Page 1


i


Acknowledgments This job cou ld not have been done w it hout t he help of ma ny people. Here are some of t hem; t here are ma ny, ma ny ot hers. Rober t Thayer, R ichard Kennel l, a nd Jef frey Showel l, for suggesting t he project Ann Pope, for her information on t he Creative Ar ts Progra m. Jef frey Ha lsey a nd Chris Buzzel li, for information about Jazz progra m. Mar y Nat v ig a nd Steve Cornelius, for information on Et hnomusicolog y. Patricia Fa l k, for a chronolog y of t he Music Librar y a nd cata loging t he reel-toree tapes of early recita ls a nd operas. Universit y Archives, especia l ly Sa ma nt ha Ashby a nd Michael Intra nuovo, for t heir help w it h documents a nd i l lustrations. Linda Szych, for t he wea lt h of records on past facu lt y members. Stephen McEwen, for sharing his memories a nd documents of t he Tunniclif fe a nd McEwen years. Tina Bunce, for t he boxes of primar y source materia l she bequeat hed to t he Col lege when she retired. And Regrets Of course I regret a ny omissions or oversights t hat w i l l appear to a ny reader. Not hing was intentiona l ly suppressed. My greatest regret is t hat I was not able to give coverage to t he Col lege staf f, w it h whom I worked over t he years. Here are some of t hem, including t hose who have retired or moved on to ot her positions. There are ma ny ot hers whom I never k new. The Of f ice Secretaria l Staf f: Laura Charla nd, B. J. Hedges, Jack ie Instone Joy Ka ntner, Trina Hagemyer, Sherri W hite, Helen Wylie, a l l of whom who form or formed t he conduit bet ween t he students a nd t he Col lege Administration.

ii


The Recording Ser v ices Staf f: Chris Af toora, Mark Bunce, who helped me on numerous recording projects, equipment acquisition a nd ser v ice problems, The Piano Technicians: Pau l McCutcheon, Michael Fischer, who, by defau lt, took on t he responsibi lities of long-term maintena nce for Col lege har psichords a nd kept t hem in shape for over t hir t y years

Copy right Š 2015 by Vincent Corriga n A l l rights reser ved. This book or a ny por tion t hereof may not be reproduced or used in a ny ma nner whatsoever w it hout t he express w ritten permission of t he publisher except for t he use of quotations in a book rev iew or academic setting. A copy of t his book ca n be v iewed online here: w w w.bgsu.edu/musica l-ar ts/col lege-information/cma-histor y.htm l

iii


Table of Contents I. Legislative Background........................................................................ 1 II. Over view of the Music Program at Bowling Green................................ 3 III. The Hesser Years............................................................................... 5 Facu lt y.. .......................................................................................................8 Classes and Degree Programs.................................................................... 11 Ensembles. . ................................................................................................ 16 Choruses.............................................................................................. 16 Treble Clef Club................................................................................... 16 May Festiva l Chorus.. ........................................................................... 18 Orchestra............................................................................................. 21 Hesser’s Ot her Contributions.................................................................... 23 Summar y of t he Hesser Years.................................................................... 25 IV. The Tunnicliffe Years. . ...................................................................... 27 Facilities—The Practica l Ar ts Building..................................................... 29 Classes and Degree Programs.................................................................... 33 Ensembles. . ................................................................................................ 53 Choruses.............................................................................................. 53 Treble Clef Club . . ......................................................................... 54 Men’s Glee Club............................................................................56 The Ma le Quar tet ........................................................................58 Mi xed Chorus (A Cappella Choir) 1927........................................58 Instrumenta l Ensembles. . ..................................................................... 59 Orchestra. . ....................................................................................59 College String Quar tet . . ................................................................ 61 Band............................................................................................ 64 Summar y of t he Tunniclif fe Years............................................................. 68 V. The McEwen Years.............................................................................. 69 Facilities—The Practica l Ar ts Building – The Ha ll of Music..................... 71 Facu lt y.. ..................................................................................................... 73 Classes and Degree Programs.................................................................... 80 Academic Courses................................................................................ 89 Ensemble Courses................................................................................ 89 iv


Applied Music.. ..........................................................................................93 Degree Programs....................................................................................... 95 Music Education .. ................................................................................ 95 Libera l Ar ts . . ........................................................................................ 99 Ensembles. . .............................................................................................. 106 Choruses............................................................................................ 108 Treble Clef Club.. ...................................................................... 108 Men’s Glee Club/Varsit y Quar tet.............................................. 110 Universit y Choir (Universit y Chorus) . . ..................................... 111 Instrumenta l Ensembles. . ................................................................... 118 Orchestra.................................................................................. 118 Band ........................................................................................ 122 Summar y of t he McEwen Years . . .............................................................. 126 VI. The Kennedy Years......................................................................... 129 Facilities—The Ha ll of Music/Johnston Ha ll/Reed St. Studio.................. 132 Facu lt y.. ................................................................................................... 137 Facu lt y Ensembles. . ............................................................................ 137 String Quar tet.......................................................................... 139 Woodw ind Quintet/Venti da Camera........................................ 146 Brass Quintet............................................................................ 150 Baroque Trio............................................................................. 152 Academic Matters.................................................................................... 154 Quar ter Conversion.. .......................................................................... 154 New Degree Programs........................................................................ 156 Ensembles. . .............................................................................................. 158 Choruses............................................................................................ 158 Orchestra........................................................................................... 165 Bands................................................................................................. 168 New Initiatives........................................................................................ 171 Fine Ar ts Program/Creative Ar ts Program . . ....................................... 171 Opera................................................................................................. 172 Summar y of t he Kennedy Years............................................................... 177

v


VII. The College Years . . .........................................................................179 Introduction............................................................................................ 179 The Glidden Years................................................................................... 180 Facu lt y............................................................................................... 183 Courses ............................................................................................. 184 Degree Programs . . .............................................................................. 184 Ensembles.......................................................................................... 184 The Wendrich Years................................................................................ 188 Jazz Studies........................................................................................ 189 Music Librar y/Sound Recordings Archives . . ....................................... 191 New Music (& Ar t) Festiva l................................................................ 194 The Thayer Years..................................................................................... 197 Achievements..................................................................................... 198 The R iggins Years. . .................................................................................. 203 Achievements..................................................................................... 204 The Kennell Years . . .................................................................................. 205 The Showell Years . . .................................................................................. 210 VIII. Synopses

213

Degree Programs..................................................................................... 213 Band Activ ites......................................................................................... 216 Chora l Activ ites...................................................................................... 219 Opera.. ..................................................................................................... 221 Orchestra l Activ ities............................................................................... 222 Select Annotated Bibliography.............................................................. 225 Appendices.......................................................................................... 229 1. The College Chronicle......................................................................... 229 2. MUSIC FACULTY, 1914-2014............................................................... 248 3. Thayer Inter v iews................................................................................ 303 Inter v iew: Rober t Thayer and William A lexander . . ............................ 303 Inter v iew w it h Rober t Thayer and Dav id Glasmire............................ 320 Inter v iew: Rober t Thayer and Bernard Linden................................... 336 4. Tunniclif fe Ar ticle Proceedings 317-19................................................ 358 5. CMA Music Files ................................................................................ 362 6. Letters................................................................................................. 376 vi


vii


I. Legislative Background Normal Schools for Northeast and Northwest Ohio J. Hamilton Lowr y, representative from Henr y Count y, introduced a bill providing for the establishment of two new norma l schools in northeast and northwest Ohio. 1 To implement its provisions, the bill authorized the governor to appoint, within 30 days, a commission of f ive persons of varied backgrounds chosen from around the state, to decide on the location of each. The bill was approved by both houses in May 1910, and, despite opposition from private colleges, Governor Judson Harmon (1908-13) signed it into law on May 19. The Norma l School Commission was established on June 24, 1910, and set to work visiting the communities. Kent was chosen as the northeast site, and Bowling Green was chosen out of sixteen communities requesting consideration for the northwest site. 2 The commission visited Bowling Green on Sept. 22, 1910, and on Nov. 10 off icia lly chose Bowling Green (3 votes) over Van Wert (2 votes). By December 5 the cit y council had made the necessar y decisions regarding purchase of land for the new institution, and on Jan. 10, 1911 their decision was approved in a specia l cit y election by a vote 947 to 11. The commission chose as the site for the school the area that was then the Cit y Park, in the northeast quadrant of the cit y. By April 24 the land had been purchased, and on Oct. 26 the land was sold at auction to a Bowling Green citizen, J. N. Easley, for ten dollars. He in turn transferred title to the state for a fee of one dollar. 3 1  Normal Schools are the English equivalent of the French écoles normales, established by Jean-Baptiste de La Salle and the Christian Brothers in 1685. The intent of these schools was to train high school graduates in the norms of elementary, and later secondary, education, and to provide model classrooms and laboratories for learning effective teaching practices. They are thus related to laboratory schools. 2  Arcadia, Bowling Green, Carey, Columbus Grove, Delphos, Findlay (ineligible because it was the site of Findlay College), Fostoria, Fremont, Grand Rapids, Leipsic, Lima, Napoleon, Perrysburg, Upper Sandusky, Van Wert, and Wauseon. Kenton was added as a candidate later. (Overman, 14) 3  Overman 18 describes the ruse the auctioneer and Easley used to overcome the attempt to scuttle the auction on the part of a small group of people opposed to the project. 1


Detailed planning for the new school occupied the years 1911-14. Governor Harmon appointed a Board of Trustees on May 17, 1911. On Feb. 26, 1912 the Board offered the presidency to Homer B. Williams, who was at the time superintendent of Sandusk y school system and president of the Ohio State Teachers Association; he assumed the presidency of the Norma l College on May 23, 1912. The Board a lso appointed a f irm of architects to provide new buildings for the school: a dormitor y, a college building (classrooms, off ices, auditorium, and g ymnasium), a science and agriculture building, and a heating plant.

2


II. Overview of the Music Program at Bowling Green Over the course of its life the music unit has been a Department (1914-1961), a School (1961-75), and f ina lly a College (1975 to the present). From 1914 it was a Department of Music, f irst under the Bowling Green State Norma l College, then, when Bowling Green became a Universit y in 1935, under the College of Libera l Arts. In 1961 it became a School of Music under the College of Education. When this happened, the School was organized into three departments: Music Education; Performance Studies; and Music Composition and Histor y. In 1970 the School of Music became an autonomous unit, separate from the College of Education. Fina lly, in 1975, the School of Music became the College of Musica l Arts. From 1980 on there were attempts on the part of the centra l administration to combine the College of Musica l Arts with other arts areas on campus into a College of Fine Arts, but these attempts were unsuccessful and, as of this writing (2014), they have ceased. The administrative titles coordinate roughly with facilities for the music program. The Department of Music occupied three buildings between 1914 and 1955: The Ohio Nationa l Guard Armor y (1914-15); the Administration Building, now Universit y Ha ll (1915-1931); and the Practica l Arts Building, now Hayes Ha ll (1931-55). ). In 1955 instruction of the Ha ll of Music was completed, and by 1957 the Department of Music had moved into the new building. Four years later the Music Department became the School of Music. As music increased in size, some of its classes and off ices were housed in Johnston Ha ll, and the Electronic Music Studio was located in a house on East Reed Street. As the College of Musica l Arts, music has occupied the Moore Musica l Arts Center since 1979. The recently completed Wolfe Center for the Arts (2011), a lthough intended primarily for the Department of Theater and Film, contains spaces available for music.

3


The changes in buildings ref lect an increasing size of the facult y. Between 1914 and 1920 there were at most two facult y members at any time, and between 1914 and 1916, there was only one. From 1920 until 1941 the facult y grew from one (Tunnicliffe) in 1921 to eight in 1941. 1 Under Merrill McEwen the facult y grew from seven in 1941 to twent y in 1957. This number includes part-time facult y for applied instruction in organ and percussion, and the extension program in Sandusk y. Under Kennedy the number grew from eighteen in 1957 to f if t y-f ive in 197475. The College continues to grow. In 2013-14 there were approximately eight y-eight facult y members, both full- and part-time. Fina lly, these designations ref lect the expanded scope of its programs. In its earliest years, the College offered only two-year diploma programs in music for genera l teachers in the public schools, persons who were not necessarily sk illed in music. The 1924-25 cata logue announced a three-year diploma program, which was implemented in Fa ll 1925. However it lasted only two years, when it was replaced with a four-year program in 1927-28. It was still a diploma program. When the Norma l College became Bowling Green State College in 1929, the institution was divided into two administrative units (College of Education; College of Libera l Arts) and began to offer four-year programs leading to Bachelor of Science and Bachelor of Arts degrees. Music, as part of the College of Libera l Arts, offered a Bachelor of Arts degree with a major in music (1946-47). It a lso offered a Bachelor’s degree in Public School Music, thus straddling the two colleges. Music became part of the College of Education in 1961, and a Bachelor of Music degree f irst appeared in 1965. The Master of Music degree was initiated in 1967, and the Doctor of Musica l Arts degree was approved in 2005.

1  The 1941 yearbook, p. 19, contains a group photograph of seven of the music faculty: Earl E. Smith, Lois Collins, Richard Tunnicliffe, Irene Mooers, Leon Fauley, Myrtle Jensen, Merrill McEwen. Kennedy was on leave that year. He returned in 1941-42, having completed his doctorate. 4


III. The Hesser Years 1914-1920

On Sept. 15, 1913, President Williams requested the Board of Trustees to grant him a leave of absence to attend Columbia Universit y. His goa l was to complete a master’s degree, to ta ke course work in college administration, and to recruit a facult y for the new institution. When he returned the following September, he had assembled his facult y, one to each of the college’s ten departments. 1 Apparently they were a ll appointed directly by the President, with no other off icia l authorization, other than, perhaps, that of the Board of Trustees. The facult y was chosen on the basis of qua lif ications, without regard to politica l or other considerations. Ernest G. Hesser was chosen as the facult y member in music. The opening of the Norma l College was to have occurred in Fa ll 1912, but because none of the necessar y buildings was completed, the opening was delayed for two years. Even then there were no buildings, but on July 2, 1914 the Board of Trustees directed President Williams to open the school the following September. On Aug. 14, 1914, the Board of Trustees drew up the outline of the genera l curricula, and Williams was responsible for preparing the list of classes and distributing teaching schedules, which he did at the f irst facult y meeting of the new institution, held at the Milliken Hotel on Sat., Sept. 12. Registration took place on Monday, Sept. 14, and classes began the following day. It must have been an extraordinarily hectic two months.

1  Agriculture (George Wilson Beattie), Home Economics (Mary Turner Chapin), Music (Ernest G. Hesser), Training School Dallas D. Johnson), English (Rea McCain), Biology (Edwin L. Moseley), Mathematics (James Robert Overman), Extension Teaching (Ernest G. Walker), Industrial Arts (Leon Loyal Winslow), and the Library (Marie E. Simpson). A Supervisor of Practice Teaching (Josephine Forsythe Leach), four critic teachers, and one clerk rounded out the roster of the faculty and staff.

5


Facilities

Ohio Nationa l Guard Armor y

Administration Building 6


All Norma l College classes, including those in music, were held in the Ohio Nationa l Guard Armor y (212 E . Wooster St.) during the academic year 1914-1915, because there were no other buildings completed at that time. 2 The following year, 1915-16, saw the completion of the Administration Building (now Universit y Ha ll), one of the f irst four buildings on campus. 3 Construction was completed in 1915, and the building opened for classes in September 1915. The Music Department occupied some of the rooms of that building until 1931. I suspect that some of those rooms were on the fourth f loor, clearly visible in the photograph. A recent tour of the Universit y Ha ll showed that there are two upright pianos in room 405, and that room looks ver y much like the one in which the music facult y was photographed.

2  The Armory was erected in 1910 and abandoned in 2005. An auction of the building in 2006 was unsuccessful, and it was razed in 2013. See Jennifer Feehan, “Bowling Green armory brings single bid of $150,000,” The Toledo Blade, 7/7/2006. 3  The other three were a dormitory for women (now Williams Hall), the Science Building, and a heating plant. The Training School, announced at the same time, did not open until 1921. The delay in completion was caused by shortages of material after World War I. See Bowling Green State Normal College. Eighth Annual Catalogue, 1922-23, pp. 17-19. 7


Faculty

Ernest G. Hesser

For the Music Department Homer Williams chose thirt y-one year old Ernest G. Hesser (1883-1969) as its f irst facult y member. Hesser’s credentia ls included Diplomas from Winona College and the School of Methods in Chicago. He had a lso been a student in the Ohio Wesleyan Universit y School of Music. Before coming to Bowling Green, Hesser held positions as Super visor of Public School Music in Kenda lville Indiana, Goshen Indiana, and Pasadena Ca lifornia. He had a lso been Head of the Music Department at Kansas State Norma l School in Emporia Kansas and at Winona College Summer School. Af ter leaving Bowling Green in 1920, Hesser held positions of Director of Music in the Indianapolis Public Schools (1926-30); Director of School Music in Cincinnati (1930-36); Chair of the Music Department of New York Universit y (late 1930s); and Director of Music in the Public Schools of Ba ltimore (late 1940s). Some time during this period he completed a doctorate in Music Education. In the mid 1930s he worked with Wa lter Damrosch on Damrosch ’s music appreciation radio series aimed at elementar y children. 4 The series, begun in 1926, 4  The series is mentioned in a group of Christmas greetings Damrosch sent to Hesser between 1935 and 1937, expressing gratitude for Hesser’s help with the series. They are housed in the Bowling Green State University Archives. 8


ran from 1928 to 1942 as “NBC Music Appreciation Hour.” It was aired during the school day, and teachers were equipped with a variet y of teaching aids. From the late 1940s until his death in 1969, Hesser lived in Crestline, Ohio, where he gained a reputation as the Crestline historian. Hesser seems to have been an extraordinarily energetic individua l. From 1914 through Spring of 1916 he was the only music facult y member, and thus responsible for teaching a ll of the music courses (see below). In addition, between 1914 and 1915 he established three voca l ensembles: The 24-voice Treble Cleff [sic] Club, the 200-voice May Festiva l Chorus, and the 75-voice Philharmonic Club for the Summer School. Fina lly, in 1917, when President Williams decided that the College needed a Universit y Artist Series, he appointed Hesser Chair of the Organizing Committee. This series continued until the new student union opened in 1962, a remarkable run of fort y-f ive years, and a ll with the f inancia l support of the centra l administration. In 1916, Ruth McConn was appointed as the second music facult y. She had been a student at the State Norma l College in Blooming ton, Illinois and at Winona College, and had earned a Diploma from the Cornell Universit y School of Music. She ser ved as Super visor of Music in Wabash Ind., and as Head of the Music Department at Winona Summer School. Her applied areas were piano and voice. When she married William Davison Spencer in 1919, she lef t Bowling Green. Ethel J. Light replaced McConn in 1919. She Ruth McConn, 1916 was a graduate of Sk idmore School of the Arts, had been a student at Cornell Universit y, and studied piano with Ernest Hutcheson and voice with Ernest Hesser. She was Super visor of Music in Fort Edward, New York, and held music positions (director of choir; assistant concert accompanist) in Saratoga Springs and Chautauqua, New York. Her tenure at Bowling Green was short: 1919 to Spring 1921. 5 5  Unfortunately no photograph of Light seems to have survived. Is she the Ethel J. Light who is credited as the author of the “Alma Mater” in the 1931 yearbook of Panzer College of Physical Education and Hygiene (East Orange, New jersey)? 9


There may have been one other person with duties in music in these early years, Pearl Heiser. She had been a student at Bowling Green High School and Davis Business College in Toledo, and f irst appears in the 1918-19 cata logue as a stenographer. In the 1919-20 yearbook she held the position of Clerk. She is a lso described as a “teacher of piano and pipe organ,” and may a lso have taught piano during these years, but this is not certain. What is certain is that Tunnicliffe hired her in 1922 as an Instructor in piano. It is interesting to see sa laries for College personnel in these years. Fisca l Year ending 6/30/1919 6 Homer B. Williams Ernest G. Hesser Rut h McConn Pearl Heiser

$4300.04 $2099.97 $1249.92 $222.50

Fisca l Year ending 6/30/1920 7 Homer B Williams Ernest G. Hesser Et hel J. Light Pearl Hieser [sic]

$4800.00 $2600.00 $1450.00 $980.00

Some points leap out. Ethel Light has replaced Ruth McConn, and at a sa lar y $200 more than McConn had been paid. Also, both the President and Hesser received $500 raises. It seems that there was an effort to increase sa laries over the entire College. Most strik ing is that Heiser’s sa lar y more than quadrupled. While there may be many reasons for this, one possible explanation is that Heiser had duties in piano instruction.

6  Ohio, Auditor of State. Annual Report of the Auditor of State to the Governor, the General Assembly, and the Taxpayers of the State of Ohio for the Fiscal Year ending June 30, 1919, pp. 99, 174. 7  Ohio, Auditor of State. Annual Report of the Auditor of State to the Governor, the General Assembly, and the Taxpayers of the State of Ohio for the Fiscal Year ending June 30, 1920, p. 13940. 10


Classes and Degree Programs During the Hesser years the College offered only a two-year diploma program in Public School Music for genera l teachers. This situation did not change until 1925. The classes offered in music are listed in the earliest cata logue. 8

Course Numbers

Tit les

21-22

Elementar y Music

23-24

Music Appreciation

25-26

Piano Play ing

27-28

Public School Music

29-30 Singing

31-32

Advanced Piano Play ing

33-34

Advanced Singing

35-36 Harmony

37-38

Histor y of Music

Each class was divided into two levels, presumably one level per semester. The list combines course work in rudimentar y musica l instruction, educationa l methods, music appreciation and histor y, theor y, and applied study. Applied music (Piano, Singing) required two lessons each week. Three of these courses, Public School Music, Harmony and Histor y of Music, had prerequisites of both levels of Elementar y Music, and so would not have had to be offered until the 1915-16 academic year at the earliest.

8 

Bowling Green State Normal College. First Annual Catalogue, 1914-15, pp. 52-54. 11


As far as we can tell, Hesser a lone was responsible for a ll of these courses, and it interesting to speculate on his work load. In Fa ll 1914, he would have taught, at a minimum: Elementar y Music (21) Music Appreciation (23) Piano Play ing (25) Singing (29)

In Spring 1915 he would have taught the even-number counterparts to these courses: Elementar y Music (22) Music Appreciation (24) Piano Play ing (26) Singing (30)

At four courses each semester, the load was a manageable one.

12


However, for Fa ll 1915, the situation became much more diff icult. The annua l cycle of introductor y courses would begin again, but added to them would be the course in Public School Music and the two courses Harmony and Histor y of Music, thus a seven-course load each semester. In addition, in Fa ll 1915, a new course was introduced for the genera l student who had no musica l background whatsoever, yet who would have some musica l responsibilities in the public schools. This was Elementar y Music (20a, b, c), offered over three semesters (The title of the origina l Elementar y Music course was changed to Elements of Music). It is described in the 1915-16 Cata logue: 20

Elementar y Music

This course is intended for t he reg u lar Norma l College students and is given in t hree par ts. 20a. This par t dea ls w it h t he principles of musica l structure. Study of notation, sight singing, dictation and melody w riting.

First semester, f irst year. Credit, 1 hour.

20b. Continuation of 20a w it h par ticu lar reference to t he lower grades. In w ill include t he presenting of rote songs, rhy t hm, and tone work.

Second semester, f irst year. Credit, 1 hour.

20c. Continuation of 20b w it h par ticu lar reference to t he upper grades. In w ill include t he chromatic sca le, minor sca le, par t-singing, and bass clef.

First semester, second year. Credit, 1 hour.

This would have given Hesser the possibilit y of an eight-course load for Fa ll 1915. Furthermore Hesser had conducting responsibilities for three ensembles. By Spring 1915 Hesser had established the Treble Clef Club and the May Festiva l Chorus, and the Philharmonic Club followed in Summer 1915. This was an impossible situation, and it is not surprising that a new facult y member, Ruth McConn, was needed. 13


Because some musica l k nowledge was required of a ll public school teachers, basic music courses, usua lly the sequence Music 21, 22, 23, and sometimes 24, were required in most curricula from the earliest days of the Norma l College. 9 Three credits of music were required of students in the College’s four-year program leading to the Bachelor of Science in Education for high school teachers, principa ls, super visors, and superintendents. 10 The same courses were required of the twoyear programs for Elementar y Teachers and for Rura l Teachers, and the Specia l two-year program in Agriculture (the program in Home Economics required only Music 23). Thus the music area had to ser vice the entire campus and account for the var y ing musica l sk ills and k nowledge such a population usua lly demonstrates. The Norma l College a lso offered a specia l two-year program in music for those wishing to teach music in the public (not rura l) schools. The requirements are given on p. 35 of the 1914-15 cata logue. I have recorded this curriculum in detail because it constitutes a record of what the people of the time considered to be essentia l sk ills of a music educator, and because it is the template upon which a ll later curricula elaborate. Although titles were modif ied and subject matter ref ined, the curriculum remained virtua lly unchanged for the next ten years.

9  The exceptions were the one-year program for college graduates who wanted state certification and the special two-year program in Industrial Arts. 10  Agriculture and Science, English and History, English and Latin, Mathematics and Science, and Supervision. See 1914-15 Catalogue, p. 26. 14


SPECIAL TWO-YEAR COURSE IN PUBLICE SCHOOL MUSIC FIRST YEAR

First Semester

Second Semester

Elements of Music (Notation a nd Sight Singing, 21 . . ................. 2

Elements of Music (Notation a nd Sight Singing, 22.. ............. 2

English, 21........................................ 3

English 22, a nd 24 0r 26................ 3

Industria l Ar ts (Draw ing, 21............. 2

Industria l Ar ts (Draw ing), 22....... 2

Physica l Education........................... ½

Physica l Education....................... ½

Psycholog y, Ed., 21. . .......................... 3

Pia no, 26....................................... 2

Pia no, 25........................................... 2

Principles of Teach., Ed., 22.......... 3

Public School Music, 27.. ................... 2

Public School Music, 28................ 2

Singing (Voice Cu lture), 29............... 2

Singing (Voice Cu lture), 29........... 2

16½

16½

SECOND YEAR

First Semester

Second Semester

Adva nced Pia no, 31............................2 Adva nced Singing (Voice), 33.............2 Harmony a nd Melody Writing, 35......3 Histor y of Music, 37...........................2 Music Appreciation, 23.. .....................2 Obser vation a nd Prac., Ed., 31...........3 Physica l Education............................ ½ School Orga nization, Ed. 23.............. 3

17½

Adva nced Voice or Pia no, 34 or 32................................... 2 Harmony a nd Melody Writing, 36.............................. 3 Histor y of Education, 24............... 3 Histor y of Music, 38. . .................... 3 Music Appreciation, 24 .. ............... 2 Obser vation a nd Prac., Ed., 32...... 3 Physica l Education....................... ½

16½

15


Ensembles The ensembles available in the Norma l College during the Hesser years were a lmost exclusively voca l: The Treble Clef Club, the May Festiva l Chorus, and the Philharmonic Club, a ll begun by Hesser in his f irst year. The only instrumenta l ensemble was an orchestra, and it was not aff iliated with the music program. It was established by Ca lvin Bier y, Director of Rura l Education and lasted only one year. The information given below on each of the ensembles begins with descriptions from the College cata logues, where they exist. Choruses

Treble Clef Club

11

“(Girls’ Glee Club). Membership is limited to t went y-four voices chosen according to singing abi lit y.  Progra ms are given consisting of t he best par t-songs, choruses, a nd ba l lads, w ritten for ladies voices.”

The Treble Clef Club had a long life of 43 years. The position of Director of the group was consistent over its f irst 14 years (Ernest G. Hesser, then R ichard M. Tunnicliffe), and the last 21 years (James Paul Kennedy). Only the period 1928 through 1936 saw a rapid turnover in conductors.

11  The name of the ensemble was perversely spelled “Treble Cleff Club” in the earliest catalogue. 16


Directors Ernest G. Hesser

1914-1920

R ichard M. Tunniclif fe 1920 -1928 Mati lda Morlock

1928-29

Marian D. Ha l l

1929-31; 1933-34

The Treble Clef Club was discontinued af ter 1957 when Kennedy became Chair of the Department.

The f irst recorded picture of the ensemble Margaret Scruggs 1935-36 and its director was Ja mes Pau l Kennedy 1936 -1957 ta ken in 1918 on the steps of Williams Ha ll, the women’s dormitor y. An example of its early programs is found in the 1918 edition of the College yearbook. The program took place on March 26, 1918, and is quite varied. In addition to pieces performed by the entire ensemble, there are solo performances and duets performed by students Helena Herriff, Lorna Spicer (a ltos in the Club) and Ruth Keller (soprano), and both music facult y, Hesser and Ruth McConn, participated as well. The student accompanist was Alta Solether. Minnie Stensland

1931-32

17


May Festival Chorus “The large Festiva l Chorus of two hundred voices is an organization of singers from the state Norma l College and the cit y of Bowling Green, the purpose of which is the rendition of great chora l works and oratorios at the time of the Spring Music Festiva l. Artists of nationa l reputation assist the chorus at these festiva ls.” May Festiva ls were ver y popular civic and cultura l affairs, combining large chora l forces and professiona l orchestras in performances of major chora l works and monuments of the orchestra l repertor y in a series of concerts over severa l days. Cincinnati ’s was the oldest, having begun in 1873, but others were established in Cleveland (1880) and Oberlin (1903). 12 Hesser apparently k new of these Festiva ls and came to Bowling Green with the idea of establishing one at the Norma l College. First and foremost, he May Festiva l 1918 needed a large chorus, and the May Festiva l Chorus in Bowling Green was Hesser’s most ambitious underta k ing. The f irst Festiva l chorus was a 200-voice ensemble 12  See William Osborne, Music in Ohio (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2004), especially Chapter 19, where the Cincinnati Festival is described in great detail. 18

Festiva l 1918


composed of students from Bowling Green State Norma l College and musicians of Bowling Green. In his notes to the 1920 Festiva l, Hesser could boast that “ . . . the chorus is made up of students from the Bowling Green State Norma l College, the various choirs of the cit y and music lovers of the communit y and surrounding towns in Wood Count y, such as Pember ville, Tontogany, Portage, Cygnet, Jerr y Cit y, Rudolph, North Ba ltimore, Maumee and Scotch R idge.” The First Annua l May Festiva l of Bowling Green was held on May 20 and 21, 1915. 13 The f irst concert contained chora l and solo voca l works by Strauss, Debussy, Puccini, Wagner, Massenet, Beethoven and others. The second concert contained a single work, the oratorio “The Holy Cit y” by Alfred R. Gaul. There was as yet no orchestra; the concerts were accompanied by keyboardists Mar y Beverstock (Piano) and Pearl Heiser (Organ).

13  The first five Festivals took place in the Methodist Church, while the sixth and last Festival was held in the Chidester Theater on South Main St. 19


Later Festiva ls took place over three days, and were divided into a Chora l Night, a Children’s Night, and an Artists’ Night (later Symphony Night). Children’s Night made use of a large choir composed of 200-300 grade school children from the Bowling Green Cit y Schools, coached by Ruth McConn and later by Ethel Light, and pupils from the Norma l Training School under Hesser. Beginning in 1917, professiona l orchestras and their conductors were imported for the Festiva l: Wa lter Damrosch and the New York Symphony Orchestra (1917); Emil Oberhoffer and the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra (1918, 1919); and Ossip Gabrilowitsch and the Detroit Symphony Orchestra (1920). An attempt was made in 1921 to continue the Festiva l af ter Hesser lef t by bringing in the Cleveland Orchestra under Nikolai Sokoloff. However there was no Festiva l Chorus, and the concert was not well received. An idea of the scope of the Festiva l can be gotten from a photograph of the 1918 Festiva l. President Williams is at the far lef t in front of the chorus, and Hesser stands beside him.

Philharmonic Club    

“(Summer School Orga nization). The study of a number of t he sta ndard chora l work s for mi xed voices t hrough rehearsa l of compositions.  For admission to t he course, one must be able to read music a nd to carr y a voice par t.  The club is limited to sevent y-f ive members a nd appears in public per forma nce toward t he close of t he summer term.”

This was a much more modest group, whose primar y performance outlet was a concert at the end of the summer session. The Philharmonic Club a lso provided music for the summer commencement exercises. When Hesser lef t at the end of Spring 1920, the May Festiva l Chorus and the Philharmonic Club died out immediately. However the Treble Clef Club continued, conducted by R ichard Tunnicliffe.

20


Orchestra The f irst instrumenta l ensemble established in the College was a sma ll orchestra founded in 1917. It was separate from the music program itself, and its purpose was to provide music for college functions, including basketba ll games. The person who established it was Ca lvin J. Bier y, Director of Rura l Orchestra Members (1917) Education at the Norma l College, and conductor Ca lv in J. Bier y First Violin and f irst violinist in the Mabel Freck First Violin orchestra. The orchestra Miss Hol ly Second Violin was composed of nine John Dick Second Violin members. 14 W. A lton W hitma n Cornet

Bier y himself was Ot hel Creps Clarinet a most interesting man. J. Harold Todd Trombone He was born on Mar. M. Nei l Bowen Drums a nd Traps 10, 1866. According Isadore Foster Pia no to the Bowling Green Unfortunately the orchestra was discontinued State Norma l College af ter one year due to lack of players. Cata logue of 1914, he was a superintendant in Wauseon, Ohio and ser ved as a Summer School Facult y Member. 15 By 1917 he was a regular member of the Norma l School facult y, the Director of Rura l Education, super vising a one-year course of study for rura l teachers. It was in this year that he founded the orchestra. He remained on the facult y, continuing as Director of Rura l Education, later becoming a member of the Industria l Arts department when the Rura l Education program was phased out. He retired at the end of the 1937-38 academic year af ter a twent y-year teaching career, and is portrayed as an emeritus facult y member in the 1938 issue of the Key yearbook. Af ter he lef t Bowling Green, Bier y pursued a career as a handwriting expert and in this capacit y ser ved as an expert witness in court tria ls. He demonstrated his testimony with slides, apparently the f irst person in the United States to do so. He died on Oct. 20 1945 and is buried in Oa k Grove Cemeter y across from the Moore Musica l Arts Center. 14  All of these people can be identified in the accompanying illustration except the clarinetist, who is not pictured. Biery is in the second row, far left. 15  Annual Catalogue 1914-15, p. 12 21


The orchestra is pictured in the 1918 yearbook, the BeeGee. Whoever decided on page layout in this volume had an eye for symmetr y. The Dancers on the Bowling Green in the upper panel are echoed by the dancers in the frieze behind the orchestra in the lower panel. This picture a lso raises some musica l questions: What did this group sound like? Did music even exist for such an ensemble, or did someone have to ser ve as arranger?

22


Hesser’s Other Contributions Three other contribution of Hesser should be mentioned. The new College needed College song, and President Williams turned to Hesser to provide it. The result was the College Song We hail You, Dear Norma l College. Its text a llowed it to ser ve both as an Alma Mater and as a f ight song, for footba ll games in particular (See Appendix 5). Hesser a lso wrote two books used for instruction in the Norma l College: A Course of Study in Music for Elementary Schools Prepared by Ernest Hesser (1917), and Calendar of Rote Songs: Words and Music by Ernest Hesser (1919). 16 A third collection, this time a collaboration between Hesser and Earl Towner, was published af ter Hesser lef t Bowling Green: Glee and Chorus Book for Male Voices. (1922). Fina lly, Hesser was instrumenta l in establishing the Universit y Artist Series. The idea of an “Entertainment Course” originated with Hesser and Mathematics professor James Overman, who discussed the topic from 1915 on. 17 This was to be a series of guest performances by visiting artists and scholars of various k inds; it was not limited to musica l performances, but musica l performances were to be a part of the series. In 1917 they submitted a proposa l to the President, but he was concerned about funding the enterprise, since no State or College money was available for the project. Hesser, who had the successes of two May Festiva ls behind him, was conf ident that he could sell a suff icient number of season ticket to fund the series, and the President approved the proposa l on an experimenta l basis. He appointed Hesser Chair of a committee to organize the series. When Hesser lef t Bowling Green, Overman succeeded him as Chair. It turned out that season tickets could not fund the series completely, and in Fa ll 1918 a student activit y fee of $2 per semester was instated to cover the expenses of the Entertainment Course and the athletic program. In 1921-22 the fee increased to $2.50 and in 1927 to $5 per semester. The increases funded admission to a ll college debates and plays, and to the college paper. 16  Hesser’s wife Nellie designed the cover for the second book. 17  See James R. Overman, The History of Bowling Green State University (Bowling Green OH: Bowling Green University Press, 1967), p. 52. 23


According to Overman, the f irst series included the Zoelner String Quartet of Brussels, the Ben Greet Sha kespearean Players, and a lecture by Edward A. Steiner. The Entertainment Course was later named the Artist Series, or Universit y Artist Series, and lasted until the Spring of 1962. This was the venue through which fully staged opera (Carmen, Il trovatore, Maddama Butter f ly) was brought to the Bowling Green campus. In the early 1960s, the new Student Union was completed, and a new committee was formed to oversee the activities in the Union, the Union Activities Organization (UAO), composed of students with an administrative advisor, R ichard Lenhart. Because the Artist Series performances took place, for the most part, in the Union Ba llroom, the events fell under the pur view of the this committee, and the tenor of the Artist Series changed a lmost immediately. In 1962-63 the Artist Series was divided into three separate units, a Lecture Series, Cultura l Activities, and Specia l Events. The Universit y Artist Series effectively ended in that year, af ter a remarkable run of fort y-f ive seasons, and a ll with the f inancia l support of the centra l administration. In 1964 a New Artist Series was introduced, embracing both the Lecture Series (Art Buckwa ld, Werner von Braun, Basil Rathbone) and Cultura l Events (Ferrante and Teicher; George Szell and the Cleveland Orchestra, Earl Wrightson and Lois Hunt, Robert Shaw Chora le). The Specia l Events portion of the Series dea lt exclusively with popular entertainers. In 1966, President Jerome enlisted Frank Ba ldanza 18 of the English Department to oversee the reviva l of the Artist Series. Af ter that the Artist Series dea lt with classica l performers, and the UAO with popular performers. Unfortunately this Series only lasted a short time, and was not revived until Hollis Moore inaugurated the Festiva l Series (First Season, 1980-81), at f irst devoted exclusively to musica l performances.

18  Baldanza was also at one time President of Friends of Music. He died suddenly of a heart attack in 1985. 24


Summar y of the Hesser Years The streng ths of Hesser’s tenure as Chair of the Music Department were in administration and organization. It is unclear whether he had any say in creating courses or curricula, or whether he just implemented what he had been given. His love seemed to lie with the chora l program, and in this area he had a rea l gif t for organization and performance. He was able to assemble the ver y large chora l group necessar y for the May Festiva l, and, by founding the Treble Clef Club, made the best use possible of a predominantly fema le student enrollment. In 1917, when he rea lized the need for an orchestra to participate in the May Festiva l, he was able to secure the ser vices of professiona l orchestras and their conductors. The Treble Clef Club still exists in the form of the Women’s Chorus, the Universit y Artist Series, the committee for which he chaired, still exists in the form of the Festiva l Series, and large-sca le chora l performances are still part of the Northwest Ohio musica l landscape. There was never any hope of establishing an orchestra at the Norma l College by rely ing on loca l resources a lone. Thus, instrumenta l music of any sort played no part at a ll in the Music Department under Hesser. In Hesser’s defense it should be pointed out that the job of the Music Department then was the training of teachers who would have responsibilities of teaching music in elementar y schools. Most, if not a ll, of his students would have had no background in music, and thus the level of instruction had to be at the most basic level and could not include instrumenta l training. Directing instrumenta l ensemble would have necessitated at sk ill level far beyond the students he expected to see. Thus, training in orchestra or band was both irrelevant and impossible. It may even be that Bier y’s experiment with an orchestra was seen by the people of the time as unrelated to the Music Department.

25


In 1968, James Paul Kennedy, who apparently wanted to compile information about the histor y of the Department, contacted Hesser, then living in Crestlin, Ohio. In reply Hesser sent a photograph, and this modest summar y of his career at Bowling Green: As per your request, will say that I was a member of the f irst facult y of Bowling Green State Norma l College. I was appointed as music director, September 1914. This was the time when f irst classes started. I was appointed by the f irst President, Dr. Homer B. Williams. Hesser died the following year.

26


IV.

The Tunnicliffe Years 1920-1941

Hesser lef t Bowling Green at the end of the Spring semester 1920, and for a brief time Ethel Light was the only music facult y member. Over the summer President Williams appointed R ichard Morton Tunnicliffe (18771961) to succeed Hesser. 1 Tunnicliffe held a diplomas from the State Norma l College at Oshkosh WI (1902) and the Crane Norma l School of Music at Potsdam NY (1906), a Bachelor of Arts from the Universit y of Wisconsin (1913), and a Master of Arts from the Teachers College, Columbia Universit y (1930). He had a lso studied piano, organ, and voice in Minneapolis, Chicago, and New York. He taught mathematics and music in New London R ichard Mor ton Tunniclif fe WI and ser ved as super visor of music in the Potsdam public schools, but his most important position before coming to Bowling Green was as a facult y member of the Crane Norma l School of Music from 1906 to 1920, where he was Instructor in Public School Music, Super visor of Practice Teaching, and teacher of methods and education. 2 He a lso conducted the Festiva l Chorus and Norma l School Orchestra at Crane. He thus had a ll the qua lif ications for the music position in the Bowling Green Norma l College (music education; chora l conducting) as well as a background in orchestra l conducting. 1  It is not at all clear how choices like this were made. Certainly there was no search process of the sort now familiar, and I can only assume that when the head of an academic unit left, the President appointed a replacement. After that, the head of the unit, in this case Tunnicliffe, would have been responsible for identifying new faculty members, although the President still would have appointed them. 2  Yearbook and List of Active Members of the National Education Association. Winona Minn, 1910, p. 303. See also http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~hubbard/NNY_index/ crane.html. 27


While still at Potsdam, Tunnicliffe devised a pedagogica l tool to teach inter va ls and sca les, the Trina l Ladder, for which he received a copy right in 1914. 3 He brought this tool with him when he came to Bowling Green, and it was used in the cit y schools. Roy Hilt y, who was super vising teacher for voca l music at the junior high school, would visit the elementar y schools one day each week and drill students on inter va ls and sca les using the ladder. The 1959-60 Yearbook shows Leon Fauley explaining the Trina l Ladder to students. Unlike Hesser, Tunnicliffe was not a young man when he came to Bowling Green. And unlike Hesser, Tunnicliffe had signif icant experience in music education, and especia lly in music education as a discipline within higher education, before coming to the Norma l College. He was 43 years old and had completed a 14–year career at Crane. He was thus a signif icantly different individua l than was Hesser, and much of his later work shows this. Tunnicliffe was able to network with A copy of t he ladder st i l l ha ngs the Crane Norma l School to identif y i n t he Dea n’s Of f ice. qua lif ied facult y members, and hired its graduates when the opportunities presented themselves. Through his inf luence Merrill McEwen and Marion Dee Ha ll came to Bowling Green. Both were graduates of Crane Norma l School in 1921, and may indeed have been Tunnicliffe’s students at Crane. Other Crane graduates followed. Frances Warner and Matilda Morlock came in 1924 and 1926 respectively, and Minne Stensland was an instructor in the Summer Session of 1923 and Assistant Professor 3  Library of Congress Copyright Office, Catalogue of Copyright Entries. (Washington DC: Government Printing Office, New Series, Issue 2, #8), pp. 1238, 1609. See also Julia Ettie Crane, Music Teacher’s Manual, 7th ed. (Potsdam NY: Elliot & Sons, 1915), p. 137. The copyright number is 28786. 28


for the 1931-32 academic year. Tunnicliffe was a lso in a position to participate in the Ohio professiona l music education organizations, things Hesser never did. Tunniclife stayed at Bowling Green for the rest of his career, retiring in 1941 at the age of 64. Early on he resided at 221 North Maple St. In 1925 he moved just down the street to 131 N. Maple, 4 where he lived until 1959, when ill health forced him to move to St. Francis of Oak Ridge Hospital in Green Springs, Ohio. He died there on Dec. 15, 1961 at the age of 84. An article from the Oneonta Daily Star described him as “a bachelor music teacher, who was a courageous stock market investor.” His will left $100,000 to Hamilton College of Clinton, New York, with the proviso that special consideration be given to needy students from Northwest Ohio. 5 Those scholarships are still in existence and available, a continuing memorial to Tunnicliffe’s inf luence.

Facilities—The Practical Arts Building Music continued to occupy the Administration Building throughout the f irst ten tears of Tunnicliffe’s tenure. At the same time the size of the facult y increased signif icantly, from two in 1921 to seven in 1930. This increase, and an increase in the size of the student body and their instructiona l needs, made the Administration Building location unworkable. In 1931, The Practica l Ar ts Building (Hayes Ha l l) Music moved to the newly completed Practica l Arts Building (now Hayes Ha ll), in which music off ices, classrooms, and a rehearsa l ha ll occupied the second f loor. The space is now home to the Computer Science department and has been 4  Now the home of John and Marilyn Sampen. 5  The Oneonta Star, Aug. 29, 1963, p. 13. Tunnicliffe himself had never been formally associated with the school. 29


completely remodeled; no sign is lef t of the origina l music facilities. Music remained in the Practica l Arts Building until 1955, when the Department relocated to the Ha ll of Music.

Faculty A tota l of twent y facult y members passed through the Music Department between 1920 and 1941, a ll but two hired under Tunnicliffe’s tenure. In chronologica l order, they were: Et hel Light....................... 1919-21 Pearl Heiser . . .................... Unof f icia lly 1919-21; Of f icia lly 1922-24 Merrill McEwen.. .............. 1921-24; 1928-57 (Crane) Irene Canar y Mooers. . ...... 1922-25; 1927-35; 1936 -37; 1938-43 Marion Dee Ha ll.. ............. 1923-26; 1928-34 (Crane) Dorot hy Clement.............. 1924-28 Frances Warner................ 1924-25 (Crane) Mar y Loomis.................... 1925-27 (Bowling Green) Nell Shu ler Welsh............. 1925-27 Matilda Morlock . . ............. 1926 -28 (Crane) Charles F. Church.. ........... 1927-40; 1942-Fa ll 1943 Manette Marble................ 1928-38 Leon Fau ley...................... 1930- 65 May me Por ter . . ................. 1931-32 Minne Stensland.. ............. 1931-32 Margaret E . Scruggs......... 1935-38 James Pau l Kennedy......... 1936 -75 My r t le Jensen................... 1938-58 Lois M. Collins . . ............... 1940-41 Earl E . Smit h.................... 1940-42

As can be seen from the dates of tenure, facult y came and went over this period. Some lasted only a short time (Warner, Loomis, Welsh, Morlock, Porter, Stensland, Collins), some had long and distinguished teaching careers (Church, Fauley, Jensen), and two had a profound effect on the music unit (McEwen, Kennedy). Throughout most of the 1920s there were usua lly f ive to six facult y members. The 30


number increased to eight in the academic year 1929-30 and during the 1930s maintained a level of seven to eight facult y. High points were reached in 1931-32 and 1940-41 when there were nine facult y members. Prior to the 1928-29 academic year, facult y members were either department heads or instructors. 6 In the case of music, Tunnicliffe was the department chair and the remaining facult y members were instructors. In 1928-29, the standard academic ranks were introduced for the f irst time: Instructor; Assistant Professor; Associate Professor; and Professor. These ranks entailed, of course, differences in compensation. Along with the academic ranks came an increase in the level of educationa l qua lif ications of the facult y. Tunnicliffe came to the College with a bachelor’s degree. Heiser and Mooers seem to have had no educationa l credentia ls at a ll outside of private instruction in piano (Heiser) or voice (Mooers). McEwen, Ha ll and Warner held twoyear Diplomas from Potsdam. Ver y soon, however, newly appointed facult y members held the bachelor’s degree: Dorothy Clement, hired in 1923, Nelle Shuler, hired in 1924, and Matilda Morlock, hired in 1925. Fina lly, Charles Church came to Bowling Green with a Master’s degree. It became more and more common that facult y would ta ke a leave of absence and return with a higher degree. McEwen lef t Bowling Green in 1924 to become Super visor of Music at Mansf ield, Ohio. The position must have a llowed him some f lexibilit y, because, when he returned to Bowling Green in 1928, he had completed a B.S in Education at Columbia Universit y. Similarly, Marion Dee Ha ll lef t Bowling Green in 1926 with a Diploma; she a lso returned in 1928 with a B.S. in Education from Columbia. She and McEwen may have been classmates again at Columbia Universit y.

6  Overman, p. 61. The last catalogue to maintain this distinction was the one for 1927-28. Another position was that of Critic Teacher, but individuals holding this title seem not to have been part of the College faculty, but rather were cooperating teachers in the public schools. 31


The Yearbook of 1931-32 shows seven of the nine facult y members (Marion Dee Ha ll and Manette Marble are not pictured), a long with their degrees. Four (including Manette Marble) had master’s degrees, and four had bachelor’s degrees. Only Mooers had no credentia ls in higher education.

32


Classes and Degree Programs It is not of ten that we get to hear, from the people of the time, a description of the problems they faced and how they intended to dea l with them, but such a record exists in the case of Tunnicliffe and his view of music education in the state of Ohio. In March 1922, Tunnicliffe participated in a roundtable discussion “Music: Present State of Super visor-Training in Ohio” held at the Second Annua l Educationa l Conference at The Ohio State Universit y. 7 R. D. Hughes, Chairman of the Session, wanted each presenter to address four questions: 1. Do superintendents and school boards in your par t of t he state recognize music as an educationa l factor? 2. Do t hey appreciate t he va lue of good super v isor y training? 3. W hat is t he attitude of t he super v isor-in-training to t he more rigorous requirements? 4. Is any t hing being done to educate school administrators in sma ller tow ns to t he impor tance of selecting only wellprepared teachers?

Their responses, he says, were not gratif y ing, but at least they were candid, and revea led an “optimism and determination . . . in the face of conditions which would justif y despair.” This is Tunnicliffe’s presentation, quoted at leng th because it revea ls the situation at Bowling Green and his plans for the academic program, which he a lready had in mind at the end of his second full year.

7  This was the first year in which music was admitted to the State Educational Conference. The other participants were A. W. Martin (Director of Music, Miami University), Anne Maude Shamel (Director of Music, Kent State Normal College), and Arthur E. Heacox (Professor of Theory, Oberlin Conservatory of Music). 33


In giving the discussion today, I sha ll follow the ver y suggestive questions given to me by our chairman, Mr. Hughes, when he assigned the questions for discussion Do superintendents and school boards recognize music as an educationa l factor? Yes, I believe they think they do; but in the rea l sense of the word, they have ver y sma ll rea lization of the purpose or va lue of public-school music as an educationa l subject f it for a place in the school curriculum. Both have the wrong view point; and of the two, I believe the superintendent is the more diff icult position. Both consider music of va lue chief ly as something to f ill in and it is used a good dea l as the music we hear at a reception—to cover up confusion or to furnish a background for the animated conversation of the guests. At our chapel exercises at home we sing a hy mn while the students are getting settled, while a few late-comers are f inding their seats, and while the regular program is being made ready. Again, we sing another hymn between the regular part of the program and the announcements. If they want to f ill in the gap while waiting for some late notices, we may sing another. We never think of practicing singing. In the past year I have had just seven minutes for the practice of chapel singing. I was asked to have a sma ll group of girls sing at a banquet a short time ago. When we got there I found that we were expected to ta ke the place of an orchestra which was to play during the ser ving of the mea l—to cover up the noise of rattling silver, dishes, and so forth. Rather strenuous work for six ladies’ voices! Again, our ma le quartet was to sing at a large gathering recently. We sang at the opening while the late-comers were being seated; and then af ter listening to speeches for two hours, the chairman announced, “We are a ll tired of sitting still so long, and while the quartet favors us with another selection, let us a ll stand and move about so as to rest our legs a little.” I could mention many other instances which have led me to say that I do not think superintendents appreciate the va lue of the true purpose of music.

34


Perhaps some of you are think ing, “Yes, this is a common condition”; but what are we going to do about it? The question presents itself, whose fault is it? I believe it is the fault of the teachers of music that the subject is not ta ken seriously by the superintendents and school boards. We do not ta ke ourselves or our subject seriously enough. If we did, we would not a llow these conditions to remain unchanged ver y long. This attitude is both cause and effect. Many music teachers enter the f ield with little appreciation of the bigness of their problem. They can get a position with little or no training and the fact that superintendents and boards have no idea ls enables them to keep their positions. I could cite many cases to prove this point but will mention only one. A short time ago a young woman came to see me and wanted to f ind out how long it would ta ke her to prepare herself to teach public school music. I asked her if she wished to enroll in the regular course given at the college. Her reply will state the case ver y clearly. “Oh, no,” she said, “I am a teacher of piano and am busy most of the time, but thought I might ta ke a position in our schools to f ill in a little extra time I have, and thought I might come in a few times on Saturdays so as to get the methods.” She couldn’t understand my attitude when I tried to show her that it would be impossible for one to get a suff icient k nowledge of public school music in three or four lessons to enable one to teach it. I k now that many teachers with similar preparation are tr y ing to teach music in the public schools. I believe that some of the conser vatories of music are responsible for poorly trained teachers who are work ing in the public schools. How of ten students who fail to become the great artists their fond relatives anticipate are turned loose in the public schools with no adequate preparation to teach public school music. Do superintendents, principa ls, and school boards appreciate the va lue of good training?

35


I believe they are not competent to do so. Many of them have never had any experience with a system of schools in which the music was well taught and hence have no idea ls, at least no proper idea ls. In severa l schools with which I am familiar, the teacher of music is concerned chief ly with getting songs ready for ra llies, getting up plays, operettas, and so forth. Some few are offering courses in so-ca lled musica l appreciation, which consists in hearing a lot of records played on a phonograph. Others are offering courses in theor y or harmony—forma l music training built upon little or no musica l experience. With such conditions is it to be wondered at that many of us feel we are in a critica l stage in public school music in Ohio? In many cases I f ind the super visor blames the superintendent, and on other cases the opposite is true. I believe the superintendent of ten has a wrong idea, as has been suggested above. He has been so accustomed to dea ling with poorly trained teachers that he does not expect much. He frequently does not see beyond footba ll songs, minstrel shows, and so forth. He has a wrong idea concerning the teaching of musica l appreciation, and does not rea lize that musica l appreciation which does not involve a reaction on the part of the pupil is rea lly not appreciation. Another reason for this lack of idea ls on the part of the average superintendent is that many of them, while well-trained professiona lly, have had little cultura l education. Men who have had to sacrif ice ever y thing while putting themselves through school have missed experience in music and art during the period of life in which these things most vita lly appea l to one. I believe that the causes for the seeming lack of appreciation on the part of many superintendents [are] to be found more deeply hidden that most of us rea lize. May I say here that probably the super visor’s greatest task is to give the executive off icers and the communit y at large a right idea l as to the purpose and va lue of public school music? Only the well-equipped and broadly trained super visor can do this. Nor can much be done in cases where the teacher remains but a year or two in a place.

36


What is the attitude of the teacher-in-training to the more rigorous requirements? I would say excellent, except in a few cases where they think (have been led to think) that public school music is only a side issue. These are usua lly cases of conser vator y-trained people mentioned above. Is any thing being done to educate school administrators in the sma ller cities and towns to the importance of selecting only well-prepared teachers? I answer “no” to this question. The president of my college told me when I was tr y ing to get some indication upon a graduate’s diploma which would show the student’s musica l attainments that he had never been questioned concerning a graduate’s abilit y to teach the music of her grade. I believe there is sma ll interest in this ver y vita l matter. It is unfair to criticize the norma l schools for lack of abilit y to teach music on the part of their graduates, when the question is never considered when a grade teacher is hired. Are students being prepared to teach, in the beginning years of experience at least, the newer and important subjects of harmony, musica l appreciation, etc., and are they given an understanding of the school orchestra? I can spea k only in reference to my own college and will say that the students in the specia l music course are getting such preparation. I feel that we have much to do in this line; but with a new course of study to be followed next year, we hope to be better able to send out well-trained teachers. 8

8  Proceedings: Second Annual Educational Conference, The Ohio State University: March 2325, 1922. The Ohio State University Bulletin Vol. 23/26 (March 24, 1923): 317-319. 37


Readers may wish to sk im the following information on classes and curricula. It is given here to show the magnitude of the task Tunnicliffe set himself, and the extent to which he was successful in his goa l of preparing well-trained music teachers.

Classes A comparison of the class rosters of 1919-20 and 1920-21 shows that some modif ications were in progress even before Tunnicliffe arrived. Class Roster Comparison 1919-20

1920 -21

20 Elementar y Music

21-22 Elements of Music 23-24 Music Appreciation

20 Elementar y Music

21-22 Sight Singing a nd Ear Training

23 Notation a nd Theor y

24 Melody Writing a nd Form

25-26 Pia no Play ing

25-26 Pia no

27-28 Teaching of Public School Music

27-28 Obser vation and Practice Teaching

29-30 Singing

29-30 Singing

31-32 Adva nced Pia no Play ing

31-32 Pia no

33-34 Adva nced Singing

33-34 Singing

35-36 Harmony

35-36 Harmony

37-38 Histor y of Music

37-38 Histor y a nd Appreciation 39-40 Sight Singing a nd Ear Training 41-42 Teaching of Public School Music

4 4 Orchestration

Much of the difference lies in elaboration of the existing courses. The course descriptions were much more detailed in 1920-21 than they were in 1919-20, and gave a clearer indication of the content of each level of the double numbered courses. The Sight Singing and Ear Training course was expanded into a two-year sequence, and Teaching of Public School Music was divided into a year of obser vation and practice teaching and a year of the theor y, histor y, and organizationa l 38


details of public school music from k indergarten through high school. On the other hand, Music Appreciation was folded into the Histor y of Music courses to ma ke a single one-year pair of courses. The most signif icant addition was the Orchestration course, the f irst new course since Elementar y Music of 1915, and the f irst course dea ling exclusively with instrument music with application to the school orchestra program. 9 44—Orchestration Study of t he instruments of t he sy mphony orchestra, t heir tone, qua lit y, and mechanism. Problems of t he school orchestra, grouping of instruments, selection of music, transposition and arrangement of par ts, conducting and management. Prerequisite, Music 35. Second semester. Credit, 2 hours.

Such a course could only have been offered af ter Tunnicliffe arrived, because there was no one with experience in instrumenta l music prior to 1920. The years 1925-26 saw signif icant additions to and ref inements of the existing courses. There were some modest title changes: “Obser vation and Practice Teaching” was renamed “Obser vation and Participation,” and “Singing” became “Voice.” More important was the change of the two courses in “Teaching of Public School Music” to a pair of specia l methods courses, one for elementar y schools and one for secondar y. The latter covered chorus organization and conducting, and repertor y for Glee Clubs and Contests. Some of the content of the origina l “Teaching” series was transferred to a pair of new courses. “Sur vey of Public School Music” which concerned themselves with the purpose and place of music in the public schools. An additiona l Specia l Methods course was added, “The Teaching of Music Appreciation.” All told, the list of additiona l course was as follows: 10

9  This seems like an ambitious list of course objectives for a two-hour course. 10  1925-26 Catalogue, pp. 92-93. The complete list of courses occupies pp. 87-93. 39


192-26 COURSE ADDITIONS NAND R EFINEMENTS 45 Piano 46 Piano 47 Voice 48 Voice 49

Harmonic Ana lysis

50

Advanced Form and Ana lysis

51

Advanced Sight Singing

52

Advanced Sight Singing

55

Sur vey of Public School Music

56

Sur vey of Public School Music

61

Specia l Met hod—(The Teaching of Music Appreciation)

The reason for these changes is not hard to determine. The list of courses for the 1920-21 academic year given above assumes a twoyear diploma program. There are two years of Sight Singing and Ear Training, two years of piano, of singing, of theor y, and of education courses. The additions for 1925 are intended for a three-year program. An additiona l year of applied music, music theor y, and education courses has been added. As will be seen, this three-year program itself was a prelude to a four-year degree program. The next step was to create a roster of courses appropriate for the four-year program. This is the complete list, f irst appearing in 1927-28. 11

11  1927-28 Catalogue, pp. 85-90. 40


Inventory Of Music Courses 1927-28 20

Elementary Music

61-62

Sight Singing and Ear Training

63-64

Sight Singing and Ear Training

65-66

Choral Literature

67-68

Choral Literature

71

Special Methods (Elementary)

72

Special Methods (Secondary)

73

Special Methods (The Teaching of Music Appreciation)

75-76

Special Problems

77-78

Introduction to Public School Music

81

Notation and Theory

82

Melody Writing and Elementary Form

83

Harmonic Analysis

84

Advanced Form and Analysis

85-86

Harmony

87

Advanced Harmony and Counterpoint

88 Conducting 89 Orchestration 91-92

History and Appreciation

101-102

Piano

103-104

Piano

105-106

Piano

107-108

Piano

111-112

Voice

113-114

Voice

115-116

Voice

117-118

Voice

121-122

Instruments

123-124

Instruments (Stringed)

A Ensemble Singing B Instrumental Ensemble

41


New to this list are the four courses in Chora l Literature, the two Specia l Problems courses devoted to instrumenta l and voca l ensemble super vision, the Conducting course, and the two Ensemble courses, neither of which carried any credit. There are a lso now separate course numbers for four years of applied music in Piano and Voice, and new courses for basic class instruction in woodwind and brass instruments (121-122) and stringed Instruments (123-124). Fina lly, ensemble participation for music is now required, a lthough there is still no credit given for the activit y. MUSIC A, Ensemble Singing, was required of a ll students in the f irst two years. Students could continue with the voca l ensembles in their third and fourth years, or they could switch to MUSIC B, Instrumenta l Ensemble. These do not appear in the list of courses because they were considered optiona l activities, not courses. Oddly enough, there seem to be no courses in obser vation and practice teaching specif ic to music. The courses that used to include those activities are gone from the list, and the course in Public School Music is concerned only with the “Purpose and place of Music in the genera l scheme of education.” 12 Perhaps obser vation and student teaching were part of the nine required courses in Education (21, 24, 62, 63a, 63b, 65, 66, 69, 70; see four-year curriculum below). Tunnicliffe a lso made steps toward offering applied music instruction for credit. Piano and voice had a lways been part of the curriculum and were accorded academic credit, even in the Hesser years, because they were tool courses necessar y for anyone teaching in the elementar y schools. Organ lessons were a lso available for anyone, a lthough the study did not have a place in any curriculum and carried no credit. Tunnicliffe added what now would be considered applied music classes in strings, woodwind, and brass. These made their f irst appearance in the 1927-28 Cata logue. The three new courses were 121122 and 123-124. The f irst two were devoted to brass and woodwind instruments, the second two to strings. 13 Private lessons in violin and clarinet f irst appeared in 1938-39, but only when the facult y loads could accommodate them. I assume McEwen taught violin, and that Church taught clarinet. When McEwen became chair, and when Church lef t Bowling Green, these private lessons disappeared. Class instruction continued, however. 12  1927-28 Catalogue, p. 87. 13  The person who wrote the course description for 121-122 was unsure of terminology: “Two class lessons per week with assigned preparation. Brass wind, first semester. Wood wind, second semester.” See 1927-28 catalogue, p. 89. 42


A comparison of the 49 courses in 1927-28 with the 56 courses in 1940-41 shows that the same courses and ver y similar content is still in place, a lthough the courses have been renumbered, and applied music options have been expanded. In other words, af ter the extensive changes made in the early 1920s, the music courses settled into a pattern that would be maintained for the next 15 years. A comparison of this list with the 19 courses in Hesser’s last year shows how far Tunnicliffe had brought the Music Department Inventory Of Music Courses 1940-41 101, 102

Sight Singing and Ear Training

103

Notation and Theor y

104

Melody Writing and Elementar y Form

161, 162

Applied Music (Piano)

171, 172

Applied Music (Voice)

201, 202

Sight Singing and Ear Training

203, 204

Introduction to Public School Music

205

Harmonic Ana lysis

206

Advanced Form and Ana lysis

241, 242

Genera l Music

261, 262

Applied Music (Piano)

271, 272

Applied Music (Voice)

281, 282

Applied Music (Instruments)

301, 302

Chora l Literature

303, 304

Harmony

305, 306

Histor y and Appreciation

307 Conducting 311, 312

Chora l Literature

313, 314

Specia l Problems

315 Orchestration 316

Advanced Harmony and Counterpoint

317

Music Appreciation

351

Teaching of Music

352

Met hods in Music (Music Appreciation)

353

Met hods in Music (Elementar y) 43


Some mention should be made of music fees in these early days. Inventory Of Music Courses 1940-41 (cont.) 355

Met hods in Music (Secondar y)

361, 362

Applied Music (Piano)

363, 364

Applied Music (Piano)

371, 372

Applied Music (Voice)

373, 374

Applied Music (Voice)

381, 382

Applied Music (Stringed Instruments)

383, 384

Applied Music (Violin)

385, 386

Applied Music (Violin)

A Ensemble Singing B Instrumenta l Ensemble

A fee of $3.00 per semester for use of pianos was in place during the Hesser years from 1915 on. For Tunnicliffe’s f irst year, 1920-21, that dropped back to $2.00, but by 1924 it had returned to $3.00. In 1925, the year of the course expansion for the three-year program, a fee of $20.00 for Specia l Music Students and $30.00 for a ll others was charged for a ll applied lessons, voice as well as piano. In 1929 the $3.00 per semester for use of a piano continued, and an additiona l fee of $5.00 per semester for use of College-owned brass, woodwind, and stringed instruments. No further increases were made through Tunnicliffe’s last year, 1940-41.

Degree Programs Tunnicliffe inherited the two-year diploma program and it remained in effect until 1925. Perhaps he intended to establish a new program for 1922-23, but it did not happen. The f irst mention of a new program was of a four-year degree curriculum, with a threeyear diploma program for music teachers as a stepping-stone; this was announced in 1924 cata logue to be in effect for the matriculating students of 1925-26:

44


The College has under consideration t he expansion of t he present t wo-year courses in Commercia l Education and Music into degree courses in t he near f uture, but in any event, it g uarantees to prov ide at least one additiona l year of work in t hese subjects by t he time students entering in September 1925, complete t he second year of t he t wo-year courses, as now of fered, t hus insuring oppor tunit y for at least t hree years of preparation for teaching in t hese specia l 14 f ields.

The three-year program was introduced in the 1925-26 school year and implemented in 1926-27. The new courses were not simply added onto the two-year diploma program; rather, they were spread across the whole of the three years. 15

THR EE-YEAR PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC CUR R ICULUM 1925-26 First Year First Semester

Second Semester

English 61.. ......................................... 2

English 62.......................................... 2

English 67.......................................... 3

English 68.......................................... 3

Sight Singing and Ear Training 21..... 2

Sight Singing and Ear Training 22................................ 2

Notation and Theory 23..................... 2 Survey of Public School Music 55...... 1 Applied Music (Piano 25) . . ................. 2 Applied Music (Voice 29)................... 1 Elective....................................... 3 or 4 Physical Training 27......................... ½

Elementary Form and Melody Writing 24........................... 2 Survey of Public School Music 56...... 1 Applied Music (Piano 26).. ................. 2 Applied Music (Voice 30)................... 1 Elective....................................... 3 or 4 Physical Training 28......................... ½

15½ or 16½

15½ or 16½

14  1924-25 Catalogue, p. 52. 15  1925-26 Catalogue, pp. 87-93. 45


THR EE-YEAR PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC CUR R ICULUM 1925-26 Second Year First Semester

Second Semester

Education 21...................................... 3

Education 26...................................... 3

Observation and Participation 27.... 1½

Observation and Participation 27.... 1½

Sight Singing and Ear Training 39..... 2

Sight Singing and Ear Training 40..... 2

Harmonic Analysis 49. . ...................... 2

Advanced Form and Analysis 50........ 2

Applied Music (Piano 31)................... 1

Survey of Public School Music 56...... 1

Applied Music (Voice 33)................... 1

Applied Music (Piano 32). . ................. 1

Elective.............................................. 5

Applied Music (Voice 34)................... 1

Physical Training 29......................... ½

Elective.............................................. 5

Physical Training 30......................... ½

15½ or 16½

15½ or 16½

Third Year First Semester

46

Second Semester

Special Methods (Elementary 41........ 2

Special Methods (Secondary) 42........ 2

Special Methods (Music Appreciation) 61.. ............................. 2

Education 70 ..................................... 2

Education 69...................................... 2

Advanced Sight Singing 52 . . ............... 1

Advanced Sight Singing 51 . . ............... 1

Harmony 36....................................... 2

Harmony 35....................................... 2

Orchestration 44................................ 2

History and Appreciation Of Music 37...................................... 2

Histor y a nd Appreciation of Music 38.................................... 2

History 65.......................................... 3

Histor y 66. . ...................................... 3

Applied Music (Piano 45) . . ...................

Applied Music (Pia no 46).. ............... 1

Applied Music (Voice 47)................... 1

Applied Music (Voice 48)................. 1

16

Sight Singing and Ear Training 40..... 2

16


This program was intended to last only one year, when it would be replaced in 1927-28 by the four-year degree program leading to a Bachelor of Science in Education with a major in music. FOUR-YEAR PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC CUR R ICULUM 1927-28 First Semester

First Year Second Semester

English 61.. ......................................... 2

English 62.......................................... 2

English 67.......................................... 3

English 68.......................................... 3

Modern Language.............................. 3

Modern Language.............................. 3

Music 61............................................. 2

Music 62............................................. 2

Music 77............................................. 1

Music 78............................................. 1

Music 81............................................. 2

Music 82............................................. 2

Music 101........................................... 1

Music 102........................................... 1

Music 111........................................... 1

Music 112........................................... 1

Physical Training 27......................... ½

Physical Training 28......................... ½

15½

15½

Second Year First Semester

Second Semester

Biological Science 61.......................... 4

Biological Science 62. . ........................ 4

Education 21...................................... 3

Education 24...................................... 3

Modern Language or Elective............ 3

Modern Language or Elective............ 3

Music 63............................................. 2

Music 64. . ........................................... 2

Music 83............................................22

Music 84. . ..........................................22

Music 103 .......................................... 1

Music 104 .......................................... 1

Music 113........................................... 1

Music 114........................................... 1

Music 121.......................................... ½

Music 122.......................................... ½

Physical Training 29......................... ½

Physical Training 29......................... ½

16

16

47


FOUR-YEAR PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC CUR R ICULUM 1927-28 Third Year First Semester

Second Semester

Education 63a.. ................................. 1½

Education 63b.................................. 1½

Education 66...................................... 3

English 75 ......................................... 2

History 65.......................................... 3

Education 67...................................... 3

Music 65............................................. 1

History 67.......................................... 3

Music 85............................................. 2

Music 67............................................. 1

Music 81............................................. 2

Music 86............................................. 2

Music 91 ............................................ 2

Music 82............................................. 2

Music 105........................................... 1

Music 92 ............................................ 2

Music 115

1

Music 106........................................... 1

Music 123.......................................... ½

Music 116........................................... 1 Music 124.......................................... ½

15

First Semester

Fourth Year

16

Second Semester

Education 65 ..................................... 3

Education 62 ..................................... 3

Education 69...................................... 2

Education 70...................................... 2

Music 67............................................. 1

Industrial Arts 79.............................. 2

Music 73............................................. 2

Music 68............................................. 1

Music 75............................................. 1

Music 72............................................. 2

Music 87............................................. 2

Music 76............................................. 1

Music 88 ............................................ 1

Music 88............................................. 2

Music 107........................................... 1

Music 89 ............................................ 1

Music 117........................................... 1

Music 108........................................... 1

Music 118........................................... 1

48

14

15


The curriculum has begun to assume its familiar shape: “Genera l Studies” (English, Modern Languages, Biolog y); professiona l Education courses; and courses in the major. It has a lso begun to assume the familiar ratio of music courses and courses outside music to tota l requirements: Tota l Requirements

125

Courses outside Music

64 (51%)

Music Courses

61 (49%)

Although some shuff ling around will occur over the next decades, this ratio of approximately 50 music course within the tota l requirements will remain constant in the Public School Music degree program. Thus the complete “new course of study” imagined by Tunnicliffe in 1922 was f ina lly rea lized in 1927, Tunnicliffe’s eighth year in Bowling Green. Some tinkering continued in subsequent years, none of which required new music courses. In 1929-30, Psycholog y 61 and 65 were added, and Education 21 and 65 were dropped. The f ina l form of the Music Education curriculum in 1940-41, Tunnicliffe’s last year, is shown in the following table. This is what McEwen inherited.

49


PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC 1940-41 First Semester

First Year Second Semester

Biolog y 101. . ....................................... 4

Biolog y 102 . . ....................................... 4

Modern Language ............................. 4

Education 102.. ................................... 1

Music 101........................................... 2

English 100 or 101.............................. 3

Music 103........................................... 2

Modern Language.............................. 4

Music 161........................................... 1

Music 102........................................... 2

Music 171........................................... 1

Music 104........................................... 2

Speech 110.......................................... 3

Applied Music.................................... 1

Physical Education 101.. .................... ½

Physical Education 102..................... ½

17½

17½

Second Year First Semester

50

Second Semester

History 103.. ....................................... 3

Education 202.................................... 3

Modern Language or Elective............ 4

History 104........................................ 3

Music 201........................................... 2

Modern Language or Elective............ 4

Music 203........................................... 1

Music 202........................................... 2

Music 205........................................... 2

Music 204 .......................................... 1

Psycholog y 201................................... 3

Music 206 .......................................... 2

Applied Music.................................... 2

Applied Music.................................... 2

Physical Education 201..................... ½

Physical Education 202..................... ½

17½

17½


PUBLIC SCHOOL MUSIC 1940-41 Third Year First Semester

Second Semester

Education 301.. ................................... 3

Education 304.................................... 3

Education 309.................................. 1½

Education 310. . ................................. 1½

Music 301........................................... 1

Music 302........................................... 1

Music 303........................................... 2

Music 304........................................... 2

Music 305........................................... 2

Music 306........................................... 2

Music 307........................................... 1

Music 352........................................... 1

Applied Music or Elective.................. 5

Applied Music or Elective.................. 5

15½

15½

Fourth Year First Semester

Second Semester

Education 321. . ................................... 2

Art 314............................................... 2

Music 311........................................... 1

Education 306.................................... 3

Music 313........................................... 1

Education 322.................................... 2

Music 315........................................... 2

Music 312........................................... 1

Music 353........................................... 2

Music 314........................................... 1

Music 355 .......................................... 2

Music 316........................................... 2

Applied Music or Elective.................. 3

Applied Music or Elective.................. 3

14

14

The amount of work required in Applied Music (Piano, Voice and Instruments varies from 12 to 18 hours and depends upon t he prev ious training and abilit y of t he student. A specia l fee of $20.00 is charged for each course in Applied Music including Music 161, 171. See note on page 163 for ot her specia l fees for courses in music.

51


The tota l requirements for the degree have increased slightly, but the percentages within the tota l requirements have changed places. Neither change seems particularly signif icant, but in fact they are signs of things to come Tota l Requirements

129

Courses outside music

63 (49%)

Music Courses

66 (51%)

In 1930-31 a Music Minor was added to the list of minors available in the College of Libera l Arts (The course numbers below are identica l to the Inventor y of Music Courses 1927-28 given above). The required courses are those in Aura l Sk ills (Sight Singing, Ear Training), and Theor y (Notation, Theor y, Melody Writing, and Elementar y Form). The electives in the junior and senior level comprise Chora l Literature, Harmony, Counterpoint, Music Histor y and Appreciation, and Applied Music. MUSIC MINOR First year—Music 61- 62 and 81-82 Second Year—Music 63- 64 and 83-84 Third Year—Elective Four t h Year—Elective Electives may be chosen from Music 65- 66, 67- 68, 85-86, 87, 88, 91, 92; or may be ta ken in Applied Music. Students who w ish to of fer credits in Applied Music must obtain permission from t he head of t he depar tment and t he amount of credit a llowed w ill be determined by t he abilit y and advancement of t he student.

Fina lly, in 1931-32, courses were divided into those for Freshmen and Sophomores, and those for Juniors and Seniors, which were so listed in the Cata logues.

52


Ensembles Ensembles expanded greatly over the course of the Tunnicliffe years. In addition to a variet y of ma le and fema le chora l groups, an orchestra was re-established and a marching was begun. Furthermore, a string quartet made an appearance ver y early in the 1020s. Three points should be noted, however. First of a ll, these ensembles carried no academic credit, a lthough Tunnicliffe tried from 1926 to secure it for the Treble Clef Club. Perhaps the administration saw ensembles as just another extra curricular activit y, similar to the socia l fraternities and the various clubs, for which academic credit was inconceivable. Nonetheless, participation by the genera l student body did not seem to suffer because of this. Secondly, the ensembles were not limited to students as they are now. Facult y from the Music Department, and from the College as a whole, a lso participated, providing voca l and instrumenta l resources and sk ills that the students could not. They thus ser ved as an arena for facult y/student interaction outside of classroom activities. Thirdly, there grew up the notion of required participation by music majors in chora l groups, despite the lack of academic credit. In particular, participation in the Mixed chorus was limited to, and required of, a ll persons majoring in music. This assured a critica l mass of ma le singers, but it a lso began the practice of “ hidden requirements”—courses required of a ll music students but which did not carr y academic credit nor count towards any degree program. This problem was not resolved during Tunnicliffe’s tenure.

Choruses Hesser’s departure caused an upheava l in the chora l area. The Philharmonic Club disappeared, and the May Festiva l Choir, a lthough it remained in the 1921-22 cata logue, ceased to play any role in the College or civic communit y. That is, the main opportunit y for College/ communit y collaboration went away. Only the Treble Clef sur vived the transition unscathed.

53


Severa l important positive changes were made in the chora l ensembles during the 1920s. There grew up, over the period 192027, a distinction between chora l groups required of music majors, and those limited to non-majors. The Mixed Chorus was required of music majors, while enrollment in the Treble Clef Club was limited to non-majors. Secondly, the ma le population of the Music Department increased, and this a llowed Tunnicliffe to establish two new choruses exclusively for men: the Men’s Glee Club and the Ma le Quartet (both 1920-21). 16 Fina lly, the f irst Mixed Chorus appeared in 1927. This ensemble was required of men majoring in music. Later (Fa ll 1938) it was named the A Cappella Choir and is still in existence. Chora l tours in the Spring began in the 1930s, starting with the Men’s Glee Club under Leon Fauley (1936), followed by the Treble Clef Club under James Paul Kennedy (1939). These became traditiona l socia l activities for these groups, that continue to the present. The Mixed Chorus (A Cappella Choir) never seems to have engaged in tours.

Treble Clef Club When Tunnicliffe replaced Hesser in Fa ll 1920, he assumed many of Hesser’s responsibilities, one of which was the Treble Clef Club, which he directed until 1928.  The illustration below shows the Treble Clef Club in 1924; Tunnicliffe is at the far lef t. In the Yearbook for 1926-27, Tunnicliffe expressed the hope that academic credit could be given to ensembles, at least to the Treble Clef Club. 17 Af ter that, direction of the ensemble passed from his hands, and there was no further mention of academic credit.

and 29); and and

From 1928 to 1936 membership was limited to non-music majors, four different conductors led the group: Matilda Morlock (1928Marion Dee Ha ll (1929-31; 1933-34); Minnie Stensland (1931-32); Margaret Scruggs (1935-36). James Paul Kennedy took over in 1936 remained the conductor until 1957.

16  Tunnicliffe had already been in the habit of extracting especially skilled singers from the Treble Clef Club for performances at special occasions, as he describes in his presentation cited above, so the small female vocal ensemble already existed. 17  Yearbook, 1926-27, p. 86: “The success of this organization and the excellence of its work is due largely to the efforts of its leader and director, R. M. Tunnicliffe, who soon hopes to have college credit granted for this course.” 54


55


Men’s Glee Club The Cata logues from 1921 on list, under Activities, two Glee Clubs, one for Men, and one for Women (The Treble Clef Club). The Men’s Glee Club was begun by Tunnicliffe in 1920, and he directed the ensemble until the late 1920s (1928?). Its f irst concert season was in 1923, but it seems to have had a slow start, and is never pictured in the yearbook. The Men’s Glee Club disappeared for a short time in the late 1920s but was reorganized by Leon E . Fauley in 1931, and this time the group f irmly established itself. The Men’s Glee Club was considered a new thing in the 1932 Yearbook. The text accompany ing the photograph states: Seeing t he need for a men’s musica l orga nization, Professor Leon Fau ley orga nized t he f irst Men’s Glee Club in t he histor y of t he col lege. The club, consisting of about t went y-f ive members, has worked di ligent ly t hroughout t he year in preparation for various public appeara nces, t he crow ning event of which was t he Spring Concer t. A lt hough t he orga nization is yet young, t he success of its f irst year’s activ it y has destined it to ma ke a distinct contribution to col lege a nd communit y life. This is the Yearbook illu stration; Fauley is in the f irst row, third from the lef t.

56


It is not possible to give biographica l sketches of a ll facult y members who passed through the Music Department, but exceptions have to be made for especia lly prominent individua ls. Fauley was certainly one of these. He was the f irst of what might be ca lled the high-visibilit y chora l directors, of which Bowling Green has had so many. It was through his efforts that the Men’s Glee Club and the Ma le Quartet (Varsit y Quartet) achieved the stay ing power it enjoyed throughout the 1930s, and that both groups recovered af ter the devastating effect of World War II on the College voca l ensembles. Leon E . Fauley (1894-1965) was born in Mount Hope, Kansas on April 3. 18 He received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Wichita Universit y, a Bachelor of Music degree from the Universit y of Kansas, and a Masters of Arts from Columbia Universit y (1928). He had studied voice privately with Alexander Killelburgh and Louis Graveure, and taught in rura l and village school in the Kansas public school system. He a lso ser ved as Super visor of Music in Rozel, Kansas and was a facult y member of the State Teachers College in Denton Texas before coming to Bowling Green in 1930 as an Assistant Professor. Fauley’s teaching responsibilities lay in the areas of applied voice and music education methods courses. He was credited with founding the Men’s Glee Club and the Ma le Quartet in 1931 and remained their conductor throughout the 1930s. 19 He a lso seems to have been the f irst to tour with his ensemble, beginning in 1936. Fina lly he ser ved as the facult y advisor to the campus chapter of the YMCA and founded the Bowling Green chapter of the men’s music fraternit y, Phi Mu Alpha.

18  The following information is taken from the Bowling Green Catalogue, 1930-31, and Fauley’s obituary, The Daily Sentinel Tribune, Bowling Green OH, Jan. 9, 1965, p. 2. 19  Fauley did not establish the Men’s Glee Club or the Male Quartet. Tunnicliffe founded both groups in the 1920s although they never caught on. 57


The Male Quartet The Ma le Quartet was an offshoot of the Men’s Glee Club, organized in Spring 1921 to ser ve as a musica l outlet for interested ma le singers and to provide musica l performances for the College and the loca l communit y. Unlike the Men’s Glee Club, the Ma le Quartet performed at a number of loca l institutions, including high schools, and concertized regularly during the early and mid 1920s, but disappeared in the late 1920s. It reappeared in 1931 as part of Fauley’s Men’s Glee Club and continued until 1942, when World War II forced its collapse.

Mixed Chorus (A Cappella Choir) 1927 Tunnicliffe a lso established a Mixed Chorus in Fa ll of 1927, and directed it until 1936. Between Fa ll of 1936 and Spring of 1938 the Mixed Chorus seems to have experienced a hiatus—at least it is not included in the cata logues of those years—but reappeared in the cata logues of 1938-39 and 1939-40, still directed by Tunnicliffe. It reappeared in the 1940-41 Cata logue as the Universit y Choir under 58


the direction of Merrill McEwen. In 1946 the ensemble was ta ken over by James Paul Kennedy and again changed its name to the A Cappella Choir, which continues to the present. Beginning in 1930, Merrill McEwen undertook sporadic musica l theater productions as part of the activities of the Mixed Chorus. These production began with H. M. S. Pinafore, followed by Mikado (1934), The Pirates of Penzance (1938), and H. M. S. Pinafore again (1942). 20 Af ter McEwen assumed the responsibilities of Chair, musica l theater productions continued under Kennedy with The Bartered Bride (1949) and Brigadoon (1956). This histor y established an assumed link between opera and the Chora l Activities Program that continued until 1966, when it was transferred brief ly to Orchestra l Activities.

Instrumental Ensembles Tunnicliffe a lso oversaw the establishment of two continuing instrumenta l ensembles, an orchestra, and a marching band. In addition, the Department supported a string quartet from 1923 through 1932, and a concert band, f irst established as a separate unit from the marching band in 1934.

Orchestra An orchestra begun by Ca lvin Bier y in 1917 was unsuccessful; it existed for only one year and had to disband due to lack of players. In 1922 it was revived by Tunnicliffe, who conducted it, and the newly hired Merrill McEwen, who played viola in the group. This is picture of the eleven-piece orchestra in its f irst year, 1922-23, ta ken in the same room as the 1917 orchestra. McEwen is in the f irst row, far lef t. Tunnicliffe is not pictured. 20  Earl E. Smith conducted the orchestral forces for this production; he was also the band director, succeeding Church in 1940. McEwen conducted the University Chorus. 59


By 1923-24 the membership had expanded to seventeen members, conducted by Tunnicliffe. The following picture shows the orchestra in 1924. McEwen again is on the far lef t, Tunnicliffe is sixth from the right, and E . C. Powell, who was to play an important role in establishing the marching band, is the clarinetist on the far right. When McEwen lef t Bowling Green in 1924 the orchestra was disbanded, but Tunnicliffe revived it again in 1927, with himself as conductor and McEwen, who had just returned from Mansf ield, again as violist. Af ter 1927-28 the conducting responsibilities a lternated between Charles Church (1928-31 and 1933-34) and McEwen (1931-32 and 1934-40). The orchestra seems to have been a collaborative activit y for the two men. In the years when Church conducted, McEwen played the viola; when McEwen conducted, Church of ten played the oboe. At the ver y end of Tunnicliffe’s tenure as Chair, Earl E . Smith became the conductor of the orchestra (1940-42).

60


College String Quartet (Merrill McEwen, Director and Viola) 1923 From Januar y 1923 until April 1932, the Department of Music supported a string quartet as an offshoot of the orchestra. Its intent was “to contribute to the culture of the campus, to provide music for chapel exercises and clubs, and to contribute to the experience and k nowledge of the Music Department students.” 21 It performed both on campus, as part of the annua l orchestra concert, and off campus for various organizations in Bowling Green and surrounding towns. A further dut y was to provide musica l examples in the Music Department classes. The quartet was founded by McEwen in Januar y 1923, but was discontinued when McEwen lef t Bowling Green af ter the Spring of 1924. Charles Church, in his position as conductor of the orchestra, reestablished the ensemble in Spring 1928, and when McEwen returned in Fa ll 1928, he resumed his position as violist. The quartet was discontinued permanently af ter the 1930-31 school year. As was the case with the other ensembles, the string quartet had both students and facult y as members. In only one year (1927-28) was the membership composed exclusively of students. Merrill McEwen ser ved as violist in the f irst year and a ha lf of the quartet’s existence, and in the years af ter he returned to Bowling Green (1928--31). Membership for selected years of the quartet’s existence is given below, and the illustration shows the quartet in the 1924 College yearbook. The next illustration shows the string quartet as it existed in the two stable years of Fa ll 1928 to Spring 1930.

21 

Bowling Green State College Yearbook, 1929, p. 95. 61


String Quartet Members 1923 - 1931 1923-24

1929-30

Violin I Helen Hu l l Violin II

Melzer Por ter

Violin II Sidney Baron

Viola Merri l l McEwen

Viola Merri l l McEwen

Cel lo Glenna Craw

Cel lo El lswor t h Capen

1927-28 (A l l students)

1930 -31

Violin I

Donald Armstrong

Violin I Sidney Baron

Violin II

Sta nley Myers

Violin II Irene Urschel

Viola Jessie Li l licot h

Viola Merri l l McEwen

Cel lo El lswor t h Capen

Cel lo El lswor t h Capen

1928 -29

62

Violin I Donald Armstrong

Violin I Donald Armstrong Violin II Sidney Baron

Viola Merri l l McEwen

Cel lo El lswor t h Capen


63


Band The College Band was the last of the large ensembles to be introduced in Bowling Green. In the Fa ll of the academic year 192324 a student, Leo La ke, and facult y member of the Industria l Arts Department, Earl Claire Powell established the f irst College Band for marching and concert purposes. The Yearbook from 1924 contains a picture of this ensemble, approximately twent y performers with Powell at the head. According to the 1941 Yearbook, Powell gave each member a freshman cap because there were no uniforms at the time. Perhaps some of these caps can be seen in the illustration below. Powell himself seems to have had no forma l experience in music. He had a Bachelor of Science from Ohio State Universit y, and taught high school manua l training in East Liverpool and Massillon, Ohio, before coming to Bowling Green in 1923 as an Instructor in Industria l Arts. Powell led the ensemble until Spring 1927; af ter that, he ser ved as facult y advisor to the ensemble for one semester, and the directing responsibilities were given to the student director, Robert Wyandt for the second semester of 1926-27. Af ter that Powell ceased to be associated with the band; he retired in Spring 1953 af ter thirt y years of ser vice. 64


It was Tunnicliffe’s contribution to devote a full-time music facult y position to the band program. In Fa ll 1927, Charles F. Church became the f irst music facult y to direct the band, and the position remained in the hands of music facult y from then on. The following illustration is a picture of the band in the 1929-30 yearbook; Church appears to be the individua l on the far right.

65


The Band f irst appears in the Cata logue under Student Activities in 1927, Church ’s f irst year. It contains the following unusua l limitation on membership. Membership in t he Col lege ba nd is open to students who play ba nd instruments acceptably. The ba nd ma kes concer t appeara nces each year a nd plays at a l l major at h letic contests. Women student are accepted for membership in t he ba nd a nd may play in concer ts, at basketba l l ga mes, but not at footba l l ga mes.

It is unclear why women were specif ica lly excluded from footba ll games. Was marching too strenuous? Was there a problem with uniforms? Did the participation of women f ly in the face of the pseudomilitar y ethos of marching bands at footba ll games? No one ever says, but the limitation disappeared in the 1929-30 cata logue, which contains only the f irst two sentences of the description and eliminated the last sentence a ltogether. Again, it is unclear whether women were a llowed to participate in band performances at footba ll games, or whether the limitation was so self-evident to the people of the time that stating it was unnecessar y. A Concert Band was instituted in 1927 but was immediately discontinued af ter one year. It reappeared in 1933, when the band was divided into two units, a marching band and a concert band. This division was maintained throughout the Tunnicliffe years. Women, a lthough not admitted to the marching, were admitted to the Concert Band from 1933 on. Church ’s tenure as band director coincides a lmost exactly with Tunnicliffe’s tenure as Chair. In 1940 Church took a leave of absence to pursue a Ph.D. in Education at Ohio State Universit y with a major in the histor y of education and a minor in radio education. He completed his degree work in 1942 and had intended to resign from Bowling Green to pursue a careen in radio, but he retuned to Bowling Green to direct the band in the dark early years of World War II (Fa ll 1942-Fa ll 1943). He lef t Bowling Green for good in Spring, 1944, and was hired by radio station K MBC of Kansas Cit y, Missouri, to underta ke a study of the use of radio as an educationa l medium, the same topic that had attracted Hesser and Damrosch. 22 His position 22  66

KMBC Heartbeat: Kansas City’s Radio Merchandiser, Vol. 2, No. 2 (Mar 1, 1945).


was forma lized in 1945 as that of Director of Education and Acting Director of Research at K MBC. 23 Church was replaced as Band director by Earl E . Smith, who held the position until Spring 1942. In summar y there were f ive band directors during the Tunnicliffe years: one facult y member from Industria l Arts Department; two student directors; and two music facult y members: a. Earl Claire Powell (Instructor in Industria l Arts Department) and Leo La ke (Student) (1923-27) b. Robert Wyland (Student) Spring 1927 (Powell as Advisor) c. Charles Church, f irst music facult y to conduct band, 1927Fa ll 1943 d. Earl E . Smith (1940-42)

This list will become much more complicated in subsequent years as the band program expands.

23 

KMBC Heartbeat: Kansas City’s Radio Merchandiser, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Feb. 1, 1945). 67


Summar y of the Tunnicliffe Years Of Tunnicliffe’s severa l contributions to the music program, perhaps the two most important are those to the degree programs and to instrumenta l music. He had inherited a two-year diploma program for elementar y school teachers, and by 1927 he had established a fouryear Public School Music degree. When he retired in 1941, there a lso existed a music minor in the College of Libera l Arts. Furthermore, he put the music education program on a more professiona l footing. He was a participant in the Annua l Educationa l Conference at Ohio State, and so established a statewide visibilit y to the department. His contributions to instrumenta l music were to give music facult y the responsibilit y to conduct the band and the orchestra, and to begin applied instruction in areas other than piano and voice. Concerning conducting responsibilities, there was as yet no area specia lization. An individua l hired to conduct was expected to be able to conduct any large ensemble: band, orchestra, or chorus. However it is clear that Church and McEwen had preferences. Church was expected to conduct both the orchestra and band, but he inclined to the band. McEwen conducted both the orchestra and the mixed chorus but favored the chorus. There remained many tasks to be accomplished that were clear to ever yone. Academic credit had to be secured for large ensembles, applied instruction at a more detailed level than instrument classes had to be developed, and, among the awcademic programs, specif ic music degrees needed to be created. These tasks were carried out by Merrill McEwen.

68


V. The McEwen Years 1941-57

The career of Merrill McEwen (1900-57) at Bowling Green was divided into two parts, those years he spent as a facult y member (192141) and those as an administrator (1941-57). Each of those periods can a lso be divided into two parts. His facult y years span 1921-24 and 1928 to 41 He f irst came to Bowling Green at the behest of R ichard Tunnicliffe in 1921 as the second facult y member besides Tunnicliffe. He had just graduated from Crane Norma l Institute of Music with a Diploma. This is the graduating class from the 1921 Crane Institute; McEwen is at the top lef t. 13

Graduating class from t he 1921 Cra ne Institute

13  Also in this photograph is Marion Dee Hall (top row, second from right), who was a member of the coterie of Crane graduates recruited by Tunnicliffe. I am very grateful to Stephen McEwen for this illustration. 69


Tunnicliffe apparently k new of McEwen’s innate abilities, but McEwen’s relative lack of experience was a drawback to continued work in higher education. As Overman points out: “The usua l qua lif ications of a facult y member in [teacher-training institutions of the time] was the master’s degree, teaching abilit y, and some experience in public school work.” 14 McEwen’s academic experience, outside of the Crane Diploma, was as a student at Clarkson College at Potsdam New York and at the Universit y of Wisconsin, and he had had no experience in the public schools except that afforded him as a student. Thus McEwen had virtua lly none of the qua lif ications Overman lists, and he set about to acquire them. He lef t Bowling Green to become Super visor of Music in Mansf ield, Ohio, a position he held until Fa ll 1928. He returned to Bowling Green with four years of public school experience and a B.S. in Education at the Teachers College, Columbia Universit y. Thus he had satisf ied one of the assumed qua lif ications (work in the public school) and had begun to work on an advanced degree. By 1936 at least he had completed his A.M. at Ohio State Universit y. He was the f irst facult y member with a concentration on instrumenta l music, specif ica lly strings, and his arriva l a llowed the Department to revive the orchestra that had disappeared af ter the 191718 academic year. McEwen himself played the violin, the viola, and the cello, whatever was needed in the ensembles, a lthough viola was his preferred instrument. He a lso established the f irst string quartet in Bowling Green, as was seen above. He lef t in 1924 to become super visor of music in Mansf ield Ohio, but returned in 1928, this time for good. Thus, by the time he became Chair in 1941, McEwen had had a long histor y with the Music Department. Like his facult y career, his administrative tenure has two parts: the War years (1941-45) and what may be ca lled the post-war reconstruction (1945-47). McEwen f irst resided at 201. S. Church St., but in 1934 moved to 135 N. Grove, where he remained until 1956. In that year he built a home at 225 Winf ield Drive, but lived only a short time to enjoy it. On Friday night Nov. 1, 1957 he suffered a heart attack at his home and died at the age of 57. He is buried in Oa k Grove Cemeter y, Section C-Row 012. The Merrill McEwen Memoria l Fund, established in his 14  70

Overman, p. 61.


honor, still exists to support the activities of pre-tenure music facult y in the College of Musica l Arts.

Facilities—The Practical Arts Building – The Hall of Music

Music occupied the Practica l Arts Building for a lmost a ll of the McEwen years. Only in 1955 did music acquire new facilities with the completion of the Ha ll of Music, and McEwen must have had a hand in securing funding for this project. 15 The Ha ll of Music was approved in 1953 under President Ra lph McDona ld. Construction was completed in 1955, and the building was dedicated on Saturday October 12, 1957, shortly before McEwen’s death. It was exclusively for music, with 60 practice rooms, 14 studios, 14 classrooms, 5 record listening rooms, instrumenta l rehearsa l rooms, voca l rehearsa l rooms, a large recita l ha ll, off ice and storage space, and a specia l organ built especia lly for the building. The School of Music occupied it from 1955 until 1979, when Music moved to the Musica l Arts Center, af ter which the Ha ll of Music was renamed West Ha ll. Hall of Music (West Hall)

15  The Home Economics Building was constructed at the same time, immediately next door to the Hall of Music. When both departments relocated, the Practical Arts Building was remodeled to accommodate the College of Business Administration and all traces of music disappeared. 71


David Glasmire reca lls the origins of the Ha ll of Music. He is here describing a meeting between President McDona ld and the music facult y sometime before 1953 and what must have been a conscious attempt to demonstrate that a new music facilit y was essentia l. [W]e k new t hat t here was a possibilit y of getting a new music building. [President McDona ld] was coming over at 2:30; we were in t he Practica l Ar ts Building at t he time. The 1st f loor [was] home economics, t he 2nd f loor was music, t he 3rd f loor was [rehearsa l ha lls]. We had it a ll set up. Ever ybody was practicing and t he old Practica l Ar ts Building was located w it hin t he cour t yard itself. So we had ever ybody’s w indow open, ever ybody practicing—voca lists, instrumenta lists, you name it. And he came over, and he sat t here for a while. He said: “I don’t see how any teaching goes on in t his place.” Out of t hat star ted t he ba ll rolling on t he new music building.

72


Faculty McEwen inherited from Tunnicliffe a facult y of six, including himself: Merrill McEwen (Chair) Irene C. Mooers (Chora l Conducting/Voice) Earl E . Smith (Instrumenta l Conducting) Lois Collins Leon E . Fauley (Voice/Chora l Conducting) My rtle Jensen (Keyboard) 16 This was McEwen’s starting point. Collins lef t at the end of the 1940-41 academic year, and this lef t McEwen, Mooers, Smith, Fauley, and Jensen. In 1941-42 Lorlei Virginia Kershner (Violin) was added to the facult y and James Paul Kennedy returned from completing his Ph.D. at the Universit y of Iowa. Thus seven facult y began the 194142 academic year; they are shown in the following illustration. The same year saw America’s involvement in World War II. The Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, and the United States declared war on Japan the next d ay. Between Dec. 11 and 13 Germany and the A xis declared war on the United States, and America’s involvement was complete. The ca ll up of troops in this countr y began immediately, and it had a profound effect on the ma le population of the Universit y, facult y as well as student (See side bar in the following illustration). Miraculously enough, the number of music facult y remained constant throughout the war years, because facult y members who departed were replaced. 16  Kennedy was at that time on leave to pursue his doctorate. He returned in Fall 1941. Charles Church was also on leave, pursuing his doctorate. The 1941-42 catalogue shows the seven faculty in McEwen’s first year: McEwen, Kennedy, Jensen, Fauley, Smith, Kershner, and Mooers. 73


This is the facult y roster of 1944-45. Merrill McEwen (Chair) James Paul Kennedy (Keyboard/Chora l Conducting) My rtle Jensen (Keyboard/Chora l Conducting Leon Fauley (Voice) Maribeth Kitt (Orchestra l Conducting) [replacing Kershner] Marcella McEwen (Piano) [Part-Time] Arthur Zuelsk i (Band) [replacing Getchell and Church]

The differences across the war years appear to be minor (Kitt replaced Kershner; Marcella McEwen was added for one year; and the name Arthur Zuelsk i appears for the f irst time), but those years saw an upheava l in the band program. Robert Getchell was hired to replace Earl E . Smith as instrumenta l conductor in 1942-43 and part of his responsibilities was directing the band. However he was draf ted that Fa ll and so spent only a short time on campus. Charles Church stepped in to complete the year and stayed for the Spring and Fa ll of 1943. Church retired for good at the end of 1943, when, as the 194344 yearbook puts it, he “ lef t the Universit y and his South Main Street antique shop in midyear to begin new work in a Kansas Cit y radio Station.” 17 Arthur C. Zuelsk i succeeded Church in Spring 1944; at that time Zuelsk i held only a Bachelor’s degree from the Universit y of Cincinnati. 18 Tumultuous times indeed for the band program!

17  1943-44 Yearbook, p. 30. 18  Zuelski complete his master’s degree from the University of Michigan by 1949 and remained as Director of Bands until 1952. 74


The years immediately af ter the war saw an extraordinar y grow th in the number of music facult y. The year 1946-47 a lone saw the addition of eight new facult y (nine, if one counts Evely n Bird, parttime piano instructor). Here they are:

Seated: Emily Derrer, Myrtle Jensen, Wanda Pitman, Betty Troeger, Masako Ono. Standing: James Paul Kennedy, Arthur Zuelzke, Hadley Yates, Merrill McEwen (Chair), Warren Allen, William Alexander, Leon E. Fauley, Gerald McLaughlin

Another seven facult y were added in 1947-48 (George Wilson, part-time instructor in woodwinds, is not pictured):

75


And f ive more in 1948-49: R ichard Ecker (Woodwinds; Assistant Director of Bands); Da le Haven (Piano); Eston D. Krieger (Voice); and Ann Marley (Piano), bringing the tota l number of facult y to 20. 19 Thus, within the space of three years the facult y had a lmost tripled. It was to remain at approximately this level throughout the rest of McEwen’s tenure. This is the facult y of 1955-56, the last year of the McEwen years for which photographs are available.

Fourteen facult y are pictured, and two others, Alexander and Himmel, are not. Another two were still considered full-time facult y, Helen DeJager La kofsk y and Gera ld McLaughlin, a lthough they were not mentioned. Fina lly, there were seven part-time instructors who are a lso not mentioned: Harr y Boileau (Percussion); Leonora A. Cohen (Piano); Thomas Curtis (Organ); Francesco Di Blasi (Trumpet); Alice Ruihley (Piano?); Marius Fossenkemper (Woodwinds); and Mildred Pietschman (Firelands extension). It should be noted that three of the part-time facult y, Boileau, Di Blasi, and Fossenkemper, were specia lists in applied music and could provide private lessons in areas that were previously unavailable. It seems to have been one of McEwen’s goa ls to expand this area of the curriculum, as will be seen in the next section. Before leaving the topic of facult y, I would like to mention f ive individua ls in this roster of facult y assembled by McEwen. Some of 19  Some records add the name Barbara Matz for the 1948-49, although no specialization is given. 76


them people had long and distinguished careers at Bowling Green: William Alexander (1946-80), Warren Allen (1946-82), David Glasmire (1950-82), and Mildred Pietschman McCr ysta l (1953-77). 20 One other, Way ne Bohrnstedt, had a short tenure, but his inf luence is still with us. The focus here is on what teaching loads were like in the McEwen years. William Alexander had earned a B.S.M. from Mount Union College, and an M.S. from the Universit y of Ok lahoma and had studied violin with Mischa Mischa koff 21 and cello with Arthur Bachman by the time he came to the Universit y. He was hired as a string specia list with the specif ic responsibilit y of rebuilding the orchestra af ter the war, but as was the case with a ll facult y members in those days, Alexander had to be something of a genera list. In his f irst year, in addition to directing the orchestra, he natura lly covered String Class (Music 185186) and private lessons in string instruments (Music 181, 182, 281, 282, and 381-384). Perhaps not so natura lly, he a lso taught the full spectrum of Sight Singing and Ear Training (Music 101, 102, 201, 201), Notation and Theor y (Music 103) and Melody Writing and Elementar y Form (Music 104). This heav y course load eased in his second year, but he a lways carried some courses in Sight Singing and Ear Training, and, when Violin Class (187, 188) and Cello and Bass Class (Music 285) were added to String Class, he taught those as well. Thus his load encompassed courses that would now be divided among two of the three present departments: MuCT (Sight Singing and Ear Training, Theor y); and MusP (Orchestra, String Classes, Applied Violin). Oddly enough, he never taught any of the courses in Music Education listed in the cata logues of the McEwen years, a lthough, when the School of Music was divided into departments, he became a member of the Music Education department. Warren Allen had completed a Bachelor of Music from Southwestern College, Kansas, when he came to Bowling Green in 1946. Shortly thereaf ter (by 1948) he completed his Master of Music degree at the Universit y of Michigan, and at some point had studied with Martia l 20  Dates in parenthesis show years of service. Others—Wayne Bohrnstedt (1947-53), and Roy Weger (1953-66)—had shorter tenures at the University, but made significant contributions nonetheless and will be discussed elsewhere. 21  Mischakoff (1895-1981)was a leading concertmaster in Russia before emigrating in 1921 and coming to the United States. In this country he continued his career as a concertmaster, playing under Walter Damrosch, Leopold Stokowski, Arturo Toscanini, and Paul Paray. He also taught at Juilliard from 1940 to 1952. 77


Singher (Af ter hearing Singher sing Ravel, and remembering Allen’s performances, it is easy for one to hear the inf luence). 22 At Bowling Green he taught applied voice (Music 171, 172, 271, 272, 371-373) throughout his career. Also he assumed long-term responsibilit y for the two courses in Chora l Literature (Music 301, 311), which had previously been taught by James Paul Kennedy and, for 1945-46, by Sam Durrance. Thus Allen too had teaching assignments in two different areas, MusP and MuCH. He was a lways a f i xture in performances of large-sca le of works (e.g., Bach ’s Christmas Oratorio), and, when the school of Music assumed responsibilit y for opera performance in 1965, he undertook the baritone roles. David Glasmire came to Bowling Green in 1950, having just completed his Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees at the Cincinnati Conser vator y. The position that he applied for combined Universit y teaching with work in the elementar y and secondar y cit y public schools.. As a result the committee that inter viewed him had as one of its members James Grabill, who was the super vising teacher for instrumenta l music for Bowling Green from 1948 to 1968. He won the position—and glad to have it, he said—and from 1950 through Spring 1958 his position was ambiguous. His picture would sometimes appear among the full-time facult y in the yearbooks, or only his name appeared among the part-time facult y, or he would not appear at a ll in the cata logues and yearbooks. He was responsible, a long with Roy Weger and Francis Wilcox for teaching private lessons in the brass instruments, and he was a lso the instructor of the Large Brass Class. This part-time situation ended in 1958, when Francis Wilcox, who had been the full-time brass specia list, lef t the Universit y, and Glasmire replaced him. Glasmire had to ta ke over the courses that Wilcox taught, which meant private instruction in a ll the brass instruments: Trumpet, French Horn, Euphonium, Trombone, and Tuba. Glasmire continued as instructor of Large Brass Class, and for the year 1965-66, he and Louis Marini ser ved as emergency band directors between Roy Weger and Mark Kelly. 22  Martial Singher (1904-1990) was a French baritone who performed at the Paris Opera from 1930 until 1941. He came to the United States in 1941, and made his debut in 1943, remaining until 1959, when a heart condition forced his retirement from the stage. He then taught at the Mannes College of Music and the Curtis Institute, among others (Allen’s short biography says that he studied with Singher at the Juilliard School of Music). He later moved to California, where he served as artist in residence at UC Santa Barbara, and as director of the Music Academy of the West in Santa Barbara, where he succeeded Lotte Lehmann as head of the vocal department. 78


Bowling Green has, by and large, not made much use of its resident composers for the occasiona l music ever y institution needs: a lma maters, f ight songs, marches, etc. There were only two exceptions. 23 Homer Williams had asked Ernest Hesser to compose a college song, but it fell by the wayside shortly af ter Hesser lef t. The other exception is much more important. Wayne Bohrnstedt completed his bachelor and masters degrees before coming to Bowling Green in 1947, part of the second wave a facult y members McEwen hired af ter the war, and he worked on his doctorate at the Universit y of Rochester while teaching here, study ing with Howard Hanson. His teaching responsibilities included elementar y theor y (Sight Singing, Ear Training, Elementar y Form and Melody Writing), Modern Music, Orchestration, Composition, and Piano. In 1948 the Board of Trustees asked him to compose a f ight song for athletic events, and the piece is still with us, For ward Fa lcons, a lasting legacy if ever y there was one. A piano arrangement made by Bohrnstedt is included in the appendix. In 1953 he lef t for Redlands CA where he remained for the rest of his career. In 1946 extension programs were initiated at Sandusk y Ohio, and music became one of the programs in 1953, when Mildred Pietschman McCr ysta l was hired as the music instructor. 24 She came to Bowling Green af ter completing a B.S. in Education at Ohio State Universit y and remained as Instructor at the Sandusk y Branch (later Firelands Campus) until her death in 1977. Glasmire describes her as “The Lady with the Hats” in this poignant recollection. Mildred Pietschman McCr ysta l. She was one of t he f irst ladies I got to k now in t he music education depar tment when we came to Bowling Green because I became active in OMEA at t hat time and she was t he director of ar ts music in Sandusk y. We used to a lways ca ll her “t he lady w it h hats.” She wore hats any where she went. Bless her hear t! She was at an OMEA Convention years ago and went stepping of f a curb and somebody hit her and she died.

23  Recently an alumnus of Bowling Green, Ryan Nowlin, has been commissioned to write several works in his position as staff arranger for the BGSU Falcon Marching Band. 24  There was also a Mansfield extension program, and the music instructor was Hamer Mitchell. However music’s involvement in it was short lived. Mitchell was on the faculty for the 1957-58 academic year only, and he was not replaced. 79


Classes and Degree Programs Unlike Tunnicliffe, McEwen never seems to have recorded his ideas about music education and the direction of the Department. As a result, we have only his achievements to judge by. These show that he wanted to continue the work begun by Tunnicliffe in course development, curriculum expansion, and elevation of the Department to nationa l status. A step in this direction occurred in 1947, when the Department became a member of the Nationa l Association of Schools of Music (NASM), and thus committed itself to the series of periodic qua lit y reviews for adherence to nationa l programmatic norms. A second step, mentioned before, was McEwen’s success in securing approva l for the Ha ll of Music. This facilit y was much enlarged over the Practica l Arts Building rooms and a llowed for improved instruction at a ll levels.

Classes Each of the cata logues for both the Tunnicliffe and the McEwen years contains a complete list of courses offered by the department, the credit they carr y, and the semesters in which they are offered. Also, for the McEwen years, the cata logue gives a short list of instructors, their rank, and the courses they taught, ver y va luable pieces of information not provided in the Tunnicliffe inventories. The following is a series of tables showing course inventories for signif icant points in McEwen’s period as Chairman. They can be compared with one another to show the overa ll changes during the period, and used as references for the discussion that follows them. COURSE INVENTORY 1942-43 MUSIC Associate Professors McEwen (Chairman), Kennedy; Assistant Professor Fauley; Instructors Getchell, Jensen, Kershner, Mrs. Mooers, Smith. COURSES IN THEORY, HISTORY, AND APPRECIATION *101 *102 *103 *104 80

Sight Singing and Ear Training (2 cr., 1st sem.) Sight Singing and Ear Training (2 cr., 2nd sem.) Notation and Theory (2 cr., 1st sem.) Melody Writing and Elementary Form (2 cr., 2nd sem.)

Kershner Kershner Kershner Kershner


COURSE INVENTORY 1942-43 (cont.) *201 *202 *205 *206 241 242 *301 *302 *303 *304 *305 *306 *307 *311 *312 *315 *316 *317

Sight Singing and Ear Training Sight Singing and Ear Training Harmonic Analysis Advanced Form and Analysis General Music General Music Choral Literature Choral Literature Harmony Harmony History/Appreciation History/Appreciation Conducting Choral Literature Choral Literature Instrumentation Advanced Harmony and Original Composition Music Appreciation

(2 cr., 1st sem.) (2 cr., 2nd sem.) (2 cr., 1st sem.) (2 cr., 2nd sem.) (2 cr., 1st sem., .Summer) (2 cr., 2nd sem.) (1 cr., 1st sem.) (1 cr., 2nd sem.) (2 cr., 1st sem.) (2 cr., 2nd sem.) (2 cr., 1st sem.) (2 cr., 2nd sem.) (1 cr., 1st sem.) (1 cr., 1st sem.) (1 cr., 2nd sem.) (2 cr., 1st sem.)

Kershner Kershner Jensen Jensen Staff Staff Kennedy Kennedy Kennedy Kennedy Jensen Jensen Getchell Kennedy Kennedy Getchell

(2 cr., 2nd sem.) (2 cr., 1st sem., Summer)

Kennedy McEwen

COURSES IN MUSIC EDUCATION 203 204 313 314 351 352 353 355

Introduction to Public School Music Introduction to Public School Music Special Problems Special Problems Teaching of Music Methods in Music Appreciation Methods in Elementary Music Methods in Secondary Music

(1 cr., 1st sem.) (1 cr., 2nd sem.) (1cr., 1st sem.) (1cr., 2nd sem.) (2 cr., 1st sem., Summer) (2 cr., 2nd sem.) (2 cr., 1st sem.) (2 cr., 1st sem.)

McEwen McEwen Fauley Fauley Fauley McEwen McEwen Fauley

COURSES IN APPLIED MUSIC Fees—A fee of $20.00 per semester is charged for each course in Applied Music except Courses 281, 282, 381, and 382. A fee of $3.00 per semester for use of a piano six hours a week, and a fee of $5.00 each per semester for brass wind, wood wind, and stringed instruments is charged when provided by the University. Fees for practice on the University Organ are $10 per semester for 6 hours a week for University students taking organ for credit, 25 cents per hour of practice for all others. Credit Requirements—The amount of Applied Music required for students in Public School Music varies from 12 to 18 hours, depending upon ability and previous training. Other students may elect courses in Applied Music with the approval of the chairman of the department and the dean. 81


COURSE INVENTORY 1942-43 (cont.) Instruction—The basis for instruction in all Applied Music except Courses 281, 282, 381, and 382 is the half hour individual lesson. Work is graded according to the proficiency and experience of the student, and involves both technical study and standard performance literature. For student of Public School Music, attention is given to such special professional requirements as playing accompaniments and rhythms, and the proper use of the singing voice for teaching in the elementary and secondary schools. Practice—A minimum of six hours of practice per week is required in piano and violin. In voice, three to five hours practice per week is required. Student Recitals—Student recitals are held at regular intervals. *161—Piano (1) Jensen, Kennedy (1, 2) *162—Piano (1) Jensen, Kennedy (1, 2) *261—Piano (1) Jensen, Kennedy (1, 2) *262—Piano (1) Jensen, Kennedy (1, 2) *361—Piano (1) Jensen, Kennedy (1, 2) *362—Piano (1) Jensen, Kennedy (1, 2) *363—Piano (1) Jensen, Kennedy (1, 2) *364—Piano (1) Jensen, Kennedy (1, 2)

*171—Voice (1) *172—Voice (1) *271—Voice (1) *272—Voice (1) *371—Voice (1) *372—Voice (1) *373—Voice (1) *374—Voice (1)

Fauley, Mooers (1, 2) Fauley, Mooers (1, 2) Fauley, Mooers (1, 2) Fauley, Mooers (1, 2) Fauley, Mooers (1, 2) Fauley, Mooers (1, 2) Fauley Mooers (1, 2) Fauley, Mooers (1, 2)

*281—Brass Wind (½) Getchell (1) *282—Wood Wind (½) Getchell (1) *381—Stringed Instruments (½) Kershner (1) *382—Stringed Instruments (½) Kershner (2) *383—Violin (1) Kershner Not open to beginners. (1, 2) *384—Violin (1) Kershner A continuation of Music 383. (1, 2) *385—Violin (1) Kershner A continuation of Music 384. (1, 2) *386—Violin (1) Kershner A continuation of Music 385. (1, 2) *387—Trumpet or Other Valve Instrument (1) Getchell Not open to beginners. (1, 2) *388—Trumpet or Other Valve Instrument (1) Getchell A continuation of Music 387. (1, 2) 390—Organ (1) Jensen For those with keyboard proficiency with the approval of the chairman of the department and the university organist. (1, 2) 391—Organ (1) Jensen A continuation of Music 390. (1, 2) 392—Organ (1) Jensen A continuation of Music 391. (1, 2) 393—Organ (1) Jensen A continuation of Music 392. (1, 2) 82


COURSE INVENTORY 1942-43 (cont.) MUSICAL ORGANIZATIONS The musical organizations listed below are open to all students of the University with the necessary musical ability. Credit is given for participation in these organizations according to the following regulations. 1. No credit is allowed for the first two semesters of participation in any organization. 2. Credit thereafter shall be one half (½) hour per semester for each organization. 3. Not more than four hours of credit earned in this way can be applied to any degree. Band..................................................... Getchell Chorus................................................. McEwen Men’s Glee Club................................. Fauley13 13  As was seen above, 1942-43 was the year in which the Men’s Glee Club and the Varsity Quartet were forced to disband.

COURSE INVENTORY 1946-47 MUSIC Professor McEwen (Chairman); Associate Professor Kennedy; Assistant Professors Allen, Fauley, Jensen, Yates; Instructors Alexander, Ono, Pitman, Troeger, Zuelzke; Mrs. Derrer, Mr. McLaughlin COURSES IN THEORY, HISTORY, AND APPRECIATION *101 *102 *103 *104 *201 *202 *205 *206 241 242 *301 *303 *304 *305 *306 *307 *311

Sight Singing Ear Training Notation and Theory Melody Writing and Elementary Form Sight Singing and Ear Training Sight Singing and Ear Training Harmonic Analysis Harmony General Music General Music Choral Literature Harmony Analysis of Form History/Appreciation History/Appreciation Conducting Choral Literature

(2 cr., 1st sem.) Alexander (2 cr., 2nd sem.) Alexander (2 cr., 1st sem.) Alexander (2 cr., 2nd sem.) Alexander (2 cr., 1st sem.) Alexander (2 cr., 2nd sem.) Alexander (2 cr., 1st sem.) Jensen (2 cr., 2nd sem.) Jensen (2 cr., 1st sem., .Summer) Staff (2 cr., 2nd sem., Summer) Staff (1 cr., 1st sem.) Allen (2 cr., 1st sem.) Jensen (2 cr., 2nd sem.) Jensen (3 cr., 1st sem.) Jensen (3 cr., 2nd sem.) Jensen (1 cr., 1st sem.) Zuelzke (1 cr., 1st sem.) Allen 83


COURSE INVENTORY 1946-47 (cont.) *315 *316 *317 *318 *319

Instrumentation Composition Music Appreciation Symphonic Literature Symphonic Literature

(2 cr., 1st sem.) (2 cr., 2nd sem.) (2 cr., 1st, , 2nd sem.) (1 cr., 1st sem.) (1cr., 2nd sem.)

McEwen Kennedy McEwen Kennedy Kennedy

COURSES IN MUSIC EDUCATION 203 Introduction to Public School Music (1 cr., 1st sem.) McEwen 204 Introduction to Public School Music (1 cr., 2nd sem.) McEwen 313 Special Problems (1cr., 1st sem.) Fauley 314 Special Problems (1cr., 2nd sem.) Fauley 351 Teaching of Music (2 cr., 1st sem.) Fauley 352 Methods in Music Appreciation (2 cr., 2nd sem.) McEwen 355 Methods in Secondary Music (2 cr., 1st sem.) Fauley 357 Methods and Materials in Instrumental Music (2 cr., 2nd sem.) Zuelzke COURSES IN APPLIED MUSIC Fees—A fee of $20.00 per semester is charged for each course in Applied Music except Courses 125, 135, 145, 185, and 186. A fee of $3.00 per semester for use of a piano six hours a week, and a fee of $5.00 each per semester for brass wind, wood wind, and stringed instruments is charged when provided by the University. Fees for organ practice are $10 per semester for 6 hours a week for University students taking organ credit, 25 cents per hour of practice for all others. Credit Requirements—The amount of Applied Music required for students in Public School Music varies from 12 to 18 hours, depending upon ability and previous training. Other students may elect courses in Applied Music with the approval of the chairman of the department and the dean. Instruction—The basis for instruction in all Applied Music except Courses 125, 135, 145, 185, and 186 is the half hour individual lesson. Work is graded according to the proficiency and experience of the student, and involves both technical study and standard performance literature. For student of Public School Music, attention is given to such special professional requirements as playing accompaniments and rhythms, and the proper use of the singing voice for teaching in the elementary and secondary schools. All courses except 125, 135, 145, 185, and 186 are offered on demand.

84


COURSE INVENTORY 1946-47 (cont.) Practice—A minimum of six hours of practice per week is required in piano and other instruments. In voice, three to five hours practice per week is required. Student Recitals—Student recitals are held at regular intervals.

*125—Percussion Class (1)........ Staff *135—Brass Class (1)................. Pitman *145—Woodwind Class (1)....... Zuelzke *185-86—String Class (2).......... Alexander

*131, *132, *231, *232, *331-334—Brass Instruments (1 each)................................................... Pitman *141, *142, *241, *242, *341-344—Woodwind Instruments (1 each)........................................ Zuelzke *161, *162, *261, *262, *361-362—Piano (1 each)............................... Jensen, Kennedy, Troeger, Yates *171, *172, *271, *272, *371-374—Voice (1 each).................................... Allen, Fauley, Kennedy, Ono *181, *182, *281, *282, *381-384—Stringed Instruments (1 each).... Alexander, Derrer, McLaughlin *191, *192, *291, *292, *391-394—Organ (1 each)..........................................................................Jensen

MUSICAL ORGANIZATIONS 100—Small Ensembles (1 a semester)

Staff

According to the talent available, small vocal and instrumental ensembles are formed under the supervision of the department. Admission is by try-out. May be taken more than once, but the total credit earned shall not exceed 4 hours. (1, 2) 200—Musical Organizations (½ a semester) The Band, Festival Chorus, under-class A Cappella Choir, upper class A Cappella Choir, Men’s Glee Club, Orchestra, and Treble Clef Club are open to all students of the University with the necessary musical ability. No credit is allowed for the first two semesters in any organization. Not more than four hours earned in this way can be applied to any degree. 300—Small Ensembles (1 a semester)

Staff

Similar to Music 100, but for juniors and seniors, may be taken more than once, but the total credit earned shall not exceed 4 hours. (1, 2)

85


COURSE INVENTORY 1956-57 MUSIC Professors McEwen (Chairman), Kennedy; Associate Professors Allen, Faulty, Haven, Himmel, Jensen, Spangler; Assistant Professors Alexander, Weger; Instructors Benstock, Ecker, H. Lakofsky**, Lietz, Wilcox; Part-Time Instructors Bauer, Boileau, Curtis, Glasmire, McLaughlin.

COURSES IN THEORY, HISTORY, AND APPRECIATION

101.* 102.* 103.* 104.* 107.* 108.* 201.* 202.* 205.* 206.* 211. 212. 301.* 303.* 304.* 305.* 309.* 311.* 315.* 316.* 317.* 318.* 319.* 320.*

Sight Singing And Ear Training. Sight Singing And Ear Training Notation And Theory. Harmony. Elementary Conducting And Terminology. Intermediate Conducting And Terminology. Sight Singing And Ear Training. Sight Singing And Ear Training. Harmony. Harmony. General Music. General Music Choral Literature. Counterpoint. Analysis Of Form History Of Music. Modern Music Choral Literature Instrumentation. Composition Music Appreciation Symphonic Literature. Symphonic Literature Band Arranging.

203. 352. 355. 357.

Introduction To Public School Music. Methods In Music Appreciation. Methods In Secondary Music. Instrumental Organization And Administration.

86

2; I. 2; Ii. 2; I. 2; Ii. 2; I 1; Ii 1; I. 1; Ii. 3; I. 3; Ii. 2; I, Ii. 2; Ii. 1; Ii. 2; I. 2; Ii. 3; I. 2; On Demand. 1; On Demand. 2; I. 2; On Demand. 2; I, Ii. 1; I. 1; On Demand. 2; On Demand.

Mr. Alexander Mr. Alexander Mr. Benstock Mr. Benstock Staff Staff Mr. Alexander Mr. Alexander Miss Jensen Miss Jensen Staff Staff Mr. Allen Mr. Kennedy Miss Jensen Miss Jensen Miss Jensen Mr. Allen Mr. Benstock Mr. Kennedy Mr. Mcewen Miss Jensen Miss Jensen Staff

COURSES IN MUSIC EDUCATION 2; Ii. Mr. Mcewen 2; I. Mr. Mcewen 2; On Demand. Mr. Fauley 2; Ii. Mr. Weger


COURSE INVENTORY 1956-57 (cont.) COURSES IN APPLIED MUSIC 125.* 135.* 136.* 147.* 185.* 187.* 246.*

PERCUSSION CLASS. SMALL PRASS CLASS LARGE BRASS CLASS. CLARINET AND FLUTE CLASS. HIGH STRING CLASS. LOW STRING CLASS OBOE AND BASSOON CLASS.

1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1.

Mr. Boileau Mr. Wilcox Mr. Glasmire Mr. Ecker, Mr. Weger Mr. Alexander Mr. Alexander Mr. Ecker

121,* 122,* 221,* 222,* 321-324.* 1 or 2. PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS. Mr. Boileau 131,* 132,* 231-234,* 331-334,* (1 each); 335-338,* (2 each). BRASS INSTRUMENTS. Mr. Glasmire, Mr. Weger, Mr. Wilcox. 141,* 142,* 241-244,* 341-344,* (1 each); 345-348,* (2 each). WOODWIND. Mr. Bauer, Mr. Ecker, Mr. Weger. 161-166,* 261-264,* 361-364,* (1 each); 365-368,* (2 each). PIANO. Mr. Haven, Miss Jensen, Mr. Kennedy, Mr. Lietz, Mr. Spangler. 171,* 172,* 271,* 272,* 371-374,* (1 or 2 each.) VOICE Mr. Allen, Mr. Fauley, Mr. Himmel 181-184,* 189,* 281-284,* 381-384,* (1 each); 385-388,* (2 each) STRING INSTRUMENTS. Mr. Alexander, Mr. Benstock, Mr. McLaughlin. 191,* 192,* 291,* 292,* 391-394.* 1 or 2 each ORGAN.

Mr. Curtis

100.* SMALL ENSEMBLES. 1 a semester; I, II. According to the talent available, small vocal and instrumental ensembles are formed under the supervision of the department. Admission if by try-out. May be taken more than once, but the total credit earned may not exceed 4 semester hours. Staff. 200.* MUSICAL ORGANIZATIONS. 1 a semester; I, II. The Concert Band, Marching Band, A Cappella Choir, Symphony Orchestra, and Treble Clef Club are open to all students of the University with the necessary musical ability. All credit earned in Music 200 will be placed on the student’s permanent academic record, but not more than 8 semester hours may apply toward degree requirements. Staff. 300.* SMALL ENSEMBLES. 1 a semester; I, II. Similar to Music 100, but for juniors and seniors. May be taken more than once, but the total credit earned may not exceed 4 semester hours. Staff. 87


COURSE INVENTORY 1956-57 (cont.) REQUIREMENTS CREDIT REQUIREMENT. Twenty-seven to twenty-nine semester hours of applied music are required for students in public school music. All courses in applied music, including Music 100, 200, 300, may be used to meet this requirement. INSTRUCTION. Study in applied music is offered in piano, voice, organ, and all orchestral and band instruments. All students enrolling in applied music courses for the first time are required to take a placement examination during registration week for purposes of classification based on ability and previous training. Studio class recitals will be held from time to time as deemed necessary by the instructor. Applied music students must pass satisfactorily an examination before a faculty committee at the end of the semester in order to receive full credit. RECITAL ATTANDANCE. Students majoring in music are required to attend a minimum of 12 concerts a semester. This includes student and faculty recitals and concerts, and the University Artist Series. For less than 12 concerts attended, one-half hour of general credit will be deducted from the student’s total credit hours; for less than 7 concerts attended, one hour of general credit will be deducted. MAJOR REQUIREMENTS. Students majoring in piano must have sufficient performing ability to begin with Music 261 or higher and must complete Music 364 for graduation. Students majoring in voice must complete Music 374 for graduation. Those majoring in violin must begin with Music 281 or higher and complete Music 388 for graduation. Students majoring in brass instruments must begin with Music 231 or higher and complete Music 338 for graduation. Those majoring in woodwind instruments must begin with Music 241 of higher and complete Music 324 for graduation. Students majoring in percussion must complete Music 324 for graduation. FEES A fee of $30 is charged for each semester hour of applied music, except in courses designated “class.” Students enrolled for applied music have access to practice rooms and equipment without charge, in accordance with the schedules and regulations determined by the Department of Music.

88


Academic Courses The inventories of courses from 1942-43 and 1946-47 are ver y much like the inventor y of 1940-41 and identica l to each other. They contained 22 courses in Theor y, Histor y, and Appreciation, and 8 courses in Music Education. By 1956-57 the number of academic course grew to 24, not ver y impressive itself, but embraced two courses in conducting and a course in Band Arranging. The Music Education courses had shrunk to four. There is now only one course in Introduction to Public School Music, the Specia l Problems courses and the Teaching of Music course have vanished, and the Instrumenta l Organization and Administration course has replaced Methods and Materia ls in Instrumenta l Music. Only one course remained una ltered: Methods in Music Appreciation. It was a course in which McEwen had a particular interest. In the tables, courses with asterisks were for music majors; those without were open to the students in the College of Education as well as music students. The Music Department had to provide instruction to those majors in the College of Education who, while not music majors, had to have some competence in music to fulf ill positions in the public schools (These were not the music students following the Public School Music Curriculum). The Genera l Music courses (241, 242) were aimed at such students. The course description reads as a list of sk ills necessar y for a non-specia list who is pressed into ser vice to give some musica l instruction in the public schools: “Fundamenta l musica l sk ills, reading by syllable, pitch and rhy thm dictation, music appreciation, song singing. Four hours a week.� They are sk ills that are covered in greater depth in classes for music majors. The College of Music still offers courses like these. Ensemble Courses It was during the McEwen years that ensembles must be considered under credit-bearing class offerings. As was seen above, in 1926-27 Tunnicliffe expressed the hope that the Treble Clef Club would be granted academic credit. Whether he limited this hope to the Treble Clef Club a lone, or whether he wanted credit for a ll the ensembles is unclear, but in any event he was unsuccessful. 89


Even his last year, ensembles were divided into two sorts, as the following description shows. 25 1940-41 A—ENSEMBLE SINGING Open to students in any depar tment of t he Universit y, but approva l of t he Head of t he Depar tment must be secured for registration in t he course. Required of music students. No credit. B—INSTRUMENTAL ENSEMBLE Registration must be approved by t he Head of t he Depar tment. Open to students w it h a reasonable amount of abilit y in play ing some instrument. No credit.

The voca l ensembles were recognized as a course, as is the fact that they were required of a ll music majors. For the instrumenta l ensembles, however, the play ing abilit y of participants was especia lly vague. Fina lly the descriptions do not simply ignore academic credit; they specif ica lly ban it. This situation changed early in McEwen’s period as Chair, but it was a slow process, whose pace could only have been discouraging to a ll involved. As can be seen above, the old distinction between “Ensemble Singing” and “Instrumenta l Ensemble” is gone, and credit is now given for these activities, a lthough with signif icant “regulations” (The fact that it appears in the 1942-43 cata logue implies that the work was done to secure it in the previous year at least). The “regulations” rea lly read as “restrictions.” They imply that some in the Universit y were still suspicious about granting credit for these activities. To be sy mpathetic to their concerns, it may have seemed that there was a danger that an excessive number of ensemble hours would be applied to a degree, and thus limit course work in major area courses and academic electives. This concern still dogged curricular considerations during my tenure. 25  90

1940-41 General Catalogue, pp. 162-63.


The amount of credit is ver y limited (½ hour per semester) and means that a student can usua lly earn only three credit hours towards the degree. If by chance a student ta kes more that three hours, only one addition hour, or two more semesters of ensemble participation, would count. Yet music students were required to participate in ensembles ever y semester of their program, and thus amass a minimum of eight credit hours. Fina lly, the ensembles listed are those later referred to as “ large ensembles.” Sma ll ensembles, or chamber groups, are not recognized at a ll. This situation remained in force throughout the war years, until the 1946-47 academic year. The section devoted to ensembles in the 1946-47 cata logue differs completely from that of the previous four years, and shows that work on modif y ing the ensemble policy had been under way over the war years.

1946-47 – MUSICAL ORGANIZATIONS 100 —Sma ll Ensembles (1 a semester)

Staf f

According to t he ta lent available, sma ll voca l and instrumenta l ensembles are formed under t he super v ision of t he depar tment. Admission is by tr y-out. Maya be ta ken more t han once, but t he tota l credit earned sha ll not exceed 4 hours. (1, 2) 200 —Musica l Organizations (½ a semester)

Staf f

The Band, Festiva l Chorus, under-class A Cappella Choir, upperclass A Cappella Choir, Men’s Glee Club, Orchestra, and Treble Clef Club are open to a ll students of t he Universit y w it h t he necessar y musica l abilit y. No credit is a llowed for t he f irst t wo semesters in any organization. Not more t han four hours earned in t his way can be applied to any degree. (1, 2) 300 —Sma ll Ensembles (1 a semester) Similar to Music 100, but for juniors and seniors, may be ta ken more t han once, but t he tota l credit earned sha ll not exceed 4 hours. (1, 2)

91


There is now a differentiation between sma ll ensembles and “Musica l Organizations” (i.e., large ensembles). All ensembles now carr y course numbers and, in the case of sma ll ensembles, ref lect class levels. Furthermore eight hours of sma ll ensembles can now be applied over the course of the degree. Evidence of the previous restrictions still appears, however. Although the credit hours for large ensembles has increased, they still carried no credit for the f irst year, and only four hours of credit for the sophomore, junior, and senior years apply to the degree. At the same time, music majors were still required to participate in these ensembles during their entire academic careers. Also, some of the terminolog y seems dated. The term “Festiva l Chorus” reca lls the earliest chora l ensemble during the Hesser years, and “Band ” does not describe the division between the Concert Band and the Marching Band. Fina lly, as long as the phrase “Musica l Organizations” was used to describe the large ensembles, there still would be the association of these activities with fraternities and sororities. 26 By McEwen’s last semester, most of the problems with the ensemble policy had been solved. A single course number was given to a ll large ensembles, while the sma ll ensembles differentiated between lowerlevel (Freshman/Sophomore) and upper-level (Junior/Senior) ensembles. The terminolog y more closely approaches the familiar names, large ensembles now carr y one hour of credit, and eight credit hours of large ensemble now apply toward the degree.

26  As I write this, Ohio State University has recently fired its Marching Band director for allowing “social activities” of a sort to continue. This action has been attacked by the Band alumni. Perhaps the concerns shown in the earlier treatment of ensembles at Bowling Green were justified. 92


1956-57 - MUSICAL ORGANIZATIONS 100.* SMALL ENSEMBLES. 1 a semester; I, II. According to t he ta lent available, sma ll voca l and instrumenta l ensembles are formed under t he super v ision of t he depar tment. Admission is by tr y-out. May be ta ken more t han once, but t he tota l credit earned may not exceed 4 semester hours. Staf f 200.* MUSICAL ORGANIZATIONS. 1 a semester; I, II. The Concer t Band, Marching Band, A Cappella Choir, Sy mphony Orchestra, and Treble Clef Club are open to a ll students of t he Universit y w it h t he necessar y musica l abilit y. A ll credit earned in Music 200 w ill be placed on t he student’s permanent academic record, but not more t han 8 semester hours may apply toward t he degree requirements. Staf f 300.* SMALL ENSEMBLES. 1 a semester; I, II. Similar to Music 100, but for juniors and seniors, may be ta ken more t han once, but t he tota l credit earned may not exceed 4 hours. Staf f.

To see the magnitude of the changes compare this table with the one from 1940-41. Some modif ications still needed to be made, especia lly dividing large ensembles into upper and lower levels, and assigning separate course numbers to each of the large ensembles. But, given what McEwen had accomplished, these were cosmetic changes that could be underta ken later.

Applied Music Of particular interest in the 1942-43 inventor y is the statement that “The basis for instruction in a ll Applied Music except Courses 281, 282, 381, and 382 is the ha lf hour individua l lesson.” The four excepted were those in brass, woodwinds, and strings, and in those cases the basis for instruction was the instrumenta l class. There were no private lessons available in woodwinds, viola, cello, or string bass. Private instruction in brass instruments was limited to the va lve instruments— i.e., not trombone—a lthough Earl Smith would have to have been hard pressed to cover individua l lessons in trumpet, baritone horn, tuba, and French horn with equa l facilit y. Yet McEwen seems to have hoped to ma ke good on the claim that the ha lf hour individua l lesson was the basis of instruction. Sma ll 93


changes in the 1944-45 cata logue ref lect this. Mooers had retired in 1943 and Kennedy replaced her in teaching Applied Voice. Lorlei Virginia Kershner had responsibilities in teaching applied violin, and a lthough she was on leave of absence in 1945-46 (she did not return), her duties were ta ken over by Maribeth Kitt including aura l sk ills as well as applied violin and the orchestra. Also, separate course numbers had been created for Applied Organ (390-393), a ll for one credit and a ll taught by Jensen. On the other hand, Earl Smith lef t the Universit y in 1942, and, a lthough the brass classes were continued in the cata logue, no one replaced him as instructor. There was never a problem with piano, voice, or organ. Individua ls who specia lized in those areas, and course numbers for which the students could register, were a lways available. Other wise there was a heav y reliance on the instrumenta l class, and even where private lessons were available, they were in the hands of a single individua l who had to cover a ll the instruments of a given t y pe. For instance, in the 1946-47 inventor y, Wanda Pitman had to cover private lessons in a ll the brass instruments, and Zuelsk i had the same responsibilit y in the woodwind area. In short, there were, for the most part, no specia lists in individua l instruments. This has begun to change in 1956-57. There are f iner distinctions in the instrumenta l class, e.g., between sma ll and large brass instruments, single and double reed woodwinds, and between high and low strings. Private lessons a lso began to be taught by specia lists. Harr y Boileau was a percussion player, Alexander could return to violin, and Seymour Benstock was a cellist. The drawback here was that there was never suff icient student enrollment to justif y a full-time facult y position in private lessons a lone. Persons could be hired with these sk ills, but had to be able cover other aspects of the curriculum too. Thus, most of the applied instructors were part-time facult y, or persons who, like Gera ld McLaughlin, drif ted between full- and parttime status. Full-time specia lists in individua l instruments would become a rea lit y in the Kennedy years.

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Degree Programs Music Education Prior to 1946, the Department offered a Bachelor’s degree in Public School Music through the College of Education and a music minor within the College of Libera l Arts. The Bachelor in Music Education under went signif icant expansion during the McEwen years. By McEwen’s last year, the Music Education curriculum had been completely revised. Hardly a trace of the earlier programs can be seen. MUSIC (PUBLIC SCHOOL CUR R ICULUM) 1956-57 First Year First Semester

Second Semester

Applied music.................................... 2

Applied music.................................... 2

English 101. . ....................................... 3

English 102 . . ...................................... 3

Music 101, 103...................................... 4

Music 102, 104 . . ................................. 4

Music 200............................................. 1

Music 200........................................... 1

Science or mathematics elective. . ......... 3

Psycholog y 101................................... 1

Health-Physical Ed. 101....................... 1

Social studies elective........................ 2

14

Health-Physical Ed. 102..................... 1

17

Second Year First Semester

Second Semester

Applied music.................................... 2

Applied music.................................... 2

Minor applied music class . . ................ 1

English literature elective.................. 3

Music 107, 201, 205.. ........................... 5

Minor applied music class . . ................ 1

Music 200........................................... 1

Music 108, 202, 203, 206.................... 7

Psycholog y 104................................... 3

Music 200........................................... 1

Speech 102 . . ........................................ 3

Health-Physical Ed. 202..................... 1

Health-Physical Ed. 201..................... 1 16

15 95


MUSIC (PUBLIC SCHOOL CUR R ICULUM) 1956-57 First Semester

Third Year Second Semester

Applied music.................................... 2

Applied music.................................... 2

Minor applied music class . . ............... 1

Minor applied music class . . ............... 1

Music 303, 305, 315............................ 7

Music 301, 304, 306, 357.................... 8

Music 318, 352.................................... 3

Music 200........................................... 1

Music 200........................................... 1

Music elective .. .................................. 1

Social studies elective........................ 3 17

Science Elective*................................ 3

16

*Recommended elect ive, Physics 350.

Fourth Year First or Second Semester First or Second Semester Applied music.................................... 2 Music 200........................................... 2

Semester of professional concentration, including student teaching

Social studies electives. . ..................... 6 Electives (non-music). . ....................... 5 15

15

The ‘ four choices’ mentioned in the introductor y paragraphs are given in the following table. There are actua lly f ive choices, if the double major mentioned in the closing paragraph is seen as a separate option. The cata logue is describing a hierarchy: Degree (Bachelor of Science); Major Field (Music Education); and Specia lization (the different choices).

96


ALTER NATIVE PROGR AMS IN MUSIC EDUCATION Public School Music— 4 options 1. Vocal Major with Instrumental Minor

This curricu lum w i l l include t he fol low ing: Applied music a nd voice a nd/or pia no w it h no less t ha n 14 semester hours of credit. Minor applied music classes w it h no less t ha n 4 semester hours of credit which must include Music 185 or Music 186. Music 20 0 w it h no less t ha n 7 semester hours of credit in chora l groups a nd 1 hour in Marching Ba nd. Voca l emphasis in student teaching.

2. Instrumental Major with Vocal Minor This curricu lum w ill include t he follow ing:

Applied music w it h no less t ha n 14 semester hours of credit in a n instrument approved by t he instructor upon proof of a required degree of prof icienc y for major study a nd 4 hours of credit in pia no or to grade four, whichever is reached f irst.

Students in t his curricu lum who major in pia no w i l l ta ke not less t ha n 4 semester hours of credit in private study on a not her instrument approved by t he instructor.

Minor applied music classes w it h no less t ha n 6 semester hours of credit which must include Music 171 a nd Music 185 or 187.

Students who major in t his curricu lum are not required to ta ke Music 352.

Music 20 0 for w ind a nd percussion players w it h no less t ha n 7 semester hours of credit in ba nd a nd one in a chora l group. Music 20 0 for string players w it h no less t ha n 7 semester hours of credit in orchestra a nd 1 hours in a chora l group.

It is expected t hat qua lif ied w ind and percussion players w ill elect some orchestra experience.

Instrumenta l emphases in student teaching.

97


ALTER NATIVE PROGR AMS IN MUSIC EDUCATION 3. Voca l Major w it h Academic Minor This curricu lum w ill prov ide for t he substitution of academic subjects for t he follow ing music courses: Music 20 0, 1 hour (for Marching Ba nd); Music 315, 2 hours;

Music 357, 2 hours.

No minor applied music classes w i l l be required in t his curricu lum. Student teaching experiences w i l l include voca l a nd academic subjects.

4. Instrumenta l Major w it h Academic Minor This curricu lum w ill prov ide for t he substitution of academic subjects for t he follow ing music courses:

Music 20 0, 1 hour (for chora l group); Music 203, 2 hours; Music 301, 1 hour.

Applied music (voice) 1 hour.

Student teaching experiences w i l l include instrumenta l a nd academic subjects.

Double Major. Students interested in a double major (voca l and instrumenta l) shou ld consu lt w it h t he depar tment chairman for information concerning t he requirements. Such a program w ill ordinarily require a time expenditure of more t han nine semesters.

Moreover, it was possible to carr y, within the Music Education major, a minor in either Instrumenta l or Voca l Music, and the cata logue a lso describes this:

98


Music. Major: See specia l curriculum, [given above]. Minor—Instrumental: First year, Music 101, 102, 103, 104, 107, 108; applied music in instruments, 2 semester hours. Second year, Music 203, 205, 206; applied music in instruments, 1 semester hour. Third or fourth year, Music 305, 306, 355. (Tota l, 27 semester hours). Minor—Vocal: First year, Music 101, 102, 103, 104, 107, 108; applied music in piano, voice, or both, 2 semester hours. Second year, Music 205. Third or fourth year, Music 305, 306, 355. (Tota l, 24 semester hours). Students interested in a minor in either instrumenta l or voca l music should consult the chairman of the Music Department with reference to prof iciency requirements established by the State Department of Education. Students who do not meet these standards will be required to ta ke additiona l courses in applied music. For a statement of fees for courses in applied music see Applied Music under the Department of Music in Description of Courses.

Liberal Arts By contrast the music options within the College of Libera l Arts were much simpler in structure. 27 The College of Libera l Arts was given de facto recognition in 1929, when the State of Ohio authorized the Boards of Trustees at both Bowling Green and Kent State Colleges to establish courses leading to the Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees. From 1929 to 1935, the necessar y libera l arts courses were set up within the College of Education. In 1935 the College of Libera l Arts and the College of Business Administration were established, a long with a Graduate College offering a Masters of Arts degree, a lthough this did not affect music.

27  This information is drawn from A History of Bowling Green State University: A Preliminary Draft, written by the Graduate Students in Education 525, Bowling Green State University (Bowling Green, Ohio, Summer, 1938), pp. 55 ff. 99


The Bachelor of Arts degree required 122 credit hours and had three components: 66 hours of Genera l Studies (54%); a Major of 2832 credit hours (23-26%); and a Minor of 18-24 credit hours (15-20%). 28 The requirements among the Genera l Studies were most detailed of the three: GENER AL STUDIES R EQUIR EMENTS English

12 credits

Foreign Lang uages

18 credits (included bot h high school and college courses)

Mat hematics and Science

14 credits

Socia l Sciences, Psycholog y, Philosophy

12 credits

TOTAL

66 credits

Detailed requirements for majors and minors varied by department. The following is the list of requirements for the Music Minor from the 1930-31 cata logue. Sixteen hours in Aura l Sk ills and Music Theor y were required, and were to be ta ken in the f irst two years. The remaining two to eight hours were electives ta ken in the third and fourth years. MUSIC MINOR 1930-46 (18-24 credits) First year

Music 61

Sight Singing/Ear Training I

2 credits

Music 62

Sight Singing/Ear Training II

2 credits

Music 81

Notation and Theor y

2 credits

Music 82

Melody Writing/Elementar y Form

2 credits

Second Year

Music 63

Sight Singing/Ear Training III

2 credits

Music 64

Sight Singing/Ear Training IV

2 credits

Music 83

Harmonic Ana lysis

2 credits

Music 84

Advanced Form and Ana lysis

2 credits

28  Clearly these numbers are approximations and have considerably leeway built in. As it stands, the only way to achieve 122 hours, or 100 %, is to take the required General Studies and the maximum number of hours in the major and minor. 100


MUSIC MINOR 1930-46 (18-24 credits) Third Year

Elective Four t h Year Elective

Electives (4-10 tota l hours) to be chosen from Music:

65- 66

Chora l Literature I, II

1 credit each

67- 68

Chora l Literature III, IV

1 credit each

85-86

Harmony I, II

87

Advanced Harmony/Counterpoint

88

Conducting

91

Histor y/Appreciation I

2 credits

92

Histor y/Appreciation II

2 credits

2 credits each 2 credits 1 credit

Applied Music Students who w ish to of fer credits in Applied Music must obtain permission from t he head of t he depar tment and t he amount of credit a llowed w ill be determined by t he abilit y and advancement of t he student.

Although the course numbers changed, the subject matter covered in the Music Minor remained relatively constant throughout the Tunnicliffe years and well into McEwen’s tenure. A comparison of the following table with the one above will show how much the music minor of 1956-57 resembles the one from 1930-31, and how much has changed, especia lly the tota l number of hours required.

101


MUSIC MINOR 1930-31 (27+ credits) First year

Music 101

Sight Singing/Ear Training I

2 credits

Music 102

Sight Singing/Ear Training II

2 credits

Music 103

Notation and Theor y

2 credits

Music 104

Harmony

2 credits

Elementar y Conducting and

2 credits

Intermediate Conducting and

1 credits

Second Year

Music 107

Terminolog y

Music 108

Terminolog y

Music 205

Harmony

3 credits

Music 206

Harmony

3 credits

Third Year

Music 303

Harmony III

2 credits

Music 304

Ana lysis of Form

2 credits

Music 305

Histor y/Appreciation I

3 credits

Music 306

Histor y/Appreciation II

3 credits

Applied Music Four t h Year

Electives in music and applied music

A student minoring in music must ta ke a minimum of 8 semester hours in applied music. It is expected t hat a ll or most of t his minimum requirements w ill be in piano.

The f irst change in the Libera l Arts options is found in the 194647 cata logue, where the Libera l Arts Music Major ma kes its f irst appearance. The Music Minor ser ved as the basis of the new program, to which the Major made severa l changes and additions.

102


MUSIC MAJOR 1946-47 (28-32 credits) First year

Music 101

Sight Singing/Ear Training I

2 credits

Music 102

Sight Singing/Ear Training II

2 credits

Music 103

Notation and Theor y

2 credits

Music 104

Melody Writing/Elementar y Form

2 credits

Applied Music

Second Year

Music 205

Harmony I

2 credits

Music 206

Harmony II

2 credits

Applied Music

Third Year

Music 303

Harmony III

2 credits

Music 304

Ana lysis of Form

2 credits

Music 305

Histor y/Appreciation I

3 credits

Music 306

Histor y/Appreciation II

3 credits

Applied Music

Four t h Year

Music 307

Conducting

1 Credit

Music 315

Instrumentation

2 credits

Music 318

Sy mphonic Literature I

1 credit

Music 319

Sy mphonic Literature II

1 credit

Applied Music

Twent y-seven credit hours are required in the major, leaving one to f ive hours of electives. The four courses in Chora l Literature are gone from the list of requirements; they have been replaced by two onecredit courses, now available as electives. Conducting, Instrumentation, and two courses in Symphonic Literature have been added as requirements, clearly ref lecting McEwen’s interest in instrumenta l music. By McEwen’s last year, the College of Libera l Arts offered two different majors in music: Music Theor y and Applied Music. 103


MUSIC THEORY MAJOR 1956-57 First year

Music 101

Sight Singing/Ear Training I

2 credits

Music 102

Sight Singing/Ear Training II

2 credits

Music 103

Notation and Theor y

2 credits

Music 104

Melody Writing/Elementar y Form

2 credits

Applied Music in Piano

Second Year Music 107

Elementar y Conducting and Terminolog y

2 credits

Music 108

Intermediate Conducting and Terminolog y

1 credits

Music 205

Harmony I

3 credits

Music 206

Harmony II

3 credits

Applied Music in Piano

Third Year

Music 301

Chora l Literature

1 credit

Music 303

Counterpoint

2 credits

Music 304

Ana lysis of Form

2 credits

Music 305

Histor y of Music

3 credits

Music 306

Modern Music

2 credits

Applied Music in Piano

Four t h Year

Music 315

Instrumentation

2 credits

Music 318

Sy mphonic Literature I

1 credit

Music 319

Sy mphonic Literature II

1 credit

Applied Music in Piano

It w ill usua lly require 8 semester hours in piano to meet t he requirements for a major in music t heor y. In some cases it may require more, or less, according to t he technica l prof icienc y of t he student. A description of t hese standards may be obtained from t he chairman of t he depar tment.

104


APPLIED MUSIC MAJOR 1956-57 First year

Music 101

Sight Singing/Ear Training I

2 credits

Music 102

Sight Singing/Ear Training II

2 credits

Music 103

Notation and Theor y

2 credits

Music 104

Melody Writing/Elementar y Form

2 credits

Applied Music in chosen instrument or voice

Second Year Music 107

Elementar y Conducting and Terminolog y

2 credits

Music 108

Intermediate Conducting and Terminolog y

1 credits

Music 205

Harmony I

3 credits

Music 206

Harmony II

3 credits

Applied Music in chosen instrument or voice Third Year

Music 301

Chora l Literature

1 credit

Music 303

Counterpoint

2 credits

Music 304

Ana lysis of Form

2 credits

Music 305

Histor y of Music

3 credits

Music 306

Modern Music

2 credits

Applied Music in chosen instrument or voice

Four t h Year

Music 318

Sy mphonic Literature I

Applied Music in chosen instrument or voice

1 credit

The requirement for a major in applied music is 16 semester hours in voice or in one instrument.

105


Ensembles During the war years the number and t y pes of ensembles remained relatively constant, but the personnel directing them changed frequently. The following is a list of the ensemble directors as given in the Yearbooks and Cata logues from Fa ll 1941 through Spring 1946: ENSEMBLES AND THEIR DIR ECTORS, 1941 THROUGH 1946 1941-42 Band Smit h Chorus McEwen Men’s Glee Club

Fau ley

Orchestra Smit h Treble Clef Club

Kennedy

1942-43 Band Smit h Chorus McEwen Men’s Glee Club

Fau ley

Orchestra Smit h Treble Clef Club

Kennedy

1943-44 Band Getchell Chorus McEwen Men’s Glee Club

Fau ley

Orchestra Getchell Treble Clef Club

Kennedy

194 4-45 Band Chorus McEwen Men’s Glee Club

Fau ley

Orchestra Kershner Treble Clef Club 106

Kennedy


ItENSEMBLES seems to have beenTHEIR diff icult the Yearbooks and Cata logues AND DIRfor ECTORS, 1941 THROUGH 1946 1945-46 Band Zuelsk i Chorus Kennedy Men’s Glee Club

Kennedy

Orchestra Zuelzk i Treble Clef Club

Kennedy

to keep up with the rapid changes within the ensembles. The names given to the ensembles of ten do not correspond to their actua l names in practice, and the names of the ensemble directors are of ten not those of the actua l directors. The Men’s Glee Club continued to appear in the cata logue, despite the fact that it was disbanded af ter 1942-43. The term “Chorus” refers to the A Cappella Choir, a title that had existed since 1938. As for the bands and orchestra, Robert Getchell never got a chance to direct the bands (there were indeed two bands: Marching and Concert), and neither he nor Arthur Zuelsk i ever directed the orchestra. Instead the orchestra was disbanded af ter Spring 1945, was inactive for 1945-46, and reconstituted in Fa ll 1946, when it was directed by the newly hired William Alexander. Details are explained below.

107


CHORUSES

Treble Clef Club During the academic year 1940-41, Kennedy had ta ken a leave of absence to complete his doctorate, and Roy V. Hilt y, the Super vising Teacher for voca l music in the Bowling Green Public Schools, substituted as director. This was the only interruption in Kennedy’s position as director. Kennedy returned in 1941-42 and remained the director of the Treble Clef Club until 1957, completing a nearly 20-year tenure as conductor. The Treble Clef Club, because its membership was exclusively fema le, was relatively unaffected by the war. The only clear effect was that diff iculties in transportation, most likely gas rationing, made the multi-state tours impossible. The last such tour occurred in 194142, when the groups traveled through Ohio, Kentuck y, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Mar yland, and Washing ton DC. 29 Af ter that year, the Club had to settle for performances at loca l and regiona l venues, travelling only as far as Cleveland, until 1945-46, when regular touring resumed. Unlike the other chora l groups,, the membership of the Treble Clef Club swelled over the war years to 83 members in 1944-45 (It should be remembered that the group was composed exclusively of non-music majors.). And it continued to grow. According to the yearbook of 1945-46, 350 auditioned for the Club, of which 120 were chosen. These singers were divided into two groups, the Upper Class Treble Clef, and the Freshman Treble Clef. In Spring 1946, a competition was held to determine the sixt y-f ive singers who would participate in the tour to Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York. The following picture, ta ken from the 1945-46 yearbook, show the Treble Clef Club in the f ina l year of the war. But the ensemble, that had sur vived two World Wars, could not sur vive the death of Merrill McEwen. When Kennedy assumed the chair responsibilities in 1957, the Treble Clef Club disappeared suddenly and entirely from the cata logues and yearbooks. It was reborn as the Women’s Chorus in 1985. 29  108

The Club is pictured in the 1941-42 yearbook, where this tour is described on p. 131.


109


Men’s Glee Club/Varsity Quartet The beginning of the McEwen years and the effects of World War II forced many changes in the ensembles, especia lly those that replied on ma le participants. In particular, they signa led the end of Leon Fauley’s involvement in the chora l program and the ensembles he directed. Some of the saddest reading in the Yearbooks concerns the dissolution of the ma le voca l ensembles at the start of World War II. This is from the 1942 Yearbook. It contains the last recorded picture of Fauley as director of the Men’s Glee Club. Fauley may have been instrumenta l in reorganizing the Men’s Glee Club in Fa ll of 1945, but by Spring 1946, James Paul Kennedy was its conductor. It continued as a regularly offered ensemble until it was again disbanded in the mid 1950s. Af ter that it disappeared for 14 years, to be revived as the Men’s Chorus in 1971. Fauley taught applied voice and music education methods courses until his retirement in 1964.

110


As has been seen in the previous chapter, the Ma le Quartet, which had disappeared in the late 1920s, was reconstituted by Fauley in 1931 as part of the Men’s Glee Club. Known from at least 1938 as the Varsit y Quartet, it continued to perform until 1942-43. While the Men’s Glee Club reappeared af ter the war, the Ma le Quartet was never revived, a lthough the Barbershop Quartets established in the 1980s approximate the early quartet.

University Choir (University Chorus) In 1941 a new voca l ensemble appeared in the Yearbook, the Universit y Choir, later ca lled the Universit y Chorus. Actua lly this was not a new (additiona l) ensemble, but the renamed Mixed Chorus of 1927, which had been given the name A Cappella Choir in 1939. It initia lly boasted sixt y-f ive members, augmented by facult y members, and was directed by Merrill McEwen. Sometimes the membership was composed exclusive music majors, sometimes of both music and nonmusic majors. The war had a terrible effect on the Universit y Chorus, just as it had on other ensembles. This is the Chorus of 1941-42, the f irst year when membership was off icia lly opened to others outside the Music Department. Two years later in 1943-44, the number of singers was signif icantly reduced, the membership was exclusive fema le, and the Universit y Chorus had become the equiva lent of the Treble Clef Club. Fina lly, in 1944-45, the membership was reduced to twent y-f ive women, and the ensemble had virtua lly ceased to perform.

111


112


A Cappella Choir When veterans returned to Bowling Green in the Fa ll of 1945, the yearbook announced that “thought was given to a mixed chora l group. So the A Cappella Choir was organized the second semester [Spring 1946] under the direction of Dr. James Paul Kennedy.” This was not a new ensemble. It will be remembered that ”A Cappella” was the name Tunnicliffe gave to the Mixed Chorus in 1938. 30 It retained 30  There has always been considerable variety in the spelling of the name: it is one word or two? Are there two Ps and one l or one p and two Ls? What about capitalization? Sometimes, as here, two versions appear on the same page. 113


that name until 1941, when it became k nown as the Universit y Choir (or Chorus). That title was retained through the war years, at the end of which it had exclusively fema le members and was indistinguishable from the Treble Clef Club. When Kennedy revived it, he gave it the name it had carried under Tunnicliffe. It was still a selective ensemble. Under Tunnicliffe its membership was limited to music majors. Under Kennedy this restriction seems to have loosened. Membership was determined by competitive auditions, and it was expected that the group would be more selective than either the Men’s Chorus or the Treble Clef; it was to be the premier chora l ensemble on campus. This is the A Cappella Choir in 1945-46. 31

By 1946 Kennedy had responsibilit y for a ll choruses in the Department, and in 1948 he was given the title Director of Chora l Activities. Both the A Cappella Choir and the Treble Clef Club thrived over this period. The following two-page illustration from the 1956-57 yearbook shows the streng th of the chora l program.

31  114

1945-46 Yearbook, p. 147.


As will be seen, this situation would change abruptly with the death of McEwen in Fa ll 1957. Kennedy gradua lly gave up a ll of his conducting responsibilities, new facult y were hired as Directors of Chora l Activities, and the entire chora l area was reconf igured.

115


116


117


Instrumental Ensembles Orchestra The orchestra experienced a string of six conductors over the course of the McEwen years, shown in the following table. Earl E . Smith (1940-42) Lorlie Virginia Kershner (1942-43) Maribeth Kitt (1944-46) William Alexander (1946-48) Gera ld McLaughlin (1948-55) Seymour Benstock (1955-62)

The years following each name are the years the individua ls spent as conductor. Of course the position changed most quick ly during the war. In the years 1941-45 there were three conductors, none of whom held the position for more than two years. Earl Smith stayed only for McEwen’s f irst year. He was to have been replaced by Robert Getchell in 1942 as instrumenta l director (both band and orchestra). Of a ll of the large instrumenta l ensembles, the orchestra was most hard hit by the war, and nothing shows this more stark ly than two photographs of the orchestra, one from 1944-45, Maribeth Kitt’s f irst year at Bowling Green, and the second from 1946-47, William Alexander’s f irst year. Af ter the war the turnover in the position of conductor slowed. Alexander was conductor for two years, McLaughlin for seven, and Benstock, 118


who was hired in 1954 by McEwen but remained through the f irst part of Kennedy’s term, ser ved as conductor for seven years. Thus the leadership began to stabilize for a group that had experienced a great dea l of f lu x since its inception. In an inter view with Robert Thayer on May 1, 2003, William Alexander reca lled the reconstruction of the orchestra in 1946. Alexander was hired to rebuild the orchestra af ter Maribeth Kitt resigned in Spring 1946. I star ted w it h not hing. Actua lly t here was a lef tover, about seven, eight students. And t his was ver y cha llenging for me. So I got facu lt y members to play in my orchestra. Then I got in touch w it h fraternities, sororities. I had learned from t his chatting t hat, of tentimes, k ids came from schools where t hey’ d had orchestras. W hen t hey came to college, t hat was t he end of t heir orchestra interests. You k now, I don’t k now how I did it, but I ended up w it h an orchestra of 32 students. That wou ld include t he t hree [facu lt y] ringers. These k ids who were majoring in speech or business or somet hing or ot her, sent home for t heir f idd les, and t hey joined w it h us. Boy t hat was a tough year.

119


A ga l came on new on t he facu lt y just as I did [Bett y Troeger]. Charming girl. And she was a pianist. “If we ever develop an orchestra you might like to perform.� I worked on t he orchestra, and we gave our f irst concer t in t he mont h of, I t hink it must have been March (I got t here in September). We went on t he stage, and we opened w it h an over ture by Gluck, [t hen] Beet hoven’s First Sy mphony, t he whole t hing. Then we played t he f irst movement of t he Schumann Piano Concer to. Then we did an encore. I wa lked up on t he stage and t he audience applauded. We have an orchestra, a conductor!

It is impossible not to be moved by that last sentence! Alexander continued to conduct the orchestra for the next year, when he was replaced by Gera ld McLaughlin in 1948. This is the McLaughlin orchestra of 1950-51. Note the astonishing grow th in the size of the ensemble. The number of string players enabled McLaughlin to able to establish a separate string orchestra in 1951.

120


McLaughlin continued to conduct the orchestra until 1955, when he was succeeded by Seymour Benstock. Benstock had been a member of the Hartford Symphony Orchestra and both a student and an instructor at the Hartt School of Music, where he earned the f irst graduate degree awarded by Hartt School, a Master of Music in musicolog y with a thesis on Haydn’s String Quartets under Alfred Einstein. Further studies included work at New York Universit y with Curt Sachs and Gustave Reese, and a Ph.D. from Cambridge Internationa l Universit y in world musica l cultures. He was hired at Bowling Green as a cellist in 1954, and in 195556 he followed McLaughlin as conductor of the orchestra. He stayed on af ter McEwen’s death in 1957, resigning in Spring 1961. Among his other contributions, Benstock initiated a Pops Concert Series in 195657. a series of Children’s Concerts somewhat earlier, and the Universit y Chamber Orchestra in 1958. 32 The following picture of the orchestra in rehearsa l was ta ken af ter the Music Department moved to the Ha ll of Music in 1957. The rehearsa l is ta k ing place in the recita l ha ll of that building, and it appears that a young Paul Ma kara, who was hired in 1958, is ser ving as concertmaster. More will be said about Benstock in the next chapter.

32 

Benstock was also music editor for the Bowling Green Sentinel-Tribune. 121


Band Of a ll of the large ensembles, the band was least affected by the war. This was so because women were admitted into the marching band in 1942-43. This event is commemorated in the 1943 yearbook.

122


Thus, while the ma le voca l ensembles were destroyed and the orchestra was greatly reduced in size, the band was able to maintain its student enrollment throughout the war. Even as late as 1944-45, the band could boast of an enrollment of 45 students.

The greatest effect was on the position of director. Earl Smith directed the band from 1940 to 1942. Robert Getchell was hired to replace him, but led the band for only part of 1942, when he was draf ted and never returned to Bowling Green. The remainder of the Fa ll semester was in the hands of Jack Lawrence, the student director. Charles Church returned to direct the band during the ca lendar year 1943, but then lef t the Universit y for St. Louis, Missouri. He was followed by Arthur Zuelzke. At that point Zuelzke held only a Bachelor’s degree from the Universit y of Cincinnati, a lthough he later completed his Master’s degree from the Universit y of Michigan. He was the one who brought the band out of the war years, and he continued 123


to direct the ensemble until 1952. His other teaching responsibilities included conducting, methods courses in Instrumenta l Music, and any thing having to do with instruction in woodwind instruments. By 1948 the Band program had grown suff iciently that an Assistant Band Director was needed, and McEwen hired R ichard Ecker for this position a position he held until his death. Ecker had Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees from Ohio State and an Ed.D. from Arizona State College. In addition to his responsibilities as Assistant Band Director, he assisted in teaching conducting courses and taught the clarinet/ Flute and Oboe/Bassoon classes. The Music Education Department commemorates him in the “Dr. R ichard and Annette S. Ecker Award in Instrumenta l Music Education,” a book scholarship given to a full-time undergraduate student majoring in Music Education who is a member of Kappa Kappa Psi [co-educationa l band fraternit y] or Tau Beta Sigma [nationa l honorar y band sororit y].

124


Richard Ecker—1948- 65 In 1953 Roy Weger replaced Arthur Zuelzke as Director of Bands. Before coming to Bowling Green, Weger had been the band director in Durant Ok lahoma for twelve years, where he was responsible for teaching a ll the instruments, and where he amassed an impressive reputation for the excellence of his programs and the awards his ensembles received. His off icia l tenure at Bowling Green lasted from 1953-65, as long a period as that of Charles Church. Weger taught the music education course Instrumenta l Organization and Administration. He expanded the instrumenta l resources of the band, equipping it with upright tubas, in addition to the sousaphones used in the marching band. He a lso initiated the Annua l Band New Music Reading Clinic in 1957. Fina lly, he was responsible for establishing scholarships for wind player. David Glasmire relates the stor y: [Weger] cou ldn’t believe t hat no w ind player was on scholarship. And he became fairly acquainted w it h [President Ra lph] MacDona ld at t hat time. He went over to Dr. MacDona ld and made out a program of what we shou ld have in terms of building t he college of music student body. I’m not sure what t he monetar y va luation was but he came back w it h ten scholarships. 125


Roy Weger—1952-65

Summary of the McEwen Years Under McEwen the facult y grew from six in 1941 to twent y-f ive in 1955-56. This included seven part-time facult y members, si x of whom were assigned to applied music. It is clear that McEwen had as his goa l increasing the size of the applied facult y, and may have imagined a time when the Music Department would have a complete roster of fulltime applied music facult y, a lthough this was far in the future. With this increase in facult y members came an increase in courses and in degrees programs. When McEwen took over the department, there were 60 courses in the inventor y, divided equa lly between academic courses and applied music. In his last year, there were 124 courses, most of which were in the area of applied music (Only the Music Education courses saw a decline from eight courses to four). There were class methods courses in Percussion, Sma ll and Large Brass, Clarinet and Flute, Oboe and Bassoon, and High and Low Strings, each of which was taught by a specia list of some sort. There were a lso 87 126


classes in private instruction for one or two hours at the 100-300 levels. Fina lly there were three different levels of ensembles: sma ll ensembles (100/300) for freshman/sophomores, and for junior/seniors; and a single number for large ensembles (200), or Musica l Organizations. The large ensemble number itself contained f ive organizations: Concert Band, Marching Band, A Cappella Choir, Sy mphony Orchestra, and Treble Clef Club (The Men’s Glee Club had gone into hiatus). In McEwen’s last year, the Music Department was carr y ing out degree programs on two fronts. In the College of Education, there were four choices in Public School Music: Voca l Music with Instrumenta l Minor; Instrumenta l Major with Voca l Minor; Voca l Major with Academic Minor; and Instrumenta l Major with Academic Minor. To these was added the possibilit y of a double major. The College of Libera l Arts had its own degree programs, a Music Minor, and two majors, one in Music Theor y and another in Applied Music. This was a rich assortment of possibilities for the students. Yet it is hard not to view McEwen’s career as a torso, and to wonder what he might have accomplished, if he would have been given more time. Certainly he would have continued the grow th in the performance facult y by hiring specia lists in specif ic instruments. Benstock, for instance, was a cellist, and Glasmire was a trombonist, a lthough their teaching responsibilities were more wide-ranging. McEwen may have a lso instituted a Bachelor of Music degree whose ha llmark would have been an increase in the percentage of music hours devoted to the degree from 50% to 65%. But these are only speculations. It was lef t to James Paul Kennedy to continue this work.

127


128


VI. The Kennedy Years 1957-1975

James Paul Kennedy (1911-95) came to Bowling Green in 1936 as an Instructor in Music, one of four late facult y hires by Tunnicliffe. 13 By that time he had completed a Bachelor of Arts at William Penn College (1932), a Bachelor of Music Education and a Master of Music in Composition from Northwestern (1935), and had been a student at the Universit y of Southern Ca lifornia. He had a lso studied at the Tobias Matthay Pianoforte School in London (1937), and had been a student of Charles Griff ith, Arne Oldberg, Serevin Eisenberg, and Carl Beecher. He had ser ved a year as Professor of Piano and Theor y at Hiram College in Michigan (1935-36). Fina lly, he received his Ph.D. in Composition from the Universit y of Iowa in 1940. 14 Like McEwen, Kennedy’s career at Bowling Green is divided into two sections: One devoted to teaching, and the other to administration. During his teaching period (1936-57), Kennedy taught applied music (piano and voice), academic courses (theor y, chora l literature), and ensemble direction (Treble Clef Club, Universit y Chorus, Men’s Glee Club). During his administrative period (1957-75), he held the positions of Chair, School Director, and Dean.

13  The others were Myrtle Jensen (1938), Lois Collins, Earl Smith (both 1940), and Lorlei Virginia Kershner (began 1941 but hired the previous academic year). 14  This information was drawn from Bowling Green State University catalogues of 1936-42 and the Bowling Green Sentinel-Tribune, Sept. 11, 1995, p. 2. See also Bowling Green Archives website: http://www2.bgsu.edu/colleges/library/cac/ac/page78814.html and AP News Archive, Sept. 13, 1995. 129


The following picture shows the music facult y of 1936-37, Kennedy’s f irst year. Kennedy is in the second row at the far lef t.

Music Facu lt y 1936 -37. Front Row: Charles Church, Margaret Scruggs, Irene Ca nar y Mooers, Merri l l McEwen. Second Row: Ja mes Pau l Kennedy, R ichard Tunniclif fe, Leon Fau ley.

Kennedy’s initia l teaching responsibilities lay in piano and composition, and from his f irst year, he was the conductor of the Treble Clef Club, a position he held until 1957. By the 1940s he taught Music Theor y and Chora l Literature, a lthough he may have taught these courses earlier, and during the war years (1943-45) he was a lso listed as teaching Conducting and Voice. He continued to teach voice until the Spring of 1948, but with the increased facult y hiring from 1946 on, he was able to step down from many of his earlier responsibilities. My rtle Jensen took over the Theor y courses, and in 1945-46 the Chora l Literature courses passed to Sam Durance for one year, and then to Warren Allen. In 1946-47 Kennedy brief ly assumed responsibilit y for the two Symphonic Literature courses, but these were a lso given to My rtle Jensen in 1947-48, and she held them for some time. During this time Kennedy became conductor of a ll of the chora l groups—the Chorus, the Men’s Glee Club, and the Treble Clef Club—and was named Director of Chora l Activities in 1948. In short, over the course of his teaching career he covered courses that would later fa ll to two different departments, Music Performance 130


Studies (MusP) and Musicolog y, Composition, and Theor y (MuCT). Strange to say, the only area in which he taught no courses was Music Education. During Kennedy’s administrative period, music moved from a Department, through a School, and f ina lly to a College. Kennedy presided over a ll of these administrative changes. He was Chair of the Department from 1957-61. For the years 1957-58 he was acting Chair, and became permanent Chair in 1958-59. The Music Department became the School of Music in 1961 and Kennedy became its DirectorDean. The hy phenated title indicates the ambiva lent position of a School occupied in the Universit y Administrative hierarchy, a topic that continued to be debated through the 1980s. 15 The situation was complicated by the fact that a School could be included under the administrative structure of a College, or it could be independent of any College. In becoming a School, Music lef t the College of Libera l Arts and fell under the jurisdiction of the College of Education. In 1970 the relationship with the College of Education was discontinued when the School of Music became a freestanding School whose Director-Dean was answerable directly to the Provost. In 1975 Music became the College of Musica l Arts, and Kennedy ser ved as its Dean for the summer of 1975. He stepped down from the Dean’s position and returned to the facult y, teaching until 1978, when he retired with 42 years of ser vice. It may seem strange that important current events are not mentioned in this section. Hesser had to dea l with the impact of World War I, and McEwen had the nearly impossible task of keeping the music unit in existence during World War II, and then the more pleasing task of rebuilding af ter the war. The Kennedy years were characterized by the Vietnam War and the Kent State shootings. While these affected the campus as a whole (William Jerome’s meetings with the students kept the Bowling Green campus relatively ca lm during these years), they seem not to have had the strong impact on the Department of Music that the two World Wars did. This is not to say that individua l 15  Paul Olscamp used the analogy of a duck. When asked if a particular administrative unit was a School or a College, he responded: “If it walks like a duck, and quacks like a duck . . . The idea was that there was no difference between Schools and Colleges and the unit might as well be given the title of College. 131


music facult y and students were not deeply involved with these issues, only that Music avoided the signs of war so visible in the earlier administrations. When Kennedy f irst came to Bowling Green in 1936, he resided at 319 E . Wooster, now the site of the renta l off ice for John Newlove Rea l Estate. When Kennedy returned from his doctora l studies in 1941, he moved to 611 S. Main St., where he remained fro the rest of his life. He died of a stroke on Saturday, Sept. 9, 1995, age 84.

Facilities—The Hall of Music/Johnston Hall/Reed St. Studio Kennedy is the f irst Chair who did not have to oversee a move from one facilit y to another. His entire administrative career was spent in the Ha ll of Music, and for much of the time the facilit y was suff icient for the needs of the Department. By the mid 1960s the grow th of the Music Department required additiona l space, and it was assigned off ice and classroom space in Johnston Ha ll, across from the Ha ll of Music. Johnston Ha ll, completed in 1942, was the f irst Universit y Hea lth Center. It was named af ter Henr y J. Johnston, a Tontogany physician and member of the Board of Trustees from 1920-35 and 1939-43. When the new Hea lth Center was completed in 1967, Johnston Ha ll became a multicultura l residence for internationa l and American students, and the rear of the building became a nurser y school. The School of Music had space in it as well. Music Publicit y had an off ice in the basement, administrative off ices and classrooms for music were on the f irst f loor, and facult y off ices were on the second.

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The second building was necessitated by the hiring of Burton Beerman in 1970. Beerman was hired as to start up a program in what was then ca lled “Electronic Music” but there was no room in the Ha ll of Music for the equipment needed for the program. In September, 1970, the Universit y purchased a house occupy ing the two lots 1732 and 1733 on E . Reed St. 16 The house was owned by Hector DeSmith and carried the address number 609. All of the electronic music equipment was moved into this house, and it became the center of the program for the remainder of the decade. Music vacated the propert y in 1979, when a ll of the College of Musica l Arts facilities moved to the Musica l Arts Center. The house still exists, carr y ing the number 709 and housing the Zeta Phi Beta Sororit y, 17 but the portion of Reed St. on which it sat is now a sidewa lk behind the new Fa lcon Heights residence ha ll, and the 600 block of East Reed St. has vanished a ltogether.

In 1974 the Universit y was considering removing the house. In a letter of Sept. 17, 1974, Charles Codding of the Physica l Plant indicated that the building was to be demolished. Two days later another letter, given below and in Appendix 6, recognized that the Music Electronic Laborator y was using the propert y, and that the music department should prepare itself to lose the space.

16  See Appendix, Letters, 609 E. Reed Purchase. 17  Next door to it is the Lambda Gamma Sorority, in what was 601 E. Reed St. (now 701). This house was not part of the 1970 purchase. 133


Apparently the School of Music was not part of this conversation. When it learned what was afoot, it must have raised strong objections, because plans for the demolition were scrapped and the building remained the home of the Electronic Music Studio.

The Place of Music in the University and the Organization of the Music Faculty During Kennedy’s term, the Music unit moved from the status of Department to that of School and then to that of College. The unit a lso changed aff iliation during these years. When Kennedy took over in 1957 af ter McEwen’s death, the music unit was a Department within the College of Libera l Arts, a lthough it had offered, as has been seen above, severa l programs within the College of Education. In 1961 it became a School of Music within the College of Education with three departments: Music Education, Performance Studies, and Music 134


Composition and Histor y (they did not seem to carr y those names then). However the facult y continued to be listed under the genera l title “Music” without any departmenta l aff iliation, that is, as though Music were still a department. It is not even clear that there were even chairs for these departments; no individua ls carried the title. There is some evidence that an informa l departmenta lization existed long before this. As early as 1942-43, McEwen’s second, there is a division in courses between “Music,” “Courses in Music Education,” and “Courses in Applied Music.” The Music Education courses were taught exclusively by McEwen and Leon Fauley, and were open to a ll students (that is, to College of Education students who were not music majors), unlike the other two groups of courses, which were open only to music students. McEwen taught the Introduction to Public School Music, Music Appreciation, and Elementar y Methods courses, while Fauley taught Specia l Problems, Teaching of Music, and Secondar y Methods courses. Later, when instrumenta l music became an important factor in public school music, Arthur Zuelzke and then Roy Weger were included in this group, and Bett y Troeger took over the responsibilit y for the elementar y methods course. Yet the group of instructors for the Music Education remained sma ll throughout the McEwen years, never exceeding four persons. There were thus three de facto departments: a Proto-Department of Music Education, a Proto-Department of Performance Studies, and a Proto-Department of Ever y thing Else. In 1970 Music became a freestanding school, independent of the College of Education, with Kennedy as Director-Dean and Robert Hohn as Assistant Director. It is at this point that the separate departments and their faculties and their ranks were listed in Universit y publications, and that the departments received forma l names: Histor yTheor y-Composition, Music Education, and Performance Studies. The f irst chairs of these departments ser ved in an acting capacit y for the f irst year. They were, respectively, Oliver Chamberlain and Wa llace DePue (Co-Chairmen), DuWayne Hansen, and Bernard Linden. The following year Emil Raab replaced Linden as permanent Chair of Performance Studies.

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There was a lso a Department (or Division) of Public Missions, with Kennedy as Chairman, f irst appearing in the 1970-71 Cata logue. The explanator y paragraph from the 1970-71 cata logue, describes its activities: Division of Public Mission James Pau l Kennedy, Chairman The School of Music conducts an extensive program of public recita ls and concer t performances. The Div ision of Public Mission cooperates w it h t he Nationa l Young Audiences program to prov ide musica l performances in a public school setting. Ar tists in residents and resident ensembles such as t he string quar tet and brass and woodw ind quintets a long w it h orchestras, bands and choruses, and opera t heatre [sic] programs, contribute to t he public mission of t he school and to t he musica l experience of t he communit y which it ser ves. Creative ar ts programs prov ide lessons, classes and ensemble experiences for area children.

The last statement regarding the Artist-in-Residence and the Facult y Ensembles is ver y important, because this was the justif ication on which Kennedy based his decision to give load credit to Performance Studies facult y members for participation in these activities. The load credit was not given for “professiona l activities” or “research,” but for outreach, including recruitment. Fina lly, in 1975, Music became the College of Musica l Arts, a peer of the other colleges on campus. The departmenta l structure remained the same. Kennedy presided over a ll of these administrative units.

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Faculty It was clearly one of Kennedy’s goa ls to continue McEwen’s hiring of full-time applied music facult y. When Kennedy took over in 1957, he inherited a facult y of twent y, including himself. Twelve were full-time facult y, and eight were part-time. Of these eight, six were in applied music: Lenora Gustein Cohen, Piano Thomas Curtis, Organ Harr y Boileau, Percussion David Glasmire, Trombone Gera ld McLaughlin, Violin Frederick Young, Clarinet

Kennedy made changes in this situation immediately. In 1958 David Glasmire became a full-time facult y member, and Paul Ma kara was hired, as were Gera ld Lef koff (Viola) and Clyde Johnson (sa xophone). The latter two had experience in both applied music and theor y/composition. All were full time. When he retired in 1975, he had amassed a facult y of f if t y-seven, only si x of whom were part-time facult y. Thirt y-four of the f if t y-seven were in Performance Studies, a monumenta l achievement, given the diff icult y of justif y ing these positions. 18

Faculty Ensembles The main obstacle to hiring full-time applied music facult y was that there were never enough students in many instrumenta l areas to constitute a full load. In fact, only in piano and voice could full-time facult y be justif ied. Elsewhere, instrumenta l facult y loads had to be augmented by directing ensembles, by teaching classes devoted to the requirements of specif ic instruments (e.g., reed-ma k ing classes), and 18  Linden commented that a school the size of Bowling Green did not need full time positions in harp or, he added wryly, in viola. See the transcription of his interview. 137


by crossing departments (e.g., teaching instrumenta l methods courses to music education students; teaching music histor y courses to music students, and music appreciation courses to genera l students). Kennedy added one other component to the applied facult y loads: credit for participating in facult y ensembles. By a combination of these activities, full loads could be created where other wise they could not have been. There were three steps in the establishment of the facult y ensembles, a lthough Kennedy probably did not consider them as discrete activities. The f irst was to decide on which ensembles would be represented. Reasonably enough, they were the ensembles that could be drawn from an orchestra and for which substantia l repertories existed: String Quartet, Woodwind Quintet, and Brass Quintet. These standing ensembles would be staffed solely by the regular facult y. The second step was to grant the facult y load credit for their work in the ensembles. According to David Glasmire: “When Dr. Kennedy took over one of the plusses that he did in terms of outreach was that he organized a string quartet, a woodwind quintet, and a brass quintet. He gave us each a quarter load for that, and because of that particular aspect we were able to reach out into the communities within Ohio and other areas, other states, by ta k ing tours, going to public schools, and just play ing.� Clearly Kennedy and the facult y believed that the purpose of the ensembles was outreach and recruitment, as the cata logue statement quoted above shows. It was a lso necessar y that part of the audition and inter view process would be a demonstration performance with the appropriate ensemble. Fina lly, Kennedy established expectations for this load credit. These included at least eight hours of rehearsa l a week, regular performances on campus (usua lly once each academic year), and other performances at regiona l, nationa l, and internationa l venues. This included internationa l tours, which the string quartet undertook by the mid 1960s.

138


Kennedy started these ensembles a lmost as soon as he became chair. 19 The earliest ensemble of this sort was a string trio composed of Paul Ma kara (violin), Robert Chapman (piano), and Sey mour Benstock (cello).

This ensemble could only have existed between Fa ll of 1958, when Ma kara was hired, and Spring of 1961, when Benstock lef t Bowling Green. Unfortunately no programs seem to have sur vived, and recordings of facult y performance were not begun until 1963.

String Quartet The Bowling Green String Quartet was founded in 1962 and its f irst formation lasted until Spring 1964. 20 At that time the second violinist was the part-time facult y member Helen Kwa lwasser Wadeen. I have not found a picture of this ensemble. 19  At least, such ensembles do not seem to have been part of performance faculty activities in the McEwen years. 20  Boris Nelson, “Bowling Green String Quartet Wins Recognition.” The Toledo Blade, Sunday Dec. 20, 1970, Section H, p. 1, 4. 139


The earliest string quartet for which a photograph exists dates from 1964-65. Its members were Paul Ma kara (Violin), Robert Sanov (Violin), Bernard Linden (Viola), and Donovan Schumacher (Cello). Sanov came to Bowling Green in 1964, and Schumacher lef t Bowling Green at the end of Spring 1965. Thus this quartet lasted only one year.

String Quar tet 1964- 65 Pau l Ma kara (Violin), Rober t Sa nov (Violin), Donova n Schumacher (Cel lo), Bernard Linden (Viola)

Schumacher was replaced by Peter (Arthur) Howard, and this quartet existed from Fa ll 1965 through Sanov’s departure in 1969.

140


String Quar tet 1965- 69 Pau l Ma kara (Violin), Rober t Sa nov (Violin), Bernard Linden (Viola), Peter Howard (Cel lo)

The fourth iteration of the quartet was formed in Fa ll 1969 with the arriva l of Young Nam Kim.

141


String Quar tet 1969-75 Pau l Ma kara (Violin), Peter Howard (Cel lo), Bernard Linden (Viola), Young Na m K im (Violin)

142


An important characteristic of the early string quartet concerts was the inclusion of what was then ca lled “Contemporar y Music.” The f irst recorded string quartet program, Feb. 21, 1965, contained, in addition to Mozart’s D Major Quartet, K. 155 and Beethoven’s Quartet Op. 59, #3, the Sixth String Quartet by Bela Bartok. Similarly, the program from Oct. 22, 1967, contained two works from the standard repertor y, and Anton Webern’s Sätze, op. 5. From our vantage point of 2015, this may seem to be modest. However, in the mid 1960s, the music of Bartok and Webern was still rough stuff for Bowling Green audiences, not only the genera l public and students, but music facult y as well, and it is to the credit of the ensemble that it included these works in its programs. The high point of the quartet’s interest in contemporar y music was reach with the New York premier of George Crumb’s Black Angels for Electric String Quartet at Alice Tully Ha ll on Nov. 14, 1971. 21 The quartet kept this work in its repertor y, and performed it again on Nov. 20, 1988 at the New Music & Art Festiva l IX when the composer was the invited guest, 22 and again on Apr. 2, 1995. At these last performances, only Paul Ma kara remained from the 1971 quartet; the second violin (Vasile Beluska), viola (Pam Ryan, then Hong-Mei Xiao), and cello (Alan Smith) were a ll new. When Howard lef t Bowling Green, he was replace for two years by Sachiya Isomura. This is the quartet during Isomura’s tenure.

21  22 

The Village Voice, Nov. 11, 1971, p. 34. Local call number RECITALFC-881120 cas 143


String Quar tet 1975-77 Sachiya Isomura (Cel lo) Young Na m K im (Violin), Pau l Ma kara (Violin), Bernard Linden (Viola)

When Kim lef t the Universit y in 1977 he was not immediately replaced, and when he was, it was with Boris Brant. Brant could be convinced to join the string trio for specia l occasions, for example, a performance of Prokof iev’s Quartet Op. 50, but he was not at a ll interested in play ing in a string quartet on a regular basis, especia lly as second violin. As a result, the quartet went into hiatus, and was replaced by a String Trio from 1977 through 1985. Unlike the earlier mixed string trio, this ensemble was composed solely of strings: Violin (Ma kara), Viola (Linden), and Cello (Anne Fagerburg, 1977-80, then Alan Smith, 1980-). Boris Brant died in 1986, and Vasile Beluska was hired to replace him. This a llowed the string quartet to be reconstituted: Paul Ma kara (Violin), Vasile Beluska (Violin), Pamela Ryan, then various violists 144


(Korey Konkol, Hong-Mei X iao, Nancy Buck), and Alan Smith (Cello). This is the quartet in its penultimate f lourishing, in the one year in which Xiao was on the facult y, 1994-95.

String Quar tet 1994-95 Vasi le Beluska (v iolin), A la n Smit h (Cel lo), Pau l Ma kara (Violin), Hong-Mei X iao (Viola)

Unfortunately the end was in sight as early as 1980 with Brant’s refusa l to perform in the string quartet. Nancy Buck had replaced Hong-Mei Xiao in 1995, and when Ma kara retired in 1996, he was succeeded by Movses Pogossian. Interna l friction grew within the ensemble when Pogossian and Buck joined the group, and a lthough the quartet managed to stay together until Spring 2000, the departures of Pogossian and Buck from the Universit y (Pogossian 2000 and Buck in 2002) brought an end to the Bowling Green String Quartet.

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Woodwind Quintet/Venti da Camera The earliest photographic record of a woodwind quintet dates from 1965-66. The members were Harold Sk inner (Flute), Cleon Chase (Oboe), David Rogers (French Horn), Stephen Basson (Bassoon), and Frederick Young (Clarinet), and the academic year 1965-66 was the only year in which a ll these individua ls were on the facult y at the same time. Four of the members were hired in 1965-66: Sk inner, Chase, Rogers, and Basson (Young had been hired in 1961), but Basson lef t the Universit y the following year, to be replaced by Robert Moore. Major changes in personnel had occurred by 1972. David Melle was hired in 1967 as a new Performance Studies facult y member, and replaced Harold Sk inner, who was a member of the Music Education facult y. It seems that Kennedy or the ensembles participants themselves wanted a ll persons in the ensemble to be members of the Performance Studies Department. 23 Perhaps this was necessar y due to the problem of load credit. Edward Marks, hired in 1969, replaced Frederick Young, who lef t the Universit y in Spring 1969. Jack Masarie (1970-71) and then Herbert Spencer, hired in 1971, replaced David Rogers, who, since 1965, had been a member of both the woodwind quintet and the brass quintet. Fina lly, Martin Woltman (1971-72) and then John Bentley (1972-2006) replaced Cleon Chase, who had lef t the Universit y at the end of Spring 1971. The only continuing member was Robert Moore. This group remained remarkably constant for the next twent y years. David Melle retired in 1992, and Judith Bentley replaced him. Robert Cochran replaced Robert Moore for a short period from 1975 to 1977 when Moore lef t the Universit y, but Moore returned in 1977 and stayed in the quintet until his retirement in 1993. When Moore retired, Jeffrey Lyman, and later Nancy Lutes, joined the ensemble. 23  William Alexander, it was said, wanted to join the string quartet but could not because he was a Music Education faculty member. This departmentalization cut both ways. DuWayne Hansen was uncomfortable with Music Performance faculty members teaching the Music Education Instrumental Methods courses; he wanted Music Education Specialists in those positions. Elmer Girten (1975-2001) was hired to teach the Instrumental Repair courses, and Kelly Martino (1980-83), then Victor Ellsworth (1983-97), taught the String Methods course. 146


Woodw ind Quintet 1965- 66 Harold Sk inner (Flute), Cleon Chase (Oboe), Dav id Rogers (French Horn), Stephen Basson (Bassoon), Frederick Young (Clarinet)

Woodw ind Quintet 1966 - 67 Harold Sk inner (Flute), Cleon Chase (Oboe), Dav id Rogers (French Horn), Frederick Young (Clarinet), Rober t Moore (Bassoon)

147


Woodw ind Quintet 1972-73 Dav id Mel le (Flute), Edward Mark s (Clarinet), Herber t Spencer (French Horn), Rober t Moore (Bassoon), John Bent ley (Oboe)

Woodw ind Quintet 1993-96 John Bent ley (Oboe), Judit h Bent ley (Flute), Edward mark s (Clarinet) Herber t Spencer (French Horn), Jef frey Ly ma n (Bassoon) 148


The School of Music had begun to record facult y concerts in 1963, and Frederick Young (and perhaps other members of the quintet) participated in mixed chamber concerts from 1963 on, but the f irst concert solely by the Woodwind Quintet took place on Feb. 21, 1971. Thereaf ter the Woodwind Quintet gave performances each year on the Facult y Artist Series, a lthough never to the extent that the String Quartet did. 24

Woodwind Quintet Program Feb. 21, 1971 24  For the two-year period 1971-73 the ensemble gave seven concerts, evenly spaced over the time period. This assumes that reel-to-reel tapes exist for all faculty concerts. This of course 149


The Woodwind Quintet continued to perform as an ensemble af ter 2000. Concert recordings by Venti da Camera exist from 2001 through 2004, but this seems to have been at the initiative of the performers themselves. When Bentley retired in 2006, the ensemble had ceased to function, and part-time instructors were used for a short time in Oboe, French Horn and Bassoon. Full time positions in these instruments resumed in 2004, with Katherine Oliver (Bassoon), 2005 with Andrew Pelletier (French Horn) and 2008 with Jacqueline Leclair (Oboe). 25 But by that time, an audition with the ensemble was not part of the inter view process, and participation in the ensemble was not a part of the facult y member’s load.

Brass Quintet Records for the Brass Quintet begin in 1967-68 with an ensemble composed of Edwin Betts (Trumpet), Horace Little (Trumpet, David Rogers (French Horn), David Glasmire (Trombone) and Ivan Hammond (Tuba). In 1971 George Nova k replaced Little, who had lef t the Universit y, and this ensemble (Betts, Nova k, Rogers, Glasmire, and Hammond) remained constant until Glasmire retired in 1982. He was replaced by Paul Hunt. Hunt was a member of the quintet for his f if teen years at Bowling Green. He lef t Bowling Green in 1998 to become Head of the Department of Music at Kansas State Universit yManhattan, and was succeeded by. 26 William Mathis in 2000. Mathis went through the same inter view expectations as previous trombonists, i.e., an audition with the Brass Quintet. Two weeks into the semester, however, the ensemble was told that load credit was not going to be given for this activit y any more, and the ensemble was discontinued. 27 And so it remains to this day.

may not be the case at all, and there may have been many other concerts that were not recorded. 25  Leclair left the University in 2011 but the full-time position remained and is now held by Nermis Mieses. 26  Sean Flanigan served as Instructor in Trombone between 1998 and 2000. It is not clear that he was ever a member of the Brass Quintet. 27  I am grateful to William Mathis for this information. 150


Although individua l brass players gave solo or shared recita ls, the f irst recording of the Brass Quintet itself dates from March 29, 1971. The ensemble gave concerts annua lly, and never at the rate of the string quartet or the woodwind quintet. Perhaps its primar y activit y was that of recruitment performances at surrounding high schools.

Brass Quintet 1967-70 Dav id Rogers (French Horn), Dav id Glasmire (Trombone), Iva n Ha mmond (Tuba), Horace Litt le (Trumpet), Edw in Betts (Trumpet)

Brass Quintet, ca. 1983 George Nova k (Trumpet), Pau l Hunt (Trombone), Iva n Ha mmond (Tuba), Dav id Rogers (French Horn), Edw in Betts (Trumpet) 151


Baroque Trio A f ina l facult y ensemble should be mentioned, the Baroque Trio, an early music ensemble, composed of William Pepper (Harpsichord), David Melle (Flute), Cleon Chase (Oboe), and Oliver Chamberlain (Viol).

This ensemble existed between 1969, when Pepper was hired, and 1971, when Chase lef t Bowling Green. There was no load credit given for it, nor was it required to rehearse, perform, and engage in outreach activities, as were the other ensembles. Apparently it was formed solely to give a hearing to music that was other wise not of ten heard. Unfortunately, with no externa l prod to mandate its continuation, the Early Music Ensemble disappeared af ter a short time.

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Another early music ensemble was formed between 1981 and 1991, the Peregrine C onsort. 28 Its members included Ann Corrigan (Soprano), Gloria Pfeif (Viola da Gamba), Julie Hunt (Sackbut/Recorder)Paul Hunt (Sackbut/Tenor), R ichard James (Recorder), Mar y Nat vig (Baroque Violin), and myself (harpsichord). Once R ichard James lef t Bowling Green, this ensemble too was disbanded. A f ina l word on the load-bearing Facult y Ensembles as a whole. Both Kennedy and the ensemble members understood that credit was being given for this activit y to support outreach (the public mission of the School of Music) and recruitment. Certainly the statement in the 1970-71 cata logue specif ies the responsibilities these ensembles were to carr y. They were to give public recita ls and concert performances, both on campus and in public school setting, and they were to contribute to the cultura l life of the communit y, a long with those groups that had been doing so for quite some time, the orchestras, bands, choruses, and opera theater programs. They were a lso expected to rehearse regularly during the week The facult y members themselves believed that they were successful in their recruitment efforts. They justif ied the load credit with anecdota l evidence for this success, say ing that students of ten told them that: “The f irst time I heard of Bowling Green was when your (brass quintet/woodwind quintet) came to our high school to perform.” Unfortunately no record was made of students who came to the Universit y on the streng th of the ensembles. Did enrollment increase from 1963 on, when the facult y ensembles were initiated? Did it decrease af ter 2000? No one k nows, and so when the decision was made to discontinue the ensembles, no hard evidence could be offered against the decision. Would it be possible to re-establish load-bearing facult y ensembles with the same sort of recruitment expectations? Certainly the College has most of the personnel needed for the ensembles; whether the individua ls could agree to the idea is another matter. However, if these ensembles are resurrected, a way must be found to create detailed records of the success of the underta k ing. 28  The Music Library has four recordings of concerts by the Peregrine Consort, between 1987 and 1991, so the existence of the ensemble may have been of shorter duration than that implied above. 153


Academic Matters Quarter Conversion The most signif icant academic cha llenge faced by the Universit y occurred between 1967 and 1969, when the Universit y was forced by the Ohio Board of Regents to convert from semesters to quarters. 29 The idea had been f loated as early as 1967, but was mandated in early 1968, and the Regents expected it to be implemented by the Fa ll of 1968. The goa l was to establish a common ca lendar for the entire state universit y system, which would, according to the Board, simplif y budgeting and establish a regular summer session equa l to the sessions in the academic year. However virtua lly ever yone on campus agreed that there was virtua lly no possibilit y of long-range planning, and that six months was not enough time to carr y out the job of conversion properly. Although some saw advantages in the new system, most were concerned that the new system would mean covering the same amount of materia l is a shorter time. The problem centered on the details of course conversion. The conversion factor was 3/2. Courses that carried two credit hours in the semester system converted into three-credit courses in the quarter system. This accounted for many of the music courses. But trouble arose for courses carr y ing higher credit, as shown in the following table.

Semester to Quarter Conversion Table

Semester Hours Credit

Quar ter Hours Credit

1

1.5

2

3

3

4.5

4

6

29  This information is drawn from the 1969 Key yearbook, pp. 84-91 and 97-99. Articles describe reaction to the conversion from the perspectives of administrators, full- and part -time faculty, students, and, of course, President Jerome. 154


The increase in credit hours, of course, increased the contact hours in these courses. No courses had fractiona l contact hours; the credit and contact hours were either rounded up or down. For example, under the quarter system, some classes had to meet either four or f ive days per week, and students noted immediately that this a llowed no time for study outside of class. Most music classes carried two credit hours, and these converted into three-credit courses. However, music a lso a large number of onehours courses (applied lessons, ensembles), and it a lso had severa l three-hour courses in both genera l music and Music Education. A question arose how these three-hour courses would convert. Severa l three-hour semester courses in Music Education converted into fourcredit quarter courses, but this was not so for the courses in Harmony and Music Histor y. Kennedy wrote that, since most of the newly converted courses in that categor y were three hours, these should be as well. This was a disastrous mista ke, because from then on, new courses in music histor y (Performance Practice, Modern Music, Opera Literature, and any thing having to do with ethnomusicolog y) were given three-credits in the quarter system. When the pendulum sw ung back—when the Universit y converted from quarters to semesters in the early 1980s—a ll those three-credit courses under the quarter system became two-credit courses in the semester system, both at the undergraduate and graduate levels. The problem was solved at the graduate level in the early 1980s with the restructuring of the graduate programs, but still dogs the undergraduate courses, where the problem seems insurmountable. President Jerome initia lly thought that the quarter system would a llow the Universit y to advance academica lly. However soon he revised his opinion and was especia lly harsh in his assessment of the system and how it was implemented. He felt that academic matters had been margina lized. The quarter system would become “a travest y on education if we are forced to learn the same amount of materia l in a shorter period,” and would result in “a deterioration in higher education in a qua lit y sense particularly [at] the undergraduate level.” During the 1968-69 academic year he opposed many of the ideas of the Board of Regents. He felt that the Board implemented the change solely to assert its authorit y—“politica l puppetr y” was his term—and that Board members were acting in interests of politica l expediency rather than in the best interests of students’ education. 155


At the same time, the Board proposed a fee increase, raising the ma ximum amount that institution could charge. This was done, Jerome said, because some Board members and ta xpayers felt that the student should bear the burden of their education rather than the ta xpayers. 30 As a result, he said that it was “doubtful that he [could] continue running this Universit y successfully on its present level because [he felt] less inclined to push Ohio as the number one state in education if the government refuses to help the students.” Jerome resigned the following year. 31

New Degree Programs Expanded Undergraduate Options The School of Music undertook three programmatic initiatives during the Kennedy years, two of which were successful. The School continued to offer the Bachelor of Arts degree with a major and minor in music through the College of Libera l Arts (later the College of Arts and Sciences), and the Bachelor of Science degree in Music Education, with its large variet y of specia lizations. However, in 1965, the School of Music began to offer a Bachelor of Music degree with majors in piano, voice, strings, and wind/percussion. The difference between this degree and the other two lay in the percentage of credits a llotted to music. The Bachelor of Music degree contains a minimum of 65% of its hours in the major f ield and supportive courses in music. The Bachelor of Music degree was expanded in 1967 to include a ll music teacher preparation programs with four specia lizations: Chora l Major with Instrumenta l Minor Instrumenta l Major with Chora l Minor Piano Major with Instrumenta l Minor Piano Major with Chora l Minor

30  This attitude never went away. Robert Taft, in his second inauguration as governor, after making further cuts in state support to higher education, said that people in Ohio who wanted a college education were just going to have to pay a little bit more. 31  He became Special Consultant to the President of Florida International University. 156


The Bachelor’s program was expanded again in 1970 to include majors in Music Histor y/Literature and Music Theor y/Composition. Fina lly, in 1972, a major in Church Music was f irst offered. Master of Music In 1967 the School a lso began to offer a Master of Music degree with specia lizations in either Music Education or Applied Music. The degree in Applied Music had further subdivisions: Piano, Voice, Organ, Strings, Winds, or Brass. All of these programs were affected adversely by the shif t to quarters. Unsuccessful Doctora l Proposa l The process for new degree proposa ls seems to have been something like the following. An idea would be generated by Kennedy, perhaps a long with another facult y member, and a proposa l would be written by an individua l or sma ll groups of people. The draf t proposa l would be brought to a full facult y meeting for revisions, if necessar y, and approva l. It would then pass up the chain of commend through the Universit y and the to the Ohio Board of Regents for approva l. Sometime in the early 1970s the idea arose about a doctora l degree in music, a D.M.A. The Department, with its recent successes with the undergraduate master’s degrees, may have followed the same procedure for the doctorate, and Robert Hohn was given the task of writing the proposa l. However the situation in the 1970s was ver y different from that of the late 1960s. The music unit was now an independent entit y with three separate academic departments, and these departments met regularly outside of full facult y meetings. When the proposa l was brought to a facult y meeting for discussion, it was rea lized that the Performance Studies had not been consulted in the development of the proposa l, and many of the Performance facult y had strong objections. Ver y few of the Performance Facult y had doctora l degrees, 32 and so did not see the need for a new degree. Related to this, the Performance Studies Department maintained that the Master’s degree was its termina l degree. 33 Furthermore, it must be said that many facult y had 32  33 

Only John Bentley, Elizabeth Cobb, and Vernon Wolcott leap to mind. They continued to hold position until well into the 1990s, in the fact of evidence (its own 157


an ambiva lent, if not outright hostile, view of a D.M.A. In their minds, those who held such a degree were inferior performers who could not maintain a successful performance career. This idea was quite popular in the 1950s and 1960s, and some even hold it today. Whatever the case, the degree was shelved at the meeting. Hohn took this rejection persona lly 34 and effectively withdrew from the process of advancing the degree (He retired in 1979). The idea of the degree, however, did not go away. With revisions, it was sent through the Universit y and ultimately to the Board of Regents in the early 1980s. Unfortunately, Kent State Universit y submitted a music doctora l proposa l at the same time. The Board of Regents decided to fund Kent State, and the Bowling Green proposa l was rebuffed. Only much later was the College successful in its doctora l aspirations.

Ensembles Choruses From 1946 to 1957, the Chora l area of the Department consisted of the Treble Clef Club, the A Cappella Choir, and the Chora l Societ y, a ll directed by Kennedy. The Treble Clef Club was the oldest of these organizations, having been established by Hesser in 1914. The A Cappella Choir was identica l to the Mixed Chorus founded by Tunnicliffe in 1927; its name was off icia lly changed to A Cappella Choir in 1946 when Kennedy assumed leadership. The Chora l Societ y was a large combined choir that presented Händel ’s Messiah in December in even-numbered years (in odd-numbered years, the two campus chora l groups performed Christmas Programs), and oratorios in the Spring. All three groups were open to a ll students on campus with the necessar y musica l abilit y, whether they majored in music or not, and the Chora l Societ y was open a lso to members of the Bowling Green communit y. 35 Kennedy continued to lead the choruses during the 1957-58 academic year, while at the same time ser ving as interim Chair. job descriptions) to the contrary. 34  I was sitting near him during the meeting and I recall his words: “You’re killing me!” 35  1956-57 University Catalogue, p. 73, 231. 158


However, beginning in Fa ll 1958, the conf iguration of the Chora l program changed signif icantly. The Treble Clef Club disappeared, and the chora l program was limited to two groups, the A Cappella Choir and the Collegiate Chora le. The A Cappella Choir was the larger of the two, composed of 120 singers, while the Collegiate Chora le was an elite groups of 39 singers. A third group, the Universit y Chorus, was composed of students who had little or no experience in chora l singing. It sang repertor y at an “appropriate level ” for its own concerts, and joined with the other two groups for large performances. The cata logue continued to say that a ll groups were open to a ll students on the basis of audition, but it is probable that the f irst two choruses were composed solely of music majors. There is an interesting proviso in the 1957-58 cata logue, which may be of interest to current facult y. Af ter listing the three voca l Musica l Organizations covered under the genera l course number Music 200, there is the following statement: Any student ta k ing indiv idua l voice lessons may register for Music 200 only w it h t he consent of his [sic] voice instructor.

As far as the Chora l Program was concerned, Kennedy’s f irst task was to f ind his replacement as Director of Chora l Activities. He chose Cardon Vern Burnham, who began in Fa ll, 1958. Burnham had completed a Bachelor of Music Education at Bradley Universit y in Peoria, IL and a Master of Music in Music Theor y and Composition at the Universit y of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign. He completed his Doctorate at Eastman School of Music while work ing at Bowling Green. The peculiar thing is that Burnham did not have a degree in Chora l Conducting. 36 He was primarily a composer and theorist, both in teaching

Ca rdon Vern Burn ha m

36  Much of the following information comes from Wikipedia entries for “Cardon Burnham,” “Florentine Opera,” and the Milwaukee Sentinel, June 23, 1976, p. 16. 159


and in publications. In that regard he was much like Kennedy, who was a pianist and composer by training. Burnham’s chora l background was acquired as an undergraduate student at Bradley, where he founded a ma le chora l group, the Chief tains, and in various teaching positions, among them Bowling Green. He lef t Bowling Green to become Chairman of the Department of Music at Carroll College from 1961-74 and head of the Music Department at Indiana Universit y in Terre Haute (1974-76). 37 From 1976-78 he was Chorus Master and Associate Conductor of the Florentine Opera Company in Milwaukee, Wisconsin’s oldest professiona l performing arts organization and the sixth oldest opera company in the United States. 38 He died of gastric carcinoma in 2004. Warren Joseph replaced Burnham in Fa ll, 1961. He came to Bowling Green with and Bachelor and Masters of Science from SUNY Potsdam (Tunnicliffe’s a lma mater) and a Ph.D. from Boston Universit y. Previously he had been chora l conductor at the New England Conser vator y of Music, Northeastern Universit y, and, immediately before coming to Bowling Green, the Universit y of Southern Mississippi (1958-61). His appointment occurred in a year f illed with new facult y: Elizabeth Cobb (piano); Sophie Ginn,; Harr y Kruger (f lute; orchestra activities); Helen Kwa lwasser Warren Joseph (violin); Marguerite Long (organ); George E . Reynolds (trumpet/clarinet); and Har vey Wadeen (piano).

37  See The Milwaukee Sentinel, June 23, 1976, p. 16. He said of this two-year position that it had been “ a big mistake. I hadn’t done any composing and my conscience was eating holes in me.” The job was totally administrative and “nearly took me out of music entirely.” An interesting fellow! 38  See the Florentine Opera website: http://www.florentineopera.org/meet-the-florentine/ our-history/. 160


A highlight of his tenure was the performance on April 29, 1962 of Brahms’ Ein deutches Requiem with the origina l two-piano accompaniment. Shortly af ter wards he recorded this performance, and it is available in the Bowling Green Music Librar y. He a lso performed the Parable of Death by Lukas Foss the following year. However, this was to be his last performance with the choirs. In June 1963 he resigned his position to become head of the Music Department at Eastern Michigan Universit y-Ypsilanti (1963-65). 39 Fiora Contino followed Joseph. She came to Bowling Green having completed at Bachelor’s degree in Piano at Oberlin Conser vator y and a Master’s degree at Indiana Universit y, and having studied with Nadia Boulanger. She completed her doctorate at Indiana Universit y while on the facult y of Bowling Green. She remained at Bowling for only three years, 1963-66, when she lef t Bowling Green, a long with Elizabeth Mannion and, later, Jean Deis, to join the facult y at Indiana Universit y. She became Chair of the Chora l Department there and established the graduate program in chora l conducting. She later ser ved as Director of Opera and Chora l Activities at Peabody Conser vator y, and then Head of the Music Department at the Universit y of Texas-Austin. Fina lly, she a lso ser ved as Director of the Chora l Institute at Aspen Music, and for 20 years as Artistic Director and Conductor of Opera Illinois.

Fiora Contino 39 

The Toledo Blade, Wed., June 5, 1963, p. 17. 161


Under her tenure the role of chora l activities changed signif icantly. She began with the norma l responsibilities for the A Cappella Choir, the Collegiate Chora le, and the Universit y Chorus. However, soon af ter she was appointed, the Music Department assumed the responsibilit y for presenting professiona l operatic performances, and the position Contino occupied was that of Director of Opera and Chora l Activities. She began performance in December 1964, with a performance of Amahl and the Night Visitors, with visiting artist Martha Lipton of the Metropolitan Opera as the mother. In her last year at Bowling Green she directed the f irst opera in Ita lian produced at Bowling Green and through its resources a lone, Verdi ’s Il trovatore. This was not intended to be a student production but a professiona l one, with major roles ta ken by the facult y. This production cemented the relationship between Chora l Activities and the Opera Program. In later years the conducting responsibilities were of ten ta ken over by the Director of Orchestra l Activities, but they were just as of ten given to the Director of Chora l Activities. Ivan Trusler was the last Director of Chora l Activities appointed under Kennedy’s administration. He received both the Bachelor’s and Master’s degree in music and music education from the Kansas State Universit y and a D.M.A. from Columbia Universit y in music and music education in 1955. Prior to coming to Bowling Green he ser ved for eleven years as Director of Chora l Activities at the Universit y of Delaware. He came to Bowling Green in 1966 and stayed there for the remainder of his professiona l life, retiring in 1985. In addition to directing the choruses, he was a lso music director of many opera and musica l theater productions. He died on Friday, Oct.24, 2008. 40 Trusler was a lso active as an author and editor. He published two texts concerned with pronunciation and voca lization. His Functiona l Lessons in Singing 41 English pronunciation; a similar text, The Chora l Director’s Latin, did the same for Church Latin. 42 He a lso published two

40  Panama City New-Herald obituaries http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/newsherald/obituary.aspx?n=ivan-h-trusler&pid=11950513 and http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/newsherald/ obituary.aspx?n=ivan-h-trusler&pid=119294207. 41  Ivan Trusler and Walter Ehret, Functional Lessons in Singing (Englewood Cliffs NJ, 1960). Two more editions followed in 1972 and 1987. 42  Ivan Trusler, The Choral Director’s Latin (Lanham MD: University Press of America, 1987). 162


volumes of anthems covering the entire church year, 43 and a separate collection of chora l arrangements for churches and schools. 44 He a lso published severa l editions of individua l pieces, among them Schubert’s Mass in G (D. 167), 45 the Canadian folk song Chumbara 46; Sing We All Noël, 47 and the “Ha llelujah ” from Beethoven’s Mount of Olives oratorio. 48

Ivan Trusler He was the f irst Chora l Director to have the aid of assistant conductors. The f irst was Warren Jaworsk i. He held both the Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees from the Universit y of Michigan, and later completed a doctorate at Indiana Universit y-Blooming ton. His primar y responsibilit y was in applied voice. He came to Bowling Green in 1966, leaving in 1969 to join the facult y of Indiana Universit y-Fort Wayne, and later Genera l Manager and Artistic Director of the Northern Indiana Opera Association. He is currently on the Voice facult y of the Universit y of Southern Florida.

43  Trusler, Ivan, ed. and arr. Anthems for the Church Year. Vol. 1: Advent through Lent. New York: Plymouth Music Co., 1963; Anthems for the Church Year, Vol. 2: Easter Tide through Kingdomtide. New York: Plymouth Music Company, 1962 44  Trusler, Ivan. The Ivan Trusler S/A/B/ Chorister: Arrangements for both Church and School. New York: Warner Bros. Music, 1967. 45  Schubert, Franz. Mass in G, for S.S.A. with Soprano, Tenor, and Bass Solo, Voices and Accompaniment. Ivan Trusler, ed. Ft. Lauderdale FL: Plymouth Music Co., 1984. 46  Trusler, Ivan, arr. Chumbara. New York: Warner Bros.-Seven Arts Music, 1969. 47  Ivan Trusler, arr. Sing We All Noël. New York: Plymouth Music Co., 1961. 48  Ludwig van Beethoven, Mount of Olives: Hallelujah. Ivan Trusler, arr. New York: Plymouth Music Co., 1964. This and other publications are part of the Ivan Trusler Choral Series issued by Plymouth Music Co. 163


Warren Jaworski Jaworsk i was succeeded by R ichard Mathey. Mathey received and Bachelor of Music degree from Capita l Universit y and a Master’s degree from Bowling Green. Af ter teaching in the Columbus, Ohio public schools, he joined the Bowling Green facult y in 1968 as a member of the Music Education facult y, but later transferred to Music Performance Studies. His position as Assistant Chora l Director began at Jaworsk i ’s departure, and in this position he had complete charge of the revived Men’s Chorus. When Trusler retired in 1985, Mathey became Director of Chora l Activities. He retired in 1997 af ter a twent y-nine year career.

R ichard Mathey

164


Instrumental Ensembles Orchestra Seymour Benstock (1954 - 61) Sey mour Benstock, who had been hired in the McEwen years, remained orchestra l director throughout Kennedy’s early years. He lef t the Universit y af ter Spring 1961. He was succeeded by Harr y Kruger (1961-65) and Charles Gigante, both of whom held the position for a relatively short time.

Harr y Kruger (1961- 65)

Kruger was a f lautist and graduate of New England Conser vator y of Music. He ser ved as Assistant Conductor of the Atlantic Sy mphony Orchestra, Conductor of the Atlantic Civic Ba llet, and directed many other Atlanta musica l organizations. He came to Bowling Green in 1961 as Director of Orchestra l Activities. In 1965 he became Music Director and Conductor of the Columbus Sy mphony Orchestra (Georgia), and in 1989 was founding conductor and Music Director of the LaGrange 165


Symphony Orchestra. He a lso taught at Columbus State Universit y (1965-2000) and LaGrange College. He retired in 2001 and died on Oct. 8, 2009 Charles Gigante (1965- 69) Kruger was succeeded by Charles Gigante, who held the Bachelor of Music (1936) and Master of Music (1951) degrees from Eastman School of Music, and a Doctor of Fine Arts from St. Ambrose College (1966). 49 He had conducted at Eastman, played violin in the New York Philharmonic, and had been assistant concertmaster of the Nationa l symphony, Washing ton D.C., and Conductor of the Quad Cit y Symphony Orchestra. Gigante was the f irst Director of Orchestra l Activities at Bowling Green to be associated with the opera program, conducting the annua l operas La Bohème (1967), La Traviata (1968), and Carmen (1969). He died suddenly at age 57 on Oct. 23, 1969 of cancer. Emil Raab (1969-82) Emil Raab had received both a Bachelor’s degree and a Master’s degree in violin from the Universit y of Michigan School of Music. Immediately af ter graduation in 1949 he became a facult y member at the Universit y of Michigan, teaching violin there for eight years, and where he was a member of the Stanley String Quartet from 1948 to 1957. The quartet was founded in 1948 and named in honor of Albert Augustus Stanley, former Director of the School. 50 49  His Master’s thesis “Applied Orchestral Violin Bowing” was later published as Manual of Orchestral Bowing in 1992. 50  See University of Michigan Official Publication, The President’s Report for 1948-49, , Earl 166


In 1957 Raab joined the facult y of the Universit y of Alabama, where he conducted the orchestra, taught violin, headed the string department and played in the Universit y’s resident ensemble, the Cadek String Quartet, named af ter the recently deceased Ottokar Cadek, violin professor at Alabama. For 22 seasons Raab was a lso concertmaster of the Brevard Music Center in North Carolina and conductor of the Transylvania Sy mphony Orchestra. He arrived in Bowling Green as Director of Orchestra l Activities in 1969, and remained until his retirement in 1982. He died at age 83 on Jan. 8, 2004. 51 Raab was the f irst Director of Orchestra l Activities to enjoy the ser vices of an Assistant Conductor, R ichard Cioffari. Cioffari had come to Bowling Green in 1967 af ter completing degrees in Music Education and Performance at the Universit y of Michigan. At Bowling Green he taught double bass, music theor y, composition, orchestration, histor y, and conducted the Universit y Chamber Orchestra,

R ichard Ciof fari (1967-94) V. Moore, Dean, p. 132. Recordings of quartets by Quincy Porter, Ross Lee Finney, and others by the Stanley Quartet are readily available on line. See, for instance, https://open.spotify.com/ album/4xwPhMitcbJJ9xz4TnpUtz. 51  DeLand Beacon, DeLand FL, Jan. 29, 2004. 167


Bands Roy Weger (1953- 65) Four individua ls ser ved in the position of Director of Bands during Kennedy’s administration. The f irst was Roy Weger. He had been hired by Merrill McEwen in 1953. By the end of the 1964-65 academic year he had completed thirteen years as Director of Bands, and he may have felt that he had done as much as he could at Bowling Green. Whatever the case, he took a leave of absence for the year 1965-66, from which he never returned never returned. 52 Instead he became Director of the Symphonic Wind Ensemble at Southern Methodist Universit y, where he stayed until his retirement six years later. 53 Richard Ecker (1948- 65) It was assumed that R ichard Ecker, who had been Assistant Director of Bands from 1948 on, would replace Weger, at least for the 1965-66 academic year. However, Ecker had serious problems with protein adjustment, one of only twelve cases in the world, according to David Glasmire. He under went dia lysis, but died on August 16, 1965, shortly before the academic year was to begin, leaving the band program with no director.

52  The phrase “leave of absence’ was often used as a euphemism for “interviewing for another position.” 53  http://trnmusic.com/categories/Composers/Weger,-Roy/ 168


David Glasmire (1965- 66)

David Glasmire describes the situation: W ho cou ld ta ke over t he ba nd? Wel l, Lou Marini a nd I were t he only ones t hat had a ny, sha l l we say, k nowledge. So he took over t he marching ba nd a nd I helped him during marching season. And t hen I took over t he concer t ba nd a nd he helped me a nd t hat was for one year. And t hen Kel ly got here [in 1966] a nd he said “I cou ldn’t believe how disrupted t his ba nd of f ice was.” [Laughter] W hich was true because we were teaching a f u l l load on our ow n. There wasn’t a ny way t hat we cou ld not teach trombone or some ot her brass instruments. So we had to do t hat whole t hing toget her w it hout getting a ny credit on our loads, or ex tra remuneration.

Thus Louis Marini and David Glasmire were Co-Directors for this single year. The following illustration, from the Key Yearbook of 196566, shows Glasmire in action conducting the Concert Band. 54

54  P. 243. Unfortunately I have not found an illustration of Louis Marini leading the marching band. 169


Mark Kelly (1966 -94) Mark Kelly was hired in 1966 to f ill Weger’s position. He had both the Bachelor of Arts (1950) and the Master of Arts (1952) degrees from the Universit y of Iowa, where he studied clarinet with Himie Vox man. For thirteen years he had been Director of Bands in the Center ville Iowa High School (1953-65). He a lso had experience as band director at Clarinda Iowa (1952-53), and as an assistant to Frederick Ebbs in 1965 while Ebbs prepared his band to tour Russia. Fina lly he was a lso deeply involved with Iowa Bandmasters Association and later the American Bandmasters Association, an organization he joined in 1972 and for which he ser ved as Vice-President (1988) and President (1990). He thus had a great dea l of experience to bring to the position. Kelly continued the Band New Music Reading Clinic that Weger had established in 1957, and, like Weger, Kelly was successful in acquiring funds for the band. Fina lly he increased the number of wind ensembles supported by the School of Music: at least three additiona l concert bands and the Fa ll Wind Ensemble. 55 Kelly retired in 1994 af ter twent y-eight years as Director of Bands, but continued to teach on the facult y until 1996. The Mark S. Kelly Universit y Band Award Scholarship, given to an incoming freshman music major, was established in his honor, and the instrumenta l rehearsa l room is dedicated to him.

55  Chris Heidenreich, “Kelly Article-DRAFT.” http://issuu.com/chris.heidenreich/docs/kelly_article-draft.docx 170


New Initiatives Fine Arts Program/Creative Arts Program The Creative Arts Program was begun in 1965 under the title “Fine Arts Program.� It was a non-prof it, Universit y-sponsored program with the goa l of providing lessons, classes and ensemble experiences for area children. Later the target audience was expanded to include Universit y students, providing them with the opportunit y to study the f ine arts, and to adults in the communit y as well as children. Classes were offered on a non-credit basis, giving Universit y students the opportunit y to study music and dance without the pressure of auditions, competitions, juries, and grades. Most importantly, the Creative Arts program ser ved as a laborator y school for College of Musica l Arts students to gain experience in private instruction. Attempts were even made to offer instruction in music theor y and music histor y, but, for whatever reasons, these were never successful.

The following is a list of the directors of the program: Virginia Watson 1965-70 Lois Forbes 1971-74 Virginia Marks 1974-77 (1978?) Claudia Holland 1977 (1978)-79 Joanne Smith 1979-1983 Kenneth Wendrich 1983-84 Martin Porter 1984David Rogers Ann Pope Kay Moore Allison Poorman (1999-2001) Elaine Skoog (2002-03)

171


Until 1970 the directors were drawn from the full-time facult y, but beginning with Claudia Holland, director were of ten drawn from the part-time facult y and other members of the universit y communit y. Moreover, the position suffered from considerable turnover. Beginning in the late 1970s, sever budget began to beset the program. 56 The Program had to fund the director’s sa lar y, which previously had been paid by the College itself, and the classif ication of secretar y who had ser ved the program needed to be upgraded. Complicating the issue is that the Program (not, apparently, the College or the Universit y), had to contribute to the retirement programs of approximately 30 staff members. Most damaging of a ll was the development of competing non-credit arts activities, and enrollment in the Creative Arts Program began to drop. Beginning in 1987, the Program instituted a series of cost cutting measures. Theor y classes, the youth orchestra, the secretaria l position, and instruments owned by the Program (violins, cellos, guitars) were eliminated, and advertising was reduced. These cuts signif icantly wea kened the Program Recently the Creative Arts Program has become more of a clearinghouse for inquiries about applied music lessons, rather than the educationa l and outreach unit it had been. The problem seems to have been funding. The program never generated the resources necessar y to keep it operationa l, and the sa lar y of the Director became diff icult to maintain. This is unfortunate, because the Program itself was a visible and successful outreach component to the College’s mission, and it is missed.

Opera Opera at Bowling Green has a ver y convoluted histor y, involving the background of the institution as a norma l school, the Department’s instructiona l mission for its students, the Universit y’s responsibilit y to provide cultura l enrichment to the campus and communit y, and the f inancia l support necessar y to achieve these goa ls. 56  This information is based on a series of memos between Dean Robert Thayer and Provost Eloise Clark between late 1990 and early 1991 concerning the viability of the program. 172


Opera, or at least presentation of musica l/theatrica l productions, was never entirely absent from the Music Department at Bowling Green. Merrill McEwen produced Gilbert and Sullivan operas at fouryear inter va ls: H. M. S. Pinafore, 1930; The Mikado, 1934; The Pirates of Penzance, 1938; and H. M. S. Pinafore again, 1942. McEwen gave this activit y up af ter 1942, perhaps because of the responsibilities of his position as chair of the department. But James Paul Kennedy continued the operatic activities with The Bartered Bride (1949), and Brigadoon (1956). However, these were a ll performed as part of the educationa l mission of Chora l Activities and the Department; they were “student productions” with a ll their virtues and f laws, not professiona l opera performances especia lly designed to enhance the cultura l environment of the area. That responsibilit y was borne by the Universit y itself through the “Universit y Artist Series.” In 1917, then-president Homer Williams created a committee, headed by Ernest Hesser, to develop what was referred to as the “Entertainment Course,” a series of guest performances by visiting artists and scholars of a variet y of k inds. This series later received the term “Artist Series” and existed from 1917 to 1962. Guests were chosen by a committee of facult y with the chair of the Music Department of ten ser ving as chair. The Series was funded by student fees, and the list of performers who came to campus is truly remarkable. Among the performances were fully staged operas performed in the Main Auditorium. The last opera to be imported through the Artist Series was Bizet’s Carmen, performed in the 1960-61 Series. The academic year 1961-62 saw the conclusion of Artist Series that had lasted fort yfour seasons. In the early 1960s, the new Student Union was completed, and a new committee was formed to oversee the activities in the Union, the Union Activities Organization (UAO), composed of students with an administrative advisor, R ichard Lenhart. Because many of the Artist Series performances took place in the Union Ba llroom, the events fell under the pur view of the this committee, and the tenor of the Artist Series changed a lmost immediately. In 1962-63 the Artist Series was divided into three separate units, a Lecture Series, Cultura l Activities, and Specia l Events. The Universit y Artist Series f ina lly ended in that year, af ter a remarkable run of fort y-f ive years, and a ll with the f inancia l support of the centra l administration. 173


In 1964 a New Artist Series was introduced, divided into a Lecture Series (Art Buckwa ld, Werner von Braun, Basil Rathbone) and Cultura l Events (Ferrante and Teicher; George Szell and the Cleveland Orchestra, Earl Wrightson and Lois Hunt, Robert Shaw Chora le). In 1966, President Jerome enlisted Frank Ba ldanza 57 of the English Department to oversee the reviva l of the Artist Series. Af ter that the Artist Series dea lt with classica l performers, and the UAO with popular performers. Unfortunately this Series only last a single year, and was not revived until Hollis Moore inaugurated the Festiva l Series (198081) devoted exclusively to musica l performances. Upon the demise of the Universit y Artist Series, the School of Music took over the responsibilit y for opera performances. In 1963, Music collaborated with Speech in the performance of Die Fledermaus, with Warren Joseph of Chora l Activities as music director. Fiora Contino replaced Joseph as Director of Opera and Chora l Activities in 1963 and opera activities continued as part of Chora l Activities under her direction. On Dec. 11, 1964, the School of Music produced Menotti ’s Amahl and the Night Visitors with visiting artist Martha Lipton as the mother and Contino conducting.

57  Baldanza was also at one time President of Friends of Music. He died suddenly of a heart attack in 1985. 174


On May 21 and 22, 1966, the School of Music performed Verdi ’s Il trovatore, the f irst opera in Ita lian produced through Bowling Green resources a lone. The cast was composed of Bowling Green facult y and students: Leonora: Sophie Ginn Azucena: Elizabeth Mannion Inez: Eileen Jefferson Manrico: Jean Deis Ferrando: Warren Allen Ruiz: R ichard Burk hart

Contino lef t Bowling Green at the end of the 1966 school year, and her position as opera conductor was ta ken by Charles Gigante, Director of Orchestra l Activities, who performed La Bohème, La Traviata, and Carmen over the next three years. These performances were as close to professiona l productions as the Department could achieve. Facult y took the lead roles because the operas chosen were inappropriate for student voices, and, from 1966 through 1974, the stage direction for the operas was covered by visiting directors. Only when the School of Music became the College of Musica l Arts did Music devote a facult y 175


line to the position of Director of Opera, whose primar y responsibilit y was to direct the productions. Large-sca le opera performances were annua l events and continued through 1980, when the f irst production of the Bowling Green Opera Theater occurred, Cinderella, with director Eugene Dybdahl. It appears that, in the early years of opera production, neither the School of Music nor the centra l administration understood what sorts of f inancia l and administrative commitments were involved in opera production. In a remarkable letter of Feb. 3, 1970 from President Jerome to Kennedy, Jerome remarks, af ter congratulating Kennedy on the performances of The Barber of Seville: “In the future, I wish you wouldn’t run the administrative aspects of the production a lways to the brink as you seem to like to do, since I don’t especia lly enjoy cliff hangers when I have to get into the act.” 58 Friends of Opera/Friends of Music Music units are notoriously expensive, and those that tr y to support opera as part of their activities, and who hope to expand their ser vices and programs, need considerable f inancia l support of the surrounding communit y to succeed. Bowling Green has had three such support groups in its histor y: Friends of the Opera, Friends of Music, and Pro Musica. The earliest of these three was the Friends of the Opera. The Department of Music itself had occasiona lly produced opera in the 1930s and 1940s as part of the chora l program. However, professiona lly produced opera performances had been frequently brought to campus as part of the Universit y’s Artist Series that began in 1917, and they were funded by the Universit y. Music never had to support an opera program by itself. With the demise of Universit y Artist Series in the early 1960s, the School of Music assumed that responsibilit y and the commitment has continued to the present. However this commitment required a level of funding that the School of Music could not provide a lone. ‘Friends of the Opera’ was meant to provide this support. It was established in mid 1960s under the leadership of the Mrs. William T. Jerome, wife of the sixth president of the Universit y. Its purpose was 58  176

See Appendix, Letters b, Jerome to Kennedy 2/3/70.


to help support the annua l opera productions that began with the production of Il trovatore in the Spring of 1966. It continued its work through the 1960s until the departure of President Jerome in 1970. In the early 1970s, the title ‘Friends of the Opera’ a lternated with ‘Friends of Music,’ a group with slightly wider goa ls. Instead of supporting only opera, the Friends of Music a lso supported other activities, including facult y and student travel. However, by the early 1980s the Friends had languished af ter a life span of 14 years.

Summar y of the Kennedy Years It is diff icult to overstate Kennedy’s importance for the music program. He more than doubled the size of the music facult y as a whole, he created a resident applied music facult y in a cit y that could not draw on a resident orchestra for part-time instructors, and he expanded degree programs at both the graduate and undergraduate levels, But Kennedy is the f irst head of music about whom we have some recorded critica l comments. These comments uniformly have to do with f inances. We have seen that, in 1965-66, David Glasmire and Louis Marini were forced to cover Roy Weger’s load with no load reduction and no extra compensation. Bernard Linden reca lls the search for Peter Howard ’s replacement: “ . . . there was again James Paul ’s tendency to ca ll the teacher and say: “Who’s the best you have?” Because he didn’t necessarily want him to have a big reputation, he didn’t want to pay much money.” And William Jerome a lso was critica l of Kennedy’s handling of the opera budget. One last example of this parsimony will suff ice. In 1973 Kennedy was given a sum of $16,000 to hire a facult y member in the Composition/Histor y Department. Instead he hired two people at a sa lar y of $8,000 each. Ironica lly this was the same sa lar y Dvořá k earned in 1894 at the Nationa l Conser vator y of Music in New York Cit y. In 1894 one could live on a sa lar y of $8,000; in 1973, one could not. Gar y Nelson, composer, was one of the two facult y (he lef t for Oberlin af ter one year). I was the other.

177


178


VII. The College Years Introduction I have encountered severa l problems in writing this last section. In the f irst place, it is not possible to write about the present as though it were histor y. What seem to be to be important now may turn out to be secondar y later, and what will turn out to be most signif icant in the future may go completely unnoticed here. Secondly, many of the people involved are still a live, and have memories of these events. However those memories, my own included, are of ten unreliable and at variance with the records. Separate events are conf lated, related events are of ten separate in the minds of the participants, and sma ll details either vanish from mind or assume exaggerated importance. To counter this, I have couched much of the following in the st yle of a chronicle set in prose. Furthermore, coverage cannot be given to individua l departments as it has been in the earlier sections. Someone else will have to write histories of the individua l departments, beginning when those departments were forma lized in 1971-72. For some time thereaf ter, individua ls behaved as though the School/College were still a single music unit, but that has gradua lly dissipated, and now the departments are quite separate in their goa ls, methods, and professiona l activities. Fina lly, the organization of this section must be based on the deans of the College. But deans differ from the earlier chairs of departments (Tunnicliffe, McEwen, Kennedy) and the Director of the School (Kennedy). Deans tend to be more removed from the immediate activities of the various departments, ser ving as upper level management rather than the academic and musica l leaders of the unit. Their tenure is a lso shorter, and so major advances cannot be, or at least have not been, accomplished within the tenure of a single dean.

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The Glidden Years 1975-1979

Robert Glidden, like Mark Kelly and Jon Piersol, was a product of the Universit y of Iowa, where he studied with Himie Vox man, the same instructor who had mentored Mark Kelly and Jon Pierson. He earned his Bachelor of Arts in 1956 and a Master of Arts in Music Performance and Literature in 1960. He completed his Ph.D. in 1966 with a dissertation “The Development of Content and Materia ls for a Music Literature Course in the Senior High School ” During this time he was band director at the Universit y High Blue Hawks in Iowa Cit y, where he was able to teach his experimenta l music literature in 1965-66. Rober t Glidden

Af ter completing his studies, he taught for a year at Wright State Universit y in Day ton (1966-67), and then ser ved as assistant band director for two years at Indiana Universit y-Blooming ton (1967-69). He then moved to the Universit y of Ok lahoma, where he was associate professor, Director of Graduate Studies in Music, and Chair of Music Education (1969-72). In 1972 he became Executive Director of the Nationa l Association of Schools of Music (1972-75. In 1975 he came to Bowling Green as Professor of Music in Music Education and Dean of the College of Musica l Arts, and had, as his Associate Dean, Jon Piersol, who was then Mark Kelly’s Assistant Band Director.

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Jon Piersol The most signif icant event of Glidden’s tenure was the construction of the Musica l Arts Center, and this signa led a change in the role of the Dean in regard to the music unit and the facult y. Starting with his arriva l, Deans became less the academic leaders of the College and more the representatives of the College to the Universit y communit y and to the genera l public. This change happened quite suddenly, mid-way through Glidden’s tenure. At a full facult y meeting, he announced that he had Jon Piersol been assigned the lead role in fund-raising for the new Musica l Arts Center, that he would be relocating to another building on campus, and that he would leave the day-to-day operations of the College to the Associate Dean, Jon Pierson. The position of Dean was becoming that of a CEO, something that has been followed with var y ing degrees of rigor ever since. In 1979 Glidden relocated to Florida State Universit y, where he was Dean of the School of Music (1979-91) and later Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs (1991-94). In 1980 Jon Piersol followed him to Florida, where he became Dean of the School of Music in 1991. In 1994 Glidden ser ved as the Nineteenth President of Ohio Universit y in Athens, Ohio. He retired in 2004 as President Emeritus, but came out of retirement to become Interim President of Ca lifornia Poly technic State Universit y at San Luis Obispo from August 2010 to Februar y 2011 while that institution searched for a permanent President.

181


Moore Musical Arts Center The Board of Trustees approved construction of the Center in 1975, and the building was completed by Fa ll 1979, when classes were held for the f irst time. Between those years a considerable amount of fund raising was necessar y, and Glidden accomplished this. He secured funding for the large performance ha ll, which was dedicated to Lenore and Mar vin Kobacker, and the sma ller recita l ha ll, which was dedicated to Dorothy and Aschel Br yan. In 1981 the building was renamed the Hollis and Marian Moore Musica l Arts Center (MMAC), in honor of the seventh President of the Universit y. In 1983 the Green Room was dedicated to James Paul Kennedy.

Moore Musica l Ar ts Center

Ethnomusicology/World Music The Music Composition/Histor y Department, as it was k nown in the 1970s, had a lways tried to incorporate some non-Western music topics in its music histor y courses. This was due to the fact that Oliver Chamberlain, the f irst facult y member with credentia ls in musicolog y, had worked with William Ma lm at the Universit y of Michigan and thus had some sensitivit y to the importance of the topic. 182


The other two music historians on facult y, Ruth Inglef ield and myself, did what we could to comply. In 1978, Robert Glidden hired JaFran Jones as Chair of the Composition/Histor y Department. She was the f irst ethnomusicologist on facult y, and it was through her efforts that the coverage of World Music expanded. Over the next decades, the ethnomusicolog y facult y increased in number, new courses were introduced, new undergraduate and graduate degree programs were instituted, and new departmenta l ensembles were established.

Faculty In a ll cases, full-time facult y have only part of their loads devoted to ethnomusicolog y; they carr y other responsibilities as well, especia lly courses for the genera l student. Part-time facult y members are used when there is a need for a specia l sk ill, especia lly in ensemble direction. In a ll there have been twent y facult y members since 1978 with some responsibilities in Ethnomusicolog y and World Music. This includes both full- and part-time instructors: Lura JaFra n Jones 1978-92

Kat hy Meizel 20 08-Present

Steven Cornelius 1991-2010

Ta mmya n Starr 20 08-10

Dav id Harnish 1994-2011

Ama nda Vi l lapastour 20 08- 09

Eric Sooy 1994-97

Jesse Johnston 20 09-10

Ju lia Byl 20 02- 03

Kara Attrep 2010 -Present

Amy Wooley 20 04- 05

A l lison Eckardt Merri l l 2010 -Present

Kat herine Brucher 20 05- 07

Sidra Law rence 2011-Present

Maria Mendonca 20 05- 06

Mega n Ra ncier 2011-Present

Pau l Yoon 20 06 - 09

Rober t Desmond 2011-Present

Dav id McDona ld 20 07- 09 Josh Ducha n 20 08- 09

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Courses Since the mid 1970s there had a lways been a course ca lled “Aesthetics of Black Music,” and this immediately became a centra l course in Jones’s load. In addition, three other area studies existed, in Indonesian Music, Japanese Music, and African Music. These still exist, but have been folded into a more genera l title “Area Studies in World Music.” There now exists a stable of seven courses in ethnomusicolog y, four at the undergraduate level and three at the graduate level. Exploring Globa l Popular Music Exploring Music of World Cultures Area Studies in World Music Introduction to Ethnomusicolog y Histor y and Literature of Ethnomusicolog y Problems and Techniques in Ethnomusicolog y Seminar in Ethnomusicolog y

Degree Programs The Musicolog y/Composition/Theor y Department oversees two degree programs in ethnomusicolog y. The Bachelor of Music in World Music was established in 2000 and given f ina l approva l by the Nationa l Association of Schools of Music in 2007. The Master of Music with a specia lization in ethnomusicolog y was established in 2001.

Ensembles The Collegium musicum is the performance wing of the Musicolog y/Composition/Theor y Department. In addition to the Early Music Ensemble and the New Music Ensemble, two ensembles of long standing, it a lso comprises three World Music Ensembles: the Gamelan, the Afro-Caribbean Ensemble, the Taiko Ensemble; a fourth, the Steel Drum Ensemble, is supported by the Music Performance Studies Department. 184


JaFran Jones was responsible for purchasing and directing the f irst gamelan ensemble on campus, Lila Muni (Heavenly Sound), a Ba linese Ank lung ensemble that was introduced on campus in 1980. 1

Li la Muni Ga mela n

In 1990 the Universit y acquired its second gamelan ensemble, Kusuma Sari (Inner Flower), a Ba linese Gong Kebyar ensemble. 2 David Harnish directed the ensemble until leaving Bowling Green in 2011. Its current director is Kurt Doles. Steven Cornelius established the AfroCaribbean Ensemble in 1992. Its repertor y is that of traditiona l songs, percussion music, and dance from sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean.

Kusuma Sari Ga mela n 1  This ensemble was sold to the Eastman School of Music when Bowling Green acquired the Kusuma Sari gamelan in 1990. 2  Also spelled Kasuma Sari. 185


Afro-Caribbea n Ensemble 1995

Cornelius was succeeded by Piedra Olman, and the ensemble is now directed by Sidra Lawrence. With Lawrence the repertor y has expanded to include popular musics of Africa and the African Diaspora. As a result, it now includes trombones, guitar, and electric piano, instruments not part of the origina l ensemble.

Afro-Caribbea n Ensemble 2014 186


Paul Yoon established the Hayabusa Taiko Ensemble soon af ter he came to Bowling Green in 2006. This ensemble is devoted to traditiona l Japanese music, and is currently directed by Allison Eckardt Merrill.

For a n exa mple of a per forma nce in Kobacker Ha l l, see https://w w w.youtube.com/watch?v=pw6q1B-Iie 0

Fina lly, the newest member of the World Music ensembles, the Steel Drum Ensemble directed by Robert Desmond, was established in 2007 to perform both traditiona l Caribbean music and modern jazz arrangements. All of the World Music Ensembles perform as part of World Percussion Night, an annua l Spring concert event for a ll percussion groups on campus and specia l guests. Steel Drum Ensemble 187


The Wendrich Years 1979-1982

Kenneth A. Wendrich Wendrich received his early training at Eastman School of Music, where he earned his Bachelor of Music in 1953 and Master of Music in 1956. He completed his doctorate from the Universit y of Connecticut in 1981, while he was Dean of the College of Musica l Arts, with the dissertation ““Pitch imitation in Infancy and Early Childhood ”1 While at Eastman he was a member of a group of percussionists, the “Fennell Five,” composed of Frederick Fennell, Theodore Frazeur, Mitchell Peters, Kennet h A. Wendrich Gordon Peters, James Dotson, and Wendrich. A photograph of the “Fennell Five” was published in the June 2005 issue of Notes: A Magazine for Alumni of the Eastman School of Music and again in the issue from Januar y 2006. 2 Fennell is on the far lef t; Wendrich is on the far right, play ing a bass drum. He can be heard on the 1957 Eastman Wind Ensemble recording “Ruff les and Flourishes.” Four of them (Peters, Peters, Frazeur, and Wendrich) established an ensemble in 1954, the “Marimba Masters,” that appeared in 1955 on the Arthur Godfrey Show. For a short time in 1958 Wendrich conducted the Greenwich (Conn.) Symphony Orchestra, and from 1959 to 1965 he taught at Greenwich High School, where he conducted the orchestra.

1  Wendrich, Kenneth Arthur, “Pitch Imitation in Infancy and Early Childhood: Observations and Implications” (1981). Doctoral Dissertations. Paper AAI8111923.
http://digitalcommons. uconn.edu/dissertations/AAI8111923 2  Notes: A Magazine for Alumni of the Eastman school of Music. Vol. 23, No. 2. June 2005, p. 3 where readers are asked to identify the members, and Vol. 24 No. 1, January 2006, p. 4, where the members are identified. 188


Before coming to Bowling Green, Wendrich ser ved as executive director of the Neighborhood Music School in New Haven Conn., and as lecturer in Music Education at Ya le Universit y. 3 Some of his Ya le activities are recorded in the article “Music Literature in High Schools: A Ya le Curriculum.”4 He began his responsibilities as Dean on Sept. 1, 1979, the following year he hired R ichard Kennell as Assistant Dean, and he oversaw the move from the Ha ll of Music to the Musica l Arts Center. However his term was relatively brief. In Januar y of 1982, Wendrich announced that he would resign as Dean of the College on July 1 to pursue his research interests and to work directly with students. 5 Af ter he stepped down as Dean, Wendrich remained on the facult y for one year, ser ving as Director of the Creative Arts Program. In 1984 he accepted the position of Executive Director of the W. O. Smith Nashville Communit y Music School in Nashville, TN, and later ser ved as Adjunct Professor of Music Education at Peabody College of Vanderbilt Universit y. On Nov. 1, 1994,Wendrich died at the age of 62 from injuries sustained in an automobile accident. 6 Three major components to the College of Musica l Arts were developed during Wendrich ’s term, the Jazz Studies Program, the Music Librar y and Sound Recordings Archives, and the New Music Festiva l (later the New Music & Arts Festiva l). Each of these would grow further under later deans.

Jazz Studies The Jazz Program actua lly began when Louis E . Marini Sr. was hired in 1964 as the f irst applied sa xophone instructor, the position currently held by John Sampen. 7 Marini a lso had extensive experience 3  4  5  6  7 

The Summer BG News, July 12, 1979, p. 5. Music Educators Journal, Vol. 7, March 1967, p. 35-37; 131-32. The Toledo Blade, Thurs., Jan. 14, 1982p. 15. Billboard, Nov. 19, 1994, p. 72. Applied saxophone instruction during that time was aligned with that of Larry Teal 189


in Band Scoring and Arranging; this may explain why he was a member of the Music Composition/Histor y Department, not Performance Studies. He was aware of, and a fan of, Jazz Sa xophone, and his method of sa xophone pedagog y was more consistent with the performance st yle of Jazz sa xophonists.     In 1967, Wendell Jones (vibraphonist) and David Melle (f lute) were hired as members of the Performance Studies Department. Both of them had jazz experience, but none of their assignments were actua lly in Jazz Studies, since there was neither a Jazz Studies degree or forma l course offerings. However they began to teach Jazz classes informa lly.    Students themselves initia lly formed the Lab Band, and convinced Jones to ser ve as facult y advisor, so that the students could have off icia l sanction to rehearse. Later Melle became the Director of the Lab Band, and Jones began to offer a Jazz Histor y course as an elective.        The actua l Jazz Studies Program began to ta ke shape in 1980, during Wendrich ’s tenure, when guitarist Fred Hamilton was hired by the College as a member of the Music Composition/Histor y Department.   Hamilton proposed and initiated the f irst Jazz degree program, a Jazz Studies minor, approved in 1981. He lef t Bowling Green in Spring 1982. Over the next few years the elements of a full- f ledged Jazz Program were assembled. The f irst jazz week occurred in 1983. Hamilton was replaced by Jeff Ha lsey for Fa ll 1982, and Chris Buzzelli was hired as full-time guitarist in the Music Performance Studies Department in 1984. Together they created the Bachelor of Music Jazz Studies degree program, which was approved in 1989. The f irst jazz ensemble to appear on the Festiva l Series was the Modern Jazz Quartet on Feb. 23, 1988. Thereaf ter most Festiva l Series programs contained at least one Jazz ensemble. Performers include George Shearing (Dec. 3, 1988), Dave Brubeck (Sept 27, 1991), and Marian McPartland Jan. 29, 1994.8 In 1998 McPartland was awarded an Honorar y Doctorate      Upon Wendell Jones’s retirement in 1992, Roger Schupp was (University of Michigan), rather than the “French” or newer style of saxophone performance. I thank Jeff Halsey and Chris Buzzelli for this information. 8  See College Chronicle for complete list of Jazz performers on the Festival Series. 190


hired as percussionist with responsibilities in both applied percussion and Jazz. In the mid-1990s a Jazz Studies position in keyboard (Earl MacDona ld (1996-97); Russell Schmidt (1997-2008); David Bix ler (2009-) was added. At present there are four facult y members with full or partia l duties in the Jazz Studies area: Jeffrey Ha lsey, Christopher Buzzelli, Roger Schupp, and David Bix ler. They direct the two degree programs offered by the College: a Bachelor of Music in Jazz Studies; and a Master of Music in Performance with a Jazz Emphasis.

Music Library/Sound R ecordings Archives The Universit y Librar y a lways had, as part of its genera l collection, a group of books dea ling with Music Education and related topics, and it probably a lso had some scores: complete works editions of composers, etc. Books and scores occupied severa l shelves on the sixth f loor of the Jerome Librar y, and the Librar y had an Audio Center, later renamed the Sound Recordings Archives. Before 1979 the relationship between the individua l departments and the Universit y Librar y was mediated by the departmenta l Librar y Representative, whose job it was to collect purchase requests from facult y and submit them to a specia lly designated member of the librar y facult y for action. This was a diff icult situation because one could never be certain that an item had actua lly been purchased by the Librar y. Even if it were, there was a great time lag between request and appearance of the item on the shelves, and no notice would necessarily be sent from the Librar y to the Librar y Representative that the item had been received. Moreover the librar y facult y members probably did not have any training in the discipline of the department they represented. My case is an example. When I f irst arrived on campus, I was assigned the task of being the Librar y Representative from Music to the Librar y, and my contact person was Carson Bennett, Head of the Reference Department. He had a Bachelor of Arts degree from Butler Universit y, a Bachelor of Science degree in Librar y Science from Peabody College, a Master of Arts from Indiana State Universit y, but no training in music at a ll, and so we had diff icult y in communicating with one another. At one point he told me that the Librar y had a policy against acquiring scores. 191


I assured him that the music collection, though sma ll, did indeed have a great many scores on the sixth f loor. But we were ta lk ing at crosspurposes. What he meant was that the Librar y did not purchase scores for performance (he especia lly mentioned the choruses). The music librar y began to ta ke shape when William Schurk was hired in 1967. He had a Bachelor of Arts from Bowling Green State Universit y and a Master’s of Science in Librar y Science from Case Western Reser ve Universit y, and was passionate about collecting a ll materia ls related to popular music. He became Head of the Universit y’s Audio Center, which had opened in 1968 on the third f loor of the Jerome Librar y. Schurk maintained a relationship with the School of Music, and particularly with the Composition/Histor y Department, because of his interest in popular music, and because the Composition/ Histor y Department offered courses in Popular Music. The Music Listening Center in the music building was completely independent of the Audio Center in the Librar y. It was housed on the third f loor of the Ha ll of Music, and had its own administrative and support personnel, as well as its own cata loguing system. It too had a sma ll collection of scores. In 1979, during the process of moving from the Ha ll of Music to the Musica l Arts Center, there arose a conversation about the placement of the Music Listening Center materia ls: Should those materia l be folded into the Universit y Librar y music holdings, or should the Universit y Librar y materia l be moved to the Musica l Arts Center? Fortunately it was decided that a ll musica l materia ls should be centra lized in the Universit y Librar y. The argument that won the day was one of space and the possibilit y of grow th. The Music Listening Center became part of the Universit y Librar y Sound Recordings Archives in 1980, when music collection was merged with the Universit y Librar y collections. At this point the “Sound Recordings Archive” was renamed the “Music Librar y and Sound Recordings Archives.” This merger resulted in a rea l Music Librar y, containing books, scores, other printed materia l, and recordings on reel-to-reel tapes, cassette tapes, and compact discs of music facult y and student performances, and “classica l ” music not part of the origina l Audio Center collection.

192


In 1979 the Universit y Libraries hired its f irst music librarian, that is, someone with training in both librar y science and music, and it has never been without one since. At f irst the position was one of Assistant Librarian (this is the position Smith held) but, beginning with Linda Fidler, the position was that of Head Librarian and has remained so. 1979-81

Mark Elliot Smit h

1982-89

Linda Fid ler, Head Librarian

1990-92

Suzanne Eggleston, Head Librarian

1992-2005

Bonna Boettcher, (1996: Head of Specia l Collections)

2005- 06

Patricia Fa lk, Interim Head Music Librarian

2006 -

Susanna h Cleveland, Head Librarian

The presence of a music librar y within the Universit y Libraries organization a llowed many opportunities that would not have been available other wise. Many music students found positions in the music librar y, and in some cases this interest led them to pursue degrees in Librar y Science. Furthermore, a Librar y User Education program was adopted by the College of Music Arts as part of the sequence of Music Histor y courses, and the Music Librarian gave the presentations. More important were the advantages of being able to use the cata loguing resources of the librar y. In the Fa ll of 1993, the Music Librar y began to cata logue the scores and tapes collected by the MidAmerican Center for Contemporar y Music (MACCM) since 1979. The Universit y now has a specia l collection of over 6700 items, the “New Music Festiva l Archives.” In addition, the Librar y’s Center for Archiva l Collections houses papers related to MACCM. The second advantage concerned the cata loguing of facult y (and student) performances, something of surprisingly recent date. According to Susannah Cleveland, “Many schools of music just recycled the tapes they used to record loca l performances until sometime in the ‘50s or ‘60s when they rea lized the va lue of documenting performances long term.”9 That is, a lthough the performances were recorded, the tapes themselves were not saved. In 1963 the School of Music began 9 

Email communication, 10/28/2014. 193


saving its recordings of performances and preser ving them in the Universit y on reel-to-reel tapes. The earliest facult y chamber recita l extant was recorded on March 3, 1963; the earliest facult y artist recita l was that by Frederick Young (Clarinet), assisted by Elizabeth Cobb (Piano), and Donovan Schumacher (Cello), recorded on Nov. 11, 1963, and the earliest opera recording was one of Gluck ’s Orfeo ed Euridice performed by the Opera Workshop under the direction of Sophie Ginn.

New Music (& Art) Festival This is the beginning of coverage of contemporar y music and its place in the College of Musica l Arts. No single dean is responsible for its prominence; rather various deans, beginning with Wendrich, contributed to or oversaw the implementation of various aspects of what came to be k nown as the Contemporar y Music Program: New Music & Art Festiva l (Wendrich); Contemporar y Music Program; Academic Cha llenge Grant; Mid-American Center for Contemporar y Music (Thayer); DMA in Contemporar y Music (Kennell); Nationa l Public Media Radio Programs; Performances (Showell). Each of these items will be discussed under the various deans, beginning with the New Music Festiva l in the Wendrich years. In the 1979-80 academic year, at a meeting of the full facult y, Burton Beerman told the facult y that he had just returned from a new music festiva l at another school, and he k new that our facult y could do a better job of such a underta k ing. He then proposed that we establish our own New Music Festiva l. It was to include specia l guest composers of nationa l recognition, other composers whose works were chosen for performance from a bank of submitted compositions, and panel discussions with the composers. The f irst in New Music Festiva l took place on April 25-26, 1980, with specia l guests Vladimir Ussachevsk y and Lejaren Hiller, whom Beerman k new.10 Since then an impressive list of guest composers have come through the College. It has been ver y gratif y ing for those of us who taught music histor y that students were able to see and meet many of the composers whom we had been discussing in our lectures. 10  194

Hiller was present at the panel discussion on Apr. 25


New Music & Art Festiva l Guests 1980-2014 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

V ladimir Ussachevsk y, Lejarin Hiller Milton Babbitt Joseph Schwantner ONCE Group Philip Glass American Music John Cage, Pat Oleszko Joan LaBarbara, Mor ton Subotnik George Crumb John Adams Joan LaBarbara, Joan Tower Lou Harrison John Cage Pau line Oliveros John Corigliano Gunt her Schu ller Karel Husa Bernard Rands Ant hony Dav is Christopher Rouse Terr y R iley William Bolcom Pau l Lansk y Bright Sheng Shu lamit Ran Samuel Ad ler Frederic R zewsk i Chen Yi John Harbison Steven Stuck y Rober t Morris, Duo Diorama, JACK String Quar tet Dav id Lang John Lut her Adams George Lew is, Ensemble Da l Niente Pau l Dresher and his Double Duo

195


Beginning in 1988, the Festiva l name was changed to the “New Music & Art Festiva l � to ref lect the close collaboration between the College of Musica l Arts and the Art Department. Art was dropped from the title with the 29th Festiva l in 2008, but arts events have continued to be a part of the Festiva l. The Series is now in its 34th year.

196


The Thayer Years 1983-1993

Robert Thayer received a Bachelor of Music and a Bachelor of Music Education in 1949 from the Eastman School of Music and Master of Music Education from Wichita State Universit y in 1955. For much of his early professiona l life he was a French Horn player, performing with the Erie Philharmonic Orchestra and, while work ing on his Master’s degree, with the Wichita Symphony. 1 From 1953-58 he taught at the Friends Universit y, a Qua ker school in Wichita, and from 1958-72 at Cornell College, Mt. Vernon Iowa, where he was the only full-time instrumenta l facult y member. In 1971 he completed his Ph.D. at the Universit y of Iowa with the dissertation, Rober t Thayer “An Investigation of the Interrelation of Persona lit y Traits, Musica l Achievement, and Different Measures of Musica l Aptitude.” 2 He continued performing during this time, play ing French Horn with the Cedar Rapids Sy mphony. In 1972 he joined the facult y of the Crane School of Music, SUNY Potsdam, f irst as a facult y member, the as Associate Dean and Acting Dean, and f ina lly as f if th Dean in 1977. He came to Bowling Green in 1983 and ser ved as dean for ten years, a long time for such a position. He retired in 1993, and since then has lead a peripatetic existence. 3 From 1993 to 1996 he worked in the BGSU Development Off ice. From 2001-02 he ser ved as Interim Dean of the School of Music at DePauw Universit y in Green Castle Indiana. 4 He then ser ved as Interim Chair 1  See the Wichita State University Parnassus Yearbook, Class of 1952, p. 111. Thayer is second from right in the upper right photo. 2  http://library.sc.edu/music/dissertations.html 3  Cliff Boutelle, BGSU Retirees Association Newsletter, Vol. 18, Nov.1 2012. 4  “Robert Thayer Named Interim Dean of DePauw School of Music” DePauw News & Media 197


of the Music Department at the Universit y of Connecticut-Storrs (2003-05),5 Dean of the Conser vator y of Music at Lawrence Universit y in Appleton Wisconsin (2005-08),6 as Chair of the Music Education Department at Bowling Green (2008-09), and as Interim Director of the Bower School of Music at Florida Gulf Coast Universit y in Fort Meyers Florida (2009-12).7 Since 2012 I have seen him more and more frequently in Bowling Green; now, perhaps, he has rea lly retired.

Achievements Contemporary Music Program/MidAmerican Center for Contemporary Music 8

In Aug. 1985 the College applied to the Ohio Board of Regents for an Academic Cha llenge Grant, at that time an innovative statefunded program for higher education that was unique to Ohio. The proposa l, approved in 1987, broadened the earlier Contemporar y Music Program by establishing a nationa l center for the study and promotion of contemporar y music and technolog y. It was based on the College’s a lready strong reputation in contemporar y music through the New Music Festiva l, which had begun in 1979, and through the Contemporar y Music Program. The MidAmerican Center for Contemporar y Music (MACCM) received its off icia l title in December 1990 with approva l of the Undergraduate Council.9 First Round funding was received in 1987-89. Funding support was to have continued through at least June 30, 1993. However the entire Academic Cha llenge program was discontinued in the f irst year of the George Voinovich administration. Announcement, 4/19/2001. 5  http://advance.uconn.edu/2003/030903/03090311.htm. See also The Shocker: Wichita State University Alumni Magazine, Summer 2006, and Iowa Alumni Magazine, Apr. 2014. 6  See also University of Rochester, Rochester Review, Vol. 69, No. 1. Class Notes: Eastman School of Music (1949). 7  Florida Gulf State University, Office of Vice President and Chief of Staff, Sept. 16, 2009. 8  This information is based heavily on a report prepared by Marilyn Shrude, then Director of the MidAmerican Center for Contemporary Music, November, 1995. See also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Jeff_Weston/sandbox 9  This may seem an odd choice for an approval body, but the Undergraduate Council had approval rights for other such academic units on campus, and no one could think of an alternative in this case. 198


The Center was to function as an activit y and organizationa l center for contemporar y music within the College, and as an advocacy and promotion center to the world at large. Funds from the Center a llowed the College to hire its f irst Music Theor y facult y member, William La ke, in 1988. To satisf y its goa ls the Center supported the following activities: 1.

New Music & Art Festiva l

2.

Archives of the MidAmerican Center for Contemporar y Music

3.

New Music & Art Festiva l Radio Series10

4.

Recording Series

5.

MACCM Database

6.

Archives of the MidAmerican Center for Contemporar y Music, housed in the Music Librar y and Sound Recordings Archives of the Jerome Librar y.

7.

Distinguished Visiting Composer Series

8.

Music Technolog y and Recording Studios

9.

Contemporar y Music Forum (Journa l)

10. Research and Development Projects 11. Guest Composers, Performers, Educators, and Scholars 12. Music at the Forefront and Mostly MIDI Concert Series 13. Communit y Outreach Activities 14. Off-campus Performances, Nationa l Conferences, and Festiva ls 15. Summer Workshops in New Technolog y 16. Grants and Awards

10  Not to be confused with the much more recent radio series “New Music from Bowling Green.” 199


Pro Musica In 1983 Robert Thayer revived the music support group, this time named Pro Musica, under the leadership of Charles La kofsk y.

R ick Pet houd, Charles La kofsk y, a nd Rober t Thayer

Its genera l aims were to provide f inancia l support for the College, to enhance audience development, and to maintain the qua lit y of the music programs. To do this, Pro Music concentrated on providing f inancia l assistance to students, especia lly through scholarships opportunities (Music Ta lent Awards, Minorit y Scholarships) and travel grants. Its exclusive concentration on students distinguishes it from the Friends of the Opera and Friends of Music.

200


life.

There have been ten presidents of Pro Musica over the course of its

Pro Musica Presidents 1983-2014 Charles La kofsk y 1983-86 Margaret Tucker 1986-88 Sheilah Fulton 1988-90 Duane Tucker 1990-92 Carolyn Lineback 1992-94 Barbara Lockard Zimmerman

1994-96

Harold M. Hanna

1996-99

Matthew Reger 1999-2004 Ramona Cormier 2004-06 Karol Spencer 2006-Present Thanks to these individua ls, and especia lly Karol Spencer, Pro Music continues to f lourish, and recently celebrated its 30th anniversar y.

R ecording Techniques/R ecording Technology There had a lways been a recording ser vices unit to the School of Music, at least since the days when reel-to-reel recordings were made of ensemble concerts and facult y and student recita ls. Music began to save these recordings in 1963 and recording ser vices was charged with ma k ing these recordings and saving them. They were housed in the Music Listening Center in the Ha ll of Music (There was as yet no music librar y to which to send them). When the College of Musica l Arts moved into the Musica l Arts Center, David Lau (1980-85) was hired as consultant on Recording equipment for the new building, and as part-time instructor in Recording Techniques. Mark Bunce (1984- ) succeeded Lau. He f ills the dua l position as staff member in recording technolog y and part-time instructor in Recording Techniques. 201


The College of Musica l Arts offers Recording Technolog y minor, open to a ll Universit y students who have completed MUCT 3450 with a B or better. Students may emphasize either the business or technologica l aspects of the program. The program was approved in 1989 and initiated in 1990.

202


The Riggins Years 1993-2000

Herbert Lee R iggins received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Humboldt State Universit y, a Master of Music degree from Arizona State Universit y, and his Ph.D. in Music Theor y from the Universit y of Texas at Austin with the dissertation: “Heinrich Schenker’s Graphic Notation and Contemporar y Variants.” Universit y of Texas-Austin, 1981. His teaching and administrative experience began a lmost immediately. Between 1981 and 1985 he ser ved as Chair of Music Department at Mar ygrove College in Detroit, and as acting chair of the division of music Herber t Lee R iggins at Purdue Universit y. 1 From 1985 to 1987 he was an Assistant Professor in the Music Department at the Universit y of Alabama-Birmingham. He then moved to the Universit y of Missouri-Kansas Cit y, where he spent the next si x years (1987-93) as a facult y member and administrator of the Conser vator y of Music. For two of those years he was Chair of the Theor y Division (1987-89), followed by four years as of Chair of the Division of Academic Studies (1989-93). In Fa ll, 1993, R iggins became the f if th Dean of the College of Musica l Arts, the f irst music theorist to occupy the position, and the f irst person since James Paul Kennedy to have academic credentia ls outside of music education. At the end of the 1999-2000 academic year R iggins was to have lef t Bowling Green to become Dean of the School of Arts and Humanities at the Universit y of Alabama-Birmingham, where he had taught f if teen 1 

Bowling Green State University Monitor, May 10, 1993, Vol. XVI, No. 38, p. 1. 203


years earlier. The Universit y had even announced his appointment.2 However it was not to be. Instead he became Vice President for Academic Affairs and Dean of the College at North Carolina Wesleyan College, where he stayed until his retirement in 2003. 3

Achievements The R iggins years saw a sudden increase in the number of facult y retirements. The large number of facult y that Kennedy hired between 1960 and 1972 was now approaching retirement age, and the Universit y offered them the incentive of an early buy-out option that they could not refuse.4 The number of retirements reached a pea k of ten in Spring 1998: Wa lter Ba ker; Anna Belle Bognar; Elizabeth Cobb; Wa llace DePue; Edward Marks; R ichard Mathey; David Rogers; Jerome Rose; Virginia Starr; and Dona ld Wilson. Four others (Cioffari; Eikum; Kelly; Ma kara) had retired earlier. These were in addition to another sixteen facult y who lef t the Universit y, either because they did not receive tenure, or because they moved on to other positions. Some of these retirements proceeded smoothly; others were quite tumultuous. When R iggins came to Bowling Green, he inherited a facult y of slightly over 50. It is to his credit that he was able to maintain that level, and even to increase it by the time he lef t. Two other contributions deser ve mention, a lthough neither was completed during R iggins’ term. Work progressed on the D.M.A. in Contemporar y Music that had been sta lled for some years. It was f ina lly approved in 2005. Also, in 1996, funds were established for the Hansen Musica l Arts Series, which would bring prominent musicians to campus. The presentations began in 2003.

2  UAB News Archive: http://www.uab.edu/newsarchive/43320-uab-names-new-dean-of-artsand-humanities 3  ISSUU - Words of Note 2013: Celebrating 100 Years of Music, Oct. 1, 2013. See issuu.com/ butlerschoolofmusic/docs/wordsofnote2013digitaledition/11. Letters of congratulations can be found at The Dissenter, North Caroline Wesleyan College, 2003. 4  I remember the 1972 date because I was hired in 1973 and so missed the option by one year, since. 204


The Kennell Years 2000-2011

R ichard Kennell is a product of Northwestern Universit y, where he received his Bachelor of Music Education in 1971, and his Master of Music degree in 1975. 1 While at Northwestern he was a member of the Symphonic Wind Ensemble conducted by John Payntor, in which he played Baritone Sa xophone. 2 In 1974, Kennell became Band Director at Rolling Meadows High School in Illinois, and a member of the Chicago Sa xophone Quartet. The other members of the quartet, James Kasprzyk, Robert Black, and Wa lker Smith, were, like Kennell, music assistants at area R ichard Kennel l high schools. 3 A contemporar y of his at Northwestern, Marilyn Shrude, wrote Evolution V for Solo Alto Sa xophone and Sa xophone Quartet (SATB) for John Sampen (another Northwestern contemporar y) and the Chicago Sa xophone Quartet. They premiered the work at the 5th World Sa xophone Congress in London, England (1976). It is in many ways a sma ll world we inhabit! Kennell remained with the Quartet until 1980. The last performance of the Chicago Sa xophone Quartet that I can f ind in which he participated occurred at the World Sa xophone Congress 5, in Evanston Illinois, 1979.

1  117th Commencement, Sat., June 14, 1975. 2  Program Notes: 17th National Conference of College Band Directors, University of Illinois, Krannert Great Hall, Jan. 11, 1973. 3  See The Buffalo Grove Herald, Monday, December 23, 1974: “Members of the [Chicago Saxophone] quartet are James Kasprzyk, music assistant at Wheeling and Prospect high schools; Richard Kennell, music assistant at Rolling Meadows High School, and Robert Black and Walker Smith, who both serve as private instructors at Rolling Meadows and Wheeling high schools. 205


Even when he came to Bowling Green, he continued to perform, at least for a short time. In 1982 he was a member of the BGSU Sa xophone Quartet, with John Sampen, James Umble, and Matthew Ba lensuela. 4 In the late 1970s Kennell started on his administrative career. He became the Coordinator of Music Admissions at DePaul Universit y, a position he held until 1980, when he came to Bowling Green as Assistant Dean and member of the Performance Studies Department. He was the f irst person hired in an exclusively administrative capacit y, as Assistant Dean to Kenneth Wendrich. This proved to be a diff icult point when it came to tenure eva luation, because the department had no evidence of studio teaching or solo performance on which to base its decision. However, Kennell had been teaching the Research Techniques course for Performance majors at the graduate level, and that provided the evidence that was needed. In the Spring of 1982, Wendrich resigned and a search was started, but it was discontinued, and Kennell ser ved as Acting Dean for the academic year 1982-83, during which the search for a new Dean was reopened.5 The new search y ielded Robert Thayer, and Kennell ser ved as his Associate Dean throughout Thayer’s tenure (1983-93). He a lso ser ved as Associate Dean under Thayer’s successor, H. Lee R iggins (1993-2000). During a leave of absence in the late 1980s, Kennell completed a doctora l degree at the Universit y of Wisconsin–Madison in Music Education. His dissertation, “Three Teacher Scaffolding Strategies in College Instrumenta l Applied Music Instruction,” set the tone for his subsequent research career. By concentrating on Applied Music instruction, his work straddles both Performance Studies and Music Education. He continues to be active as a researcher in these f ields and in computer studies, an interest he cultivated from the late 1990s on. R iggins resigned in 2000, and again Kennell f illed the position of Interim Dean for the years 2000-02.6 He was named permanent Dean 4  A photograph can be found at http://www.johnwsampen.com/studio/quartets.html 5  Bowling Green State University Monitor, Vol. 6, #8, Aug. 23, 1982, p. 1. 6  The Toledo Blade, Tuesday, 4/23/2002. See http://www.toledoblade.com/ Education/2002/04/23/BGSU-tabs-acting-dean-to-lead-music-department. html#6AwjP5T8GLPUuvIu.99 206


in 2002, and held the position until his retirement in 2011. The Dr. Richard Kennell Music Scholarship was created by funds provided by friends, colleagues, a lumni and donors in his honor.

International Outreach Connections between the College of Musica l Arts and mainland China were established during the Thayer years, but internationa l outreach efforts increased greatly over the following years, so much so that, by Kennell ’s retirement, 19 facult y members had traveled to China a lone, and the College had a regular connection with an institution in Corfu, Greece. Students were able to study in Florence, Ita ly, and students have traveled to and studied in Ghana and in Indonesia7

Degree Programs Bachelor of Music in World Music 2000, approved 2007 Master of Music/Ethnomusicolog y 2001 Doctor of Musica l Arts in Contemporar y Music 2005

Endowments Marjorie Conrad Peatee Art Song Competition Helen McMaster Endowed Professorship. Hansen Musica l Arts Series David D. Dubois Piano competition and Festiva l

Degree Programs Three new degree programs were approved during Kennell ’s terms. Two of them, The Bachelor of Music in World Music (initiated in 2000, approved in 2007) and the Master of Music with a Specia lization in Ethnomusicolog y (approved 2001) were the culmination of the twent yyear histor y of ethnomusicolog y in the College. The third, the Doctor of Musica l Arts in Contempprar y Music, had an especia lly diff icult birth. 7 

David DuPont. Sentinel Arts & Entertainment Editor, May 12, 2011. 207


Almost as soon as the Academic Cha llenge Grant was received, thoughts began to turn to a doctora l program. At f irst each department was given an opportunit y to submit its own proposa l, but Music Education soon decided that it would not, and there was much ambiva lence in the Performance Studies Department for any progress. Thus the Musicolog y/Composition/Theor y Department was the only one to advance a proposa l. The f irst idea was that the new degree should be a researchoriented one, the Ph.D., but af ter some debate, the proposa l was a ltered to a practice-oriented degree, the Doctor of Music Arts in Contemporar y Music with specia lizations in Composition, Conducting, or Instrumenta l/Voca l Performance. Work ing out the details of this proposa l took the last six years of Thayer’s tenure, a ll of R iggins’ term, and was only successful in 2005, f ive years into Kennell ’s position as Dean.

Endowments The Kennell years saw the establishment and/or f irst fruits of four endowments. The Marjorie Conrad Peatee Art Song Competition began in 2000. Helen McMaster Endowed Professorship Was established in 2000, and its f irst presentation occurred in 2005. Hansen Musica l Arts Series, funds for which had been established in the R iggins years, saw its f irst presentation in 2003. Fina lly, the David D. Dubois Piano competition and Festiva l was established in 2008, with a f irst presentation in 2010.

208


Wolfe Center for the Arts The Wolfe Center for the Arts is the new home of the Department of Theater and Film, but it was a lso intended to be a collaborative center for theater, dance, music, f ilm, and digita l arts. The person most closely associated with it is Rona ld Shields, who was Chair of the Department at that time. He secured the architects, Snøhetta, based in Oslo, Nor way, and had signif icant input into the design of the building. He a lso worked closely with the College of Musica l Arts, and was especia lly important to the opera program. The Board of Trustees approved the project on June 25, 2008, construction began in 2009, and the building was completed in 2011. It is named af ter principa l donors Frederic and Mar y Wolfe, and is primarily occupied by the Department of Theater and Film. Music shares the space as well: the Marjorie E . Conrad Chora l Room, Wolfe Center for t he Ar ts the Dorothy MacKenzie Price Piano Storage Room, and especia lly the Thomas B. and Kathleen M. Donnell Theater, in size between the two concert ha lls in the Moore Musica l Arts Center, the large Kobacker Ha ll and the sma ll Br yan Recita l Ha ll.

209


The Showell Years 2011 - present

Jeffrey Showell was by profession a violist, and is the f irst Dean since Kennedy whose background is exclusive in performance. For two years Showell was a German major at Stanford Universit y before transferring to the Eastman School of Music, where he earned Bachelor’s and Masters degrees in Performance between 1972-75. In 1976, he went on to Ya le Universit y, where he received an M.M.A. and a D.M.A. in 78. Showell had an active career Jef frey Showel l as a solo, chamber, and orchestra l performer. He has been a soloist with severa l orchestras, including the St. Paul Chamber Orchestra and the St. Cloud Symphony, he was the violist in the Ry mour Quartet, and was Principa l Violist of the Tucson Sy mphony from 1982-90. He has published severa l transcriptions for viola, is the author of A Technical Pedagogy for Viola, and has written articles for the American String Teacher, Journal of the American Viola Society, and The Journal of the National Academic Advising Association. He can a lso be heard on Albany Records play ing Dan Asia’s String Quartet No. 1. Showell began his academic careers in the late 1970s He taught for two years at the College of St. Benedict/St. Johns Universit y in Minnesota, and nineteen years at the Universit y of Arizona (198099), where he a lso ser ved as Graduate Director and then as Assistant Director of the School of Music and Dance. Af ter f ive years as Chair of the Music Department of the Universit y of Centra l Arkansas (19992004) and seven years as the Director of the School of Music at James Madison Universit y in Virginia (2004-11), Showell came to Bowling Green in 2011 as sixth Dean of the College of Musica l Arts.

210


It is too early for Showell to have made large-sca le contributions to the College, but some projects that he has encouraged, or that have ta ken place under his watch, should be mentioned.

New Music from Bowling Green New Music from Bowling Green, begun with 13 episodes in 2014, is a radio series devoted to living composers and their works. The program originates from the MidAmerican Center for Contemporar y Music at the College of Musica l Arts, and is produced by WGTE Public Media, hosted by Brad Cresswell. It is distributed by the WFMT Radio Network through the Public Radio Exchange (PR X). In its f irst season, New Music from Bowling Green was carried by 162 radio stations in 24 states, as well as the Philippines and Dubai, reaching a tota l market of more than 37 million listeners. The program’s second season of thirteen episodes began on Januar y 1, 2015. The series draws primarily on live concert recordings from the New Music Festiva l and Music at the Forefront, as well as commercia l recordings featuring the Bowling Green Philharmonia and the BGSU Wind Sy mphony. The series a lso includes comments by the composers and performers.

Klingler ElectroAcoustic R esidency (K EAR) The K lingler ElectroAcoustic Residency was established in 2013 by Elainie Lillios, Coordinator of Music Technolog y, and funded by author, sof tware developer, and philanthropist Joe K linger. The residency provides opportunities for composers to work for two weeks in Bowling Green State Universit y’s 10.2 multi-channel/f irst order Ambisonic studio housed in the Moore Musica l Arts Building, Room 3002. Funding a llows for two residencies each year, one in the Fa ll and the other in the Spring. The 2013-14 residents were Adam Basanta (Fa ll 2013) and Brad Garton (Spring 2014); the 2014-15 residents are John Young (Fa ll 2014) and Jont y Harrison (Spring 2015).

211


Bowling Green State University Choral Series This project represents a collaboration of an individua l facult y member, the members of the chora l program, and the Dean. To celebrate the 100th anniversar y of the Women’s Chorus, Sandra Stegman commissioned a work for the Chorus from Libby Larsen. Mark Munson decided to use this as an opportunit y to promote the College and the chora l program and, together with Stegman and Timothy Cloeter, began to search for a publishing company. They made a proposa l to the Santa Barbara Music Publishers to establish a Bowling Green State Universit y Chora l Series, but were told that the Universit y would need more than one piece. Munson approached Showell for funding, and Showell volunteered to f ind funding for f ive pieces for 2014-15. The following pieces have been commissioned, will be performed by the chora l ensembles by Spring 2015, and will appear in the series. 1 Libby Larsen

Look! Be: leap

Sven-David Sandström

Vanit y of Vanities

Stacey Gibbs

In His Care-O

David Dickau

Old Tunes

Tim Sarsany

Be Strong in the Lord

1  An additional piece, Robert Cohen’s Wind, will be included at the editor’s request. For a complete list of the Santa Barbara Series, see http://www.sbmp.com/CSPic.php 212


VIII. Synopses 1975 - present

Degree Programs The Universit y offers a wide variet y of music degree options at a ll levels: Minors Jazz Minor Recording Technolog y Minor Music Minor (Through College of Arts and Sciences) Undergraduate Degrees Bachelor of Music Bachelor of Musica l Arts Bachelor of Arts Music Certif icate Program Conducting Instrumenta l performance Voca l performance Composition Masters Degrees Composition Music Education Music Histor y Music Performance Music Theor y Ethnomusicolog y Doctor of Musica l Arts in Contemporar y Music Composition Conducting Performance 213


The College of Musica l Arts super vises two undergraduate degree programs: The Bachelor of Music and the interdisciplinar y or multidisciplinar y Bachelor of Musica l Arts. The difference lies in the percentage of hours devoted to music relative to the entire program. The Bachelor of Music required that a minimum of 65% be music courses, while in the Bachelor of Musica l Arts, the minimum is 50%. A third program, the Bachelor of Arts in Music, is super vised by the College of Arts and Sciences and required a minimum of 35%. There are a lso three minors available, two in the College of Musica l Arts and one in the College of Arts and Sciences. The Jazz Minor (31 hours) is open to students in music composition, music education, music histor y and literature, or music performance. The Recording Technolog y Minor (22 hours) is open to a ll Universit y students who have completed MUCT 3450 (Sur vey of Music Technolog y) with a minimum grade of B. Fina lly, a more genera l Music Minor is available to Bachelor of Arts students through the College of Arts and Sciences. The Music Certif icate Program is a one-year post-undergraduate experience for those pursuing concentrated study in performance or composition. It is intended for both pre-masters and post-masters students, and successful completion requires 12 hours of study with a 3.00 grade point average and recita ls appropriate to the area of concentration. The program is especia lly attractive to foreign students, who may enroll in English courses in addition to the 12-hour requirement. In the early 1980s the Master of Music degree was completely restructured, and in the process, nearly a ll 2-hour graduate courses, a hold over from the process of semester conversion, were eliminated. The new shape of the Master’s program was that of Degree; Area, and Specia lization. There is a single degree, the Master of Music. There were origina lly f ive areas: Composition; Music Education; Music Histor y: Music Performance: and Music Theor y; in 2001 Ethnomusicolog y was added as a sixth area. Music Education and Performance Studies have further subdivisions under the specia lizations. Among these is the newly created specia lization in Teaching Artistr y, the f irst completely online degree offered by the College. 214


Severa l new degree options have been initiated since 2000. The Bachelor of Music in World Music was initiated in 2000, and received approva l from the Nationa l Association of Schools of Music in 2007. The Master of Music in Ethnomusicolog y followed shortly thereaf ter, in 2001. The most recent program is the Doctor of Musica l Arts in Contemporar y Music, the most signif icant graduate initiative in the College since the inception of the Master’s program in 1967.1 This was the culmination of a ver y long gestation process, extending, as was discussed, as far back as the early 1970s during Kennedy’s tenure. Doctora l aspirations were revived af ter receipt of the Academic Cha llenge Grand in 1987, while Thayer was Dean. However, a rancorous debate, within and between departments, prevented much progress for the remaining Thayer years and throughout R iggins’ tenure. Only in Kennell ’s administration was it f ina lly decided that the degree should be a Doctor of Musica l Arts, that it should be specif ica lly in Contemporar y Music, and that it should be offered in the three areas of Composition, Conducting, or Performance.2 This was the proposa l put for ward, and it was approved by the Ohio Board of Regents in 2005.

1  The new online Master of Music in Teaching Artistry was too recent to be included. 2  It was conceived as an analog to doctoral programs in Early Music available in several institutions across the country. 215


Band Activites Band Directors during the College years Mark Kelly remained Director of Bands for the remainder of the Kennedy years and throughout the Glidden, Wendrich, and Thayer years, f ina lly retiring in 1993, early in R iggins’ term of off ice. He was succeeded in 1994 by Bruce Moss, who has remained Director of Bands since then. Bruce Moss received a B.S. and an M.S. in Music Education from the Universit y of Illinois. Immediately af ter completing his undergraduate degree, Moss became director of bands at York Communit y High School (19761987). While still at York, he began a long and fruitful relationship with the Wheaton Municipa l Band in Wheaton IL (1980-present). Moss lef t York in 1987 to pursue a Ph.D. at Ohio State Universit y, which he completed win 1989 with the dissertation “Differentia l Approaches to Rehearsing and Conducting an Instrumenta l Ensemble.”1 For one Bruce Moss year, 1989-90, Moss was Director of Bands at St. Cloud Universit y, St. Cloud MN, and held the same position at Eastern Illinois Universit y in Charleston Illinois (1990-94) before coming to Bowling Green. Both Kelly and Moss have had a string of Assistant or Associate Band Directors. The following is a list of the twelve assistant band directors who ser ved from the late Kennedy years to the present.

1  Moss, Bruce Burbank. “Differential Approaches to Rehearsing and Conducting an Instrumental Ensemble.” Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University, 1989. 216


1)

Jon Piersol (1969-80)

2)

John Dea l (1976-79)

3)

Barr y Kopetz (1979-83)

4)

Glenn Hayes (1982-86)

5)

Jay Jackson (1986-92)

6)

Thomas Rohrer (1993-98)

7)

Warren Olfert (1998-99)

8)

Hubert Toney Jr. (1999-2004)

9)

Carol Hay ward (2003-15)

10)

Ryan Nowlin (2004-05)

11)

Kenneth Thompson (2004- )

12)

Brady Sark (2013- )

They proceed in an unbroken chain. When individua ls assume higher administrative roles, or leave the Universit y for other positions, they are immediately replaced by someone else new to the institution. Thus, when Jon Pierson, who had been assistant band director under Kelly, assumed the Assistant Dean position under Glidden, he was replaced by John Dea l, Dea l by Kopetz, Kopetz by Hayes, etc. These assistant band position have ser ved a lmost as post-doctora l positions, in which turnover is assumed to be heav y One person stands apart in this list. It is Carol Hay ward, who has been Director of the Fa lcon Marching Band and the Athletic Band since she come to Bowling Green in 2003. She holds a Bachelor of Music from Capita l Universit y, and a Master of Music Education (1994) from Ohio State Universit y. As the arc of band

Carol Hay ward 217


careers usua lly goes, Hay ward held positions as high school band director from 1980 to 2001. She was a lso an adjunct staff member at Capita l Universit y, conductor of the Scioto Va lley Brass and Percussion Company, and performed as principa l French Horn in the Heisey Wind Ensemble and as a member of Scioto Va lley Brass Quintet. In 2001 she lef t her positions to pursue a doctora l degree at Ohio State Universit y, completing it in 2004 with the dissertation “A Course in Band Literature Based on a Standard Repertoire Developed from the Opinions of Selected Collegiate and Secondar y School Band Directors” Ohio State Universit y, 2004. 2 Under her leadership, the Fa lcon Marching Band has grown to 250 members, the largest student organization on campus, and has earned its own page on Wik ipidia. 3

2  3  218

https://etd.ohiolink.edu/ap/10?0::NO:10:P10_ACCESSION_NUM:osu1085879695 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falcon_Marching_Band


Choral Activites Directors The following table shows chora l conductors from the Kennedy years to the present. Names in bold are those with the title Director of Chora l Activities; the others were assistant conductors. The departmenta l aff iliation of the facult y is nearly evenly split between Music Education and Music Performance Studies. Ivan Trusler

1966 -85

MuEd

R ichard Mat hey

1968-97

MuEd/MusP

Terr y Eder

1985-90

MuEd

Mark Munson

1990-Present

MuEd

Benjamin Ayling

1997-98

MuEd pt

Edward Maclar y

1997-2000

MusP

Graeme Cowen

2000- 01

MusP

William Skoog

2001- 09

MusP

Sandra Stegman

2003-Present

MuEd

Lena Ek man Frisk

2005- 06

MuEd

Timot hy Cloeter

2009-Present

MusP

Ensembles In 1961, af ter the upheava l of Chora l Activities caused by the death of McEwen, there were three chora l ensembles, the Collegiate Chora l, the A Cappella Choir, and the Universit y Chorus, which was a combination of the Collegiate Chora le and the A Cappella Choir used for specia l events. There was a lso a short-lived group k nown as the Chamber Singers, but it played no part in later developments. Over the course of the next f if t y years other groups have been added, so that now there are six chora l groups supported by the College: The A Cappella Choir, the Collegiate Chora le, the Men’s Chorua, the Women’s Chorus, the Universit y Chora l Societ y, and the Voca l Jazz Ensemble. 219


The A Cappella Choir and the Collegiate Chora le are the mainstays of the Chora l Program. Both are mixed choirs open by audition only. Currently Mark Munson directs the A Cappella Choir, and Timothy Cloeter directs the Collegiate Chora le. In 1971 the Men’s Chorus was founded. This group reca lls the Men’s Glee Club that existed sporadica lly from 1921 until 1957. It was open to men from across campus, and it has enjoyed ver y stable leadership. The f irst director was R ichard D. Mathey (19712000), followed by William Skoog (2001-09) and Timothy Cloeter (2010-Present). The Women’s Chorus, a lso open to students across campus, was founded in 1985 and revived the Treble Clef Club, which had existed from 1914 through 1957. Most of the conducting facult y conducted the ensemble at one point or another. The current conductor is Sandra Frey Stegman, who has held the position for some time. Universit y Chora l Societ y was established in 1999 by Mark Munson. This is not a modern version of the Universit y Chorus of the 1960s or the Universit y choir (Universit y Chorus) of the McEwen years. If any thing, it resembles the Hesser’s May Festiva l Chorus, in that it is composed of Universit y students, facult y and staff members, and singers from the greater northwest Ohio communit y. The most recent addition to the chora l ensembles is the Voca l Jazz Ensemble, a 12-voice voca l group that includes a separate rhy thm section made up of BGSU instrumenta lists. The ensemble actua lly began in 1985, when Christopher Buzzelli and Paul Hunt organized a group of interested students and gave a recita l in Br yan Ha ll. It continued sporadica lly over the next severa l years until it was reconstituted in the mid 1990s under the direction of Paul Hunt. When Hunt lef t the Universit y in 1998, under part-time instructor through 2000, when Christopher Buzzelli assumed the position of director. Recently the ensemble has established a relationship with New York Voices, who have come to Bowling Green for the New York Voices Voca l Jazz Camp ever y summer since 2009.

220


Opera From 1966 through 1974 the stage direction for the operas was covered by visiting directors. In 1975 the College of Music began to hire facult y members as Director of Opera, with the primar y responsibilit y of directing the productions This was so because the College of Music and the Department of Theater has such differing views of the importance of opera, and the Theater Department was uninterested in collaborating with Music. Of ten Directors of Opera worked with the Director of Orchestra l Activities, but they a lso could ser ve as conductors. These were: Thomas C. Hoke

1975-77

F. Eugene Dybdahl

1977-80

William Taylor

1980-81

John McKinnon

1981-82

Roy Lazarus

1983-89

F. Eugene Dybdahl

1989-2004

Af ter Dybdahl ’s retirement, the College ceased to hire its own stage directors. Instead, in 2005 the College of Music began a collaboration with Rona ld Shields of the Department of Theater and Film in its opera productions, and a lso with Geoffrey Stephenson, a facult y member shared by the College of Musica l Arts and the Department of Theater and Film. Shields had a particular interest in opera, and the collaboration was a fruitful one, lasting until 2011, when Shields lef t the Universit y. Since then, opera direction has been in the hands of various members of the voice department for sma ller productions, and visiting directors for large-sca le productions.

221


Orchestral Activities There have been three Directors of Orchestra l Activities since Emil Raab retired. Two (Nowa k, Spano) came to Bowling Green ver y early in their careers, stayed for relatively short periods, and lef t to pursue active internationa l performing careers. The third (Freeman Brown) is the longest ser ving orchestra l conductor in the histor y of the College. Grzegorz Nowa k ’s early training les in the three areas of Conducting, Composition, and Violin. He came to Bowling Green as Director of Orchestra l Activities and Director of Opera Theater immediately af ter completing his doctorate at the Eastman School of Music in 1982. Af ter leaving Bowling Green he ser ved as Assistant Conductor of the Grzegorz Nowa k 1982-85 Poston Symphony Orchestra under Seiji Ozawa (1982)he ser ved six years as Music Director of the Biel Symphony Orchestra and Opera in Switzerland (1985-91), then Assistant Conductor of the New York Philharmonic under Kurt Masur (1992). During his career he has been Music Director of the Sinfonia Helvetica & Swiss Festiva l MUSIQUE & AMITIÉ (1992- ), the Nationa l Opera in Warsaw 1996-98), the Edmonton Symphony in Alberta Canada (1995-2002), and Music Director at SWR Radio Orchestra Kaiserslautern, Germany (2001-04. In addition he has performed as guest conductor in throughout Europe, North America, and the East. In 2008 he was appointed Principa l Associate Conductor of the Roya l Philharmonic Orchestra in London, and in 2015 became the Permanent Associate Conductor of that orchestra.

222


Robert Spano completed a B.M., at Oberlin in piano, with additiona l studies in violin, composition, and conducting (1984), and he began graduate work at the Curtis Institute of Music. Bowling Green gave him his f irst professiona l position, Director of Orchestra l Activities, in 1985, but that lasted only four years. In 1989 he returned to Oberlin, now as Professor of Conducting, and still retains that position. Between 1990 and 1993 he ser ved as Assistant Conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra under Seiji Ozawa, with whom Nowa k worked eight years earlier. Rober t Spa no 1985-89

The years from 1993-96 were his “ journeyman years,” during which he traveled continua lly. Spano’s f irst directorship was that of the Brook ly n Philharmonic. He was appointed in 1996, stepped down in 2004, but remained as advisor and principa l guest conductor until 2007. In 2000, overlapping with the Brook ly n position, Spano was named Music Director of the Atlanta Sy mphony Orchestra, a long with Principa l Guest Conductor Dona ld Runnicles. Through contract extensions, he continues in this position. He is a lso, since 2012, Music Director of the Aspen Music Festiva l and School. In 2002, Bowling Green awarded him an honorar y Doctor of Musica l Arts.

Emi ly Freema n Brow n 1989-Present

Emily Freeman Brown received her undergraduate degrees in cello and conducting from the Roya l College of Music in London (1977), a Master of Fine Arts in Orchestra l Conducting from the Universit y of Iowa (1979), and a Doctor of Musica l Arts in Orchestra l Conducting from the Eastman School of Music (1989), the f irst woman to be granted this degree from Eastman. Before coming to Bowling Green, she was the Associate Conductor of the Eastman 223


Philharmonia and conductor of the Eastman Opera Theater (1987-89). Unlike Nowa k and Spano, who were more interested in cultivating performing careers rather than academic ones, Brown has strongly embraced academia. She came to Bowling Green in 1989 has remained here ever since. Using Bowling Green as a base of operations, she continues to conduct orchestras throughout United States, Europe, Centra l Asia and South America, and issue recordings on Albany Records and Na xos. She has a lso written articles for the periodica l BACH and the Journa l of the Conductors’ Guild, and is the author of A Dictionar y for the Modern Conductor. 1

1  Brown, Emily Freeman, A Dictionary for the Modern Conductor (Rowman & Littlefirld, 2015). 224


Select Annotated Bibliography The Appleton WI Post-Crescent, Dec. 18, 1961, p. 32. Tunnicliffe Obituary.

Bowling Green State University, College of Musical Arts. Bowling Green OH: College of Musical Arts, Bowling Green State University, 1975. Archives cac pUA 0958 Barber, Richard Earl. “A Comparison of the History of the Departments of Music at The University of Toledo, Findlay College, and Bowling Green State University.” Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Michigan, 1976. University of Toledo, Carlson General MT18 .B37 1976 Benary, Barbara, Jody Diamond, Richard North, and Marc Hoffman. “Gamelan Groups in the USA”. American Gamelan Institute. Retrieved 2014-03-05. Benstock, Seymour L. Did You Know?: A Music Lover’s Guide to Nicknames, Titles, and Whimsy. Page 223-34 contains a brief biography.

Clemans, George Burtis. Chemistry 100: A Centennial History of Chemistry at Bowling Green State University, for Faculty and Staff, Students, Alumni and Friends of the Department. Bowling Green, OH: Department of Chemistry, BGSU, 2010. The Daily Sentinel Tribune, Bowling Green OH, Jan. 9, 1965, p. 2. Fauley Obituary.

The Daily Sentinel Tribune, Bowling Green OH, Nov. 2, 1957, p. 1 McEwen Obituary

The Daily Sentinel Tribune, Bowling Green OH, Dec. 16, 1961, p. ? Tunnicliffe obituary.

The Daily Sentinel Tribune, Bowling Green OH, Sept. 11, 1995, p. 2. Kennedy Obituary.

The Establishment of Bowling Green State University: Contemporary News Clippings. Bowling Green OH: 1910-1077. Cac pUA 0193 225


Givens, Stuart R. The Falcon Soars: Bowling Green State University: The Years of Growing Distinction, 1963-1985. Bowling Green OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1986. LD4191.O62 G5 Gordon, James R. The One Hundred Days of Bowling Green, March 26-June 26, 1969. Archives. Cac [OG] LD4191.O62 G65 Hess, Gary R. Bowling Green State University, 1910-2010: A Legacy of Excellence. Virginia Beach VA: Donning Co. Publishers, 2010. Cac LD4191.O62 H47 2010 Hesser, Ernest G. Calendar of Rote Songs: Words and Music by Ernest Hesser. Cover design by Nellie Hesser. Bowling Green OH: E. Hesser, 1919. Hesser, Ernest G. “Character Education Through Music.” Religious Education, Vol. 44, no. 5, 1949: 279-81 Hesser, Ernest G. A Course of Study in Music for Elementary Schools Prepared by Ernest Hesser. Columbus OH: F. J. Heer, 1917 Hesser, Ernest and Earl Towner. Glee and Chorus Book for Male Voices. New York: Silver Burdett, 1922. Hesser, Ernest G. “The Music Program in the Public Schools.” Music Educators Journal, Vol. 27, no. 3, 1940: 27. Hesser, Ernest G. “The Small Vocal Ensemble.” Music Educators Journal, Vol. 23, no. 1, 1936: 39. Hesser, Ernest G. Review of “Training the Singing Voice by Victor Alexander Fields.” Music Educators Journal, Vol. 34, no. 1, 1947: 47-48. A History of Bowling Green State University: A Preliminary Draft Written by the Graduate Students in Education 525. Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio: Summer, 1938. http://www.ohiomemory.org/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p15005coll18/page/11 Pages 10 through 12 contain a series of Bowling Green Telephone Books from 1914 on.

Howe, Sondra Wieland. “The NBC Music Appreciation Hour: Radio Broadcasts of Walter Damrosch, 1928-1942.” Journal of Research in Music Education. Vol. 51, no. 1, Spring 2003: 64-77 226


Lynn, Melda. “Toledo Tades Turn as Musical Mecca.” Toledo Blade, Feb. 1, 1970, Section G, pp. 1, 8.

Contains a brief mention of Jack Masarie, French Horn player with the Toledo Orchestra, and also participant in the Bowling Green Woodwind Quintet in 1970-71.

McFall, Kenneth Helicer. From Normal College to State University: The Development of Bowling Green State University. Cleveland OH: Western Reserve University, 1947. Cac [OG] LD4191.O62 M25 McFall, Kenneth Helicer. Profile for Greatness: A Statement of the Case for Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green Ohio. Bowling Green Ohio: Bowling Green State University, 1967. LD4191.O592 M3 Music Educators Journal, January 1958, Vol. 44, No 3, p. 63. McEwen Obituary.

Nelson, Boris. “Opera Program Grows At Bowling Green.” Toledo Blade, March 7, 1971, Section G, p. 4. The Oneonta Star, Aug. 29, 1963, p. 13. Tunnicliffe Obituary.

Overman, James R. The History of Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green OH: Bowling Green University Press, 1967. LD4191.O62O9 One Hundred: 100 Facts for 100 Years: Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green OH: BGSU, Office of Marketing & Communications, 2010. Pop LD4191.O62 O5 Osborne, William. Music in Ohio. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 2004. Page 113, ff. discusser Hesser’s tenure in the Cincinnati school system.

Proceedings: Second Annual Educational Conference, The Ohio State University: March 23-25, 1922. The Ohio State University Bulletin Vol. 23/16 (March 24, 1923): 317-319. Session 15: Music: Present Condition of Supervisor-Training in Ohio. Friday, March 24, 1:30 P.M.—Mr. R. D. Hughes, Presiding. Hughes posed four questions: 1. Do superintendents and school boards in your part of the state recognize music as an educational factor? 2. Do they appreciate the value of good supervisory training?

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3. 4.

What is the attitude of the supervisor-in-training to the more rigorous requirements? Is anything being done to education school administrators in smaller towns to the importance of selecting only well-prepared teachers?

Tunnicliffe was one of four participants. The others were A. W. Martin (Director of Music, Miami University), Anne Maude Shamel (Director of Music, Kent State Normal College), and Arthur E. Heacox (Professor of Theory, Oberlin Conservatory of Music). A discussion followed the four presentations.

Taylor, Betty. “Redlander Wayne Bohrnstedt has day named after him.” Redland Daily Facts, Jan. 7, 2014. http://www.redlandsdailyfacts.com/arts-and-entertainment/20140107/ redlander-wayne-bohrnstedt-has-day-named-after-him Van Wert Times Bulletin, Thursday, May 13, 1971, p. 8

Notice of performance with Anderson, Auer and Cioffari.: “Van Wert Youth Appears In College Opera BOWLING GREEN Tom Dustman of Van Wert performed in acts I and II of Mozart’s “The Marriage of Figaro.” The play was presented by the Opera Workshop of Bowling Green State University’s School of Music in the School of Music Recital Hall. Alfred Anderson of the School of Music faculty was the director. Judith Auer was assistant director and Richard Cioffari, the musical director. School of Music students had roles in the presentation. According to Anderson, “The Opera Workshop scenes are performed with a minimum use of scenery and costumes to allow a greater amount of time on the basic techniques and problems of acting and body movement.”

http://trnmusic.com/categories/Composers/Weger,-Roy/ Wendrich, Kenneth A. Essays on Music in American Education and Society. University Press of America, 1983. Wendrich, Kenneth A. “An Approach to Musical Understanding for Secondary School Students.” College Music Symposium: A Bibliography of Articles and Reviews 6: 15-20. Kenneth A. Wendrich. “Music Literature in High Schools: A Yale Curriculum Development Project.” Music Educators Journal, Vol. 7, March 1967, p. 35-37; 131-32.

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Appendices 1. The College Chronicle 1910 Bowling Green Normal College established. 1912 Feb. 12: Board of Trustees elect Homer B. Williams, first President, 1912- 37; takes oath of office on May 23. Two- and three-year diplomas to be offered; music program was a two-year diploma; program for music teachers was a three-year diploma. 1914 September: First classes held in Bowling Green Armory. Ernest G. Hesser (1883-1969), first Chair of the Music Department, 1914-1920, the only music faculty until 1916. Hesser established Treble Cleff (sic) Club, 24-voice women’s chorus. 1915 Hesser established 200-voice choir; performs at Spring Festival (also called the May Festival Chorus). Hesser established second chorus of 75 voices, the Philharmonic Club; directs it until 1920, when he left Bowling Green. Hesser composes first College alma mater, We hail you, Dear Normal College July 19, 1915: first graduating class of 35 elementary school teachers; music by Philharmonic Club. September: The Administration Building (now called University Hall) completed and open for classes. Gymnasium in the Administration Building now called Joe E. Brown Theater. The Building also contained special facilities for music. 1916 Ruth McConn added as second music faculty, 1916-1919. 1917 Calvin J. Biery (1866-1945), Director of Rural Education, established first orchestra composed of four violins (Biery was one), one cornet, clarinet, trombone, drums, piano; it was discontinued due to lack of performers. Played for college functions, including basketball games; discontinued after first year due to lack of performers. University Artist Series inaugurated, Ernest Hesser as Chair of organizing committee; brought concert artists, poets, speakers, theatrical presentations, and operas to campus, and would continue until the 1950s, 1919 Ethel J. Light replaced Ruth McConn as second music faculty. 1920 Hesser left Bowling Green; Spring Festival discontinued. 229


Richard Tunnicliffe hired as Chair of Music Department (1920-41); established Men’s Glee Club and Male Quartet and directed Treble Cleff Club until 1928. Music Department housed in a portion of the Administration Building. 1921 Merrill McEwen joined music faculty, 1921-24. 1922 McEwen revived orchestra and served as conductor; membership grew from 11 in 1922 to 50 in 1938-39. 1923 Leo Lake (student) and faculty advisor E. C. Powell (Industrial Arts instructor) established first College Band for marching and concert purposes; membership limited to men. Winter: Merrill McEwen organized first College String Quartet. 1925 McEwen left Bowling Green to become supervisor of music in Mansfield OH; orchestra discontinued. Three-year diploma program initiated, but replaced in 1927 by a four-year degree program. 1927 Three-year music diploma program changed to four-year program. Richard Tunnicliffe established mixed chorus, later known as the A Cappella Choir; membership required of men majoring in music. Orchestra reorganized in 1926-27 under Tunnicliffe; begins to give regular concerts in Spring 1927; conductors through the 1930s were Merrill McEwen, Richard Tunnicliffe, and Charles Church. Charles Church became first full-time Music Faculty to direct the band; Women admitted to Concert Band but not Marching Band. 1928 Four-year degree programs established at College. Tunnicliffe steps down as director of Treble Clef Club. Matilda Morlock, and later Marian D. Hall, Minnie Stensland, and Margaret Scruggs, became directors of Treble Clef Club, succeeding Tunnicliffe; membership limited to non-music majors. In 1936 James Paul Kennedy directed the ensemble, holding the position until 1957. Merrill McEwen returns to Bowling Green. 1929 Bowling Green Normal College becomes Bowling Green State College (July 3, 1929), despite opposition from private liberal arts colleges. This was a result of the Emmons-Hanna Bill, sponsored by Bowling Green state representative Myrna Reece Hanna, after whom Hanna Hall (the old Training School) was named. Title of the Alma Mater had to be changed to We Hail 230


You, Dear College Bowling Green began offering four-year programs leading to the Bachelor of Arts and the Bachelor of Science degrees. Two administrative units: College of Education and College of Liberal Arts offering Bachelor of Science; Music Department under College of Liberal Arts. 1930 Merrill McEwen directs first music theater production H. M. S. Pinafore as part of choral activities (Mixed Chorus). 1931 Leon E. Fauley reorganized Men’s Glee Club and the Varsity Quartet; membership opened to non-music majors. Music Department move to second floor of newly-built Practical Arts Building (now Hayes Hall), with recital-rehearsal hall, second rehearsal hall, large and small studios, classrooms, practice rooms, offices. 1930-31: Music Minor offered through the College of Liberal Arts. 1934 Merrill McEwen directed Mikado. Orchestra participates for the first time in All-State Intercollegiate Orchestra Festival. 1935 Bowling Green State College becomes Bowling Green State University (May 15, 1935) with four colleges: College of Education; College of Liberal Arts; College of Business Administration; Graduate Program (offering Master’s degree). Music was still part of the College of Liberal Arts. 1936 James Paul Kennedy joined music faculty; became director of Treble Clef Club. 1937 Roy E. Offenhauer, second President of BGSU (1937-38). Stage in Administration Building enlarged for dramatic productions and concerts and equipped with a pipe organ. 1938 McEwen directed The Pirates of Penzance. 1939 Frank J. Prout, third President of University, 1939-51. Music Ensembles: Marching Band, Concert Band, Treble Clef Club, Men’s Glee Club, Concert Orchestra, A Cappella Choir, Male Quartet. 1941 Richard Tunnicliffe retired. Merrill McEwen, third Chair of Music Department. 231


1942 Robert Getchell, new faculty member in 1942, was to have directed the Orchestra and Band, replacing Earl E. Smith, but Getchell was drafted in the Fall of 1942. Orchestra was directed by Earl E. Smith; later by Lorlei Virginia Kershner and, in 1945-46, by Maribeth Kitt. Band directed by Charles Church in Fall, 1942. Women first admitted to marching band. McEwen directed H. M. S. Pinafore. 1945 Leon Fauley reorganized Men’s Glee Club after the War; James Paul Kennedy became director of the group in Spring Semester, 1946. Men’s Glee Club discontinued in mid 1950s. 1946 Bachelor of Arts with a major in music offered in College of Liberal Arts for the academic year 1946-47. Mixed Chorus, now known officially as the A Cappella Choir, gave performances of major choral works, especially The Messiah, and begins off-campus performances. William Alexander joined music faculty; rebuilds orchestra. 1947 Music Department becomes member of National Association of Schools of Music (NASM). 1948 Gerald McLaughlin became orchestral director; remained director for six years. 1949 Smetana’s The Bartered Bride produced; Robert D. Richey, stage director, James Paul Kennedy, musical director, and Joan Brodie, choreographer. 1950 A Cappella Choir begins annual two-week spring tours. 1951 Ralph MacDonald, fourth President of University, 1951-61. String Orchestra established. 1954 Seymour L. Benstock became orchestral director; inaugurates Pops Concerts and Children’s Concerts. 1956 Lerner and Loewe’s Brigadoon produced; James Paul Kennedy, musical director. 1957 Merrill McEwen died Nov. 2, 1957. James Paul Kennedy became interim chair of music department. 232


Hall of Music (now West Hall) newly constructed for Department of Music, and dedicated Oct. 12. First Annual Band New Music Reading Clinic. 1958 James Paul Kennedy, fourth Chair of the Music Department. 1961 Ralph G. Harshman, fifth President of BGSU (1961-63). Music Department becomes School of Music under College of Education with three departments: Music Education; Performance Studies; Music Composition and History. Faculty continue to be listed as “Music” (with no departmental affiliation) until 1973-74 catalogue, when they were first list by rank and department Music Ensembles: three choruses, two bands, university symphony orchestra, two smaller orchestras, miscellaneous vocal and instrumental ensembles. James Paul Kennedy, Director of School of Music 1963 William T. Jerome, sixth President of BGSU (1963-70). Die Fledermaus, collaboration of Music and Speech Departments, Warren Joseph, Choral Director as music director. 1964 Amahl and the Night Visitors, Fiora Contino, conductor; Martha Lipton, visiting artist. 1965 Bachelor of Music degrees first offered in piano, voice, strings, and winds and percussion. Creative Arts Program begun. 1966 May 21-22: Il Trovatore, first annual opera production by Bowling Green faculty and students, Fiora Contino, conductor. Prior to this date opera had been imported to campus as part of the University Artist Series, or had been produced by the music unit sporadically. “Friends of the Opera” established to support annual opera performances. In the early 1970s the name was changed to “Friends of Music” and the purpose expanded to cover more activities than just opera. 1967 Feb. 10-11: La Bohème, Charles Gigante, conductor Bachelor of Music degrees offered in all music teacher preparation programs (Choral major with Instrumental minor; Instrumental major with Choral minor; Piano major with Instrumental minor; Piano major with Choral minor. Master of Music degree first offered in music education and in applied music (piano, organ, voice, strings, winds, or brass). 233


Ivan Trussler appointed as coordinator of choral activities and conductor of the Collegiate Chorale and the A Cappella Choir. Warren Jaworski added as second choral conductor, conducting the University Chorus, the Chamber Singers, Opera Chorus, Men’s Chorus, and Women’s Chorus. 1968 Feb. 23-24: La Traviata, Charles Gigante, conductor Two student early music ensembles established, the Collegium musicum and the Madrigal Singers, Oliver Chamberlain, director. 1969 Feb. 20, 22: Carmen, Charles Gigante conductor Feb. 24: First performance of the Bowling Green State University annual opera outside Bowling Green, in Firelands. 1970 Hollis A. Moore, seventh President of BGSU (1970-81). School of Music becomes autonomous, independent of College of Education; faculty affiliation with the separate departments recognized in University publications. Bachelor of Music degree first offered in Music History/Literature and Music Theory/Composition. University purchases house at 609 E. Reed St. that was used as the Electronic Music Studio. 1972 Bachelor of Music in Church Music first offered. 1975 School of Music becomes College of Musical Arts (CMA). James Paul Kennedy, first dean of the CMA. Robert Glidden, second Dean of the CMA. 1977 June 1: Groundbreaking ceremony for the Musical Arts Center. 1979 Kenneth Wendrich, third Dean of the CMA. October: Board of Trustees dedicates performance halls to Marvin and Lenore Kobacker, and Ashel and Dorothy Bryan. July: Move from West Hall, Johnston Hall, and Reed Street Studio to Musical Arts Center September: Musical Arts Center opens for Fall Quarter. December: Kobacker Hall dedication concert by Collegiate Chorale and University Symphony Orchestra; Karel Husa, guest conductor. 1980 May: Kobacker Hall dedication concert by Cleveland Orchestra. Festival Series I—1980-81 Alicia De Larrocha, Piano: Oct. 7, 1980

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Maureen Forrester: Nov. 10, 1980 Pierre Rampal, Flute: Feb. 26, 1981 Alexis Weissenberg, Piano: Mar. 9, 1981 Yo-Yo Ma, Cello: Apr. 23, 1981

New Music Festival I, Apr. 25-26, 1980: Vladimir Ussachevsky and Lejaren Hiller, guests Retirement: William Alexander Jazz Week established Miscellaneous

Ruddigore: First student production Cinderella: First Bowling Green Opera Theater production; Eugene Dybdahl, director The Music Man: First Bowling Green Summer Musical Theater production Trombone Extravaganza celebrating David Glasmire’s 30 years at BGSU Hamburg Steinway purchased for Kobacker Hall Richard Mathey named Outstanding Faculty Member of the Year by Alpha Lambda Delta Faculty Woodwind Quintet renamed Venti da Camera Herbert Spencer is a guest professor at the Royal Conservatory of Music in Brussels, exchange continues for the 19 years

1981 Musical Arts Center renamed Hollis and Marian Moore Musical Arts Center (MMAC). Jazz Minor approved. Festival Series II—1981-82 Pinchas Zukerman, Violin: Oct. 1, 1981 Jorge Bolet, Piano: Nov. 14, 1981 Canadian Brass: Dec. 3, 1981 Nathaniel Rosen, Cello: Jan. 14, 1982 Charles Treger /André Watts, Violin/Piano Duo: May 4, 1982

New Music Festival II, Apr. 24-25,1981: Milton Babbitt, guest. Commissioned work: Elliot Schwartz, “Chamber Concerto IV for Solo Saxophone and 10 Players.” Miscellaneous First Summer Music Institute College hosts OMEA Solo & Ensemble Stain Glass dedication to Orville Bauer in organ studio Six-week summer transcontinental tour by A Cappella Choir

1982 Paul J. Olscamp, eighth President of BGSU (1982-95). Richard Kennell interim Dean of the CMA. Festival Series III—1982-83 Atlanta Symphony Orchestra: Oct. 22, 1981 Sandra Warfield and James McCracken: Nov. 19, 1982 Mark Peskanov, Violin: Dec. 9, 1982 Ivan Moravec, Piano: Jan. 21, 1983 Janos Starker, Cello: Apr. 4, 1983 Byron Janis, Piano: Apr. 25, 1983

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New Music Festival III, Apr. 23-24, 1982: Joseph Schwantner, guest. Commissioned work: Harvey Sollberger, “Angel and Stone” for flute and piano Retirement: Emil Raab Miscellaneous

BGSU Opera Theater premiers The True Story of the Three Little Pigs by Wallace De Pue The Green Room named the James Paul Kennedy Green Room by the BGSU Board of Trustees The University Symphony Orchestra renamed Bowling Green Philharmonia College hosts OMEA Solo & Ensemble

1983 Robert Thayer, fourth Dean of the CMA. Festival Series IV—1983-84 The Vienna Choir Boys: Oct. 25, 1983 Murray Perahia: Nov. 17, 1983 New World String Quartet: Feb. 2, 1984 Philip Jones Brass Ensemble: Apr. 11, 1984

New Music Festival IV, Oct. 21-22, 1983: Celebration of the ONCE Festival. Mary Ashley, Robert Ashley, Harold Borkin, George Cacioppo, Gordon Mumma, Donald Scavarda, Anne Wehrer and Joseph Wehrer, guests. Commissioned works: Gregory Kosteck, “Clarinet Concerto”; David Maves, “Concerto for Two Pianos and Orchestra.” Pro Musica established as support group of donors to fund student activities. Retirements: Warren Allen, David Glasmire, Virginia Nungester Miscellaneous First Annual Jazz Week Young Concert Series inaugural event JaFran Jones awarded a 1983 Fulbright Senior Research Grant

1984 Festival Series V—1984-85

Harmonie Wind Ensemble: Oct. 3, 1984 Julian Bream, Guitar: Oct. 22, 1984 Roumanian National Choir: Nov. 19, 1984 Munich Chamber Orchestra: Feb. 24, 1985 Concert Royal, New York Baroque Dance Company: Mar. 27, 1985

New Music Festival V, Oct. 26-27, 1984: Philip Glass and the Philip Glass; Ensemble, guests Miscellaneous

Dr. Marilyn Shrude becomes first woman to be awarded a Kennedy Center Friedheim Award Friends of Music renamed Pro Musica Falcon Marching Band performs for visit by President Reagan Bösendorfer is purchased for Bryan Recital Hall Voices by Dr. Burton Beerman wins the International Society of Bassists first prize First microcomputer in College

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1985 New Degree options: Woodwind Specialist, Guitar approved Festival Series VI—1985-86 Beaux Arts Trio: Oct. 10, 1985 Susan Starr, Piano: Nov. 19, 1985 The Bach Aria Group: Jan. 29, 1986

New Music Festival Series VI, Nov. 8-9, 1985: In Celebration of American Music Week. Commissioned work: Barton and Priscilla McLean, “In Wilderness is the Preservation of the World.” The Percussion Group/ Cincinnati, guest ensemble Retirements: Bernard Linden, Ivan Trussler Miscellaneous New degree options for woodwind specialist and guitar offered Andreas Poulimenos named Outstanding Teacher of the Year Six-week summer transcontinental tour by A Cappella Choir

1986 Festival Series VII—1986-87

Joffrey II Dancers: Oct. 7, 1986 Boys Choir of Harlem: Nov. 21, 1986 Stuttgart Chamber Orchestra: Mar. 18, 1987

New Music Festival VII, Oct. 16-18, 1986: John Cage, guest composer; Pat Oleszko, guest artist. 1987 New Music Festival renamed New Music & Art Festival Festival Series VIII—1987-88

Richard Stolzman, Clarinet: Sept. 26, 1987 Theater Chamber Players of the Kennedy Center: Oct. 22, 1987 The Waverly Consort: Dec. 4, 1987 The Modern Jazz Quartet: Feb. 23, 1988 Pilobolus: Apr. 9, 1988

New Music & Art Festival VIII, Oct. 22-24, 1987: Joan LaBarbara, Morton Subotnik, music guests; Dennis Adrian, Gladys Nilsson, arts guests. Theater Chamber Players of Kennedy Center (Leon Fleischer, Phyllis Bryn Julson, et. al., guest ensemble. 1988 Academic Challenge Grant awarded to create a Contemporary Music Program, which later becomes the MidAmerican Center for Contemporary Music Festival Series IX—1988-89 Christopher Parkening, Guitar: Sept. 28, 1988 Jubal Trio: Nov. 3, 1988 George Shearing: Dec. 3, 1988 Alvin Ailey Repertory Ensemble: Feb. 28, 1989 Chanticleer: Apr. 1, 1989

New Music & Art Festival IX, Nov. 3-5, 1988: George Crumb, guest composer. Jubal Trio, guest ensemble. Gallery installation: Stephen Pevnick, “The 237


Rainfall Project.” Bachelor of Music degree with a Jazz emphasis approved 1989 Minor in Recording Technology approved Festival Series X—1989-90

The Intimate P.D.Q. Bach: Oct. 19, 1989 The Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra, John Adams, Conductor: Nov. 7, 1989 Jazz Arts Group: Feb. 6, 1990 Erick Hawkins: Mar. 29, 1990 The King’s Singers: Apr. 27, 1990

New Music & Art Festival Series X, Nov. 7-11, 1989: John Adams, guest composer. St. Paul Chamber Orchestra, guest ensemble. Milton Komisar, Yasue Sakaota, guest artists 1990 Festival Series XI—1990-91

Joe Williams: Sept. 15, 1990 Orpheus Chamber Orchestra: Nov. 1, 1990 Vienna Choir Boys: Dec. 5, 1990 Summit Brass with Doc Severinse: Feb. 16, 1991 Joseph Holmes Dance Theatre: Mar 8, 1991

New Music & Art Festival XI, Oct. 10-14, 1990: Joan LaBarbara, Joan Tower, guest composers. Steina Vasulka, Rita Myers, guest artists. Omaha Magic Theatre, Ensemble Continuum, guest ensembles. Miscellaneous New gamelan Kusuma Sari arrives from Bali

1991 Festival Series XII—1991-92

The Dave Brubeck Quartet: Sept. 27, 1991 The Guildhall String Ensemble with Michala Petri, Recorder: Oct. 18, 1991 The Swingle Singers: Dec. 8, 1991 The Martha Graham Dance Company: Jan. 22, 1992 I Fiamminghi (The Belgian Chamber Orchestra) with Eduardo Fernandez, Guitar: Feb. 22, 1992

New Music & Art Festival XII, Oct. 3-6, 1991: Lou Harrison, Anthony Braxton, guest composers. Sha Sha Higby, guest artist. Aequalis, guest ensemble. 1992 Festival Series XIII—1992-93

The Billy Taylor Trio and Turtle Island String Quartet: Oct. 9, 1992 American Indian Dance Theatre: Nov. 1, 1992 Malcolm Dalglish and The American Boychoir with Glen Velez: Nov. 21, 1992 Kodo: Feb. 22, 1993

New Music & Art Festival XIII, Oct. 1-4, 1992: “Music & Art of the Americas.” Mario Davidovsky, guest composer. Micaela Amato, Bernie Casey, Adrian Tio Diaz, Paul Sierra, guest artists. California E. A. R. Univ., guest ensemble. Retirement: Wendell Jones 238


1993 H. Lee Riggins, fifth Dean of the CMA Festival Series XIV—1993-94

The Netherlands Wind Ensemble: Oct. 17, 1993 Tafelmusik: Nov. 10, 1993 The Chieftains: Dec. 10, 1993 Marian McPartland: Jan. 29, 1994 Loretta Livingston & Dancers: Mar. 15, 1994

New Music & Art Festival XIV, Oct. 7-10, 1993: “Art & Spirituality.” Pauline Oliveros, guest composer. Lynn Whitney, Mary Lou Zelazny, guest artists. Joseph Petric (accordion), guest performer.

1994 Festival Series XV—1994-95

Empire Brass: Oct. 22, 1994 The King’s Singers: Nov. 18, 1994 Iso and the Bobs: Feb. 11, 1995 Stuttgart Chamber Orchestra: Mar. 29, 1995 Cleo Laine and the John Dankworth Group: Apr. 8, 1995 Shanghai Quartet and Eugenia Zukerman?

New Music & Art Festival XV, Oct. 13-15, 1994: John Corigliano, guest composer.Janet, Ballweg, Larry Cressman, Gustavo Matamoros, guest artists.

1995 Sidney A. Ribeau, ninth President of BGSU (1995-2008) Festival Series XVI—1995-96

Ying String Quartet: Sept. 30, 1995 London Brass: Oct. 27, 1995 The David Parsons Dance Company: Nov. 17, 1995 Chanticleer: Dec. 9, 1995 Prague Chamber Orchestra with Simoni Pedroni, Piano: Mar. 11, 1996 Arturo Sandoval and the Jazz Arts Group: Apr. 10, 1996

New Music & Art Festival XVI, Oct. 12-14, 1995: Gunther Schuller, guest composer. Exhibitions: “Women Rites of Passage,” “Tangled Roots,” “Intertwined Worlds.”

1996 Festival Series XVII—1996-97

Sharon Isbin, Guitar: Oct. 4, 1996 Quartetto Gelato: Nov. 17, 1996 Marilyn Horne: Dec. 4, 1996 Eddie Daniels: Feb. 1, 1997 Hubbard Street Dance Chicago: Feb. 9, 1997 Gil Shaham, Violin and Orli Shaham, Piano: Mar. 5, 1997

New Music & Art Festival XVII, Oct. 3-5, 1996: Karel Husa, guest composer. Sharon Isbin (guitar), guest performer. Three exhibitions with multiple artists. Hansen Musical Arts Series fund established to bring prominent musicians to campus; presentations begin in 2003 239


1997 Festival Series XVIII—1997-98

Turtle Island String Quartet: Oct. 7, 1997 Joshua Redman Trio: Nov. 17, 1997 Pieces of 8: Dec. 3, 1997 The Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra with Emanuel Ax, Piano: Feb. 4, 1998 Alvin Ailey Repertory Ensemble: Mar. 5, 1998

New Music & Art Festival XVIII, Oct. 15-18, 1997: Bernard Rands, guest composer. Cleveland Chamber Symphony, The CORE Ensemble, guest ensembles. Three exhibitions with multiple artists. 1998 Festival Series XIX—1998-99 Bang-on-a-Can All-Stars: Oct. 9, 1998 Dawn Upshaw, Soprano: Nov. 9, 1998 Nokuthula Ngwenyama, Viola: Feb. 13, 1999 Les Ballets Trockadero de Monte Carlo: Mar. 18, 1999 Gene Harris, Jazz Piano: Apr. 17, 1999

New Music & Art Festival XIX, Oct. 6-11, 1998: Anthony Davis, guest composer. Bang on a Can All-Stars, guest ensemble. Retirements: Walter Baker, Anna Bell Bognar, Elizabeth Cobb, Wallace De Pue, Edward Marks, David Rogers, Jerome Rose, Virginia Starr and Donald M. Wilson Samuel Adler, Visiting Distinguished Professor, Spring Semester 1999 Miscellaneous

Jazz pianist Marian McPartland receives Honorary Doctorate Jackie Instone, secretary of music education, receives 1998 Classified Staff Outstanding Service Award Bowling Green Philharmonia releases first CD titled The Voice of the Composer on Albany Records BGSU Trumpet Ensemble performs at International Trumpet Guild Festival A Celebration Concert featuring the Music of Wallace De Pue and Donald M. Wilson Master’s Candidate Preston Duncan, saxophone, and junior Benjamin Pierce win the woodwind and the brass areas of the MTNA Competition Wurlitzer Collegiate Division Master’s candidates Scotty Stepp and Preston Duncan win first and second prize of the 1998 North American Saxophone Alliance Biennial Convention’s Classical Performance Competition Master’s candidate Jennifer Blair Furr wins the Student Composer Prize at the 17th Annual International Alliance for Women in Music and second place in the ASCAP Student Composition Commissions Carol Hess named a Fulbright Scholar to Spain for spring semester

1999 Festival Series XX—1999-2000

Ying Quartet: Oct. 7, 1999 The Parsons Dance Company: Nov. 19, 1999 The Vienna Choir Boys: Dec. 3, 1999 Yo-Yo Ma, Cello: Jan. 19, 2000 Empire Brass: Mar. 25, 2000

New Music & Art Festival XX, Oct. 9; 14-16, 1999: Christopher Rouse, guest composer. Three exhibitions with multiple artists. Thomas Benjamin, 240


“Three Children’s Operas,” Barbara Lockard Zimmerman, director. University Choral Society founded by Mark Munson Miscellaneous

ACCM wins the 1999 Chamber Music America/ASCAP Award for Adventurous Programming First real audio broadcast over internet features New Music Ensemble To Live Out Loud mural on first floor completed Praecepta – student composer organization formed Chuck Mangione plays benefit concert for the Edwin T. Betts Scholarship Fund Vincent Corrigan is awarded an Andrew W. Mellon Fellowship Marilyn Shrude becomes first woman to win the Cleveland Arts Prize Burton Beerman receives the 1999 Olscamp Research Award Velvet Brown is awarded a Fulbright for study in Italy Master’s candidate Alberta Jean Reed wins the Leontyne Price National Competition Master’s candidate Scotty Stepp is only American semifinalist in the International Adolphe Sax Competition Senior Benjamin Pierce wins the Leonard Falcone International Euphonium Competition, the Euphonium Artist Competition and the Euphonium Mock Military Band Auditions John Sampen is elected president of the North American Saxophone Alliance Department of Music Education host national Symposium on Teaching and Research: Cultural Interpretation and Contemporary Music Education

2000 Richard Kennell, interim Dean of the CMA Bachelor of Music in World Music established Dr. Marjorie Conrad Peatee Art Song Competition established Helen McMaster Endowed Professorship in Vocal Music and Choral Studies established Festival Series XXI—2000-01 Ray Brown Trio: Sept. 30, 2000 Eroica Trio: Nov. 4, 2000 André Watts: Dec. 9, 2000 David Daniels, Countertenor: Jan. 20, 2001 Emmanuel Pahud/Eric le Sage, Flute/Piano: Mar. 29, 2001 Pilobolus: Apr. 12, 2001

New Music & Art Festival XXI, Oct. 26-28, 2000: Terry Riley, guest composer. Patrick Dougherty, Kathleen McCarthy, guest artists. Kathleen Fraser, guest poet. Robert A. Duke, 2000-01 Scholar in Residence Moore Musical Arts Center renovation Miscellaneous

Cornucopia: A Tribute to Herbert Spencer features over 30 current and former students New Terrains by Dr. Mikel Kuehn wins the Chicago Symphony First Hearing Composition Contest Music Ambassadors founded by Dr. Kathy Moss Falcon Alumni Marching Band 25th anniversary The Lithium Saxophone Quartet wins the 2000 International Fischoff Competition Bicinia Duo, comprised of flutist Stephanie Getz and saxophonist Bryan Polacek, chosen for Rural Residency Program by Chamber Music America Master’s candidates Samuel Fritz, Rhonda Taylor and Chia-Hsiu Tsai are featured 241


performers at the 12th World Saxophone Congress in Montreal Master’s candidate Erik Ronmark receives a $10,000 merit scholarship from the Sweden-American Foundation

2001 Festival Series XXII—2001-02

Dmitri Hvorostovsky, Bass: Sept. 15, 2001. Postponed because of assault on World Trade Center, Sept. 11, 2001; rescheduled Feb. 23, 2002 Peter Sparling Dance Company: Oct. 18, 2001 Moscow Philharmonic Orchestra with Kyoto Takezawa, Violin: Dec. 8, 2001 Sérgio and Odair Assad, Guitarists: Feb. 1, 2002 Regina Carter, Jazz Vocalist: Apr. 13, 2002

New Music & Art Festival XXII, Oct. 18-20, 2001: William Bolcom, guest composer. Gregory Barsamian, guest artist. Julia Lesage, guest filmmaker. Peter Sparling Dance Company, guest dance company. Retirement: P. Thomas Tallarico Miscellaneous Marilyn Shrude named Distinguished Artist Professor by BGSU Board of Trustees Virginia Marks is awarded the 2001 Certified Teacher of the Year by OMTA and MTNA Emily Freeman Brown elected president of Conductors Guild Alumni Dr. William Bauer, Dr. Jennifer Higdon and Robert Breithaupt named the first “Best of BGSU” accomplished alumni Collegiate Chorale summer European Tour

2002 Richard Kennell, sixth Dean of the CMA Master of Music in Ethnomusicology established Festival Series XXIII—2002-03

The Canadian Brass: Oct. 3, 2002 Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center: Nov. 14, 2002 eighth blackbird: Dec. 6, 2002 Les Violons du Roy: Feb. 6, 2003 Jane Monheit Quintet: Apr. 5, 2003

New Music & Art Festival XXIII, Oct. 17-19, 2002: Paul Lansky, Dan Welcher, guest composers. Three exhibitions with multiple artists. Installation, Stephen Rush. Retirements: Judith Bentley, Andreas Poulimenos, Jackie Instone Miscellaneous Conductor and former BGSU faculty member Robert Spano receives Honorary Doctorate Morning Calls by Philip Sparke premiered at the 44th Annual New Band Music Reading Clinic in honor of the late Herbert Spencer Dr. Marilyn Shrude named “Composer of the Year for 2002” by OMTA College hosts the 2002 Society of Composers, Inc., Student National Conference Bohica Saxophone Quartet wins the Coleman Award for Woodwinds at the Coleman Chamber Ensemble Competition and the National Collegiate Chamber Music divisions of MTNA A “Tribute to Judith Bentley” featured over 35 alumni and current students – concert is repeated at the 2002 National Flute Convention Collegiate Chorale European Tour

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2003 Festival Series XXIV—2003-04

Ballet Hispanico: Oct. 4, 2003 Takács String Quartet: Oct. 16, 2003 Waverly Consort: Dec. 3, 2003 Midori, Violin: Feb. 13, 2004 Imani Winds: Mar. 4, 2004 Lang Lang, Piano: Apr. 2, 2004

New Music & Art Festival XXIV, Oct. 16-18, 2003: Bright Sheng, guest composer. Takacs Quartet, Brave New World, guest ensembles. Hansen Musical Arts Series I, Sept. 3-5, 2003: Bob McGrath of Sesame Street, guest: Arts Village established, Mary Natvig Founding Director BGSU collaboration with International Music Academy in Corfu, Greece begins Miscellaneous

Elainie Lillios receives the 2003 International Computer Music Association Commission Award Falcon Marching Band marches in halftime show during Ohio State game Carol Hess’ book Manuel de Falla and Modernism in Spain 1898-1936 wins the 35th Annual ASCAP-Deems Taylor Award Steven Cornelius is named a chief of the Gonja people during workshop in Ghana, Africa Mark Munson named president of Ohio Choral Directors Association Master’s candidate Christina Fava awarded second prize for the best student paper by the Midwest Chapter of the American Musicological Society Iota Omicron chapter of Phi Mu Alpha recipient of the Director’s Award for “Significant Achievement in Recruitment” – ranked among the top 20 chapters in the nation New 9-foot Steinway in Bryan Recital Hall Master’s candidate Ryoichi Tamaki wins 2003 MTNA Collegiate Artist Brass Competition Thirteen students participate in new summer workshop “Music and Art in Italy-Musica Artista” in Italy Lou Marini Jr. featured with the Falcon Marching Band and the Wind Ensemble University Choral Society European Tour Mark S. Kelly, director of bands emeritus, receives Midwest Clinic Medal of Honor David Glasmire, trombone, retires University Choral Society performs Mozart’s Requiem with the Toledo Symphony St. Petersburg String Quartet guest residency

2004 Festival Series XXV—2004-05

Tokyo String Quartet: Sept. 17, 2004 Alexander Fiterstein, Clarinet: Oct. 21, 2004 Ethos Percussion Group: Dec. 3, 2004 Jane Ira Bloom Jazz Quartet: Jan. 29, 2005 Sir James Galway, Flute: Mar. 20, 2005 Hugh Smith, Tenor: Apr. 24, 2005

New Music & Art Festival XXV, Oct. 21-23, 2004: Shulamit Ran, guest composer. Alexander Fiterstein (clarinet), guest performer. Pinotage, guest ensemble. Hansen Musical Arts Series II, Oct. 4-5, 2004: Craig Schulman, singer/ actor, guest 243


Arts Village opens Band Reading Clinic 46, Frederick Fennell, guest Jazz Week 04, Lou Marini Jr., guest Eugene Dybdahl retires Miscellaneous

Students and faculty participate in first exchange to Corfu, Greece, New Music Ensemble presents “Ferreus Musike” – in collaboration with School of Art Seven BGSU students perform at the 13th World Saxophone Congress MENC awards student chapter of OMEA with the 2003 Collegiate Membership Chapter Growth Award – second largest chapter in the nation Master’s candidate Kelly Biese joins internationally renowned tuba/euphonium quartet, Junction Senior Jacqueline Pollauf, harp, and freshman Mingwei Zhao, cello, win first prize in the Firelands Symphony Orchestra’s first Young Artists Competition Thomas Pasatieri opera residency Richard Hundley masterclasses

2005 Doctor of Musical Arts (DMA) in Contemporary Music approved Festival Series XXVI—2005-06 River City Brass Band: Sept. 23, 2005 Cantus: Oct. 20, 2005 Time for Three, String Trio: Jan. 13, 2006 Les Ballets Trockadero de Monte Carlo: Feb. 2, 2006 I Musici di Roma with Steven Hough: Mar. 2, 2006 The Kenny Barron Quartet: Apr. 7, 2006

New Music & Art Festival XXVI, Oct. 27-29, 2005: Samuel Adler, guest composer. The Merling Trio, guest ensemble. Hansen Musical Arts Series III, Sept. 7-9, 2005: Howard Gardner, Harvard Graduate School of Education Professor of Cognition and Education, guest Helen McMaster inaugural professorship in voice/choral studies, Marilyn Horne, guest Miscellaneous

University Choral Society performs Brahm’s Requiem with the Toledo Symphony 25th anniversary of the Moore Musical Arts Center North American premier of Cavalli’s Gli amore d’Apollo e di Dafne, a collaboration of BGSU Opera Theater with Eastman School of Music Collegium musicum Honorary Doctorate conferred on President Robert Glidden, Ohio University Winners of Conrad Art Song Competition appear in recital in Corfu, Greece CMA student Kisma Jordan invited to perform in Marilyn Horne’s master classes in Carnegie Hall BGSU Symphonic Band performs at CBDNA in Chicago

2006 Festival Series XXVII—2006-07

Tiempo Libre: Sept. 23, 2006 The 5 Browns: Oct. 12, 2006 Pacifica String Quartet: Dec. 1, 2006 PDQ Bach—The Jekyll and Hide Tour: Feb. 2, 2007 Boston Brass: Mar. 23, 2007 Measha Brueggergosman, Soprano: Apr. 15, 2007

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New Music & Art Festival XXVII, Oct. 19-21, 2006: Frederic Rzewski, guest composer. Madeline Shapiro, guest performer. Thelema Trio, guest ensemble. Hansen Musical Arts Series IV, Oct. 20, 2006: Anne Midgette and Greg Sandow, guests McMaster Professorship, Jon Frederick West, guest Miscellaneous

Honorary doctorate conferred on Jon Frederick West BGSU Opera theater produced Joseph Haydn’s La Canterina and Henry Purcell’s Dido and Aeneas, Nov. 3 and 5, 2006

2007 Bachelor of Music in World Music approved Festival Series XXVIII—2007-08

Academy of St. Martin in the Fields Chamber Ensemble: Sept. 28, 2007 Edgar Meyer, Bass; Mike Marshall, Mandolin: Oct. 12, 2007 Imani Winds: Nov. 9, 2007 Naoko Takada, Marimba: Jan. 31, 2008 Dianne Reeves, Jazz Vocalist: Mar. 14, 2008 Gabriela Montero, Piano: Apr. 4, 2008

New Music & Art Festival XXVIII, Oct. 17-20, 2007: Chen Yi, guest composer. Zhou Yi (pipa), guest performer. Enso String Quartet, guest ensemble. Hansen Musical Arts Series V, Sept. 5-7, 2007: Terrence Blanchard, guest McMaster Professorship, Margo Garret, guest Miscellaneous

Honorary Doctorate conferred on Leonard Slatkin, Conductor, Detroit Symphony Orchestra BGSU Opera Theater performs Cavalli’s La virtù de’ strali d’Amore with Eastman School of Music Collegium musicum in Bowling Green and at Kilborne Hall in The Eastman School of Music

2008 Carol A. Cartwright, tenth President of BGSU (2008-11) Festival Series XXIX—2008-09

Regina Carter: Sept. 19, 2008 Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra, Leon Botstein, Conductor: Nov. 15, 2008 Danielle de Niese, Soprano: Feb. 14, 2009 Paragon Ragtime Orchestra: Apr. 3, 2009

New Music Festival XXIX, Oct. 23-25, 2008: John Harbison, guest composer. Flexible Music, Eastman Triana, Stephen Drury, Stuart Gerber, guest performers. Hansen Musical Arts Series VI, Jan. 20, 2009: Benjamin Zander, conductor, guest McMaster Professorship, Vance George, guest David D. Dubois Piano Festival and Competition funds established. Miscellaneous BGSU Choirs perform Carl Orff’s Carmina Burana with the Toledo Symphony

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2009 April 25: Groundbreaking ceremony for the Wolfe Center for the Arts Festival Series XXX—2009-10 Sphinx Chamber Orchestra: Sept. 13, 2009 NEXUS: Oct. 8, 2009, Oct University Choral Society/Toledo Symphony, Handel’s Messiah: Dec. 2, 2009 Barry Douglas: Jan. 26, 2010 Chanticleer: Mar. 3, 2010

New Music Festival XXX, Oct. 22-24, 2009: Steven Stucky, guest composer. International Contemporary Ensemble, guest ensemble. Hansen Musical Arts Series VII, Aug. 27, 2009: Nancy Giles, comedian/ actress, guest McMaster Professorships, Ann Baltz, opera, and Alice Parker, chorus, guests Miscellaneous

University Choral Society performs Mahler’s 2nd Symphony with the Toledo Symphony University Choral Society performs Handel’s Messiah with the Toledo Symphony BGSU Opera Theater produced Wolf-Ferrari’s I quattro rusteghi, Feb. 27 and Mar. 1, 2009 BGSU Opera Theater produced Georg Phillip Telemann’s Don Quichotte auf der Hochzeit des Comacho and Manuel de Falla’s El retablo de Maese Pedro, Nov. 6 and 8, 2009

2010 Festival Series XXXI—2010-11

Branford Marsalis, Saxophone: Oct. 7, 2010 Empire Brass with Elizabeth von Trapp: Dec. 3, 2010 Robert Levin, Piano: Feb. 5, 2011 Selections from Porgy & Bess: Feb. 26, 2011 River North Dance Chicago: Apr. 7, 2011

New Music Festival XXXI, Oct. 21-23, 2010: Robert Morris, guest composer. Duo Diorama and the JACK String Quartet, guest ensembles. Hansen Musical Arts Series VIII, Oct. 6-7, 2010: Branford Marsalis, saxophonist, guest McMaster Professorship, Ann Baltz, opera David D. Dubois Piano Festival and Competition I, Robert Levin, guest Miscellaneous Conrad Art Song Competition documentary produced by WBGU-TV Women’s Chorus performs Mahler’s 3rd Symphony with the Toledo Symphony University Choral Society performs Handel’s Messiah with the Toledo Symphony Women’s Chorus performs Holst’s The Planets with the Toledo Symphony.

2011 Mary Ellen Mazey, eleventh President of BGSU (2011- ) Jeffrey Showell, seventh Dean of the CMA December 11: Opening ceremony for the Wolfe Center for the Arts Festival Series XXXII—2011-12 Turtle Island Quartet: Sept. 23, 2011 New York Voices: Nov. 19, 2011 Toledo Symphony/BG Wind Symphony: Jan. 19, 2012

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Christopher O’Riley: Feb. 11, 2012 Alarm Will Sound: Mar. 28, 2012

New Music Festival XXXII, Oct. 12-15, 2011, “Method in Madness”: David Lang, guest composer. Christopher Azzara, guest performer. Mantra Percussion, Tony Malaby & Tamarindo, guest ensembles. Hansen Musical Arts Series IX, April 23, 2012: Marin Alsop, conductor of the Baltimore Symphony, guest McMaster Professorship, Libby Larsen, guest David D. Dubois Piano Festival and Competition II, Christopher O’Riley, guest Miscellaneous BGSU Opera Theater produced Stephen Sondheim’s A Little Night Music, Mar. 24, 26 and 27, 2011

2012 Festival Series XXXIII—2012-13

Klezmer Madness: Sept. 29, 2012 New York Polyphony: Nov. 30, 2012 Anderson & Roe, Piano Duo: Feb. 9, 2013 American Spiritual Ensemble: Feb. 23, 2013 Hugh Masekela, Trumpet and Vocals: Apr. 3, 2013

New Music Festival XXXIII, Oct. 17-20, 2012 “Music and the Physical World”: John Luther Adams, guest composer. Marina Rosenfeld, guest artist. Barry Lopez, guest author. Doug Perkins, guest performer. Hansen Musical Arts Series X: Nov. 6, 2012, Bill McGlaughlin and Karrin Allyson, guests McMaster Professorship, Samuel Ramey, guest David D. Dubois Piano Festival and Competition III, Greg Anderson and Elizabeth Joy Roe, guests Miscellaneous BGSU Opera Theater produced Gilbert and Sullivan’s The Mikado, Feb. 3 and 4, 2012 BGSU Opera Theater produced Handel’s Hercules, Mar. 31, 2012

2013 Festival series XXXIV—2013-14

From the Top: Sept. 28, 2013 Holiday Xtravaganza: Dec. 6, 2013 Jeremy Denk, Piano: Feb. 15, 2014 Improvised Shakespeare Company: Apr. 15, 2014

New Music Festival XXXIV, Oct. 16-19, 2013: George Lewis, Ensemble Dal Niente, guest musicians. Terry Adkins, Pamela Z., guests artists. Hansen Musical Arts Series XI, Oct. 30, 2013: Robert Bernhardt, conductor, guest McMaster Professorship, The Thirteen, guests David D. Dubois Piano Festival and Competition IV, Jeremy Denk, guest “New Music from Bowling Green,” series, syndicated by WFMT in Chicago, initiated. 247


2. MUSIC FACULTY, 1914-2014 ADLER, SAMUEL Visiting Professor of Musicology/Composition/Theory (Composition) Bowling Green State University, 1995-99. ALBONETTI, MARCO Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Saxophone) Bowling Green State University, 2001-02. ALEXANDER, WILLIAM DON Professor of Music Education B.S.M., Mount Union College; M.S., North Texas State College; Violin student of Mischa Mischakoff; ‘Cello student of Arthur Bachman. Taught at New Mexico A and M College, North Texas State College, and Western Kentucky Teachers’ College. Music supervisor, Greentown Ohio centralized schools. Bowling Green State University, 1946-80. ALLEN, WARREN S. Professor of Music Performance Studies (Voice-Bass) B.M., Southwestern College, Kansas; M.M., University of Michigan; Student of Martial Singher, Juilliard School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1946-82. ALLESHOUSE, RICHARD. Instructor of Music (Part-Time) B.S., Bowling Green State University; M.A., Ohio State University. Bowling Green State University, 1965-66. ANDERSON, ALFRED L Instructor in Music (Voice-Baritone) A.A., East Central Junior College; B.M.E., Mississippi College; M.M., Indiana University. Bowling Green State University, 1970-72. ANDERSON, KELLY Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Voice) Bowling Green State University, 2007-08. ANTHONY, DOUGLAS Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory Bowling Green State University, 2001-02. ARCHER, KIM Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory Bowling Green State University, 2003-04. ARDIZZONE, MATTHEW Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Guitar) Bowling Green State University, 2001-06. 248


ASHMORE, LANCE Adjunct Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Voice-Baritone) Bowling Green State University, 2010- . ASSIMAKOPOULOS, NINA Assistant Professor in Music Performance Studies (Flute) Bowling Green State University, 2004-11. ATTREP, KAREN Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Ethnomusicology) M.M., Tufts University; Ph.D., University of California-Santa Barbara. Bowling Green State University, 2010- . AUER, JUDITH A. Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Voice-Mezzo) B.A., College of St. Teresa; M.A., Indiana University. Bowling Green State University, 197072. AVERY, JAMES Assistant Professor of Music B.M., University of Kansas; M.M., Indiana University. Bowling Green State University, 1966-68. AYLING, BENJAMIN Instructor in Music Education (Choral Activities) Bowling Green State University, 1997-98. BAKER, WALTER W. Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies (Piano) B.M., M.M., Oberlin Conservatory of Music; D.M.A., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 1967-98. BASSON, STEPHEN Instructor in Music (Bassoon) B.A., Columbia University; M.M., University of Iowa. Bowling Green State University, 196566. Principal Bassoon, Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra BATES VICKI Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Theory) Bowling Green State University, 2000-03. BAUER, JOHN H. Instructor in Music B.M., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 1956-57.

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BEERMAN, BURTON Professor of Music Composition and History (Composition/Theory) B.M., Florida State University; M.M., D.M.A., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 1970-2010 BELL, MEGAN Music Performance Studies (pt Voice-Soprano) Bowling Green State University, 2008-09. BELL, MELANIE Instructor in Music Education Bowling Green State University, 2000-05 BELUSKA, VASILE Professor of Music Performance Studies (Violin) Baccalauareate Degree, Liceul de Muzica (Romania); M.M., Southern Methodist University. Bowling Green State University, 1986-2013. BENITEZ, VINCENT Assistant Professor of Musicology/Composition/Theory B.M., M.M., University of North Texas; M.M., Ph.D., Arizona State University; Ph.D., Indiana University. Bowling Green State University, 1996-2003. BENSON-HIMONIDES, CYNTHIA A. STEPHENS Associate Professor of Music Education (Class Piano) B.M.E., University of Central Arkansas; M.M., Rice University; D.M.A., University of Texas at Austin. Bowling Green State University, 1999-2011. BENSON, MICHAEL Instructor in Music performance Studies (Piano) Bowling Green State University, 2000-01. BENSTOCK, SEYMOUR L. Assistant Professor of Music; Director, University Symphony Orchestra B.M., M.M., Hartt College of Music; Diploma, Royal Scottish Academy of Music, Glasgow, Scotland. Bowling Green State University, 1954-61. BENTLEY, JOHN E. Professor of Performance Studies (Oboe) B.S., University of Alabama; M.A., George Peabody College; A.Mus.D., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 1972-2006. BENTLEY, JUDITH C. Professor of Performance Studies (Flute) Mus.B., Oberlin College Conservatory of Music; M.M., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 1974-81 (Part-Time); 1985-2002. 250


BERES, KAREN Instructor in Music Education (Piano) Bowling Green State University, 1995-98 BETTS, EDWIN R. Professor of Music Performance Studies (Trumpet) B.M., M.M., Eastman School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1962-92. BIERY, CALVIN J. Department of Rural Education B. S., M. S., Ohio Northern University; Graduate Student, University of Chicago. Teacher in Rural Schools; Superintendent of City Schools, Oak Harbor and Wauseon; County Superintendent, Fulton County, Ohio; Member of Ohio State Board of School Examiners; Head of Department of Rural Education, State Normal College, Bowling Green, Ohio; member of Industrial Arts Program, 1915-38. BIGGS, NICHOLE Assistant professor in Music Education (Class Piano) M.M>, Cleveland Institute of Music; D.M.A>, University of Oklahome. Bowling Green State University, 2011-12 BIXLER, DAVID Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies (Jazz Studies/Jazz Saxophone); Director of Jazz Activities Bowling Green State University, 2009- . BLUBAUGH, DENNIS Instructor in Music Performance Studies Bowling Green State University, Spring 2003. BOETTCHER, BONNA Head Librarian, Music Library and Sound Recordings Archives B.M., Concordia College; M.F.A., University of Iowa; M.L.S., University of Western Ontario; D.M.A., University of Iowa. Bowling Green State University, 1992-2006. BOGNAR ANNA B. (ANNA BELLE) Associate Professor of Music Education B.M., Oklahoma State University; M.M., Bowling Green State University (1975). Bowling Green State University, 1970-74 (Part-Time), 1975-98. BOHRNSTEDT, WAYNE R. Associate Professor of Music B.M., M.M., Northwestern University; Ph.D., University of Rochester. Bowling Green State University, 1947-53.

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BOILEAU, HARRY C. Instructor in Music (Percussion) Student of Benjamin Podemski of the Philadelphia Symphony Orchestra. Bowling Green State University, 1953-58; 1963-68. BOLANIS, SUSAN Assistant Professor in Music Education Bowling Green State University, 2002-04. BRACEY, ROBERT DENNIS Assistant Professor, Music Performance Studies (Voice-Baritone) B.M., Michigan State University; M.M., D.M.A., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 1993-97. BRANT, BORIS Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies (Violin) B.A., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 1980-86. BROMAN, PER F. Associate Professor of Musicology/Composition/Theory (Theory); Associate Dean of the College of Musical Arts Degrees from Ingesund College of Music and Royal College of Music in Sweden, McGill University; Ph.D., University of Gothenburg. Bowling Green State University, 2003- . BROWN, EMILY FREEMAN Professor, Music Performance Studies (Conducting)/ Director of Orchestral Activities A.R.C.M., Royal College of Music; M.F.A., University of Iowa; D.M.A., Eastman School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1989- . BROWN, JESSICA Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Flute) M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2001-02. BROWN, VELVET Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies (Tuba) B.M., West Virginia University; M.M., Boston University; Ph.D., Indiana University. Bowling Green State University 1996-2004. BROWNELL, EILEEN Adjunct Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Cello) B.M., University of Denver; M.M., D.M.A., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 2006-08. BRUCHER, KATHERINE Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Ethnomusicology) B.A., Brown University; Ph.D., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 2005-07 252


BRUGGERMAN-KURP, JEANNE Adjunct Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Voice-soprano) B.M., Ohio Wesleyan University; M.M., University of Texas-Austin. Bowling Green State University, 2000- . BRYANT, STEVEN Visiting Professor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Guest Composer) Bowling Green State University, 2006-07 BUCK, NANCY Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Viola) B.A., Oberlin Conservatory of Music; M.M., Cleveland Institute of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1995-2002. BUCKHOLZ, CHRISTOPHER Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Trombone) Bowling Green State University, 1996-98. BUDAI, WILLIAM Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Piano) Bowling Green State University, 1996-98. BUEHLER, KIM Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Vocal Jazz) Bowling Green State University, 1999-2000. BUNCE, MARK Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Recording Services) B.M., Composition, Olivet College; M.M., Composition, Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 1984- . BURDICK, DANIEL Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Tuba) Bowling Green State University, 1999-2000. BURGER, COLE Instructor in Music Education (Class Piano) Degrees in Piano Performance and Economics from Northwestern University and the University of Texas. Bowling Green State University, 2012- . BURNETT, FRANCES Professor of Music Performance Studies (Piano) B.M., M.M., Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1964-91. 253


BURNHAM, CARDON VERN Assistant Professor of Music (Choral Activities) B.M.Ed., Bradley University; M.M., University of Illinois-Urbana Champaign (Music Theory; Composition); D.M.A., Eastman School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1958-61. BUZZELLI, CHRISTOPHER Professor of Music Performance Studies (Guitar/Jazz Studies); Director, Vocal Jazz Ensemble B.A., Trenton State University; M.M.E., North Texas University. Bowling Green State University, 1984- . BUZZELLI, JULIE Adjunct assistant Professor in Music Performance Studies (Harp) M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 1990- . BYL, JULIA Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Ethnomusicology) Bowling Green State University, 2002-03. BYLSMA, KEVIN Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Repetiteur/Opera Coach) Bowling Green State University, 2006- . CARL, TERI Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Clarinet) Bowling Green State University, Summer 2004. CARPENTER, LAURAINE Adjunct Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies (Trumpet) B.M.E., Ithaca College; M.A., New York University. Toledo Symphony Orchestra. Bowling Green State University, 2008- . CARPENTER, PHYLLIS D. Instructor in Music B.S., M.M., Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester. Bowling Green State University, 1953-54. CHAMBERLAIN, OLIVER Assistant Professor of Music Composition and History (History); Co-Chairman of the Department of Music Theory and Literature (1972) B.M., M.M., New England Conservatory; M.F.A., Brandeis University. Bowling Green Sate University, 1968-87. CHAPMAN, ROBERT L. Assistant Professor of Music B.Mus., M.A., State University of Iowa. Bowling Green State University, 1957-63. 254


CHASE, CLEON Instructor in Music (Oboe) B.M., Baylor University; M.M., Northwestern University. Bowling Green State University, 1965-71. CHATZKY, HERBERT Instructor in Music B.S., M.S., Juilliard School of Music 1960-61. CHOI, WINSTON Assistant Professor in Music Performance Studies (Piano) Bowling Green State University, 2007-08. CHURCH, CHARLES F. JR. Assistant Professor of Music A. B., A. M., University of Iowa; Graduate Student, Summer Session, Columbia University. Supervisor of Music, Mapleton, Iowa; Extensive study of the clarinet and of band and orchestra directing at Graceland College; University of Iowa; Sherwood Music School, Chicago; and Institute of Musical Art, New York. Supervisor of Music, Mapleton, Iowa. Bowling Green State University, 1927-1940, Fall 1942. PhD, Ohio State University, 1942. Director of Education, Acting Director of Research, KMBC Radio Station, Kansas City, Missouri, 1945. Â CIOFFARI, ESTELLE DOBBINS Instructor Bowling Green State University, 1975-77. CIOFFARI, RICHARD Professor of Music Performance Studies (String Bass; Conducting); Chair, Department of Performance Studies. B.M., M.M., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 1967-94. CLARK, ARCOLA Instructor in Music (Harp) B.M., Michigan State University; M.M., Michigan State University. Bowling Green State University, 1968-69. CLARK, STEWART Instructor in Music Performance Studies (French Horn) Bowling Green State University, 1999-2001. CLEMENT, DOROTHY Instructor in Music B. S. in Music, North Carolina College for Women, Greensboro, N. C. Instructor in Music, State Normal School, Cullowhee, N. C.; Instructor in Music, Bowling Green State Normal College, Bowling Green, Ohio, 1924-1928. 255


CLEVELAND, SUSANNAH Associate Professor, Library; Head of Music Library & Sound Recordings Archives Bowling Green State University, 2006- . CLIFTON, JEREMY Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory Bowling Green State University, 2009-10. CLOETER, CHELSEA Adjunct Assistant Professor in Music Performance Studies (Voice-Soprano) B.M., Middlebury College; M.M., Westminster Choir College. Bowling Green State University, 2009- . CLOETER, TIMOTHY Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Choral Activities) B.M.E., Concordia University; M.M., Westminster Choir College; A.B.D., University of Arizona. Bowling Green State University, 2009- . COBB, CHARLOTTE ELIZABETH Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies (Piano) B. Mus., M.M., Yale University; Ph.D., University of Iowa. Bowling Green State University, 1961-98. COCHRAN, ROBERT Instructor in Music (Bassoon) B.M., M.M., The Ohio State University. Bowling Green State University, 1975-77 COHEN, LENORA GUSTEIN Part-Time Instructor of Music [Piano] B.M. Indiana University; M.M., Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester. Bowling Green State University, 1950-58. COJBASIC, IVANA Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Piano) Bowling Green State University, 2005-06. COLLIER, WINSTON Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Bassoon) Bowling Green State University, 2001-03. COLLINS, M. LOIS Instructor in Music A B., B. Music, Missouri Valley College, Marshall, Missouri; M. Music, Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester, Rochester, New York. Bowling Green State University, 1940-41. Â 256


COLPRIT, ELAINE Associate Professor of Music Education B.M.E., Wheaton College; M.M., Cleveland Institute of Music; Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin. Bowling Green State University, 1997- . CONTINO, FIORA Associate Professor of Music; Director, Opera (1965) and Choral Activities B.M., Oberlin Conservatory (Piano); Student of Nadia Boulanger; M.M., Indiana University; D.M., Indiana University (1964). Bowling Green State University, 1963-66. COOPER, JENNIFER GOODE Adjunct Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Voice-Soprano) Doctoral Candidate, University of Memphis. Bowling Green State University 2009- . COOPER, SEAN Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Voice-Bass/Baritone) B.M., Manhattan School of Music; M.M., D.M.A., University of Memphis. Bowling Green State University, 2009- . CORNELIUS, GREGORY Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Composition) Bowling Green State University, 2003-06. CORNELIUS, STEVEN H. Associate Professor of Musicology/Composition/Theory (Ethnomusicology; Afro-Caribbean Ensemble) B.M.Ed., University of Wisconsin at Madison; M.M., Manhattan School; Ph.D., University of California at Los Angeles. Bowling Green State University, 1991-2010. CORRIGAN, ANN B. Adjunct Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies/Musicology/Composition/Theory B.M., Indiana University; M.M., Bowling Green State University; D.M.A., Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1996-2014. CORRIGAN, VINCENT J. Professor of Musicology/Composition/Theory (Musicology); Chair, Music Composition and History B.M., B.M.E., Carnegie-Mellon University; M.M., Indiana University; Ph.D., Indiana University (1980). Bowling Green State University, 1973-2010. COWEN, GRAEME Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Choral Activities) Bowling Green State University, 2000-01. CRAWFORD, JASON Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Composition) Bowling Green State University, 2001-02. 257


CURTIS, THOMAS C. Instructor in Music B.A., University of Michigan; S.T.B., Boston University. Bowling Green State University, 1949-61. DAMSCHRODER, NORMAN Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Jazz/String Bass) Bowling Green State University, 2002-03 DANZIGER, MARGARET Instructor in Piano, Creative Arts Program Bowling Green State University, 1976-77. DARABIE, MOHAMMED Adjunct Associate Professor of Music Education Bowling Green State University, 2011- . DAVIDSON, TODD Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Trumpet) B.M., Arizona State University; M.M., University of North Texas; D.M.A., Indiana University. Bowling Green State University, 1993-99. DAVIS, PAM Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Theory) Bowling Green State University, 1999-2006. DEAL JOHN J. Instructor in Music Education B.M., M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 1975-79. DEARBORN, KEITH R. Associate Professor of Music Education A.B., Hillsdale College; M.M., Westminster Choir College. Bowling Green State University, 1971-92. DeBACCO, STEPHEN Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory Bowling Green State University, 2004-06 DECKER, GREGORY J. Assistant Professor of Musicology/Composition/Theory (Theory) M.M., Ph.D., Florida State University. Bowling Green State University, 2011- . DEE, RENEE A. Visiting Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Bassoon) B.M.E., Baldwin-Wallace College; M.M., University of Akron. Bowling Green State University, 1996-97. 258


DEIS, JEAN P. Assistant Professor of Music (Voice-Tenor) Artist Diploma, Curtis Institute of Music; Voice student of Richard Bonelli. Bowling Green State University, 1964-67. (40) DeJAGER LAKOFSKY, HELEN Instructor in Music (Piano) B.M., M.M., Artist’s Diploma, Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester. Bowling Green State University, 1952-57; 1996-97. DeLAPP, JENNIFER Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Musicology) Bowling Green State University, 1997-98. DeNARDO, GREGORY Associate Professor of Music Education B.S., University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee; M.M., University of Wisconsin-Madison. Bowling Green State University, 1986-96. DENNIS, HERMAN A. Part-Time Instructor of Music Student of George Schaeffer, University of Miami. Bowling Green State University, 1947-48, 1951-53. DENNIS MARK Instructor in Music Composition and History (Composition/Theory) B.A., Morehouse College; M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowloing Green State University, 1973-77. DePUE, WALLACE E. Professor of Music Composition and History (Composition/Theory) B.M., B.M.E., Capital University; M.A., Ohio State University; Ph.D., Michigan State University. Bowling Green State University, 1966-98. DERRER, EMILY R. Part-Time (1946); Instructor in Music (1948) B.S. in Education, Bowling Green State University; Bowling Green State University, 1946-51. DESMOND, ROBERT Adjunct Assistant Professor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Ethnomusicology/Steel Drum Ensemble) Bowling Green State University, 2011- . DeYARMAN, ROBERT Part-Time Instructor in Music B.A., M.A., Ph.D., State University of Iowa. Bowling Green State University, 1979-80. 259


Di BLASI, FRANCESCO (FRANCISCO) Instructor in Music (Trumpet) Studied at Juilliard School of Music with Fritz Mahler and Pierre Monteux. Bowling Green State University, 1954-55; 1958-59. DiBLASSIO, BRIAN Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Jazz Piano) Bowling Green State University, 2003-05. DIETZ, CHRISTOPHER Assistant Professor of Musicology/Composition/Theory (Composition); Director, New Music Ensemble Degrees from University of Wisconsin and Manhattan School of Music; Ph.D., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 2011- . DOBBELAERE, BRIAN Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory Bowling Green State University, 1998-2000. DOLES KURT Instructor in Musicology/Composition/History; Coordinator of MidAmerican Center for Contemporary Music (Gamelan Ensemble) Bowling Green State University, 2006; 2008- . DONAJUE, MATTHEW Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Popular Music) Bowling Green State University, 2000-01; 2003-04 DREISBACH, KIMBERLY Part-time Instructor in Music Education (Piano) Bowling Green State University, 2010-11. DUCHAN, JOSHUA S. Adjunct Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (pt Ethnomusicology) Ph.D., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 2008-09. DUFFUS, MARILYN Instructor in Music (Voice-Contralto) Licentiate, Guildhall School of Music, London; Licentiate, Royal Academy of Music, London. Bowling Green State University, 1966-69. DUKE, ROBERT Visiting Scholar in Music Education Bowling Green State University, 2000-01.

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DULING ED Assistant Professor of Music Education Bowling Green State University, 1996-2002. DURRANCE, SAM P. JR Assistant Professor of Music A.B., Hording College; A.M., Duke University; Bowling Green State University, 1945-46 Â DUSDIEKER, CAROL Music Performance Studies (Voice-Soprano) Bowling Green State University, 2010-11. DUTT, LAWRENCE Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Opera Coach) Bowling Green State University, 2004-05 DUVALL, WILLIAM Instructor in Music (Voice-Baritone) B.A., Principia College of Liberal Arts; Eastman School of Music; Fulbright Scholar, Rome. Bowling Green State University, 1966-71. DWYER, JUNE M. Instructor of Music B.M., M.M., Drake University; Bowling Green State University, 1951-52 DYBDAHL, FRANKLIN EUGENE Professor of Music Performance Studies; Director, Opera Activities B.M.E., M.M., University of Nebraska; D.M.A., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 1977-80; 1989-2004. DYER, DAVID Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Early Music Ensemble) Bowling Green State University, 1999-2000. EASTLAND-GROMKO, JOYCE Professor of Music Education; Chair of Music Education B.A., Luther College; M.A., San Diego State University; D.M.E., Indiana University. Bowling Green State University, 1991-2009. ECKARDT-MERRILL, ALLISON Musicology/Composition/Theory (Ethnomusicology/Taiko Ensemble) BB.A., M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2011- .

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ECKER, RICHARD Associate Professor of Music; Assistant Director of Bands B.S. in Education, M.A., Ohio State University; Ed.D., Arizona State College. Bowling Green State University, 1948-66. Died Aug. 16, 1965. EDER, TERRY E. Associate Professor of Music Education; Choral Activities B.M.E., M.M.E., Texas Christian University; D.M.A., University of Oklahoma. Bowling Green State University, 1985-90. EGGLESTON, SUZANNE Assistant Professor; Head Librarian of the Music Library and Sound Recordings Archives B.M. (Piano), Salem College; M.A., M.S., University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. Bowling Green State University, 1990-92 EIKUM, REX Professor of Music Performance Studies (Voice-Tenor); Chair, Music Performance Studies (1977) B.A., M.A., University of Idaho. Bowling Green State University, 1967-98. ELLIOTT, WILLIAM LEE Instructor in Music B.M. Ed., University of Nebraska; M.M., Indiana University. Bowling Green State University, 1954-56. ELLSWORTH, E. VICTOR Associate Professor of Music Education; Chair, Department of Music Education B.M., North Texas University; M.M., Eastman School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1983-97. ENGEBRETSEN-BROMAN, NORA Associate Professor of Musicology, Composition/Theory (Theory) Ph.D., SState University of New York-Buffalo. Bowling Green State University, 2002- . ERB, DONALD J. Assistant Professor of Music B.S., Kent State University; M.M., Cleveland Institute of Music; D.M., Indiana University (1965). Bowling Green State University, 1964-67. ERDELYI, CSABA Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Viola) Bowling Green State University, 2003-07 ERVAMAA, KATRI Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Cello) Bowling Green State University, 2002-04. 262


ESLINGER, ADELLE Visiting Instructor in Music Performance Studies ((Vocal Coach) Bowling Green State University, 2004-05. FAGERBURG, ANNE Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Cello) B.M., Oberlin Conservatory of Music; M.M., Eastman School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1977-80. FALLON, ROBERT Assistant Professor of Musicology/Composition/Theory (Musicology). B.M., B.S. in Music Theory/Composition and English, Northwestern University; M.M., Ph.D., University of California at Berkeley. Bowling Green State University, 2006-09 FAULEY, LEON E. Professor of Music B.A.., Wichita University; B.M., University of Kansas; M.A., Teachers College, Columbia University; Voice pupil of Alexander Kisselburgh and Louis Graveure. Teacher in rural and village schools of Kansas; Teacher in High School and Supervisor of Music, Rozel, Kan.; Instructor in Music, State Teachers College, Denton, Texas. Bowling Green State University, 1930-64. FERGUSON, MEGAN Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Viola) B.M., Rice University; M.M., New England Conservatory of Music; D.M.A., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 2007-2011. FIDLER, LINDA Assistant Professor, Librarian (Music) B.A., Washington State University; B.M., Pullman University; M.L.S., M.M., Indiana University. Bowling Green State University, 1982-90. FIELD, RICHARD Music Education (Advisor) Bowling Green State University, 1987-98. FIELDER, JONATHAN Musicology/Composition/Theory (Composition) B.M., Ohio University; M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2012-13. FLANIGAN, SEAN Adjunct Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Trombone) B.S, Music Education, M.M., University of Illinois-Urbana-Champaign; D.M.A., University of North Texas. Bowling Green State University, 1998-2000. 263


FLEGG, LYNN Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Oboe) Bowling Green State University, 2012-13. FORBES, LOIS Part-Time Instructor in Music; Coordinator of Fine Arts Program; Coordinator of Creative Arts Program (1970) B.M., Oberlin College Conservatory of Music; M.A., Teachers College, Columbia. Bowling Green State University, 1969-72. FORD, SHANNON Instructor in Music Performance Studies Bowling Green State University, 2001-06. FORSYTHE, DONALD E. Instructor in Music, Firelands Campus B.M.Ed., Oberlin College; M.A., M.Ed., Kent State University. Bowling Green State University, 1968-72. FOSSENKEMPER, MARIUS Instructor in Music B.A., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 1955-56. FOX, CLINT Adjunct Instructor in Music Education (Aural Skills, Theory, Class Piano) B.M., Lawrence University, Wisconsin; M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2000- . FRASER, ROBERT Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Jazz Guitar) Bowling Green State University, 2001-02. FRISK, LENA EKMAN Visiting Professor of Music Education (Choral Activities) Bowling Green State University, 2005-06. FUNG, C. VICTOR Associate Professor of Music Education; Chair, Music Education L.T.C.L., Trinity College of Music—London; M.M., Baylor University; Ph.D., Indiana University. Bowling Green State University, 1998-2004. GALU, IOANA Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Violin) Bowling Green State University, Fall 2012.

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GARABEDIAN GEORGE, EDNA Instructor in Music (Voice-Mezzo) Bowling Green State University, 1968-71. GARRISON, LEONARD Visiting Assistant Professor in Music Performance Studies (Flute) B.M., Oberlin Conservatory of Music; M.M., M.A., Stony Brook University; D.M.A., Northwestern University. Bowling Green State University, 2003-04. GARTZ, MICHAEL Adjunct Assistant Professor in Music Performance Studies (Organ/Choral Accompanist) B.M., Eastman School of Music; Further studies in Musicology at Eastman. Bowling Green State University, 2013- . GETCHELL, ROBERT W. Instructor in Music B.S., Iowa State Teachers College; M.M., Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester, Rochester, New York. Instructor in Music, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio, Fall, 1942 (drafted). Â GIBSON, ERIC Visiting Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Opera Director) Bowling Green State University, Spring 2008. GIGANTE CHARLES Associate Professor of Music; Director, Orchestral Activities B.M., M.M., Eastman School of Music; D.F.A., St. Ambrose College. Bowling Green State University, 1965-69. GINN PASTER, SOPHIE Assistant Professor of Music (Voice-Soprano) B.S., M.S., Juilliard School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1961-70. GIRTEN, ELMER Adjunct Instructor in Music Education (Instrumental Repair) B.M.E., Miami University; M.M.E., Columbia University. Bowling Green State University, 1975-2001. GLASMIRE, DAVID S. Professor of Music Performance Studies (Trombone) B.M., M.M., Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1950-53, 1955-58 (Part-Time); 1954-55, 1958-82. GLIDDEN, ROBERT B. Professor of Music (Music Education); Dean of the College of Musical Arts B.A., M.A., Ph.D., The University of Iowa. Bowling Green State University, 1975-79. 265


GRABILL, JAMES R. Supervising Teacher, Instrumental Music B.A., Oberlin College; M.A., Ohio State University. Bowling Green State University, 194852. GRAVES, JEFFREY Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Tuba) D.M.A., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 1999-2000. GROMAN, THEODORE Part-Time Instructor in Music (Brass/Woodwinds) Bowling Green State University, 1947-48. GRUENHAGEN, LISA Assistant Professor of Music Education B.M., Flute, University of Denver-Lamont School of Music; M.M., Music Education and Flute, Eastman School of Music; Ph.D., Music Education, Eastman School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 2009- . GWINNELL, WILLIAM SCOTT Visiting Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Jazz) B.M., Western Michigan University; M.M., Wayne State University. Bowling Green State University, 2007-08 HALKER, KIRSTEN Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Piano) Bowling Green State University, 1998-2000. HALL, MARION DEE Assistant Professor of Music Diploma, Crane Normal Institute of Music, Potsdam, N Y; B. S. in Music Education. A.M., Columbia University. Supervisor of Music and Instructor in State Normal Schools, Fair Haven and West Rutland, Vt.; Supervisor, elementary schools, Greensboro, N. C.; Bowling Green State College, 1923-1926, 1928-1934. Â HALSEY, JEFFREY Professor of Music Composition and History (Jazz Studies); Professor of Music Performance Studies (Double Bass/Jazz Studies) B.M.E., Aquinas College; M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 1982- . HAMILTON, FRED Instructor in Music Composition and History (Jazz Studies/ Guitar_ M.M., University of Northern Colorado (Composition). Bowling Green State University, 1979-82. 266


HAMMOND, IVAN Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies (Tuba) B.M., M.M., Indiana University. Bowling Green State University, 1967-93. HANN KAREN Instructor in Music Education Bowling Green State University, Summer 2002. HANSEN, DUWAYNE Associate Professor of Music Education; Chairman, Department of Music Education (1973) B.S., University of Wisconsin; M.M., Northwestern University; D.M.E., Indiana University. Bowling Green State University, 1969-81. HARENDA, TIMOTHY Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory Bowling Green State University, Spring 2013. HARNISH, DAVID Professor of Musicology/Composition/Theory (Ethnomusicology) B.A., University of the Pacific; M.A., University of Hawaii; Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles. Bowling Green State University, 1994-2011. HARRIS, RICK Instructor in Musicology/Composition/History B.M., University of Idaho; M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 1998-99. HASTINGS, CHARISE Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory Bowling Green State University, 2005-06. HAVEN, DALE Associate Professor of Music B.S. in Music Education; M.A., Ohio State University. Bowling Green State University, 194860. Â HAYES, GLENN C. Assistant professor of Music Education; Assistant Director of Bands B.M.E., Central Michigan University; M.M., Ph.D. Northwestern University. Bowling Green State University, 1982-86. HAYWARD, CAROL Associate Professor of Music Education (Band Activities) B.M., Capital University; M.M.E., D.M.A., Ohio State University. Bowling Green State University, 2003-15. 267


HEISER, PEARL Clerk; Instructor in Piano Graduate of Bowling Green High School and Student at Davis Business College, Toledo. Private Piano and Organ Pupil of C. Max Ecker, Toledo, Ohio; Organ Pupil of Dr. William C. Carl and John Hammond, New York. Teacher of Piano and Organ; Clerk, State Normal College, Bowling Green, 1919. Instructor in Piano, State Normal College, Bowling Green. Ohio, 1922-24. HEISLER, JEFFREY Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Saxophone) D.M.A., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2011-12. HERMAN, JAYNE Instructor in Music Education Bowling Green State University, 1996-97 HESS, CAROL Professor of Musicology/Composition/Theory B.M., Hartt School of Music; M.A., San José State University; M.M., Holy Names College; Ph.D., University of California, Davis. Bowling Green State University, 1995-2006. HESSER, ERNEST G. Chair, Department of Music Diploma, Winona College; Diploma, School of Methods, Chicago; Student, Ohio Wesleyan University School of Music; Private Voice Pupil of Dr. Carl Dufft, New York, William Shakespeare, London, Isadore Luckstone, Paris. Supervisor of Public School Music, Kendallville, Ind.; Supervisor of Music, Goshen, Ind; Head of Music Department, Kansas State Normal School, Emporia, Kan.; Supervisor of Music, Pasadena, Cal.; Head of Music Department, Winona College Summer School, 1914; Head of Music Department, State Normal College, Bowling Green. Ohio, 1914-1920.   HILL-KRETZER, KELLY Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Music Appreciation) B.M., Illinois State University; M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowlikng Green State University, 1999-2003 HILTY, ROY V. Supervising Teacher, Vocal Music B.A., Bluffton College; M.A., Ohio State University. Bowling Green State University, 192852 (Director of the Treble Clef Club, 1940-41). HIMMEL, JOSEPH E. Associate Professor of Music B.A., North Central College; M.M., Northwestern University; Study at the State Conservatory of Music, Munich, Germany, and University of Montreal, Canada; Student of Alexander Kipnis and Gerhard Huesch. Bowling Green State University, 1947-61. 268


HOCK, CONNIE E. M.M., Bowling Green State University, 1974; Bowling Green State University, 1975-76. HOELZLEY, PAUL D. Instructor in Music B.M.E., University of Tulsa; M.M., University of Michigan; Tulsa Symphony. Bowling Green State University, 1966-69. HOHN, ROBERT W. Professor of Music Education (Voice-Baritone); Assistant Director, School of Music (1972) A.B., B.Mus., B.Mus. Ed., Otterbein College; M.M., Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music; D.Mus.Ed., Indiana University. Bowling Green State University, 1960-79. HOKE, THOMAS C. Assistant Professor of Performance Studies (Opera) B.A., Catawba College; M.S., Indiana University. Bowling Green State University, 1975-77. HOWARD, PETER (ARTHUR S.) Professor of Music Performance Studies (Cello) B.M., Oberlin Conservatory of Music; Private ‘cello study, Pierre Fontrier, Andre Navarra, Maurice Gendron; National Symphony & Cleveland Symphony; Toledo Symphony, Principal Cello; Prize Winner, 1958 Casals Competition. Bowling Green State University, 1965-75. HUANG-STRENG, ISABELLE Adjunct Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Percussion) B.M., Taipei National University of the Arts; M.M., Ithaca College; D.M.A., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2011- . HUFFMAN, LOYAL Part-Time Instructor in Music (Voice) Student of Gustave Broham of the Detroit Symphony. Bowling Green State University, 195253. HUNT, PAUL B. Professor of Music Performance Studies; Chair, Department of Performance Studies B.M., B.M.E., University of Northern Colorado; M.M., Youngstown State University; D.M.A., Performer’s Certificate, Eastman School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1983-98. HUR, MYOUNGSUN Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Piano) M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2005-06. HURT, PHYLLIS B.M., University of Kentucky; D.M.A., University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana (1987). Bowling Green State University, 1978-79. 269


INGLEFIELD, KENLEY P. Professor of Music Composition and History (Theory; Trombone) B.M., Eastman School of Music; M.A., American University; D.M.A., Cincinnati CollegeConservatory of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1974-96. INGLEFIELD, RUTH Professor of Music Composition and History Musicology; Harp) B.A., Goucher College; M.M., Ph.D., University of Cincinnati. Bowling Green State University, 1973-90. ISOMURA, SACHIYA Visiting Assistant Professor of Performance Studies (Cello) Diploma, Juilliard School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1975-77. JAMES RICHARD S. Associate Professor of Music Composition and History (Musicology) B.Mus., Wooster College; M.A., Ph.D., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 1981-91. JACKSON, JAY Assistant Professor of Music Education; Assistant Band Director B.M., M.M., Appalachian State University. Bowling Green State University, 1986-92.

JACOBSON, BRUCE Instructor in Music Education Bowling Green State University, 2000-01 JANOWSKY, MAXIM D. Part-Time Instructor in Music Performance Studies (String Bass) Hartt College; Member, Detroit Symphony. Bowling Green State University, 1966-67 JASINSKI, NATHAN Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Cello) B.M., Brigham Young University; M.M., Arizona State University; Doctoral Study, University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 2005-06. JAWORSKI, WARREN Instructor in Music B.M., M.M., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 1966-69. JEFFRIES, THOMAS B. Assistant Professor of Music B.M.Ed., Texas Western College; M.A., Ph.D., University of California. Bowling Green State University, 1967-70.

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JENNINGS, CHRISTINA Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Flute) B.M., M.M., Juillard School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 2002-03. JENSEN, ANNA Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Double Bass) B.M., Central Washington University; M.M., D.M.A., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 2006-07 JENSEN, JANET Assistant Professor of Music Education (String Pedagogy) B.M.E., M.M., University of Wisconsin-Madison; Ph.D., University of Texas-Austin. Bowling Green State University, 1988-89. JENSEN, MYRTLE Associate Professor of Music B.M., Piano, Public School Music, St. Olaf College; B.M., Theory, Composition, Orchestration, American Conservatory; M.M. Theory, Eastman School of Music. Extensive study with Dr. F. M. Christiansen, Arthur Olaf Andersen, Noble Cain, Max Landow, Cecile Staub Genhart, Howard Wells. Bowling Green State University, 1938-58. JOHNSON, CLYDE E. Instructor in Music (Music Education, Composition, Saxophone) B.M., M.A., (Music Education) Ph.D. (Composition), University of Iowa, 1957. Bowling Green State University, 1958-59. University of Minnesota at Morris, 1961-99. JOHNSTON, JESSE Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Ethnomusicology) B.M., Performance, M.S., Information, Ph.D., Ethnomusicology, University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 2009-10. JONES, L. JAFRAN Associate Professor of Music Composition and History; Chair, Music Composition and History B.M.E., M.A., Ph.D., University of Washington. Bowling Green State University, 1978-92. JONES, MARY CATHERINE (KATIE) Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Flute) M.M., Florida State University. Bowling Green State University, 1997-2000. JONES, WENDELL Professor of Music Performance Studies (Percussion) B.S., Ohio State University; M.A., University of Northern Colorado. Bowling Green State University, 1967-92.

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JORDAN BUCKWELL, PATRICIA J. Assistant Professor of Music Education B.S., Kansas State University; M.M., Bowling Green State University (1973). Bowling Green State University, 1969-86. JOSEPH, WARREN A. Assistant Professor of Music; Director, Choral Activities B.S. in Education, M.S. Ed., New York State University of Education at Potsdam; Ph.D., Boston University. Bowling Green State University, 1961-63. KANTORSKI, VALRIE Adjunct Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Piano) Bowling Green State University, 1997-2000. KANTORSKI, VINCENT Professor of Music Education (Graduate Studies) B.M., Chicago Musical College of Roosevelt University; M.M., University of Miami; Ph.D., Florida State University. Bowling Green State University, 1984- . KAUBER, CAROLE Instructor in Dance, Creative Arts Program (15 years) Bowling Green State University, 1975-76. KEASTER, AARON Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Double Bass) B.M.E., Wichita State University; M.M., Indiana University; Bassist, Toledo Symphony. Bowling Green State University, 2001-03. KELLY, MARK Professor of Music Education; Director of Bands B.A., M.A., University of Iowa. Bowling Green State University, 1966-94. KENNEDY, JAMES PAUL Professor of Music; Director of Choral Activities; Chairman, Department of Music (1957) Director, School of Music; Dean, College of Musical Arts (1975) B.A., William Penn College; B.M. Ed., M.M., Northwestern University; Student, University of Southern California; Ph.D., State University of Iowa. Studied Charles Griffith, Arne Oldberg, Serevin Eisenberger; Study at the Matthay Pianoforte School, London, England. Carl Beecher Professor of Piano and Theory, Hiram College. Bowling Green State University, 1936-78. KENNEDY, LAURA E. Visiting Assistant Professor of Musicology/Composition/Theory (Musicology) B.M. Piano Performance, Wheaton College, 2002; Ph.D. Musicology, University of Michigan, 2009. Bowling Green State University, 2009-10. 272


KENNELL, RICHARD Professor of Music Performance Studies; Assistant Dean, College of Musical Arts (1980; Dean of the College of Musical Arts; Dean of the College of Musical Arts (2000-11 ) B.M.E., M.M., Northwestern University; Ph.D., University of Wisconsin at Madison. Bowling Green State University, 1980-2011. KERSHNER, LORLIE VIRGINIA Instructor in Music B.A., University of Texas; M.A. in Music and Music Education, Columbia University. Bowling Green State University, l941-1945. KIM, YOUNG NAM Associate Professor of Studies of Music Performance Studies (Violin); Artist in Residence (1977) B.M., M.M., Syracuse University. Bowling Green State University, 1969-80. KING, MARY Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Composition) D.M.A., Northwestern University. Bowling Green State University, 2001-02. KITT, MARIBETH E. Instructor in Music B.M., Montana State University; M.M.. Eastman School of Music, University of Rochester. Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio, 1944-46. Resigned in 1946 to marry William Lynn, Jr. of Missoula, Montana.   KLAAS, GEORG Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Clarinet) B.M., University of Southern California; M.M., Indiana University. Principal Clarinet, Toledo Symphony. Bowling Green State University, 2004-05. KONKOL, KOREY Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Viola) B.A., Western Illinois University; M.M., New England Conservatory of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1989-93. KOPETZ, BARRY E. Assistant Professor of Music Education B.M.E., M.M.E., The Ohio State University; Ph.D., Indiana University. Bowling Green State University, 1979-83. KRAJEWSKI, RANDY Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 1991-98.

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KRATUS, JOHN Assistant Professor of Music Education B.A., M.F.A., State University of New York, Buffalo; Ph.D., Northwestern University. Bowling Green State University, 1981-85. KRATZ, GIRARD Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory B.M., Wilkes University; M.M., Bowling Green State University; D.M.A., Temple University. Bowling Green State University, 1999-2000. KRIEGER, ESTON D. Assistant Professor of Music B.S., University of Cincinnati; M.M., Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1948-52. KRUGER, HARRY Assistant Professor of Music; Director of Orchestral Activities B.M., M.M.Ed., New England Conservatory of Music. Student of Leonard Bernstein, Jean Morel, and Pierre Monteaux. Assistant Conductor, Atlanta Symphony Orchestra; Conductor, Atlanta Civic Ballet, 1955-61. Bowling Green State University, 1961-65. KRUSE, PENNY THOMPSON Professor of Music Performance Studies (Violin) Degrees from Northwestern University and Yale University; D.M.A., University of MissouriKansas City. Bowling Green State University, 2000- . KRUSE, STEVEN Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Viola) B.M., M.M., Manhattan School of Music; D.A., Ball State University. Bowling Green State University, 2001-02. KUEHN, MIKEL Professor of Musicology/Composition/Theory (Composition) B.M., University of North Texas; M.M., Ph.D., Eastman School of Music; Ph.D., University of Louisville. Bowling Green State University, 1998- . LABERGE, CHRISTINA Instructor in Musicology/Composition/History Bowling Green Sate University, 2005-10 LAKE, WILLIAM Associate Professor of Musicology/Composition/Theory. B.M.E., M.M., Indiana University; Ph.D., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 1988-2011.

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LaMAR, FRANK R. Assistant Professor of Music B.M., M.M., D.M., Florida State University. Bowling Green State University, 1964-67. LAVENDER, SCOTT Adjunct Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Conducting) Bowling Green State University, 2012- . LAWRENCE, SIDRA Assistant Professor of Musicology/Composition/Theory (Ethnomusicology) M.M., Bowling Green State University; Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin. Bowling Green State University, 2011- . LAZARUS, ROY Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies (Opera) B.M., M.M., Syracuse University. Bowling Green State University, 1983-89. LECLAIR, JACQUELINE Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Oboe) Bowling Green State University, 2008-12. LEE, HYE KYUNG Visiting Assistant Professor of Musicology/Composition/Theory (Composition) B.M., Yon Sei University; M.M., Performer’s Certificate in Piano, University of Texas-Austin; D.M.A., Composition, University of Texas-Austin. Bowling Green State University, 2002-03 LEE, SUJIN Adjunct Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Voice-Soprano) M.M., Manhattan School of Music; Artist’s Diploma, Academy of Vocal Arts, Philadelphia. Bowling Green State University, 2010- . LEFKOFF, GERALD Instructor in Music (Viola/Composition/Music Theory) B.S., Juilliard School of Music; M.M. (Composition), Ph.D. (Theory), Catholic University of America. Co-Author, with Leo Horacek, of Programmed Ear Training. Bowling Green State University, 1958-60. University of West Virginia, 1961-96. LEISENRING, JOHN. Visiting Instructor in Music B.M.E., M.M., University of Wisconsin. Bowling Green State University, 1964-66. LIETZ, LLOYD J. B.M., Oberlin College Conservatory of Music; Post-graduate Diploma, Juilliard School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1955-57. 275


LIGHT, ETHEL J. Instructor in Music Private Piano Pupil of Lyman F. Gibson, and Ernest Hutcheson, New York City; Private Harmony Student of Reginald Sweet, New York; Private Voice Student of John Alexander Campbell. Newark, New Jersey. and Ernest G. Hesser, Bowling Green, Ohio; Graduate, Skidmore School of Arts, Saratoga Springs, New York; Student, Cornell University. Supervisor of Music, Fort Edward; Director of Choir, Saratoga Springs, New York; Assistant Concert Accompanist, Chautauqua, New York; Instructor in Music, State Normal College, Bowling Green, Ohio, 1919-1921. Â LILLIOS, ELAINIE Professor of Musicology/Composition/Theory (Composition) B.M., M.M., Northern Illinois University; M.Phil., University of Birmingham, England; D.M.A., University of North Texas. Bowling Green State University, 2000- . LINDEN, BERNARD Professor of Music Performance Studies (Viola) B.F.A., University of Pennsylvania; M.M., D.M.A., University of Michigan; New York Philharmonic; Toledo Symphony, Principal Viola. Bowling Green State University, 1960-86. LINK, MEGAN Instructor in Music Education M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2013- . LIPKIN, ELEANOR Part-Time Instructor in Music B.M., Curtis Institute. Bowling Green State University, 1967-72. LIPPEL, DANIEL Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Classical Guitar) B.M., M.M., Cleveland Institute of Music; D.M.A., Manhattan School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1999-2001. LITTLE, HORACE C. Instructor in Music (Trumpet) B.M.E., Wichita State University; M.M., Yale University. Bowling Green State University, 1967-71. LIU, SOLUNGGA FANG-TZU Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies (Piano) D.M.A., Eastman School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 2008- . LOCKARD-ZIMMERMAN, BARBARA A. Professor of Music Performance Studies (Voice-Mezzo) B.M.E., M.M., D.M., Indiana University. Bowling Green State University, 1971-2007. 276


LONG, MARGUERITE Instructor in Music B.M., M.M., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 1961-62. LOOMIS, MARY P. Instructor in Music Diploma in Music, Muskingum College, New Concord, Ohio; Diploma in Public School Music, State Normal College, Bowling Green, Ohio; Student, Conservatory of Music, Northwestern University. Supervisor of Music, Newton Falls, Ohio and Miami, Florida; Instructor in Music, State Normal College, Bowling Green, Ohio, 1925-1927. LU, YUAN XIONG Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Double Bass) Bachelor’s Degree, Shanghai Conservatory. Bowling Green State University, 1999-2001. LUNDY JOHN Assistant Professor of Music Composition and History; Assistant Professor of Ethnic Studies and Music Theory (1973) B.M., Capital University. Bowling Green State University, 1970-76. LUTES, NANCY Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies (Bassoon) B.M., M.M., Eastman School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1997-2002. LYMAN, JEFFREY Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Bassoon) B.M., Temple University; M.M.., D.M.A., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 1993-96. MACDONALD, EARL Visiting Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Jazz Studies) B.M., McGill University; M.M., Rutgers State University. Bowling Green State University, 1997-98. MACLARY, EDWARD Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Choral Activities) M.M., Musicology, Boston University; D.M.A., Conducting, Indiana University. Bowling Green State University, 1997-2000. MAJOR, THOMAS Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory Bowling Green State University, 1996-97.

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MAKARA PAUL Professor of Music Performance Studies (Violin) Diploma, Juilliard School of Music; B.M., M.M., Eastman School of Music; D.M.A., University of Michigan; Rochester Philharmonic, Assistant Conductor; Toledo Symphony, Concertmaster. Bowling Green State University, 1958-96. MAKI-SCHRAMM, ROGER Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Bassoon) Bowling Green State University, 1999-2000. MANNION, ELIZABETH Instructor in Music (Voice-Mezzo) B.A., University of Washington. Bowling Green State University, 1965-66. MARBLE, MANETTE Instructor in Music A.B., Mount Holyoke College; A. M., Columbia University; Graduate of Teachers Course, Tobias Matthay School of Pianoforte, London, England: Bowling Green State University. 1928-1938. Â MARINI, LOUIS E. Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies (Saxophone/Arranging) B.P.S.M., Mount Union College; M.A., Vandercook College of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1964-75. MARKS, EDWARD J. Professor of Music Performance Studies (Clarinet) B.S., Temple University; M.M., University of Maryland; Artist Diploma, Curtis Institute of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1969-98. MARKS, VIRGINIA Distinguished Teaching Professor of Music Performance Studies (Piano); Chair, Music Performance Studies B.S., Temple University; M.M., American University. Bowling Green State University, 19732007. MARLEY, ANN Assistant Professor of Music B.M., Cosmopolitan School of Music; M.M. Northwestern University. Bowling Green State University, 1948-52. MARTELLI, MARCH Adjunct Instructor in Music Education Bowling Green State University, 2007-11.

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MARTINO, KELLY Assistant Professor of Music Education (String Methods) B.M., North Texas State; M.M. Sam Houston State University; D.M.E., North Texas State University. Bowling Green State University, 1980-83. MATTHEWS, TREVOR Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory B.M., Brigham Young University; M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2012- . MATHEY, RICHARD DHU Associate Professor of Music Education (Choral Activities); Professor of Music Performance Studies B.M., Capital University; M.M., Bowling Green State University (1974). Bowling Green State University, 1968-97. MATHIS, WILLIAM Professor of Music Performance Studies (Trombone); Chair, Music Performance Studies B.M.E., Wichita State University; M.M., D.M.A., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 2000- . MATTHEWS, TREVOR Adjunct Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Composition) B.M., Brigham Young University; M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2012MATZ, BARBAHA Instructor in Music B.M., Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester. Bowling Green State University, 1948-49. MAYNARD, MARLAYNA Music Performance Studies pt (Voice-Soprano) B.A., Marshall University; M.M., Bowling Green State University; D.M.A., In progress, University of Memphis. Bowling Green State University, 2008-10. McBRIDE-DALINE, MATTHEW Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Viola) Studies at Paris Conservatory and New England Conservatory; B.M., Julliard School of Music; M.M., Yale University; D.M.A. studies, State University of New York-Stony Brook. Bowling Green State University, 2011- . McCLELLAND, LOUISE Instructor in Music B.A., College of Wooster; M.A., Columbia Teachers College; Performance Degree, Academy of Music of Vienna. Bowling Green State University, 1964-66. 279


McCONN, RUTH Instructor in Music Student, State Normal College, Bloomington, III., and Winona College; Diploma, School of Music, Cornell University; Private Piano Pupil of J. Beroth Bowman, Syracuse, N. Y., Mme. Beegan, Los Angeles, Cal., Hazel Coate Rose, Metropolitan School of Music, Indianapolis, Private, Voice Pupil of David Baxter, Indianapolis, Edward Clark, Chicago, Jerome Hayes, New York; Supervisor of Music, Wabash, Ind.; Head of Music Department, Winona College Summer School, 1915; Instructor in Music, State Normal College, Bowling Green, Ohio, 1916-1919. Â McDONALD, DAVID Visiting Assistant Professor of Musicology/Composition/Theory (Ethnomusicology) B.A., Colorado State University; M.M., Ph.D., University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Bowling Green State University, 2007-08. McEWEN, MERRILL C. Professor of Music; Chair, Department of Music Student, Clarkson College, Potsdam, N. Y.; Diploma, Crane Normal Institute of Music and Clarkson College, Potsdam, N. Y., and University of Wisconsin. B. S. in Education, Teachers College, Columbia University; M.A., Ohio State University; Study at the Juilliard School of Music; Extensive study of violin with orchestral experience, Potsdam, N.Y., and University of Wisconsin. Supervisor of Music, Mansfield, Ohio. Bowling Green State University: 19211924, 1928-57. McGILL, KEVIN Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Piano) M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2000-01. McLAUGHLIN, GERALD W. Instructor in Music (Violin) (1946-49, 1956-56); Assistant Professor of Music (1950-55) Former Concertmaster, Toledo Orchestra; Student of Louis Persinger, Juilliard School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1946-49 (Part-Time); 1950-58 (Instructor). MEHLENBACHER, VANESSA L. Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Piano) M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 1995-96. MEIER, REBECCA Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Flute) B.M., Luther College; M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2000-01. MEIZEL, KATHERINE Assistant Professor of Musicology/Composition/History (Ethnomusicology) B.M., M.M., D.M.A. degrees in Vocal Performance; Ph.D., University of California-Santa Barbara. Bowling Green State University, 2008- . 280


MELIDON, VINCENT Instructor in Music (Clarinet) Clarinetist, Detroit Symphony Orchestra. Bowling Green State University, 1953-54. MELLE, DAVID T. Professor of Music Performance Studies (Flute, Jazz Studies) B.S., Bowling Green State University; M.F.A., University of Iowa. Bowling Green State University, 1967-92 MELTON, LAURA Professor of Music Performance Studies (Piano); Coordinator of Keyboard Area B.M., University of Maryland; M.M., University of Southern California; D.M.A., Rice University. Bowling Green State University, 1999- . MENARD, ELIZABETH Assistant Professor of Music Education B.M.E., Southern Methodist University; M.M., Ph.D., Louisiana State University. Bowling Green State University, 2009- . MENDONCA, MARIA Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Ethnomusicology) B.A., University of York (UK); M.A., Ph.D., Wesleyan University. Bowling Green State University, 2005-06. MERRITT, MYRA Professor of Music Performance Studies (Voice—Soprano) B.M.E., The Peabody Conservatory; M.M., Catholic University of America. Bowling Green State University, 1995- . MIAHKY, STEPHEN Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Violin) B.M., M.M., University of Michigan; D.M.A., Rutgers University. Bowling Green State University, 2013-14. MICHAEL, GEORGE Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Jazz Saxophone) B.A., University of Texas-Pan American; M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, Fall 2010. MIDDLETON, JAMES Part-Time Advisor in Music Education Bowling Green State University, 1973-80. MIESES, NERMIS Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Oboe) B.M., Conservatory of Music of Puerto Rice; M.M., D.M.A., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 2013- . 281


MIGLIA, JAMES Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Jazz Saxophone) B.M., University of North Texas; M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 1995-02. MITCHELL, HAMER Instructor in Music, Mansfield Branch B.S. in Education, M.A., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 1957-58 MOGILEVSKY, MAXIM Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Piano) Master’s and Post-Graduate Diplomas, Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory; M.M., Indiana University-South Bend. Bowling Green State University, 2002-Nov. 2007. MOLITERNO, MARK Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Voice-Bass/Baritone) B.M., M.M., Oberlin College Conservatory of Music. Bowling Green State University, 200203 MOOERS, IRENE CANARY Instructor in Music (Voice) Special Music Student, Lake Erie College, Painesville, Ohio; Private pupil of Eleanor Meredith Stock, Toledo, Ohio, and Royal D. Hughes, Findlay College. Teacher of Voice; Instructor in Voice, Bowling Green State College, 1922-25, 1927-35, 1938-42. MOORE, JEANNE Assistant Professor of Music A.A., Pasadena City College; B.A., University of California at Los Angeles; M.M., Ph.D., University of Southern California. Bowling Green State University, 1970-72. MOORE, KAY JEAN. Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Piano), Fine Arts Program B.Mus, Oberlin College Conservatory of Music; M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 1969-82. MOORE, ROBERT J. Professor of Music Performance Studies (Bassoon) B.M., Oberlin Conservatory; M.M., University of Maryland. Bowling Green State University, 1966-75, 1977-93. MORLOCK, MATILDA Instructor in Music Diploma, State Normal School, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Diploma, Crane Normal Institute of Music, Potsdam, N. Y.; B. S. M., North Carolina College for Women, Greensboro, N. C.; 282


A. M., Columbia University; Supervisor’s Diploma, Teachers College, Columbia University. Teacher in primary grades, Milwaukee, Wis.; Supervisor of Music, Public Schools, Oshkosh, Wis.; Instructor in Music, North Carolina College for Women, Greensboro, N. C.; Instructor in Music, State Normal College, Bowling Green, Ohio, 1926-1928. MOSS, BRUCE Professor of Music Education; Director of Band Activities B.S., M.S., University of Illinois; Ph.D., Ohio State University. Bowling Green State University, 1994- . MOSSBLAD, GUNNAR Adjunct Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies (Jazz) B.M., M.M., University of North Texas. Bowling Green State University, 2002-08. MUMFORD, JEFFREY Visiting Artist in Residence, Musicology/Composition/Theory (Composition) B.A., University of California, Irvine; M.A., University of California, San Diego. Bowling Green State University, 1999-2000. MUNSON, MARK Professor of Music Education; Director of Choral Activities B.S., Indiana University of Pennsylvania; M.M., University of Michigan; D.M.A., University of Cincinnati. Bowling Green State University, 1990- . MURPHY, DANIEL Instructor in Music Performance Studies pt (Jazz Piano) Bowling Green State University, 2008-09. NATVIG, MARY Professor of Musicology/Composition/Theory (Musicology); Assistant Dean, College of Musical Arts B.M., M.A., Ph.D., Eastman School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1990- . NEAL, CHARLES Assistant Professor of Music Education (Band) Bowling Green State University, 1999-2010. NEEL, DOUGLAS Adjunct Instructor I Music Performance Studies pt (Guitar) B.M., Capital University Conservatory of Music; M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2008-09 NELSON, CONOR Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Flute) Degrees from Manhattan School of Music, Yale University, State University of New YorkStony Brook. Bowling Green State University, 2011- . 283


NELSON, GARY Instructor in Music Composition and History (Composition) Bowling Green State University, 1973-74. NELSON, SUSAN Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Bassoon) B.M., University of Kansas; M.M., University of Oklahoma; D.M.A., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 2012- . NORIN-KUEHN, DEBORAH Adjunct Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Voice-Soprano) B.M., Kent State University; Artist Diploma, Curtis Institute of Music; M.M., D.M.A., Eastman School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1998-2004. NOVAK, GEORGE E. Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies (Trumpet) B.M., Oberlin College; M.M., Manhattan School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1970-2007. NOWAK, GRZEGORZ Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Orchestral Conducting) M.M. (Conducting, Composition, Violin), Akademic Muzyczna im. I.J. Paderewskiego w Poznaniu; Conducting Fellowship, Tanglewood; D.M.A., Eastman School of Music (1982). Bowling Green State University, 1982-85. NOWLIN, RYAN Adjunct Instructor in Music Education (Band) B.M., M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2004-05. O’HAGIN, ISABEL BARBARA Assistant Professor of Music Education B.M., M.M., Ph.D., University of Arizona. Bowling Green State University, 1996-2002. OKERLUND, DAVID Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Voice-Baritone) B.M., M.M., University of Missouri-Kansas City. Bowling Green State University, 2003-07. OLFERT, WARREN Music Education (Assistant Director of Bands) B.M., Bob Jones University (Music Education); M.M., University of Cincinnati (Conducting); Ph.D., Florida State University (Conducting; Music Education). Bowling Green State University, 1998-99. OLT, TIMOTHY Visiting Assistant professor of Tuba and Euphonium B.M.E., Wright State University, 1996; M.M., Miami University of Ohio, 2002. Bowling Green State University, 2003-07. 284


OLIVER, KATHERINE Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Bassoon) B.M., Wichita State University; M.M., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 2003-07. ONO-TORIBARA MASAKO Instructor in Music (Voice-Soprano) B.M., M.M., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 1946-49. PAPANIKOLAOU, EFTICHIA Associate Professor of Musicology/Composition/Theory (Musicology); MUCT Advisor B.A. (English Philology/Literature), University of Athens; Music Theory Degrees, National Conservatory of Athens; M.M., Ph.D., Boston University. Bowling Green State University, 2007- . PARNELL, SCOTT Adjunct Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Guitar) B.A., College of Wooster; M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, PEARSE, JOHN Adjunct Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Composition/Theory) B.M., Indiana University-Bloomington; M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2013-14. PELLERITE, JAMES Part-Time Instructor in Music (Flute) Student of William Kinkaid of the Philadelphia Orchestra. Bowling Green State University, 1952-54. PELLETIER, ANDREW Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies (French Horn) B.M., University of Southern Maine; M.M., D.M.A., University of Southern California. Bowling Green State University, 2005- . PEPPER, WILLIAM B., II Instructor in Music (History, Harpsichord) B.A., Rutgers University; M.A., University of Iowa. Bowling Green State University, 1969-73. PERINGER, PATRICK Adjunct Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Composition/Theory) M.M., Bowling Green State University (Composition). Bowling Green State University, 2007-09

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PIEDRA, OLMAN Adjunct Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Ethnomusicology/Afro-Caribbean Ensemble) B.M., Baylor University; M.M., University of Michigan (Percussion/Improvisation); D.M.A., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2010-11 PIERCE, BENJAMIN Adjunct Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Tuba/Euphonium) B.M., Bowling Green State University; M.M., D.M.A., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 2002-03 PIERSOl, JON R. Associate Professor of Music Theory and Literature (1972) [sic]; Associate Professor of Music Education; Assistant Director, School of Music; Associate Dean for Academic Affairs, College of Musical Arts (1974); Associate Dean for Academic Affairs, College of Musical Arts (1978). B.A., M.A., Ph.D. (1973), University of Iowa. Bowling Green State University, 1969-80. PIETSCHMAN McCRYSTAL, MILDRED B. Instructor in Music, Sandusky Branch; Sandusky Academic Center (1967) B.S. in Education, Ohio State University. Bowling Green State University, 1953-77. PIIRAINEN, JOHN RUBEN Adjunct Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Piano) B.M., Lawrence University Conservatory of Music; M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 1998-2000. PITMAN, WANDA Instructor In Music (1946) B.M., B.M.Ed., Oberlin Conservatory of Music; Bowling Green State University, 1946-49. PLATTE, NATHAN Adjunct Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Musicology) B.M., University of Michigan; Ph.D., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, Fall 2010. POGOSSIAN, MOVSES Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Violin) B.M., Komitas Conservatory; M.M., D.M., Tchaikovsky Conservatory; Artist Diploma, Duquesne University. Bowling Green State University, 1995-2000. POPE, ANN Director, Creative Arts Program Bowling Green State University, 1975=76

286


POPE, DAVID J. Professor of Music Performance Studies (Piano); Assistant Dean for Public Mission, College of Musical Arts (1974) B.M., M.M., Florida State University. Bowling Green State University, 1963-93. POULIMENOS, ANDREAS Professor of Music Performance Studies (Voice-Baritone) B.A., M.M., Boston Conservatory of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1971-2002. PORTER, MAYME H. Instructor in Music A.B., Kansas Wesleyan University; Mus. B., Northwestern University; Graduate Student, Northwestern University. Teacher in high schools; Instructor in piano, Kansas Wesleyan University; Bowling Green State College, 1931-1932. POWELL, EARL CLAIR (E. C.) Instructor in Industrial Arts B. S., Ohio State University. Teacher of Manual Training, East Liverpool and Massillon, Ohio, High Schools; Instructor in Industrial Arts, State Normal College, Bowling Green, Ohio, 1923-53. RAAB, EMIL Professor of Music Performance Studies; Director, Orchestral Activities; Chairman, Department of Performance Studies (1973) B.M., M.M., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 1969-82. RANCIER, MEGAN Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Ethnomusicology) B.M., Bucknell University; Ph.D., University of California-Los Angeles. Bowling Green State University, 2011- . RATHNAW, DENNIS Adjunct Assistant Professor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Ethnomusicology) B.A., University of Michigan; M.M., University of Texas-Austin; Ph.D. Candidate, University of Texas-Austin. Bowling Green State University, 2012-13. REES, BRAD Visiting Assistant Professor Music Performance Studies (Vocal Jazz) B.A., George Mason University; M.M., Choral Conducting, University of Northern Colorado. Bowling Green State University, 2001-02. REINKEMEYER, ANDREA Adjunct Assistant Professor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Composition) B.M., University of Oregon; M.M., D.M.A., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 2005-10. 287


REYNOLDS, GEORGE E. Assistant Professor of Music B.M., Southwestern College; M.M., Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music; Ed.D., University of Illinois. Bowling Green State University, 1961-62. RICE, CARTER Adjunct Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Composition/Theory) B.M., Concordia College; M.M.. Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, Fall 2013. RIGGINS, HERBERT LEE Professor of Music Composition and History (Theory); Dean, College of Musical Arts B.A., Humboldt State University; M.M., Arizona State University; Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin. Bowling Green State University, 1993-2001. ROCCHI, ELEANOR L. Part-Time Instructor in Music B.M., Curtis Institute; Diploma, Accademia of Santa Cecilia. Bowling Green State University, 1966-67. RODGERS, JANE SCHOONMAKER Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies (Voice-soprano) A.A.S., Onondaga Community College; B.M., University of Cincinnati; M.M., D.M.A., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 2000- . ROGERS, DAVID C. Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies (French Horn); Assistant to the Dean; Chair, Department of Performance Studies B.M., M.M., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 1965-98. ROGERS, SCOTT Academic Advisor for Music Education; Adjunct Instructor in Music Education, (pt Instrumental Music) B.M., Bowling Green State University; Master’s degree in Education, Ashland University; Course work in Performance and Music Education at University of Michigan and Vandercook College, Chicago. Bowling Green State University, 2013- . ROHRER, THOMAS Assistant Professor of Music Education (Bands) B.M., M.M., University of Cincinnati; Ph.D., Florida State University. Bowling Green State University, 1993-98 ROHWER, ROBERT Adjunct Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Double Bass) B.M., Oberlin College; M.M., Rice University; Fellow, Tanglewood Institute of Music. Bowling Green State University, 2007- . 288


ROSE, JEROME H. Professor of Music Performance Studies (Piano); Artist in Residence B.S., Mannes School of Music; M.S., Juilliard School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1963-98. ROSENKRANZ, THOMAS Associate Professor Music Performance Studies (Piano) B.M., Oberlin College Conservatory; D.M.A., Eastman School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 2008- . ROUSH, DEAN K. Instructor in Music Composition/History (Composition/Theory) B.F.A., The Ohio State University; M.M., Bowling Green State University, D.M.A., The Ohio State University. Bowling Green State University, 1975-77 (Part-Time) 1978-81. RUBIN, EMANUEL Instructor in Music B.F.A., B.M., Carnegie Institute of Technology; M.F.A., Brandeis University. Bowling Green State University, 1965-69. RUIHLEY, ALICE L. Instructor in Music Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1954-55. RYAN, PAMELA Instructor, Music Performance Studies (Viola) B.M., Peabody Institute of Baltimore; M.A., Brooklyn College. Bowling Green State University, 1986-89. SAENZ, CHARLES Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies (Trumpet); Coordinator of Brass Area B.M., New Mexico State University; M.M., University of Illinois. Bowling Green State University, 2001- . SALTZMAN, DAVID Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Tuba/Euphonium) Bowling Green State University, 2007- . SAMPEN, JOHN Distinguished Artist Professor of Music Performance Studies (Saxophone); Coordinator of Woodwind Area B.M., M.M., D.M.A., Northwestern University. Bowling Green State University, 1977- . SAMPSON, JAMIE Adjunct Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Composition) Bowling Green State University, 2010-11. 289


SANDLER, FELICIA Lecturer in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Composition) Bowling Green State University, Fall 2000. SANOV, ROBERT Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Violin) B.M., M.M., Northwestern University; Assistant Concertmaster, Chicago “Little Symphony”; Principal Second Violin, Toledo Symphony. Bowling Green State University, 1964-70. SARK, BRADY Adjunct Instructor in Music Education (Band) B.A., Miami University-Oxford OH; M.A., University of Akron. Bowling Green State University, 2013- . SATTERLEE, ROBERT Professor of Music Performance Studies (Piano); Director of Graduate Studies B.M., University of Missouri; M.M., Johns Hopkins University; D.M.A., Yale University. Bowling Green State University, 1998- . SCHEMPF, KEVIN Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies (Clarinet) B.M., M.M., Eastman School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1998- . SCHMIDT, RUSSELL A. Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies (Jazz Piano) M.M., Eastman School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1995-97, 1998-2008 SCHOLL, CHRISTOPHER Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies (Voice-Tenor); Coordinator of Voice/Opera Area B.A., Ithaca College; M.M., Eastman School of Music; additional study at Conservatory of Music in Lübeck, Germany. Bowling Green State University, 1997- . SCHOLL, ELLEN Adjunct Associate Professor in Music Performance Studies (Voice-Mezzo-soprano) B.M., Northern Illinois University; M.M., De Paul University. Bowling Green State University, 1998- . SCHUETZ, JENNIFER HILBISH Adjunct Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Voice/Opera) D.M.A., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 1997-2000; Fall 2004. SCHUMACHER, DONOVAN Assistant Professor of Music (Cello) B.M., Oberlin College. Bowling Green State University, 1962-66. 290


SCHUPP, ROGER Professor of Music Performance Studies (Percussion/Jazz Studies) B.A., M.A., Central Missouri State University; D.M., University of Texas at Austin. Bowling Green State University, 1993- . SCHURK, WILLIAM L. Professor, Library (Popular Music Collection) B.A., Bowling Green State University; M.S.L.S., Case Western Reserve University. Bowling Green State University, 1967- . SCHWARTZ, BERNICE Interim Associate Professor in Music Performance Studies (French Horn) B.M., Ithaca College; M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2000-01. SCHWARTZ, TOMA Instructor in Music (Piano) Diploma in Arts, Institute Gh. Dima, Cluj, Roumania; Diploma in Performance, Geneva, Switzerland; Master Class with Guido Agosti, Siena, Italy. Bowling Green State University, 1966-72. SCRUGGS, MARGARET E. Instructor in Music Two-Year Diploma, Oregon Normal School, Monmouth, Oregon; B. of School Music., Oberlin College; M. M., Northwestern University. Teacher of elementary schools of Oregon; Bowling Green State University, 1935-1936; Second semester 1936-37; 1937-1938. SEID, M. SUE HENDERSON Instructor in Music B.A., Hanover College; M.M., Drake University. M Bowling Green State University, 1966-68. SHOWELL, JEFFREY ADAMS Professor of Music Performance Studies (Viola); Dean, College of Musical Arts Studies in German, Stanford University; B.M., M.M., Eastman School of Music; D.M.A., Yale University. Bowling Green State University, 2011- . SHRUDE SAMPEN, MARILYN Distinguished Artist Professor in Music Composition and History (Composition/Theory); Chair, Musicology/ Composition/Theory B.M., Alverno College; M.M., DM.A., Northwestern University. Bowling Green State University, 1977-84 (Part-Time); 1984- . SHULER WELSH, NELLE Instructor in Music A. B., Bluffton College; Student, American Conservatory of Music, Chicago, Illinois. Supervisor of Music, Marseilles, Illinois; Instructor in Music, State Normal College, Bowling Green, Ohio, 1925-27, 1929-30. 291


SIMMONS, GARTH Adjunct Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies (Trombone) B.M., Northwestern University; M.M., Performer’s Certificate, Eastman School of Music. Principal Trombone, Toledo Symphony. Bowling Green State University, 2006- . SIMONSON WATSON, VIRGINIA Assistant Professor of Music Education (Piano); Director, Fine Arts Program B.M., Ball State University; M.M., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 1964-70. SIMPSON, SUSAN Adjunct Instructor in Music Education Bowling Green State University, 2006-07 SKINNER HAROLD Professor of Music Education (Flute) B.S., Houghton College; M.M., Eastman School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1965-79. SKOOG, WILLIAM Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies; Director of Choral Activities B.A., Gustavus Adolphus College; M.A., University of Denver (Voice and Conducting); D.A., University of Northern Colorado; Director of Choral Activities, Indiana University-Purdue. Bowling Green State University, 2001-09. SLOTTERBECK, RUTH Instructor in Music (Part-Time) B.S.Ed., Bowling Green State University, 1962-63. SMITH, ALAN Professor of Music Performance Studies (Cello); Coordinator of String Area B.M., M.M., D.M.A., University of Texas. Bowling Green State University, 1980- . SMITH, ANDREW Adjunct Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Composition) B.M., State University of New York-Fredonia; M.M., Bowling Green State University; D.M.A., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2013- . SMITH, CHRISTINE Assistant Professor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Musicology) Ph.D., University of Kentucky-Lexington. Bowling Green State University, 1990-91. SMITH DIANA Adjunct Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Piano) B.M., University of Houston; M.M., University of Texas. Bowling Green State University, 199702007. 292


SMITH, EARL E. Instructor in Music A. B., Bluffton College; Student, American Conservatory; A. M., Ohio State University; Instructor in Music, Bowling Green State University, 1940-42. SMITH, JAMES Adjunct Instructor in Music Education Bowling Green State University, 2001-02; 2005-10. SMITH, JAMES ELLIOT Assistant Librarian (Music Library) B.A. (Music/Mathematics) Queens College of the City University of New York; M.M. (Music), University of California-Santa Barbara; M.S.L.S., University of Southern California. Bowling Green State University, 1979-81. SOLOSE, JANE Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies (Piano) B.M., University of Toronto; M.M., University of Western Ontario; D.M.A., Eastman School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1998-2002. SOOY, ERIC Adjunct Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Ethnomusicology) B.M. (Percussion), M.M. (Ethnomusicology), Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 1994-97 SPANGLER, HARRY S. Associate Professor of Music; Associate Professor Emeritus, 1966 B.S., M.A., Ph,D., University of North Dakota, Grand Forks; Artist Diploma, Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music; Study in Paris, France, and at Harvard University and the Juilliard School of Music; University of North Dakota, 1926-45; Baldwin-Wallace College, 1945-47. Bowling Green State University, 1947-63. SPANO, ROBERT Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Orchestral Act.) B.M., Oberlin Conservatory. Bowling Green State University, 1985-89. SPENCER, HERBERT A. JR. Professor of Music Performance Studies (French Horn) B.M., Eastman School of Music; M.M., M.S., Ithaca College. Bowling Green State University, 1971-2001. SPOHR, ARNE Assistant Professor of Musicology/Composition/Theory (Musicology); Director, Early Music Ensemble M.A., University of Bonn; Addition study at Oxford and University of Wisconsin-Madison; Ph.D., Hochschule für Musik, Köln. Bowling Green State University, 2010- . 293


STANBRIDGE, BRYAN Adjunct Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Steel Drum Ensemble) B.M., Eastern Michigan University; M.M. (Percussion and Composition), Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2007-11 STARR, TAMMYAN METZ Assistant Professor, Department of Dance; Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Ethnomusicology) B.S. (Mathematics Education), Kent State University; M.F.A., University of Hawai’i. Bowling Green State University, 2008-10. STARR, VIRGINIA Professor of Music Performance Studies (Voice-Soprano) B.M., Denver University; M.M., University of Illinois. Bowling Green State University, 196898. STEGMAN, SANDRA FREY Associate Professor of Music Education (Choral Education/Women’s Chorus/Collegiate Chorale); Director, University Women’s Chorus Graduate, University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 2003- . STEINMETZ, DEMETRIUS Adjunct Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Jazz/ String Bass) B.M., M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, Fall 2010. STENSLAND, MINNIE D. Assistant Professor of Music Two-Year Diploma, State Normal School, Superior, Wis.; Diploma, Crane Normal Institute of Music: Potsdam, N. Y.; B. S. and Supervisor’s Diploma. Teachers College, Columbia University; Graduate Student, Teachers College, Columbia University; Teacher of Music, Whitewater, Wis.; Supervisor and Teacher of Music, Ashland, Wis.; Supervisor of Music, Knoxville, Tenn.; Instructor, Teachers College, Columbia University and Horace Mann School. Bowling Green State College: Instructor, Summer Session, 1923; Assistant Professor, 1931-32. STEPHENSON, GEOFFREY Adjunct Assistant Professor in Music Performance Studies (Voice-tenor; Musical Theatre) B.F.A., Kent State University; M.M., Music Education, Bowling Green State University; Ph.D., Theater, Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2004- . STERN, EVA Visiting Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Viola) B.M., State University of New York-Purchase; M.M., Eastman School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 2002-03 294


STIEGLER, MORGEN Adjunct Instructor in Performance Studies (Vocal Jazz) B.A., Tiffin University; M.M. (Ethnomusicology), Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2009- . STOOPS, ANTHONY Visiting Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (String Bass) B.M., University of Iowa; M.M., D.M.A., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 2003-06. STROHSHEIN, HEATHER Adjunct Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Ethnomusicology) B.M., M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2009-10 STIEGLER, MORGEN Music Performance Studies (Vocal Jazz) SUGDEN, NANCY Assistant Professor of Music Education Ph.D., Indiana University. Bowling Green State University, 2004-09 SULLIVAN, LORRAINE Adjunct Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Voice, Mezzo-soprano) B.M., Millikin University; M.M. (Voice/Choral Conducting(), University of Northern Colorado. D.M.A., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 2007-08. SZENTKIRALYI, ANDRAS Assistant Professor of Music Composition and History (Theory) B.M., Oberlin College; M.M., University of Illinois; Ph.D., Princeton University. Bowling Green State University, 1980-84. TALLARICO, P. THOMAS Professor of Music Education; Chair, Department of Music Education; Interim Assistant Dean for Graduate Studies in Music B.S., Indiana University of Pennsylvania; M.M., Duquesne University (Pittsburgh PA); Ph.D., West Virginia University. Bowling Green State University, 1978-2001 TANNER, GEORGE Adjunct Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Theory) B.M., West Virginia University; M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2003-04. TAYLOR, WILLIAM Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies (Opera) B.M., Cornell College; M.M., Indiana University. Bowling Green State University, 1980-81 295


TERRY, PETER Adjunct Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Composition) B.M., University of Michigan; M.M., Bowling Green State University; D.M.A., University of Texas-Austin. Bowling Green State University, 1994-98. THAYER, HEATHER Adjunct Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory B.M., Eastern Michigan University; M.M., Bowling Green State University; D.M.A., University of North Texas. Bowling Green State University, 2004-05. THAYER, ROBERT Professor of Music Education; Dean, College of Musical Arts; Acting Chair Department of Music Education B.M., Eastman School of Music; M.M.E., Wichita State University; Ph.D., University of Iowa. Bowling Green State University, 1983-93; 2008-09. THOMPSON, KENNETH Associate Professor of Music Education (Band Activities); Chair of Music Education B.M., Limestone College; M.M.E., D.M.A., University of Iowa. Bowling Green State University, 2004- . THOMPSON, MICHAEL Adjunct Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Composition) M.M., D.M.A., University of North Texas. Bowling Green State University, 2002-03; 2005. THOMPSON, WILLIAM Adjunct Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory Bowling Green State University, 2003-04. TOLBERT, BRUCE Instructor of Music (Voice) B.A., Ohio University. Bowling Green State University, 1950-51. TOMKIEWICZ, SUSAN HATCH Adjunct Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Oboe) B.M., University of New Hampshire; M.M., University of New Mexico; D.M.A., University of Texas. Bowling Green State University, 2006-07. TONEY JR., HUBERT Assistant Professor of Music Education (Bands) B.M., Florida State University-Tallahassee; M.M., University of Michigan; Ph.D., University of Illinois-Champaign/Urbana. Bowling Green State University, 1999-2004 TRANTHAM, GENE Associate Professor of Musicology/Composition/Theory (Theory); Chair of Musicology/Theory/ Composition 296


B.M., M.Ed., Ouchita Baptist University; M.M., University of Missouri-Kansas City; Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison. Bowling Green State University, 1994- . TREYBIG, JOEL Adjunct Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Trumpet) B.M.E., Baldwin-Wallace Conservatory of Music; M.M., University of Akron; D.M.A., University of Texas-Austin. Bowling Green State University, 1999-2000. TROEGER, BETTY JEAN Instructor in Music (1946) B.S. in Education, Bowling Green State University; M.M., Northwestern University. Bowling Green State University, 1946-53. TRUSLER, IVAN Professor of Music Education; Director, Choral Activities B.S., M.S., Kansas State Teachers College; Ed.D., Columbia University. Bowling Green State University, 1966-85. TU, SARAH Adjunct Instructor in Music Education (Piano) B.M., Weber State University; M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2008-09. TUNNICLIFFE, RICHARD MORTON Professor of Music Two-Year Diploma and Graduate Student, State Teachers College, Oshkosh, Wis.; A. B., and Graduate Student, University of Wisconsin; A. M., Teachers College, Columbia University; Diploma, Crane Normal Institute of Music, Potsdam, N. Y.; Extensive study of Piano, Organ and Voice, Minneapolis, Chicago, and New York. Teacher of Mathematics and Music, New London, Wis.; Supervisor of Practice Teaching, and Teacher of Methods and Education, Crane Normal Institute of Music and State Normal School, Potsdam, N. Y.; Leader, Festival Chorus and Normal Orchestra, Potsdam, N. Y.; State Institute Instructor in Music, N. Y.; Professor of Music, Summer Session, Ohio State University; Bowling Green State University, 1920-41. UMBLE, KATHRYN THOMAS Adjunct Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Flute) B.M., Michigan State University; M.M., Bowling Green State University; D.M.A., University of Michigan; Fontainebleau School of Music, France. Bowling Green State University, 200001. UNDERWOOD, MICHAEL Adjunct Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Trombone) B.M., Lawrence University; M.M., Bowling Green State University; D.M.A>, University of North Texas. Bowling Green State University, 1997-98. 297


VILLAPASTOUR, AMANDA Adjunct Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory ( Ethnomusicology) B.M., University of Western Australia; M.M., Ph.D., University of London. Bowling Green State University, 2008-09. VINCENT, MICHAEL Adjunct Instructor in Musicology/Composition/History (Musicology) B.A., State University of New York-Plattsburgh; M.M., Bowling Green State University; Doctoral Fellow, University of Florida. Bowling Green State University, 2011-12. VLAD, CRISTINA Adjunct Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Piano) B.M., Gheorghe Dima Music Academy, Romania; M.M>, Bowling Green State University; D.M.A., University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Bowling Green State University, 2009-10. WALLACE, ROBERT Adjunct Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory Bowling Green State University, 2010-11. WANDEL, FRANCES Part-Time Instructor in Music B.S. in Education, Ohio State University; M.M., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 1952-53. WARNER, FRANCES Instructor in Music Diploma, Crane Normal Institute of Music, Potsdam, N.Y. Instructor in Music, State Normal College, Bowling Green, Ohio, 1924-25. DOUGLAS WAYLAND Adjunct Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies (Voice-Baritone) B.M., M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2004-13. WEBSTER, RICHARD M. Instructor in Music B.A. in Music, University of Washington; M.M., Eastman School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1959-61. WEDEEN, HARVEY D. Instructor in Music B.S., Columbia University, M.S., Juilliard School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1961-65. WEDEEN, HELEN KWALWASSER Instructor in Music (Violin) Student of Ivan Galamian, Juilliard School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 196165. 298


WEED, TAD Adjunct Associate Professor In Performance Studies (Jazz Piano) B.M., Central Michigan University; M.M., The Grove School-Los Angeles. Bowling Green State University, 2005- . WEGER, ROY J. Associate Professor of Music; Director of Bands B.A., Southeastern State College, Oklahoma; M.A., Colorado State College of Education. Bowling Green State University, 1953-66. WELSH, NELLE SHULER Instructor in Music A.B.. Bluffton College; Student, American Conservatory of Music, Chicago, Illinois; Supervisor of Music, Marseilles, Illinois; Instructor in Music, Bowling Green State College, 1925-27, 1929-1930. WENDRICH, KENNETH A. Associate Professor of Music Education, Dean, College of Musical Arts (1979-82) B.M., M.M., Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester; Ph.D., University of Connecticut. Bowling Green State University, 1979-83. WHITE, ROBERT Adjunct Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Trumpet) B.M.W., Western Michigan University; M.M., D.M.A., Indiana University-Bloomington. Bowling Green State University, 2007-08. WHITE, SILAGH CHIAPPETTA Adjunct Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Musicology) M.M., Bowling Green State University; D.M.A., Eastman School of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1998-2002; 2004-05. WHITNEY JAWORSKI, ROBERTA J. Instructor in Music Education (Voice-Mezzo Soprano) B.M.E., University of Colorado; M.M., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 1965-69. WIDAMAN, JEAN Visiting Assistant Professor, Musicology/Composition/Theory B.A., Occidental College; Standard Secondary Teaching Credential, University of Southern California; Ph.D., Brandeis University. Bowling Green State University, 1989-1990. WILCOX, FRANCIS F. Assistant Professor of Music B.A., M.A., State University of Iowa; Ed.D., Northwestern University. Bowling Green State University, 1949-58. 299


WILLIAMS, CHRISTOPHER Adjunct Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Musicology) Bowling Green State University, 1998-2007. WILLIAMS, ROSEMARY Assistant Professor, Music Performance Studies (French Horn) Bowling Green State University, 2001-04 WILSON, DONALD M. Associate Professor of Music Composition and History (Composition, Theory); Chairman, Department of Music Composition and History (1973) B.A., University of Chicago; M.A., D.M.A., Cornell University. Bowling Green State University, 1967-98. WILSON, GEORGE H. Part-Time Instructor in Music Bowling Green State University, 1947-48. WOLCOTT, VERNON Professor of Music Performance Studies (Organ) B.M., Curtis Institute; M.S.M., Union Theological Seminary; D.M.A., University of Michigan (1966). Bowling Green State University, 1962-2013. WOLOSHYN, ALEXA Visiting Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Musicology) M.M., Western University, London Ontario; Ph.D., University of Toronto. Bowling Green State University, 2013- . WOLTMAN, MARTIN Instructor in Performance (Oboe) B.M., Curtis Institute of Music; Soloist with the Milwaukee Chamber Orchestra, the Orquesta Sinfonica National (Dominican Republic), the Festivale Musical de Salerno (Italy), and the Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra. English horn soloist with the American Symphony Orchestra. Bowling Green State University, 1971-72. WOOLEY, AMY Adjunct Instructor in Musicology/Composition/Theory (Ethnomusicology Bowling Green State University, 2004-05. WRIGHT VORP, TRUDI Adjunct Instructor in Musicology/Composition/History (Musicology) B.A., State University of New York-Genesco; M.M., Bowling Green State University; Ph.D., University of Colorado. Bowling Green State University, 2000-01

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WYATT, ROLAND Associate Professor of Music Performance Studies (Voice) B.M., Lincoln University; M.A., California State University at San Jose; D.B.A., Indiana University. Bowling Green State University, 1991-95. WYKES, ROBERT A. Instructor of Music B.M., M.M., University of Rochester. Bowling Green State University, 1950-52. XIAO, HONG-MEI Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Viola) B.M., Shanghai Conservatory; M.M., State University of New York at Stony Brook. Bowling Green State University, 1993-95 YATES, HADLEY Assistant Professor of Music B.M., M.M., Northwestern University. Bowling Green State University, 1946-51. YEH, I-CHEN Adjunct Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Piano) B.M., Oberlin Conservatory of Music; M.M., Eastman School of Music; D.M.A., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 2010- . YOON, PAUL Instructor in Musicology/Composition/History (Ethnomusicology; Taiko Ensemble) Ph.D., Columbia University. Bowling Green State University, 2006-09. YOUNG, FREDERICK J. Assistant Professor of Music B. Mus. Ed., University of Wichita; M.M., Oberlin Conservatory of Music. Bowling Green State University, 1957-58, 1961-69. YOUNG, KAREN PICARD Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Piano) B.M., B.S., State University of New York-Fredonia; M.M., Bowling Green State University. Bowling Green State University, 1996-2000. YOUNG, SARA PUCKETT Adjunct Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Opera Accompanying) Bowling Green State University, 2009-10; 2012. YUN, ANDREA Adjunct Instructor in Music Performance Studies (Cello) B.M.E., M.M., Indiana University; D.M.A., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 2001-02; 2004-05. 301


ZAGORSKI, MARCUS Assistant Professor of Musicology/Composition/Theory (Musicology) M.Mus. in Composition, McGill University; Ph.D., Stanford University. Bowling Green State University, 2010- . ZEISLER, NATHANIEL Assistant Professor of Music Performance Studies (Bassoon) B.M. (Music Education), Old Dominion University; M.M., D.M.A., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 2007-2011. ZEITHAMEL, RACHEL Adjunct Assistant Professor in Music Performance Studies (Piano) B.M., M.M., Cleveland Institute of Music. Bowling Green State University, 2009-2011. ZUELZKE, ARTHUR Assistant Professor of Music; Director, Wind Instruments B.S., University of Cincinnati; M.A., University of Michigan. Bowling Green State University, 1944-52. ZUELZKE, MARTHA M. Part-Time Instructor (Piano) B.M.; Part-time instructor in Piano, 1945-46.

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3. Thayer Inter views Inter view: Robert Thayer and William Alexander 5/01/03 RT: Biographical Information. What was your schooling and how did you happen to get to Bowling Green? WA: My Schooling. I was very fortunate because the caliber of student [at Mount Union] was excellent and the director of the department was a very fine person and his wife taught biography quite well, quite well. RT: What was his name? What was her name? WA: Walter Hodgson. She was . . . RT Mrs. Walter Hodgson!. . . And it a fine experience. And they left after three years and the director was a professional organist and a marvelous chap, and the violinist had been with Oberlin for many years and after that the leading violin. Marvelous teacher. RT: She followed Mrs. Hodgson? WA: Mrs. Hodgson. I was very, very indebted to her. She had been soloist with the Chicago Symphony. [I had] my college experience there, and after teaching in the school system [of the] county just a year, I went to, I had a teaching scholarship [at North Texas State]. RT: Did Hodgson go there? Yes of course I know that name WA: I had been accepted by a college in the east and when I wrote to Walter Hodgson for a recommendation he immediately suggested that, “but if you come here to North Texas it won’t cost you a dime, and not only that, we’ll put you on salary to teach straight classes.” And it just great so I received a lot of money. And I had a wonderful violin teacher, and very, very great leadership, none other than . . . Everywhere he succeeded, he left I think a year or two after I left, where I got my master’s degree, and he became director of the [Indiana School of Music]. RT: Bain. Wilfred Bain. WA: Wilfred Bain. So I came under the strong influence of that wonderful man and had two courses with him, and he was very, very nice to me. And I was fortunate to have had a very fine instructor in violin there, following the one in Cleveland [Mount Union]. 303


RT: Did you grow up in the Stark County area? WA: I grew up in the city of Canton. RT: I’ve never known exactly where Mount Union was. WA: Only about 14 miles from Canton. RT: Oh. OK. WA: In Alliance, Ohio RT: Alliance, yes. I knew it was in Alliance, but I never quite found Alliance . . never had a picture of where it was. WA: It was a very fine school. RT: Yeah. And still is, I think. WA: After that, I taught . . . RT: Don’t worry about it. There’ll be some gaps. That’s fine. You have to take time to think. Now you had taught, did you say, in the county schools before you went to North Texas. WA: Yes that’s right. RT: How many years were you . . . ? WA: I was in the county school only one year, because I was anxious to get on, get my master’s degree. But I had a fine experience. The superintendent wept. RT: Oh Really? WA: Yeah. RT: And the fact that Hodgson recruited you so actively was a tribute to you as well. WA: Well I was very fortunate, very, very fortunate. So I taught at Greentown and I had the band, chorus. RT: Greentown Ohio? 304


WA: Greentown Ohio. RT: Is that also in that same . . . WA: It’s in about, I would say, from Canton it’s about 12 miles. So that was a fine experience, although it was quite . . . RT You did everything. WA: Yes I did. I had the chorus, I had seventh and eighth grade history of Ohio, and wonderful, wonderful kids, wonderful. RT: A rural area? WA: Yes. And then I had also an orchestra plus a band. And that was great experience, and the orchestra was really a delight. RT: Really? WA: Yes indeed. Because that area, at that time, was plentifully endowed with violin teachers, and the city orchestra in Canton Ohio—I played with that orchestra, even as a kid in high school, I was the only high school kid who played in the orchestra. But it was a delight. So I made a little money there. And I also played in the hotel and I made more than the teachers made, in the Onesto Hotel in Canton. RT: Would this have been for dinner, dances? WA: I would start, it would be at the cocktail hour, and then I would start in again at 9:00, 9:00 until midnight. RT Was this a solo performance? WA: No, I was a pianist and also at the DeVelda (??) hotel we had a very attractive soprano. And so I had to truckle around, you know, and watch my energy level, because I had an 8:00 class. RT: Was this every night or just weekends. WA: Just every night. I was a tough character. RT: And when you went back to teach then at Greentown did you also continue the hotel? 305


WA: I started that after that, so that did not interfere. RT: But you did while you were in college. WA: Getting back to the college situation, I taught at . . . RT: After Greentown. WA: [Tape skips a lot] Yes, after I got my master’s at Texas. And interviews to get a job. My recital. He had heard me play before . . Gave me a great push. Well I need to get a job. And Miller said, and Bain too. To the point where, after my recital, Oh, and my accompanist and my coach the year I was there to study violin was ???. He himself was looking for several years . . . RT: So you went to—was it called Western Kentucky College or University? WA: Western Kentucky State Teacher’s College. Then it became Western Kentucky University, several, many, many [years later]. RT: What was your assignment there? WA: I had the orchestra. RT: It was a teacher education program. WA: And I had the Methods class. RT: Was this the next stop, you went from Bowling Green to Bowling Green? WA: That’s right.. RT: And how were you recruited to come here? How long were you at Western Kentucky? WA: Two years. And it didn’t pay very well, and it was eleven months a year. So I contacted a friend here. Called me back in the afternoon. He said “We have a young ??? who teaches . . Very likely . . . I really should say, I don’t need to say . . . I went, I got off the train and came to Bowling Green. RT: The rest is history. Now when you came here, did you come as the violin teacher? 306


WA: No the thing about it, they just hired, before I spoke to them, they hired a parttime teacher from Toledo. RT: Oh, that would have been McLaughlin? WA: That’s right. RT: Okay. I picked up his name from the history. WA: And so this was to develop an orchestra, and I didn’t mind that, actually, because I had an orchestra in high school. It something when you go from nothing. My sweetheart at the time . . . RT: Oh, you weren’t married. WA: No. RT: Where was she? WA: She had just finished, she had received her bachelor’s degree, there at Bowling Green Kentucky. I told her about it. Very attractive. I had to be in Bowling Green. Longest month of my life. RT: And you, by this time, were pretty well committed, you’d made up your mind,: WA: Yes, that I was going to switch. And so I did. RT: She came up? WA: Yes, we married on the 1st of September and then left. RT: You had your fingers crossed. WA: Well if you want me to go on about this. RT: Go ahead. It’s very interesting. WA: So as soon as I came here they said I’d have to . . . course. Merrill McEwen. I said “In all my life I have . . . man . . . confidence. Very tall, very handsome, a heart, jovial heart. His sons took after him, and his wife was a doll. [He was a] violinist, violist, great singer. [Sang at a church at Toledo.] 307


RT: Collingwood? No, not Collingwood, don’t think I know it. WA: A woman founded the church and he was the soloist. RT: Oh, okay. WA: So [I started with nothing.] Actually there was a leftover, about seven, eight students. RT: Because there had been an orchestra at one time. WA: Yes, there had been. RT: This was during the war, of course. WA: That’s right, I think so. And this was very challenging for me. So [I got] faculty members to play in my orchestra. It was non-existent. Then I chose to talk to Jack (??). I got in touch with fraternities, sororities. I had learned from this chatting that, often times, kids came from schools where they’d had orchestras. When they came to college, that was the end of their orchestra interests. You know, I don’t know how I did it, but I ended up with an orchestra of 32 students. RT: My goodness! WA: No, that would include the three ringers. These kids who were majoring in speech or business or something or other, sent home for their fiddles, and they joined with us. Well, then I had to look [for music?]. Boy that was a tough year. A gal who came on new on the faculty just as I did [Betty Troeger]. But she was from, oh I think, somewhere in Ohio. Charming girl. And she was a pianist. “If we ever develop an orchestra you might like to perform.” I worked on the orchestra. In the month of, I think it must have been March, I got there in September. RT: Remarkable progress. WA: We went on the stage, we opened with an overture by Gluck, [then] Beethoven’s First Symphony, the whole thing. Then we played the first movement of the Schumann Piano Concerto. This young woman had salt, then we did an encore. RT: This would have been, your first year was from 1946, so it would have been the Spring of 1947.

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WA: That’s right. I walked up on the stage and [they] applauded. We have an orchestra, a conductor! There was tremendous discipline because you’ve got three faculty there.

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RT: Were they all string players, the three faculty? WA: Well I used . . . the concertmaster was the new violin teacher [McLaughlin] which was a big help, you see. RT Sure, of course. And did McEwen play? WA: Oh yes. He played viola. And it was his wife who came in. RT: Oh it was his wife! WA: What a doll she was. And she said “I can’t believe it.” And then I did something I shouldn’t have done. About three, four weeks later I appeared on my own violin recital, and that wasn’t smart. RT: Why? WA: They’d already hired a violin [McLaughlin]. RT: Oh. And he didn’t do a recital, I suppose. WA: No, so that wasn’t very . . . and I didn’t mean it, I didn’t want to do that. I should have . . . it was an orchestra I was responsible for. I played and then there was a tremendous . . . The pianist, not the gal pianist, but the fellow [Hadley Yates]. I can’t remember the name. RT: It’s probably on that list. WA: He was my accompanist. And we played the Chaconne by Bach, and then I played the . . . big program, tremendous program. RT: Now were you teaching violin, or was the other man doing all the [teaching]. WA: The other man was teaching violin. Oh yes. RT: Of course there wouldn’t have been very many, I’m sure. WA: No. RT: Did anybody say anything, did you hear about this from anybody as a faux pas?

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WA: Well let me tell you about that. Contracts came out, I was promoted with a 20% raise, promoted with tenure. So, you know. RT: Pretty good work for one year. WA: But the tragedy was this. [undecipherable] wanted to keep his job. RT: What else were you teaching? WA: I was teaching solfège. RT: Of course, the principle thrust of the program was the preparation of teachers, I’m sure. WA: Exactly. That part I loved, I liked. RT: That leads me to, well let me just run down my [list]. I think we’ve covered a lot of the things on my standard list of questions. What aspects as your job as a faculty member, did you find especially rewarding? Certainly you found it an enormous reward to have the orchestra develop as quickly as it did. And you just mentioned you enjoyed Methods classes. WA: Yes. I truly did. And there was another [part to the question} RT: What aspects of your job did you find especially rewarding? WA: Well I had the string classes, and I studied cello on the side with the . . . RT: Did you go up there? WA: No, he was with the Toledo Orchestra, and I would go an hour early for my lesson. RT: Did you play in the Toledo Orchestra? WA: Oh yes. Yes, I was assistant concertmaster. RT: Now was McLaughlin here? He was in the orchestra too, wasn’t he. WA: He was in the orchestra also, but when he was in the orchestra, he was the concertmaster and that’s another story. 311


RT: So you were sitting side by side in the orchestra. WA: Yes and so there was a lot of [tension]. RT: I can imagine. WA: It didn’t bother me, he was the concertmaster. RT: You were studying cello and teaching the string classes here. WA: I was teaching the methods and actually I instituted the methods [course] for [non-music students] who were going to be schoolteachers. RT: Sure. And there might have been brass players, or singers, or pianists. WA: Right. And so I instituted a methods within our methods course . . .be on the scene when they didn’t have enough to do. I had to teach the classes. RT: Oh, so you went out in methods classes. WA: Sure did, but they were good teachers. That was a plus. RT: Now did you go into the schools yourself with your students. Not that you say you didn’t have enough to do. When you had a student during the day, you had students preparing these music appreciation to teach to third and fourth graders. Did you ever go into the schools and see one of your students teach a third grader? WA: No, no I didn’t. RT: For one thing, you didn’t have time, I’m sure. WA: Yes, and the ones [teachers] who were in the county[ schools], they were free to do something on their job. RT: Because they were already employed. WA: They were a delight. RT: But you found out what they did because they wrote you reports. WA: Oh yes, oh yes. So that was a delight. So that’s why I always thought that playing the fiddle was one thing, but that I had affection for seeing people teach 312


children, and I had regular classes—they were not music majors, they were . . . . [undecipherable] RT: Let’s talk a little bit now about students, your students. Do you keep up with any of your former students? WA: I have, but it’s getting that they keep up with me. It’s just like that. RT: What pleased you about those contacts? What do they remember about you and what do you see about them. WA: They remember my breadth and my joviality (?). It was like that. One fellow said “. . . a teacher . . . went down the hall and I heard this laughter, and he said just like turning off a faucet, there was this silence, and somebody’s reciting. RT: Balance. WA: They said I was tough but always fair and, in a manner of speaking, I respected every one of them. RT: Did you use the word ‘joviality’? A sort of a human . . . I don’t think I every heard a good teacher who didn’t say what you just said, that you respected your students, you respected every one of them. Because I think that’s a critical part of what made you a good teacher, that you respected the students. And of course that was reciprocated. WA: That’s why I loved classroom teaching. Far better than just teaching a fiddle lesson in a studio. And then I was inclined somewhat, how to grab a kid by the ear and throw him out. Came really close. That was a marvelous piece of music he’d not practiced. This happened with a former member of the faculty who was a brilliant trumpet teacher. He was first trumpet in the Houston ???. He got this guy actually by the ear and tossed him out the door. “I don’t want to see you.” I didn’t have to do that. RT: It’s interesting that you say that, because, in the conversation we had with Dave Glasmire two days ago, I asked him what he thought challenging in his teaching. And he said: motivation, motivating students to do their best. You’re alluding to that now, I think. How do you respond to that challenge? WA: Well I had a class with elementary ed. teachers. They were . . . And I think [one student] failed or got a D, and [had] to take the course over. I think that was the way it was. 313


So he came in a told me about his [problem] that he had to take the course over. [Interval devoted to changing tape.] Well it was ??? And he had his cap on, always had his cap on when the class was empty, turned around toward the blackboard, and [removed] his cap, turned around, looked to me and smiled. I had a marvelous time teaching that guy. He was so responsive. He went from a D to an A. RT: Wonderful story. During the time that you taught, and maybe even up to now as you can observe the educational scene, did you feel that students changed? Was there a change in the preparation of students, their attitude, their productivity, their talent, that sort of thing? [Interval on pausing the machine] WA: I taught summer school. These were non-music majors, and I did notice the change in the attitude. It’s rather unpleasant to behold this. And it wasn’t, uh, they had the attitude that, I got the feeling that . . . RT: “I challenge you to teach me,” that sort of thing? WA: They just kind of released themselves from any responsibility, which was highly discouraging, highly discouraging (disturbing?). And I found that it was rather uniform throughout the [class]. There was one class, it was small, and we had it in the morning, and they were a delight. [In the afternoon class] they were [sleepier]. I don’t know whether it was numbers that did it or not, or also it was the possibility that it was in the afternoon. The morning class was a delight. I didn’t know how to lean on them. Having had a pleasant experience—well I didn’t have any unpleasant experience with these guys. I’d like to make a small change in the attitude. They smiled less, they looked at you with an attitude that “Here I am. Now, I dare you to teach me.” RT: I think sometimes, I don’t know that it’s a consistent pattern that I can say has changed systematically over the years, as much as it is the classes you’re given, and I always wondered what’s the chemistry, what is the factor that causes that turmoil. In other words class has sort of a personality, and some classes have a wonderful outgoing personality and some of them don’t. WA: I think too perhaps the afternoon classes are cursed. So I kind of gave up. I mean I was getting older and I didn’t have the stamina. 314


RT: What about your work with majors? Did you notice any change in the talent level over the years? WA: I would say the talent was stronger. RT: David said exactly the same thing. WA: And then it was very, very rewarding for the teachers, the talent rising. RT: Do you have any idea why that is? Is it that the University was able to be more selective? Is it that the quality of public school teaching went up? Is it a combination of a lot of things? WA: I think it is a combination. I think private instruction is stronger than it used to be. RT: A second on that subject to your own school schooling in Stark County when you were a student. What was the public school program that you went through like? Did you have an orchestra? WA: Oh yes, indeed. I went to Canton/McKinley. RT: Which is a big school. WA: Oh heavens yes. There were 9,000 in my graduating class. You had 110 in the orchestra. Sad to report on that, because, in those years, the orchestra was very prominent. The strengthening of football . . . RT: Oh. Of course Canton was . . . WA: That’s right. And so after I graduated, I was talking to people, to teachers, I said “How’s the orchestra?” They were lucky to have 35. RT: Did you have in those days what we today call General Music classes at the elementary level? Or Music Appreciation kinds of experiences? Or was it mostly just the performance aspect? At the elementary level. WA: No in those days if the teacher was interested in music, they were free to do this. RT: Okay. Pretty much depended on the classroom teacher. WA: That’s right. 315


RT: Their skill and their interest. There was no official music teacher for the elementary, probably. WA: She came . . . Which came about . . . too late. And I always remembered her as a very charming lady, beautiful, beautiful voice. And I was just delighted. RT: Did she sing actually? WA: She would sing phrases and she would always come down the aisle, and put her hand on my head, and she said “Now William, this is how it should be.” I never took my singing seriously. RT: But she did. Well now lets talk a little bit about the people that you worked with here. You mentioned Merrill McEwen, you mentioned his presence, the fact that he inspired confidence. What were some of the other experiences with your colleagues. WA: Yes. I remember [Leon Fauley]. Very, very charming man. Very, very full of music, full of love of music. Taught any kind of music. And he would always, at Christmas time, he’d always go to the Metropolitan Opera to hear one of the operas. RT: What did he [do?] Was he a voice teacher? Oh I met , shortly after we came here, we came in 1983, I met his wife, his widow. She lived here many years after his death. WA: That’s right. RT: I never got to know here very well, but I did have the pleasure of meeting her. WA: Young man . . . was a friend of mine. Very, very fine. You don’t want me to go into detail on anybody? RT: Oh just people that were, sort of stand out in your memory, yes, teachers or friends or colleagues or musicians. WA: Yes we had Joe Himmel, Joseph Himmel. Very, very intellectual fellow, very charming personality. And delightful attitude. RT: He’s still living? WA: Yes he’s still living. 316


RT: Where does he live now? WA: He lives near Denver . And Helen Kwalwasser Wadeen and her husband [Harvey Wadeen]. RT: I don’t think she’s on here. WA: There were here only four years. RT: Didn’t they go to Philadelphia? WA: Yes. They went directly to Philadelphia, and they remained there. Harvey Wedeen was her husband, very accomplished pianist. RT: I didn’t know her name before I knew she was here. WA: Her father was famous. RT: That must be where I first heard the name. Do you remember the—some of the difficulty in compiling lists like this, like the one you have there, is that it’s out of the catalogues, and for a while the catalogue listed every member of the faculty, and in early days the catalogue listed their degrees and their schools they went to, and in the case of music faculty with whom they studied. So you go back to the teens, or the twenties, you find that kind of information. Then of course the presentation of the information changed and now there’s not even a list of faculty in the catalogue, and so you have to go to other sources, like directories and things like that, and they’re not always as complete as they could be. One of the question I had for David and for you too, what year did you—you were doing the supplemental program when I arrived in 83—do you remember what year you retired from full time teaching? WA: I think it was 1980. RT: 80. Okay. Dave thought it was 1982. I think that’s right. I just sort of guessed at it because I couldn’t tell. WA: That’s alright. Then you see I taught about six or seven summers. RT: Yes, I knew that. You were doing that when I arrived. At that time there was this so-called supplemental retirement program, which I think was a five-year program, but taught beyond that. WA: Yes I think so, I think so. But I loved that teaching. 317


RT: And that teaching, at that time was the course for elementary music, or elementary teachers I guess. I don’t remember exactly. I remember Pat Tallarico used to come in and say “We’d like to have Bill teach again this summer.” WA: Is that right? Oh that’s right, you were here then. RT: Yes I came in the last few years of your part-time service. WA: Pat and I were good friends. RT: Yes, well I know he thought so highly of you and always wanted you to teach, and I said “That’s fine. Let’s do it.” WA: Well I was fortunate. I was fortunate. RT: What do you recall as—I had mentioned that I had asked David this question— what were the issues in the faculty? What were the things people were trying to accomplish? What were the challenges? What were the obstacles even? Nobody likes to remember faculty meetings maybe. But I’m asking you to think back to faculty meetings, and what were the—? WA: Subjects. RT: Subjects, yes. WA: Sometimes there were those, I’m one of them, I’m kind of soft. There were times when somebody had a passion and had an outburst. And I thought “My God, what was going to happen here? . . . [Seymour] Benstock . . . RT: We’re on again now. What were? For example David mentioned scholarship systems. Were there curricular issues—I don’t want to lead you. I can tell what he answered but I like to hear your . . . What were the issues in the curriculum, or where there any that caused conversation and faculty action or debate, that sort of thing? Maybe there weren’t any that stand out. WA: (Sigh) Difficult. I had courses that were substantial and . . . traditional. RT: Then there was no question about it. WA: There was no argument. RT: They were pillars of the program. In a number schools that I have visited or have been a faculty member in, there was a tension, and sometimes it was a healthy 318


tension, it wasn’t necessarily bad, between performance and music education. Institutions that primarily were dedicated to preparing teachers, but who had fine performers on the faculty. And these fine performers wanted performance standards to be high. Was that an issue here during your time, or was it accepted that, if you’re going to be a good teacher, you’re going to be a musician and a good performer? WA: And I think it waned a little bit, the emphasis on performance. The preeminent responsibility is performance, and while I thought that way while I was at Mount Union—I didn’t feel like, I wasn’t gonna, if I had my druthers, I go there and just take fiddle lessons. But that doesn’t make a musician. Does that do it? RT: I haven’t asked this question systematically of any group of people. But just My sense is that if we were to ask our colleagues in music “Why did you go into music? Why did you choose music as a career?” it would be because of performance. We didn’t become teachers to teach, I mean we didn’t become musicians to teach initially. We didn’t know what joys there could be in teaching. We certainly didn’t become musicians to study theory or to study music history, or to do all the other things go to make up a musician. We became musicians because we loved to perform. WA: And thankfully that’s the way it ought to be. RT: Thankfully that’s the way it ought to be, that’s right. And those of us, and you’re obviously one of them, who have found the joy of teaching, have found that later as we matured and began to see the larger picture. WA: That’s why I kept on playing recitals, even though I wasn’t teaching violin. RT: Yes, sure. That’s why you played that first recital that you talked about. The one here. Because you were a musician, and that’s what musicians do. At the same time you also indicated that your classroom teaching became so important to you, because you didn’t want to just be teaching violin. [Recording ends, although the is still a lot of tape left.]

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Inter view with Robert Thayer and David Glasmire 4/29/03 DG: Harry Spangler was a piano teacher, in the early school. You see the date. He was hired and he was one more of those who did one year. Andras Szentkiralyi was a violinist and that’s about all I know about him. RT: We remember him. DG: Tallarico. Bruce Tolbert was a vocalist. Betty Jean Troeger, I not sure what she did. Ivan Trussler flew down to Florida. Richard Webster was a clarinet teacher (RT: Oh sure), went to the University of Toledo (RT: Oh yes) when he left here. Harvey Wedeen was a wonderful piano player and teacher. He and Helen Kwalwasser married. In fact she is on the list of part time. RT: She’s on the list as a part-time and Wedeen is faculty. DG: Marvelous. Both very fine pianist. Roy Weger came here in 1953, replaced Arthur Zuelzke and he came from a little town called Durant, Oklahoma (RT: Oh yeah), and if you would have heard his high school band it would have put most university bands to shame. RT: I heard about that band. DG: He had a cracker jack of a band. It was unbelievable. And he was solely responsible for teaching all those instruments. He used to say, “Roy, you got a conservatory out here in the public school.” RT: There wasn’t any place nearer it to have anybody else to help. DG: He was a fine band conductor. One of the strong parts about Roy Weger was that he got out of his students the utmost. He was capable of getting the best out of his students in band. A very fine conductor. Ken Wendrich—do you know who he is?—former dean. Francis Wilcox was the trumpet teacher in 49 and I knew him quite well. He left in 58 and that’s when I got the job. He left in 58 and went out to Scottsdale, Arizona, became an arranger, and taught mathematics, and arranged for the high school band. This is just a little aside. He didn’t have a job when he left here, he had a school bus, he took all the four seats out of the school bus, he and his wife and three children, off they went, to Scottsdale, AZ. That’s what you call faith! Don Wilson we know. Christopher Scholl, I don’t know who that is. Bob Wykes, we stopped to see him, he’s at is at St. Louis University, University of St. Louis, he was theory and flutist. 320


RT: I went to school with him. DG: Hadley Yates [Piano], I didn’t know, because that was again in 46-51 and I didn’t know too many of the people. Fred Young, clarinet teacher, very fine. He took—who was the clarinet teacher at that time at Oberlin years back?—George Waln’s place when George went on sabbatical. He came here and taught about seven or eight years. Art Zuelzke, he came from Fostoria, Ohio, and was a graduate of Cincinnati. He took over—I’m not sure who the band director was before Zuelzke came here. Have you research anything beyond that? RT: Yeah we go back all the way to 1914. DG: Tunnicliffe. Merrill McEwen replaced Tunnicliffe as the chair of the department. RT: Right. We have that history RK: Did you ever meet Tunnicliffe DG: No, I never did. Richard Alleshouse, he’s a graduate of BG. He’s still around. They bought a place right over here, one of the little condos off the North Shore Blvd [at Lakeside OH]. Harry Boileau was an insurance salesman in downtown Bowling Green but a very fine percussionist. He taught part time percussion for us until we hired [Wendell Jones]. Arcola [Clark], we talked about her. Richard Dean was the vocal teacher at Anthony Wayne High School; he was a tuba major at Bowling Green. He’s still living as far as I know. RT: Which one of this? DG: Richard Dean. Francesco DiBlasi was the third trumpet, I think, player of a symphony in Michigan. He came down here and taught trumpet. That was when my load got to the point where it was getting too much so we hired a part time trumpet teacher before we hired Ted Betts. Marius Fossenkemper was also a clarinet teacher part time Mildred Pietschman McCrystal, she was one of the first ladies I got to know in the music education department when we came to Bowling Green because I became active in OMEA at that time and she was the director of arts music in Sandusky.1 We used to always call her “the lady with hats.” She wore hats anywhere 1  Beginning in 1946, extension programs of the University were offered in Sandusky, Ohio. During the next two decades, course offerings there were expanded, and in 1965 a regional campus of the University was established to serve Erie, Huron, and Ottawa counties. That campus is BGSU Firelands, in Huron, Ohio. BGSU Firelands, which opened for classes in 1967, offers 321


she went. Bless her heart she was at an OMEA Convention years ago and went stepping off a curb and somebody hit her and she died. James Middleton you know; Kay Moore you know. James Pellerite was a flutist out of Cincinnati. How he ever got up here I’ll never know but he was a flutist. Helen Kwalwasser you know. RT: That’s a great help to us because we just can’t tell from the available documents in all cases what people did. Now some of these people are, as you say, probably still alive. DG: When it comes to former students that are still in this area some would be John and Janice Searle who live in Perrysburg. He was a graduate and a minister’s son and a band director; he played French horn in the band. The band director, I won’t mention his name, used a couple of swear words. John went up to him and said “I can’t play in your band”; Janey and Dave Melle are graduates of Bowling Green. I taught Janey Melle violin in a broom closet in Church Street School. You could ask her about that. I was always one step ahead of her. RT: What did you find most challenging about teaching? DG: I think early on was motivation—on the part of the students, trying to get them motivated to be better. Jerry Reed, who was the counselor at Anthony Wayne for years, was the first tuba recital on the University campus, back in the early 50’s. I’m not sure whether it 1952 or 53. He was motivated to the point that he got to be a pretty good (in those days) sousaphone player. Upright tubas. We got upright tubas after Roy Weger came. And let me point out something about Roy Weger. I think I mentioned this in one of our meetings some years ago. Roy Weger was instrumental in getting scholarships. He couldn’t believe that no wind player was on scholarships. And he became fairly acquainted with Dr. MacDonald at that time. He went over to Dr. MacDonald and made out a program of what we should have in terms of building the college of music student body. I’m not sure what the monetary valuation was but he came back with ten scholarships and, of course, as you know, it’s grown considerably since. RT: Were there scholarships for pianists and singers or were there just no scholarships? Dave G: There were no scholarships that I know of but I’m sure that there were. But it wasn’t a general encompassing of the whole student body you didn’t have wind players, pianists, vocalists, string players, all that. career and technical education leading to associate degrees in 13 areas, as well as the first two years of baccalaureate degree programs. (2014 University Undergraduate Catalogue) 322


RT: On the other side—we talked about what you enjoyed and what you found rewarding—what were the frustrations, the disappointments? Dave G: My part was a frustration of trying to do a good job in the public schools as well as the University for the first eight years. It was [difficult]. RWT: How? DG: What time you have to spend with the university and I was quite involved with the band and orchestra at that time and also sharing my time with the elementary schools as well. In fact, Jim Grabill, bless his heart, was one of the people that were on a committee when I auditioned because I was not only auditioning for the university but also for the teaching. RT: And the high school at that time was downtown. DG: At the Junior High, right across from the fire station. Frustrations—I think getting good students. You had to more or less rely on your outreach to get more students to come. There were not many scholarships. You had to go out and perform and hope that somebody might hear you and say “Oh he might be a good teacher,” or by word of mouth. I felt that . . . other areas of brass as well. I really didn’t have very many frustrations because I was so glad to have a job in the first place. Coming out of the service and knowing full well that I had to find a job to support my family was frustration enough. I was grateful that I had a job and when the opportunity came for me to go into the college of music—it was still a department of music at that time—I was so happy to take the job as brass teacher when Frank Wilcox left [in Spring 1958], Francis Wilcox actually. RT: You were teaching trumpet when you first came here? DG: Yeah, I taught all the brass instruments when I first came here; trumpet, French horn, euphonium, tuba, trombone (initially). I always said I’m teaching the low brass. RT: I didn’t realize that. RK: Weren’t you a band director at one time? DG: I was a band director in 1965-66 for the simple reason that Dr. [Richard] Ecker had a very serious problem of protein adjustment in his body, one of only twelve cases in the world. He was on dialysis for a number of months. He was going to take over the job in 1965 because Roy Weger had taken a leave of absence and didn’t 323


come back. Roy went down to Texas, to SMU, and became a band director down there. So when Dr. Ecker died August 19 who could take over the band? Well, Lou Marini and I were the only ones that had any, shall we say, knowledge. So he took over the marching band and I helped him during marching season. And then I took over the concert band and he helped me and that was for one year. And then Kelly got here [in 1966] and he said “I couldn’t believe how disrupted this band office was.” [Laughter] Which was true because we were teaching a full load on our own. There wasn’t any way that we could not teach trombone or some other brass instruments. So we had to do that whole thing together without getting any credit on our loads, or extra remuneration. RWT: You mentioned the help that people give along the line. You mentioned the band at Lancaster. During your career, what external influences influenced your professional growth and your teaching? Was it a former teacher or professional organization, additional schooling, reading and studying, attendance at performances, conferences, clinics. (DG: All of those) What guided you? Dave G: Well, it goes way back even before I was in high school. My father was a minister and I was not allowed to go to movies or anything of this nature. But I sneaked into the Grand Theater one afternoon and they had a live show between intermissions. (RT: Was this in Lancaster?) This was in Lancaster. I heard this trombone player. His name was Forrest Boidenboyer (??). See I can remember that name. I heard this fellow and thought to myself “Boy I sure would like to do that sometime”. My wishes came true. I played with the Johnny Knorr Orchestra. I also had the privilege of playing with the Tommy Dorsey Orchestra. I’ll tell you the circumstances of that. Saturday evening, we had what you would call Senior Cotillion in the big ballroom. This was a big thing, a big dance. And Tommy Dorsey founded by Warren Covington at that time, because Dorsey was dead. I was sitting home studying my Sunday school lesson and 25 minutes till nine this fellow called me and says, “Are you Dave Glasmire?” And I said “Yeah” and he said, “Do you play trombone?” and, I said, “Well, yeah, I’m a teacher here at the University.” He says “Well could you come over and play with us tonight?” I said, “Well, I only have twenty minutes”. He said, “That doesn’t matter, come over and on the bus we’ll give you a red coat and make sure you wear dark trousers, etc.” I went over about 9:00 and Warren Covington was so kind. He came over to me and he said, “Now this is the way we’re going to do this.” The reason for that was that the man who was to play first trombone couldn’t get back from Cleveland, having gone to the Army recruiting place to get a physical, so he was stuck in Cleveland. So I went and played second trombone for four hours with the Tommy Dorsey Orchestra. I got fifty bucks for it. [Laughter] But, in terms of influence, I think another influence was this man Frank McGrann who was the one who sort of took me under his wing. My other influence 324


was John Enck. He died a couple years ago. He was my first trombone teacher in high school; well actually I was in junior high at that time. He was pushing me. I had two teachers that said this. “David there isn’t anything more we can do for you. You must go and get a better teacher.” So I went in to Lancaster, Pennsylvania and got lessons from Chet Lincoln. He had a band, a seventeen-piece band. It got to the point where I was capable. He hired me for the band for the weekend performances. He told me “David, there isn’t much more I can teach you, you’ve got to get another teacher.” Now that to me takes a lot of moxie when it comes to teachers. They knew they couldn’t do anything more for me. So they recommended Robert E. Clark who was the solo trombonist for the United States Marine Band in the early 30’s and 40’s. During the war this happened. I started taking lessons in 1941 and of course the war was going on at that time. And I went to Robert E. Clark. RT: Where was he? DG: In Washington DC. He was retired at that point in time. I drove down there once a week till gas rationing did not permit me to go any more. And the only reason that I went to him was that I really thought that I’d like to be in a Marine Band. But the stipulations at that time to get in the Marine Band was that you had to play a string instrument. Did you know Paul Makara played in the United States Marine Band? In order to get in the marine band at that time you had to play a string instrument. So I took cello lessons on the same day that I went down to take lessons from my trombone teacher. Because Uncle Sam saw fit to see otherwise, I would not have pursued them. Those to me are the influences Forrest Boidenboyer, John Enck, Frank McGrann, Chet Lincoln that really influenced my life. Of all really the influence of my mother and father. My parents, both of them were musicians. My mother graduated from Elizabethtown College, magma cum laude, in piano. My father also graduated, not with cum laude or anything like that, but he was a vocalist and music was just part and parcel of my life when I was a child. With all the church activities that we had, singing in the choir. My mother, particularly, was influential in the fact that in the Church of the Brethren that I grew up in, there was no instrumental music. We sang everything a cappella. In fact, there are still some churches that do it that way. My mother and father, bless their hearts, saw fit, and they were much more forward looking than some of the Brethren people at that time, [they] said “We have to have a piano.” And they got the powers that be in the Church to buy a piano. And I had been taking trombone lessons for a number of years and I said something to my mother one day, I said, “Can I play in the church?” I didn’t notice anybody. I went in there and played a trombone solo and was:

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Fa-la-da-de-a-da-da-de-de-a-dum. You know that?2 And people thought “That boy is going to go to hell!” because I was playing a brass instrument in the church. But the influence that my mother and father had was superior to anything. These other fellows led the way. As far as early influences, my mother and father, no doubt about it. RK: What were your parents’ names? DG: My parents’ names: My mother’s name was Leah, my father’s name was Will. That’s him right there. He was about 33. He just had embraced the Church of the Brethren. Those were the influences. And of course I can’t deny the Cincinnati Conservatory and my trombone teacher there. RT: I know you’ve talked about your colleagues here. DG: I’ve been blessed over the years to have been involved with people like you, people like Ted Betts, who to me was the consummate trumpet player. Wonderful musician, wonderful person. And all of the other people. I can’t say too much about my colleagues. They helped me as a neophyte right out of college to develop into what you might say a fairly respectable teacher. Those are the people that influenced most of us in one way or another. RWT: Now to students. You certainly stay in touch with your former students? Dave G: I try to RT: You still do that. I’ve always been extraordinarily impressed with your contacts that you’ve maintained over the years. And so that continues. What can you tell us about your students? DG: He was a trombone player, David Nicely (?), out in the marching field one time and a gentleman walked up to me and said, “Are you David Glasmire?” and I said “Yes.” “Do you have a student named Dave Nicely”? I said “Yes”. He said, “Where is he?” “He’s over there.” They were checking him out because they wanted him to be part of the service. It was very secretive and they were picking out certain personality traits. They interviewed David Nicely, not a trombone teacher, I’m not sure what he did. He didn’t become a musician. Now some of them, for instance Paul Bauer, chair of the music department at Northern Illinois University, very fine bass trombonist. And I think one of the things 2  326

Franz Schubert, Schwanengesang, D. 957 #4, “Ständchen.”


that he likes to remember most is when he graduated from Bowling Green he took his master’s degree at North Texas. He went down and auditioned and replaced the bass trombonist in the first band. So he really could play his horn. Marta Hofacre, who came in here from a little town called Dalton, Ohio, which is in the Holmes County area [Actually Wayne County]. She is now a doctor in music and has been for twenty years or more the trombone teacher at University of Southern Mississippi. Jeff Shellhammer, a very fine conductor and a terrific man in Gahanna, Ohio. David Guion, who was a very good trombone player but who was interested primarily in musicology. He spent some time at Iowa with Rita Benson. He did some work with Rita Benson and recently got a job somewhere in North Carolina, I think in Greensboro but I’m not sure, as a musicologist. RT: Is his father the psychologist at the University? DG: Yeah. David—not that I want to take much credit, or any credit for that matter—David was a good trombone player but he wanted to go into the profession as playing trombone. And I said “David, I don’t think . . .”—It’s hard for a student to hear this, or a professor to say it—but I said: “David, your strength is in musicology. You can still play the trombone if you want to but you should really look in the future as a musicologist.” And he has written one of the finest books ever written. John Hill, in the preface of his book says: “I have never seen a more complete study of the trombone from a particular time frame.” And he says: “Absolutely perfect.” And you know when John Hill says that, it’s got to be good. So he’s had this published, and in fact I have a copy of it. Jeff Macomber who is a Westlake graduate, high school, came here, and when he left here he went out and got a degree at the University of Iowa, went to Bemidji University, Minnesota and now is somewhere in Missouri, and I’m not sure exactly where. But the fellow that took his place was Joel Pugh. He [Pugh] went to Bemidji as band director. RT: Is Joel there now? DG: Yes. RT: Oh, I didn’t know that. I didn’t know he had left Ohio. DG: I noticed that note but knew that, because it was in the Trombone Journal that I get, the International Trombone Journal. So he’s there. Oh my, let’s see. 327


RT: You’ve no doubt a lot of them are doing very well in school, teaching, school jobs or university, or professional jobs. DG: Mike Ferenci, a very fine trombonist in the Cleveland area. He had a twin by the name of [William?] and doing very well out on the west coast as a trombone player/composition/Music, etc. etc. and he went out there just to see if he could make it. Joe Crider went to a Baptist college just north in Missouri and he left there and is now the Director of Music at a huge Baptist Church just south of Missouri. He’s done a good job. RT: He was here when I first got here. DG: Joe Crider has done very well for himself. RT: Of course, a lot of people who go through music school end up in other fields, but I’ve talked with some of them and they say that the experience as a music student has been very significant in whatever direction they have chosen to go. So we sometimes think about our alumni being professionals in the music field but some of them are extraordinarily successful because they were music students, perhaps in a different field now. DG: I had five students before I retired that were very good students, but they all went into computers. And I talked to the computer people about that, and they said “We like to have musicians because they have good memories, they can retain a lot of things, and they just seem to fit in the computer business. That is very true. A number of these have done this. RT: Would you say that, in the course of your teaching career, student in general changed? Or put another way: Are today’s students different from the students that you had when you started at Bowling Green? DG: I think in terms of level, the level of playing is much better these days than it was, although there were some very good trombone players back in those days, they were very few in number. But the level of playing is much higher now than it was before. In particular, during the Roy Weger era we had some excellent trombonists. Vince Polce is another classic example of what he’s done for his life in terms of Defiance and being director there. He’s starting his 33rd year. I talked to him on the phone; when I was not well he called me and he said “It’s my 33rd year and I might retire in another two years but.” RT: He is Mr. Music in Defiance. DG: Absolutely. He has done very well. Oh, I don’t want to miss some of the 328


students that have gone into the band field. Shellhammer and Polce, particularly have done very well in being band directors. RWT: Talk a little bit about the environment at the University, in terms of . . . I’m just reading a question we thought of in advance. Do you remember any discussion topics that occupied faculty members during your years of service? And did these change over time? What were the issues? DG: Well, first and foremost, early on, in the early 50’s, the issues were growth, first and foremost. We knew that there was the possibility of growth within the College of Music and this was part and parcel of the outreach. Secondly, there were considerable—I don’t want to say “animosity”—“differences of opinion” between the choral department and the instrumental department, because the instrumental department was relatively new, and there were times where these issues came up as to credit, accreditation. Do the students get credit for this, or that, and the number of credits that one should get for a particular performance or class of one sort or another, and how you arrive at this. The theory department, in particular, was quite goo, I think, early on, but as we progressed, I happened to be on one of the committees, when Don Wilson came, to upgrade the theory area of the College of Music. Don Wilson was instrumental in getting a little better growth in the theory department when he came here, and he had many thoughts in that way. And that may have been during Wendrich. RT: It might have been well before that, because Wendrich didn’t come until about 80. Glidden years, I suppose. Glidden was here from 75. We’re talking about issues in faculty. DG: One of them was: What credit does a student get for going to rehearsals, I mean to concerts? In fact, I had a big argument about recitals and I’ll put it on the table. They made me go to fifteen concerts and I said “Look, I’ve gone to 150-200 concerts in my lifetime and you’re making me go to 15? I didn’t like that but I still had to do it. But anyhow. That’s just an aside. What else? I think one of the issues that came up was scholarships – how do you divvy up the scholarships amongst the departments? That was an issue that was foremost in the minds of many of the faculty and particularly the administration as to how you would handle this—Who gets what? RWT: You mentioned the tension, I think it happens in every music school, between vocal and instrumental. Was there also tension between performance and music education? D G: Oh, I don’t think as much. There was at times, I’m sure. First and foremost 329


we were a music education oriented department for years until about the mid 60’s, maybe. When Dr. Kennedy took over one of the plusses that he did in terms of outreach was [that] he organized a string quartet, a woodwind quintet, and a brass quintet. He gave us each a quarter load for that, and because of that particular aspect, we were able to reach out into the communities within Ohio and other areas, other states, by taking tours, going into public schools, and just playing. But I think that was an issue. One of the better issues when it came up to salaries, I think, this had something to do. I remember one of our friends—bless his heart, I won’t say who his name is— that said “Now look, I’ve had as much experience in my life and so forth than this person, and you’re putting him much higher than I am.” That kind of conflict, In think, was ameliorated eventually, but that did pose a problem, because to some of the guys that we hired were excellent musicians and performers, but lower on the totem pole salary-wise than some of the others, but at the same time had even better experience. That was an issue that came up. [Another] issue was participation: Can you participate in the choral, as well as the instrumental or did you have to choose? RT: As a student? DG: As a student. We used to have a program where you had to choose one or the other. I don’t know that we had a great deal of problems as I see it. You as Deans know very well that there are problems galore that come into your office and the faculty knows not to come out. RT: On that subject, tell us your view of communication between faculty and administration within the music school and beyond in the university? Dave G: I thought it was quite good. I think sometimes we (and I’m probably as guilty as the next) we assume things, we assume that that person knew, we assume this and that when we really don’t know concretely that this is happening. So, the assumptions , I think, were something that we had problems with. As far as my communication as an individual to the chair of the departments or the deans I had no problem with that at all. In fact, Ted Betts, who was director, chair, of the brass department, had no problems at all with what was going on. RT: Of course you saw each other regularly. You were in the quintet. DG: Oh yeah. We [Ted Betts] had a very good on-going relationship. I don’t know that I ever had any enemy in the college of music at all, but I always wanted to get along with everybody. I’m sure I had disagreements, professionally of course, but never done through anger. 330


RT: I remember when I was being interviewed at Bowling Green in 1983 someone said “We have our disagreements just as any faculty.” But he said “We get over them and we still speak to each other.” I believe that was true then and I believe it was true during the time I was there. And still there are people that, when I was there, we might have had some issues, you know, some problems, but people are still friendly, I think. I think it’s quite a remarkable place in that regards, it’s not that way everywhere. DG: You’re right, you’re right. I think a lot of people, when they see how our faculty gets along in the music department, they are surprised because there are factions you well know as Dean, there are factions here, factions there. But by large I think the faculty at the college of music does very well in terms of its communication with each other and its relationships, personal relationships, with each other. RT: And I think that is very much reflective in the study body. Students either know when it doesn’t work or know when it does work. Just little things, well, not little things at all, but things that people don’t think about at all. The atmosphere in the office – the way the secretarial staff relates to students. I think that has always been exceptionally strong and again it’s an intangible, perhaps, or something that we don’t immediately think of as a critical part of it. I think it’s been very important. DG: I agree. We lost some of that. Not that they haven’t been replace[d] equally but some of the old timers have gone RT: And that was an enormously stable staff for many years. Dave G: It was, for many years. When you stop and think how long some of those people were involved with the College of Music. RT: And how much they cared about it. It wasn’t just a job. DG: It was a personal relationship. In terms of communication from the rest of the university I don’t think there was any problem there. I had to serve on Faculty Senate for a couple of years and problems came up in Faculty Senate. In terms of communicating from the higher echelon I had no problem with that. I’ll just give you [an example]. [Someone] got a parking ticket. He went through the protocol and he ended up in the President’s office. RT: Over a parking ticket! DG: And he won the case. 331


RT: Speaking of communication, that’s a perfect example. Do you feel that the central administration at the university, of course it changed during the time you were there, were they supportive of the music program? Did they appreciate the music program? Did they recognize the music program? Dave G: Oh yes, absolutely. Particularly Dr. McDonald. A lot of people say a lot of things about McDonald, but there were certain issues of the college of music [for which he was] very, very supportive. I’ll give you a classic example: We knew that there was a possibility of getting a new music building. He was coming over at 2:30; we were in the Practical Arts Building at the time. The 1st floor was home economics, the 2nd floor was music, the 3rd floor was [rehearsal halls]. We had it all set up. Everybody was practicing, and the old Practical Arts Building was located within the courtyard itself. So we had everybody’s windows open, everybody practicing—vocalists, instrumentalists, you name it. And he came over, and he sat in there for a while. He said: “I don’t see how any teaching goes on in this place.” Out of that started the ball rolling on the new music building. The Practical Arts had a beautiful studio B, he [McEwen?] called it, on the second floor; it’s still there. RK: Where was that building on campus? RT: West Hall? DG: No, you know where Prout is? Across from where the Union is now. It was called the Practical Arts Building. RK: Johnston was the freestanding building behind the Union. DG: No it’s on the other side. RT: What I wanted to turn to, is a little group of questions about what I’m calling educational issues and curriculum. How is music education now different from what it was like when you were growing up? I’m talking about music education in the broad sense, what’s going on in the schools, not necessarily just the university. And how has it changed over the years? DG: Well, as a student on trombone I was taught by a clarinet teacher, John Enck. He was very instrumental in allowing us to go to his band, which was in Manheim borough (?), which was not Upper Leacock High School. We didn’t have a band. We had a clarinet, cello, trumpet, trombone, piano, as a nucleus for our group in Upper Leacock. Now you look at that at one point in time, you think, “Well how did we ever get [there].” The point is, if you have the desire to do it, you’ll do it. Nowadays, up until I’d say the last 10-15 fifteen years, we had superior high school bands. But 332


you don’t have that in this day; you don’t have that kind of superiority now. [There are many things] you can blame that on, but [there is] a different kind of attitude towards music than we had back in those days. In fact, my experience in college was totally instrumental. Back when I was a child growing up as a trombonist, I was allowed to go to certain things and play, participate. One of them was—and this is where the growth business comes back again—I owe this to my mother and father. I played in a “rube band” on Saturday afternoons and I was not allowed to drink beer. I didn’t. These guys would bring out these marches, and say “Here. Play it” We played and they drank the beer and I drank milkshakes. To me, that gave me the impetus to learn how to sight-read. Because if I could say anything that’s good about me, that’s one of my main strengths. You put something in front of me and I’ll sight-read it without much problem. The experiences that I had in high school—I had no marching band, there was no concert band. The only thing that I had was the choir. I sang in the choir. Over a period of time, as you well know, the growth [in instrumental music] up until about 20 years ago was very commendable in terms of the public schools. But because of the inside and outside influences we have “musically speaking,“ we have a problem of having a viable music education program in the public schools. RWT: And yet you say that the quality of performance of the students coming in has steadily advanced. DG: Has advanced. Now that’s up to the point where I quit. [RT: So of course it’s hard to say.] About 20 years ago. And I’ve heard other band directors and people say that the difficulty of sustaining a real good marching band plus a concert band in a public school is very, very difficult now. So the [difference] does not lie in that particular area. They’re are bombarded with all kinds of [unclear]. That’s a personal opinion. But in terms of music education that I had, and I look at other students, they had a much more superior education in music in the high school than I did. RT: Just because of where you grew up. DG: Just because of where I grew up. And that’s changed considerably over the years. [For instance,] orchestras in the state of Ohio under [John] Farinacci. RT: Wasn’t that Cleveland Heights? DG: Cleveland Heights. Unbelievable professionalism. He was very well known for that. He had a considerable backlog, shall we say, of students who performed in these groups. It was astounding. 333


RT: Dick, there are a couple of things you wanted to ask. RK: If you look back on that whole list of faculty members what are some that pop out? People that have been important. People who had a positive influence. Dave G: Merrill McEwen. He was a very generous and gentle man, but a very thorough person when it came to administration. I was only part time. He didn’t have to treat me as though I was a faculty member, but I never felt isolated from the department at that time just because I was part time. Because of the other part time people as well. Administratively wise, I think several of the presidents I had great deal of respect for. Dr. Prout, for instance, who was a gem of a person? And Dr. McFall, in the administration, was just a wonderful human being. And there were others of course I didn’t point out. Herschel Litherland [Dean, College of Education], was another. The University administrative [personnel], I think, were exceptional people. RT: Herschel, what was his last name? DG: Herschel Litherland. In terms of the university and the college of music, I think Roy Weger was a great influence on the instrumental program at the University, college of music, department at that time. Dick Ecker was a very, very astute individual, and was highly respected throughout the OMEA. I always thought a great deal of Bill Alexander and Warren Allen because they helped shape me as a person, and guidance, me being a neophyte at the University. Ted Betts, when it comes to the best, he was a very great influence. I think each of us can learn from others, if we’re willing to do that. And Ted Betts brought a lot from Eastman, as not only a professional trumpet player, but as a person himself. RK: Isn’t that kind of interesting, that there are so many people that have played a role. D G: I was astounded when I read that list, that many people had been employed by the department of music at one time. RT: During the time you were here. You overlapped with every one of those people. RK: That’s fascinating. DG: Each one of those in their own right, I think, had an influence, whether it’s for good or bad, on me as a person, as a musician. You don’t know it all and if you can learn from somebody else, certain aspects of teaching, certain aspects of playing. When Dr. Kennedy [Mark Kelly?] was hired there were certain people who said “Well 334


why don’t you? I know my limitations. I’m not about to take on something that I’m not capable of doing in my own mind. Neither Lou Marini no I wanted the job as band director. RWT: Ecker had been the assistant to Zuelzke, and he was the heir apparent until he fell ill. RK; So Zuelzke retired. DG: Zuelzke retired and Ecker still remained the asst. band director because Roy Weger came in 53. RK: Then Mark Kelly would have come in the 60s some time. DG: Yeah, that’s right, 66. Doyt Perry Stadium was still . . . Tape ends

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Inter view: Robert Thayer and Bernard Linden BL: . . . undergraduate career than I had in high school. I had topnotch ear training. You had to spit out the solfège like catechism. RT: Fixed do? BL: Moveable do. The influence at that time . . . was Columbia. RT: Talk a little bit about students. Do you stay in touch with any of your former students? BL: Well, a few, a few. A few stay in touch with me. I recently . . . Got a job in Portugal after I left. And has been public school in Oakland California. From Toledo. Whenever she comes here, she stops by. Ginny Blakeman. She’s over in Fremont. She was principle of the Rochester Symphony, then she went to the San Francisco Symphony. She had to play some place and she saw me for half a day. “My rehearsal. Come on down, I want to see you.” So I went down and visited her rehearsal. And [Evan] Chambers, I saw him the other day. RT: I remember Evan. I haven’t seen Evan for years. He’s still in Ann Arbor, and doing very well. BL: Apparently, apparently. RT: Having a lot of performances of his music, winning prizes. BL: I don’t know about prizes. RT: He’s gotten some very good acknowledgement of his work. I can’t be specific. During the time that you were here, during your career at Bowling Green, were there changes in the qualifications of the students? Was the quality of student performance . . BL: I think, I don’t know about requirements. I think the school developed a reputation as a performance school, and as a result, better students applied, and they still had an obligation. I never had a full load in viola. There were still not that many people [who] applied, so some of the ones that probably we should have rejected, we accepted. And in that sense, the standard, the published standard didn’t go up, but the expectations of the students themselves went up. So you had a better brand of student. 336


RT: Another thing that I’m sure must have helped that was the growth of the graduate program. Of course, when you came, the graduate program was in its infancy. BL: No, no. There wasn’t [RT: There wasn’t] there wasn’t one. I was on the development committee. Yeah, that probably helped a great deal. The more [and] better performances you have around going on, the higher the standard is going to get. So if you have good graduate students coming in and playing, the undergraduate students hear what good [performance] is. The tide will rise. RT: I read something just a day or two ago—in fact I read it yesterday—about what do we way to young people who want a career in music? What do we say to them today? Do we say “Go for it”? Do we say “Go for it but here are some of the things you need to be aware of?” Do we discourage them? BL: I’m uh, I’m getting a little limited in my enthusiasm. But I really think the kid should do whatever the hell he wants. If he thinks he want to become a poet, go for it! Go for it! The worst that happens, he’ll flop and go in another direction, but you should take a chance. Without fooling yourself. I mean you should know where you stand. RT: That’s exactly what I would have expected you to say. And I’ll bet, if you think about some of your former students who have gone into other fields, they’ve probably done so with no regrets for having been in music. BL: Well! I was going to say, I had rather complimentary experience last year. I got a call from a former high school student of mine, Bill Foster. He’s assistant principal of Washington National, and he said, he was at a contemporary music concert in Washington, and Evan’s music was being performed, and on the program, and on his biography, he listed his teachers, and he included me. So after the concert he went up and had their tête-à-tête, and then Bill called me. RT: They had not known each other. BL: No, no, no. Then Bill called me. You should know that Evan wouldn’t call me. I was very flattered by that. RT: Well what I was thinking about when you said “Go for it.” There are people who do go for it, and even if they know what the odds are or know how they stack up, they, for one reason or another, may change and do something else. BL: Yeah, and in a sense I had the same thing with Evan. 337


RT: He became a composer. BL: Because halfway—he was a damned good violist—and halfway he said ”You know something? I have to cut back on my viola time because I’m doing composition.” And I said “Well give me as much as you can.” So he took a different tack. What I did was I got playable contemporary music for him, so that he could experience what he potentially might be wanting to do. I didn’t know he was would become a professional. RT: He didn’t either, of course at that point! BL: At that point it was wishful thinking. He was sort of like my daughter Louise. Went to Ohio State, and I think, I keep saying “She broke the record for majors.” I think she had more majors than anybody I ever heard of. Every Tuesday and Thursday she’d call and say “I wanna become a Russian Literature major. I just had this wonderful experience.” And a month later she called and said “I just read this book. It was so boring I couldn’t pick it up.” She went to Engineering, she went Physics. And at the end of three years, she got tired of learning, she got tired of being a student. So she sat down and figured out enough courses and went to catalogue and figured out, and she took this course and this course and this course, so she could finish. And she wound up with two degrees. Double degree in physics and geology. None of it was a waste. RT: When I was, after I retired, I did development work for three years for the College, and one of the things we were able to do during that time was create a scholarship to honor Mark Kelly. In the course of the development of that scholarship I met some of the former band students, some of whom were never music majors, but who enjoyed being in the band program, and almost every one of those people that I talked to, spoke highly about the experience of being in music, whether or not they ever aspired to a career, but they talked how this helped them, how this was an important part of their lives. And even some of the people we know were majors and went in another direction were never sorry about that. BL: No, no. John Kendall—do you know John Kendal?—he was very gifted, RT: Suzuki? Yes sure. BL: Suzuki. Anyway, he told me once at a conference, someone asked Suzuki: “What happens if a kid just takes two weeks worth of lessons and then decides he doesn’t like it any more?” And the answer was “He had two weeks of experience.” You never can tell when that’s going to come back. I gave my daughter violin lessons when she was an infant, you know. [And] she said “Gee I always wanted to play piano.” And 338


just as soon as I said “Okay, why don’t you try piano, and if you can’t play piano, the violin . . .” She wound up at Interlochen, the Academy there, and they had a program where they had two weeks, three weeks, where you could pick anything you want, wood carving, or spaghetti making, these type of things, you take two or three of them. And she took violin lessons. You know I’m talking about pre-school violin lessons and the bloody thing came back. RT: She was a high school kid by this time. BL: Yeah, yeah, maybe she was a senior, and she said “It came back!” and everybody was flabbergasted because she hadn’t studies since she was five years old, four years old, you know, the bow work, stuff like that. RT: Talk a little bit about. You were talking about the issue of the music education, the tradition of the institution, of course, going back to 1914, was teacher preparation, and around 1960 there became a greater interest in performance. BL: Say late 50s. RT: Yeah, Late 50s. Do you remember, apart from that, issues that were topics of discussion with the faculty. What were the issues? What were faculty concerned about? What were faculty meetings devoted to? Besides all the stuff that goes on in every faculty meeting. BL: I really found faculty meetings quite boring so I don’t remember the details. RT: Yeah, most of what goes on in most faculty meeting is . . . BL: Yeah, trivia. I do remember someone would say “I’m having trouble with this student.” And someone would say “Well, I’m having trouble with him too.” Which is probably a positive approach, but it’s also an invasion of privacy. You know: If I don’t get along with you, I don’t want anyone else to know about it, because I don’t want you to recruit your friends against me. And there were some times people would say “I don’t get it. He’s a great kid.” And so I never felt that they really solved the problem, because it’s done in the smaller groups. Maybe found out that those people who were involved had a coffee klatch type of thing. So that bothers me. The idea was okay, but I didn’t think the faculty was psychologically trained well enough to do it intelligently. It usually happened, one of the most defensive people defended the kid more and everybody else gave less. You could tell just like like, he was going to be on the side of the kid, not side of the faculty, he was going to be on the kid’s side. RT: I’m not really surprised to hear that. This question about staying in touch 339


with former students, Dave probably has as much of a network of contact with former students as anybody I ever knew. Still keeps up with a lot of them. Maybe that question ought to be, instead of what went on in the faculty meetings in terms of discussion topics, what went in coffee sessions? What went on in hallway conversations? What were the educational issues? One person I’ve interviewed, for example, said the question of recruiting students was always . . . BL: Well that’s always there. That’s built into the position in every department. RT: And not only numbers but quality. BL: He [Kennedy?] was more interested in quality. The administration was interested in numbers. RT: Well the administration, of course, is faced with budget issues that are enrollment driven. BL: Right, yeah. And James Paul was always interested in growth. So it didn’t matter how many good ones you had, you had to fill out . . . RT: On the subject of the administration, was the administration fairly stable in your years here? BL: Well you know about the revolution, 1960? RT: I don’t know that I do. BL: You know, they had riots, they booted out the president. RT: Oh this was MacDonald. BL: Black Jack MacDonald. That was my first year. That was hell of a baptism. RT: Welcome to college teaching! BL: And it took me a couple years to figure out what the prerogatives of the faculty member is, and the power of the faculty member, so that, as the revolution was taking place, I could not step forward and raise the flag, although I was thoroughly in favor of backing down. And the faculty was split, because MacDonald was very, very favorable to his favorites If you were with him, you did well, and if you were against him, it was very dangerous. And if you were caught in the middle, not caught 340


in the middle, but you were, sort of not involved, you were almost a non-person, so far as salaries, promotion. RT: There was an unspoken but self-pressure to be on one side or the other. BL: Yeah, very much. At this point it’s a little comical, so I hate to accuse, but I think, well James Paul was very definitely one of MacDonald’s boys, and I think Benstock was. I think. RT: The faculty was small enough that people knew each other. BL: Yeah, oh, of course. I meant the whole faculty. You’re talking about the University faculty. RT: Yes. BL Oh yeah. RT: Which of course is not at all the case any more. BL: Oh not at all. I used to study the in-coming faculty members, new name, where they were from, what they looked like, they got their picture in the paper all the time. And we were close enough in the old Union. RT: So you saw them. BL: I saw them, I met them. Very often people I knew in other departments would have parties, invite me. Without knowing them all personally, I knew who they were, their reputation. But by the time I left that was impossible. It’s impossible now, right, within the music faculty? RT: Well it’s changed so dramatically over the last fifteen years, last ten years. The institution weathered those years, and MacDonald in fact leave. BL: He did in fact leave, and there was a year or two of treading water with President Harshman. Animosity was livid, they were revolutionary years, somebody, newconservatives, stuff like that, little by little it changed. And I think it was Jerome who finally said “Okay forget about all that stuff, we’re going in another direction.” RT: He would arrive in the mid 60s. BL: I would guess so. 341


RT: And this did affect, there are places where music faculty is more isolated from campus politics. BL: Well, I think, in general, they were, at least when I was present. I was on the Liberal Arts Committee—I was the token art person—and it was terribly difficult to get anybody in the Music Department interested in the problems. You know, I’m talking about even academic problems, much less political problems. RT: Yeah. That’s not unusual. BL: I distinctly remember the chair [of the Liberal Arts Committee] saying “Have you aired out your faculty? What does music think about this?” I said “I did speak to a few people, and I got the loudest shrug I’ve ever heard.” RT: Part of that has to do with the very fact that music faculty tend to be busier, tend to be more-BL: They have more--Hour wise, that’s true. RT: It’s easy to be concerned about this, that we’re not participants. BL: And to a large extent, a musician, or an artist, or a poet, can prove themselves without politics. Either they can or they can’t. But in a lot of the academic areas, politics plays a very, very important role, especially in promotions, and sometimes you get people with promotions, and you’re not sure if they’re really that good. I don’t mean [good], of course, I mean with prestige You get people with a lot of prestige, and you hear them speak, and you’re not sure if they’re really deserving of their reputations. But the politics are there, and that’s I think part of it—you have to know them, the campus politics. RT: And as you say a lot of music faculty don’t really need to do that, don’t need to play that game. That’s an interesting thought. I guess I never thought about that. I suppose if you’re a distinguished research professor or nationally known (BL: Right) in any field (BL: Right), you’re pretty much above those practical politics, but a lot of disciplines, that not as easily distinguished. BL: Right. And even in some of the academics in music. I’ve got a lot of respect for a lot of my colleagues. People, performers, don’t rate very much because of what they’ve written, if they’ve written anything. RT: Yesterday, what I was doing—I worked at the polls yesterday—and it was very 342


slow, because I work on the campus, students didn’t care whether or not the Bowling Green school levy passed or not, so they didn’t vote. So was looking through some old magazines—not old, but two or three years old—[in] one of them I read about a book just published by Mary Natvig. I didn’t know anything. Well we were in the union, so right next door to where we were is the bookstore, so I went into the bookstore, and there’s Mary Natvig’s book! And it’s a book—it’s a very interesting book—it’s a collection of articles by musicologists on how to teach music history at the college level, which is a subject that probably hasn’t received enough attention. Certainly music history teaching at the college level has been uneven at best. And this is very interesting book. BL: It’s personality driven mostly. RT: Oh, often. And often people who go into musicology, go into it because of a passion, or a personal interest, but they’re terribly not interested in communicating it, or terribly skilled at communicating it [BL: Lots of times]. And so I think it’s an interesting book, but it illustrates your point. BL: Yeah, I didn’t even know Mary [had] . . . I have a lot of respect for Mary [RT: I do too], because I heard she’d done a great job. RT: Yes, and she‘s one of those musicologists who can teach. BL: Right. And I was going to say, I am aware of her enthusiasm and her caring. RT: Yes and her rapport with students. BL: And her rapport, but whether she’s a good scholar or not, I had no idea. RT: Well, anyway, she’s just published a book and apparently it’s needed. Let’s see, I had another one here. Oh, how about communication between faculty and administration, at the college level and at the university level. BL: Throughout my career? RT: Yeah, yeah. Throughout your career. We talked about one aspect of it, [that] when the school was smaller, there was a lot of interpersonal communication, but talk about it a broader sense. BL: I’m not sure we had a lot of communications with James Paul. He’s a wonderful character, you really ought to devote a chapter to him. 343


RT: I wish I had started this project while he was still around, while I could be talking to him. BL: And he loved to send memos, and sometimes he sent memos in alliteration. RT: I got letters from him. [BL: Oh did you?] Yes, so I know a little bit about what you’re talking about. BL: He had books behind him on his desk, of quotations. He’s a minister’s son, so he probably was using those techniques. When they built the, when I arrived just after the building of, what is it? West hall? RT: West hall. BL: West Hall. And it was a horrible building. The air was not—ran out at 4:00 in the afternoon. That kind of stuff. And of course everybody . . . RT: Acoustically probably terrible. BL: Well it wasn’t acoustically anything. If there’s any acoustics, it may have been in that little auditorium, and it was an accident. They had a hole in the floor, they called it a pit, you know, they had a hole in the floor. RT: In the auditorium? BL: In that little auditorium, you know the . . . ? RT: I never was in . . . BL: That lecture hall? RT: Well, I’ve been in it, but I wasn’t in it while it was still music. BL: Yeah, well, I haven’t been in it much since then, I don’t remember, I don’t really know how much they’ve changed it. But there was a hole in the floor, and I never could—it wasn’t much bigger than this table, and I couldn’t figure what the hell it was doing there. They couldn’t put one musician in there, I mean, much less a pit band, and the University wouldn’t let them use it, because it was dangerous. They had to cover it up, a kid would fall in, and sue. Anyway, he would send memos over time, and one I do remember. I used to save his memos, and he was the only one who sent memos. There were others, but not very many. And I had little cardboard box full of memos, higher and higher and higher and higher. Eventually they asked 344


me why I did it, and would say, “When it gets this high, I’m going to take it over to the Administration Building and demand my tree.” RT: The tree they cut down . . . BL: Turn it in for a tree. So it was a question of over-communication. Well, talking about the air in the building, everybody complained about it of course. And we used to, I used to, we used to teach as early as possible during the day, because by the time the afternoon [came around, the air ran out]. And he sent a memo around once asking, what could we do about it. So I suggested that everybody in the building be issued a canary and a brick, and when the canary died, the brick goes into the window. And he sent me back a note saying, “Well, we’ll consider it.” I wasn’t sure if he thought of it as a joke or he really took it seriously. I didn’t communicate well with Glidden, I never had much rapport with him. Probably my fault. RT: I know one thing. He spent a lot of time raising money. BL: Yeah, that was after the first year. But even in the beginning. And as soon as the building put on, a model of the building was put on the table, and everybody was enthusiastic about it, and I told somebody, I think it’s terrible, it’s a terrible design. RT: And you still feel that way? BL: Yeah I do. But the reasons are different. It may surprise you, it’s because there’s no room for expansion. You build a building, you’ve [penned in] in the department, that’s it, there’s no place to go. You can’t go up, you can’t go out, it was a selfcontained building. RT: That’s a good point. BL: Somehow leave an escape hatch from here, a couple buildings out that way. And almost immediately, the moment they started infringing on the practice rooms to make offices for graduate students, you could feel it, all things kind of moving in. Anyway I don’t think he appreciated it. As far as I know, I’m probably the only one who said anything negative about it. I got along quite well with Wendrich. But you’re not talking about departmental . . . RT: Yeah that kind of thing too. You already talked about—an aspect of communication certainly was one you found in 1960, when there was an explosion within the ranks, too much communication. And now of course communication is entirely different because of technology. 345


BL: Yeah. I was never there for the e-mail era. RT: Nor was I. It was just beginning when I left. BL: I was around before you, but I imagine it’s a completely different set-up. I remember Evan, when he got to Ann Arbor, bitching about it, because you can’t claim you never got the message. RT: Well, finally, do you think that education in music is different now than when you started? BL: Oh yeah, it’s much more sophisticated, it’s much more specialized. As I said I can’t compete as a theory teacher, and if I were to compete for a job as a theory teacher, I never would have gotten it. I got here because he wanted this quartet and I played viola. RT: But people in other institutions were doing exactly the same thing. BL: Well you said now, and now you would never do a thing like that. RT: I was just suggesting maybe there’s a downside to overspecialization. You know the old saying we know more and more about less and less. The whole business with one’s peers about music and about making the musical experience more comprehensive. BL: That’s where performance comes in. Puts people to working together. But I know departments, where certain specialties just don’t bother to talk to other specialties, either they have nothing good, which it a mistake, because . . . RT: You were talking about the young student who comes in wanting to be a band director, and how the institution has failed that student if the student leaves with the same impression of what band directing as when he came in. And that sometimes can be fostered by overspecialization, if he’s dealing only with the specialists, he’s not as likely to pick up the rest of the world as he goes along. BL: Well that’s where conscience . . . RT: There are ways to get around it. BL: There are ways to get around it. And if someone is a living, breathing musician he will get around it . He will gravitate to where things are happening. RT: So one of the ways this changes the specialization of the faculty, now we don’t 346


just look for a musicologist, we look a musicologist with a specialty in a certain period, or certain genre, or certain set of composers, and so on and so forth. And I guess—has the role of music in society changed? BL: You know, the Toledo Orchestra is constantly in a campaign to enlarge its audience. I think every orchestra is that way, it’s not a local problem. We are constantly being told about how old the audience is, and when they die, there may not be anyone to take their place, which I’ve been hearing for the last 50 years, anyway. It doesn’t take a hell of a lot of—a large percentage of a population to fill a concert hall. You know, it’s not like you have to fill the stands, 100,000 in the stands, night after night, you know. This is once a week, and if you get two percent of the Toledo population going to concerts, you have got a very successful season [RT: Yeah that’s true]. And the trick is to develop an atmosphere where this is meaningful and to make it available. I was thinking that prices were kind of high, but I’m looking at a lot of other prices all over the country, and it’s not that high, it’s probably in the ballpark. That is the status of music. I think the quality of music in this country has jumped by leaps and bounds. The Toledo Orchestra, I have no reason to be complimentary to them politically or otherwise, but it turned into a damned good orchestra. You’re not going to hear a wind section play that much in tune [RT: That’s right!]. Nine tenths of your professional orchestras, I was about to say ‘and most orchestras,’ are really quite good too. And that’s because, I think, schools of music have been turning out very good students. And the pool has gotten so large, that top-notch people who, when I was a kid, could look forward to the major orchestras, if not major orchestras but near major orchestras, with assurance, if they were interested and played well. Now the competition is so bloody hard, if you get a permanent job in a place like Toledo, there’s no sin. You’re playing with a damned good orchestra, you’re not making the kind of money you should be making, but that’s not the fault of . . . RT: And it’s interesting in that regard, how many of the principal players are—how low the turn over of these people, have come to Toledo and have made a career. BL: Well Bob’s [Robert Bell] done a good job, that’s been part of it. He goes out of his way to help people get settled. RT: Now that you’re leaving the orchestra, and you’re retired, talk a little about your experience in Portugal. You retired here, you actually retired here before you . . . BL: Very early, yeah. RT: And you went to Portugal. 347


BL: I had twenty-five years here, which sounded like a nice round number, and I had this opportunity to go to Portugal. I had some very good connections, and I was, while l not particularly interested in Portugal—I was hoping to get something in Southern France—but I didn’t have all that ambition, I just wanted a nice situation, a place where Dossie could work, and I was hoping to stay. But a couple things got in the way. One was the devaluation of the American dollar. Because when I first started there, I was making enough money to live, there, to live a low/middle class life, so a little bit of my retirement money could get us a trip to France once in a while, and a little bit of this could buy us maybe a little better apartment than low/ middle class could afford—you know—there were certain perks of being retired, but basically I could have saved three-fifths of my retirement money. Once debts began to pile up, I could have lived on maybe one third of it, or even less, plus what I was earning there. Then suddenly the American dollar took a nosedive, which meant the Portuguese experienced a big inflation, and I dipped into my retirement, and it wasn’t so much it was—the thing I wasn’t willing to do, but it was so unpredictable, you really did not know what tomorrow was—I bought a car just at the beginning of this. The day before the American dollar dropped, lost its value, I bought a car with the American dollar. It would have cost me twice as much if I bought it a week later. Literally twice as much. I paid a good price for it, an automobile’s expensive, but a reasonable amount. I sold it for exactly what I paid for it two years later, exactly what I paid for it, and he was getting a bargain, because the dollar to the Euro had changed so much, that the . . . was much more then. So that became a little spooky. And also I found it very difficult living in some one else’s country. I’m not a good expat. My daughter is, she’s a pro at it. When she got back to this country, she was sold to get back to the picture (??). And my parents were getting old and they were getting sick. And the [Gubenkian] orchestra did not blossom. When I got there, I had a lot of optimism that the orchestra was going places. They had a concertmaster who was a friend of mine, who got me into that, even though I did have to audition. RT: Was that an American? BL: Yeah. Max Rabinovitsj. But he was not a builder, he was assistant conductor. RT: Have you followed it since then? BL: Not really , not really. RT: Is he still there? BL: I heard he’s not, but it’s been a long time. He may have gone off to bigger and better things. But I don’t know. 348


RT: That was in the mid 80s, wasn’t it? BL: 85 to 87, yeah. RT: Now you’re ready in the next adventure [New York]. BL: Yep. I already contacted a couple of the orchestras in the area. Some of them sound interested, but with the caveat that perhaps I may be disappointed in what they have to offer monetarily. I know enough names of people who belong to that area, that when I get there and make a lot of calls . . . RT: Now you’re not terribly far from Albany. BL: It’s a little bit out of commuting range. Do you know people over there? RT: No I don’t. I’m just trying to get the geography. BL: Well, the Hudson Valley Orchestra is in Poughkeepsie, and I would guess that’s about a three-quarter of an hour drive. There’s an orchestra in Woodstock, that’s the one I was talking about, about the money, there’s a chamber orchestra in Woodstock, and they have six concerts a year, and it’s about a half hour drive north in the summer—in the winter I don’t know. And maybe more I don’t know about. RT: Oh in this area I’m sure. BL: See I’m interested in the wintertime more than the summertime. Summertime they bring in a lot of festivals; there are festivals all over the place. But I’m not too sure I’m looking forward to another season in Chautauqua. I spent twenty years in Chautauqua. RT: Oh you did? BL: Yeah, an orchestra. That kind of ties you up for the summer. I’d like to do some things. RT: Does Vasile still go over there? BL: As far as I know. RT: I think he is.Why don’t you talk about . . . BL: I lot of these people stayed one year. Left a really good impression. Like James Avery. 349


RT: OK. BL He was a wonderful pianist, went to the University of Iowa after one year. Teaching job there. He was fantastic. Benstock I’ve spoken about. Boris Brant? RT: I knew Boris. BL: Were you here when he was here. RT: We overlapped a couple of years. BL: Cardon Burnham, did anybody mention him? Choral Director. RT: I remember that he was. BL: About the same time, and he was at loggerheads with Paul Kennedy. Paul was choral director before he took over the department. [Can’t understand]. Bob Chapman? RT: What did he do? BL: He was a pianist when I came, a very good pianist. He died rather suddenly, apparently quite healthy at the time. Oliver Chamberlain? RT: I knew Oliver. BL: Cleon Chase? RT: Oboist, I know that. BL: Oboist, yeah. RT: He would have, I guess he would have followed Dick Ecker. Did Ecker do the oboe? BL: Oboe and bassoon. Yeah, Ecker went in 65 and Cleon came in 65. He did a nice job. He was a nice kid, but he was not a great oboe player. So very quickly Paul [got rid of him.] Regardless of whether he did a great teaching job, the standards of performance were very important. Although I see that he lasted seven years, which kind of surprises me. Herb Chatzky came the same year I did. He was a pianist. Out of his mind. I think he went to Hartt School after he was here. Arcola Clark— she was a—came in 68—about the right time, she was a harpist, black harpist. 350


RT: Okay, I remember hearing about [her]. BL: She was very good. I think, there again, like viola, the school didn’t need a harpist on the staff. You could have done very well by bringing somebody in for an afternoon. RT: He was able to get the line. BL: Probably it was a budget coup. She went to Holland, she got a job in a radio orchestra in Holland. Fiora Contino? RT: I certainly know of her. She followed Burnham? BL: Fiora was orchestra conductor. RT: She would have followed Benstock. BL: No, Harry Kruger followed Benstock. She probably followed Harry. And Gigante was [next]. RT: Yeah, I know of him. He was in Iowa when I was, in fact. In the quad cities, Davenport. BL: Is that where he came from? RT: I don’t know whether it was before he came here or after. BL: No, no, he died here. He became sick, he had a cancer. He had one good year, and after that he . . . RT: Oh well then he would have been . . . BL: Mary Duffus. Bill Duvall? You know Robert Duvall the actor? RT: Yes? BL: Brother. RT: Oh. I met a Duvall who was the brother. I bet that was. . . He was in Milwaukee. Went here and went to Milwaukee. Okay. I’ve met him. BL: He was a nice chap. Anne Fagerburg? 351


RT: Cellist? BL: Cellist. RT: Who is in St. Louis now. BL: I assume she still in St. Louis. RT: Last I knew she was in St. Louis. BL: Since the 1980s. She’s the grand old lady in the orchestra by now. Gigante? Fred Hamilton? you know about Fred? RT: Fred had just left as I came. He was a guitarist. BL Yeah, jazz. You know I never knew what instrument he was, because I only knew him as a band director, jazz band. RT: He was a guitarist, I’m sure. BL: Yeah, now that you mention it, you’re probably right. His bands would do the way out, most modern . . . RT: This was pro band, not a student band. BL: A student band. And whenever there was any outdoor festival he’d have a band there, they’d be giving it the Woodstock treatment. I mean really far-out arrangements. It was great. I think he, I understand he went to Canada someplace, to teach in a small community, kind of idealistic. And then a couple years later he tried to get the job back. RT: Might have even happened after I came, he tried to get back. I think, maybe he was an applicant when Chris Buzzelli got it. BL: Yeah, that’s possible. Was He here, Chris here, when you were? RT: Yes. Chris started I think my second year. BL: Joe Himmel? Joe was here when I came. He went to some place in Colorado. RT: Yes. In fact, Bill Alexander still keeps in touch with him [BL: Really?] Bill told me he’d had a correspondence with him fairly recently. [BL: Oh that’s great.] 352


BL: Paul Hoelzley? He was the tuba-ist before Ivan. RT: I guess that’s right. Dave Glasmire talked about playing with him. BL: He was a wonderful tuba player. He also was an idealist. Went to Israel or something, to work on a kibbutz. I’m assuming because I know he went overseas. I never knew Peter’s [Peter Howard] name was Arthur S. I though it was Peter Arthur. I didn’t know his first name. RT: His first name was Arthur, I think. BL: Yeah. [Sachiya] Isomura, you hear about him? (RT: No) He was a cellist. Preceded Anne. RT: Followed Peter. BL: He must have followed Peter. And, there was again James Paul’s tendency to call the teacher and say “Who’s the best you have?” Because he didn’t necessarily want him to have a big reputation, he didn’t want to pay much money, but he wanted the potential. And he sent this Japanese boy, who couldn’t speak English. I could communicate with him. If you wanted to you could understand what he was talking about, but you get these kids in cello, first of all, they’re looking for an excuse to fail. And, “I can’t tell what the hell my teacher’s talking about.” It’s a pretty damn good excuse. RT: Now during this time, during the Fagerburg and [Isomura], did the quartet continue on? BL: Yeah. The quartet . . . RT: So you would have played with all these people. BL: Right. I think the quartet continued . . . RT: The quartet did not exist when I arrived, because Boris was not interested. BL: No, what year were you there? RT: 83. BL: Yeah it was . . . We had a trio. Alan was here. 353


RT: Alan was here. All the people were here, but Boris wouldn’t play in a quartet. Or that was the reason I was given there was no quartet. BL: I don’t think Boris was a quartet player. He was a good violinist, and apparently he was successful somewhere else as a teacher, but I don’t think it would have worked out, because I don’t think Paul got along too well with Boris. You don’t hire somebody and say “Okay, you’re going to be in a quartet. Make the best of it.” RT: That’s right. BL: [Clyde Johnson?] . . . a wonderful kid, he’s in Minneapolis now, or he left here to go to Minneapolis. But they were going to fire him anyway, strictly on a legal basis, because as far as Peter Jones (??) was concerned he was wonderful, a good friend. Warren Joseph, he was a choral director . . . (Young Nam Kim?) He probably had more influence on me than anybody. He worked with very good teachers and he understood what they were talking about, and he was a good teacher, he could teach all the time, and we were very compare, I understood what he was talking about. RT: He had no language problems. BL: Nah, no, no. I didn’t know Bill Klickman taught here. I guess that must have been Creative Arts. He had Suzuki class in Toledo, so they probably brought him down. Harry Kruger, you know about Harry? He was the orchestra director that followed Benstock. 61. He had something to do with the Atlanta Symphony before he came. And then he left to takeover the orchestra in Columbus, Georgia. He left in 65 . . . around the 90s. We were driving south when my daughter was living in Texas, and we were visiting a friend of Dossie’s in Auburn Alabama. coming through that general area. At Columbus there was a public service announcement, like a GTE announcement about concerts coming up, and Harry was getting back. My God, he must be 50 years. Well, he’s not old, but he was there since 1965. That’s a venerable tenure in office. He also taught flute, only he couldn’t play. Something was wrong with his lip, so he could explain it. After playing it, you’d have to practice. Some names are very familiar. Horace Little. John Lundy, you know John? He was in Composition, I think. He was another black who came in under this program. And he had this, we were in Johnston Hall at that time, by the chapel, and he had the studio next to mine—I think he taught theory, I’m almost positive. And he never got his doctorate. He had to play a recital, and he had some compositions that he wrote and was ready to play, he wrote and he knew it for himself. But he needed more on the recital and he never did do the recital, just kept putting it off and putting it off until it never happened. And it was also during the Black Awareness Era, and he thought he was being picked on because he wasn’t given a fail chance—I thought he got every chance in the world—Paul Scott, playwright, is he still around? 354


RT: Yes. BL: Black man? RT: Yes. He was here when I came. BL: Anyway I was a very good friends with John. We got along very well. He would come over to the house. Used to bring me things back from Georgia like razor strops (??, and I remember he brought me that once. Paul told me he owned a barbecue pit type place in Atlanta, and when I was down there in Atlanta last time, tried to look him up. RT: Couldn’t find him? BL: He didn’t have his name on the barbecue pit, and he didn’t have his name in the phone book, but Atlanta’s got a lot of small communities. But he was a wonderful guy, I loved him. Sort of got caught up in the system. RT: When did he leave? BL: 76 was his last semester. Elizabeth Mannion, you know Liz? RT: No. BL: Oh she was a fabulous contralto. She was only here one year. Jean Deis I think brought her. You know Jean? Fiora Contino ____ She came from Indiana. She was assistant to the opera department. RT: Fiora? BL: She went to Texas as Chair. She brought Jean. Jean is a fabulous tenor. We still have contact with Jean. He’s retired now; he’s living in Indiana some place. Christmas cards, more than anything else. Fabulous tenor, except he was 300 pounds. His opera career was limited by the visual . . . RT: Yeah. BL: But his specialty was opera. He could belt out an aria like nobody. Mannion was an alto that Fiora brought probably from Indiana. And both of them. . . well, Jean was here a good time, 64-67, three years. And he went to Indiana. Mannion went to, I think, Michigan and then went to Indiana, or went to Indiana and then went to Michigan, I don’t know. Those were two fabulous musicians. 355


RT: And was Mannion here about the same time? BL: Yeah, 65-66. When they did the operas, they took the stage apart. RT: Of course in those days faculty performed? BL: Yeah, more than they do now. Because Fiora really wanted to put on good shows more than the idea of [using] the kids. Louie Marini, you hear about him? RT: Yeah, I met Louie. BL: Still around? Still alive? RT: I think he is, down in North Carolina. BL: Yeah, I’d love to see him. He had a son, he has a son, who was a dear friend of a cousin of mine, or nephew, cousin, you know, my cousin’s nephew, my cousin’s son, whatever relation that is. And think of sending regards through Google. But Lou was a fun guy. RT: Lou used to keep in touch, close touch, with Wendell Jones. BL: I think, if he’s still around. But it’s interesting, I think Roy brought him, Roy Weger? 64, I guess Roy was still around. RT: Roy was here till 66. BL: Yeah, and he brought him here to write band scores, charts, for marching band. RT: And he continued to do that long after I came here, by mail. Mark Kelly would [use him]. BL: Right, because Lou is very good, really a fine . . . RT: He did a lot of arrangements, through the 80s. BL: But for that you don’t need . . . but he was the sax teacher too. RT: Yeah, before John Sampen. BL: Before John Sampen. 356


BL: John’s very good. Kelly Martino, you know Kelly? RT: No, I just knew of him. He was string education. BL: He was string education and that was . . . When Hansen, DuWayne, took over the music education department by that point, he was one who didn’t like— I got along wonderfully with DuWayne, so this is not a personal negative—He [Hansen] did not like the idea of the faculty, the performance faculty, teaching instrumental classes; he wanted specialists. A lot of logic to it. But I questioned, I mean a lot of logic to the idea, but I questioned about the logic of the situation. You know, because this guy [Martino] just sort of came in, and he was neither fish nor fowl. RT: Yeah, yeah, yeah. BL: You need bigger school, at that point I think, to have a specialist. And he wasn’t happy here from the very beginning. RT: Well I guess, he was here till what? BL: 83. RT: Yeah, see Victor Ellsworth came in. Victor followed him. BL: Victor was different. First of all, Victor played bass. [TAPE ENDS]

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4. Tunnicliffe Article Proceedings 317-19 15. Music Friday, March 24, 1:30 P. M.—Mr. R. D. Hughes, Presiding PRESENT CONDITION OF SUPERVISED TRAINING IN OHIO Chairman’s introduction: The fact that the subject of music was admitted this year for the first time to the State Educational Conference made it imperative to adopt a program scheme which would discover to the music teachers of Ohio the actual condition of supervision and training in our state. To this end the general questions mentioned in the papers were asked. While the answer are not especially gratifying, they are candid; and the optimism and determination evident in the face of conditions which would justify despair promise much for the future of music in the schools when a state organization of school music teachers shall have had time to develop and carry out some plan. 2. Richard M. Tunnicliffe Director of Music, State Normal College, Bowling Green, Ohio In giving the discussion today, I shall follow the very suggestive questions given me by our chairman, Mr. Hughes, when he assigned the questions for discussion Do superintendents and school boards recognize music as an educational factor? Yes, I believe the think they do; but in the real sense of the word, they have very small realization of the purpose or value of public-school music as an educational subject fit for a place in the school curriculum. Both have the wrong viewpoint; and of the two, I believe the superintendent is the more difficult position. Both consider music of value chief ly as something to fill in and it is used a good deal as the music we hear at a reception—to cover up confusion or to furnish a background for the animated conversation of the guests. At our chapel exercises at home we sing a hymn while the students are getting settled, while a few late-comers are finding their seats, and while the regular program is being made ready. Again, we sing another hymn between the regular part of the program and the announcements. If they want to fill in the gap while waiting for 358


some late notices, we may sing another. We never think of practicing singing. In the past year I have had just seven minutes for the practice of chapel singing. I was asked to have a small group of girls sing at a banquet a short time ago. When we got there I found that we were expected to take the place of an orchestra which was to play during the serving of the meal—to cover up the noise of rattling silver, dishes, and so forth. Rather strenuous work for six ladies’ voices! Again, our male quartet was to sing at a large gathering recently. We sang at the opening while the late-comers were being seated; and then after listening to speeches for two hours, the chairman announced, “We are all tired of sitting still so long, and while the quartet favors us with another selection, let us all stand and move about so as to rest our legs a little.” I could mention many other instances which have led me to say that I do not think superintendents appreciate the value of the true purpose of music. Perhaps some of you are thinking, “Yes, this is a common condition”; but what are we going to do about it? The question presents itself, whose fault is it? I believe it is the fault of the teachers of music that the subject is not taken seriously by the superintendents and school boards. We do not take ourselves or our subject seriously enough. If we did, we would not allow these conditions to remain unchanged very long. This attitude is both cause and effect. Many music teachers enter the field with little appreciation of the bigness of their problem. They can get a position with little or no training and the fact that superintendents and boards have no ideals enables them to keep their positions. I could cite many cases to prove this point but will mention only one. A short time ago a young woman came to see me and wanted to find out how long it would take her to prepare herself to teach public school music. I asked her if she wished to enroll in the regular course given at the college. Her reply will state the case very clearly. “Oh, no,” she said, “I am a teacher of piano and am busy most of the time, but thought I might take a position in our schools to fill in a little extra time I have, and thought I might come in a few times on Saturdays so as to get the methods.” She couldn’t understand my attitude when I tried to show her that it would be impossible for one to get a sufficient knowledge of public school music in three or four lessons to enable one to teach it. I know that many teachers with similar preparation are trying to teach music in the public schools. I believe that some of the conservatories of music are responsible for poorly trained teachers who are working in the public schools. How often students who fail to become the great artists their fond relatives anticipate are turned loose in the public schools with no adequate preparation to teach public school music. 359


Do superintendents, principals, and school boards appreciate the value of good training? I believe they are not competent to do so. Many of them have never had any experience with a system of schools in which the music was well taught and hence have no ideals, at least no proper ideals. In several schools with which I am familiar, the teacher of music is concerned chief ly with getting songs ready for rallies, getting up plays, operettas, and so forth. Some few are offering courses in so-called musical appreciation, which consists in hearing a lot of records played on a phonograph. Others are offering courses in theory or harmony—formal music training built upon little or no musical experience. With such conditions is it to be wondered at that many of us feel we are in a critical stage in public school music in Ohio? In many cases I find the supervisor blames the superintendent, and on other cases the opposite is true. I believe the superintendent often has a wrong idea, as has been suggested above. He has been so accustomed to dealing with poorly trained teachers that he does not expect much. He frequently does not see beyond football songs, minstrel shows, and so forth. He has a wrong idea concerning the teaching of musical appreciation, and does not realize that musical appreciation which does not involve a reaction on the part of the pupil is really not appreciation. Another reason for this lack of ideals on the part of the average superintendent is that many of them, while welltrained professionally, have had little cultural education. Men who have had to sacrifice everything while putting themselves through school have missed experience in music and art during the period of life in which these things most vitally appeal to one. I believe that the causes for the seeming lack of appreciation on the part of many superintendents is to be found more deeply hidden that most of us realize. May I say here that probably the supervisor’s greatest task is to give the executive officers and the community at large a right ideal as to the purpose and value of public school music? Only the well-equipped and broadly trained supervisor can do this. Nor can much be done in cases where the teacher remains but a year or two in a place.

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What is the attitude of the teacher-in-training to the more rigorous requirements? I would say excellent, except in a few cases where they think (have been led to think) that public school music is only a side issue. These are usually cases of conservatory-trained people mentioned above. Is anything being done to educate school administrators in the smaller cities and towns to the importance of selecting only well-prepared teachers? I answer “no” to this question. The president of my college told me when I was trying to get some indication upon a graduate’s diploma which would show the student’s musical attainments that he had never been questioned concerning a graduate’s ability to teach the music of her grade. I believe there is small interest in this very vital matter. It is unfair to criticize the normal schools for lack of ability to teach music on the part of their graduates, when the question is never considered when a grade teacher is hired. Are students being prepared to teach, in the beginning years of experience at least, the newer and important subjects of harmony, musical appreciation, etc., and are they given an understanding of the school orchestra? I can speak only in reference to my own college and will say that the students in the special music course are getting such preparation. I feel that we have much to do in this line; but with a new course of study to be followed next year, we hope to be better able to send out well-trained teachers.

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5. CMA Music Files Songs of BGSU Alma Maters 1915 Ernest Hesser composed the first “School Song” We hail you, Dear Normal College.1 It served as the Alma Mater from 1915 to 1934. The dedication reads: “To Our First and Honored President Homer B. Williams.” The word Normal was dropped in 1929 when the Normal College became Bowling Green State College, but it not clear how it was done or what replaced it.

1  362

Center for Archival Collections, pUA 0795 f.


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1927 College Hymn. Words and Music by Mr. and Mrs. W.C. Jordan. This does not seem to have been an alma mater, although it certainly is in the style of one.

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1934 In 1934, We Hail Thee, was replaced by the Alma Mater Hymn Home of Aspiring Souls, with words by J. W. Carmichael; the music is that of Finlandia.2 It was intended at the outset to replace the original alma mater. Beginning with this piece, the composition of the music to the Alma Mater fell out of the hands of the music faculty. Composition of the alma mater became a matter of a competition in the 1950s

1950s—The Alma Mater Contest In anticipation of the 50th anniversary of the University, a contest was held between 1955 and 1959 to provide a new alma mater. The contest was open to alumni; no music faculty member appears to have participated. There were five submissions, one for each year. All of the following material is part of the Center for Archival Collections.

2  366

BG News 10/31/1934.


The Submissions 1955—Hail to thee, our Alma Mater

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1956—Alma Mater, hear us

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1957窶認air Bowling Green

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1958—To Bowling Green We Sing Our Praises

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1959—Bowling Green we raise thy name

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The Deliberations A 30-member committee was given the task of selecting the winner, and the record of its deliberations still exists in the Archives, along with someone’s marginal notes.

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It shows that submissions from 1955, 1957, and 1959 were eliminated by general agreement, and that the contest was really between submissions from 1956 and 1958. The directive at the end, “Do by ballot,” shows that the decision could not be reached by consensus. The result of the ballot was that the 1956 submission by Edith M. Ludwig (B.A., B.S. in Ed., 1951) was “publicly presented as The Alma Mater of Bowling Green State at the Golden Anniversary Convocation, May 19, 1960.”

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Fight Songs 1946—Ay Ziggy Zoomba was the unofficial fight song of the athletic teams. In 1946, Gilbert Fox, a WWII Army Air Corps Bombardier who served in Italy, brought back to Bowling Green his interpretation of a Zulu chant. The piece is still familiar to Bowling Green audiences. CD BGSU 68495 1949—Forward Falcons. Wayne Bohrnstedt. In 1949, the newly hired Wayne Bohrnstedt was asked if he could provide a fight song for the institution. The result was Forward Falcons.3

3  Bohrnstedt’s autograph piano/vocal score is in the Center for Archival Collections pUA 1902. 374


The texts to both pieces were included in a list of fight songs and cheerleader chants published in the BG News in 1958.

2010—Sounds of the Centennial. Ryan Nowlin (2000; 2004). Winner of BGSU Centennial Fanfare Competition. 375


6. Letters

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Music 100: The first Century of Music at Bowling Green University  

Detailing the first 100 years of music at Bowling Green State University, Vince Corrigan outlines the growth from a department of music to a...

Music 100: The first Century of Music at Bowling Green University  

Detailing the first 100 years of music at Bowling Green State University, Vince Corrigan outlines the growth from a department of music to a...

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