 0.32 gr. 7 mm.; reverse

pearls; dotted crescent.

legend (?); 2 rows of pearls.

c. 0.52 gr. 9 mm.; 1 row of pearls; dotted crescent.

d. 0.41 gr. 7x10 mm.; radiation off flan.

Type 628B hemi-drachm; no legend on obverse; reverse bust to right and radiated; reverse legend starts at 2 hrs a. 1.68 gr. 12mm.; reverse

b. 1.60 gr. 13 mm.; reverse

legend “mtr” (?); 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent.

legend “mrt” (?); 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent.

Type 628C drachm; obverse with legend right; tiara with 2 dotted crescents; reverse bust radiated; reverse legend starts at 2 a. 2.89 gr. 16 mm.; unusual tiara decoration obverse bust.

Type 628D hemi-drachm; obverse with legend left and right; tiara with 2 dotted crescents; reverse bust radiated; reverse legend starts at 2 hrs a. 1.13 gr.; tiara decoration

b. 1.40 gr. 14 mm.; tiara

unusual.

decoration unusual; reverse legend is mtry.

181


182

Ardaxšīr (Artaxerxes; Artaxercès) III 1st - 2nd Century AD

The obverse has a diademed bust with a hair dress of generally two rows of small curls and no high tiara. There are no earflaps. Sometimes the obverse bust wears a low crenellated crown just above the diadem similar as on certain Mančhir II coins. The reverse has a diademed bust with a low hair dress, always radiated, with a short beard or beardless, mostly younger than the obverse bust. It is the image of the God Mithra.

Legend Ardaxšīr III (after Alram) Obverse

Reverse

‘rthštry MLK’ = Ardaxšīr King

mtry MLK’ = Mihr/Mithra King

The obverse legend starts at 5 hrs and the reverse legend starts at 10 or at 3 hrs. As additional symbols we see a triskelis, a crescent, a dotted crescent and a small annulet. Die axes ↑↑, ↑↓, ↑→, or irregular.

Type 629 drachm; obverse legend; reverse bust radiated with or without beard, reverse legend starts at 10 downwards a. 14x16 mm.; triskelis on obverse below bust; crescent on obverse at 10 hrs.

b. 2.74 gr. 17 mm.; triskelis on obverse right field.

Type 630 hemi-drachm; obverse legend; reverse bust radiated with or without beard, reverse legend starts at 10 downwards a. 1.15 gr. 13 mm.; obverse legend in left field MLK’.

b. 1.48 gr. 14 mm.

c. 1.26 gr. 13x14 mm.

d. 1.57 gr. 14x15 mm.; triskelis on obverse left field.


183

ArdaxĹĄÄŤr III e. 1.06 gr. 12 mm.; crescent before obverse bust.

f. 1.39 gr. 13x15 mm.

g. 1.68 gr. 13 mm.; symbol before obverse bust(?); very large reverse bust.

Type 630A hemi-drachm; obverse legend; reverse bust radiated with or without beard, reverse legend starts at 3 downwards a. 1.48 gr.14 mm.

b. 1.24 gr. 13 mm.; obverse bust with a low crenellated crown; triskelis in obverse right field.

Type 631 drachm; no obverse legend; reverse bust radiated with or without beard, reverse legend starts at 10 downwards a. 3.26 gr. 17 mm.; the

b. 2.93 gr. 17x18 mm.

c. 3.01 gr. 16 mm.

d. 2.83 gr.

f. 15 mm.; triskelis on

g. 2.95 gr. 15 mm.; Dieidentical with coin 631f.

h. 2.51 gr. 15x18 mm.;

obverse bust has a low crenellated crown; short legend on reverse in left field ?

e. 2.60 gr. 15 mm.; small annulet in obverse right field.

reverse right field.

triskelis in obverse right field; small reverse bust.


184

ArdaxĹĄÄŤr III i. 1.97 gr. 16x17 mm.

j. 2.28 gr. 18 mm.

k. 2.50 gr. 15x17 mm.;

l. 2.73 gr. 17 mm.

triskelis in obverse right field.

Type 631A hemi-drachm; no obverse legend; reverse bust radiated with or without beard, reverse legend starts at 10 downwards a. 1.55 gr. 13 mm.

e. 1.07 gr. 14 mm.

b. 1.34 gr. 14 mm.; obverse

c. 1.22 gr. 12x14 mm;

d. 1.34 gr. 14mm.; very

bust with low crenellated crown; triskelis in obverse right field; radiation off flan.

crenellated crown.

small reverse bust.

f. 1.49 gr. 12x14 mm.; crescent (?) in obverse right field.

Type 632 drachm; no obverse legend; reverse bust radiated with or without beard, reverse legend starts at 3 upwards a. 2.49 gr.16x17 mm.; triskelis in obverse left field.

b. 2.48 gr.

c. 2.28 gr. 16x18 mm.

d. 2.19 gr. 15x17 mm.; annulet in obverse right field.


185

ArdaxĹĄÄŤr III Type 632A drachm; no legend on obverse and reverse; reverse bust radiated a. 2.58 gr.: 3 dots on

b. 2.74 gr. 17x18 mm.;

obverse right field.

symbol in obverse right field.

Type 632B hemi-drachm; no legend on obverse and reverse; reverse bust radiated a. 1.37 gr.; crenellated crown on obverse.

Type 633 hemi-drachm; no obverse legend; reverse bust radiated with or without beard, reverse legend starts at 3 upwards a. 1.19 gr. 13 mm.

b. 1.08 gr. 12x13 mm.

c. 1.21 gr.; the obverse bust has a low crenellated crown.

d. 1.26 gr. 12x15 mm.;

left turning triskelid in obverse right field; obverse bust with crenellated crown is dieidentical with coin 631A.b.


186

ArdaxĹĄÄŤr III e. 1.41 gr. 13 mm.; unclear symbol on obverse right field.

Type 633A hemi-drachm; reverse bust radiated and to right, reverse legend in left field a. 1.30 gr. 13 mm.

Type 633B obol; obverse and reverse with legend; reverse bust radiated with or without beard a. 0.45 gr.

Type 633C obol; no legend on obverse; reverse legend, reverse bust radiated with or without beard a. 0.4 gr.

b. 0.29 gr. 7x9 mm.

c. 0.40 gr. 8 mm.

d. 037 gr. 9 mm.; star/crescent in obverse right field, MLK before reverse bust.


187

ArdaxĹĄÄŤr III e. 0.40 gr 9 mm.; obverse bust wears crennelated crown and has an unclear symbol behind.

Type 633D obol; no legend on obverse and reverse; reverse bust radiated with or without beard a. 0.39 gr. 9 mm.

b. 0.26 gr. 8x10 mm.


188

Mančhir II (Mančhir; Manucithr; Minucétri) son of Mančihr I 2nd century AD On the obverse Mančhir II wears a high tiara with a crescent or a dotted crescent. He has a prominent hook nose, which differentiates him from Mančhir I who has a straight nose. The hair falls smoothly to the shoulder. There is an ear cover and long beard. The reverse bust is not radiated and wears above the diadem a rather high hair dress with undulating vertical lines and has a young mostly beardless face. There are two distinctly different types of the reverse bust. On the first the nose is hooked and similar to the one on the obverse bust. The second reverse type has a straight nose as is also seen on the coins of Mančhir I and Ardaxšīr III. Some coins have a low crenellated crown just above the diadem which is also seen on certain Ardaxšīr III coins. The obverse legend is the same as on the reverse: mnčtry MLK’ = Mančhir King. The obverse legend starts at 4 hrs. The reverse legend starts at 4-5 on the Types 634, 635 and 638A. On the Types 636, 637 638 and 638A the legend starts at 10 hrs. Die axes ↑↑, ↑↓, ↑→ or irregular.

Legend Mančhir II (after Alram)

obverse and reverse

Mnčtry MLK’ = Mančhir King

Type 634 drachm; obverse legend behind bust; reverse legend starts at 4-5; reverse bust with straight or hook nose a. 3.09 gr. 17x18 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent.

b. 3.00 gr. 18 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent.

c. 2.88 gr. 17 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent.


189

ManÄ?ihr II Type 635.1 hemi-drachm; obverse legend behind bust; reverse legend starts at 4-5; reverse bust with straight nose a. 151 gr.; 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent.

b. 1.29 gr. 12 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent.

c. 1.51 gr. 13 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent.

d. 1.27 gr. 13 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent.

e. 1.39 gr. 12 mm.; 2 rows of pearls and dotted crescent.

Type 635.2 hemi-drachm; obverse legend behind bust; reverse legend starts at 4-5; reserve bust with hook nose a.1.42 gr. 14 mm.; 2 rows of b. 1.72 gr. 14 mm.; 2 bands

c. 1.24 gr.; 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent.

d. 1.47 gr. 14 mm.; 2 rows

f. 1.22 gr. 11 mm.;2 rows

g. 1.20 gr. 14 mm.; 2 rows

h. 1.58 gr. 13 mm.; 2 rows

of pearls; dotted crescent.

of pearls; dotted crescent.

of pearls; dotted crescent.

k. 1.42 gr. 13 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent.

l. 1.40 gr.; 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent.

pearls; dotted crescent; crenellated crown above diadem.

of pearls; 2 rows of pearls; crescent.

e. 1.33 gr.14 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent; crown on reverse bust.

i. 1.22 gr. 12 mm.; 2 rows of j. 1.51 gr. 14x15 mm.; 2 pearls; dotted crescent.

rows of pearls; dotted crescent.

of pearls; dotted crescent.


190

ManÄ?ihr II m. 1.60 gr. 13 mm.2 rows of pearls and dotted crescent.

Type 636 drachm; obverse legend behind bust; reverse legend starts at 10 a. 2.96 gr. 16 mm.; 2 rows of pearls and dotted crescent.

Type 637 hemi-drachm; obverse legend behind bust; reverse legend starts at 10; reverse bust with hook nose a. 1.46 gr.12 mm.; 2 rows of b. 1.50 gr. 13 mm.; 2 rows pearls; dotted crescent; reverse legend starts at 1 hrs.

of pearls; dotted crescent.

e. 1.41 gr. 14 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent; crenellated crown above diadem.

f. 1.60 gr. 14 mm.; 2 bands of pearls; dotted crescent.

c. 1.44 gr.

d. 1.2 gr.


191

ManÄ?ihr II Type 638 obol; no obverse legend; reverse legend starts at 10; reverse bust with straight nose a.

0.41 gr.; 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent.

b. 0.38 gr.; 2 rows of pearls; c. 048 gr. 8 mm. dotted crescent.

Type 638A obol; obverse legend behind bust; reverse legend starts at 10; reverse bust with straight nose a. 0.5 gr.; 1 row of pearls; dotted crescent.

Type 638B obol; no obverse legend; reverse legend starts at 4; reverse bust with hook nose a. 0.42 gr. 8 mm.; 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent; triskelis behind tiara.

b. 0.53 gr. 8x9 mm.; left turning triskeles behind bust; 2 rows of pearls; dotted crescent.

c. weight and size unknown; triskelis behind tiara.

d. 0.61 gr. 9 mm.; 2 rows of pearls and dotted crescent; triskelis behind tiara.

Type 638C obol; no obverse legend; no reverse legend; reverse bust with straight nose a. 0.41 gr. 10x7 mm.; 1 row of pearls; dotted crescent.


192

Unknown King III (Mihr/Mithra/Makatta?) 2nd century AD Only a few drachms and hemi-drachms of this king are known. The obverse has a bust in a high tiara with two rows of pearls and one, two or three dots in a crescent. In the neck is a large hair dress with 3-8 rows of curls. There is no ear cover. The portrait is similar to Mančhir I, Mančhir II (except for the nose) and Mančhir III. The reverse image is a standing, front facing man looking left, with a helmet and holding a barsom bundle or sword (?) in his right hand. The left hand rests on his hip. In the left and right field is a legend. Müseler opines that the right hand legend may read “mk’tt’ = Makatta.

Legend of Unknown King III Coin 641Aa Drachm

MLK’ = King

mk’tt’ = Makatta

Coin 641e Hemi-drachm

MLK’ = King

mk’tt’ = Makatta

Type 641A drachm a. 2.06 gr. 18x19 mm.; crescent behind bust.

Type 641 hemi-drachm a. 1.34 gr. 15 mm.

b. 1.37 gr. 15 mm.

c. 1.40 gr. 14 mm.

d. 1.06 gr. 15 mm.


193

Unknown King III e. 1.23 gr. 13 mm.

i. 1.34 gr. 14 mm.

f. 10x12 mm.

g. 1.03 gr. 13 mm.

h. 1.05 gr. 13 mm.


194

Unknown King IV 1st – 2nd Century AD Of this king only one obol is known. The obverse has a half-length facing bust with the head turned left. The king is wearing a diadem and a high tiara with one row of pearls around an upturned crescent. Traces of letters and a symbol are visible above and behind the bust. A long hair truss and a diadem band are falling down. The reverse is remarkable with a Parthian style seated figure to the right, with a helmet (?) and one arm raised holding an uncertain object. There are ca. 15 illegible characters around and on the left side is an indication of a dotted border. Based on the tiara the king may be dated in the 1st -2nd century AD, before or directly after ManÄ?hir III who is the last king wearing a high tiara with band(s) of pearls around an upturned crescent.

Type 641B Obol a. 0.53 gr. 10 mm.


195

Mančhir III (Mančihr; Minuchetri; Minucétri) 2nd Century AD The bust on the obverse has the usual round high tiara with the dotted crescent similar to the busts of Mančhir I and II with the legend “Mančhir King” behind. The Types 643 and 644 have no legend on the obverse, but a triskelis in the right field. The tiara of the reverse bust is new. It is pointed and bending forward. The reverse legends read “Son of Mančhir King” on the drachms, on the hemi-drachm and obol the word “Son of King” is sometimes left out, possibly due to lack of space. The legends are clearly cut and readable. The reverse image can be of the God Vrethragna, a God related to Mithra. For the argumentation see paragraph 14.2.2 in Part One The drachm weight is around three gram and higher than the weight of the early Kings of the Vādfradād IV dynasty. Die-axes: ↑↑; ↑→; based on 3 coins.

Legends Mančhir III (after Alram) Obverse

Reverse

mnčtry MLK’ Mančhir King

BRH mnčtry MLK’ Son of Mančhir King

Type 642 drachm; obverse has round tiara with dotted crescent; ear cover; reverse tiara with bent forward top, long legend starts at 11 a. 3.10 gr. 18x20 mm.

b. 3.05 gr. 18x19 mm.

e. 2.90 gr. 19 mm.

f. 3.37 gr. 20 mm.

c. 2.82 gr. 20 mm.

d. 3.06 gr. 21 mm.


196

ManÄ?hir III Type 642A hemi-drachm; obverse round tiara with dotted crescent; ear cover; legend behind bust; reverse tiara with bent forward top, long legend starts at 11 a. 1.70 gr. 15 mm.

b. 1.19 gr. 15 mm.

Type 643 drachm; obverse round tiara with dotted crescent; ear cover; no legend; reverse tiara bent forward top; long legend starts at 5 a. 2.86 gr. 20x22 mm.; left turning triskelis in obverse right field.

Type 644 hemi-drachm; obverse: no legend; left or right turning triskelis in right field; round tiara with dotted crescent; ear cover; reverse tiara bent forward top; short legend starts at 10 a. 1.41 gr. 15 mm.; left

b. 1.53 gr. 14 mm.; triskelis turning left.

c. 1.53 gr. 13x15 mm.; triskelis turning left.

d. 1.56 gr. 13x14 mm.;

turning triskelis.

e. 1.55 gr. 15 mm.; triskelis turning right.

f. 1.36 gr. 13 mm.; triskelis

g. 1.79 gr.; triskelis turning

h. 1.46 gr. 15 mm.; triskelis

turning left.

right.

turning left

triskelis turning right.


197

ManÄ?hir III Type 644A hemi-drachm; obverse: legend behind bust; high tiara with dotted crescent; ear cover; no triskelis on obverse; reverse tiara bent forward top; legend starts at 11 with the word BRH a. 1.70 gr. 16 mm.

b. 1.44 gr.

Type 644B obol; obverse: legend behind bust; high tiara with dotted crescent; ear cover; reverse tiara bent forward top; legend starts at 11 a. 0.72 gr. 12 mm.

b.; 0.50 gr. 10 mm.

c. 0.69 gr. 10 mm.

Type 645 hemi-drachm; obverse bust in high tiara with dotted crescent; ear cover; reverse like a Parthian tetradrachm: Tyche facing left standing before King on throne a. 14 mm. triskelis on obverse in right field; legend starts at 5 hrs.


198

Mančhir IV (Mančhir; Minuchetri; Minucétri) 2nd Century AD

The legends on the obverse and reverse are the same as on the coins of Mančhir III.

Legends Mančhir IV (after Alram) Obverse

Reverse

mnčtry MLK’ Mančhir King

BRH mnčtry MLK’ Son of Mančhir King

Alram knew only one drachm and catalogued it under Mančhir III. Meanwhile more drachms, hemi-drachms and an obol are recorded. Although the legends are the same Müseler proposes to assign these coins to another King Mančhir IV in view of the obverse and reverse bust images which are radically different from the Mančhir III coins. Such attribution is however not proven by other arguments than the different images. The obverse bust wears a feather crown in different forms: with two rows of small curls standing on a short stick or with a left and a right turning curl on a stick and a combination of the two forms. The diadem has two or three bands, a knot and ties hanging down. A large “wig type” hair dress is in the neck with three or four rows of curls. There is no ear cover, the beard is broad and not ending in a point. The reverse bust wears the round tiara with one or two rows of pearls around a dotted crescent. The diadem has one band, a knot and a tie hanging down. In the neck is a wig with three or four rows of curls or the hair is falling to the shoulder in loose curls. Also the reverse bust beard is broad and not pointed. The legend in left and right field starts at 11, 1 or 5 hrs.

Type 646 drachm; obverse diademed bust with feather crown; no ear cover; reverse high tiara with dotted crescent; legend starts at 5; no ear cover a. 3.44 gr. 25 mm.

b. 2.95 gr. 21 mm.

c. 3.26 gr. 20x21 mm.

d. 2.31 gr. 17 mm.


199

ManÄ?hir IV e. 3.10 gr. 26 mm.; triskelis before reverse bust

f. 3.00 gr. 20 mm.

g. 2.94 gr. 27 mm.

h. 3.16 gr. 21 mm.

Type 646A drachm; obverse diademed bust with feather crown; no ear cover; reverse high tiara with dotted crescent; legend starts at 11; no ear cover a. 3.31 gr. 20 mm.

b. 2.31 gr. 15 mm.

Type 646B hemi-drachm; obverse diademed bust with feather crown; no ear cover; reverse high tiara with dotted crescent; legend starts at 11; no ear cover a. 1.6 gr.

b. 1.59 gr. 14 mm.

c. 1.65 gr. 15 mm.

Type 646C obol; obverse diademed bust with feather crown; no ear cover; reverse high tiara with dotted crescent; short legend starts at 1; no ear cover a. 0.57 gr. 11 mm.


200

Ardaxšīr IV (Ardashir; Artaxerxes; Artaxercès) Late 2nd – early 3rd Century AD

The obverse image, similar to the obverse bust of Mančhir IV, has a feather crown with two rows of small curls. The legend reads Ardaxšīr King. The reverse bust wears a crenellated crown. Above the crown are rays similar to those used by Mančhir I and Ardaxšīr III, they can be off flan. In the left and right field is a legend which reads “Son of Mančhir King” on Types 647 – 650F or “Ardaxšīr King” on Types 651 – 652A. Five series can be identified based on the symbols and the legends. 1) Types 647 – 649 have a legend on the obverse and the reverse type I legend starts at 11 hrs. No symbol on the obverse. 2) Type 650 has a legend on the obverse and the reverse type I legend starts at 4 hrs. No symbol on obverse. 3) Types 650A – C have an obverse legend and the reverse legend type I starts at 11, the obverse has symbol 1. 4) Types 650D – F have an obverse legend and the reverse legend type I starts at 11, except on Type 650F where it seems to start at 4, on the obverse is symbol 2 5) The Types 651 – 652A have no legend on the obverse, the legend type II (“Ardaxšīr King”) moved to the reverse. In the right obverse field is symbol 2, except Type 652A which has no symbol. 6) Type 652B has a unique drachm with an obverse bust to right and symbol 1 The fact that the series are clearly different from each other and fairly consistent within each series make one presume that they were issued at different mints and may be by local governors As mentioned in paragraph 14.2.6 in Part One the identity of the reverse bust remains enigmatic: Ardaxšīr IV, his father or the God Mithri. Die axes observed: ↑↓, ↑→, or irregular.

Legends Ardaxšīr IV (After Alram) Obverse

Reverse I Types 647 – 650F

Reverse II Types 651 – 652A

‘rthštr MLK’ Ardaxšīr King

BRH mnčtry MLK’ Son of Mančhir King

‘rthštr MLK’ Ardaxšīr King


201

Ardaxšīr IV Symbol 1 on Type 650A – 650C

Symbol 2 on Type 650D -650F

Symbol 3 on Types 651 and 652

Type 647 drachm; obverse legend; no symbol on obverse; reverse legend I starts at 11; rays above crown a. 2.40 gr. 19 mm.

b. 3.09 gr. 18 mm.

e. 2.96 gr. 18 mm;

f. 2.50 gr. 19 mm.

c. 2.66 gr. 18 mm.

d. 2.78 gr. 16x18 mm.

Type 648 hemi-drachm; obverse legend; no symbol on obverse; reverse I legend starts at 11; rays above crown a. 1.19 gr.; no dotted crescent.

b. 1.28 gr. 15 mm.; no dotted

c. 1.42 gr. 14 mm.

crescent.

e. weight and size unknown.

f. 1.05 gr. 13 mm.

d. 1.43 gr.; dotted crescent on obverse

g. 1.44 gr. 13 mm.


202

ArdaxĹĄÄŤr IV Type 649 obol; obverse legend; no symbol on obverse; reverse I legend starts at 11; rays above crown a. 0.39 gr. 10 mm.; right hand

b. 0.51 gr. 8 mm.

c. 0.41 gr. 9 mm.

d. 0.81 gr. 14 mm.

image is obverse.

e. 0.40 gr. 10 mm.

Type 650 drachm; obverse legend; reverse legend I starts at 4; rays above crown a. 2.14 gr. 18 mm.

b. 2.6 gr.

c. 2.74 gr. 18 mm.

d. 2.03 gr. 18 mm.

Type 650A drachm; obverse legend; symbol 1 on obverse; reverse legend I starts at 11; rays above crown a. 2.23 gr. 18 mm; dotted

b. 1.70 gr. 16 mm.; dotted

crescent on obverse.

crescent on obverse.

c. 1.80 gr. 18 mm.; dotted crescent on obverse.

d. 3.24 gr. 18 mm.; dotted crescent.


203

ArdaxĹĄÄŤr IV Type 650B hemi-drachm; obverse legend; symbol 1 on obverse; reverse legend I starts at 11; rays above crown a. 1.34 gr. 14 mm.; dot only on

b. 1.49 gr. 14 mm.

obverse at 11hrs.

e. 1.08 gr. 14 mm.; dotted crescent on obverse.

c. 1.39 gr. 15 mm.; dotted crescent on obverse.

d. weight & size unknown.

f. 1.39 gr. 15 mm. ; dotted crescent on obverse.

Type 650C obol; obverse legend; symbol 1 on obverse; reverse legend I starts at 11; rays above crown a. 0.40 gr. 8 mm.; dotted

b. 0.47 gr. 9 mm.; dotted

crescent on obverse.

crescent on obverse.

Type 650D drachm ; obverse legend; symbol 2 on obverse; reverse legend I starts at 4; rays above crown a. 2.82 gr. 17 mm.; 3 dots before obverse bust.


204

ArdaxĹĄÄŤr IV Type 650E hemi drachm ; obverse legend; symbol 2 on obverse; reverse legend I starts at 4; rays above crown a. 1.34 gr. 14 mm.; 3 dots before head.

Type 650F obol; obverse legend; symbol 2 on obverse; reverse legend I starts at 4; rays above crown a. 0.42 gr. 9 mm.; 3 dots before

b. 0.56 gr. 8 mm.; 3 dots on

head.

obverse; die break on reverse.

Type 651 drachm; no legend on obverse; symbol 3 behind obverse bust; reverse legend II starts at 11 or 4; rays above crown a. 2.22 gr. coin on right is the

b. 2.4 gr.; symbol 3 in right

obverse; reverse long legend starts at 11.

field obverse; reverse legend shot , starts at 4

c. 1.9 gr.; legend starts at 11.

d. 2.24 gr. 17 mm.; symbol 3

e. symbol 3 behind obverse bust; short legend starts at 11.

f. 1.94 gr. 19x20 mm.; symbol

g. 1.93 gr.; symbol 3 behind

h. 2,36 gr.; symbol 3 behind

3 behind obverse bust; legend starts at 11.

obverse bust; legend starts at 4.

obverse bust; legend starts at 11.

behind obverse bust; long legend starts at 11.


205

ArdaxĹĄÄŤr IV i. 2.27 gr. 18 mm.; symbol 3 behind obverse bust; legend starts at 11.

j. 2.66 gr. 19 mm.; symbol 3

k. 1.90gr.; symbol 3 behind obverse bust; legend starts at 11.

l. 1.68 gr. 18 mm. symbol 3 behind obverse bust; legend starts at 11.

m. 2.77 gr. 19 mm.; symbol 3 behind obverse bust; legend starts at 11.

n. 1.93 gr. 18 mm.; symbol 3

o. 2.66 gr. 18 mm.; symbol 3

p. 2.31 gr. 20 mm.; symbol 3

behind obverse bust; legend starts at 11.

behind obverse bust; no rays on reverse; legend starts at 11.

behind obverse bust; legend starts at 11.

behind obverse bust; legend starts at 11.

q. 2.18 gr. 18x19 mm.; symbol 3 behind obverse bust; legend starts at 11.

Type 652 hemi-drachm; no legend on obverse; symbol 3 behind obverse bust; reverse legend II starts at 11; rays above crown a. 0.98 gr. 13x14 mm.; symbol 3

b. 1.28 gr. 15 mm.; symbol 3 behind obverse bust.

c. 1.16 gr. 13 mm.; symbol 3 behind obverse bust.

d. 1.12 gr. 13 mm.; symbol 3

behind obverse bust.

e. 0.81 gr. 14 mm.; symbol 3 behind bust.

f. 1.47 gr. 14 mm.; symbol 3

g. 1.03 gr. 15 mm.; symbol 3

h. 1.24 gr. 13 mm.; symbol 3

behind obverse bust.

behind bust.

behind bust.

behind obverse bust.


206

ArdaxĹĄÄŤr IV Type 652A obol; no legend and no symbol on obverse; reverse legend I starts at 11; rays above crown a. 0.38 gr. 10 mm.; legend starts at 11.

Type 652B drachm; obverse Bust to right; legend; symbol 1 on obverse; reverse legend ; rays above crown a. 2.20 gr. 19x20 mm.; obverse and reverse legend garbled


207

Shāpur (Sābuhr) Ca 211/212-213 Shāpur issued drachms, hemi-drachms and obols. The obverse has the traditional bust in high tiara with one or two rows of pearls around a dotted crescent, ear flaps and neck cover. He has a curly beard and a large curly hair dress in the neck. The legend on the obverse has two versions: God Shāpur King or Shāpur King. On the reverse is a bust of Pābag also in high diademed tiara. There are two major variations of the drachm reverse: 1) with the 5-pointed leaf like ornament on top and 2) with a large hair ball in fabric on top of the bust (Type 656), only 1 specimen of the second type is known. The reverse bust has a short beard, no hair tuft in the neck, no ear flap and no neck cover. Many coins have three dots behind or before the obverse and/or reverse bust. These dots may be the mark of a separate mint, like the Ardaxšīr IV coins with Symbol 2 (three) dots. The reverse legend is on Type 653;654 and 655: Son of the God Pāpag [of the] King and on Type 656: Shāpur King. The legends in the right field of the obverse and the reverse are often shortened or letters are left out due to lack of space. Complete legends are scarce. The flans are wider and thinner than previous Persis coinage and the weight of the drachm coins was raised to ca. 3.5 gram. All three aspects are a preamble to the coming Sasanid coinage.

Shāpur legends (after Alram) Types 653; 654; 655 Obverse 1a) 1 hrs: bgy šhpwhry / 11 hrs: MLK’ = God Shāpur / King (Type 653) Long legend (reading inwards) 1b) 1hrs: bgy šhpwhr / 10 hrs: MLK’ = God Shāpur / King (Type 654) Long legend (reading inwards) 2) 1 hrs: šhpwhr / 10 hrs: MLK’ = Shāpur / King (Types 654A; 655) Short legend (reading inwards)

Legend 1

Legend 2 Reverse

3) 1-2 hrs: BRH bgy p’pky / 11-10 hrs: MLK’ = Son of God Pābag / [of the] King (reading inwards)

Legend 3 Type 656

Legend 2

Legend 2

Obverse 2) 8 hrs: (retrograde, reading outwards) šhpwhry / 2 hrs: (reading inwards) MLK’ = Shāpur / King Reverse 2) 7 hrs: (retrograde, reading outwards) šhpwhry / 2 hrs: (reading inwards) MLK’ = Shāpur / King


208

Shapur Type 653 drachm; obverse long legend 1a close behind bust; reverse legend 3 a. 3.68 gr. 20 mm.

b. 26x27 mm.

c. 3.98 gr. 19 mm.

d. 3.63 gr. 23 mm.

Type 654 drachm; obverse long legend 1b not close to bust, some letters missing in right field; reverse legend 3 a.; 22 mm.; 3 dots behind reverse bust.

Type 654A drachm; obverse short legend 2; reverse legend 3 a. 3.58 gr. 22 mm.; reverse

b. 3.29 gr. 20 mm.; reverse

legend complete, running from 2 hrs, under bust till 11 hrs.

legend 3, shortened; 3 dots before obverse and reverse bust.

c. 3 dots before obverse and reverse bust.


209

Shapur Type 655 hemi-drachm; obverse short legend 2; reverse legend 3 a. 18 mm.; 3 dots before

b. 1.66 gr. 17 mm.; 3 dots

obverse and reverse bust.

before obverse and reverse bust.

d. 1.96 gr. 18 mm.; small

e. 1.57 gr. 17 mm.; 3 dots before obverse and reverse bust.

reverse bust, head ornament double struck

c. 1.76 gr. 17 mm.; 3 dots before obverse bust.

d. 1.71 gr. 17 mm.

f. 1.66 gr. 17 mm.

g. 1.92 gr. 16 mm.; reverse legend shortened.

h. 1.78 gr. 18 mm.; 3 dots before obverse and reverse bust; reverse legend 1 shortened.

Type 655A ShÄ pur; obol; obverse legend 1b; reverse legend 3 a. 0.54 gr. 10 mm.; 3 dots

b. 060 gr. 12 mm.; 3 dots

behind reverse bust.

behind reverse bust.

c. 0.53 gr. 11 mm.; 3 dots behind reverse bust.

d. 0.63 gr. 12 mm.; 3 dots before obverse and reverse bust.


210

Shapur Type 656 drachm; obverse legend 2; reverse: round hair ball on top head, legend 2 a. 23 mm.


211

Ardaxšīr V Ca. 213-224

Ardaxšīr V issued silver drachms, hemi-drachms and obols and the first and only Persis copper coin (di-chalkon, 1/6th unit). In the SYLLOGE NUMORUM SASANIDARUM Volume 1 (Alram) they are catalogued as the first coins of the Sasanian Empire. On the obverse is always a facing bust of the King wearing the high tiara with the dotted crescent used by Persis kings since Darayan II. There are one or two rows of pearls. He has a broad curly beard and left and right large curly hair tufts with three or four rows of curls cropping out of the ear covers. The necklace has dots and sometimes a medallion but this is often covered by the dotted rim. The obverse legend reads The God Ardaxšīr, the King. On the reverse is the image of Pābag to left, also in the high tiara with one or two rows of pearls. The beard can be very broad or rather pointed with varying number of rows. The hair tufts have one, two or three rows of curls. The ear cover is always visible, the neck cover is sometimes vague. The reverse legend is Son of the God Pāpag, the King. The flans of the silver coins like those of Shāpur are thinner and larger than those of the earlier Persis kings, weighing ca. 3.50 gram like a prelude to the later Sasanid coinage. There are two variations in the drachm obverse legend. Type 657.1 has the title MLK’ (King) in the left field; on Type 657.2 MLK’ is in the right field. This rare variety was first reported by Craig Reider in the ONS Newsletter No. 147, 1996. The obverse of the copper di-chalkon and the legend of the reverse are the same as on the silver coins, but the reverse image is radically different with a fire altar that reminds of the fire altars on the early Persis coins and the Achæmenid rock carvings. This coin seems to be a transitional type, a bridge between the Persis and the Sasanian coinage. The fire altar is continued on several Sasanian types. All types are minted in Stakhr.

Legends Ardaxšīr V (After Alram) Obverse

Reverse

1 hrs: bgy ‘rthštry / 10 hrs: MLK’ The God Ardaxšīr, the King

1 hrs: BRH bgy p’pky / 10 hrs: MLK’ Son of the God Pāpag, the King


212

Ardaxšīr V Type 657.1 drachm; MLK’ in obverse left field a. 3.93 gr. 21 mm.

b. 2.81 gr. 21 mm.

c. 3.73 gr.

d. 3.11 gr. 22 mm.

e. 3.02 gr. 20 mm.

f. 3.26 gr. 20 mm.

g. weight & size ?

h. 3.88 gr.

i. 3.63 gr.

j. 3.58 gr. 21 mm.

k. 3.71 gr. 20x21 mm.

l. 3.72 gr. 20 mm.

m. 3.79 gr. 22 mm.

Type 657.2 drachm; MLK’ in obverse right field a. 3.46 gr.

b. 3.67 gr. 21 mm.

c. 3.62 gr. 23 mm.


213

Ardaxšīr V Type 658 hemi-drachm a. 1.72 gr. 18 mm.

b. 1.91 gr.

e. 1.86 gr. 15 mm.; large reverse bust.

f. 1.78 gr. 19 mm.; small

c. 1.48 gr.; reverse legend starts under bust at 5.

d. 1.74 gr. 16 mm.

reverse bust; reverse legend starts under bust at 5.

Type 659 Ardaxšīr V; obol a. 0.65 gr. 12 mm.

b. 0,62 gr. 12 mm.

c. 0.60 gr. 12 mm.

d. 0.75 gr. 12 mm.

e. 0.51 gr.

f. 0.63 gr.

g. 0.56 gr. 12 mm.

h. 0.60 gr. 10 mm.

i. 0.56 gr. 12 mm.


214

ArdaxĹĄÄŤr V Type 660 di-chalkon; 1/6 unit; copper; SNS Type I(1)/2(1) a. 3.06 gr. 17 mm.

e. 3.28 gr. 15 mm.

b. 2.56 gr.

c. 3.28 gr. 18 mm.

d. 3.41 gr. 15x18 mm.


215

Appendix I Concordances The following is a listing of concordances to the standard references that are typically used to catalogue Persis coins. In this catalogue the type numbering of Alram is followed. Please note that the numbers listed are general concordances to the particular denomination of each type, and do not include specific varieties. Each reference should be consulted for citation to the correct variety.

Type # (Alram) Baydād

De Morgan *

BMC

Sear

511/514 512 513 513A 515/519 517 517A

Pl XXVII #1 Pl XXVII # 5 PlXXVII # 2.4 Pl XXVII # 6 -

Pl XXVIII #7 Pl XXVIII # 8 Pl XXVIII #9 -

6185 -

Planche XXVII #7 Pl XXVII #17 Pl XXVII # 12 -

Pl XXIX #2 Pl XXIX #3 Pl XXIX #4 Pl XXIX # 11? -

6189 6190 -

Pl XXVII #7/8 Pl XXVII #14 Pl XXVII # 11 Page 400 # 8 -

Pl XXIX # 14 ? Pl XXIX # 11 Pl XXVII # 11 Pl XXIX # 11 Pl XXIX # 14 ? -

-

Pl XXVII # 18/19 Pl XXVIII # 2? Pl XXVII # 17 Pl XXVIII #4/5 -

Pl XXIX # 5/6 Pl XXIX # 8 Pl XXIX # 9 Pl XXIX #10? Pl XXIX # 12 Pl LII # 11 -

6191 = 6192 -

Ardaxšīr I 520 520.1 520.2 521/522/523/524 521.1 521A 525 525A 525B

Vahbarz 526/530 526A 527/531 528 529 529A 531A 532 532A

Vāfradād I 533/535/538 533A 534/536/539 537 537A 540/542 540A 541/543 541A 541B 541C 544 545


216 Vāfradād II 546 547 547A 548 549 549A

Pl XXVIII # 10 Pl XXVIII # 9 Page 404 # 20? Page 404 # 21? -

Pl XXX # 1 Pl XXX # 2 Pl XXX # 8 Pl XXX # 9 -

6193 6194 -

Pl XXIX # 5 Page 404 # 20? -

Pl XXX # 13 Pl XXX # 14/16 -

6195 6199 -

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pl XXIX # 7/9 Pl XXIX # 9 Pl XXIX # 8-12 -

Pl XLVIII # 10 Pl XXXI # 7/8 Pl XXXI # 12 Pl XXXI # 7/8 Pl XXXI # 10/11

6202? 6202? 6201

?

Pl XXXI # !3

-

Pl XXIX # 13-19 Pl XXIX # 20 -

Pl XXXI # 15-20 Pl XXXII # 1-3 Pl XXXII # 4

-

Pl XXX # 1/4/5/6/7/9 Pl XXX # 2/8 Pl XXX # 16 Pl XXX # 20 Pl XXX # 13 Pl XXX # 21 Pl XXX # 26 -

Pl XXXII # 4 Pl XXXII # 12 Pl XXXII # 5/6/8/10/12 Pl XXXII # 7/9/11 Pl XXXII # 16 Pl XXXII # 14/15 Pl XXXII # 17 -

6206 6207 6208 -

Pl XXXI # 30 Pl XXXI # 21 Pl XXXI # 18

Pl XXXIII10

6211

Unknown King 1-X 551.1 551.2 552 553

Unknown King 1-Y 551 NB1 552 NB2 553 NB3 551 NB4

Unknown King 1-Z 551.3 NB$

Darayan I 554 555 556 556A 557 558 559

Vāfradād III 560

Vāfradād IV 561.1 561.2 562 563

Darayan II 563 564.1-1 564.1-2 564.1-3 564.1-3-1 565.1-1 565.1-2 565.2-1 565.2-2 565.2-3 566.1 566.2 567A 567

Ardaxčīr II 568 568A 569 570/573.1 570/573.2-1 570/573.2-2


217 570/573.2-3 571/574.1-1 571/574.1-1A 571/574.1-2 571/574.2-1 571/574.2-2 571A 572/575.1-1 572/575.1-2 572/575.2-1 572/575.2-2 576 577 578

Pl XXXI # 27 Pl XXXI # 23 Pl XXXI # 28 Pl XXXI # 25 Pl XXXI # 26 Pl XXXI # 17 Pl XXXI # 22 Pl XXXI # 24

Pl XXXIII # 13 Pl XXXIII # 18 Pl XXXIII # 17 Pl XXXIV # 2 Pl XXXIV # 3 Pl XXXIV # 4 Pl XXXIII # 12 Pl XXXIII # 21 -

Pl XXXI # 2 Pl XXXI # 6 Pl XXXI # 9 Pl XXX # 27 Pl XXXI # 4 Pl XXXI # 12 -

Pl XXXIII # 1 Pl XXXII # 21/22 Pl XXXIII # 3/4 Pl XXXIII # 8 -

6210 -

-

-

-

Pl XXXII # 9 Pl XXXII # 11 -

Pl XLVIII # 17 Pl XXXV # 8 Pl XLVIII # 16 Pl XXXV # 5 Pl XXXV # 7 Pl XXXII # 9 -

5944 -

Pl XXXII # 1 Pl XXXII # 3 Pl XXXII #5/ 6 Pl XXXII # 4 Pl XXXII # 8 Pl XXXII # 7

Pl XXXV # 2 Pl XXXV # 3 -

5943 5946 -

Pl XXXII # 16 Pl XXXII # 13/14 Pl XXXII # 21 Pl XXXII # 22 Pl XXXII # 15 Pl XXXII # 19 -

Pl XXXIV # 6-8 Pl XXXIV # 10/11 Pl XXXIV # 14 Pl XXXIV# 13 -

5935 5939 -

Pl XXXIII # 20

6214 6215 -

Vahšīr 579 580 581 582/585 583/586 584 587 587A 587B

-

Unknown King II 587C 587D 587E

Pakor II 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 595A 595B 595C

Pakor I 596 596A 597 597A 598 598A

Nambed 599 599A 600 601 601A 602 603 604 604A


218 605 606 607 607A

Pl XXXII # 25 Pl XXXII # 27 Pl XXXII # 29/30 -

Pl LIII # 3 Pl XXXIV # 15 -

-

Pl XXXIII # 14 Pl XXXIV # 16 Pl XXXIII # 15 -

Pl XXXIV # 18 Pl XXXIV # 20 Pl XXXIV # 21 Pl XXXIV # 19 Pl XXXIV # 14

5941 -

Pl XXXIII # 3 Pl XXXIII # 5/6 Pl XXXIII # 1 Pl XXXIII # 10 Pl XXXIII # 8 Pl XXXIII # 13 Pl XXXIII # 12 -

Pl XXXV # 18 Pl XXXV # 12 Pl XXXV # 12 Pl XXXVI # 2/10 Pl XXXV # 24 Pl XXXV # 21 Pl XXXV # 23 Pl XXXVI # 3 Pl XXXVI # 11 -

5050 5949 5951 5954 5953 -

Pl XXXIII # 19 Pl XXXIII # 27 Pl XXXVI # 15/15 Pl XXXIII # 30 Pl XXXIII # 31 -

Pl XXXVI # 12/13 Pl XXXVI # 14 Pl XXXVI # 20 -

5955 5956 -

Pl XXXIII # 32 -

-

-

-

-

-

-

Pl XXXVI # 21 Pl XXXVI # 22 Pl XXXVI # 23 -

5958 5960 --

Napad I 608.1 608.2 609 610 611A 611B 611C-1 611C-2

Napad II 612.1 612.2 612.3 613.1 613.2 613.3 614.4 613.5 614.1 614.2 614.3 614.4 615 616 617

Prince Y 618.1 618.2 619.1 619.1A 619.1B 619.2 620.1 620.1-1 620.2 620.3

Prince Z 621.1 621.2 622 622A

Prince X 622B-NB1 622B-NB2

Vāfradād V 623.1 623.2 624/626.1 624/626.2-1 624/626.3 625.1 625.2 626

Pl XXXIII # 13 -


219 626A

-

-

-

Pl XXXIV # 5 -

Pl XXXVII # 4 -

-

Pl XXXIV # 1 Pl XXXIV # 2 -

Pl XXXVII # 1? Pl XXXIV # 24/25 Pl XXXVII # 2 -

-

Pl XXXIV # 6 Pl XXXIV # 8 Pl XXXIV # 7 -

Pl XXXVII # 3 Pl XXXVII # 5/7 Pl XXXVII # 8 Pl XXXVII # 9 -

5963 5964 -

Pl XXXIV # 23

Pl XXXVII # 10/11

5965

-

-

-

-

Pl XXXVII # 13 Pl XXXVII # 14 -

5967 -

-

Pl XXXVII # 12 -

5966 -

Pl XXXIV # 13

Pl XXXVII # 15 Pl XXXVII # 17 Pl XXXVII # 16

5969 5970 -

Mančhir I 627 627A 628 628A 628B 628C 628D

Ardaxšīr III 629 630 630A 631 631A 632 632A 632B 633 633A 633B 633C 633D

Mančhir II 634 635.1 635.2 636 637 638 638A 638B 638C

Unknown King III 641A 641

Unknown King IV 641B

Mančhir III 642 642A 643 644 644A 644B 645

Mančhir IV 646 646A 646B 646C

Ardaxšīr IV 647 648 649 650


220 650A 650B 650C 650D 650E 650F 651 652 652A 651B

Pl XXXIV # 16 -

Pl XXXIV # 19 -

-

-

-

-

Pl XXXIV # 22 XXXIV # 20 Pl XXXIV # 24

-

-

Shāpur 653 654 654A 655 655A 656

Ardaxšīr V 657.1 657.2 658 659 660

* De Morgan Numismatique de la Perse Antique, Paris 1930


221

Appendix 2 – Source, Weight, and, Size The following is the list of source, weight and size for the coins illustrated in the catalogue,\. 4Δ = Tetradrachm; Δ = Drachm; ½Δ= hemi-drachm; O = obol Coin # Baydad 511/514 a 511/514 b 511/514 c 511/514 d 511/514 e 511/514 f 511/514g 512a 512b 513a 513b 513Aa 513Ab 515/519a 515/519b 515/519c 515/519d 515/519e 515/519f 515/519g 515/519h 515/519i 515/519j 515/519k 516a 517a 517b 517c 517d 517Aa 517Ab 517Ac Ardaxšīr I 520a 520b 520c 520d 520.1a 520.1b

Source

Denomination & weight

Size in mm.

Triton VII # 536 Triton VI # 516 S.M.M. # 2/1 S.M.M. # 2/2 De Morgan XXVII # 1 BMC XXVIII # 7 Siamak Ahghari # 523 Alram Tafel 17; De Morgan XXVII # 5 Siamak Ahghari # 524 CNG 69 # 765 Siamak Ahghari # 525 S.M.M. # 2/6 S.M.M. # 2/6a NB Numismatics Triton X # 444 Triton VI # 517 BMC XXXVIII # 8; De Morgan XXVII # 2 De Morgan XXVII # 4 S.M.M. #2/3a S.M.M. # 2/3b; Peus 388 # 224; CNG 69 #766 Triton IX #1105; Peus 395 # 201 CNG 85 # 782 Pars Coins Siamak Ahghari # 526 Siamak Ahghari # 527 Pars Coins; Triton 537 Peus 386 # 299 De Morgan XXVII # 6 Peus 388 # 225 CNG 69 #767 S.M.M. # 2/5; Peus 386 # 300 Persis Gallery

4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ Δ

16.41 16.98 16.81 16.96 16.58 16.34 16.86 4.08

26 31 32x34 29 24 28 31 18

Δ ½Δ ½Δ O O 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ

3.86 1.97 1.94 0.30 0.30 14.76 16.85 15.62 16.89

14 15 8 8 ? 29 29 24x28

4Δ 4Δ 4Δ

? 16.78 15.96

26 28 29

16.28

26x28

4Δ 4Δ 4Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ O O

17.00 16.99 16.86 3.11 2.09 1.99 ? 2.09 0.68 0.69

32 29 30 19 14 14 11x12 13x14 9 11

O

0.60

10

4Δ 4Δ

16.88 17.07

24 25

16.42

28

4Δ 4Δ

16.98 16.94

26 26

Triton VII # 538 S.M.M. # 2/9; obv die-id Triton VII 538 and S.M.M.2/15 Peus 392 # 4380; Triton X # 445 Siamak Ahghari # 528 CNG 60 # 1037; Triton VI # 518 Alram Tafel 17 # 520

?

27

221


222 520.1c 520.2a 520.2b 521/522/523/524a 521/522/523/524b 521/522/523/524c 521/522/523/524d 521/522/523/524e 521/522/523/524f 521/522/523/524g 521/522/523/524h 521/522/523/524i 521/522/523/524i 521/522/523/524k 521/522/523/524l 521/522/523/524m 521/522/523/524n 521/522/523/524o 521.1a 521.1b 521Aa 525a 525b 525Aa 525Ba Vahbarz 526/530a

526/530b 526/530c 526/530d 526/530e 526/530f 526/530g 526/530h 526/530i 526/530j 526/530k 526/530l 526/530m 526/530n 526/530o 526/530p 526/530q 526Aa

Peus 400 # 195 Triton IX # 1106 De Morgan XXVII # 7; S.M.M. # 2/11 Pegasi Triton VIII # 606 CNG 69 # 769 Triton VII #539 CNG 69 # 768 Peus 386 # 301 Peus 363 # 5024 Apollo Numismatics Pegasi Triton XIII # 835 Peus 400 # 196 Pars Coins Peus 363 # 5022 Siamak Ahghari # 529 Siamak Ahghari # 530 Alram Tafel 17; BMC XXIX # 2 BMC XXIX # 3 CNG 70 # 445 Peus 372 # 591 Gorny & Mosch 138 # 1512 CNG 66 # 842 Najaf

4Δ 4Δ 4Δ

16.98 16.14 16.90

30 26 25

Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ

4.22 4.10 4.13 4.11 4.18 4.17 4.24 4.26 4.22 4.12 4.13 ? 4.11 3.84 4.14 3.60

? 16 15 15 15x16 18 ? 16 ? 17 12 17 ? 15 15 15

Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ

2.81 4.10 1.93 2.03

18 13x16 ? 13

Δ O

3.91 0.60

17 ?

Peus 371# 212; obc dieid with Peus # 393 # 307; Peus 386 # 302; S.M.M. #2/11 Peus 393 # 307; obv die id with 565/530a S.M.M. # 2/11; obv die id with Type 520 De Morgan XXVII # 7 Gorny & Mosch 138 # 156 Gorny & Mosch 142 # 1677 Peus 386 # 302; obv dieid with 526/527a, b, c Peus # 5023 Triton VII # 540 CNG 57 # 863; Realms v-coins Pars Coins Triton V # 1667 De Morgan XXVII # 8 Künker 111 # 6333 CNG 69 # 770 Künker 94 # 1510 Siamak Ahghari # 531 Siamak Ahghari # 532 S.M.M. 2/15; obv die id S.M.M. 2/9; Triton VII

16.88

?

16.70

28x31

16.87

27

16.89

28x30

16.58

27x29

16.78

27

4Δ 4Δ 4Δ

17.02 16.88 16.75

? 27 ?

4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ

16.95 15.45 ? 16.66 16.57 16.52 16.95 15.95 17.09

30 ? 24x31 ? 31 ? 31 27 25

222


223

526Ab 527/531a 527/531b 528a 528b 528c 529a 529b 529c 529Aa 531Aa 531Ab 531Ac 531Ad 532Aa 532Ab Vādfradād I 533/535/538a 533/535/538b 533/535/538c 533/535/538d 533/535/538e 533/535/538f 533/535/538g 533/535/538h 533/535/538i 533/535/538j 533/535/538k 533Aa 534/536/539a 537a 537b 537Aa 540/542a 540/542b 540/542c 540/542d 540/542e 540/542f 540/542g 540/542h 540/542i 540/542j 540Aa 541/543a 541/543b 541/543c

538 Baldwib 39 # 1279 Peus 385 #202 CNG 66 # 848 Pegasi v-coins Peus 368 # 310 Peus 388 # 203 Baldwin 39 # 1280 Peus 368 #303; S.M.M. 2/14 Gorny & Mosch 152 # 1488 S.M.M. # 2/10 Triton VII # 541 Pars Coins; CNG 79 # 490 Peus 388 # 227 CNG 79 # 490 Private collection/ Siamak Ahghari # 533 Private collection Peus 386 # 306 CNG 66 # 843 S.M.M. # 2/17 Baldwin 39 # 1281 Classical Coins S.M.M. # 2/18 Pars Coins Ebay, 22/03/08 Ponterio 148 # 391 New York Sale 2009 # 323 Balswin 44 # 105; Barry Murphy S.M.M. # 2/21 S.M.M. # 2/19 Persis Gallery Private collection Gorny & Mosch 152 # 1490 Gorny & Mosch 169 # 148; Künker # 8253 Pars Coins Herakles Numismatics S.M.M. # 2/18b CNG 78 # 1015 Pars Coins Baldwin 50 # 63/ Siamak Ahghari # 537 Siamak Ahghari # 535 Siamak Ahghari # 534 Siamak Ahghari # 536 Peus 386 # 307 Peus 386 # 307 Peus 388 # 229; Gorny & Mosch 142 # 1678 Elsen 94 # 624

4Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ O O

17.0 3.85 4.30 1.95 1.97 2.03 0.6 0.66

25 17 18 ? ? 14 10 10

O

0.72

10

O Δ Δ

0.27 4.12 4.00

8 20 16

Δ Δ Δ

4.14 4.00 4.24

15 16 18

Δ

?

18

4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ

16.62 16.13 16.75 16.4 ? 16.76 16.52 16.5 16.43 16.36

? 34 30 31 ? 30 30x33 ? ? 29x31

16.77

30

4Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ O

16.63 3.93 2.10 1.86 0.66

28 18 17 14 9

16.31

30

4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ

16.53 16.33 16.16 16.45 16.43 16.59

30 30 32 30 31 27x28

4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ Δ Δ

16.45 16.25 16.35 16.02 4.07 4.10

28 30 30 27 18 19

Δ

3.96

20

223


224 541Aa 541Ab 541Ba 541Bb 541Ca 541Cb 541Cc 544a 544b 544c 544d 545a Vādfradād II 546a 546b 547a 547b 547c 547d 547e 547f 547g 547h 547i 547j 547k 547Aa 547Ab 548a 548b 548c 548d 548e 549a 549b 549c 549d 549Aa 549Ab Unknown King 1-X 551.1a 551.1b 551.1c 551.1d 551.1e 551.1f 551.1g 551.1h 551.1i 551.1j 551.1k 551.1l 551.1m 551.1n

Gorny & Mosch 156 # 1542 S.M.M. 2/22 Morton & Eden; 11/12/08 # 334 Siamak Ahghari # 538 De Morgan XXVIII # 4 De Morgan XXVIII # 5 BMC XXIX # 7 De Morgan XXVIII # 4 De Morgan XXVIII # 5 BMC XXIX # 7 Siamak Ahghari # 539 S.M.M.2/23

Δ

3.84

18

Δ ½Δ

3.84 1.92

18 15x16

Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ 4Δ Δ

1.63 ? ? 16.83 ? ? 16.83 16.42 4.21

15 30 26x29 29x32 30 25x29 29x32 28 19

De Morgan XXVIII # 10 S.M.M. page 41 Baldwin 39 # 1283 Baldwin 39 # 1282 Peus 388 # 231 S.M.M. # 3/2 Peus 380 # 616 Private collection Private collection Lanz 141 # 243 Peus 386 # 308 Peus 386 # 309 Siamak Ahghari # 541 Mitchener MAW # 736 Siamak Ahghari # 542 S.M.M. # 3/3 Private collection Peus 363 # 5026 Peus 386 # 310 Elsen 250 # 144 S.M.M. # 3/3a S.M.M. # 3/4b S.M.M. # 3/4c Gorny & Mosch 152 # 1491 Peus 386 # 311 Siamak Ahghari # 543

4Δ 4Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ O O O O

16.50 16.29 4.1 4.1 4.21 4.03 3.99 4.14 3.95 3.78 4.14 4.08 3.99 4 4.23 2.12 1.95 1.83 2.12 1.90 0.49 0.61 0.72 0.61

24 26 15 17 15 15 15 14x16 15x16 ? 17x19 14 17 18 15 13 12x13 ? 13 12 7 10 8 10

O O

0.72 0.73

10 9

Baldwin 39 # 1284 Baldwin 39 # 1291 Private collection Private collection Private collection Peus 380 # 617 Peus 388 # 232 Pars Coins Herakles Numismatics Peus 363 #5025 Private collection Ancient Coins Canada V-coins Gorny& Mosch 160 # 1669

Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ

4.0 4.2 3.33 4.19 3.40 4.10 3.97 4.07 4.13 4.05 3.84 4.0 4.24 3.58

15 15x17 16 15 15 17 17 14 16 ? 15 16 15 20

224


225 551.1o 551.1p 551.1q 551.1r 551.1s 551.1t 551.1u 551.1v 551.1w 551.1x 551.1y 551.2a 552a 552b 552c 552d 552e 552f 552g 552h 552i 552j 552k 553a 553b 553c 553d 553e 553f 553g 553h 553i 553j 553k 553l Unknown King I-Y 551 NB1a 551 NB1b 551 NB1c 551 NB1d 551 NB1e 551 NB1f 551 NB1g 551 NB1h 552 NB2a 553 NB3a 553 NB3b Unknown King I-Z 551.3 NBa 551.3 NB4b Darayan I 554a 554b 554c

Rauch 84 # 178 Ponterio 148 #393 Hess-Divo 308 # 84 Gorny & Mosch 142 # 1679 M&M 19 # 428 Peus 386 # 312 Peus 384 # 342 Barry Murphy Ancient Imports Pegasi Elsen 102 # 136 CNG 213 # 188 Baldwin 39 #1286 Private collection Private collection CNG 194 # 78 Private collection V-coins auction 18/9/08 # 9 Peus 363 # 5027 Private collection Pegasi V-coins auction 245 # 40

Δ Δ Δ Δ

4.12 4.20 3.94 3.44

? ? ? 15x16

Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

4.15 4.18 4.08 4.10 3.77 4.28 3.61 4.08 2.0 2.01 2.02 1.87 1.94 1.95

? 14x16 17 17 18 ? ? 16 13 12 12 14 13 11

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ O O O O O O O O O O O O

1.96 2.00 2.06 1.91 2.17 0.64 0.6 0.8 0.67 0.63 0.70 0.76 0.67 0.74 0.66 0.71 0 .62

? 12x13 ? 12 13 ? 8x9 9 ? 8 9x10 9 6 ? 8x9 9 8

Baldwin 39 # 1290 Elsen 94 # 625 S.M.M. # 3/9 Triton VII # 542 Peus 363 # 5029 Künker 94 # 1511 Gorny & Mosch 152 # 1492 Siamak Ahghari # 545 Peus 363 # 5030 Triton VII # 543 Siamak Ahghari # 546

Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ

4.1 3.70 3.93 4.10 3.75 3.88 3.85

16 16 14 17 ? ? 17

Δ ½Δ O O

4.13 1.74 0.56 0.64

16 ? 9 11

Künker 158 # 383; Hirsch 159 # 469 Private collection

Δ

3.53

18

Δ

4.18

17

Peus 392 # 4382 Leu 83 # 409 De Morgan XXIX # 7

Δ Δ Δ

4.33 4.08 4.00

? ? 14

Siamak Ahghari# 554

Kenneth Dornry Baldwin 39#1287 Baldwin 39 #1288 Spink 5010 # 21 Peus 388 # 233 Private collection Private collection Elsen 244 # 138 Lanz 141 # 244 Peus 384# 343 Ancient Imports Pavlou

225


226 554d 554e 554f 554g 555a 555b 555c 555d 555e 555f 556a 556Aa 556Ab 556Ac 557a 557b 557c 557d 557e 557f 557g 557h 557i 557j 557k 557l 557m 557o 558a 558b 558c 558d 558e 558f 558g 558h 558i 558j 558k 558l 558m 558n 558o 559a 559b 559c 559d 559e 559f Vādfradād III 560a 560b 560c 560d

BMC XLVIII # 10 BMC XXXI # 6 CNG 198 # 138 V-coins auction 30/6/2009 # Peus 386 # 314 De Morgan XXIX # 9 Peus 363 #5031 Private collection Gorny & Mosch 160 # 1670 Siamak Ahghari # 547 Private collection Baldwin 39 # 1289 Spink 5014 # 160 Private collection Peus 380 # 618 Rauch 76 # 384 Spink 5014 # 160 De Morgan XXIX # 8 Private collection Gorny & Mosch 151 # 230 Peus 371 # 213 Elsen 102 #138 Spink 9008 # 359 Baldwin 39 # 1292 Markow Mailbid 13 # 58 V-coins auction 30/6/2009 Triton XIII # 836 Siamak Ahghari # 548 CNG 60 # 1038 Peus 386 # 313 Peus 388 # 234 Baldwin 33 # 65 Private collection Najaf Coins S.M.M. # 3/11b Private collection BMC XXXI # 7 BMC XXXI # 8 Spink 5014 # 160 V-coins Peus 395 # 203 CNG 215 # 320 Siamak Ahghari # 549 Private collection Private collection BMC XXXI # 10 BMC XXXI # 11 Herakles Numismatics Siamak Ahghari # 550 Peus 368 # 313 Private collection BMC XXXI # 12 BMC XXXI # 13

Δ Δ Δ Δ

4.17 4.03 4.21 4.15

16 15x17 16 18

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

1.90 1.85 1.99 2.07 1.96

12 14 ? 12x13 12

½Δ O O O O Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ

2.01 0.64 0.7 0.70 0.67 4.19 3.59 4.00 ? 3.66 4.03

12 8 8 ? 8 20 ? ? 18x19 19 18

Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ

4.02 3.60 3.98 4.0 4.04 4.15

? 17 ? 16x18 ? 18

Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ O O O O O O

3.51 4.09 1.81 1.97 2.00 1.98 2.00 1.81 1.97 1.67 1.75 1.63 1.97 2.04 1.92 2.07 2.07 0.59 0.94 0.74 0.58 0.75 0.67

18 19 13 13 13 14 13 ? 13 13 12x14 13x15 ? 15 13 13 14 9x10 9x10 9 9 9 9

Δ Δ Δ Δ

3.84 3.27 4.05 3.86

? 17 18 15x18

226


227 Vādfradād IV 561.1a 561.1b 561.1c 561.1d 561.1e 561.1f 561,1g 561.1h 561.1i 561.1j 561.1k 561.1l 561.1m 561.1n 561.1o 561.1p 561.1q 561.1.r 561.1s 561.1t 561.1u 561.1v 561.1w 561.1x 561.1y 561.1z 561.1aa 561.1bb 561.2a 561.2b 561.2c 562a 562b 562c 562d 562e 562f 562g 562h 562i 563a 563b 563c 563d 563e 563f 563g 563h 563i 563j 563k Darayan II 564.1-1 564.1.-2a 564.1-2b

Peus 392 #4383 Pars Coins CNG 75 # 609 Peus 371 # 214 Peus 380 # 619 Peus 386 # 316 Peus 386 # 315 Kenneth Dorney De Morgan Pl XXIX # 21 Ancient Coins S.M.M. # 4/1b S.M.M. # 4/1b Peus 363 # 3032 CNG 57 # 684 Private collection Ponterio 148 # 392 Rauch 2008 # 228 Gorny & Mosch 152 # 1493 Spink 5014 #161 Baldwin 39 # 1295 Barry Mutphy Barry Murphy V-auction 30/6/2009 Elsen 102 # 139 Triton # 837 Pars Coins Siamak Ahghari # 551 Siamak Ahghari # 552 Apollux Private collection V-coins auction 30/62009 Peus 388 # 235 Peus 371 # 215 Peus 386 # 317 Peus 384 # 344 De Morgan XXIX # 20 Private collection S.M.M. # 4/2 V-coins auction 30/6/2009 Siamak Ahghari # 553 Peus 388 # 236 Rauch 71 # 183 Peus 386 # 345 Spink 5014 # 161 Sayles & Lavender Private collection S.M.M. # 4/3a S.M.M. # 4.3b CNG 55 # 773b Private collection Siamak Ahghari # 554

Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ

3.24 4.65 4.23 4.12 4.17 4.67 3.67 3.73 ? 4.07 3.81 4.09 3.33 4.02 3.28 3.98 4.09 4.10

18 ? 17 ? 19 16 18 ? 14x18 18 15x17 18 ? ? 15x17 ? ? 17

Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

3.79 4.0 3.98 4.00 3.95 3.67 4.08 3.97 4.09 3.98 3.52 2.05 3.44 1.94 2.05 1.59 1.92 ? 1.92 1.97 2.03

? 18 18 19 18 17x18 19 18 15 17 13 19 13 13 ? 12 13 13 12x13 13 13

½Δ O O O O O O O O O O O

2.03 0.72 0.99 0.64 0.70 0.60 0.66 0.54 067 ? 0.73 0.65

14 9 ? 9 ? 10 7x11 8x9 9 ? 10 10

BMC XXXII # 12 Peus 368 # 315 Peus 368 # 316

Δ Δ Δ

3.55 4.08 4.22

15 ? 16

227


228 564.1-2c 564.1-1d 564.1-2e 564.1-2f 564.1-2g 564.1-2h 564.1-2i 564.1-2j 564.1-2k 564.1-2l 564.1-2m 564.1-2n 564.1-2o 564.1-2p 564.1-2q 564.1-2r 564.1-3a 564.1-3b 564.1-3c 564.1-3d 564.1-3e 564.1-3f 564.1-3g 564.1-3-1a 565.1a 565.1b 565.1c 565.1d 565.1-2a 565.1-2b 565.1-2c 565.1-2d 565.2-1a 565.2-1b 565.2-1c 565.2-1d 565.2-1e 565.2-1f 565.2-2a 565.2-2b 565.2-2c 565.2-2d 565.2-1e 565.2-1f 565.2-1g 565.2-1h 565.2-1i 565.2-3a 566.1a 566.1b 566.1c 566.1d 566.1e 566.1f 566.1g 566.1h

Baldwin 39 # 1297 Peus 386 # 319 Triton VII # 544 Peus 371 # 216 Pars Coins Peus 363 # 5034 Peus 363 # 5033 Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection CNG 75 # 610 Triton XIII # 838 Pars Coins Private collection Siamak Ahghari # 555 CNG 57 # 686 Baldwin 39 # 1298 Peus 386 # 318 Private collection Private collection Gorny & Mosch 160 #1672 Pars Coins Sphinx Gorny & Mosch 160 # 1676 Kenneth Dorney De Morgan XXX # 16 S.M.M. # 4/5a Peus 388 # 238 Canmoose Private collection Pegasi Peus 384 # 346 S.M.M. # 4/5b Private collection Private collection CNG 75 # 611 Siamak Ahghari # 557 Peus 371 # 128 Peus 3.86 # 320 Peus 386 # 321 S.M.M. #4/5c Private collection Private collection Private collection Pars Coins Private collection De Morgan XXX # 13 Markov 11 # 134 De Morgan XXX # 22 Sayles & Lavender Sayles & Lavender Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection

Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ

4.2 4.05 4.03 4.14 3.97 3.95 4.02 3.88 3.97 3.83 3.94 3.98 4.04 3.97 ? 3.82 3.89 4.2 4.13 3.94 4.15 3.91

? 18 16x17 ? 18 ? ? 17x19 18x17 15x17 15 18x19 18x20 20 21 17 ? ? 18x19 17 17 17x20

Δ Δ ½Δ

3.89 2.77 1.96

17 17565.1a 12x13

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ O O O O O O O O

1.68 ? 1.57 1.96 1.8 1.78 1.98 1.35 1.92 1.79 1.79 1.79 2.04 1.88 1.80 1.92 2.13 1.76 1.94 2.11 2.17 1.83 ? 0.7 ? 0.70 0.75 0.61 0.61 0.60 0.69

? 11 12 ? 14x15 12x14 ? 12 12 12x13 11 15 13 ? 14x15 13x14 13 14 13 13 13 13 14 ? 9 9 9 10 9x10 10 8x9

228


229 566.1i 566.1j 566.1k 566.1l 566.1m 566.1n 566.1o 566.1p 566.2a 566.2b 566.2c 566.2d 566.2e 566.2f 566.2g 566.2h 566.2i 566.3a 567Aa 567a 567b 567c 567d 567e Ardaxšīr II 568a 568b 568c 568d 568Aa 569a 570/573.1a 570/573.1b 570/573.2-1 570/573.2-2a 570/573.2-2b 570/573.2-2c 570/573.2-2d 570/573.2-2e 570/573.2-2f 570/573.2-2g 570/573.2-2h 570/573.2-2i 570/573.2-2j 570/573.2-2k 570/573.2-2l 570/573.2-2m 570/573.2-2n 570/573.2-2o 570/573.2-2p 570/573.2-2q 570/573.2-2r 570/573.2-2s 570/573.2-2t 570/573.2-2u 570/573.2-2v

Private collection Private collection Private collection Ancient Coins Cnada Sayles & Lavender Sayles & lavender Sayles & Lavender Triton XIII # 839 S.M.M. # 4/6a S.M.M. # 4/6c Sayles & Lavender Private collection Private collection Private collection Salyles & Lavender Pars Coins Siamak Ahghari # 558 Private collection Tyler Smith NC 2004 coin 4 Peus 388 # 239 S.M.M. # 4/8 Private collection Private collection Spink 5014 # 162 Peus 386 # 322 Baldwin 39 # 1306 S.M.M. # 4/9 Alram Tafel 19 Siamak Ahghari # 560 S.M.M. # 4/15 Elsen 93 # 440 Private collection Spink 5003 # 74 Baldwin 43 # 2071 CNG 57 # 685 Kenneth Dorney Peus 388 # 241 Peus 386 # 325 Baldwin 40 # 26 Private collection Peus 386 # 324 Private collection Peus 363 # 5035 CNG 69 # 771 Peus 386 #323 Spink 6003 # 1043 S.M.M. # 4/10d S.M.M. # 4/10b Spink 9008 # 360 Gorny & Mosch 138 # 1513 Lanz 141 #245 Ponterio 146 # 1313 Baldwin 44 # 102 Sphinx Private collection

O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O Δ

0.62 0.69 0.74 0.7 0.68 0.34 0.70 0.66 0.50 0.56 0.45 0.37 0.64 0.45 0.64 0.52 0.72 0.33 3.88

8x9 8x10 9x10 14 10 10 10 9 10 9 9 8 9 9x10 9 9 11 8x9 17

O O O O O

0.77 0.58 0.51 0.58 0.74

9 8 9 8 ?

Δ Δ Δ Δ ½Δ O Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ

3.92 4.1 3.74 3.70 2.03 0.65 3.83 3.92 3.56 3.64 ? 4.02 4.00 4.05 4.0 3.82 3.86 3.99 4.02 3.46 3.52 ? 4.00 3.55 4.16 3.92

18x29 17x19 18 20 15 10x11 20 18x18 ? 20x22 ? ? 22x23 18x20 ? 19x22 18x20 19 ? 20 21 ? 20 24x25 ? 20

Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ

3.53 3.49 3.72 3.64 3.66

? ? 19x22 ? 20x22

229


230 570/573.2-2w 570/573.2-2x 570/573.2-2y 570/573.2-2z 570/573.2-3a 570/573.2-3b 570/573.2-3c 570/573.2-3d 570/573.2-3e 570/573.2-3f 570/573.2-3g 571/574.1-1a 571/574.1-1b 571/574.1-1c 571/574.1-1d 571/574.1-1e 571/574.1-1f 571/574.1-1g 571/574.1-2a 571/574.1-2b 571/574.1-2c 571/574.1-2d 571/574.1-2e 571/574.1-2f 571/574.1-2g 571/574.1-2h 571/574.1-2i 571/574.1-2j 571/574.1-2k 571/574.2-2l 571/574.2-1a 571/574.2-1b 571/574.2-1c 571/574.2-1d 571/574.2-1Aa 571/574.2-2a 571/574.2-2b 571/574.2-2c 571/574.2-2d 571/574.2-2e 571/574.2-2f 571/574.2-2g 571Aa 572/575.1-1a 572/575.1-1b 572/575.1-1c 572/575.1-1d 572/575.1-2a 572/575.1-2b 572/575.2-1a 572/575.2-1b 572/575.2-1c 572/575.2-1d 572/575.2-1e 572/575.2-1f 572/575.2-1g 572/575.2-1h

CNG 213 # 189 V-coins Triton XIII # 840 Siamak Ahghari # 564 Ancient Coins Canada Ancient Coin Canada Ancient Coin Canada Ancient Coin Canada Ancient Coin Canada Ancient Coin Canada Elsen 35 # 202 Canmoose Private collection Peus 386 # 326 Lanz 141 # 246 Spink 5010 # 23 Private collection Ancient Coins Peus 386 # 327 Sayles & Lavender S.M.M. #4/12a Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection Elsen 88 # 160 Private collection Peus 363 # 5036 Elsen 89 # 860 Private collection Markow Sphinx S.M.M. # 4/12b Siamak Ahghari # 561 Siamak Ahghari # 563 Peus 392 # 4385 Gorny & Mosch 138 # 1512 Spink 5010 # 22 Private collection Ponterio 146 # 1314 Siamak Ahghari # 565 Siamak Ahghari # 566 Private collection Peus 386 # 329 Rauch 10 # 86 Private collection Siamak Ahghari Elsen 89 # 861 Elsen 93 # 727 Private collection Peus 386 # 328 Canmoose Private collection Sayles & Lavender Private collection Private collection Private collection

Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

4.00 3.71 4.02 4.08 3.13 1.90 1.91 1.94 1.94 2.02 1.89 1.93 1.69 1.64 1.90 1.76 1.91 1.74 2.07 1.82 1.86 1.68 194 1.59 ? 1.86 1.92 1.99 2.04 1.84 2.03

18 24 20x21 18 22x24 ? 13 14 ? ? 13 16 14 13x14 13 16x18 14 15x16 14 16 16 ? 14 13 ? ? 13 14 14 15 20

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ O O O O O O O O O O O O O O

1.83 1.38 1.18 1.97 2.03 1.76 0.61 0.66 0.53 0.64 0.55 0.70 0.53 0.58 0.63 0.64 0.65 0.68 0.71 0.54

? 14x15 ? 15 14 15x17 11 ? 11 10 10 10 10 10 10 11x12 10 12 9 9

230


231 572/575.2-2a 572/575.2-2b 572/575.2-2c 572/575.2-2d 572/575.2-2e 572/575.2-2f 572/575.2-2g 572/575.2-2h 572/575.2-2i 576a 576b 576c 576d 576e 576f 577a 577b 577c 577d 577e 577f 577g 577h 578a 578b 578c 578d 578e Vahšīr 579a 579b 579c 579d 579e 579f 579g 579h 579i 579j 579k 579l 580a 580b 580c 580d 580e 580f 580g 580h 580i 580j 580k 580l 580m 580n 580o

Private collection Private collection S.M.M. #4/13b Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection Ancient Coins Canada Markov 11 # 139 BMC XXXIII # 12 De Morgan XXXI # 17 Gorny & Mosch 136 # 1515 Peus 388 # 240 Baldwin 39 # 1309 Pegasi S.M.M. # 4/16 Private collection Private collection Sayles & Lavender Sayles & lavender Baldwin 39 # 1318a Baldwin 39 # 1318b Sphinx Private collection De Morgan XXXI # 24 Ancient Coins Canada Private collection Baldwin 39 # 1323

O O O O O O O O O Δ Δ Δ

0.65 0.57 0.52 0.67 0.49 0.34 0.66 0.60 0.6 3.49 ? 4.18

9x10 9x10 10 10 12 11x12 11x12 11 ? 23 18x20 24

Δ Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ O O O O O

3.97 4.0 3.41 1.87 1.79 1.96 1.71 1.93 2.0 2.0 1.78 0.57 0.64 0.56 0.56 0.7

22 20x22 `? 15 16 13 15 15 14x17 15x17 ? 10 10 11 10 9

Elsen 93 # 442 Peus 386 # 330 Pegasi De Morgan XXXI # 2 Private collection Private collection Gorny & Mosch 160 # 1677 Baldwin 39 # 1326 UBS 59 # 5997 Peus 363 # 5037 Siamak Ahghari # 567 Siamak Ahghari # 568 Baldwin 39 # 1327 Peus 388 # 244 CNG 60 # 1039a CNG 60 # 1039b Elsen 93 # 443 Baldwin 39 # 1330 Kenneth Dorney Spink 5014 # 164 De Morgan XXXI # 6 Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection Ancient Coins Canada Baldwin 39 # 1328

Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ

3.60 3.99 3.64 ? 4.08 3.26 3.78

17x18 17x18 ? 14x15 18 17 18x20

3.6 3.89 3.40 3.79 3.85 1.8 1.97 1.96 2.02 1.88 1.9 1.98 1.93 ? 1.91 2.00 1.72 2.02 2.00 1.7

18x21 ? ? 18 17 13 14 13 12 13 14 ? ? 13x14 13x14 12x13 12 14 13 14

Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

231


232 580p 580q 580r 581a 581b 581c 581d 581e 581f 581g 581h 581i 581j 581k 581l 581m 581n 581o 581p 582/585a 582/585b 582/585c 582/585d 582/585e 582/585f 582/585g 582/585h 582/585i 582/585j 582/585k 582/585l 582/585m 582/585n 582/585o 582/585p 582/585q 583/586a 583/586b 583/586c 583/586d 583/586e 583/586f 583/586g 583/586h 583/586i 583/586j 583/586k 583/586l 583/587m 583/587n 583/587o 583/587p 584a 584b 584c 584d

Baldwin 39 # 1331 Sayles & Lavender Siamak Ahghari # 569 Rauch 10 # 183 Sayles & Lavender Kenneth Dorney De Morgan XXXI #12 Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection Baldwin 39 # 1333 S.M.M. $ 4/19a S.M.M. # 4/19b Ancient Coins Private collection Sayles & Lavender Pavlou Siamak Ahghari # 570 CNG 57 # 686 Peus 388 # 243 Kenneth Dorney Spink 5014 De Morgan XXXI # 3 De Morgan XXX #28 De Morgan XXX #30 Private collection Private collection S.M.M. # 4/20a S.M.M. # 4/20b De Morgan XXX # 32 Morton & Eden June 2909 #421 Peus 393 # 310 Triton XIII # 841 Barry Murphy Siamak Ahghari # 571

Peus 386 # 331 Peus 386 # 332 Markov 11 # 140 De Morgan XXXI # 5 De Morgan XXXI # 4 Private collection S.M.M. #4/21a S.M.M. # 4/21b S.M.M. # 4/21c CNG 57 #685 Sayles & Lavender Peus 372 # 594; Gorny & Mosch 138 # 1516 Private collection Private collection Private collection Siamak Ahghari # 572

Spink 5010 #164 Elsen 93 # 728 De Morgan XXXI # 11 S.M.M. # 4/22

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ

2.0 1.99 2.22 0.69 0.63 0.62 ? 0.65 0.66 0.65 0.57 0.7 0,44 0.62 0.62 0.66 0.28 0.55 0.64 3.83 3.75 4.02 3.80 ? ? ? 3.84 3.68 3.86 4.11 ? 3.67

11x15 14 14 ? 9 ? 8 9 11 10 9x10 9x19 9 9 11 9x10 9 10 10 ? 19 ? ? 15x18 17x18 16x18 19x21 18x20 16 18x20 15x17 16

Δ Δ Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

3.36 3.90 3.94 4.27 2.11 2.05 1.90 ? ? 1.46 1.51 1.83 1.99 1.73 1.86 1.56

20 20 17 17 13 16 ? 12x13 12x13 13 13x15 13 11 ? 14 13

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ O O O O

1.81 1.96 2.01 1.98 0.72 0.53 ? 0.65

12x16 10x14 15x13 13 ? 9 8 8

232


233 584e 584f 584g 584h 584i 584j 587a 587b 587c 587d 587e 587Aa 587Ba 587Bb 587Bc Unknown King II 587Ca 587Da 587Db 587Dc 587Dd 587De 587Ea Pakor II 588a 588b 588c 588d 588e 588f 588g 588h 588i 588j 588k 588l 589a 589b 589c 589d 589e 589f 589g 589h 589i 589j 589k 589l 589m 589n 589o 589p 589q

Anccient Coins Private collection Private collection Pavlou Private collection Pavlou Private collection BMC XXXIII # 8 Peus 363 # 5040 Peus 363 # 5038 V-auctions 18/9/08 # 30 S.M.M. # 4/25 Baldwin 39 # 1335 Peus 388 # 245 S.M.M. # 4/24

O O O O O O Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ ½Δ Δ Δ Δ

0.67 0.66 0.54 0.59 0.65 0.50 2.87 3.07 3.60 3.75 3.54 2.12 3.7 3.76 3.86

10 9x10 10 11 8x9 10 23x25 15x18 ? ? 18 15 18 18 17x19

Künker 97 # 985 Gorny & Mosch 142 # 1680 Elsen 243 # 96 Private collection S.M.M. # 4/26 Peus 363 # 5041 Peus 363 # 5042

Δ Δ

3.02 3.55

? 17x20

Δ Δ Δ Δ ½Δ

3.29 2.68 3.55 3.28 1.53

15x17 18 16x19 ? ?

Δ Δ Δ

3.8 3.72 3.73

26 23 25

Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

3.79 3.59 3.99 3.89 3.10 3.79 2.35 4.05 3.89 ? 1.60 1.31 1.97 1.69 1.66 1.69 1.76 1.67 1.40 1.8 1.94 1.63 2.03

19x22 25 25 22x30 29 ? ? 24 22 ? 17 ? ? ? 17x19 19x21 18 18 17 15x18 18 20 18

½Δ

1.85

17

½Δ

1.49

17

½Δ

1.73

20

Baldwin 40 # 27 CNG 70 # 446 Peus 388 # 250; Siamak Ahghari #580 Peus 392 # 4386 S.M.M. # 4/31 BMC XLVIII # 17 Peus 380 # 633 Ancient Coins Peus 371 #224 Pegasi Siamak Ahghari #579 Siamak Ahghari #581 CNG 57 # 685 Peus 386 # 337 Spink 5014 # 166 Baldwin 52 # 75 Kenneth Dorney Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection Baldwin 39# 1341 Ancient Coins S.M.M. # 4/32a Morton & Eden June 2009 # 421 Morton & Eden June 2009 # 517 Morton & Eden June 2009 Triton XIII # 843

233


234 589r 589t 589s 589u 590a 590b 590c 590d 580e 590f 590g 590h 590i 590j 590k 590l 590m 590n 590o 590p 590q 590r 590s 590t 590u 592a 592b 592c 592d 592e 592f 592g 592h 592i 592j 592k 592l 592m 592n 592o 592p 593a 593b 593c 593d 593e 593f 593g 593h 593i 593j 593k 593l 593m

S.M.M. 4/36 Siamak Ahghari #582 Siamak Ahghari #584 Siamak Ahghari #585 Baldwin 39 # 1342 Peus 386 # 339 Kenneth Dorney Sayles & Lavender Sayles & Lavender Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection Canmoose Baldwin 39 # 1343 Ancient Coins Private collection Ancient Coins Canada Gorny & Mosch 138 #1517 Morton & Eden June 2009 # 421 Sayles & Lavender Siamak Ahghari #587 Peus 385 # 348 Peus 386 # 335 Gorny & Mosch 160 # 1678 Elsen 93 # 445 Bldwin 39 # 1339 Private collection Private collection S.M.M. # 4/34b Baldwin 39 # 1337 Baldwin 39 # # 1340 Baldwin 43 # 2073 Ancient Coins Spink 9008 # 361 Spink 9008 # 165 CNG 213 # 191 Siamak Ahghari #582 Peus 388 # 252 Peus 386 # 336 Kenneth Dorney Privare collection S.M.M. # 4/35 Pegasi Baldwin 39 # 1338 V-coins auction 18/9/08 #31 Persis Gallery Ancient Coins Private collection Peus 371 # 225 Peus 388 # 251

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O

2.02 1.90 1.77 2.15 0.65 070 0.56 0.41 0.56 0.46 0.73 0.57 0.45 0.46 0,54 0.73 0.50 0.68 0.55 0.50 0.63 0.48

17 18 18 17 13 12 ? 12 ? 11x12 11 12 11 10x11 10 10x11 15 11x12 13 10 14 13x15

O

0.57

10x11

O O Δ Δ Δ

0.46 0.56 3.32 4.13 3.94

12 11 17 14x17 15x18

Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

3.47 3.8 3.63 3.14 3.46 3.7 3.8 3.88 3.76 3.88 3.86 3.82 3.88 1.81 1.72 1.78 1.67 1.94 1.97 1.7 1.67

15x16 15x16 15 16 15x16 16 16 16x17 20 ? ? 18 17 14 13x13 ? 11x12 13 ? 12 13

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

1.90 1.62 1.75 1.92 2.04

13x14 13 12x14 ? 14

234


235 593n 594a 594b 594c 594d 594e 594f 594g 594h 594i 594j 594k 594l 594m 594n 594o 594p 594q 594r 595a 595Aa 595Ab 595Ba 595Ca 595Cb 595Cc Pakor I 596a 596b 596c 596d 596e 596Aa 596Ab 596Ac 596Ad 596Ae 596Af 597a 597b 597c 597d 597e 597f 597g 597h 597i 597j 597k 597l 597m 597Aa 597Ab

Spink 5014 # 165 Peus 386 #338 Peus 363 # 5051 Spink 5010 #24 Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection Baldwin 39 # 1344 Baldwin 39 # 1345 Private collection Peus 372 # 595; Gorny & Mosch 138 # 1518 Spink 5014 # 165 Baldwin 39 # 1346 Sayles & Lvender Sayles & Lavender Sayles & Lavender Siamak Ahghari #586 Peus 388 # 253 Gorny & Mosch 152 #1494 BMC XXXV # 9 Siamak Ahghari #577 Peus 371 # 223 CNG 223 # 258 Siamak Ahghari #578 Elsen 102 #142 BMC XXXV # 1; De Morgan XXXII # 1 BMC XXXV # 2; De Morgan XXXII # 2 S.M.M. #4/27 Siamak Ahghari # 573 Baldwin 39 # 1347 Peus 386 # 333 Peus 388 # 388 De Morgan XXXII # 3 Spink 5014 # 166 CNG 213 # 191 Baldwin 43 # 247 Baldwin 44 # 103 Gorny & Mosch 142 #1682 Baldwin Peus 388 # 247 De Morgan XXXII # 5 De Morgan XXXII # 5 Private collection Private collection S.M.M. # 4/28 Ancient Coins Private collection Siamak Ahghari # 574 De Morgan XXXII # 4 Pegasi

½Δ O O O O O O O O O O O O

1.87 0.68 0.55 0.56 0.55 0.80 0.56 0.49 0.53 0.60 0.70 0.68 0.53

? 9 ? ? 9x10 9 9x10 9 9x19 11x12 10 10x13 8

O O O O O O ½Δ Δ

0.58 0.5 0.59 0.55 0.64 0.54 1.84 3.75

? 10 9 10 9 9 12 17

Δ ½Δ O O O

3.49 1.71 0.50 0.57 0.67

18x20 13 ? 9 11

Δ Δ

3.88 3.77

15 18

Δ

2.93

17x19

Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

3.95 3.69 3.7 3.38 3.85 ? 2.94 3.82 2.01 1.61 1.64

19 19 17 20 20 17 ? 18 14 14x15 14

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

1.5 1.24 ? ? 1.42 1.95 1.18 1.64 2.10 2.03 ? 1.54

14 14 13x14 12x14 13x16 14 14 15 13x15 14 13 ?

235


236 598a 598b 598c 598d 598e 598f 598g 598h 598i 598j 598k 598l 598m 598Aa 598Ab 598Ac 598Ad 598Ae 598Af 598Ag Nambed 599a 599b 599Aa 600a 600b 600c 600d 600e 600f 600g 601a 601b 601c 601d 601e 601f 601g 601h 601i 602j 601k 601l 601m 601n 601o 601p 601q 601r 601s 601Aa 602a

Kenneth Dorney Peus 388 # 249 De Morgan XXXII # 8 Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection V-coins auction 18/9/08 # 32 Lanz 141 # 247 Ancient Coins Siamak Ahghari # 575 Siamak Ahghari # 576 Peus 388 # 248 Elsen 89 # 862 De Morgan XXXII # 7 Private collection Private collection S.M.M. # 4/29 Pavlou Spink Numismatic Circ 2/1979 #1084 Siamak Ahghari #588 De Morgan XXXII # 16 Peus 388 # 254 Peus 392 # 4387 Siamak Ahghati # 589 S.M.M. # 4/39c S.M.M. # 4/39a S.M.M.. # 4/39b Ancient Coins Canada Peus 388 # 255 Peus 393 # 314 Baldwin 39 # 1352 Baldwin 43 # 103 Kenneth Dorney Peus 363 # 5944 Spink 5014 # 167 Gorny & Mosch 160 # 1681 Gorny & Mosch 160 # 1680 De Morgan XXXII # 21 S.M.M. # 4/40 Sayles & Lavender Elsen 246 # 78 De Morgan XXXII # 13 De Morgan XXXII # 14 Pegasi Siamak Ahghari # 590 Siamak Ahghari # 591 Siamak Ahghari # 592 Tyler Smith NC 2004 # 182 Gorny & Mosch 160 # 1682

O O O O O O O O O

0.58 0.58 ? 0.33 0.39 0.51 0.62 0.66 0.58

? 10 10 9x10 13 10x11 9x11 10 12

O O O O O O O O O O O

0.43 0.9 0.50 0.57 0.59 0.76 ? 0.52 0.32 0.41 0.30

? 16.5 10 12 10x12 10 9 10x11 9 9 9

Δ

?

19x21

Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

3.51 ? 2.86 3.15 3.84 2.92 2.99 3.36 3.78 1.64 1.61 1.6 1.4 1.77 1.72 1.84 1.75

20 15x18 14 17x20 19 19 18 17x18 21 14 12x15 13x14 12 ? ? ? 14

½Δ

1.47

13

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

? 1.18 1.59 1.43 ? ? 1.77 2.07 1.64 1.18 1.42

13 13 14 14 16 18 ? 14 13 16 13

O

0.72

11

236


237 602b 602c 602d 602e 602f 602g 602h 602i 602j 602k 602l 602m 602n 602o 602p 602q 602Aa 603a 603b 603c 603d 603e 603f 603g 604a 604b 604c 604d 604e 604f 604g 604h 604i 604Aa 604Ab 605a 605b 605c 605d 605e 605f 606a 606b 6o6c 606d 606e 606f 606g 607a 607b 607c 607d 607e

Peus 388 # 257 De Morgan XXXII # 22 Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection S.M.M. # 4/41c Siamak Ahghari # 594 Tyler Smith NC 2004 # 185 Persis Gallery Private collection Private collection Ancient Coins Canada Educational Coin Cie Pegasi Siamak Ahghari # 593 Tyler Smith NC 2004 # 183 Gorny & Mosch 130 # 1679 Persis gallery Elsen Elsen 89 # 863; Peus 384 # 349 Spink 5014 # 167 De Morgan XXXII # 15 Siamak Ahghari # 595

Baldwin 39 # 1351 Kenneth Dorney Peus 386 # 340 De Morgan XXXII # 20 De Morgan XXXII 19 Private collection S.M.M. # 4/42 Private collection Siamak Ahghari # 596

Gorny & Mosch 142 # 1683 S.M.M. #4/43a Spink 5014 # 168 De Morgan XXXII # 24 De Morgan XXXII # 25 De Morgan XXXII # 26 S.M.M. # 4/44 Siamak Ahghari # 597 Peus 386 # 341 Spink 5014 # 168 De Morgan XXXII # 27 De Morgan XXXII # 28 Baldwin 39 # 1350 CNG 221 # 424 Siamak Ahghari # 598 Peus 384 # 350 Peus 386 # 342 De Morgan XXXII # 29 S.M.M. # 4/45a S.M.M. # 4/45b

O O O O O O O O O

0.70 ? 0.57 0.57 0.43 0.52 0.52 0.68 0.39

12 10 9x10 9x10 9 10 10 11 10

O O O O O O O O

0.70 0.50 0.49 0.52 ? 0.63 0.62 0.55

12 10x11 10 12 ? ? 9 10

Δ

2.69

17x20

Δ Δ Δ

2.70 2.36 2.33

19 ? 18

Δ Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ O

? ? 3.89 2.1 1.21 1.68 ? ? 1.74 1.68 1.74 1.43 0.57

? 18 18 15x16 ? 14 #19 13 12x14 14 12x14 14 10

O Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ O O O O O

0.39 3.95 ? ? ? 3.79 4.18 1.77 1.62 ? ? 1.7 1.63 2.24 0.65 0.59 ? 0.59 0.65

10 ? 19 18 17x18 16x17 19 13x14 ? 13 13 16x17 15 16 10x13 10 9 9x10 9x12

237


238 607f 607Aa Napad I 608.1a 608.1b 608.2a 608.2b 609a 609b 610a 610b 611Aa 611Ab 611Ac 611B-1a 611B-1b 611B-1c 611B-2a 611C-1a 611C-2a 611C-2b Napad II 612.1a 612.1b 612.1c 612.1d 612.1e 612.1f 612.1g 612.1h 612.1i 612.1j 612.1k 612.1l 612.2a 612.2 612.3a 612.3b 612.3c 612.3d 612.3e 612.3f 612.3g 612,3h 612.3i 612.3j 612.3k 613.1a 613.1b 613.1c

Pegasi Private collection

O O

0.71 0.42

? 10x11

Peus 3.88 #259 Peus 363 # 5054 BMC XXXIV # 18 De Morgan XXXIII # 14 De Morgan XXXIII # 16 Siamak Ahghari # 599 Tyler Smith NC 2004 # 188 Private collection Gorny & Mosch 160 # 1683 S.M.M. # 4/46 Siamak Ahghari # 600 De Morgan XXXIII # 18 De Morgan XXXIII # 15 Peus 386 # 346;S.M.M. # 4/47 Peus 392 # 4388 Sayles & Lavender Private collection Tyler Smith NC 2004 # 189

Δ Δ Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ O

2.80 2.82 3.06 ? ? 1.72 0.65

18x19 ? 21 19 12 13 9

O Δ

0.58 2.86

9 18x20

Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

3.99 4.00 ? ? 1.77

18 18 12 14 13

½Δ O O O

1.65 0.42 0.56 0.46

14x15 10 10 9

Peus 368 # 322 De Morgan XXXIII # 3 Peus 368 # 321 De Morgan XXXIII # 2 S.M.M. # 4/48a S.M.M. # 4/48b BMC XXXIV # 4 BMC XXXIV # 5 Peus 363 # 5046 Triton VII # 545 Barry Murphy Siamak Ahghari # 601 De Morgan XXXIII # 6 De Morgan XXXIII # 5 Peus 386 # 343 Hess – Divo 307 # 1349 CNG 82 # 675 BMC XXXV # 12; De Morgan XXXIII # 1 Kenneth Dorney Pars Coins Elsen 93 # 450 S.M.M. # 4/48c Kenneth Dorney Morton & Eden June 2009 # 417 Morton & Eden June 2009 # 421 Leu 83 # 410 Gorny & Mosch 126 # 1458 Tyler Smith NC 2004 #

Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ

3.75 ? 3.55 ? 3.13 3.67 3.54 3.54 3.32 3.82 3.44 3.71 ? ? 2.99 3.58 3.49 3.41

? 17 ? 16x17 16 17 17 17 ? 16 14 16 15 15 15x16 ? ? 17

Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ

3.74 3.37 3.51 3.84 3.74 3.10

? 16 16 15x17 ? 16x18

Δ

3.10

16x18

½Δ ½Δ

1.68 1.83

? ?

½Δ

1.78

13

238


239

613.1d 613.1e 613.1f 613.1g 613.1h 613.i 613.2a 613.3a 613.3b 613.3c 613.3d 613.4a 613.4b 613.4c 613.5a 613.5b 613.5c 613.5d 613.5e 613.5f 613.5g 613.5h 613.5i 613.5j 613.5k 614.1a 614.1b 614.1c 614.1d 614.1e 614.1f 614.1g 614.1h 614.1i 614.1j 614.1k 614.1l 614.2a 614.2b 614.2c 614.2d 614.3a 614.3b 614.3c 614.3d 614.3e 614.3f 614.3g 614.4a

194 De Morgan XXXIII # 10 Barry Murphy Gorny & Mosch 160 # 1684 Spink 5014 # 169 Siamak Ahghari # 604 Siamak Ahghari # 605 Spink 5014 # 169 CNG 55 # 7739 Peus 363 # 5047 Kenneth Dorney Private collection Private collection Peus 386 # 344 Tyler Smith NC 2004 # 195 Peus 388 # 262 Peus 363 # 5048 Private collection Stacks Gallery Private collection S.M.M. # 4/49a S.M.M. # 4/49b Ancient Coins Canada Tyler Smith NC 2004 # 191 Tyler Smith NC 2004 # 192 Siamak Ahghari # 603 S.M.M. # 4/50c Peus 386 # 345 Spink 5014 # 168 Private collection Private collection Peus 363 # 5049 CNG 112 # 326 Tyler Smith NC 2004 # 207 Tyler Smith NC 2004 # 203 Tyler Smith NC 2004 # 204 Private collection Siamak Ahghari # 604 Tyler Smith NC 2004 # 199 Private collection S.M.M. # 40/50b Siamak Ahghari # 607 Barry Murphy Private collection Private collection Kenneth Dorney Kenneth Dorney Siamak Ahghari # 608 Siamak Ahghari # 609 Private collection

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

? 1.94 1.59

11 13 12

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

1.88 1.68 1.80 1.88 ? 1.77 ? 1.30 1.61 1.58 1.66

? 13 13 ? ? ? ? 12 13 14 12

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

1.68 1.46 1.34 1.49 1.77 1.19 1.12 1.49 1.48

13 ? 11x13 ? 11 11 12 14 12x14

½Δ

1.37

13

½Δ O O O O O O O O

1.51 0.64 0.60 0.64 0.44 0.55 0.63 0.56 0.69

12 8 8 ? 8 9 ? 8 9

O

0.58

10

O

0.72

9x10

O O O

0.61 0.53 0.49

9 9 9

O O O O O O O O O O O

0.48 0.41 0.53 0.56 0.67 0.55 0.54 0.54 0.42 0.62 0.45

7 8 9 10 9x10 10 ? ? 9 9 9

239


240 614.4b 614.4c 614.4d 614.4e 614.4f 615a 616a 616b 617a 617b Prince Y 618.1a 618.1b 618.1c 618.1d 618.1e 618.1f 618.1g 618.2a 6182b 618.2c 618.2d 619.1a 619.1b 619.1c 619.1d 619.1e 619.1f 619.1g 619.1h 619.1i 619.1j 619.1k 619.1l 619.1m 619.1n 619.1o 619.1p 619.1q 619.1r 619.1s 619.1t 619.1u 619.1v 619.1w 619.1x 619.1y 618.1z 619.1aa 619.1bb 619.1cc 619.1Aa 619.1Ab 619.1Ac 619.1Ad

S.M.M. # 4/50a Private collection Private collection Private collection Pegasi Alram Pl 20 S.M.M. # 4/51 Tyler Smith NC 2004 # 209 S.M.M. # 4/52 Ancient Coins Canada

O O O O O Δ ½Δ ½Δ

0.37 0.48 0.53 0.42 0.63 ? 1.48 1.43

7x8 8 9x10 9 ? 14x17 12 13

O O

0.38 0.51

8 11

Spink 5014 # 170 BMC XXIV # 12; De Morgan XXXIII # 19 De Morgan XXXIII # 20 BMC XXXIV # 13 Peus 363 # 5053 Siamak Ahghari # 610 Siamak Ahghari # 611 Baldwin 39 # 1354 Baldwin 39 # 1355 Private collection S.M.M. # 4/54; Peus 388 # 263 Sayles & Lavender Spink 5014 #170 Baldwin 39 #1356 Spink 5010 #25 Sayles & Lavender Private collection Privare collection Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection Sayles & Lavender Private collection S.M.M. # 4/58 S.M.M. # 4/55b S.M.M. # 4/55d S.M.M. # 4/57 Peus 363 # 5056 Peus 363 # 5054 Peus 363 #5055 Ancient Coins Cnada Ancient Coins Canada

Δ Δ

2.34 3.56

? 16

Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ

? 3.16 3.19 3.21 3.56 2.9 2.9 2.37 2.74

13x14 15 ? 14 16 15 15x18 16x17 14x15

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

1.36 1.28 1.4 1.27 1.20 1.47 1.70 0.87 1.09 1.73 1.72 1.51 1.25 1.24 1.16 1.38 1.29 1.31 1.02 1.57 1.03 1.07 1.55 1.10 1.38 1.18 1.28 1.37 1.25 1.36 1.5 1.15 1.45

12 ? 12 ? ? 12x13 12x13 10x11 11 13 13x14 12 14 12x15 11x14 11x13 12x13 12 12 12 12 14x15 12 ? ? ? 13 14 12 12 13 13 12

Siamak Ahghari # 612

Sayles & Lavender Baldwin 39 # 1357 In trade Siamak Ahghari # 613

240


241 619.1Ba 619.1Bb 619.2a 619.2b 619.2c 619.2d 619.2e 620.1a 620.1b 620.1c 620.1d 620.1e 620.1-1a 620.1-1b 620.1-1c 620.2a 620.2b 620.2c 620.2d 620.2e 620.2f 620 2g 620 2h 620.3a 620.3b 620.3c 620.3d 620.3e Prince Z 621.1a 621.1b 621.1c 621.1d 621.1e 621.1f 621.1g 621.1h 621.1i 621.1j 621.1k 621.1-1a 621.1-1b 621.2a 621.2b 621.2c 621.2d 621.2e 621.2f 621.2g 621.2h 621.2i 621.2j 622a 622b 622c 622d

S.M.M. # 4/56c In Trade Private collection Private collection S.M.M. # 4/55g Private collection Sayles & Lavender Baldwin 39 # 1358 Spink 5014 # 170 Private collection S.M.M.4/60b Private collection Private collection Private collection S.M.M. # 4/60b Private collection Private collection Private collection S.M.M. # 4/60c Tyler Smith NC 2004 # 213 Ancient Coins Canada Pavlou Siamak Ahghari # 615

S.M.M. # 4/60d Tyler Smith NC 2004 # 216 Private collection Private collection Siamak Ahghari # 614 Spink 5003 # 76 Sayles & Lavender Kenneth Dorney Private collection Triton VII # 546 Markov 11# 143 Private collection Peus 380 # 626 Private collection S.M.M. # 4/61c Private collection Private collection M&M 16 # 983 Spink 5014 # 171 Baldwin 39 # 1353 Private collection Spink 5010 #26 S.M.M. # 4/61d Peus 363 # 5057 Peus 363 # 5058 Peus 363 # 5059 Elsen 102 # 144 Pavlou Private collection Spink 5014 # 171 Private collection S.M.M. # 4/63

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ O O O O O O O O O O O O O

1.31 1.42 1.08 1.31 1.35 1.14 1.06 0.4 0.46 0.45 0.43 0.42 0.45 0.53 0.30 0.42 0.42 0.38 0.45 0.55

12 11-1 12x14 11x12 11 11x13 13 8x9 ? 8 8 8x9 9 9 8 8 9 8x9 7 9

O O O O O

0.37 0.36 0.39 0.50 0.63

10 10 9 8 9

O O O

0.47 0.40 0.50

8 9 9

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ O O O O

1.16 0.95 1.02 1.42 1.40 1.1 1.19 1.25 1.28 1.12 1.00 1.31 1.66 1.19 0.8 1.27 0.92 1.30 1.33 1.22 1.04 1.43 1.3 0.32 0.54 0.45 0.37

? ? ? 12x13 10x11 ? 12 12x14 11x13 10x13 12 12 ? ? ? 12x13 ? 11x12 ? ? ? 12x13 ? 8x9 ? 9 8

241


242 622e 622f 622g 622A Prince X 622B-NB1a 622B-NB1b 622B-NB1c 622B-NB2a Vādfradād V 623.1a 623.1b 623.2a 624/626.1a 624/626.1b 624/626.1c 624/626.1d 624/626.2-1a 624/626.2-1b 624/626.2-1c 624/626.2-1d 624/626.2-1e 624/626.2-1f 624/626.2-1g 624/626.2-1h 624/626.2-1i 624/626.2-1j 624/626.2-1k 624/626.2-1l 624/626.2-1m 624/626.2-2a 624/626.2-2b 624/626.2-2c 624/626.2-2d 624/626.2-2e 624/626.2-2f 624/626.2-2g 624/626.3 625.1a 625.1b 625.1c 625.1d 625.1e 625.1f 625.1g 624.1h 625.1i 625.2a 625.2b 625.2c 625.2d 625.2e 625.2f 625.2g 626a 626Aa

Private collection Ancient Imports Siamak Ahghari # 616 Spink 5003 # 75

O O O ½Δ

0.26 0.3 0.39 1.19

7 8 8 11

Peus 380 # 625 S.M.M. # 4/53 Alram Tafel 21 Spink 5014 # 171

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ O

1.22 1.17 ? 0.51

13 10x12 11x12 ?

Peus 386 # 348 BMC XXXIV # 21 Baldwin 39 # 1359 Elsen 93 # 452 Private collection BMC XXXVI # 22 Private collection Baldwin 39 # 1363 Peus 388 # 268 Spink 5010 # 27 Baldwin 39 # 1360 Markov 11 # 144 Baldwin 39 # 1364 Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection S.M.M. # 5/2c Tyler Smith NC 2004 # 222 Elsen 249 # 108 S.M.M. # 5/2a S.M.M. # 5/2b Sayles & Lavender Ancient Coins Hirsch 255 # 1631 Ancient Coins Canada Ancient Coins Canada Private collection Peus 372 # 596 Baldwin 39 # 1361 Kenneth Dorney Baldwin 39 # 1365 Private collection Private collection Gorny & Mosch 138 # 1519 Ancient Coins Canada Ancient Coins Canada S.M.M. # 5/3 Elsen 89 # 865 Private collection Private collection Private collection Private collection Ancient Coins Canada Alram Tafel 21 626 Peus 373 # 597

Δ Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

2.62 2.82 3.9 1.67 1.39 1.44 1.54 1.55 1.32 1.83 1.2 1.6 1.6 1.49 1.36 1.22 1.69 1.27 1.50

17 16x18 ? 12x14 13x15 13x14 12x14 ? 12x14 ? 14 ? ? 12x14 13 12 12 10x12 12

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ O O O O O O O

1.44 1.62 1.67 1.38 1.66 1.40 1.46 1.53 1.55 0.48 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.61 0.40 0.49

13 12 12x13 13 12 ? 13 14 12 ? ? ? ? 8 10 9

O O O O O O O O O ½Δ ½Δ

0.46 0.37 0.69 0.54 0.56 0.57 0.50 0.30 0.5 ? 1.31

10 10 9 9 10 9 9x10 8 9 12 ?

242


243 626Ab

Siamak Ahghari # 617

½Δ

1.38

13

Gorny & Mosch 156 # 1544 Peus 388 # 269 Spink 5014 # 170 CNG 75 # 612 BMC XXXVII # 4; De Morgan XXXIV # 5 Siamak Ahghari # 619 S.M.M. # 5/4 Spink 5014 # 172 S.M.M. # 5/5 Gorny & Moch 160 # 1685 Gorny & Mosch 160 # 1685 Private collection Ancient Coins Canada Siamak Ahghari # 620 Peus 384 # 355 S.M.M. # 5/7 Tyler Smith NC 2003 # 223 Ancient Coins Canada Peus 386 # 350 Peus 388 # 349 Siamak Ahghari # 618 Kenneth Dorney Peus 388 # 270

Δ

2.90

17x18

Δ Δ Δ Δ

2.64 2.71 3.12 3.05

15 ? 16 17

Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

3.27 1.51 1.31 1.57 1.51

16 14x15 ? 13x14 18x19

½Δ

1.51

12

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ O O O

1.33 1.45 1.54 0.47 0.32 0.52

13 14 13 9 7 9

O ½Δ ½Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ

0.41 1.68 1.60 2.89 1.13 1.40

7x10 12 13 16 ? 14

Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

? 2.74 1.15 1.48 1.26 1.57

14x16 17 13 14 13x14 14x15

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

1.06 1.39 1.68 1.48 1.24 3.26 2.93 3.01 2.83 2.60 ? 2.95 2.51 1.97 2.28 2.50 2.73 1.55 1.34 1.22

12 13x15 13 14 13 17 17x18 16 ? 15 15 15 15x18 16x17 18 15x17 17 13 14 12x14

Mančhir I 627a 627b 627c 627d 627e 627f 627Aa 627Ab 628a 628b 628c 628d 628e 628f 628Aa 628Ab 628Ac 628Ad 628Ba 628Bb 628Ca 628Da 628Db Ardaxšīr III 629a 629b 630a 630b 630c 630d 630e 630f 630g 630Aa 630Ab 631a 631b 631c 631d 631e 631f 631g 631h 631i 631j 631k 631l 631Aa 631Ab 631Ac

De Morgan XXXIV # 1 Siamak Ahghari # 620 Private collection Elsen 89 # 866 BMC XXXII # 1 Gorny & Mosch 160 # 1687 S.M.M. # 5/8 Private collection Siamak Ahghari # 622 Peus 384 # 353 Peus 384 # 352 BMC XXXVI # 24 Peus 380 # 627 BMC XXXVI # 25 CNG 55 # 777 S.M.M. # 5/9 De Morgan XXXIV # 2 Private collection Elsen 99 # 1304 Peus 393 # 316 Ancien Coins Canada Triton XIII # 847 Private collection S.M.M. # 5/10 Elsen 93 # 454 Peus 393 # 318

243


244 631Ad 631Ae 631Af 632a 632b 632c 632d 632Aa 632Ab 632Ba 633a 633b 633c 633d 633e 633Aa 633Ba 633Ca 633Cb 633Cb 633Cd 633Ce 633Da 633Db Mančhir II 634a 634b 634c 635.1a 635.1b 635.1c 635.1d 635.1e 635.2a 635.2b 635.2c 635.2d 635.2e 635.2f 635.2g 635.2h 635.2i 635.2j 635.2k 635.2l 635.2m 636a 637a 637b

Private collection Ancient Coins Canada Morton & Eden June 2009 # 422 Peus 386 # 347 Peus 368 # 325 Peus 393 # 317 Morton & Eden Juni 2009 # 422 Peus 363 # 5062 Elsen 93 # 453 M & M 27 # 2185 BMC XXXII # 2 Private collection Spink 5014 # 173 Private collection; obv die-id with Elsen 93 # 454 Siamak Ahghari # 624 Private collection Spink 5014 # 171 Markov Private collection Private collection Pavlou Siamak Ahghari # 625 S.M.M. # 5/11 Private collection BMC XXXVII # 3 Barry Murphy; Triton XIII # 848 V-Coins Auction 30/6/09 Peus 368 # 326 Private collection BMC XXXVII # 5; De Morgan XXXIV # 8 Private collection Siamak Ahghari # 628 Gorny & Mosch 160 # 1688 Peus 386 # 352 Rauch 76 # 349 Gorny & Mosch 160 # 1629 Peus 386 # 353 V-Auction 245/43 Private collection S.M.M. # 5/12a S.M.M. # 5/12b Private collection Peus 393 # 319 Hirsch 255 # 1633 Siamak Ahghari # 627 Siamak Ahghari # 626 Gorny & Mosch 160 # 1691 Gorny & Mosch 160 #

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

1.34 1.07 1.49

14 14 12x14

Δ Δ Δ Δ

2.49 2.48 2.28 2.19

16x17 ? 16x18 15x17

Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

2.58 2.78 1.37 1.19 1.08 1.21 1.26

? 17x18 ? 13 12x13 ? 12x15

½Δ ½Δ O O O O O O O O

1.41 1.30 0.45 0.4 0.29 0.40 0.37 0.40 0.39 0.26

13 13 ? ? 7x9 8 9 9 9 8x10

Δ Δ

3.09 3.00

17x18 18

Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

2.88 1.51 1.29 1.51

17 ? 12 13

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

1.27 1.39 1.42

13 12 14

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

1.72 1.24 1.47

14 ? 14

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ Δ ½Δ

1.33 1.22 1.20 1.58 1.22 1.51 1.42 1.40 1.60 2.96 1.46

14 11 14 13 12 14x15 13 ? 13 16 12

½Δ

1.50

13

244


245

637c 637d 637e 637f 638a 638b 638c 638Aa 638Ba 638Bb 638Bc 638Bd 638Ca Unknown King III 641Aa 641a 641b 641c 641d 641e 641f 641g 641h 641i Unknown King IV 641Ba Mančhir III 642a 642b 642c 642d 642e 642f 642Aa 642Ab 643a 644a 644b 644c 644d 644e 644f 644g 644h 644Aa 644Ab 644Ba 644Bb 644Bc 645a

1690 Kenneth Dorney Baldwin 39 # 1363 Ancient Coins Canada Gorny & Mosch 142 # 1684 Spink 5014 # 172 Spink 5010 # 28 S.M.M. # 5/12A Baldwin 39 # 1369 Private collection Private collection Ancient Byways Siamak Ahghari # 629 Ancient Coins Canada

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

1.44 1.2 1.41 1.60

? ? 14 14

O O O O O O O O O

0.41 0.38 0.48 0.5 0.42 0.53 ? 0.61 0.41

? ? 8 ? 8 8x9 ? 9 7x10

Δ

2.06

18x19

½Δ ½Δ

1.34 1.37

15 15

Triton IX # 1108; Peus 386 # 351 CNG 184 # 73 Gorny & Mosch 147 # 1548 Gorny & Mosch 160 # 1692 BMC XXXVII # 10 Baldwin 33 # 66 De Morgan XXXIV # 23 BMC XXXVII # 11 S.M.M. # 5/14 Siamak Ahghari # 630

½Δ

1.40

14

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

1.06 1.23 ? 1.03 1.05 1.34

15 13 10x12 13 13 14

Siamak Ahghari # 653

O

0.53

10

CNG 69 # 772 Triton VII # 547 Private collection BMC XXXVII # 13 S.M.M. # 5/15 Siamak Ahghari # 631 S.M.M. # 5/16 Siamak Ahghari # 632 Canmoose Peus 386 # 355 Peus 393 # 320 Private collection Private collection BMC XXXVII # 14 S.M.M. # 5/17 Ancient Imports Siamak Ahghari # 634 Peus 380 # 628 Pegasus V-coins auction 18/9/08 # 33 Private collection Siamak Ahghari # 633 Alram Tafel 41; De la Fuÿe 1907 # 77

Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ O

3.10 3.05 2.82 3.06 2.90 3.37 1.70 1.19 2.86 1.41 1.53 1.53 1.56 1.55 1.36 1.79 1.46 1.70 1.44 0.72

18x20 18x19 20 21 19 20 15 15 20x22 15 14 13x15 13x14 15 13 ? 15 16 ? 12

O O ½Δ

0.50 0.69 ?

10 10 14

245


246 Mančhir IV 646a 646b 646c 646d 646e 646f 646g 646h 646Aa 646Ab 646Ba 646Bb 646Bc 646Ca Ardaxšīr IV 647a 647b 647c 647d 647e 647f 648a 648b 648c 648d 648e 648f 648g 649a 649b 649c 649d 649e 650a 650b 650c 650d 650c 650Aa 650Ab 650Ac 650Ad 650Ba 650Bb 650Bc 650Bd 650Be 650Bf 650Ca

Peus 386 #354; Peus 392 #4389 Peus 392 # 4390 Baldwin 44 #104 Gorny & Mosch 138 # 1521 BMC XXXVII # 12 Siamak Ahghari # 636 Triton XIII # 849 Siamak Ahghari # 637 Siamak Ahghari # 635 S.M.M. # 5/17 Baldwin 39 # 1370 Gorny & Mosch 138 # 1522 Siamak Ahghari # 638 Siamak Ahghari # 639

Δ

3.44

25

Δ Δ Δ

2.95 3.26 2.31

21 20x21 17

Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ

3.10 3.00 2.94 3.16 3.31 2.31 1.6 1.59

26 20 22 21 20 15 ? 14

½Δ O

1.65 0.57

15 11

Private collection Pars Coins Peus 393 # 321 Peus 392 #4391 Siamak Ahghari # 640 Persis Gallery Spink 5014 # 173 Private collection V-coins auction 30/709 Gorny & Mosch 113 # 5305 Kenneth Dorney Pars Coins Siamak Ahghari # 641 Gorny & Mosch 138 # 1523 S.M.M. # 5/21a S.M.M. # 5/21b Ancient Coins Canada Siamak Ahghari # 642 Pars coins; 2.14 gr. 18 mm. Baldwin 39 # 1372 Pars Coins BMC XXXVII # 16 Ancient Coin Canada In trade Persis Gallery Gorny & Mosch 160 # 1694

Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ

2.40 3.09 2.66 2.78 2.96 2.50 1.19 1.28 1.42 1.43

19 18 18 16x18 18 19 ? 15 14 ?

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ O

? 1.05 1.44 0.39

? 13 13 10

O O O O Δ

0.51 0.41 0.81 0.40 2.14

8 9 14 10 18

Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ

2.6 2.31 2.03 2.74 2.23 1.70 1.80

? 20 18 18 18 16 18

Siamak Ahghari # 643

Δ ½Δ ½Δ

3.24 1.34 1.49

18 14 14

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ Δ O

1.39 ? 1.08 1.39 0.40

15 ? 14 15 8

Private collection Gorny & Mosch 142 # 1685 CNG 60 # 1039 Ancient Byways Private collection Siamak Ahghari # 644 S.M.M. # 5/21c

246


247 650Cb 650Da 650Ea 650Fa 650Fb 651a 651b 651c 651d 651e 651f 651g 651h 651i 651j 651k 651l 651m 651n 651o 651p 651q 652a 652b 652c 652d 652e 652f 652g 652h 652Aa 652Ba Shāpur 653/654a 653/654b 653/654c 653/654c 654a 654Aa 654Ab 654Ac 655a 655b 655c 655d 655e 655f 655g 655h 655Aa 655Ab 655Ac 655Ad 656a

Siamak Ahghari # 645 Siamak Ahghari # 646 Siamak Ahghari # 647 Siamak Ahghari # 648 Ancient Coins Canada Spink 5014 # 173 Baldwin 39 # 1371 Baldwin 39 # 1373 S.M.M. # 5/22b Künker 104 Elsen 93 # 455 Peus 368 # 327 Peus 371 # 227 BMC XXXVII # 15 Peus 384 # 356 Sphinx Private collection Siamak Ahghari # 649 Siamak Ahghari # 650 Siamak Ahghari # 651 Pars Coins Peus 380 # 629; Elsen 2243 # 98 Private collection Peus 386 # 357 S.M.M. # 5/23a S.M.M. # 5/23c Ancient Coins Cnada Peus 383 # 357 V-coins Siamak Ahghari # 652 Private collection Elsen 220 # 113

O Δ ½Δ O O Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ

0.47 2.82 1.34 0.42 0.56 2.22 2.4 1.9 2.24 ? 1.94 1.93 2.36 2.27 2.66 1.90 1.68 2.77 1.93 2.66 2.31 2.18

9 17 14 9 8 ? ? ? 17 ? 19x20 ? ? 18 19 ? 18 19 18 18 20 18x19

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ O Δ

0.98 1.28 1.16 1.12 0.81 1.47 1.03 1.24 0.38 2.20

13x14 15 13 13 14 14 15 13 10 19x20

CNG 68 # 773 Alram Tafel 22 653 Gorny & Mosch 151 # 231 Siamak Ahghari # 654 Alram Tafel 22 #654 Triton VII # 548 CNG 76 # 935 Najaf Coins # 2180 Alram Tafel 22 # 655 S.M.M. # 6/1 Peus 386 # 443 Triton IV # 519 CNG 76 # 936 Triton VII # 549 CNG 69 # 774 Siamak Ahghari # 655 CNG 69 # 775 Peus 386 # 444 S.M.M./ # 6/2 Siamak Ahghari # 656 Alram Tafel 22 # 656

Δ Δ Δ

3.68 ? 3.98

20 26x27 19

Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ O O O O Δ

3.63 ? 3.58 3 29 ? ? 1.66 1.76 1.96 1.57 1.66 1.92 1.79 0.54 0.60 0.53 0.63 ?

23 22 22 20 ? 18 17 17 18 17 17 16 18 10 12 11 12 23

247


248 Ardaxšīr V 657.1a 657.1b 657.1c 657.1d 657.1e 657.1f 657.1g 657.1h 657.1i 657.1j 657.1k 657.1l 657.1m 657.2a 657.2b 657.2c 658a 658b 658c 658d 658e 658f 659a 659b 659c 659d 659e 659f 659g 659h 659i 660a 660b 660c 660d 660e

CNG 69 # 864 CNG 73 # 561 Peus 371 # 272 Elsen 97 # 147 Triton VII # 550 S.M.M. # 6/3 Najaf Coins # 2178 Peus 363 # 5219 CNG 58 # 803 Gorny & Mosch Triton IX # 1209 Triton VIII # 694 Triton XIII # 850 / Siamak Ahghari # 6568 Peus 378 #329 Triton VI # 520 Siamak Ahghari # 657 CNG 68 # 865 Gemini LLG AuctionII # 162

Peus 366 # 264 Triton VII # 551 Triton IX # 1210

Siamak Ahghari # 659 Canmoose Peus 392 # 4396 Peus 386 # 445 Peus 380 # 631 Peus 372 # 717 Gorny & Mosch 113 #803 CNG 79 # 542 CNG 69 # 866 Siamak Ahghari # 660 Triton VII # 552 Spink 6003 #1045 Gorny & Mosch 170/; CNG 75 # 722 CNG 73 # 562 Private collection

Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ Δ

3.93 2.81 3.73 3.11 3.02 3.26 ? 3.88 363 3.58 3.71 3.72 3.79

21 21 ? 22 20 20 ? ? ? 21 20x21 20 22

Δ Δ Δ ½Δ ½Δ

3.46 3.67 3.62 1.72 1.91

? 21 23 18 ?

½Δ ½Δ ½Δ ½Δ O O O O O O

1.48 1.74 1.86 1.78 0.65 0.62 0.60 0.75 0.51 0.63

? 16 15 19 12 12 12 12 ? ?

O O O 1/6 unit/dichalk. 1/6 unit/dichalk. 1/6 unit/dichalk.

0.56 0.60 0.56 3.06 2.56 3.28

12 10 12 17 ? 18

1/6 unit/dichalk. 3.41 1/6 unit/dichalk. 3.28

15x18 15

248


249

Bibliography Alram, Michael, Iranisches Personennamenbuch, Bd IV Nomina Propria in Nummis, Wien 1986 Alram, Michael, Eine neue Drachme des Varbarz (Oborzos) aus der Persis?, in Litterae Numismaticae Vindobonensis 3, 1987: 147-155 Alram, Michael, Die vorbildwirkung der arsakidischen Münzprägung, in Litterae Numismaticae Vindobonensis 3, 1987: 117-146 Alram, Michael and Gyselen, Rita, Syllogue Nummorum Sasanidarum 1, Ardashir – Shapur, Verlag der Österreichischen Akedemie der Wissenschaften, Wien 2003 Bivar, A.D.H.; Presentation during 10th International Numismatic Congress, London 1986 Choksy, Jamsheed K, Gesture in Ancien Iran and Central Asia II: Proskynesis and the Bent Forefinger, in Bulletin of the Asia Institute 4; 1990, 201-207; Iowa State University Press/Ames Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh, Religious Iconography on Ancient Iranian Coins, in Cribb, Joe/ Hermann Georgina (ed), After Alexander. Central Asia before Islam, London 2007 (Proceedings of the British Academy 133): 413-434 (1) Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh; The Iranian Revival in the Parthian Period, in The Age of the Parthians; ed Curtis & Stewart; Taurus; London 2007 (2) Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh; The Frataraka Coins of Persis: Bridging the Gap between Achæmenis and Sasanian Persia, in THE WORLD OF ACHǼMENID PERSIA ; John Curtis and St John Simpson (ed); Tauris, London 2010 (3) De Morgan, Jaques , Monnaies Orientales , Tome 1, Numismatique de la Perse Antique, 2e Fascicule, PERSIDE – ÉLYMAIDE – CHARACÈNE, Paris 1930 De Morgan, Jaques, Manuel de Numismatique Orientale de l’Antiquité et du Moyen Age, Tome 1 Paris 1923-1936 Farrokh, Dr. Kaveh, Shadows in the Desert, Ancient Persia at War; Osprey, Oxford, UK; 2007 Hansmann, John, “The Great Gods of Elymais” In Vol 1 of Papers in Honour of Professor Mary Boyce. Acta Iranica, 2nd ser., Leuven, Peeters 1985, 229-246 Hill, George Francis, Catalogue of the Greek Coins of Arabia, Mesopotamia and Persia; (in the British Museum), London 1922 Hoover, Oliver D., Coins of the Seleucid Empire in the Collection of Arthur Houghton, Vol II , New York /Lancaster, 2008


250 Houghto, Arthur, Notes on the Early Seleucid Victory Coinage of Persepolis, in SNR 59, 1980, pages5-14 Houghton, Arthur / Lorber, Catherine, Seleucid Coins, Part I, # 1 , CNG , Lnacaster 2002 Huyse, Philip, Die dreisprachige Inschrift Šābuhrs I an der Ka’ba-i Zardušt, London School of Oriental and African Studies, 1999 (Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum III) Klose, Dietrich O.A.; Müseler, Wilhelm, Statthalter Rebellen Könige; Die Münzen aus Persepolis von Alexander dem Groszen zu den Sasaniden; Staatliche Münzsammllung München 2008 Kritt, Brian, The early Seleucid Mint of Susa, CNG Lancaster, 1997 Mequenem, R de ; & Scheil, V; Memoires de la Mission Achaeologique de Perse. Tome XXV; Paris 1934 Mitchiner, Michael, Oriental Coins and their Values. The Ancient and Classical World. 600BC-AD650. London Hawkins, 1978 Müseler,Wilhelm, Die sogenanten dunkelen Jahrhunderte der Persis . Anmerkungen zu einem lange vernachlässigten Thema., Jahrbuch f. Numismatik u. Geldgeschichte 55/56, 2005/06, 95-103 Naster, Paul, NOTE D’ÉPIGRAPHIE MONÉTAIRE DE PERSIDE: Fratakara, Frataraka ou Fratadarā? Iranica Antiqua, Vol. VIII. 1968; Leiden, E.J. Brill Panaino, Antonio, The BAΓĀN of the fratarakas: Gods or “Divine” Kings? , in Cereti, Carlo., u.a. Religious Themes and Texts of pre-IslamicIran and Central Asia. Studies in Honour of Professor Gherardo Gnoli, Wiesbaden 2003, p 265-288 Pourshariati, Parvaneh, Decline and Fall of the Sasanian Empire, I.B. Taurus, London, New York, 2008 Reider, Craig, Legend variations of Ardashir the Great, ONS Newsletter No. 147, 10-11, Winter 1996; Oriental Numismatic Society Sear, David R; Greek Coins and their values, Volume 2 Asia and Africa; Seaby, London; 1979 Sellwood, David, Minor States in Southern Iran, The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol 3 (1); chapter 8(b), Cambridge, 1983/1 Sellwood, David, The Coinage of Parthia 2nd edition, Spink, London 1980 Shabazi, Alireza Shapur, An Achaemenid Symbol: II Farnah “(God given fortune” symbolised); in Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Iran 13, 1980, 119-147


251 Shore, Fred B., Parthian Coins & History; Ten Dragons against Rome; Classical Numismatic Group, 1993 Sinclair, A, The Grail: the Quest for a Legend, History Press, 2008, 9. Skjærvø, Prods Oktor, The Joy of the Cup. A Pre-Sasanian Middle Persian Inscription on a Silver Bowl, in Bulletin of the Asian Institute 11, 1997 p 93-104 Tyler-Smith, Susan, A Parcel of Persis Drachms, Half drachms and Obols, The Numismatic Chronicle, 2004, 253-271; pl 29-33 Van’t Haaff, P.A.; Catalogue of Elymaean Coinage; CNG, Lancaster USA; 2007 Wiesehöfer, Josef, Die “dunkeln Jahhunderte” der Persis, ZETEMATA, Monographien zur Klassischen Altertumswissenschaft, Heft 90, Beck, München 1994 Wiesehöfer, Josef, Ancient Persia from 550BC to 650 AD, Tauris, London/New York, 2006 Wiesehöfer, Josef, Fars under Seleucid and Parthian Rule, in The Age of the Parthians; Tauris London 2007


Profile for Classical Numismatic Group, LLC

Catalogue of Persis Coinage  

Catalogue of Persis Coinage  

Profile for cngcoins

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded