Dine.alogue

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DINE-A-LOGUE

Dining tables are the most fundamental forms of furniture since the dawn of human civilisation. From a dining couch of Ancient Greece to the Lazy Susan, dining tables took on a greater social significance with the growing formality of life. The privilege of dining together at the table is the highest form of companionship.


DINING-SCAPE EVOLUTION TIMELINE

04

W E S TE RN E M P IRE

DINE-A-LOGUE

3500 BC

MES OP OTA M I A

3000 BC

ANC IENT EG YP T

ANCIENT ERA 3500 BC - 500 AD

3500 BC

E A S TE RN E M P IRE

3000 BC

2500 BC

A NCIENT CHIN A

2000 BC

2000 BC

1500 BC

ANC IENT G REECE 1200 BC

ANC IENT ROM E

500 BC

206 BC-220 AD

HAN

500 BC

0

FUNAN

MEDIEVA L EU ROP E 400 AD M ED IEVA L CHIN A

500 AD

TANG

618- 907 AD

500 AD

960-1279 AD

SONG

1000 AD ARTHUR’S ROUND TABLE

1155 AD

800 AD

WORLD’S FIRST RESTAURANT 1 1 0 0 AD

E ARLY MODE RN

INDUSTRI AL REVOLUTION 1770 AD

AYU T T H AYA

MODERN ERA 1400 AD 1500 AD - PRESENT

RAT TA N A KOSI N 1782 AD

MODE RN CHIN A

E ARLY MODE RN

SU KOT H A I 1200 AD

1 5 TH CENTU RY A D

MODE RN E U ROPE

2000 AD

MEDIEVAL ERA 500 AD - 1500 AD

K HM ER

TABLE D'HÔTE 1500 AD

‘T HE T H A IS ’

1000 BC

W W I (1914-1918) W W II ( 1 9 3 9 - 1 9 4 5 ) C OVID -19 PA N D EM IC

(2020)

2500 AD

UPPER CLOUD

PA N N AW AT S E R M S U K

2021


DINE-A-LOGUE

DINING-SCAPE EVOLUTION TIMELINE

05

MODERN ERA

1550 AD

1500 AD - PRESENT

E A RLY M ODE RN CH IN A

E A RLY M ODE RN E UROP E

1500 AD

‘NOUVEAU-RICHE’ 1567 AD

1600 AD

1650 AD

‘A NEW HISTORICAL REL ATION OF THE KINGDOM OF SI AM’

1700 AD 1714-1837 AD

G EORG I A N S

1750 AD

E N LIG HTE N M E NT E R A 1 7 1 5 - 1 7 8 9

1691 AD

FRENCH RESTAURANT 1 7 6 0 AD

INDUSTRI AL REVOLUTION 1770 AD

RAT TA N A KOSI N

THE GREAT REFORM ACT 1832 AD

RAM A V

1868-1885 AD

RA M A IV

1851-1868 AD

1837-1901 AD

VICTORI A N S

1850 AD

M OD ERN EU ROPE

1782 AD 1800 AD

1900 AD

WW I

1917 AD

INSTITUTE OF ERGONOMICS 1950 AD 1946 AD ‘A DATE WITH YOUR FAMILY’

1950 AD

2000 AD

BUFFE T 1939 AD

FOLDING TABLE 1 9 5 1 AD

MODERN CHIN A

L AZY SUSAN

W W II

(1914-1918)

(1939-1945)

L AZY SUSAN 1953 AD

‘STOW YOUR TRAY TABLE’ 1973 AD

MONOBLOC: RESIN GARDEN CH AIR 1 9 8 3 AD

SI AM MONOBLOC 1987 AD

C OVID -19 PA N D EM IC

(2020)

2250 AD

UPPER CLOUD

PA N N AW AT S E R M S U K

2021


DINE-A-LOGUE


PA R T I : A BRIEF HISTORY OF DINING-SCAPE


DINE-A-LOGUE

PA RT I : A B R I E F H I S T O R Y O F D I N I N G - S C A P E

FIGURE

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01

3 2 1

LECTUS MEDIUS LECTUS SUMMUS

LECTUS IMUS

1 2 3

3 2 1

VIEW TO VIRIDARIUM

LECTUS IMUS L O W C O U C H F O R H O S T F A M I LY

LECTUS MEDIUS MIDDLE COUCH FOR HIGH-RANK GUEST

LECTUS SUMMUS HIGH COUCH FOR LOW-RANK GUEST

LECTUS IMUS #1 THE PLACE FOR THE MASTER OF THE HOUSE

LECTUS IMUS #3 THE LOCUS CONSUL ARIS, PLACE OF HONOUR

UPPER CLOUD

PA N N AW AT S E R M S U K

2021


DINE-A-LOGUE

PA RT I : A B R I E F H I S T O R Y O F D I N I N G - S C A P E

TRADITIONS & CUSTOMS RECLINE-TO-DINE FIGURE

02

G R E E K K L I N A I W IT H A TA B L E FIGURE

03

T h e ‘ recl i n e-to -d i n e’ t ra d i t i o n s u r v i ved t h e m i l l en n i u m an d w a s a wi des pread p ra c t i c e t h ro u g h o u t t h e Med i t er ran ea n . 4 T h e k l i n ai o f t h e Greek s was l at er t ra n s l at ed to t h e l ectu s tr i cl i n a r i s o f t h e R o m an s . T h e l i vi n g/di n i n g c h am b er w as g i ven m o re i n t i m ac y an d a n am e: tr i cl i n i u m . T h e t r i c l i n i u m was c h arac t er i s ed by t h ree l ec t i t r i c l i n ar i s , w h o s e s u r f a c es s l o p ed a way f rom th e t ab l e at a 1 0 -d eg ree an g l e, 5 p o s i t i o n ed to f o r m a u -s h a p e. O bs es s i vel y c o n c er n ed w i t h s o c i a l ran k c l as s i f i c a t i o n , d o m es t i c R o m an a rch i tec tu re’s p l an n i n g p er s i s t e n t l y f o l l o w ed t h e r u l e o f s o c i al rel a t i o n s . 6 T h e rec li n i n g order at a n e l i t e d i n n er c ar r i ed a n i n h ere n t c o n n o t a t i o n o f s o c i al d i f feren ti ati on ( F i g u re 1 ) . 7 T h e t r i c l i n i u m w a s , t h u s , a p r i m e ex am p l e o f s o c i al g ames man s h i p en c a p s u l at ed an d p o r t rayed t h ro u g h s p a t i a l a r ra n g em en t s .

E X P R E S S I O N S & TA L E S ‘SET THE TABLE’ 04

01

T h e Greek s w ere a m o n g t h e f i r s t c i v i l i s at i o n to re c o g n i s e d i ni n g as an ex p res s i o n o f w ea l t h a n d p o w er. To d i n e i n ‘s ec l u d ed c o m f o r t rei n f orc ed s t a t u s a n d c l a s s c o h es i o n’ 1 . T h e s p a t i a l l y d ef i n ed c h am b er a c c ommodated u p to e l even c o u c h e s , k l i n a i s, 2 o n w h i c h t h e el i t e G ree ks re c l i n e to di n e . T h e s e l u x u r i es w e re res er ved an d en j oyed a m o n g m en a n d , rarel y, t hei r femal e c o m p an i o n s . 3 On t h e ra re o c c a s i o n s i n w h i c h w o m en w ere i n v i t ed , th ey h ad to feas t w h i l e s i t t i n g u p r i g h t .

SUMMER TRICLINIUM IN HOUSE OF EPHEBUS POMPEII, ANCIENT ROME

FIGURE

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02

W i t h t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e R o m a n E m p i re c am e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f th e dark ag e. D u r i n g t h e 4 t h an d 5 t h c en t u r i es o f t h e ear l y Med i eval era , Eu rope s an k i n to a p er i o d o f p r i m i t i ve f u r n i t u re. 8 T h e d i n i n g t a b l e w as s i m p l y a tres tl e c o n s t r u c t i o n : a rec t a n g u l a r p l a n k p l ac ed ato p t h e s u p p o r t ed b rac ed f rame . Ea c h en s em b l e w a s a s s em b l ed an d d i s m a n t l ed f o r d i n i n g , ‘a p rac ti c e th at s u r v i ves t h e ex p res s i o n “set th e ta b l e” ’9 . I n t h e era w h ere c o l l ec ti vi s m was h i g h l y va l u ed , d i n n er w as p e r f o r m ed i n t h e g re at h a l l . A m ed i eva l meal was en j oyed as a c o m m u n al a f f a i r, s er van t s i n c l u d ed . T h e u p p er - an d l ower- c l as s d i s t i n c t i o n w a s s u b t l y m ad e: a h ea d t ab l e o n a rai s ed d ai s . TALE OF THE ROUND TABLE

S C E N E O F A M E D I E VA L M E A L . F E A S T S E RV E D TO K I N G A L E X A N D E R A N D H I S C O U RT I E R S FIGURE

05

H o w ever, t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e 1 1 t h c en t u r y s aw t h e f u l l -f l ed g ed re t u rn of s oc i al c l as s i f i c a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e d i n i n g -s c a p e. T h e n o b l e i n c rea s i n g l y s o u g h t pri vac y to e s c a p e t h e re g i m e o f s t r i c t c o l l ec t i v i s m . W i t h i t s l i n e ar ar ran g e men t th at s u g g es t ed o rd e r o f ran k s , t h e l o n g t res t l e t ab l e b eg an to p o s e a probl em. I n Wac e o f J er s ey ’s ‘ Ro m a n d e B r u t’ ( 1 1 5 5 ) , t h e l o n g t ab l e f u el l ed q u arrel s am o n g K i n g A r t h u r ’s vas s al s w h o ref u s ed to b e p o s i t i o n ed l o w er th an th e o t h er s . 1 0 On ac c o u n t o f h i s n o b l e b aro n s , A r t h u r c o m m i s s i o n ed th e Round Ta b l e w h ere h i s va s s a l s s at ‘a l l n o b l e a n d a l l eq u a l ’ 1 1 . T h e c i rc u l ar f orm prove d et h i c a l l y i d eal . I t em p h a s i s ed t h e d em o c ra t i c n a t u re a n d p reven ted f u r th er d i s p u t e f ro m A r t h u r ’s b aro n s t r y i n g to c l a i m p re c ed en c e over o n e an oth er.

T H E K N I G HTS O F T H E R O U N D TA B L E UPPER CLOUD

PA N N AW AT S E R M S U K

2021


DINE-A-LOGUE

PA RT I : A B R I E F H I S T O R Y O F D I N I N G - S C A P E

PUBLIC DEBUT T H E S I N G I N G W A I T E R : W O R L D ’ S 1 ST R E S T A U R A N T FIGURE

06

STREET SCENE WITH A THERMOPOLIUM FIGURE

07

010

03

U p u n t i l t h e b eg i n n i n g o f t h e 1 2 t h c en t u r y, f o r m al d i n i n g w as a n i n tern al af f ai r. A d i n i n g t ab l e w a s c o n s i d ere d a n el em en t w i t h i n a d o m es ti c domai n , p r i va t el y s h a re d am o n g h o u s eh o l d m em b er s an d t h ei r g u es t s . To d in e i n on e’s p r i va t e s p a c e, h o w ever, w as a ra re l u x u r y. I t w as u n c o m m o n f o r th e mi ddl e an d t h e l o w er c l a s s e s to p o s s es s p r i vat e c o o k i n g f a c i l i t i es . Sel f -c a te ri n g was a c h a l l en g e. 1 2 A th er m o p o l i u m , a c o o k s h o p , w a s a m o n g t h e f i r s t f orms of c o m m erc i al es t a b l i s h m en t to p rov i d e read y -m a d e f o o d . D a t i n g b ac k to An c i en t G ree c e, i t w as t h e key ve n u e am o n g c o m m o n er s ‘ to ac q u i re t h e equ i val en t of m o d er n t a kea w ay m e a l s ’ 1 3 . H i s to r i c al rec o rd s i m p l y t h a t t h e s e m ea ls s er ved i n s i m p l e ear t h en w a re w ere s o m et i m es c o n s u m ed i m m ed i at el y i n p u b l i c . 1 4 D es p i t e t h e t h er m o p o l i u m b ei n g t h e f o rer u n n er o f a p u b l i c ea t er y, i t took more t h a n a m i l l en n i u m f o r a res t au ran t to em erg e as a n i n s t i t u t i o n k n own today. T h e f i r s t es t a b l i s h m e n t b eg an i n 1 1 0 0 Med i eva l C h i n a as ‘a c u l t u ral i n s ti tu ti on a i m e d a t fe ed i n g a p p e t i t es a w ay f ro m h o m e’ 1 5 . T h e c o m b i n ed u r b a n popu l ati on s of ove r t w o m i l l i o n i n h ab i t an t s an d t h e b u s t l i n g t rad e b et w een t h es e n or th ern a n d s o u t h er n m et ro p o l i s es , K a i fen g an d H a n g z h o u , h ad f u el l ed t he deman d f o r an e s t ab l i s h m en t to c at e r f o r m erc h a n t s an d t rave l l e r s . R es tau ran ts i n Ka i fe n g , f o r ex am p l e, w o u l d c a t er So u t h er n f o o d f o r H a n g z h o u ’s merc h an ts w h o w ere n o t ye t a c c u s to m ed to t h e N o r t h er n c u i s i n e. 1 6 E a c h o f t h e re s t a u ra n t s h a d a c o u r t ya rd w it h e a s t e r n a n d w e s t e r n c o r r ido r s d e s ig n a t e d a s s e a t in g c o m p a r t m e n t s . Pe o p le o f t h e c a p it a l w e re e xt rava g a nt , u n re s t ra in e d , a n d t h ey w o u ld o rd e r a h u n d re d d if fe re n t t h in gs … E a c h pe r s o n d e m a n d e d s o m e t h in g d if fe re n t . T h e w a it e r to o k t h e ir o rd e r s [a n d ] s a ng o ut to t h o s e in t h e k it c h e n . D o n g j i n g M en g H u a Lu (T h e E a ster n C a p i ta l : A D rea m o f Splendor ) A t ra n s l at i o n o f a m em o i r w r i t t en by M en g Yu an Lao, 1187 TABLE D’HÔTE & THE NOTION OF SHARED-OWNERSHIP

A N U R B A N S C E N E W IT H R E S TAU R A NTS & S TA L L S KAIFENG, SONG DYNASTY FIGURE

08

C O M M U N A L M I D D A Y M E A L AT A T A B L E D ’ H Ô T E FIGURE

C A F É F R A S C AT I , 1 8 T H C E N T U R Y PA R I S

UPPER CLOUD

09

In t h e 1 2 t h c en t u r y Eu ro p e, t h e u r b an p o p u l a t i o n w a s i n s u f f i c i e n t to c reate an o p en i n g s c en e f o r a p u b l i c es t a b l i s h m en t l i ke a res t au ran t . Pa ri s was th e l arg es t m et ro p o l i s w i t h 3 0 0 ,0 0 0 i n h a b i t a n t s . A l b ei t s l o w er, t h e expan s i on s o f t ra d e an d u r b an p o p u l at i o n c o n t i n u ed i n t h e Wes t er n h em i s p h ere. In th e 1 5 t h c en t u r y, a s ep arat e t ra d i t i o n to o k h o l d i n t h e Wes t k n o w n as th e table d ’ h ô te – t h e h o s t ’s t ab l e. At a f i xed p r i c e an d t i m e , g u es t s c o u l d par take i n t h e p l ea s u re o f d i n i n g at t h e c o m m u n al t a b l e. 1 7 W h i s t t h e l ac k of evi den c e to s u g g es t an y d i rec t i n f l u en c e b et w een K a i fen g ’s p ro to t y p i c a l re s tau ran t a n d Par i s ’s t ab l e d ’ h ô t e, c er t ai n res o n an c es ex i s t b et w een t h e t w o. L i kewi s e, ta b l e d ’ h ô t e w as a n i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t c a t ered f o r a m o re c o m p reh en s ive array of p eo p l e an d al l o w e d p rov i s i o n f o r t ravel l er s . 1 8 T h e p rac t i c e o f d i n i n g togeth er w i t h i n a s i n g u l a r yet c o n t i n u o u s t a b l es c a p e f o r m ed n o n -ki n rel a ti on s h i ps , en f o rc ed s o c i a l b o n d s , an d n o u r i s h ed t h e n ei g h b o u r h o o d . T h e 1 8 t h c e n t u r y w as a ‘p er i o d o f g reat i n t el l ec t u a l l ea d er s h i p’ 1 9 i n th e We s t er n em p i re . I n t h e era h eav i l y d ef i n ed by rat i o n a l i s m , t h e s oc i al s h i f t w a s u n d er p i n n ed by s c i e n t i f i c ex p l o ra t i o n s a n d f i n d i n g s . Fo o d b ec ame par t o f g as t ro n o m i c s c i en c e, a d i s c i p l i n e t h at n o u r i s h e s m en . Wr i t i n g s on c u i s i n e, d i et , a n d h eal t h b eg an to s t eer t h e p u b l i c i n t eres t s to w ard h eal th - ori en ted f o o d . 2 0 Fo o d t h at p o s s es s ed m ed i c i n a l q u a l i t i es , t h a t s u r p as s ed t h e abi l i ty to s at i s f y o n e’s p r i m al h u n g er, b ec a m e t h e n o u vel l e c u i s i n e. I n ad ver ten tl y, th e d i et a r y p referen c e b ec a m e a m ea n s to d i s t i n g u i s h o n e’s l evel o f i n tel l ec t an d t h u s o n e’s s o c i a l c l a s s . R o o t ed f ro m t h e Fren c h ver b resta u rer, ‘ to res to re o n es el f ’ , 2 1 t h e noti on of a re s t a u ra n t b eg a n to c i rc u l a t e a s a h ea l t h -c o n s c i o u s f o o d es t ab l i s hmen t. Th e s o -c a l l ed ‘ H o u se o f H ea l th’ w o u l d s er ve b o u i l l o n , t h e s l o w -s i m m ered bon e b ro t h a s s u m ed to h ave m ed i c i n al an d res to ra t i ve p ro p er t i es . T h e pu ri f i c ati on p ro c es s re q u i re d f o r t h e b o u i l l o n g ave a s en s e o f d el i c ac y t h at h ad set th e di s h ap ar t f ro m t h e c r u d i t y as s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c o m m o n er s ’ f o o d . T h e w ell - edu c ated u r b an el i t e , t h e m i d d l e-c l a s s w h o b ec a m e m o re p ro m i n en t i n t h e Fren c h pol i te s o c i e t y, w o u l d p ar t a ke i n t h i s res t au ran t c u l t u re to f l a u n t t h ei r s o c i al s tatu s . Mi r ro r s w ere o f t en f i t t ed a l o n g t h e i n t er i o r p e r i m et er o f t h e res t au ran ts . Th ei r o p t i c a l ef fec t w o u l d a l l o w ea c h i n d i v i d u a l to ad m i re t h em s el ves amon g th i s w el l -ver s ed c ro w d . 2 2 T h e re s t a u ra n t ‘c ap i t al i s e d o n a g ro w i n g E n l i g h ten men tera s en s i b i l i t y ’ 2 3 am o n g t h e w ea l t h y s c h o l ar an d m e rc h a n t c l a s s i n Pari s . L i ke i t s p re d ec es s o r s , t h ro u g h t h e s t ag e s et f o r d i n i n g , t h e res t au ran t a ls o bec ame a p l ayg ro u n d f o r s o c i a l g a m es m a n s h i p . PA N N AW AT S E R M S U K

2021


DINE-A-LOGUE

PA RT I : A B R I E F H I S T O R Y O F D I N I N G - S C A P E

SOCIAL, POLITICAL & ECONOMIC SHIFTS FLAMBOYANCE VS FUNCTIONALITY FIGURE

10

S P E CTAC L E S C E N E O F A W E D D I N G S U P P E R H O F B U R G PA L A C E , M A R T I N V A N M Y T E N S 1 7 6 3 FIGURE

11

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A f t e r t h ree c en t u r i es o f c o l o n i s at i o n a n d t rad i n g es t a b l i s h m en t, th e 18 th c en t u r y E n g l a n d an d Fra n c e w ere h eav i l y en r i c h ed by c o l o n i a l e xpl oi tati on . T h e d i s c over y o f exo t i c f o o d s a n d c o n d i m en t s l ed to n e w g as tron omi c h e i g h t s . 2 4 D i n i n g b ec a m e a g ra n d af f ai r f o r t h e n o b l es – a d a i ly even t to s h o w c as e t h e i r w ea l t h . D i n i n g f u r n i t u re, m ad e w i t h t h e p revai l i n g Ori en tal s t y l e an d t ec h n i q u e, 2 5 s er ved as v i s u a l c o m p l e m en t a t i o n to t h e al i men ts an d ad o r n m en t s a to p t h e t ab l e . I n Fran c e, d i n i n g b e c a m e a t h eat r i c al even t. As c u s to m h a s i t , ar i s to c ra t i c c o u r t i er s w ere req u i re d to at t en d a s s pec tators d u r i n g roya l b a n q u et s ( F i g u re 1 0 ) . T h e d i n i n g c erem o n y ’s r i s i n g s i gn i f i c an c e even t u al l y l ed to t h e i n t ro d u c to r y o f a d i n i n g ro o m i n arc h i t ec t u ra l pl an s — a s p a c e d ed i c a t ed p u rel y f o r t h e en j oy m en t o f g ra n d eu r m ea l s an d s er vi c es . 2 6 T h o u g h t h e a r i s to c ra t s i n i t i al l y s e t t h e t ren d , i t w a s d u e to t h e ri s e of th e m i d d l e c l as s t h at t h e d i n i n g ro o m b ec a m e p e r fec t e d a n d ref i n ed . At th e peak o f i t s c o l o n i a l en r i c h m e n t , i n t h e l a t t er h a l f o f t h e 1 8 t h c en t u r y, E ngl an d was al s o t h e f i r s t n at i o n to w i t n es s t h e w o r l d ’s In d u str i a l Revo l u ti o n . I n paral l el to t h e b u s i n es s m en a s s o c i at ed w i t h m an u f a c t u r i n g g ro w t h , t h e p er i od s aw th e r i s e o f s m al l en t rep ren eu r s . T h es e i n d i v i d u a l s ac c u m u l a t ed s p ec t a c ul ar weal th t h ro u g h t h e i r en t re p re n eu r i al a c t i v i t i e s . T h e i n c reas ed f o r t u n e h a d res u l ted i n t h e h i g h e r c o n s u m p t i o n o f g o o d s , am o n g t h em w a s d i n i n g f u r n i t u re. D i n i n g ro o m s o o n b ec a m e a m u n d a n e n ec es s i t y w i t h i n t h e h o u s eh o l d . So o n a f t er w o r k b eg a n to t r u m p l ei s u re, t h e p ro g res s i ve i d e al o f ef f ic i en c y an d p ro d u c t i v i t y s u p er s ed ed t h e p a s t i d eo l o g y o f d i n i n g m o ra l s a n d man n ers . 2 7 T h e f l am b oyan c e d i n i n g af f ai r w a s l am en t ed as ‘ t h e l o s t f i n e ar t s ’ 28 . Ki tc h en s w e re p erc ei ved to o f fe r g rea t er d i n i n g c o n ven i en c e an d b eg a n to repl ac e d i n i n g ro o m s . D i n i n g t ab l e s b ec am e b rea k f a st b a r s. T h e k i t c h en u l ti matel y b ec am e t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f l i v i n g . T h e i d ea l k i t c h en w a s c l e a n , w el l - l i t pl ac e o u t f i t t ed f o r ef f i c i e n t m eal p rep arat i o n an d c o n s u m p t i o n . 2 9 T h e l atte r h al f o f t h e 1 9 t h c en t u r y al s o w i t n es s ed t h e ex p an s i o n o f t h e n ew p u b l i c di n i n g es t a b l i s h m en t s o rg an i s ed aro u n d s p eed an d ef f i c i en c y – c an t een s ( F i gu re 13), a u to m at i c res t a u ra n t s ( F i g u re 1 6 ) , an d f o o d ven d o r s , ‘a l l o f w h i c h w ere bas ed o n t h e a b o l i t i o n o f t a b l e s er v i c e’ 3 0 f o r f a s t er f o o d d e l i ver y. T h es e res tau ran ts w e re o f t en o u t f i t t ed w i t h u n c o m f o r t a b l e s e at i n g to p reven t c u s tomers f rom l i n g er i n g .

DINING ROOM, LOUIS X VI PERIOD FIGURE

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VICTORIAN MIDDLE-CLASS DINING ROOM FIGURE

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LU N C H R O O M I N C H I C A G O, 1 8 9 6

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FURNITURE LEGS ACROSS THE ERAS: A test a ment to t he d ecline o f cra ft sm an s h i p i n a n eve r -ac c el erat i n g m a c h i n e ag e.

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W i t h t h e p reva i l i n g i d eal o f e f f i c i en c y c am e va r i o u s i t erat i o n s of di n i n g f ac i l i t i es . T h es e d es i g n va r i a t i o n s w ere t h e em b o d i m en t o f a n ever -ac c el erati n g p a c e o f m ec h an i c al i n ven t i o n to ac c o m m o d a t e m o d e r n d e m a n d s . THE LAZY SUSAN W i d el y rec o g n i s ed a s t h e s p i n n i n g p l at t er t h at res t s ato p t h e tabl e , th e L a z y S u sa n as s i s t s i n d i s t r i b u t i n g f o o d d u r i n g m ea l t i m es . M u c h to on e’s a s to n i s h m en t , t h e t u r n t a b l e w h i c h w as d eep l y as s o c i a t ed w i t h t h e modern C h i n es e i s n o t o f a C h i n es e o r i g i n . Of t h e m a n y t a l es , t h e L a z y Su s an i s an i n ve n t i o n o w e to t h e a f t er -e f fec t o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l R evo l u t i o n w h en h ou s eh ol d s er van t s w ere i n s h o r t a g e.

LAZY SUSAN FIGURE

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No n et h el es s , t h e L az y Su s an m a d e i t s d eb u t ag ai n i n t h e 1 9 5 0 s an d 60s . D u e to t h e i n f l u x o f C h i n es e i m m i g ra n t s , t h e Wes t s aw a n i n c reas e i n t h e C h i n es e c o m m u n i t i es . T h e n ew c o m er s m o s t l y w en t i n to t h e re s t au ran t b u s in es s . 3 2 Yet t h es e ea r l y res t a u ra n t s h el d a rep u t a t i o n f o r b ei n g d i n g y an d c ra mped wi th s m a l l t ab l es a r ra n g ed b ac k -to -b a c k . T h e L a z y Su s an w as s een as a pl au s i bl e s o l u t i o n : to h o s t a l arg er g ro u p o f d i n er s a t a t a b l e an d f o r eac h pers on to a c c es s t h e s h ared d i s h es w i t h eas e. T h e revo l v i n g t a b l e b ec a m e th e key el em en t to w ard a ref i n ed a n d s p a c i o u s m akeover. H e n c ef o r t h , t h e Lazy S u s an h a s b een w i d el y rec o g n i s ed ac ro s s t h e g l o b e as p ar t o f t h e C h i n es e di n i n g ex p er i en c e a n d b e co m es ‘ t h e c l a s s i c c en t re p i ec e o f C h i n es e res t au ran ts ’ . 3 3

T H E W O R L D ’ S F I R S T A U T O M AT ‘ Q U I S I S A N A’ FIGURE

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H O W T H E A U T O M AT W O R K S FIGURE

I n t h e a b s e n c e o f m a i d s o r f o o t m en to d el i ver f o o d a n d c o n d i m en t s , h i s tori an s b el i eve t h e L az y Su s an w a s p re s e n t e d as a s o l u t i o n to t h e E n g l i s h h o us eh ol ds . 3 1 T h e L a z y Su s a n’s p u r p o r t o f rep l a c i n g d o m es t i c w a i t er s w as t h e root c au s e o f i t s i n i t i al s o -c a l l ed n a m e , t h e ‘d u m b -w a i ter ’ . Yet w i t h o u t evi den c e to s u p p o r t t h e as s e r t i o n , t h e L az y Su s an i s a l s o a n A m er i c an -c l a i m ed i n ven ti on en g i n eered by t h e 3 rd p re s i d en t T h o m a s J ef fer s o n f o r h i s s l u g g i s h dau gh ter. T h o u g h i t s o r i g i n rem ai n s a m y s t er y, t h e i m p rovem en t m o d el w a s paten t to El i s a b et h H o w el l i n 1 8 9 1 a s t h e ‘sel f -w a i ti n g ta b l e’ .

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T H E AU TOM AT Mu c h ak i n to t h e L a z y Su s a n , t h e au to m a t i n g re s t au ran t w a s d r i ven pri mari l y by t h e d es i re to ac c o m m o d a t e t h e l a c k o r t h e el i m i n at i o n o f w ai ters . In 1 9 0 2 , t h e ‘n ew m et h o d o f l u n c h i n g ’ b eg an a t t h e H o r n & H a rd a r t’s ‘Automat Lu n ch Ro o m’ . 34 T h e Au to m a t p ro m i s ed d i n er s an ef f i c i en t an d af f ordabl e di n i n g ex p er i en c e i n a c o m m u n al at m o s p h ere.’ 3 5 G i g a n t i c ven d i n g mac h i n es l i n ed t h e w al l s , m a ki n g u p t h e i n t er i o r p er i m et er. R o w u p o n ro w o f wi n dowed c o m p ar t m e n t s f i l l ed t h e m ac h i n e’s f aç ad e, eac h h o u s ed d i f fere n t men u i tem. T h e l i b er t y f o r d i n e r s to b ro w s e t h ei r d i s h es b ef o re s e l f -s er v i n g th ems el ves w a s w el l -rec e i ved am o n g t h e g ro w i n g s a n i t a t i o n m ovem en t . A l b ei t b ei n g c o n s i d ered a n A m er i c an p h e n o m en o n , a n a u to m a t ed res tau ran t c o n c ep t w a s ad a p t ed f ro m s u cc es s f u l 1 8 9 5 Ger m an f o od- ven di n g es t ab l i s h m en t ‘ Qu i si sa n a’ . 36 Yet t h e Au to m at w as n o t f u l l y a u to m a ted. Beh i n d t h e s c e n es w ere t h e i n v i s i b l e k i t c h en w o r ker s , w h o s e ro l es w ere to ref i l l th e em p t y c o m p ar t m en t a n d kee p u p w i t h t h e d em a n d . T h e Au to m at w as a mar vel o f s p ee d a n d ef f i c i en cy. W i t h l i m i t ed l u n c h t i m e, t h e Au to m at ’s a s s e mbl y l i n e eat e r y res o n at ed w i t h t h e f a s t -p a c ed N ew Yo r ker an d p i o n ee red t h e Ameri c an f as t -f o o d era . T h e Au to m a t h el d m u c h ec o n o m i c ap p e a l f o r t h e A m er i c a n w o r ki n g- c l as s . P rec e d i n g t h e Au to m at , t h e A m er i c an c u l i n a r y s c en e w a s d o m i n at ed by el i te d i n er s c at ere d f o r t h e w ea l t h y p o p u l at i o n . T h e Au to m at , i n c o ntras t, was s i m p l e a n d d em o c ra t i c . 3 7 H o w eve r, t h e Au to m a t ’s p o p u l a r i t y b eg a n to f ade i n th e 1 9 7 0 s . T h e F i s c al C r i s i s res u l t ed i n t h e p r i c e i n c reas ed , an d t h e Au tomat’s op erat i o n w as l o n g er d eem ed ef f i c i en t o r p rac t i c al . T h e es t a b l i s h men t was s o o n o u t -c o m p et ed by t h e r i s e o f t h e f a s t -f o o d f ran c h i s e. T h e Au tomat was p er m an en t l y c l o s e d i n 1 9 9 1 .

BEHIND THE SCENE

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FIGURE 19 S E AT S O F ( N O ) P O W E R , S A R A T A C C H E L L A 2 0 1 9 A C O L L A G E O F D O G E A N T O N I O G R I M A N I S E AT E D AMONG THE SEA OF MONOBLOC — AN AFFORDABLE A N D D E M O C R AT I C P I E C E O F F U R N I T U R E .

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T H E FA M O U S E N S E M B L E THE FOLDING TABLE + MONOBLOC CHAIR FIGURE

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T H E F O L D I N G T A B L E PAT E N T, 1 9 5 1 FIGURE

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PA N T O N C H A I R , V E R N E R P A N T O N 1 9 6 7 FIGURE

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T H E FOL D IN G TA B L E Fo l d i n g ta b l es c a n b e d a t ed b a c k to t h e a n c i en t e ra. T h e 1 6 th c en tu r y f o rer u n n e r s , t h e D ro p -l ea f a n d Ga t el eg ta b l es c a n b e f o l d ed i n to a c ompac t u n i t to m i n i m i s e f o o t p r i n t an d ea s e s to ra g e. Yet , t h e n ew m o d e l , paten ted by B o r i s C o h en a n d J o s ep h P u c c i i n 1 9 5 1 , w as t h e f i r s t o f i t s k i n d to of fer a p o r t a b l e s o l u t i o n . T h e n ew m o d e l w a s m a d e en t i rel y o f l i g h t w ei gh t metal w h i c h p rov i d e s a d u rab l e yet ad a p t a b l e d es i g n . W h en u n f o l d ed , t h e brac i n g el e m en t s r i g i d i f y t h e t ab l eto p w h i l e l o c k i n g t h e l eg s o p era t i vel y in pos i ti on f o r s t r u c t u ra l s u p p o r t . 3 8 T h e s t r u c t u re c an b e n eat l y c o l l ap s ed af t er u s e i n to a s i n g l e s h ee t to ea s e t ra n s p o r t a n d s to rag e. D u e to i t s i n ex p en s i ve an d s t ra i g h t f o r w ard c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h e m o d el f i r s t u n d er w en t m as s p rodu c ti on i n t h e 1 9 9 0 s . Ow e m u c h to i t s p o r t ab i l i t y, t h e f o l d i n g t a b l e t h en c ef o r th bec ame g l o b a l l y f avo u red am o n g t h e s t reet ven d o r s . T H E M ON OB LOC Of t en ac c o m p an i ed t h e f o l d i n g t ab l e i s t h e u b i q u i to u s m o n o b l o c. B o rn f rom th e t i m e w h en p l as t i c w a s a m a t er i al h eav y w i t h p ro m i s e, t h e m o n o b l o c n ow l u rk s i n ever y c o r n er o f t h e g l o b e. I t s n a m e, m o n o b l o c , d er i ve s f ro m t h e di s ti n c t m a n u f ac t u r i n g p ro c es s . T h e t h er m o p l as t i c p o l y p ro py l en e g ra n u l es are h eated to 2 2 0 ° C , m el t ed an d i n j ec t ed i n to a m o u l d . T h e en d p ro d u c t i s a s eaml es s p l as t i c p i ec e. 3 9 T h i s m et h o d w a s d evel o p ed f ro m t h e m o n o b l o c’s te c h n i c al p red ec es s o r : t h e Pa n to n C h ai r — a s i n g l e c an t i l evered d es i g n o f Ver n er Panton. Yet , t h e Pan to n’s w as h a n d m a d e i n c o n t ras t to t h e f a c to r y -b o r n m on obl oc . In i t i al l y l a u n c h ed i n 1 9 8 3 by Gro sf i l l ex , t h e m o n o b l o c i s t h e o u t c ome to th e m o d er n i s t q u e s t f o r t h e i d ea l m ac h i n e -m a d e f u r n i t u re. I n t h e w h o l l y au tomated m an u f a c t u r i n g p ro c es s , t h e u s e o f m a n p o w er i s re d u c ed to a m i ni mu m. Th e m o u l d i t s el f c an ex t r u d e a c h a i r ever y 7 0 s ec o n d s . T h e d es i g n h ad t he materi al th i c k n es s ad j u s t ed to s t r i ke a b a l a n c e b et w een l i g h t n es s an d s t ren gth . Th e m i n i m a l w o r k f o rc e, t i m e an d m at er i a l c o s t d u r i n g t h e p ro d u c t i o n res u l ted i n a n u n b eat ab l e m ar ket p r i c e. T h e m o n o b l o c’s a f f o rd a b i l i t y t h u s b ec ame th e dec i s i ve f ac to r s to i t s w o r l d w i d e t r i u m p h . In t h e d i n i n g i n d u s t r y, t h e m o n o b l o c p l ay s i t s t r u m p c ard s o f c h eapn e s s a n d b ec o m e a s t ar t er -k i t f o r res t a u ra t eu r s an d a n es s en t i a l a mon g th e s t reet f o o d ven d o r s . D u e to t h ei r p o r t ab i l i t y, t h e m o n o b l o c i s o f t en c ou pl ed w i t h i t s m as s -p ro d u c ed p ai r : t h e f o l d i n g t a b l e. T h e en s em b l e b ec omes th e tra d em ar k o f o u t d o o r d i n i n g . I n s o m e c a s es , t h e m o n o b l o c s to ol dou bl es u p a s a d i n i n g t a b l e an d s o l el y d o m i n a t es t h e u r b an l an d s c ap e ( F i gu re 24). H en c e, t h e c u l t u ra l p e r m a n e n c e o f t h e u b i q u i to u s m o n o b l o c i s u n den i abl e. R ep e a t ed l y, t h e m o n o b l o c i s s u b j e c t ed to s c r u t i n y an d h a t red . B y bei n g th e ava t a r o f m as s p ro d u c t i o n , t h e m o n o b l o c c o n t i n u es to t r i g g er th e fear of c u l t u ra l h o m o g en i s at i o n . I t s p l as t i c m at er i a l al s o ren d er s t h e m o n obl oc as an i n h e ren t l y ev i l o b j ec t i n t h e eyes o f t h e va s t m a j o r i t y.

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A m i d n eg at i ve j u d g em e n t s , t h e u b i q u i to u s i n d u s t r i a l m o n o b l o c c on ti n u es to p ro m o t e s o c i a l eq u al i t y. T h e m o n o b l o c i s t h e s i n g l e m a n m ad e i n ven ti on i n reve r s e to o t h e r o b j ec t s o f i t s k i n d . M a n m ad e o b j ec t s a re o f ten par t of th e c o n t ex t t h at f u e l s d i v i s i o n o f m a n k i n d . 4 0 D i n i n g f ac i l i t i es , f or exampl e , s i g n i f y w ea l t h an d p o w er an d t h u s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h e r i c h f ro m t h e poor. It i s a n o r m t h at p revai l s s i n c e t h e a n c i en t era. Yet t h e m o n o b l o c , a s i n g u l ar obj ec t i n d ep en d e n t o f i t s c o n t ex t , 4 1 o f fer s a d em o c ra t i c o u t l o o k . Fro m th e f ormal w ed d i n g b an q u et to t h e i n f o r m al f o o d s t a l l s , t h e m o n o b l o c i s t h e epi tome of u n i ver s a l l y ac c es s i b l e f u r n i t u re , s o c i al l y a n d f i n a n ci a l l y — a t r u e modern i s t d es i g n v i c to r y.

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NOTES 1 C h r i s t i n e B au m g a r t h u b er, ‘A Sh o r t H i s to r y o f T h e D i n i n g R o o m ( Par t 1)’ , Th e Ne w I n q u ir y , 2 0 1 5 < h t t p s : // t h en ew i n q u i r y. c o m / b l o g / a -s h o r t -h i s tor y- of - th edi n i n g -ro o m -p ar t -1 / > [ ac c es s ed 1 0 D ec em b er 2 0 2 0 ] . 2 J ef f F i o r i to , ‘ H i s to r y o f Fu r n i t u re: A n c i en t Greec e’ , F io r ito I n t e r io r De sign , 2 0 1 7 < h t t p : // f i o r i to i n t er i o rd es i g n . b l o g s p o t . c o m / 2 0 1 7 / 0 2 / h i s to r y -o f - f u rn i tu rea n c i en t -g re ec e. h t m l > [ a c c es s e d 1 0 D ec em b er 2 0 2 0 ] . 3 Tas o s Ko k ki n i d i s , ‘ W h y D i d A n c i en t Gree ks R ec l i n e to E at an d D r i nk ? ’ , Gre e k R e p o r t e r, 2018 < h t t p s : // g reec e. g reek rep o r t er. c o m / 2 0 1 8 / 0 7 / 0 1/wh y- di da n c i en t -g re ek s -rec l i n e-to -e a t -an d -d r i n k / > [ ac c es s ed 1 0 D ec em b er 2 020] . 4 Sh e l by B ro w n , ‘ R ec l i n i n g an d D i n i n g ( A n d D r i n k i n g ) I n A n c i ent Greec e’ , G e t t y, 2 0 1 2 < h t t p s : // b l o g s . g et t y. ed u / i r i s / rec l i n i n g -a n d -d i n i n g -a n d- dri n k i n gi n -an c i en t -g ree c e/ > [ ac c es s ed 1 0 D ec em b er 2 0 2 0 ] . 5 Gerel y n H o l l i n g s w o r t h , ‘ On T h i s D ay : R ec l i n i n g a t Ta b l e’ , N C R Tod ay, 2011 < h t t p s : // w w w. n c ro n l i n e. o rg / b l o g s / n c r -to d ay / d ay -rec l i n i n g -t ab l e> [ ac c es s ed 1 0 D ec em b er 2 0 2 0 ] . 6 A n d re w Wa l l a c e-H a d r i l l , ‘ T h e So c i al St r u c t u re o f T h e R o m a n H o us e’ , British S c ho o l a t R o m e , 5 6 ( 1 9 8 8 ) , p 5 2 . 7 Ped ar W i l l i a m Fo s s , ‘ K i t c h en s a n d D i n i n g R o o m s a t Po m p ei i ’ , T h e Un ive rsity o f M ic hig a n , 1 ( 1 9 9 4 ) , p 5 2 . 8 Ed w a rd J Wo r m l ey, E r i k L a s s en , a n d J o s ep h T B u t l er, ‘ Fu r n i t u re’ , Brita n n ic a , 1999 < h t t p s : // w w w. b r i t an n i c a. c o m / t ec h n o l o g y / f u r n i t u re/ a d d i ti on al - i n f o> [ a c c es s ed 1 2 D ec em b er 2 0 2 0 ] . 9 Fra n c es c a P r i n c e, ‘ H o w Ta b l e Ma n n er s as We Kn o w T h em Were A R en ai s s an c e In ve n t i o n’ , Na t io n a l Ge o g ra p hic , 2 0 1 7 < h t t p s : // w w w. n at i o n a l g eo g ra ph i c .c om/ history/magazine/2017/03-04/table-manners-renaissance-catherine-dem ed i c i / > [ ac c es s ed 1 4 D ec em b e r 2 0 2 0 ] . 1 0 T h e Ed i to r s o f E n c yc l o p aed i a B r i t a n n i c a a n d J E Lu eb er i n g , ‘ R o un d Tabl e’ , B r it a n n ic a , 1 9 9 8 < h t t p s : // w w w. b r i t a n n i c a . c o m / to p i c / R o u n d -Ta b l e - Ar th u ri an l e g en d / ad d i t i o n a l -i n f o #h i s to r y > [ ac c es s ed 1 3 D ec em b er 2 0 2 0 ] . 1 1 N o r r i s J L a c y, T h e Ne w A r t h u r ia n E n c yc lo p e d ia , 2 n d ed n ( N ew Yo rk : Garl an d Publishing, 1991), p 391. 1 2 J erem y H ar n et t , ‘ B a r s ( Ta b er n a, Po p i n a , C au p o n a , T h er m o p o l i u m )’ , O x fo rd Un ive r sit y P re ss, 2 0 1 7 , p 1 0 . 1 3 K at i e R aw s o n an d E l l i o t t Sh o re, D in in g O u t : A Glo ba l H isto r y o f R e sta u ra n ts ( L o n d o n : R ea kt i o n B o o k s , 2 0 1 9 ) , p 1 8 . 1 4 R a w s o n an d Sh o re, p 1 4 . 1 5 R a w s o n an d Sh o re, p 1 0 . 1 6 D o ro t h ee Sc h aab -H a n ke, ‘ T h e C ap i t al B eh i n d t h e C a p i t a l : L i fe i n Kai fen g as R ef l e c t ed i n t h e “D u c h en g j i s h en g ”’ , H a r ra sso w it z Ve r la g, Or i en s E x tremu s , 50 (2011), p 195. 1 7 D ave R o o s , ‘ W h en D i d Peo p l e St a r t E at i n g i n R es t a u ra n t s ?’ , H isto r y, 2020 < h t t p s : // w w w. h i s to r y. c o m / n ew s / f i r s t -res t au ran t s -c h i n a-f ran c e> [ a cc es s ed 13 D ec e m b er 2 0 2 0 ] . 1 8 R a w s o n an d Sh o re, p 2 0 . 1 9 Pet er B u r ke an d H al i l I n al c i k , H i s to r y o f H u m a n i t y : Sc i en t i f i c an d C u l tu ral D eve l o p m e n t , 7 vo l s ( L o n d o n : R o u t l ed g e, 1 9 9 4 ) , V ( 1 9 9 9 ) , 1 8 3 . 2 0 E m m a C Sp a r y, E a t in g t h e E n ligh t e n m e n t : Fo o d a n d t h e S c ie n c es in Pa ris, 1 6 7 0 -1 7 6 0 ( C h i c ag o : T h e U n i ver s i t y o f C h i c a g o P res s , 2 0 1 2 ) , p 4 . 2 1 B r i d g et Ken d al l a n d o t h er s , ‘A H i s to r y o f t h e R es t a u ra n t ’ , B BC Worl d S er v i c e: T h e Fo r u m .

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2 2 M el i s s a C l ar k a n d R eb ec c a L Sp a n g , ‘ T h e H i s to r y o f R es t au ran t s R eve al ed’ , T h e L eo n ard L o p at e Sh o w : P l eas e E x p l a i n . 2 3 R o o s , H isto r y. 2 4 Sa ra h N i c h o l s , ‘At Ta b l e: H i g h St y l e I n T h e 1 8 t h C e n t u r y ’ , C a r n e gie Mu se u ms, S ep t e m b er 1 9 9 6 . 2 5 Wo r m l ey, L as s en , a n d B u t l er, B r it a n n ic a . 2 6 N i c h o l s , C a r n e gie M u se u m s. 2 7 C h r i s t i n e B au m g a r t h u b e r, ‘A Sh o r t H i s to r y o f T h e D i n i n g R o o m ( Par t 2)’ , T he Ne w I n q u ir y, 2 0 1 5 < h t t p s : // t h en ew i n q u i r y. c o m / b l o g / a-s h o r t - h i s tor y- of th e-d i n i n g -ro o m -p ar t -2 / > [ ac c es s ed 1 0 D ec em b er 2 0 2 0 ] . 2 8 C h r i s to p h er K l ei n , ‘ T h e Au to m at : B i r t h o f a Fa s t Fo o d N a t i o n’ , H isto r y, 2018 < h t t p s : // w w w. h i s t o r y. c o m / n e w s / t h e - a u t o m a t - b i r t h - o f - a - f a s t - f o o d - n a t i o n > [ a c c es s ed 1 7 J a n u a r y 2 0 2 1 ] . 2 9 B au m g a r t h u b e r, ‘A Sh o r t H i s to r y o f T h e D i n i n g R o o m ( Par t 2 ) ’, The N e w I n q u ir y. 3 0 J an W h i t a ker, ‘ Sp eed E a t i n g ’ , R e st a u ra n t -I n g T hro u gh H isto r y, 2 0 21 < h ttps : // res t au ran t -i n g t h ro u g h h i s to r y. c o m / p ag e/ 2 / > [ a c c es s ed 2 2 J a n u a r y 2021] . 3 1 B et t i j a n e L ev i n e, ‘ B a c k Sto r y : W h o Was Su s a n , A n d Wa s Sh e Tr u l y L azy? ’ , L o s An ge le s T im e s, 2 0 1 0 < h t t p s : // l at i m es b l o g s . l a t i m es . c o m / h o m e_ b l o g/2010/03/ l az y -s u s a n -h i s to r y -w h o -i n ven t ed -m y s t er y. h t m l > [ ac c e s s ed 2 1 J an u ar y 2021] . 3 2 W i n g Y i p , ‘ C h i n es e R es t au ran t s , 1 9 5 0 s ’ , B r it ish L ib ra r y < h t t p s : // www.bl .u k / l e a r n i n g / t i m el i n e/ i t em 1 2 6 8 7 4 . h t m l > [ a c c es s ed 2 2 J a n u a r y 2 0 2 1 ] . 3 3 D a n i el A G ro s s , ‘ T h e L az y Su s an , t h e C l as s i c C en t rep i ec e of C h i n es e R es t au ran t s , I s N ei t h er C l a s s i c n o r C h i n es e’ , T he S m it hso n ia n , 2 0 14 < h ttps : // w w w. s m i t h s o n i a n m a g . c o m / a r t s - c u l t u r e / l a z y - s u s a n - c l a s s i c - c e n t e r p i e c e c h i n es e -res t a u ra n t s -n ei t h er -c l as s i c -n o r -c h i n e s e-1 8 0 9 4 9 8 4 4 / > [ a c ces s ed 10 D ec e m b er 2 0 2 0 ] . 3 4 K l ei n , H isto r y. 3 5 G en ev i eve C ar l to n , ‘ H o w T h e Au to m at Paved T h e Way Fo r Fa st Food In T h e E a r l y 1 9 0 0 s ’ , A ll T ha t ’s I n t e re st in g , 2 0 2 0 < h t t p s : // a l l t h a t s i n t eres ti n g.c om/ a u to m at > [ ac c es s ed 1 8 J an u ar y 2 0 2 1 ] . 3 6 B o b St ra u s s , ‘ T h e R i s e a n d Fa l l o f t h e Au to m a t ’ , T ho u ght C o . , 2 0 1 9 < h ttps : // w w w. t h o u g h t c o . c o m / t h e-r i s e-an d -f a l l -o f -t h e-a u to m at -4 1 5 2 9 9 2 > [ a cc es s ed 18 J an u ar y 2 0 2 1 ] . 3 7 K l ei n , H isto r y. 3 8 B o r i s C o h en a n d J o s ep h P u c c i , ‘ Fo l d a b l e Ta b l e’ ( P h i l ad el p h i a, 1 951), p 3. 3 9 N e o , H o w T h is C ha ir C o n q u e re d t h e Wo r ld , 2 0 2 0 < h t t p s : // w ww.you tu be. c o m / w at c h ?v = J w A p F Gw MI M Q> [ ac c es s ed 2 5 D e c em b er 2 0 2 0 ] . 4 0 J u l e s Su zd al t s ev, ‘ W h i t e P l as t i c C h a i r s A re Tak i n g Over t h e Worl d’ , V IC E , 2015 < h t t p s : // w w w. v i c e. c o m / en / a r t i c l e/ b n 5 e4 m / w h i t e-p l as t i c -c h ai rs - aretak i n g -over -t h e-w o r l d -1 2 8 > [ a c c es s e d 2 3 J a n u a r y 2 0 2 1 ] . 4 1 E t h an Zu c ker m an , ‘ T h o s e W h i t e P l as t i c C h ai r s – T h e Mo n o b l oc An d Th e C o n t ex t -Free Ob j ec t ’ , E t ha n Zu c ke r m a n , 2 0 1 1 < h t t p s : // et h a n zu c kerman . com/2011/04/06/those-white-plastic-chairs-the-monobloc-and-the-contextf re e-o b j ec t / > [ ac c es s e d 2 3 J an u ar y 2 0 2 1 ] .

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L E S E R V I C E À L A F R A N ÇA I S E , 1 7 6 3 FIGURE

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LE SERVICE À LA RUSSE, 1897 FIGURE

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H O N G T ÓA , K I N G R A M A V 1 8 7 4 A ga la d inner wa s ar ran g ed at t h e G ra n d Pet er h o f Pal ac e in K ing Ra ma V’s h o n o u r d u r i n g h i s 1 8 9 7 v i s i t to R u s s i a (F igure 27) . The d ra w i n g o f t h e g al a d ep i c t s a s c en e much a kin to wed di n g s u p p er at H o f b u rg Pal ac e i n M a r t i n Va n Mey t ens’ pa in i n g ( F i g u re 2 6 ) . T h e ab u n d a n c e o f t h e spect a to r s a nd t he p o m p an d c i rc u m s t an c e t h at s u r ro u n d t he ba nq uet a re t h e res em b l an c es t h at res o n a t e b et w een le ser v ice à la fra n ç a i s e an d l e s er v i c e à l a r u s s e. C er t a i n pa ra llels ca n be d ra w n b et w een t h e a r ra n g em en t o f t h e French Roya l Ba nq u et , t h e R u s s i a n G a l a a n d t h e T h ai H o n g Tó a ( F igure 28) . Th e g ra n d d i n i n g t a b l es to o k c en t re s t a g e. UPPER CLOUD

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SIAM DINING-SCAPE THE THAI CULINARY SCENE THROUGH THE ERAS FIGURE

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023

07

O n e o f t h e ear l i es t a c c o u n t s o n t h e T h a i o r t h e Si a m es e c i v i l i s a t i o n i s f rom th e to m e: A N ew H i sto r i ca l Rel a ti o n o f th e K i n g d o m o f S i a m . T h e t ravel l i teratu re w as w r i t t en by t h e Fren c h en voy ex t rao rd i n a r y, S i m o n d e L a L o u b ère, wh erei n a c o m p reh en s i ve d es c r i p t i o n i s g i ven o f t h e Si am es e c u s to m s a n d trai ts . D u r i n g t h e Ay u t t h aya era , d i n i n g t a b l es a n d c h ai r s w ere n o n -ex is ten t. Th e S i a m es e d i n ed u s i n g a w o o d en d r u m -l i ke p ed es t a l , tō k . 1 T h e p ed es tal wou l d b e b ro u g h t o u t w i t h a s et o f s h a r i n g d i s h es , a sa m ra b , a r ra n g e d on top. S at c ro s s -l eg g ed o n a B u l r u s h m at t a ro u n d t h e p e d e s t a l , t h e Si a m es e wou l d s h are a n d en j oy t h e m ea l to g et h er a s a c o l l e c t i ve, a c u s to m t h a t s u r v i ves th e ph ras e ‘ l o m w o n g k i n k a o’ . T h e c ro s s -l eg g ed p o s i t i o n w a s s o w el l -ac c u s to m ed th at, i f g i ven a c h ai r, t h e Si a m es e w o u l d p l ac e t h em s el ves n o o t h er w i s e. 2

STREET SCENE WITH A THERMOPOLIUM FIGURE

30

Yet , o n e c u s to m rem a i n s u n c h a n g ed : t h e et i q u et t e aro u n d f o o d s h ari n g. Th e ex p res s i o n ‘ l o m w o n g k i n k ao’ p er s i s t s t h ro u g h t h e c en t u r i es an d i s deepl y en t re n c h ed i n t h e Si a m , n o w T h ai , d i n i n g c u l t u re. T h e f o r m o f rel ati on s h i p th a t b l o o m s ove r t h e c o u r s e o f t h e m eal h as a l s o p roven pol i ti c al l y b en ef i c i a l . R e c o g n i s ed t h a t d i n i n g to g et h er i s t h e eas i es t m ean s of f os teri n g c o m p a n i o n s h i p , K i n g R am a V es t ab l i s h ed t h e t rad i t i o n ‘ l i en g tó a’ , a p ar ty tabl e, w i t h i n h i s c o u r t . W i t h an u n d er l y i n g i n t en t i o n to reg a i n p o l i t i c a l al l i an c e an d s t a b i l i t y, royal feas t s w ere a r ra n g ed d u r i n g fes t i ve s ea s o n s f o r m a g n ates an d h i g h o f f i c i al s to d i n e w i t h t h ei r s overei g n . 5 T h e g at h er i n g s to o k p lac e at th e ho n g tó a , a t a b l e ro o m , w h ereby a g ran d d i n i n g t ab l e c o m m a n d e d th e s pac e. T h e fea s t s s u c c eed ed i n s t ren g t h en i n g t h e b o n d s w i t h i n t h e K i n g’s of f i ci al c o u r t an d l ed to t h e C o u n c i l o f St a t e’s a n d t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l ’s f o r mati on .

THE ACCUSTOMED CROSS-LEG SITTING FIGURE

T h e t rad i t i o n c o n t i n u e d f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g 1 5 0 yea r s d u r i n g w h i c h t he Ki n gdom of Si a m w as s eal ed o f f to t h e Eu ro p ea n s . D u r i n g t h e rei g n o f K i n g R a ma IV, th e k i n g d o m to o k t h e i n i t i a t i ve to w a rd re-es t a b l i s h i n g d i p l o m a t i c rel a ti on s wi th th e Wes t . 3 M a n y Wes t e r n t rad i t i o n s w ere w i d e l y a d o p t ed w i t h i n th e n ati on . Si n c e i t w as d eem ed u n h yg i en i c a n d b a r b a r i c , s i t t i n g o n t h e f l oor was n o l o n g er a p p ro p r i at e. Ta b l es a n d c h ai r s b ec am e m o re c o m m o n l y u s ed amon g th e Si am es e. T h e i n t ro d u c to r y o f n ew f u r n i t u re h a d p rec ed ed t h e Si am tradi ti on’s revo l u t i o n , a m o n g t h em t h e d i n i n g c u l t u re. 4

31

P r i o r to t h e We s t er n d i p l o m a t i c rel a t i o n s re-es t ab l i s h m en t , t h e p u bl i c eater y w a s o n l y f am i l i a r a m o n g t h e l o w e r c l a s s . T h e T h ai u p p er c l a s s w o ul d s ti c k to th ei r f o r m al d i n i n g p ro to c o l s : a p ro p er m eal h o u r, an ap p ro p r i a t e s etti n g, an d a f i t t i n g et i q u et t e f o r s er v i n g an d d i n i n g . I n f l u en c ed by t h e Wes t , th e royal s s et t h e t re n d to d i n e o u t by f o u n d i n g el i t e d i n er s w i t h i n t h e k i n g dom. Mu c h l i ke t h e Wes t , t h e p u b l i c d i n e r s o o n b ec am e t h e g ro u n d f o r p o w er pl ay an d a p l a c e to s h o w c a s e o n e’s w eal t h . Man y res t au ran t s w ere es t ab l i s hed s h or tl y a f t er, i n p aral l el to t h e i n f o r m al f o o d s t a l l s w h i c h w ere a l read y p romi n en t i n th e T h a i c u l i n a r y s c en e . In 1 9 8 7 , b r i ef l y af t er t h e s u c c es s f u l l a u n ch o f G ro s f i l l ex ’s m o n o b loc , Sr ithai S u p er w a re b ec am e t h e f i r s t p l a s t i c w a re m an u f a c t u r i n g c o m p an y i n Th ai l an d to m a s s -p ro d u c e m o n o b l o c . 6 Si n c e t h en , t h e m o n o b l o c & f o l d i n g t a b l e en s embl e h ave f i l l ed t h e s t reet s , p a i n t ed t h e c i t y s c a p e w i t h t h ei r b o l d c o l o u r.

‘LOM WONG KIN KAO’, THAI FOOD-SHARING E T I Q U E T T E AT K I N G R A M A V D I N I N G T A B L E FIGURE

NOTES 32

1 Si m o n d e L a L o u b ère, A Ne w H isto r ic a l R e la t io n o f t h e K in gd o m o f Sia m ( L o n d o n : F. L . f o r T h o . H o r n e, 1 6 9 3 ) , p 3 4 . 2 L a L o u b ère, p 5 5 . 3 R o n al d S L ove, ‘ Si m o n d e L a L o u b ère: Fren c h V i ew s o f Si a m I n th e 1680s ’ , T he S ia m S o c ie t y, J o u r n a l o f t h e Si a m So c i et y, 8 2 ( 1 9 9 4 ) , p 1 5 6 . 4 นั ก รบ ม ู ล ม านั ส , ‘ เ ก้ า อี ้ : ท ี ่ น ั ่ ง ส ู ง ’ , T he C lo u d , 2 0 2 0 < h t t p s : // rea d t h ec l ou d.c o/ h i s to r y -o f -c h a i r -i n -t h a i l a n d / > [ ac c es s e d 1 0 D ec em b er 2 0 2 0 ] . 5 พ ั ช รเว ช ส ุ ข ท อง, ‘ การเ ม ื อ งบ นโต ๊ ะ อาห าร ยุ ท ธศ าส ต ร์ ข องพ ระพ ุ ท ธเจ้ า ห ลวง’, Silpa M a g, 2 0 2 0 < h t t p s : // w w w. s i l p a-m ag . c o m / h i s to r y / a r t i c l e_ 1 4 0 5 8 > [ ac c es s ed 12 D ec e m b er 2 0 2 0 ] .

MONOBLOC: THE FOOD VENDOR’S ESSENTI ALS UPPER CLOUD

6 ช ั ช ว าล ส ุ ว รรณส ว ั ส ด ิ ์ , อาค ิ เ ต ็ ก เจอ ( B a n g k o k : SA L M ON , 2 0 2 0 ) , p 1 5 9 . PA N N AW AT S E R M S U K

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01

Din in g is a means of fo st er ing rela t io nships. The Tha i et i q u et t e aro u n d f o o d s h ar ing, ‘lom w ong k in ka o’, per sist s t hro ugho ut t he eras . Yet , am i d t h e COVI D -19 global pandemic, so cia l d ist a ncing mea sures h ave b ee n i n vo ked f o r s afety precaut ions. As d ining be co me le ss int ima t e, h o w c an t h e i n -h o u s e d inin g facilities be redesign to a cco mmo d a t e t he ‘lo m w o n g k i n k ao’ c u s to m wh ile abiding by t he socia l d ist a ncing guid elines?

RE-CONTEXTUALISING MONOBLOC C O N S I D E R I N G LO C AT I O N A N D/O R O C C A S I O N

02

Mo n o bloc is t he manifest a t io n o f ma ss co nsumpt io n – t h e u t i l i s at i o n o f u niform good t hat d isre ga rd s a ny se nse o f ind iv id u al i t y. T h e m o n o b l o c p hen omenon has conti nua lly st ir red up t he pho bia o f c u l t u ra l g en t r i f i c at i o n . W hat design moves ca n be t a ken to rela t e t he ind ustr i a l a r t ef ac t w i t h i t s im m ediat e context ?

MICRO DINING MAX FUNCTIONALITY + MIN FOOTPRINT

03

I n the era w here micro d wellings a re o n t he r ise, ho w ca n d i n i n g f u r n i t u re b e d es ig ned using minimal fo o t pr int ?

LO W TA B L E

KLINAI

SINCE 2000 BC

1200 BC

URBAN DINING-SCAPE A M I C R O-I N S TA L L AT I O N I N A M A C R O S PA C E

04

As time is of t he essence, st reet fo o d beca me t he mo re l i kel y c h o i c e f o r th e c i t y dw ellers. Wit h t he significa nt increa se o f info r m al f o o d s t a l l s – an eater y w ithout t able ser v ice – t he co ncer n beco mes findi n g a p l a c e f o r a quic k bit e. Can a serie s o f micro - inst a lla t io ns, d esigned to h a c k i n to t h e ex is ting furnit ure, crea t e a co nt inuo us d ining- sca pe wit h i n t h e u r b an rea l m ?

DINING EVOLUTION T H E N E X T O U T R É D I N I N G I N N O VAT I O N S

05

Fro m privat e to public , fo r ma l to info r ma l, d ining cult u re h a s d ra m at i c al l y evo lved in parallel w i t h t he huma n civ ilisa t io n. By ac c o u n t i n g t h e g l o b a l movements, w hat could be t he ne x t o ut ré d ining innova t i o n s ?

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?

‘ S E T T H E TA B L E ’ SINCE 400 AD

B R E A K FA S T B A R AND LUNCH COUNTER

FOOD COURT AND MEALS ON-BOARD

?

1890 AD

1970 AD

2021 AD

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 1770 AD

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I L LU S T R AT I O N C R E D IT S FRONT COVER

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Il l u s t ra t i o n : Pan n aw a t Ser m s u k

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Fred er i c k L i t c h f i el d , I llu st ra t e d H isto r y o f Fu r n it u re : Fro m t he E a r lie st to the Pre se n t T im e , 4 t h ed n ( L o n d o n : Tr u s l ove, H a n s o n & C o m b a, 1 8 9 9 ) , p 9.

03

P l an e t Po m p e i i , ‘ T h e H o u s e o f T h e E p h eb e’

04

C o r b i s H i s to r i c al , ‘ Fea s t Ser ved To K i n g A l ex a n d er A n d H i s C o u r t i ers ’ , 1900

05

Ev ra rd d ’ E s p i n q u es , ‘ C o m p i l at i o n A r t h u r i en n e d e Mi c h eau Go n n o t ’ , 1 470, p 13.

06

J W i l l i a m s o n , ‘A n c i en t R o m an St re et Sc en e’ , 1 9 0 5

07

Wer n e r Fo r m an , ‘A D e t a i l o f A Sc ro l l : G o i n g U p t h e R i ver a t t h e Qi n gmi n g ( Sp r i n g ) Fes t i val by Z h a n g Zed u a n’ , 1 9 8 0

reproduced from Pedar William Foss, ‘Mealt ime in t he Roman House’, Qu e m D i zere C ha o s, 1997 < ht t ps: //quemdixerechaos.com/pompeii/roman-mealt ime/> [accessed 1 4 D ec em ber 2020].

via: Pla n e t Pompe ii, < ht t ps: //www.planet pompeii.com/en/map/t he-hou s e-of-t h eephebe/512-summer -t r iclinium.ht ml> [accessed 14 December 2020].

via: Ge tty Ima ge s , 1900 < ht t ps: //www.get t yimages.com/det ail/news-photo/s c en e-ofm eal-feast -ser ved-to-king-alexander -and-his-news-photo/587493750> [acces s ed 12 D ecember 2020].

via : Look a n d Le a rn , < ht t ps: //www.lookandlear n.com/histor y-images/M446151/An c ien t Roman-st reet -scene> [accessed 17 Januar y 2021].

via: Ge tty Ima ge s , < ht t ps: //www.get t yimages.com/det ail/news-photo/det ail-of-a-s c rollcalled-going-up-t he-r iver -at -t he-news-photo/152195619> [accessed 13 Decem ber 2020].

08

T h o m as R o w l an d s o n , ‘A Ta b l e D ’ H o t e o r Fren c h Ord i n ar y i n Par i s ’ , 1810

09

M Se em u l l er, ‘ C afe’ Fras c a t i i n Pa r i s ’ , 2 0 0 2

10

Mar t i n van M ey t e n s , We d d in g S u p pe r , 1 7 6 3

11

Jo h n S H o l b ro o k , S ilve r f o r T he Din in g R o o m , S e le c t e d Pe r io d s ( Cambri dge: C a m b r i d g e U n i ver s i t y P res s , 1 9 1 2 ) , p 3 8 .

12

G e o rg e Ed w i n Fu s s el l , T he E n glish R u ra l L a bo u re r ( L o n d o n : B at c h w or th Pres s , 1949).

13

E L i m m er, Lu n c hro o m in C h ic a go 18 96 , 1 8 9 7 .

via: The Me tropolita n Mu s e u m of Ar t, < ht t ps: //www.met museum.org/ar t /c ollec t ion / search/787712> [accessed 16 Januar y 2021].

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via: Wikipe dia , < ht t ps: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File: Wedding_S upper _-_ Mar t in _van _ Meyt ens_-_Google_Cult ural_Inst it ut e.jpg> [accessed 12 December 2020].

via: Ge tty Ima ge s , < ht t ps: //www.get t yimages.com/det ail/illust rat ion/lunch-break -peopleeat ing-at -cafet er ia-in-royalt y-free-illust rat ion/1168730641> [accessed 20 Janu ar y 2021].

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J B ay l o r R o b e r t s , ‘Au to m at , N ew Yo r k C i t y ’ , 2 0 0 9

pp 12-13

FIGURE

UPPER CLOUD

via: Na tion a l Ge ogra phic, < ht t ps: //www.nat ionalgeographic.com/photograph y/ph oto-ofthe-day/2009/10/automat -ny-rober t s-pod/> [accessed 20 Januar y 2021].

14

G e o rg e L o u i s , ‘A L az y Su s an i n a C h i n es e R es t a u ra n t ’ , 1 9 8 7

15

Vw en d el er, ‘ Sto l l w erc k -Au to m at en res t a u ra n t i n B er l i n vo n 1 8 9 6 ’ , 1 987

via: Wikipedia, < ht t ps: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lazy_S usan#/media/File: Res t au ran t _ ser ving_t ur nt able_rest aurant _in_China,_1987.jpg> [accessed 14 December 20 20].

via: Wikipe dia < ht t ps: //commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File: Rest aurant 1896.jpg> [accessed 20 Januar y 2021].

Stollwerck-Au tom at en -

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B et t m an n , ‘ H o r n an d H a rd a r t Au to m a t Po s t c a rd ’ , 1 9 0 0

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Ed i to r s o f M es s y N es s y, ‘ Oh To H ave E at en At T h e Au to m a t , J u s t Onc e’ , 2017

18

A n d rea d el Sar to , D o ge A n to n io Gr im a n i, 1 5 7 0

via: Ge tty Ima ge s , < ht t ps: //www.get t yimages.com/det ail/news-photo/post ca rd-for-h orn hardar t -shows-how-an-automat -wor ks-news-photo/514679678> [accessed 20 D ec em ber 2021].

via: Me s s yNe s s yC hic, < ht t ps: //www.messynessychic.com/2017/08/04/oh-to-h ave-eat en at -t he-automat -just -once/> [accessed 20 Januar y 2021].

via: Na tion a l Tru s t C olle ction , < ht t p: //www.nat ionalt r ust collect ion s . org. u k / object /608980> [accessed 18 Januar y 2021].

19

S a ra Ta c c h e l l a, ‘ Sea t s o f ( N o ) Po w er ’ ( C R A F T C u l t u ral H er i t a g e, 2 0 19), p 25.

20

B o r i s C o h en a n d J o s ep h P u c c i , ‘ Fo l d a b l e Tab l e’ ( P h i l a d el p h i a , 1 9 5 1 ), pp. 1– 2.

21

Ka r l M a n g , Ge sc hic ht e D e s M o d e r n e n M ö b e ls ( H a t j e, 1 9 7 8 ) , p 1 5 9 .

22

A n n e Qu i to , ‘ I t Pay s to Sp l u rg e f o r A n Au t h en t i c Ver s i o n o f T h e Pa nton C h ai r ’ , 2019

via: QUARTZ, < ht t ps: //qz.com/quar t zy/1282864/t he-histor y-of-t he-panton-chair/? epik= d j 0 y J n U 9 e l N L b 1 N s W n B p Q j J t N m h a V X V Pd j B f Tn N VQ U 9 a O Fd 2 b l g m c D 0 w J m 4 9 Z FJ w R k t 5 T E 1 C S GxMZkp6OWFPU0NudyZ0PUFBQUFBR0FVSmJF> [accessed 18 Januar y 2021 ].

23

Ma r i e C h ar l o t t e , ‘A m an d i n e & H o ël – Au M a n o i r d e Kero u z i en E n Bretagn e’ , 2018 via: Ma rie C ha rlotte , < ht t p: //mar iechar lot t ephotographie.com/2019/01/04/am an din ehoel-manoir -kerouzien-bret agne/> [accessed 22 December 2020].

24

B r i an St a c ey, ‘ H a n o i St ree t Fo o d ’ , 2 0 0 8

25

ช ั ช ว าล ส ุ ว รรณส ว ั ส ด ิ ์ , อาค ิ เ ต ็ ก เจอ ( B an g k o k : SA L M ON , 2 0 2 0 ) , p 1 6 3 .

26

See F igu re 1 0

27

พ ั ช รเว ช ส ุ ข ท อง, ‘ เ ล ี ้ ย งโต ๊ ะ ป ี ใ ห ม ่ : ว ั ฒ นธรรม ค บ ห าส ม าค ม ข องเจ้ า นาย’ , 2 0 1 9

28

บ จก. บ ุ ญ รอด ฯ an d ส ถานเ อกอั ค รราช ฑ ู ต กรุ ง ม อส โค , ค ว าม ส ม พ ั น ธ์ ไท ยกั บ รั ส เซี ย ( B a n g k o k : A m ar i n , 2 0 0 7 ) .

29

‘ เ ด ิ น ป ่ า ห าข องกิ น “ว ิ ถ ี ค นไท ยในส ม ั ย กรุ ง ศ รี อ ยุ ธ ยา”’ , 2 0 1 8

via : Flickr, < ht t ps: //www.flickr.com/photos/blackrockphoto/3065851391/in / photost ream/> [accessed 22 December 2020].

via : S ilpa -Ma g, December 2020].

< ht t ps: //www.silpa-mag.com/histor y/ar t icle_14058>

110

ปี

ข องเพ ื ่ อ นให ้

30

Ji m Mi ze r s k i , C a m bo d ia C a p t u re d ( P h n o m Pen h : J as m i n e I m a g e Mac h i n e , 2016), p 113.

31

เอนก นาว ิ ก ม ู ล , ป ระม ว ล ภาพ พ ระป ิ ย ม ห าราช ( B a n g k o k : เ ม ื อ งโบ ราณ, 1 9 8 9 ) .

32

Ml ad en A n to n ov, ‘ St ree t Fo o d C ar t s ’ , 2 0 2 0

via : Ge tty Ima ge s , < ht t ps: //www.get t yimages.com/det ail/news-photo/dozen s -of-s t reet food-car t s-are-par ked-in-an-alley-in-news-photo/1208549886> [accessed 17 Jan u ar y 2021].

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via : Tips DD, < ht t ps: //www.t ipsdd.com/eat / ว ิ ถ ี ค น ไท ย ใน สม ั ย ก รุ ง ศ ร ี / > [accessed 9 D ec em ber 2020].

TIMELINE pp 24-25

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BIBLIOGRAPHY B au m g a r t h u b er, C h r i s t i n e, ‘A Sh o r t H i s to r y o f T h e D i n i n g R o o m ( Pa r t 1)’ , The Ne w I n q u ir y, 2 0 1 5 < h t t p s : // t h en ew i n q u i r y. c o m / b l o g / a -s h o r t -h i s tor y- of - th edi n i n g -ro o m -p ar t -1 / > [ ac c es s ed 1 0 D ec em b er 2 0 2 0 ] — — — , ‘A Sh o r t H i s to r y o f T h e D i n i n g R o o m ( Par t 2 ) ’ , T he Ne w I n qu ir y, 2015 < h t t p s : // t h e n e w i n q u i r y. c o m / b l o g / a - s h o r t - h i s to r y - o f - t h e - d i n i n g - ro o m - p a r t - 2 / > [ a c c es s ed 1 0 D ec em b er 2 0 2 0 ] B o s t w i c k, W i l l i a m , ‘ M o n o b l o c B l u e s ’ , D w e ll M a ga z in e , 2 0 1 2 < h ttps : //www. dw el l . c o m / ar t i c l e / m o n o b l o c -b l u es -d 2 7 3 0 4 7 a > [ a cc es s ed 2 2 J a n u a r y 2021] B ro w n , Sh e l by, ‘ R ec l i n i n g A n d D i n i n g ( A n d D r i n k i n g ) I n A n c i en t Greec e’ , Ge tty, 2012 < h t t p s : // b l o g s . g et t y. ed u / i r i s / rec l i n i n g -an d -d i n i n g -an d -dri n k i n g- i n a n c i en t -g reec e/ > [ a c c es s ed 1 0 D ec em b er 2 0 2 0 ] B u r ke, Pet er, an d H a l i l I n al c i k, H isto r y o f H u m a n it y : S c ie n t if ic a nd C u ltu ra l Deve lo p m e n t , 7 vo l s ( L o n d o n : R o u t l ed g e , 1 9 9 4 ) , V C a r l to n , Gen ev i eve, ‘ H o w T h e Au to m at Paved T h e Way Fo r Fas t Food In Th e Ear l y 1 9 0 0 s ’ , A ll T ha t ’s I n t e re st in g , 2 0 2 0 < h t t p s : // al l t h at s i n t eresti n g.c om/ a u to m a t > [ a c c es s ed 1 8 J a n u a r y 2 0 2 1 ] C l a r k , M el i s s a, a n d R eb ec c a L Sp an g , ‘ T h e H i s to r y o f R es t a u ra n t s R eveal ed’ , T h e L eo n ard L o p at e Sh o w : P l eas e E x p l a i n C o h en , B o r i s , an d J o s ep h P u c c i , ‘ Fo l d a b l e Ta b l e’ ( P h i l a d el p h i a , 1 9 5 1), pp. 1– 2 F i o r i to , J e f f , ‘ H i s to r y o f Fu r n i t u re: A n c i en t G re ec e’ , F io r ito I n t e r io r De sign , 2 0 1 7 < h t t p : // f i o r i to i n t er i o rd es i g n . b l o g s p o t . c o m / 2 0 1 7 / 0 2 / h i s to r y -o f - f u rn i tu rea n c i en t -g re ec e. h t m l > [ a c c es s e d 1 0 D ec em b er 2 0 2 0 ] Fo s s , Ped a r W i l l i am , ‘ K i t c h en s A n d D i n i n g R o o m s At Po m p ei i ’ , T he Un ive rsity o f M ic hig a n , 1 ( 1 9 9 4 ) , 4 5 – 5 6 Fra z i er, I a n , ‘ B ac k To T h e H a r b o r ’ , T he Ne w Yo r ke r, 2 0 1 1 < h t tps : //www. n ew yo r ker. c o m / m ag az i n e/ 2 0 1 1 / 0 3 / 2 1 / b a c k -to -t h e-h a r b o r > [ a c c es s ed 23 D ec e m b er 2 0 2 1 ] G arc i a, Ma r i s a, ‘ T h e Evo l u t i o n o f t h e A i r p l a n e Se a t ’ , T R AVE L+ L E ISUR E , 2020 < h t t p s : // w w w. t ravel an d l ei s u re. c o m / v i d eo / h i s to r y -o f -t h e-ai rl i n e- s eat> [ a c c es s ed 2 1 D ec em b er 2 0 2 0 ] G ro s s , D an i el A , ‘ T h e L a z y Su s an , t h e C l as s i c C en t er p i ec e of C h i n es e R es t a u ra n t s , I s N ei t h e r C l a s s i c n o r C h i n e s e’ , T he S m it h so n ia n , 2 0 14 < h ttps : // w w w. s m i t h s o n i a n m a g . c o m / a r t s - c u l t u r e / l a z y - s u s a n - c l a s s i c - c e n t e r p i e c e c h i n es e -res t a u ra n t s -n ei t h er -c l as s i c -n o r -c h i n es e -1 8 0 9 4 9 8 4 4 / > [ ac c es s ed 10 D ec e m b er 2 0 2 0 ] H a r n et t , J erem y, ‘ B ar s ( Tab er n a , Po p i n a , C a u p o n a, T h er m o p o l i u m )’ , O x fo rd Un ive r sit y P re ss, 2 0 1 7 H o l b ro o k , J o h n S, Si l ver Fo r T h e D i n i n g R o o m , Se l ec t ed Per i o d s ( Cambri dge: C a m b r i d g e U n i ver s i t y P res s , 1 9 1 2 ) H o l l i n g s w o r t h , Gerel y n , ‘ On T h i s D ay : R ec l i n i n g At Tab l e’ , NC R Tod ay, 2011 < h t t p s : // w w w. n c ro n l i n e. o rg / b l o g s / n c r -to d ay / d ay -rec l i n i n g -t ab l e> [ ac c es s ed 1 0 D ec em b er 2 0 2 0 ] Ken d a l l , B r i d g et , R eb ec c a L Sp an g , Pat r i c i a Van d en Eec k h o u t , an d Lu ke Barr, ‘A H i s to r y o f t h e R e s t au ran t ’ , B B C Wo r l d Ser v i c e: T h e Fo r u m Kl ei n , C h r i s to p h er, ‘ T h e Au to m at : B i r t h o f a Fa s t Fo o d N a t i o n’ , H is to r y, 2018 < h t t p s : // w w w. h i s t o r y. c o m / n e w s / t h e - a u t o m a t - b i r t h - o f - a - f a s t - f o o d - n a t i o n > [ a c c es s ed 1 7 J a n u a r y 2 0 2 1 ] Ko kk i n i d i s , Ta s o s , ‘ W h y D i d A n c i en t G reek s R ec l i n e To E at A n d D r i n k? ’ , Gre e k R e p o r t e r, 2018 < h t t p s : // g reec e. g reek rep o r t er. c o m / 2 0 1 8 / 0 7 / 0 1/wh y- di da n c i en t -g re ek s -rec l i n e-to -e a t -an d -d r i n k / > [ ac c es s ed 1 0 D ec em b er 2 020] de L a L o u b ère, Si m o n , A Ne w H isto r ic a l R e la t io n o f t h e K in g d o m o f Sia m ( L o n d o n : F. 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