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BioPower Buyers Guide Automating Solar Manufacturing & reliable quality control

Solutions to Wind Tower Logistics and Transportation Problems Understanding the Renewable Energy Grant Tax issues and anomalies

PLUS‌ PV America & NAWTEC shows in print

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For over 40 years, Applied Materials has been the world leader in nanomanufacturing technology, helping make electronic innovations like flat panel TVs, smart phones and powerful computers both possible and affordable with our thin film engineering expertise. Today, we’re applying this same capability to help our customers make solar power accessible to everyone, everywhere. The world leader in PV solar manufacturing equipment.

Applied Materials and the Applied Materials logo are registered trademarks in the U.S. and other countries. Š 2009. All rights reserved.

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BioPower Buyers Guide

May/June 2009 Volume 3, Number 3

Automating Solar Manufacturing

News Bites


The Renewable Energy Grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act


Automating Solar Manufacturing: Taking advantage of lessons learned


Large Scribe Process Optimization for Large Area Thin Film PV Modules


Reliable Quality Control: For the production process of thin film PV modules


The Future of Solar Power: And the importance of hybrid solutions


Solar Energy Products


Earth, Wind, and Fire: How to move renewable resources from here to there


Transmission Consultancies: Assisting the wind energy industry in fulfilling its potential


Testing of Windmill Subsystems and Assemblies


Challenges and Opportunities Presented by Wind Industry Transportation

& reliable quality control

Solutions to Wind Tower Logistics and Transportation Problems Understanding the Renewable Energy Grant Tax issues and anomalies



PLUS… PV America & NAWTEC shows in print

Michelle Froese ART DIRECTOR

Rommel Ramirez SALES MANAGER


Kristy Vail

departments Solar Energy


PV America Show in Print


Wind Energy




Ian Stuart


Port Moody, B.C. V3H 5H1 Phone: (604) 461-6223

North American Clean Energy is published bi-monthly by Action Media Ltd. Subscriptions: $48 per year. Foreign $89 per year. Editorial, Advertising, Production and Circulation are at 255 Newport Drive, Suite 336, Port Moody, B.C.

BioPower Buyers Guide




NAWTEC Show in Print




Geothermal Energy


Investing in Clean Energy



Solving Wind Tower Logistics and Transportation Problems

Hydro and Marine Energy



Wind Energy Products

Energy Efficiency



Events Calendar


Advertiser Website Directory



V3H 5H1 (604) 461-6223. North American Clean Energy accepts no responsibility or liability for reported claims made by manufacturers and/or distributors for products or services; the views and opinions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of North American Clean Energy. No portion of this publication may be reproduced without the permission of the publishers. Copyright 2008, Action Media Ltd. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to Circulation department, 255 Newport Drive, Suite 336, Port Moody, B.C. V3H 5H1 email:


2009 BioPower Buyers Guide


Fuels-from-the-forest Gasification


Powering the Cars of Tomorrow


Geoexchange: Heating up the renewable energy sector


Geothermal News


Joint Ventures between Regulated Utilities and Developers: Part I of 2


Hydro and Marine Energy News


Energy Efficiency

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Photo by Michelle Moore

editor’s note Mark your calendars. The first annual “SolarDay” will be held on the first day of summer—Sunday, June 21st, 2009. This state and national day of recognition is meant not only to acknowledge the growth of solar energy in the US, but also to educate the public about the benefits of solar energy and installations. Check out, said to be the first consumer portal about solar energy, for more information about related tax credits and the benefits of energy independence. With the eight-year extension of the 30% energy investment tax credit (ITC) in the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, and the $2000 removed cap that enables homeowners to fully use the 30% ITC, SolarDay may not have come at a more appropriate time. Although, realistically, the same could be said for most any renewable energy… acknowledgement and consumer information is a good thing and an ongoing need. I recently attended a conference put on by the Canadian Geothermal Energy Association ( who are desperately seeking for geothermal energy the same type of government and public acknowledgement wind and solar energy receive in the country. A credit, perhaps, to neighboring US and President Obama’s stimulus plan, which is not only encompassing, but also seems to be working—at

least according to The Department of Energy’s statistical agency, the US Energy Information Agency. Based on their report, the extension of tax credits for renewable energy projects has already stimulated industry investment. Though it was predicted that wind power will continue to dominate the US renewables sector, calculations show that “biomass capacity will also be 18% higher in 2030 under ARRA [American Recovery and Reinvestment Act] than in a non-ARRA scenario, while geothermal capacity in 2013 will be 16% greater under ARRA than without the stimulus plan” (source: Figures show carbon emissions will also be 1.3% lower in 2013 than previously expected. Though some might argue the value of one “clean” or “green” energy source over another, it would seem a joint, even hybrid approach is in order if we are to permanently reduce greenhouse gases and our dependency on fossil fuels. Check out the article on page 16 related to hybrid solutions. This issue, we also touch on solar collector technology and manufacturing, wind power-related transportation issues, as well as geoexchange systems. Plus, we present our BioPower Buyers Guide that focuses on biomass, biofuels, and waste-to-energy products and services. Let’s keep the technology and investments flowing.

Sincerely, Michelle Froese

news bites Making sense of the new energy paradigm Companies, private users, and public agencies can ensure their future energy needs are met safely and securely by “thinking outside the grid,” according to a new book by one of the energy and technology industries’ pre-eminent thought leaders, Ronald H Bowman, Jr, executive vice president of Tishman Technologies Corporation. In “The Green Guide to Power: Thinking Outside the Grid,” Bowman explores the environmental and ecological impact of our current network of power plants and distribution lines. He offers cogent solutions on what Americans can do to reduce dependency on an increasingly erratic and inefficient energy creation and distribution system that produces more CO2 emissions than any other sector, including automotive transportation. “The Green Guide to Power” evaluates the total implementation cost and net energy benefit, with or without a carbon tax, on a myriad of green decentralized energy solutions. These solutions include: biomass, geothermal, solar, wind, ocean/tidal, biowaste, and hydraulic. Copies of the book can be purchased at

We Know Renewable Energy Troutman Sanders LLP is one of the world’s leading energy law firms. We have represented clients in energy matters since the 1920s, and our climate change practice has been active for nearly two decades. From this foundation of experience, we have developed a dynamic renewable and alternative energy practice that advises clients worldwide at every stage, from investment and tax structuring to development, construction and operation. As your plans for solar, wind and other renewable energy projects emerge, put the energy of our lawyers to work for you. For more information, contact: Craig Kline 212.704.6150 craig.kline@


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Phil Spector 212.704.6004 phil.spector@

Sustainable business solutions According to a recent report by McKinsey & Company, any successful program of action on climate change must support two objectives: stabilizing greenhouse gas (GHG), and maintaining economic growth. How well and how quickly businesses respond to an agenda of sustainability and corporate responsibility will determine which companies succeed. In an effort to better support and educate industry on sustainability, NSF has launched a new online resource, http://nsfsustainability. org. The new site provides information on product assessment, process verification and new standards, as well as sustainable business solutions.

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The Renewable Energy Grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Tax issues and anomalies

By Simon Friedman & Mark Regante Milbank Tweed Hadley & Mc Cloy LLP

Simon Friedman

Mark Regante


ne of the most important incentives for renewable energy provided in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (the “Act”) is the renewable energy grant. The grant permits owners of facilities that would otherwise be eligible for an investment tax credit (“ITC”) to receive a cash grant instead. Property eligible for the grant includes the qualifying portion of certain facilities that were, and continue to be, eligible for the production tax credit (“PTC”)—wind, closed and open biomass, geothermal, landfill gas, trash, hydropower and marine, and hydrokinetic facilities. Below discusses a few surprises in the Act, some potential and unexpected limits on the availability of the grant, and the guidance needed to deal with the grant, including the possibility of recapture in the context of partnerships.

Eligibility: Tax exempt partners

A partnership is not eligible for the grant if any partner is a government agency, or instrumentality, a tax-exempt entity described in section 501(c) of the Internal Revenue Code (the “Code”), or a tax exempt electric cooperative. This provision appears to be superfluous, over- and under-inclusive, and draconian. It is superfluous in that Treasury is also directed to apply rules similar to the rules in Code section 50, which already cover partnerships that include tax exempt entities. Sensibly, the Code section 50 rules do not prevent taxable partners in a partnership from receiving the credit if the tax exempt partners are subject to unrelated business income tax on their share of the partnership income (as they usually would be). The grant provision is over-inclusive because it does not have that exception. It is under-inclusive in that it defines tax-exempt entities narrowly, covering only governments and charities so, notably, it does not cover pension plans (or at least non-governmental pension plans) that are also exempt from US income tax, but are not described in section 501(c). (Non-governmental pension plans may be picked up by the reference to Code section 50, but are not likely a problem because the partnership income is subject to the unrelated business income tax.) Finally, the limitation is draconian because a 1% tax exempt partner can cost a partnership 100% of the grant. Given this limitation on the availability of the grant, it is important any partnership taking the grant not have any prohibited partners, and that it limit transfers of interests to prohibited partners. The difficulty with such prohibitions is policing indirect transfers. A number of funds are currently being planned that would invest in alternative energy and a number of individuals are interested in investing in those funds for commercial and green reasons. One can envision a scenario where a family limited partnership invests in a fund that invests in alternative energy. Should the entire credit be forfeited if some holder of an interest in the family limited partnership gives that interest to her favorite charity? Obviously, Treasury cannot resolve this statutory problem completely. However, it should have the authority to provide some kind of de minimis rule. For example, in the case of an upper tier partnership that was a passive investor, Treasury could permit ignoring interests held by tax exempt investors as long as no tax exempt investor held more than 10% of the upper tier partnership, and all indirect tax exempt investors in such passive entities held no more than a 10% aggregate interest in the facility. Other concerns and observations

The Act includes a number of surprises that might not have been anticipated. On the positive side, it allows a full 30% ITC and cash grant to owners of a number of types of renewable energy facilities for which the allowable PTC was, and continues, to be subject to a 50% reduction. Consequently, owners of these facilities, which include electric generating facilities fueled by open-loop biomass, landfill gas, and municipal solid waste, are provided a substantially greater benefit by the Act than under prior law. Also, owners of geothermal facilities that had previously qualified for only a 10% ITC are now eligible for a 30% ITC or cash grant. Left to be answered by Treasury is the treatment of electric generating facilities that cofire with a fuel other than a “qualified energy resource.” Under the PTC regime, facilities that burn biomass (closed- or open-loop), landfill gas, or municipal solid waste and another 8

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non-qualified fuel can, in many circumstances, claim PTCs on the portion of the electricity attributable to the qualified energy resource (usually allocated on the basis of relative Btu content of the different fuels). These facilities are “qualified facilities” within the meaning of section 45 of the Code and, on a plain reading of the Act, would appear eligible for a full 30% ITC or cash grant. Although Treasury officials have informally indicated they do not intend to impose additional eligibility limitations on these facilities, the rules or regulations implementing the ITC and grant provisions of the Act may adopt some minimum qualified fuel requirements, both for initial eligibility and to avoid ITC recapture or an obligation to repay grants. The Act provides cash grants for qualified facilities placed in service after 2010 only if construction began by the end of calendar year 2010. Many have asked (and it is unclear) what standard Treasury will use to determine when construction has begun. Moreover, Treasury has adopted inconsistent standards in the past for interpreting different similarly worded provisions of law. For instance, will having made significant contractual commitments to build or buy components qualify if physical construction has not yet begun? Will drilling wells for geothermal projects without more constitute beginning construction? Hopefully, Treasury will provide guidance in this area. As noted earlier, the Act directs the Treasury Department to “apply rules similar to the rules of section 50” of the Code for purposes of the cash grants. It is unclear from this short directive how much of and how literally Congress intended section 50 to be applied. Clearly, Congress intended to incorporate grant repayment rules similar to the staggered vesting ITC recapture provisions contained in section 50(a), and we have all assumed the reference to section 50 was intended to include the special rules provided for sale-leasebacks. Those special rules: 1) afford lessors a three-month window following the date a facility was first placed in service to purchase the facility and still be treated as the original owner entitled to the grant; 2) permit a lessor to elect to pass the grant through to its lessee. But section 50 contains a number of other rules that, if applied, would not be helpful to the industry. It denies ITC to “public utility property” (which includes most electric generating property owned by public utilities) if the utility’s cost of service for ratemaking purposes is reduced by reason of the ITC, or the base to which the utility’s rate of return for ratemaking purposes is applied is reduced by the ITC. This warrants a note of caution for any project owned by a public utility, or in which a public utility is a partner. Many utilities will say it is not a problem as their public utility commissions have already agreed that ITCs do not reduce their rate base or cost of service for ratemaking purposes. But, if they adopt this aspect of section 50, Treasury may say that grants are denied if the grant will reduce the utility’s cost of service or base for ratemaking purposes. The specific rules public utility commissions have adopted in the past to deal with ITC may not be broad enough to deal with this new cash grant and, considering the speed with which many state commissions act, projects coming online in the near future that are owned in whole or in part by public utilities might find themselves ineligible for all or a portion of the grant. One final feature of section 50 worth noting is that although PTCs are generally available for property located in US possessions without regard to the citizenship of the owner, section 50 limits eligibility for the ITC (and, by implication, the renewable energy grant) to US citizens, domestic corporations, and partnerships—all of the partners in which are US citizens or domestic corporations. Partnership accounting

If a single investor owns a $100 million facility, the tax consequences of receiving a $30 million grant are clear. The grant is not included in income and the investor must reduce the basis of the facility by half the grant, $15 million to $85 million. If investors own the property through a partnership, corresponding adjustments must be made to the investors’ basis in their partnership interests, and to their capital accounts (i.e. basis and capital accounts must be increased by the amount of the grant—$30 million—and decreased by the basis adjustment—$15 million). These adjustments preserve the relationship of the capital account balances of the investors to the partnership’s capital and, given the rule that partners cannot take deductions in excess of the basis of their partnership interests, allow the partners the full benefit of $85 million of depreciation deductions by the partnership. But, in partnerships with flips, it is unclear how the increases in partnership basis and capital account balances are to be shared by the partners and, if the grant is distributed to the partners, whether these increases and decreases must correspond to the cash distributions. There are two ways of approaching the issue. One can view the grant as representing tax-exempt income of the kind referred to in Code section 705(a)(1)(B). If so, the tax-exempt income can be allocated to the partners in any fashion that satisfies the Code section 704(b) regulations. The basis decreases should then probably, but not necessarily, be allocated in the same fashion. Cash distributions would have their own significance and can be

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made in any manner as long as the capital accounts of investors receiving the distributions are reduced. This provides for maximum flexibility and, therefore, increases the likelihood the grant will encourage investment in alternative energy. A second approach would treat the grant more like the ITC that would have been available to the investors. Treasury could treat each partner as if it had received the portion of the grant equal to the ITC it would have been allocated, and then as having contributed those funds to the partnership. The deemed contribution and the required basis reduction for half the grant would maintain the parity between capital account balances and inside (asset) and outside (partnership interest) tax basis. If the cash were then distributed to partners in proportions other than the deemed contributions, under appropriate circumstances, the disguised sale rules of Code section 707 would apply and a partner contributing property and receiving a disproportionate cash distribution might be viewed as selling a portion of the property to the partnership. Of the two approaches, maximum flexibility would be preferable for investors. However, more importantly than which approach is followed is having Treasury choose an approach and make its consequences clear.

it and all the partners are at the mercy of any partner who transfers its interest. Partnership agreements will have to be amended to deal with that issue, by prohibiting transfers that would cause recapture, limiting the ability of lenders to foreclose on pledges of partnership interests (if those pledges are permitted at all) and providing for indemnities. None of these are total solutions, especially in the now prevalent bankruptcy con-

text. These practical issues make Treasury clarification of the recapture rules critical. The foregoing summarizes just a few of the unresolved issues under the Treasury grant program—and shows how a “simple” statute can run afoul of existing regulatory complexity. In informal conversations, Treasury officials have indicated they hope to publish guidance on the new grant rules by June 30th and forms of grant applica-

tions by the end of July. Until then, we advise caution in making assumptions as to how these issues will be resolved. Simon Friedman and Mark Regante are both partners in Milbank’s Tax Department. Milbank Tweed Hadley & McCloy LLP

Controllers Have you discovered them yet?


Provision requires Treasury to provide recapture rules for the grant. How are those rules to be applied if the grant is given to a partnership? As a frame of reference, under the current ITC rules, partners claim the ITC on their tax returns. If a partner sells its partnership interest, or has that interest reduced by more than a third during the five year period before the ITC is fully vested, the partner suffers recapture and reports the recapture on its tax return. The partnership and other partners are not involved in the recapture. The approach Treasury takes to the question of how to recapture the grant may depend on the approach taken to the partnership accounting rules discussed above. If a partnership has maximum flexibility in how it allocates basis and distributes cash, then it is critical the item to which recapture is tied is made clear. Though it might make intuitive sense to relate recapture to the way the grant was distributed, the grant need not be distributed and cash is fungible. Probably recapture should be tied to increases in capital account balances and basis related to the deemed allocation of tax-exempt income. If the grant is deemed as received by a partner and then contributed by the partner to the partnership, then there is a natural way of applying the recapture rules. When the recapture rules are applied, there is a large practical issue. The partnership itself received the grant. It is unlikely, though it would solve many problems, that Treasury would be willing to pursue each partner separately for the grant recapture. If the partnership must pay the recapture, then

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solar energy

Automating Solar Manufacturing Taking advantage of lessons learned By John Dulchinos


here’s no doubt that the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry is hot. According to Solarbuzz, LLC, an international solar energy research and consulting company, world solar PV market installations reached a record high of 2,826 megawatts (MW) in 2007, representing a growth of 62% over the previous year. World solar cell production reached a consolidated figure of 3,436 MW in 2007, up from 2,204 MW a year earlier. The PV industry raised nearly $10 billion in 2007, and generated $17.2 billion in global revenues in 2007. The US has set 2015 as the goal to reach grid parity (that point where solar electricity is equal to grid electricity), while other nations predict reaching it as soon as 2010. Regardless, it is clear there will be an exploding demand for PV electricity in the near future. Top manufacturing executives in the solar industry are challenged to find the most effective tools and processes to gain more productivity and decrease costs within a set budget. Automation can provide these top executives with key components to maximize factory throughput, drive down costs, and improve efficiencies. Introduction stage

Still in the early stage of its life cycle, manufactures within the solar industry are contemplating the next critical steps in their production processes to remain competitive and prepare for future demand. Industry/Product Life Cycle Figure 1 As stated above, the key will be the “Big Three” drivers: driving down costs, maximizing factory throughput, and improving efficiencies. Automating solar processes will be a solar manufacturer’s first line of attack. Manufacturers will be wise to reap the benefits of experience from more mature industries that have been through the rapid growth associated with a developing Robot vs. Manual Labor Cost- Table 1 and maturing product line. Those in the semiconductor, disk drive, and flat-panel display industries have paved the way. Each has experienced extreme rapid growth and has used automation to attack the Big Three. Although there are many differences between solar and semiconductor manufacturing, overall the processes are quite similar in the way they manufacture sensitive wafers at their core. Though semiconductor production requires very clean environments and single wafers can cost thousands of dollars, the solar industry does not require such stringent cleanrooms and a single wafer may cost five dollars. However, like the semiconductor industry, which started out with small fabs and larger wafers, moving then to larger fabs and smaller/thinner wafers, the solar 10

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industry will also follow this progression. These similarities coupled with the Big Three drivers are reasons enough for solar manufacturers to learn from the past. That past experience points to automation. Throughput, costs, and efficiency

Although demand for solar products is rapidly increasing, the manufacturing of solar panels is still more costly than producing electricity with fossil fuels—which is why governments provide economic incentives. Nevertheless, availability of these incentives is tenuous and manufacturers preparing for the increase in demand are wise to consider all their options. The largest costs associated with manufacturing involve throughput, quality, and labor. To drive costs down, manufacturers need to address material, overhead, and labor prices. Automation addresses all three. The most effective way to lower overhead costs, aside from getting a less expensive facility, is to increase throughput out of the same amount of facility space. With a fixed expense, driving twice as much through the same amount of space effectively cuts overhead costs in half. The fundamental value of automation and robotics to any production line is the ability to produce a much larger volume in the same amount of floor space. The best way for manufacturers to lower material costs is to have efficient processes with very little scrap material. Ideally, one would want to stop producing any “bad” or faulty parts. But, if produced at any point in the process, it is important to quickly resolve this issue before the product continues through the remaining process. Automation affects throughput and material costs in that it does a better job of handling products than manual labor. Robots have less handling defects and reduced scrap due to handling errors. With inspection technologies, using vision as an example, manufacturers can inspect a product at each step of the process, and verify that the part is worth forwarding through to the next process. This technology allows manufacturers to catch any bad or faulty products and analyze the process. Robotic handling with vision inspection is more consistent than manual labor. For instance, automated vision inspection applies the exact same vision criteria each and every time, whereas manual labor tends to have variability in the Adept Solaris- Solar Automation Products- Adept Quattro s650 inspection process. Manual labor is inconsistent as no two operators are the same. One person may have a less discriminating eye than another. Vision can also use infrared and standard wavelength for inspections. Coupled with the decreased price of robots and an increased cost of labor (see Table 1), automation inspection proves to be faster and more consistent.

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Automation opportunities in solar manufacturing

Some examples of various steps in the solar manufacturing process that will benefit from automation include, but are not limited to: wafer handling between process steps, box/tray/boat loading and unloading, and vision guided conveyor loading and unloading. Each benefits from the automation process by virtue of speed, accuracy, and efficiency. One such application is a cell being used in an inspection system to load and unload inspection machines, which are also sorters that will grade the cells while sorting them into different bins. Another example is a cell using robotics to transfer cassettes containing solar wafers to a machine where a process occurs, such as adding anti-reflective coating on cells, where the robots transfer the completed product to conveyors in trays or boats to be sent to the next step or process machine. Aside from the obvious advantages of speed, accuracy, efficiency, there is also the ability to work 24/7 if need be. Yet another benefit is that certain processes produce cells that are 150 degrees Celsius, making automation the only way to handle them without requiring a cool down phase for manual manipulation. Robots are being utilized now in all process steps at several leading solar manufacturing facilities. With advanced computer algorithms and gripper technology, robots are able to handle solar cells more reliably and consistently than people can. This allows cells to be transferred more quickly from step to step with less breakage. As solar manufacturer’s move to thinner and thinner silicon solar cells, even more delicate handling will be required as cells become more fragile and brittle. The difference between a 150-micron solar cell and a 300-micron thick cell is substantial, and automating this process will be vital. A typical robot cell can process approximately 45 to 75 solar cells a minute, significantly faster than a manual process, and will range from $100,000 to $200,000. When considering the cost of paying and maintaining multiple employees to do the same job, automation is not only cost-effective but also a good return on investment. State of the art technology using vision guidance for fast, precise motion will be vital for manufacturers of solar wafers and solar cells as they adopt new manufacturing equipment to maximize production throughput. Automation will be the key to reaching grid parity.

Electron multiplication digital camera Hamamatsu’s C9100-13 ImagEM electron multiplication (EM) digital camera offers high resolution and NIR sensitivity for superior analysis of cell/module shunt, Si dislocation, carrier density, and efficiency in photovoltaic devices by the photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) methods. Crystalline silicon, III-IV, a-Si and CdTe thin film PV devices can be analyzed. Hamamatsu’s EM cameras are offered in either in-line and off-line configurations and are available with optional dark box, laser illumination system, and processor for bench top PL/EL applications. Hamamatsu |

John Dulchinos is the president and CEO of robotics manufacturing company Adept Technology, Inc. Adept Technology, Inc. North American Clean Energy

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solar energy

Laser Scribe Process Optimization for Large Area Thin Film PV Modules By Jeff Su, David Tanner & Chris Eberspacher

Figure 1: Illustration of the location of P1, P2, P3 Laser Scribe on SunFab Thin Film Line


ne of the key challenges in manufacturing large-area thin film photovoltaic (PV) modules is the laser scribing of the large substrates. In this article, laser scribing process for large sized 5.7m2 PV modules is presented. Key process parameters including the film type and materials, laser optics, and equipment attributes are discussed. Thin film PV cells are rapidly gaining market acceptance due to recent advances in manufacturing technology and the low cost per watt. These types of solar cells are comprised of a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer, silicon absorber layers, and back contact metal layers. To produce a useful voltage, the solar cells are patterned into several segments and then integrated in series to form the module. In the fabrication of PV modules, the patterning method is an important factor for achieving high throughput and high yield that lead to low cost. Compared with traditional mechanical patterning methods, the laser scribing technique allows much smaller area loss, higher precision, and easier control. In the process development of large area PV module fabrication described, the laser scribe technique has been adapted as standard monolithic process steps. There are three laser scribe process steps identified as P1, P2, and P3. P1 laser scribe process uses 1064nm wavelength pulsed type laser to pattern the whole TCO glass panel into individual cells; P2 laser scribe process uses 532nm wavelength laser to remove absorber layer material to allow formation of cell interconnects; and P3 laser scribe process uses 532nm wavelength laser to isolate each cell formed by P1 and P2 scribe patterns.

Hardware configuration

The following laser scribe process was used in an integrated SunFab production line that manufactures thin film solar modules on 5.7 square meter (m2) glass substrates. These ultra-large 2.2m x 2.6m sized substrates are four times larger than today’s conventional thin film solar modules. The SunFab Thin Film Line can be configured to produce modules with either single or tandem junction technology. The typical layout of the production line is illustrated in Figure 1, with the location of the laser scribe tools identified. Key laser scribe process parameters

P1 Laser scribe process The key P1 laser process parameters are laser output power density, spot size, spot overlap, and effective scribing Figure 3b: Poor P1 Figure 3a: Good P1 width, scribing speed, and TCO scribing quality scribing quality (Transparent Conductive Oxide) material and thickness. The success criteria for the P1 process are good cell-to-cell and cell-to-edge isolation with minimal scribing area. Isolation prevents current leakage for the solar cells, while the scribing area is considered as area loss for the cell and has a direct impact on solar module output and efficiency. To determine and narrow down the P1 process window, TCO coated glass was scribed with varying input parameters including pulse frequency, scribing speed, and laser power output. From the scribing images observed under an optical microscope, the scribing quality can be identified, as shown in Figures 3a and 3b. Another important P1 laser scribe process parameter is to prevent glass surface damage. With the aid of a surface profiler, the high-energy density setting that causes glass surface damage can be identified, as shown in Figure 4.


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Figure 4: Laser output power effect on glass surface profile

P2 Laser scribe process The success criterion for P2 process is low contact resistance for cell interconnects. This process is considered less critical compared with the P1 and P3 processes, since overlap is not a major limiting factor. However, if the laser power density is too high, the TCO surface texture will be damaged, and if the power density is too low, there will be silicon or silicon oxide material remaining in the trench. Presented is a “con- Figure 5: Laser output power effect on P2 scribed lines tact resistance masking” method to demonstrate the narrow process window for a thin a-Si:H layer. Figure 5 shows the optical microscope images of P2 scribed spots with three different energy density levels. From SEM analysis of the image, the TCO surface morphology damage can be identified in Figure 6.

Figure 6: SEM analysis of P2 scribed lines with different laser output power level

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Figure 7: P3 scribe quality dependant on key parameter settings P3 Laser scribe process The key P3 process parameters are laser output power density, spot size, spot overlap, and effective scribing width, scribing speed, and P3 layer (back contact), plus P2 layer (absorber) thickness. The success criteria for P3 process are good cell-to-cell and cell-to-edge isolation, minimal scribing area, and minimal distance to the P2 scribe lines without touching or crossing. The isolation is to prevent any current leakage from the solar cells. The scribing area and P3-P2 line distance are considered area loss, which has direct impact on solar module output and efficiency. As in the case of determining the P1 laser process window, the P3 process window was determined by scribing the film stacks with various input parameters including pulse frequency, scribing speed, and laser power output. By observing the scribed images under an optical microscope, the line quality can be identified, as shown in Figure 7. The non-ideal laser settings are seen to produce bad quality scribes with flakes. Based on the scribed quality and isolation results, the P3 process window is established.

Figure 9: Illustration of P1, P2, P3 scribe for thin film solar cells contact resisitivity, P2 to P1 distance, and module current output. • For the metal back contact layer, P3

laser (532nm) power density, spot size, overlap, scribing speed and alignment have impact on scribing line quality,

cell-to-cell and cell-to-edge isolation, P3 to P2 distance, cell shunting, module voltage output, throughput, and module performance. Applied Materials, Inc.

Overall process

Key laser scribe process criteria for module fabrication is the total scribing area loss, which includes P1 to P3 distance and the radius of P1 spot and P3 spot. It is critical the area loss is minimized as this has a direct impact on module power output and efficiency. Figure 9 illustrates P1, P2, P3 scribing on a thin film coated glass substrate. The area loss mentioned above is the distance from the left side of the P1 trench to the right edge of the P3 trench. Summary

Three laser scribe process steps are used in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaic modules. Critical laser scribe process parameters that impact the module performance have been identified for each cell layer: • For the TCO layer, P1 laser (1,064nm) power density, spot size, overlap, and scribing speed and alignment have an impact on scribe line quality, cell-to-cell and cell-toedge isolation, glass damage, and throughput. • For the silicon absorber layer, P2 laser (532nm) power density, spot size, and scribing speed and alignment have impact on cell-to-cell interconnect North American Clean Energy

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solar energy

Reliable Quality Control For the production process of thin film PV modules By Dr Stefan Gritsch, Hans Örley & Antje Reich


ithin the last year, thin film solar modules have experienced a rapidly growing market share, a development that is not just fueled by the limited availability of silicon. Compared to traditional silicon wafer-based solar cells, thin film PV modules can be manufactured at a potentially lower cost per unit at high volume. But, the production processes of thin film solar modules are complex. From the initial manufacturing of glass panels, serving as base material, through to the final module, the product will cycle through many production steps, with several important manufacturing parties involved. Each of the processing steps, as well as transportation and temporary storage, bears the risk of material defects that endanger the functionality and quality of the solar modules. To improve yields, only perfect material should be sent on to the next processing step, especially as some processes are very expensive. Inspection systems can be installed in-line after each step to detect critical defects and irregularities, and improve the production process. Currently, the market offers a range of inspection and metrology systems for the control of individual manufacturing steps. However, demand for a solution provider that can offer panel inspection for each of the involved processes has grown significantly.

Inspection needs for the glass manufacturing line

In the case of thin film PV modules, semiconductor layers are deposited onto a base material. Materials used as semiconductors include CIS, CIGS (copper indium gallium selenide), Cadmium Telluride cells (CdTe), amorphous Si cells (a-Si), or micromorphous/microcrystalline cells. A majority of thin film modules currently use glass sheets as a base material onto which the conductive layers and further inbetween layers are deposited. The glass should be without any defects that could endanger processing or cause glass breakage. Quality control for solar glass starts at the float line, where the liquid glass flows out from the furnace. The glass ribbon is then floating on top of a tin bath to obtain a smooth surface and an accurate and constant thickness. Still as a ribbon, the glass is inspected and checked for local defects. In addition, optical and mechanical properties, such as thickness and mechanical stress, are measured. Typical material defects of float glass, such as bubbles, inclusions, tin defects, stones, or knot lines, have to be detected reliably to guarantee the requested quality for solar module production. Glass manufacturers, therefore, install optical in-line inspection systems, which report every defect to the line in order to sort out bad material. Another advantage of in-line inspection is the ability to draw insightful conclusions about the quality and stability of the glass manufacturing process. This early warning information allows corrections in the process, even before defective material is produced, significantly raising the yield of the float glass line. For example, the GlassInspect.float inspection system enables manufacturers to distinguish between glass defects, such as bubbles or stones, which can cause problems during processing. To make this distinction, the inspection system makes use 14

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of the characteristics of defects versus contaminations. Wherein the optical signal of a non-critical contamination consists of its pure core size, a real glass defect occurs with a much larger deflecting image. The exact distinction between the defect’s core size and its distortion size (see images) is enabled by an innovative and unique dual-channel technology that combines two illumination concepts. This combination provides best image quality with the highest possible contrast of the defects to be detected. Potential production problems can be addressed quickly, allowing the achievement of a continuously higher yield. The glass ribbon is further processed for its application in solar modules. In some cases, special coatings are already deposited onto the glass ribbon, such as the conductive layer (TCO). Inspection systems can be enhanced to detect coating defects, as well. Either at the float glass manufacturer or at a secondary production site, the glass panels are cut into sheets required for the solar panels. The glass edges are then grinded and holes for the solar module’s junction box are drilled into the glass. An inspection system installed after this processing step will be focusing on edge defects, such as cracks and chips. It can also perform several geometric measurements such as rectangularity, size, or corner cut dimensions. Before the glass sheet is transported to the solar module manufacturer, it usually passes a final quality check. An inspection at this phase serves as a guarantee for the glass sheet processors to deliver the highest possible quality to customers. At the door step to PV module production

Arriving at the solar module fab, glass sheets are stored while waiting for the line feed-in. Typically, after the feed-in, the glass is laser marked and cleaned. Freed from removable contaminations, the glass can be inspected for intrinsic glass quality and for damages caused by the transportation process, which can appear on the edges and corners. At the same time, the glass cleaner can be monitored and analyzed for water droplets, tenside stains, or brush scratches. The inspection system automatically sorts out damaged or low-quality glass, alarming operators when the cleaner’s performance does not fit the requirements. Glass defects that are not detected before the sheets cycle through to further processing steps can disturb the laser scribing process. Since it is often advantageous to scribe the module’s separating lines by sending the laser through the glass, bubbles or contaminations inside the glass will distort or break the laser scribe line. A special optical set-up of the inspection system can distinguish whether these glass defects are beneath the scribing line or in the uncritical cell area. Often the glass substrates will arrive as coated panels from the glass manufacturer. In other cases, the cleaning process is followed by a coating step at the solar module fab, during which the glass sheets are coated with a conductive layer such as transparent conductive oxides (TCO) or other materials (ex. Molybdenum). These coating layers serve as electrode for the thin film solar modules as they are highly conductive. The quality of these layers can be checked by in-line inspection systems.

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cial attention for process control. With an inspection system such as SolarInspect, the scribed material can be scanned for inhomogeneities that might be caused by fluctuating laser power. If the scribe line is cutting too deep into the material (overscribe), the underlying layers might be damaged, resulting in unconnected cells and efficiency loss of the panel area or the entire module. An underscribe, on the other hand, causes short circuits between cells. Protective lamination and final quality check

Reliable detection of laser scribing

To attain economic viability at a fast process throughput (short cycle times), it is crucial to avoid scribing defects. To deliver final products with the highest possible electrical-conversion efficiency, inspection systems specialized for the laser scribing processes are applied. Scribe lines are written by a laser on the solar module’s conductive layers to separate the serial connected individual cells by removing a few hundred nanometers of the coating layers. Typically there are three different scribe line patterns, often referred to as P1, P2, and P3, which are created on the solar module during the production process. Since laser scribing is a rather complex process, this production step needs spe-

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Following the last scribing process, the thin film solar modules are passed on to a lamination unit. Here the modules are laminated to protect the sensitive layers from external influences and weather impacts. During this process, inclusions and bubbles can appear between the module and the lamination foil. An inspection system that specializes in lamination defects needs to be applied. Aside from the detection of cracks and particles, the edge area requires inspection as it is especially vulnerable to damaged lamination caused during module handling (edge residue control). The inspection of the final lamination layer can usually serve as a final quality check of a complete thin film solar module. The production processes of thin film solar modules are complex and expensive. Yet, each phase is important to achieve a good product. Learn more about Schenk Vision’s GlassInspect, SolarInspect, and SolarMeasure systems at the company website. Schenk Vision |

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solar energy

The Future of Solar Power And the importance of hybrid solutions By Yuval Susskind

Solar challenges

As solar technology continues to evolve, classic solar solutions will be revamped and new ground-breaking innovations will emerge. As providers create more efficient and reliable solar energy generating systems, solar will become an increasingly costeffective and viable option for residential, business, and industrial use. The future of concentrating solar power (CSP) technology, which uses mirrors (heliostats) to reflect sunlight onto receivers that collect the solar energy and convert it to heat, is most promising. However, while the advantages of solar technology are clear, limitations still exist… • Intermittent power generation: Due to the fact that solar mirrors can only produce power when the sun shines, power generation is interrupted. Output varies with the weather and stops altogether at night. This means that solar energy conversion cannot take place at night or on a cloudy day. • Scalability: Many large-scale systems require large areas of land to achieve average efficiency. Sometimes these systems over-generate power in an attempt to ensure that enough is supplied. On the other hand, small-scale systems may be limited in their supply. The challenge is to develop a system that can scale up in size easily and efficiency when an increase in power is needed.

• Cost: Although solar electric systems make financial sense in remote areas that lack access to power lines, they are usually more expensive than traditional sources (coal and oil) for grid-connected applications. In fact, solar energy is currently thought to cost about twice as much as fossil fuels. Many large-scale solar solutions also require a large initial investment. Taking these three factors into account, the ideal solar solution would be a costeffective, scalable system capable of producing continuous power around the clock. Hybrid solar solutions

Unlike other existing solar technologies, hybrid systems provide the flexibility to provide an uninterrupted 24/7 green power supply. Such a system is built to operate on solar energy, as well as on other alternative energy or fuel sources such as diesel, natural gas, biodiesel, biogas, or even on wind power. A hybrid solar plant can run on a number of operating modes, from ‘solar only’ during the day time to ‘nonsolar’ (switch to alternative fuel) at night. In addition, it can combine a solar mix, alternating power from both resources during cloudy periods.


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Solar power generation is generally divided into two schools of thought: small-scale, residential units for distributed power, and large-scale utility power generation, which rely on economies of scale. An ideal solar hybrid powergenerating system should combine the best of both worlds by offering the advantages of a large-scale solution with small-scale flexibility. This is achieved through a series of modular, small-scale base units that can be strung together to form a utility scale power plant. Modularity enables each base unit to be located independently with no need to allocate one large, flat, contiguous expanse of land for the whole power station. This offers great flexibility in finding suitable installation sites, as well as the benefits of scalability, which can be adjusted to specific customer needs. Being modular also offers greater reliability, since servicing any of the single base units does not require a complete shutdown of the whole system. Cost

Although a modular hybrid system costs slightly more than a similar scale solaronly system, its unique benefits are well

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worth the investment and the system offers a fast return on investment. Practical applications

A number of solar technology providers around the world have begun to realize the advantages of modular solutions and hybrid systems. However, at this point in time, it is uncommon to find a turnkey solar solution that incorporates both modular and hybrid functions. Some examples of large-scale hybrid applications currently being developed include the San Francisco Pacific Gas & Electric Company, in collaboration with San Joaquin Solar, which will erect a concentrating solar plant that will run on a quarter-million tons of agricultural waste annually (as a biomass fuel) to extend power generation beyond sunset. The solar thermal-biofuel plant, scheduled to launch in 2011, will deliver a total of 700 gigawatt hours (GWh) annually of renewable electricity to PG&E customers throughout northern and central California. The Florida Power & Light Company has started construction on FPL’s Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center, which will offer hybrid capabilities and be the first utility scale solar facility in Florida, with 180,000 mirrors situated on roughly 500 acres of land. The plant, scheduled to be fully operational in 2010, will provide enough power to serve about 11,000 homes. Although these power-generating plants are slated to offer hybrid capabilities within the next few years, they lack modular flexibility and are “too big” for small or even medium-scale use. On the other hand, there are solar companies that offer modular solutions but lack hybrid capabilities. Though they may offer the benefits of speedy construction and scalability, they only run on solar and lack the means to provide a constant energy flow.

enue potential. Each power block can be erected in a short period of time, resulting in quick grid connection, revenue generation, and far less project financing to build utility scale projects. The hybrid capability to operate on alternative fuel sources, in addition to solar, offers a flexible renewable power block and provides a consistent flow of clean, efficient

energy. For all of these reasons, modular hybrid solar solutions make green energy a more economically viable option for both industrial and residential use. Yuval Susskind is the COO of AORA, a renewable energy pioneer and developer of applied ultra-high temperature concentrating solar power (CSP)

technologies. AORA’s modular solar power generation solutions are comprised of very small modular units (100kWe / 170kW heat), which can be linked together into centrally controlled power plants, customized to client demand. AORA is a member of the EDIG Construction Management Group. AORA |

Next-generation solar technology

Offering modularity and hybrid capabilities, AORA has succeeded in constructing the world’s first commercial modular hybrid solar-thermal power station. AORA’s system is comprised of individual solar units, each measuring 100kWe in size, and is capable of producing 170kW heat. The single units are linked together to direct sunlight to the top of a tower housing a solar receiver that heats air to 1,000 degrees Celsius and directs the air to a gas turbine. AORA’s power station is situated on half-an-acre of land in Israel’s Arava region, consists of a field of 30 heliostats, and generates 100 kW of power to the grid, enough to sustain approximately 50 households. Modular hybrid systems are the nextgeneration of solar technologies. They require less land to generate more usable power and energy, as well as higher revNorth American Clean Energy

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solar energy Design and simulation of PV systems Version 4.0 of PV*SOL, the program for the design and simulation of PV systems from Valentin EnergySoftware, can now reproduce any shape of roof. And, for the first time, it will be possible to calculate modules mounted on a flat roof with different module and roof orientations. A number of standard settings are included, such as rectangular, trapezoidal, or triangular roof shapes. Restricted areas can be reproduced, including circular forms, which are then taken into account when the PV modules are automatically positioned on the roof. It is also possible to position objects in relation to the roof edges and the distances to the edges are adjusted accordingly. Pop-up menus make it easy to select and size the different objects with a click. PV*SOL gridcon for grid connected systems and PV*SOL standalone for stand-alone systems can be ordered separately or together as the PV*SOL set from the Valentin online shop. Users can select between five languages in the programme: English, German, French, Italian and Spanish. Dr Valentin EnergieSoftware GmbH



North America




Protective solar coating Alanod Solar’s protective lacquer is said to significantly improve the durability and performance of its reflective metal surfaces in outdoor applications. Testing data shows that its lacquered MIROSUN product performs at a level equal to that of glass mirrors in both realworld and lab tests. The company also announced that it is building an expanded lacquer coating facility in Ennepetal to meet rising demand for this product. Alanod Solar’s protective coating is an inorganic nanotech lacquer (Sol Gel) applied to its MIRO-SUN product, an aluminum surface that has first been anodized and had a highly reflective layer added through a physical vapor deposition (PVD) process. This lacquer is applied to the PVD layer to protect it from external elements. Testing has shown that the Sol Gel treated MIROSUN performs radically better than non-coated surfaces and significantly better than those surfaces treated with other coatings currently available in the industry. Alanod Solar |


July 14 –16, 2009 San Francisco | California | Moscone Center


Solectria Renewables most recent innovation, the stainless steel string combiner, is now available for fused string combining of any commercial PV system. Stainless steel string combiners are ideal for systems located outside that experience harsh weather conditions and require extra protection. All units are US-made with fuses included in a NEMA4 or NEMA4X enclosure, and the whole unit is listed to UL1741. Solectria Renewables

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10 9 out of

System Integrators Choose Satcon PV Inverters

See Why The world’s largest solar installations depend on Satcon® PV inverters to maximize power production and increase profitability. With a proven track record of innovation and reliability, Satcon provides solutions that stand up to the challenges of large-scale PV plants, delivering more kWh per day than any other system.

Broadest Range of Power Ratings in the Industry Satcon offers 11 power ratings—ranging from 30 kW to 1 MW (UL and CE certified).

©2009 Satcon Technology Corporation. All rights reserved. Satcon is a registered trademark of Satcon Technology Corporation.

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solar energy A fastening system for trapezoidal sheet metal roofs Fix2000 is a customized, 304 stainless steel, easily installed mounting clamp for all popular sized trapezoidal sheet metal and sandwiched roof elements. Engineered drawings with dimensions for a proposed PV-plant layout are provided indicating the exact locations and spacing of the Fix2000 clamps necessary to meet the load calculations for a specific project. Self-drilling screws are furnished with sealing washers that prevent the infiltration of water through the drilled holes. An EPDM rubber mat may be applied beneath the bracket and on top of the sheet metal for additional water-proofing protection. Schletter customizes the Fix2000 to ensure the perfect fit for the various trapezoidal angles of the sheet metal, ensuring maximum surface contact between the rib and the clamp. The customer provides the respective lengths of the trapezoidal shape, a template is made, and production begins almost immediately.

Inverter for on- and off-grid applications About two billion people around the world are living without a regular supply of electricity. SMA America, Inc. has a solution: the Sunny Island 5048U solar inverter. Designed for both AC-coupled system integration and traditional DC-coupled PV systems, Sunny Island 5048U is ideal for on- and off-grid applications. The off-grid capabilities make it ideal for village electrification, a concept designed to bring power to entire communities in remote areas. Village electrification not only creates power for lighting and household purposes, but also for the mechanization of many farming operations important to rural communities, such as threshing, milking, and hoisting of grain for storage. In impoverished and undeveloped areas, the power generated through village electrification frees a significant amount of human time and labor. SMA America, Inc. |

Schletter, Inc. |

Specialized labels for solar panels

Seika Machinery, Inc.’s McDry Electronic Drying Storage Cases for solar cells provide low-humidity storage without the use of nitrogen. Humidity is removed from the cabinets by use of a zeolite desiccant. The desiccant is automatically recycled by the unit and does not require replacement. McDry units come in 1% and 3% RH models to comply with the strict standards required for proper storage of moisture-sensitive materials requiring ultra-low humidity levels. The performance of solar cells is sensitive to moisture because water and oxygen molecules seep past the protective plastic layer over time, and degrade the organic materials that form the core. McDry cabinets prevent moisture absorption and keep solar cells optimally dry during storage. Unlike other similar style dry boxes, McDry has a natural air flow circulation system and does not utilize a fan, which can spread contaminants throughout the cabinet.

Schreiner ProTech is marketing an array of specialized labels and identification-preparation equipment for solar panels and components. The manufacturing of photovoltaic solar modules makes exacting demands of marking technology materials and systems. Labels used for production control, track-and-trace, branding, and as power-rating and nameplates, must be able to permanently withstand extreme UV rays and weather conditions—many for the life of the PV module. In addition, they have to meet a number of legal requirements, such as UL and CSA standards. Today, every single solar PV module is marked with an individual code for production control purposes and traceability. The code is applied in a clearly visible location at the front of the module, and must retain its legibility. Schreiner ProTech has developed an Embedded Label for this application. It is TTR-printable, dimensionally stable, and is applied directly to the ethylene-vinyl-acetate (EVA) sheet or a bus-bar of the solar module.

Seika Machinery, Inc. |

Schreiner ProTech |

Low humidity storage cabinet for solar cells

Solar module for grid-tie applications

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SunWize Technologies, Inc. has recently added SW180 to its line of solar modules. Designed to meet the needs of a wide range of residential and commercial gridtie applications, the module is available for immediate shipment. The SW180 competes favorably on price with other modules in its class, and outperforms with its quality and high-efficiency mono-crystalline cells. With an efficiency specification of 14.1%, the SW180 is manufactured according to the strict requirements of UL-1703, cUL, and IEC standards. It has a wide temperature range, from -49ºF – 203ºF (-45ºC – 95ºC), making it suitable for use in a wide range of climatic conditions. The modules also carry a 25-year limited warranty. SunWize Technologies, Inc.

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Custom fiber lasers IPG Photonics Corporation has announced a new line of cost-effective fiber lasers specifically designed for cladding, brazing, and annealing applications. After analyzing current market needs and requirements and competitor’s direct diode offerings, IPG Photonics concluded that the best technology for this market segment is to offer a low-cost, custom fiber laser, rather than fiber delivered direct diode lasers. This solution allows users the highest efficiency, plug-and-play with rapid fiber replacement, rapid switching capability, and total reliability demonstrated by IPG with fiber laser technology. The new YLS-CL series are available operating at 2, 3, or 4 kilowatts, feature a choice of round or square fiber deliveries with various output fiber core sizes and beam shapes, come with a three-year full warranty, and are extremely compact. The process fibers are much more flexible and reliable in comparison to delivery fibers typically used in direct diode systems. IPG is ramping up production of the new cost-effective lasers. Volume production units are expected to be available in the second quarter of 2009.

Material for thin film PV deposition process Morgan Technical Ceramics’ CVD Materials business (MTC–CVD) is now offering its Performance Pyrolytic Boron Nitride (PBN) material for use in manufacturing the photo absorption layer in thin film photovoltaic (TFPV) cells. In the TFPV deposition process, precursor vapors are transported from a source vessel into a deposition zone onto a heated substrate to deposit the PV layer. In some instances, solid materials are melted and vaporized from ceramic crucibles or boats to form a flux that is deposited on the heated substrate. It is critical that the ceramic crucible or boat be dimensionally stable and chemically non-reactive to the molten source material. PBN ceramic is an ideal material because of its high corrosion resistance and non-reactivity with the source materials used in PV deposition. Morgan Technical Ceramics |

IPG Photonics Corporation

UL98 codecompliant PV system disconnect PV Powered, Inc. has added an installer-friendly feature to its broad line of residential solar inverters. This new feature is a single-knob AC/ DC disconnect with a wire raceway. The enhancement, integrated into the company’s inverters, eliminates the need for extra conduit and hardware, thereby saving installation materials and labor costs. The wire raceway provides for isolation of the DC, AC, and low voltage DC connections per the NEC (National Electric Code) requirements, with generous working room for installers’ hands and tools. The PV system disconnect hardware and enclosure assembly has received extensive testing under extreme conditions, and is the first to have passed the strict UL98 standard for switches. UL98 standard is specifically written for enclosed and dead front switches, providing inspectors with a recognized standard for safety and reliability. The new integrated PV system disconnect feature has been added to PV Powered’s entire residential string inverter line, which includes nine different inverter models, ranging from 1100 watts to 5200 watts in capacity.

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solar energy

Surge protector with high DC breaking capability The PV industry, now generating at DC voltages of 600 and 1,000 V, has placed exceptional demands on the currently available SPD products intended to protect systems components from the effects of lightning caused surges and transients. In response, DEHN has introduced a new technology and product, specifically designed for PV systems, to function under the issues associated with these DC voltages. The new DEHNguard M-YPV-SCI addresses those issues by incorporating a switched fused circuit in parallel to the discharge circuit, enhancing protection even in the case of DC grounding faults. DEHN’s unique SPD will be UL-14493rd edition compliant for these new DC voltage applications, making the task of obtaining compliance to UL-1741 that much easier. DEHN Inc. |

BIPV systems Ascent Solar modules enable innovative and affordable building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems for the commercial and residential building markets. Advantages include reduced energy costs and a “grow solar” market share, along with solutions that offer significant performance and cost advantages over existing glass-silicon-based PV. Integrating PV into building elements gives architects and builders greater design and construction flexibility and increases the value proposition for solar applications. With the high price of traditional solar technologies on buildings, real BIPV solutions improve return on investment by reducing installation and balance of systems costs. Ascent Solar benefits include: conventional building materials electricity generating platforms; lower balance of systems costs improving project payback; lightweight modules enable novel solar applications; customize voltage and dimensions; and lower carbon foot print manufacturing. Ascent Solar |

Entering the US market DEGERenergie’s uniaxial TOPtraker systems are now CSA/UL certified—a necessity for entering the US market. This certification is valid for the uniaxial low cost models DEGER TOPtraker 8.5, TOPtraker 25 HD, and TOPtraker 40NT. The latter is designed specifically for the US market, for up to a 40-sqm module area, generating a power of 4000 Wp up to 6400 Wp. With the TOPtraker 40NT, DEGERenergie expands its assortment with a low-cost model that is technically improved, dimensioned larger, and is more efficient than previous models. The system achieves an energy yield that is up to 30% higher than statically installed solar modules. It is designed for being set up in open spaces from medium to large solar parks, and is suitable for carrier and tracking systems for all standard PV modules. There are different versions available that can be applied from the equator to the 60° degree of latitude, and most regions on earth are covered. The three models were certified according to the CANADA Standard CSA 22.2 No. 61010-1 and the USA Standard UL 61010-1. DEGERenergie | 22

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Next-generation remote solar power A member of The Alpha Group, Alpha Energy recently introduced the next generation of solar power—a hybrid AC/DC power plant designed to extend power to remote, mission-critical applications. The AC/DC Hybrid Power Plant is ideal for telecommunications providers, security, military, and pipeline companies who require the benefits and security of solar electricity. These versatile Power Plants are highly configurable with diverse AC or DC input and output options, meaning it is easy to custom-configure systems to include inverters, DC converters, breakers, alarms, batteries, and solar controllers. By incorporating the Cordex line of DC powering solutions, the system’s rectifiers, controllers, and other components can be accessed by way of a robust computer interface that can be used locally or remotely. Cordex rectifiers can be hot-swapped, and additional rectifiers and inverters can be added if load requirements increase.

Solar thermal components for residential and commercial installation Evosolar, a division of Jomar International, is introducing its pre-packaged “Plus Series” DHW systems, along with a full line of solar thermal components for residential and commercial installations. Evosolar offers the broadest range of solar storage tanks including dualcoil, single-coil with electrical back-up, and single-coil with natural gas back-up models; as well as large volume tanks for commercial applications. Along with Evosolar’s high-efficiency flat plate collectors, the compact reliable pump station, and all the latest accessories, Evosolar is a one-stop-shop for all solar thermal installation needs. Evosolar’s technical team is equipped with the latest design software to support any type of installation. Evosolar |

Alpha Energy |

Substantiating product warranty and efficiency claims

Domestic hot water systems

Atlas Material Testing Technology has announced two new services focused on the solar market: Solar Simulator Classification services and I-V Curve tracing services. Both services are offered by Atlas’ Solar/PV Center of Excellence in Phoenix, Arizona. Atlas is expanding its service offerings to help companies in the solar industry substantiate product warranty and efficiency claims. Photovoltaic testing standards require the use of specific classes of solar simulators to determine performance measurements. Atlas uses a portable, high speed, multi-channel OL 770 device, measuring between 380 and 1100 nm, to verify that customers’ testing instruments meet the standards that classify solar simulators for PV testing. These critical measurements should be a regular part of all simulator service and maintenance schedules. Atlas’ classification service meets the requirements described in IEC 60904- 9, Photovoltaic Solar Simulator Performance Requirements for qualifying solar simulation for IEC 61215 testing.

Premium Solar LLC of Tallahassee, Florida has recently signed a long-term agreement to be one of the North American importers for a tried and proven Thermosiphon DHW (Domestic Hot Water) systems. The Turkish company Ezinc has been building these systems for twenty years, and selling them around the world. They build a 46 gallon (150 liter) and an 80 gallon (300 liter) system, which can be used in consumer and commercial applications. The system will be SRCC and FSEC approved by the end of April 2009, and will be ready for distribution beginning in June. Premium Solar is actively seeking territorial distributors in all areas of the US, Canada, and the Caribbean.

Atlas Material Testing Solutions |

Premium Solar LLC

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Surge diverter to protect solar cells Surge and voltage transients are a major cause of electronic equipment failures and business disruption. To protect power distribution systems, such as those commonly used with Solar Cell systems, ERICO makes the DSD 140-2BR-24/48 surge suppressor, part of the line of CRITEC surge protection products. The compact DSD 140-2BR-24/48 provides economical and reliable protection for voltage transients on floating 24 V and 48 V DC power distribution systems and easily fits into DIN-rail style distribution panel boards and control centers. It mounts onto 35 mm DIN rail and matches common circuit breaker profiles. The 40 kA 8/20 μs maximum surge rating from line to line, and line to ground, provides a long operational life for the protection of solar cells and batteries. This product has a five-year limited warranty, is CE-Approved, and is surge-rated to meet IEC61643-1 Class II, ANSI/IEEE C62.41-1991 CAT A, Cat B, Cat C.

Single and threephase inverters Ingeteam 2009 innovations include the new generation of Ingecon Sun Lite single-phase inverters with improved features and a new aluminium case. This new grid-connected single phase inverter range is available with or without a galvanic isolation transformer, and is suitable for indoor and outdoor installation, in roof-mounted, and floor-mounted installations. The new generation of single-phase, transformer-less inverters comprises power outputs from 2.5 to 6 kW to adapt to the applicable standards and installation types at a European and global level. This new model is also available with a galvanic isolation transformer for power outputs of 2.5, 3.3 and 5 kW, which are compatible with almost all the PV modules on the market, offering greater PV sizing flexibility. The new Ingecon Sun 20 and 25 three-phase inverters with a rated power output of up to 27.5 kW in AC, are the latest innovation to be launched by Ingeteam in its range of Ingecon Sun Smart 10, 12.5, and 15 outdoor inverters with IP54 protection ratings and IP65 electronics. Featuring a stainless steel casing, these inverters are equipped with an AC galvanic isolation transformer and are ideal for connection to sun trackers.


Don’t let your reputation get burned. Can you answer the tough questions? How long will your product last? Can you stand by your product's claims 100%? Atlas can help you get the answers you need with customized weathering testing programs and our standard line of testing equipment for the solar energy and photovoltaic markets. Test the durability and efficiency of the materials in your solar energy system so you can ensure the right material choices in the shortest time. When you know that your solar cells, modules, components and systems work right every time, you’ve got it made in the shade. Start your Atlas weathering testing program today by requesting a brochure and a free consultation, visit

Ingeteam |

Commercial-grade inverters Magnetek, Inc. has announced that PVI-CENTRAL-100 kW units with 208 Vac, and 480 Vac output voltages are currently available for delivery. The PVI-CENTRAL-100 grid-tied system is designed for commercial solar applications such as office, apartment, or industrial buildings. The inverter’s Insulated Gate Bi-polar Transistors (IGBTs) reduce thermal energy losses for optimum performance, and Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) maximizes energy produced under varying light conditions. A wide operating voltage range of 330 to 600 Vdc increases energy collected. In addition to reducing on-site installation wiring and testing, this technology provides cost-effective solutions with smaller footprints and increased reliability.

MARKETS ATLAS SERVES: Photovoltaics • Concentrated Solar Power • Solar Thermal • Building Integrated Photovoltaics

Magnetek, Inc. North American Clean Energy

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PV America

Show in Print Features just some of the companies and technologies attendees will see at this year’s show.

June 8th to 10th, 2009 • Pennsylvania Convention Center • Philadelphia, Pennsylvania The Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) have joined forces to present the premier PV-focused industry conference and trade show in the US. Programming from IEEE’s renowned Photovoltaic Specialists Conference is paired with SEIA’s policy and market development expertise to give attendees the most current updates on PV technology, industry trends, and business opportunities.

Combiner boxes with string level monitoring

Efficient PV modules

AMtec Solar is a solar manufacturer of high-quality combiner boxes, recombiner boxes, and a new line of monitoring combiner boxes. The Prominence M series smart combiner boxes provide string level monitoring using Modbus communication and are available in 8- and 16-string configurations. An optional wireless transceiver is available. The company’s new line of string level monitoring combiner boxes will work with all performance monitoring data services. Six alarm status functions, individual alarms for each channel, and on-board temperature sensors are standard. Ask about AMtec Solar’s line of 1,000V-DC rated combiner boxes and combiner boxes with built-in disconnect.

Trina Solar Ltd.’s in-house production of crystalline ingots, wafers, cells, and modules ensures customers are getting reliable, quality products. Trina Solar PV modules, with power output up to 240Wp, provide a highly efficient and environmentally friendly electric power for residential, commercial, industrial, and utility scale applications. Founded in 1997, Trina Solar is one of the leading PV companies based in China. Fully vertically integrated from ingots to modules in both mono- and multi-crystalline technologies, the company produced more than 200 MW of modules in 2008. Listed on the NYSE, the company operates worldwide to deliver the best value to its customers. Trina Solar Ltd. |

AMtec Solar |

Ultra-thin SS strip

Solar On

HPM’s rolled stainless steel strip is available in thicknesses from .001 to .004 inches and in widths up to 13.5 inches. For application as a solar-cell substrate, the smooth finish, tight tolerances, and reliable consistency of HPM’s metal strip helps to improve the operational efficiency of solar cells while allowing cell manufacturers to maximize production on a roll-to-roll basis. HPM’s metal strip and foil are found in applications worldwide wherever quality, precision, and consistency are critical to design and performance requirements. Hamilton Precision Metals |

Module engineering platform Spire Corporation has announced that it is making available a new, simple development engineering platform for universities, companies, government laboratories, and corporate research and development organizations to develop and evaluate their new materials and designs for photovoltaic modules. This development engineering platform has all of the necessary pieces of equipment to make world-class PV modules. The platform includes a Spi-Stringer that solders solar cells together into strings; a Spi-Laminator for encapsulating the cells, usually between glass and a polymer; a Spi-Sun Simulator to characterize performance of the completed module; and a recommended list of ancillary equipment. Also included is training on all of the equipment and the process knowledge to make a state-of-the-art module. The development engineering platform includes a list of recommended materials, a basic crystalline module design, and a “How to Make a PV Module” instruction book as a starting point for researchers to work from and for evaluating their own technology. Solar Greening by Design


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Spire Corporation | 4/26/09 7:57 PM 6/16/09 1:35 PM

Renewable energy products Samlex Solar, Inc. is a diversified high-technology company manufacturing and distributing renewable energy products including inverters, battery chargers, charge controllers, dc-dc converters, and solar panels. Known for having a significant and in-depth line of high-performance technologies, Samlex will feature a broad selection of off-grid power conversion solutions at Solar 2009. Samlex Solar is one of North America’s fastest growing alternative energy product resources. With locations in Canada, the US, and Europe, Samlex Solar is able to reduce lead times and provide better shipping options to domestic and global clients

Gas mass flow control The Brooks Instrument B-Series sets a new standard in gas mass flow control. Whether flowing gas to a CVD chamber, chemical research reactor, fuel cell test stand, or any other important application, the quality of results are no better than the performance of a gas mass flow controller. The B-Series is a fully RoHS compliant device designed to minimize all sources of gas flow inaccuracy, offering exceptional stability, robust resistance to flow variation due to pressure and temperature fluctuations, and extremely low valve leak-by. Unique advanced diagnostics allow users to verify device performance in-situ and the on-board user interface makes changing and monitoring parameters a snap. Additionally, the B-Series can simplify and reduce the cost of gas panels by minimizing the need for separate pressure regulators, pressure transducers, and the associated mounting hardware. Brooks Instrument

Stretched-screens and ready-to-print stencils Sefar Printing Solutions, Inc. is the partner for premium, ISO 9001 Certified stretched-screens and ready-toprint stencils for the solar industry. In addition to 40 years of technical experience for stretching customer-specific PV and thick film screens, their solar solutions include high-resolution AutoCAD artwork generation and output, hands-on training in screen printing, and on-site technical assistance. With three solar-screen fabrication locations in North America, Sefar Printing Solutions, Inc. can meet any screen capacity needs and supply press-ready stencils on demand. Requests for sample screens are welcomed. Sefar Printing Solutions, Inc.

Samlex Solar, Inc. |

Solar energy solutions Aluminum extrusion support structures, frames, and mounting components for the renewable energy sector Aluminum extrusions offer a high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent formability, good corrosion resistance, and design flexibility. And Hydro extrusions are made from our own primary-grade billet which contains more than 70% recycled content. Hydro is the leading supplier of extruded aluminum support structures for utility-scale CSP plants and manufactures a variety of components for PV mounting solutions. Because project success requires more than just high-quality components and a reliable supply, our dedicated solar unit can provide: • Technical, design, and concept prototyping support • Extrusion, fabrication, and finishing • Raw material management and component procurement • Warehousing, kitting, and JIT delivery • Assistance with on-site installation and on-going support Whether you need complex framing systems for utilityscale CSP plants or frames and mounting components for PV units, Hydro can deliver. Partner with Hydro, a global leader in renewable energy structural components, and take your next solar project to a new level. Hydro Solar Solutions 249 S. 51st. Avenue Phoenix, AZ 85043 Phone: (800) 459-3030 • Fax: (602) 269-0220 E-mail:

Look for us at PV America, Booth #1520 Bottom photo courtesy of Envision Solar

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Vacuuming solutions for reduced PV manufacturing costs Alcatel reduces PV manufacturing costs by meeting the challenge to develop vacuum pumps that can evacuate large internal volumes, and handle the flow of the huge amounts of process gasses and their by-products. A series of dry roughing pumps derived from a successful line of semiconductor pumps are the result. Alcatel’s new Adixen brand ADKL & ADKH range primary pumping packages meet the pumping requirements of high-volume load locks and transfer chambers, as well as process modules. Features such as temperature and power management, as well as standby and boost modes help conserve energy. Alcatel is confident that this new product range will provide the performance, reliability, operating cost, and safety required to give the new PV industry what it needs to succeed.

Next generation of metrology systems Dark Field Technologies, reknown for its laser and camera metrology systems, introduces NxtGen, a versatile inspection system. Representing the confluence of laser, camera, and self-aligning optical systems, NxtGen revolutionizes metrology systems by offering a unique array of capabilities, which includes: 100% inspection of P1, P2, and P3 scribes and offsets; integrated panel warp and contour measurement (on-line measurement of panel warp and contour); extraordinary signal processing capacity (solar panel inspection—500 million pixels in three seconds); variable field scanners, which deliver extraordinary detection (proprietary scanners provide bright field, dark field, mixed field, and sub-pixel detection); design convergence of laser and camera technologies; patent pending, self-aligning optics (with a unique, retro-reflective laser optics derived from laser scanners, solid state design with no moving parts; 100% self aligning). NxtGen is 100% US developed, engineered, manufactured, and serviced. Dark Field Technologies |

Alcatel Vacuum Products, Inc. |

Analytical instrumentation for support and quality monitoring CAMECA manufactures high-performance analytical instrumentation for production support, quality monitoring, and basic research in worldwide markets. In the PV industry, their new IMS-7f magnetic sector SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer) helps evaluate efficiency of PV processes, thanks to its performance, in-depth profile monitoring (implants), trace element detection (contamination), and diffusion/segregation for in-situ characterization. SIMS has a proven track record in assisting companies using various PV processes (thin film, polysilicon, CIGS, etc.) to control quality and efficiency of their products. For example, the IMS-7f can plot bulk concentrations of a wide variety of elemental species including boron and atmospherics to transition metals, measured from different grades of polysilicon.

Visit us at



North America Booth # 9812

Hot melt ink technology

The Only High Reflectance Mirror Film Proven for Use in Solar Concentrators

Developed in Partnership with the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Ferro Electronic Material Systems’ patented Hot Melt ink technology is a specially designed silver conductor system that eliminates the drying process of conventional pastes, resulting in higher throughput rates, increased productivity, improved yields, and reduced volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Hot melt inks are designed for use with silicon nitride ARCs, as well as rear silver contacts and rear aluminum back surface coatings. Solid at room temperature, Hot Melt pastes are resistively heated above their melting points to screen print similarly to conventional thick film pastes. Unlike conventional pastes, they instantly re-solidify when transferred to the solar cell surface and are ready for the next printing sequence. This property also improves the aspect ratio of printed grid lines and reduces shading, contributing to a higher cell efficiency. Fired line resolution is 80 μm wide x 30 μm thick, helping improve relative efficiency of the finished cell by up to 5%. Ferro Corporation |


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Synopsys TCAD for solar cell simulation

Solar unit for power generation Hydro has created a team to provide solar equipment makers and solar power generation companies with expertise in the engineering and fabrication of extruded aluminum components for solar power generation. Because of its design flexibility, high strength-to-weight ratio, machine ability, and corrosion resistance, extruded aluminum is the material of choice for utility scale solar plants, as well as frames and mounts for PV installations in commercial and residential applications. Based at Hydro’s Phoenix facility, creating this “center of competence” allows Hydro to leverage its physical and intellectual assets to solve solar customers’ challenges. The company is committed to producing extruded components with high recycled content, using its proprietary re-melt technology, so Hydro can deliver an environmentally appropriate product for this environmentally beneficial energy source. Hydro

Synopsys offers software and IP for semiconductor design and manufacturing. Synopsys’ Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) tools model semiconductor processing and device operation. TCAD simulations provide key insights into the physical mechanisms that drive solar cell performance such as texturing, optical generation, recombination processes, grain boundary effects, contact design, and interconnect losses. This detailed modeling of solar cell behavior allows photovoltaic engineers and scientists to use simulation to optimize cell design for higher efficiency and yield. Synopsys’ Sentaurus TCAD tool suite has wide-ranging capabilities to address various types of solar cells including bulk crystalline silicon, III-V multi-junction, and thin film cells based on amorphous silicon, CdTe, and CIGS. Synopsys, Inc. |

True color confocal microscope Industry has a growing need for a better understanding of material surfaces, micro-size components, and micro-system techniques. This has led, in part, to the new Axio CSM 700, a highly flexible, non-contact confocal scanning microscope system, which is based on optical sectioning in true sample color. This new system provides a user with high-precision 2D, 3D topographic, and volumetric measurement for materials research and quality inspection. Surface structures, roughness, and coating thickness from nanometers to millimeters can be measured and displayed easily with high speed and without sample preparation or contact. Applicable for a wide variety of both hard and soft materials. Carl Zeiss MicroImaging GmbH

Surge Protection Devices (SPD) Since 1937 CITEL, Inc. has been specializing in the manufacturing of reliable Surge Protection Devices (SPD). CITEL has since expanded its surge protector lines to protect Grid-Tie Solar Power Systems. DS50PV is surge rated at 40kA 8/20us, and engineered to protect against indirect lightning, AC utility grid surges, and internally generated switching transients. Model DS60PV is a Heavy Duty DC surge protector, rated to withstand a direct lightning strike (10/350us waveform) as defined by ANSI/IEEE C62.41-2002 and IEC 61643-11. It is typically installed at the DC input to the inverter of a solar power system. These din rail mount devices can be integrated into a PV combiner box or standalone enclosure. CITEL has also announced model DS50PV as the first UL recognized DC Surge Protector with replaceable modules. CITEL, Inc. |

High-performance PV materials Alfa Aesar produces a range of materials for the thin film PV industry including copper, indium, gallium, selenium, cadmium, and tellurium. Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) and CdTe solar cell devices are two emerging technologies that consist of layers of semiconductor materials that absorb and convert sunlight into electricity. The key advantages of thin film cells over silicon are lower cost, reduced material usage, lower energy requirement for manufacture, and shorter payback time. The Alfa Aesar catalog features over 30,000 products including novel fine organics such as boronic acids, silanes and silanols, chiral diamines, fluorochemicals, and more. Other new products include nanomaterials, base metal fuel cell catalysts, fuel cell components, and pure metals. In addition to chemical compounds, the catalog includes pure elements, alloys, analytical products, precious metal compounds and catalysts, labware, and equipment. Alfa Aesar |

The S-5 PV Kit

Introducing the S-5-PV Kit, a revolutionary new solution to attach solar PV panels to standing seam metal roofs! Crystalline PV modules mounted with the S-5 PV Kit to a standing seam metal roof produces a reliable long term alternative power source. The patented design of the attachment clamp and attendant round-point setscrews enables an entire installation without a single penetration of the roof’s surface! Installation is quick and easy.


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Hybrid solar cells

CPV cells

SunWize Technologies, Inc. has been selected as SANYO’s launch partner for the new SANYO HIT POWER N Series module. SunWize was the first North American distributor to carry the high-efficiency SANYO HIT POWER N Series module featuring advanced hybrid HIT technology. The 215, 210, and 205 watt N Series modules are now in stock and available for immediate shipment. HIT POWER N uses the same breakthrough HIT technology as the popular HIT POWER BA19 line and HIT DOUBLE. HIT hybrid solar cells are composed of mono-crystalline wafers surrounded by ultra-thin layers of amorphous silicon, enabling them to generate maximum power per square foot. For years, SANYO has produced modules that have led the industry in production and performance.

JDSU announces the availability of its first generation CPV cells intended for power generation under concentrated sunlight. With a robust baseline of CPV cells, available both as chips and in receiver assemblies, JDSU offers a broad line of size and gridline configurations. JDSU enters the growing CPV market with a customizable and extremely reliable cell product that combines its vast high-quality telecom experience with its longstanding photovoltaic power converter technology. With tens of thousands of PV converters in the field for more than ten years, JDSU CPV cells promise long-lasting performance at the highest efficiency. JDSU |

SunWize Technologies, Inc.

Renewable energy service provider

Renewable energy battery

Broadlands Financial Group, LLC is introducing new offices in Reno, Seattle, Albany, and Kansas City. Broadlands’ network of offices is adding value, security, and credibility to renewable energy projects across the country. More than a dozen offices provide local support and regional experience to maximize investments and protect bottom lines. Broadlands Financial Group, LLC is a comprehensive service provider working with lenders and developers to realize the vision of a renewable energy future. Broadlands’ management tools, which include pro forma preparation and financing assistance, PPA negotiation, project and contractor underwriting, project delivery contract guidance, and full program management throughout construction, have been protecting investment dollars for banks, government agencies, developers, and sureties including their own sister company, First Sealord Surety, for over 16 years.

With over 80 years of experience, Trojan Battery Company, a manufacturer of technologically advanced deep-cycle lead acid batteries, introduced the T105-RE renewable energy battery— Trojan’s newest addition to its RE Series line launched October 2008. The T105RE battery is built on Trojan’s popular six-volt deep cycle battery, featuring a compact size, superior performance, and longer life—plus a best-in-class fiveyear worldwide warranty. In addition, the T105-RE shares key features and benefits of the existing RE Series for reliable performance in demanding offgrid and grid-tie backup systems. Trojan Battery Company

Broadlands Financial Group, LLC North American Clean Energy is published 6 times a year. To subscribe, go to Silicon PV test and measurement instruments Sinton Consulting is a supplier of test and measurement equipment for industry and R&D laboratories in Silicon PV. They specialize in applying the same rigorous device physics to industrial instruments as in the R&D tools to enable the latest developments to be quickly adopted and controlled within production. Sinton Consulting sells: minority carrier lifetime testers for silicon wafers, ingots, and blocks; Suns-Voc for monitoring post-diffusion and metalization processes; and high-efficiency cell- and module-test instruments. Sinton Consulting 28

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RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR A COMPLEX WORLD Wind, solar, geothermal, hydropower, and bioenergy—these sources offer clean and sustainable alternatives to help meet the world’s rising energy demands. Tetra Tech supports energy projects from the earliest site investigation through operations and maintenance, with expertise in facilities siting, environmental studies, permitting, engineering design, and construction, including EPC and BOP. Tetra Tech provides clear solutions in consulting, engineering, program management, construction, and technical services worldwide.

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wind energy

Earth, Wind, and Fire

How to move renewable resources from here to there (Green wires, other wires, and jurisdictional third rails) Larry Eisenstat

By Larry Eisenstat & Eric Fung


he stimulus package appropriated more than $11 billion to improve the nation’s gridlocked transmission network in furtherance of President Barack Obama’s plan to double the nation’s renewable energy supply in three years. This is but a down-payment on the substantial overhaul of our transmission grid that will be necessary to move the best wind, solar, geothermal, and other resources to the population centers where the power is most needed. Of course, the challenge of transmitting location-constrained renewable resources is nothing new. Currently, in many regions of the country, whether in the so-called “organized” markets such as those overseen by the New York Independent System Operator and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas, or in the so-called “unorganized” markets of the south and elsewhere, grid operators are often forced to curtail existing wind and other generation due to congestion. Perhaps even more troubling is the fact that many projects throughout the country—particularly in the midwest, which contains enormous wind resources—have been delayed due to transmission inadequacies, political, regulatory, and commercial uncertainty, and the overall costs of building new transmission (assuming timely solutions even are possible)—especially ®

Loadmate® Electric Chain Hoists Windmill Application

R&M lifting equipment is perfectly adapted to the windmill crib and its components (compact size, low weight, detachable parts, low maintenance).

Load Capacities: 1/8 to 1 ton Lifting Speeds: 64 & 16 fpm, 96 & 24 fpm, 128 & 32 fpm Lifting Heights: Up to 262 ft Power Supply: 208, 230, 460, 575/3/60 or 380/3/50

Eric Fung

since many utilities and their respective state regulators would seek to have all of these costs paid for entirely on the project’s own nickel. Undoubtedly, few would disagree in the abstract that the grid must be updated to make way for reliable transmission of new energy, but when the rubber meets the road—or in this case, when towers and poles are proposed to meet the sky—high-voltage transmission projects inevitably provoke major opposition and time-consuming and expensive litigation. For example, various local groups recently succeeded in stopping the construction of the New York Regional Interconnect, a 190-mile, high-voltage transmission line from upstate New York to the suburbs north of New York City, prompting the developers to give up on a project in which they claim to have invested $20 million over five years. Every proposed addition to the balkanized grid instigates new clashes with local property owners and environmental groups with the result that generation is growing at twice the rate of the transmission needed to reliably support it, according to the North American Electric Reliability Corporation. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 attempted to address this problem by giving the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) the authority to override a state’s failure to approve an application to construct a transmission line in any transmission-constrained area designated by the Secretary of Energy as a “national interest transmission corridor.” In December 2006, FERC promulgated regulations implementing this backstop siting authority, which immediately turned the not-in-my-backyard issue into a state versus federal jurisdictional struggle, although FERC has yet to successfully utilize this now four-year old authority. Furthermore, even the possibility of its use has been curtailed by the US Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, which recently rejected FERC’s interpretation that it was authorized to exercise its backstop authority not only when a state commission fails to act on an application, but also when a commission explicitly denies an application. Specifically, the authority applies only when a state commission “has withheld approval [of an application] for more than one year,” not when the commission has denied the application. In short, in the Court’s judgment, while Congress intended FERC’s backstop authority as a measured and admittedly important transfer of jurisdiction…“[when] read as a whole, [the provision] does not indicate that Congress intended to bring about the sweeping transfer of jurisdiction suggested by FERC.” Not surprisingly, the Fourth Circuit’s decision has fueled the ongoing federal congressional debate on whether, in order to promote the development of renewable and possibly other resources, it should enact additional legislation to expand FERC’s transmission siting authority. Lawmakers remain divided as to what should be the federal government’s role. Chairman Jeff Bingaman of the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee wants to give FERC ultimate authority to take the lead on transmission siting and effectively replicate FERC’s preemptive authority under the Natural Gas Act to site natural gas pipelines in proceedings in which the states simply would be parties. Others, like Representatives Henry Waxman (Chairman of the House Energy and Commerce Committee) and Ed Markey (Chairman of the House Energy and Environment Subcommittee), prefer a more cautious model. Instead of expanding FERC’s authority to site transmission, the Waxman-Markey bill calls for a more coordinated transmission development effort at local, state, and federal levels, and they would authorize FERC merely to establish grid planning principles and to work with regional planning entities in developing transmission plans. Notwithstanding all of this uncertainty, three facts remain clear. First, power cannot be delivered without adequate transmission, whether that power is derived from burning coal or turning a wind turbine. Second, the new debate on transmission siting authority has fired up most of the century-old disputes in the electricity industry: federal preemptive authority versus local land use and control; transmission and power plant development versus conservation; and one fuel type versus another. Third, no matter how desirable and lofty the goals of the recently enacted stimulus package or the energy and climate change bills that have been introduced, these goals will not come to fruition without significant new transmission capacity and without another age-old, though recently little-used practice: statesmanship, without which we pretty much can guarantee we will have missed the boat. Larry Eisenstat is a partner at Dickstein Shapiro LLP and head of its Energy Practice. He has experience handling regulatory and transactional matters, as well as litigation, antitrust, and compliance, and enforcement matters on behalf of both energy and non-energy companies. He also counsels energy companies and consumers on strategic planning, investment, and restructuring issues. 1-800-955-9967 30

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Eric Fung is an Associate in the Energy Practice. Dickstein Shapiro LLP |

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wind energy

Transmission Consultancies Assisting the wind energy industry in fulfilling its potential By Andy Poon


he wind energy sector, supported by international renewable energy policy and investment, is one of the most rapidly growing industries across the world. And, in today’s uncertain economic climate, it is providing a route for many companies to diversify and find new revenue streams. For businesses from a wide range of sectors, this makes wind energy an attractive opportunity. With decades of experience, Europe still dominates the global wind energy market with turbine manufacturers such as Vestas and Gamesa providing a huge proportion of wind turbines worldwide. However, with favorable wind energy policies, large investments, and strong manufacturing resources, markets such as China and the US are beginning to threaten European dominance. With the US and Chinese markets blooming, new suppliers of key mechanical parts, particularly transmissions, are being welcomed to take the pressure off traditional European supply chain. Although component suppliers are welcomed, many are discovering the wind energy industry demands both quality as well as quantity. The mechanical parts of the wind turbine have to be robust enough to deal with extraordinary forces and stresses, and for this reason the industry demands exceptional technical ability as well as high quality from its component manufacturers. Within the area of transmission, in particular, reliability problems are widespread and these issues have to be addressed if the industry is to develop to its full potential. Therefore, there is a growing need to find specialists who have the expertise and experience to design and develop effective drive-train and transmission systems. With huge manufacturing resources, China is keen to create a home-grown industry capable of fulfilling the government’s ambitious wind energy objectives. However, a lack of experience in this sector has meant that many manufacturers are looking to European-based consultancy companies to help them achieve the standards that the wind energy industry demands. Engineering consultancy firms have experienced a huge demand for their services in China, where manufacturers are looking to their experience and expertise in wind energy gearbox and bearing design to enable them to produce components to the correct standards. With such a continued partnership, the Chinese market looks set to produce reliable and effective turbines to supply to the huge domestic market. Benefits of these partnerships are not only restricted to the Chinese market, however. As Chinese manufacturers achieve higher technical and manufacturing standards, they will likely look outside China, and start to feed into the strained European and US markets. In this way, Chinese suppliers could hold the key to pushing forward the development of the global wind turbine market, with transmission consultancies acting as a matchmaker between European turbine manufacturers and the new generation of high-quality Chinese component manufacturers. In the US, a different approach to solving the industries reliability issues is taking place. While the supply chain issue is still key in America, there is a drive to produce more reliable wind turbine components. Of particular interest is the transmission system, which is one of the main causes for turbine failures and a major cause for the reduction in energy production and loss of revenue. Tackling this problem head on is the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative initiated by the National Renewable Energy


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Wind resource maps and GIS data sets AWS Truewind recently released its high-resolution wind resource maps and GIS data sets for Canada and the Great Lakes on its interactive prospecting and resource analysis application, windNavigator. Developers, financiers, government planners, and other interested parties use windNavigator to locate and confirm pro mising sites for wind development with a high level of confidence. Once an attractive site is located, windNavigator customers use high-resolution GIS data to conduct further analyses on their project sites. With the release of Canada and the Great Lakes, windNavigator offers a customizable solution for anyone interested in developing wind farms in North America both on land and offshore. AWS Truewind |

Laboratory (NREL). They are taking a fresh approach toward improving gearboxes that combines the technical expertise and resources of key members of the supply chain to investigate the root causes of wind turbine gearbox issues by revisiting the design of this key component. Their ultimate aim is to provide solutions that will lead to higher gearbox reliability. The collaborative is targeting deficiencies in the design process that are contributing to substantial shortfalls in service life for most designs. New design and analysis tools are being developed to model the test turbine configuration in detail. This will include using multi-body dynamic analysis to model wind turbine loading, coupled to internal loading, and deformations of the gearbox. Romax Technology has taken a role in the consortium, using its advanced analysis tools to support NREL in test rig design, examining the effects of gearbox mounting, recommending sensor positioning, and supporting gearbox modal testing. Romax will use this data to verify and improve simulation and analysis software, while providing insight into the efficient design processes that can impact the service life of wind turbine drive-trains and lead to improved wind turbine reliability and efficiency. The rapidly developing wind energy industry has the potential to play a substantial role in the global pursuit to lower carbon emissions. However, with current supply chain and transmission reliability issues there are limits to its potential. With continued research and development work conducted by transmissions consultants, and their ability to assist manufacturers improve the quality of components and feed into the stretched supply chain, the potential of wind energy is a step close to being fulfilled. Established in 1989 by world bearing expert Dr S. Y. Poon, technical consultancy Romax Technology has been providing design and analysis services and software for drive-trains, gearboxes, and bearings to the transport and energy industries for 20 years. Romax Technology

Moving tons of equipment over soft soils

Just another day on the job

Laying foundation

Challenge: ve How to mo ent m heavy equip s il over soft so




I N C.

Building roads

Creative thinking and coordinated scheduling solved the challenge of soft soils at the Odin, Minnesota Wind Farm project. Carstensen compensated for the soft soils by building roads and laying foundations during summer, then brought in the crane to erect the turbines after the ground froze. A weighty example of Carstensen’s new level of thinking.



I N C.


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wind energy Testing of Windmill Subsystems and Assemblies By Suri Perinkulam

Windmills are leading alternative energy systems at a fast pace with ever-increasing demand. As windmill systems are a developing technology, the reliability of these systems should be established before they are put into use. There are a number of reasons why the subsystems and components used in windmills should be of high quality and reliable, including:

Planetary Gear Test System

1300 HP Drive System Test Stand

• High capital cost of large scale wind turbines, ranging from $2 to $3 million; • Location on tall towers that impose access issues for field maintenance and repair; • Remote on-shore and off-shore locations; • Huge size and weight pose transportation issues; Windmill Planetary • Expensive downtimes, which cause lost revenue; Gear set • Windmills are subject to severe running conditions due to fluctuating weather conditions; • Short historical data regarding usage in the field compared to an expected 20-year lifespan. Large- and medium-sized wind turbine manufacturers have resources for establishing test systems for product testing. In contrast to this, small wind turbines are manufactured by smaller companies with limited funds for product testing and improvement. As a result, they essentially use their customers to test their products. There are approximately 8,000 components in a windmill system. The quality and reliability of the windmill system depends on the continued intended performance of all these parts. Of the thousands of parts, the major sub-assemblies are the generator system, main drive gearbox, blades, bearings (pitch, yaw, and main), pitch and yaw drive systems, and the windmill controller system. Each of these sub-systems has to be tested to deliver the expected performance when in a windmill. There are specific test requirements for all the components of a windmill. The generator system converts the rotational energy into electrical energy. These generators are rated for an input speed of 1,500 to 1,800 RPM, and varying power outputs based on size of the windmill. The performance of a generator system can be established by a series of tests, such as: No load spin test: Rotating the generator to a specific speed and measuring generator voltage and current under no load. Full load test: Rotating the generator to the specified speed, loading the generator to its full load capacity, and measuring the generator output voltage and current. Transient surges and output electrical wave forms also need to be tested. Overload test: Spinning the generator to the required speed and loading the generator to its overload limit. Over speed test: Simulating high wind conditions in a windmill. Short circuit test: Short-circuits the three phases to the neutral line. Vibration, acoustic noise, and heating check: Checks for various test conditions. A generator test system will include a variable speed motor and drive system to drive the test generator. The energy produced by the test generator will be fed back to the power grid in a closed loop and absorbed. The test generator power controller will also be a part of the test set-up and will control the test generator. The various test parameters will be sensed using appropriate sensors and data logged using a data acquisition system. The main drive gearboxes are speed increasers that convert the slow blade speeds of 15 to 18 RPM into high speeds of 1500 to 1800 RPM as input to the generators. The gearbox is a critical part of a windmill drive train, which is subjected to severe conditions. Gearboxes are subject to harsh wind conditions and continuously varying loads. The performance of a gearbox can be established by the following tests: No load spin test: The gearbox will be driven at rated speeds using a variable speed motor without applying any output loads. Full load test: The gearbox will be rotated at rated speed and the full rated load will be applied using a generator at the output of the test gearbox. The load torque based on load current will be measured and compared with the test requirements. Efficiency test: Efficiency of the gearbox can be checked by measuring the input and output power from the gearbox. Ratio test: Ratio verification by measuring input and output speeds of the test gearbox. Vibration and acoustic noise and heating test: These parameters are checked during various tests. Gearbox lubrication system test: Generally, gearboxes are oil lubricated and this test will establish that the gearbox will be able to perform under varying gearbox oil supply conditions and various oil temperatures. 34

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In a gearbox test system, the test gearbox is driven by another similar or higher capacity gearbox coupled to a variable speed drive motor. A generator is coupled to the output shaft of the test gearbox to simulate the desired test load. The electrical output of the generator will be fed back into the electrical input power grid as a closed loop. This will reduce the power requirements during testing and will consume only the lost energy in the drive train. Wind turbine blades are tested for load and moment capacity about all axes. The dynamic lifecycle performance of the blades can be simulated using the test systems. The test system will simulate static, dynamic, endurance, and fatigue loads on blades, and study the load versus the deflection of the blades. Various loads will be generated using servo controlled hydraulic/mechanical load actuators and load measurements using load cells/strain gages. Bearings are also critical elements of the windmill and are located at the main input shaft, pitch axis control for the blades, and yaw axis control of the windmill. These bearings should also be tested for their static and dynamic load capabilities, endurance and fatigue load limits, and accelerated life testing. Pitch and yaw drive systems are usually hydraulic or electro-mechanical systems. They are typically rotary actuators that include hydraulic motors with integrated gearboxes. The various performance tests will include no-load, full load, overload capacities, over speed, ratio, efficiency, vibration, noise, temperature raise, etc. The test systems will typically have an electric motor with gearbox as the rotating and loading device. The controller assembly, the brain of the windmill, controls the entire function of the windmill from measurement of various functional parameters using sensors and control algorithms generated by the controller. The reliable and flawless functioning of this controller system is tested using simulated test conditions to ensure repeat performance. The test system will simulate all digital and analog input conditions and test the behavior of the controller system under these conditions. Since the wind load conditions on large windmills are in millions of pounds of force and moments, complicated and expensive test systems are required to carry out testing. All other supporting systems and components also need to be tested to establish their reliability and quality. As more and more of these windmill systems are put into service, the MRO (Maintenance Repair & Overhaul) services that are required to maintain the windmill systems in service for a long life are a must. Test systems are also needed by the MRO operators to ensure the quality and reliability of the subsystems after they are repaired and overhauled. Suri Perinkulam is an engineering manager for Testek, which has been designing and manufacturing similar test systems for the past 40 years.

Small vertical axis wind turbine Leviathan Energy announced that following successful computer simulation and field-testing, its Wind Lotus small vertical axis wind turbine is commercially available. Over the course of the simulation and field testing, the Wind Lotus has proven to be the most aerodynamically efficient and cost-effective small vertical axis wind turbine in its class. Designed using advanced aerodynamic modeling, it provides two times the power of other similarly sized turbines. Wind Lotus’ efficiency gives it the ability to begin producing electricity at wind speeds of one to two meters per second. This capability means users in virtually any location can receive power from the Wind Lotus. Wind Lotus is available in both 3.5 kilowatt and 5.0 kilowatt versions. The main applications will be flat roofs in rural and urban areas, farms, small businesses, communication towers, parking lots, and the backyards of private homes. Leviathan Energy |

Our wind tower solutions will blow you away.

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Testek Inc. |

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wind energy Challenges and Opportunities Presented by Wind Industry Transportation The transportation of project cargo always presents challenges and each product has unique situations to address. The same is true and even amplified with the transportation of wind turbines. A complete wind turbine consists of multiple components: blades, tower sections, nacelles, and hubs.

Depending upon the manufacturer and the project design needs, the dimensions of each unit can vary. However, despite the variances, there is one thing in common—they are all large. The logistics of handling the components is quite specialized due to the

Rubber Track Conversion Systems for 4x4 Vehicles and ATVs ALL TERRAIN - ALL SEASONS Mud, sand, snow, swamp, rocks, as well as hard surface!


Volkswind, a pioneer wind farm developer in Germany and a leading European Independent Power Producer, comes to North America. Experience. Quality. Long-term thinking. We capture the wind for the people.

EASY INSTALLATION! MATTRACKS® GIVES YOU ACCESS TO EVEN THE MOST REMOTE TOWER SITES IN THE WORST CONDITIONS! Wind power generation presents unique challenges to access work areas. Mattracks can help provide access for maintenance services and repair, and with the low ground pressure, there is minimal impact on soft terrain.


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product dimensions. Wind components are transported via numerous means of transportation including trucks, ships, rail, or barge. Regardless of which method is used, specialized equipment is necessary for the safe and effective loading and unloading of the units. To effectively handle wind components, a company may need to invest in equipment, gear, and land development. Water transportation requires that either the ship be equipped with ship’s gear (cranes) or the ports (both for loading and unloading) must be equipped with heavy-lift shore cranes. The stevedoring of these components requires heavy lift equipment, specialized slings, spreader bars, and other gear to load or discharge a vessel. For example, when a vessel of wind towers is discharged at the Port of Menominee, the tower section is placed immediately on custom-built yard trailers that move the tower around a 50-plus-acre storage

Volkswind USA Inc. Tel: +1 503 560 9379 Fax: +1 503 445 1572

yard. Once at the Place of Rest (POR), where the tower is stored on the ground until ready to load out, the tower section is hoisted from the yard trailer with two cranes and a crew of stevedores controlling the safe movement of the tower. Other ports complete this transition in similar, but varying ways. Some ports, for example, utilize large forklifts with customized attachments to move the tower sections to POR. The size of the components also proves to be a challenge when stored in their Place of Rest. The towers and blades especially are so large that acreage is quickly consumed. The Port of Menominee invested over one million dollars in a six-month period to level and gravel over 50 acres of onsite storage to accommodate the wind components. Cynthia Feller, director of business development at the Port of Menominee states, “We started by graveling about 20 acres of land thinking it would be enough to accommodate the towers and blades. When the components began to arrive, we were shocked at how quickly acreage filled up. We realized we needed to quickly grade and gravel the remaining 30 acres of our property in order to accommodate the needs of our custom-

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Two-phase cooling system

ers. Luckily, we owned the property and within six months had it finished and ready for use.” In addition, the Port purchased multiple cranes, including a 300-ton P&H, to equip it properly for single picks of the heaviest components. The Port also purchased multiple pieces of heavy lift equipment to increase operational efficiencies. Beyond stevedoring and storage challenges, the size of the wind components also creates a challenge for ground transportation. Due to the length and weights of the towers and blades, customized trailers and heavy haul tractors are required. Each trailer is customized requiring a significant amount of investment from the carriers. The cost of each combined trailer and heavy haul tractor unit can reach $500,000 to $750,000. Escort vehicles are also required for the trucks. Depending upon the state, the number of escort vehicles varies but typically range from one to three escort cars per truck for the blades or towers. The escorts navigate the pre-approved route and assist with traffic and directions. The escorts have also created a supply and demand challenge due to the rapid growth of the industry. The operation of units this large can be difficult. The turning radius of the longer components proves to be a challenge for navigation and for the drivers operating the unit. The Port of Menominee improved a challenging 90-degree turn on the identified route from the Port to the southbound highway. The Port purchased and demolished a house located on the corner intersection to round out the turn and remove obstructing trees. The route is now greatly improved with increased safety and ease of operation for the drivers of the trucks. The specialization does not stop at the equipment—unique skill sets and training are necessary for all areas of the industry. Drivers need to have oversize and heavy haul experience, escorts, and stevedores require specialized training. Although there are several structured training programs now available and others in progress, much of the learning in all areas has been hands-on due to the rapid growth of the industry within the US. Knowledge shared among operators within the industry is invaluable. The wind industry may present transportation challenges for those involved but the gratification gained in being part of a rapidly growing and environmentally friendly sector far outweighs those challenges.

Parker Hannifin Corporation has released the first two-phase cooling system to manage the heat of high-power electronics safely and efficiently. Parker’s Precision Electronics Cooling System Technology, developed at Parker’s Climate Systems Division, allows power electronics’ design platforms to have up to twice the power density in half the space, perfect for a wide array of renewable energy applications. This new maintenance-free system is ideal for decreasing the size of a wind turbine’s power system (or extending the range of a hybrid vehicle). Using a vaporizable dielectric fluid, the system boils this fluid across the base of the silicon chip, converting the fluid into a gas and stabilizing the system’s high temperatures. This process shatters the cooling limits once imposed by traditional water-based systems. Parker Hannifin Corporation |

How can we get by with less when the whole world keeps asking for more?

Getting more and more energy from fewer and fewer resources is our never-ending mission. In addition to excellent availability and utmost reliability, efficiency is a key requirement when it comes to supplying energy for the world’s steadily growing megacities. Basically, it’s all about making best use of all resources. We apply this principle across the entire energy conversion chain to take efficiency to totally new levels. Our new 800 kV transformer, for example, makes possible the efficient transmission of electric energy in the gigawatt range over distances of 850 miles and more. And our new generation of gas turbines makes combined cycle power plants deliver a record-breaking efficiency of more than 60 per cent.

Answers for energy.

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wind energy Compact power unit for wind power plants HAWE Hydraulics announces the type KA power unit, the latest model in the HAWE Hydraulics product line. The compact power unit type KA increases the service life of costly components such as gearboxes, rotor blades, tower, and foundations by hydraulically controlling yaw and rotor blades, thereby reducing wear and tear on the braking function. These compact power units mount next to an actuator, making them an excellent fit for localized installations. The hydraulic power unit consists of a tank with an integrated submerged motor, a radial piston or gear pump that is directly attached to the motor shaft (without a coupling), and a connection block. In the event of a disruption to the braking module that may cause interference, the disruption can be identified and the module easily exchanged with no need to remove any hoses connected to the consumers. All components are made of steel and are capable of withstanding extremely high pressure. HAWE Hydraulics |



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We take community involvement to higher levels. Since 1954, Mortenson has constructed landmark facilities all over the world. We erected our Àrst wind turbine project fourteen years ago and have

| Wind | | Solar | | Geothermal | | Hydro |

been an industry leader with 79 projects and more

Automated composite wind turbine blade fabrication MAG is changing the manufacturing of composite wind turbine blades with the introduction of two patent-pending technologies. The company’s new Rapid Material Placement System (RMPS) and quick-cure molding system for wind blades combine to reduce labor content by two-thirds, double throughput, and produce a consistently high-quality blade from the start of a shift to the end. The new Rapid Material Placement System (RMPS) brings integrated manufacturing—with automation and repeatable process control—to what has largely been a manual or piecemealautomated process. RMPS is an automated blade molding facility unto itself, capable of spraying in-mold coatings, dispensing/ lay-up of glass and carbon fiber materials, and dispensing/application of adhesive. It brings 3 m/sec (10 ft/sec) lay-up speed to placement of materials in blade skin, spar cap, and sheer web molds, with laser- and vision-based wrinkle detection in cross or longitudinal directions. Programmed off line, the CNC-controlled system consists of a gantry system with multi-axis end effectors capable of manipulating spray heads and adhesive applicators, as well as tooling for spooling and placing materials. After application of gel-coat with spray-head tooling, a plygenerator with a ten-roll magazine of material cuts, and dispenses plies to the lay-up end effector on the gantry. MAG |

than 7,600 megawatts installed in North America, totalling over $2 billion. Since launching our children’s book, Catch the Wind, Mortenson team members have visited schools across the country, teaching the next generation about wind power and renewable energy. At Mortenson, we’re proud to serve the communities we work within.


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Mortenson Renewable Energy Groups For more information contact: Elling C. Olson at 763-287-5489 or

North American Clean Energy is published 6 times a year. To subscribe, go to

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Wind energy consulting

Hydraulic torque wrenches The Power Team brand of SPX Hydraulic Technologies introduces the latest in its high-performance Predator Series of hydraulic 10,000 psi/700 Bar torque wrenches. Predator Series torque wrenches have a torque output of up to 28,800 ft. lbs., come in square drive and low clearance configuration, and have a wealth of features. Both models offer a low weight, high-strength body to help reduce operator fatigue. They have a 360-degree swivel manifold for easy positioning and an internal pressure relief with visual indicator that limits return side hydraulic pressure for greater operator safety. Thirty degrees of rotation per stroke yields up to 40% faster operation cycle than typical wrenches for greater productivity. A fine tooth pawl promotes full tooth engagement and a floating piston eliminates offcenter loading of the stroking piston for long, durable tool life. The wrenches are designed with up to 25% fewer parts than other wrenches and the fully enclosed drive mechanism minimizes the potential for pinch points and operator injury.

AL-PRO GmbH & CO. KG is pleased to announce the establishment of AL-PRO Wind Energy Consulting Canada Inc. Their new Canadian office, located in New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, will provide wind energy analysis and modeling services to the North American wind energy Industry. AL-PRO is an independent, DAP accredited consulting firm that specializes in wind energy modeling and site specific wind and yield analysis for wind farm developments. The company also markets the GWS product line, which includes meso- and micro-scale wind mapping, available for most of the globe. GWS Meso provides an overview of regional wind resources and GWS Micro provides localized wind resource mapping at a more detailed resolution. The firm has recently introduced the use of LIDAR as a means of obtaining detailed wind measurements and offers complete LIDAR services that include instrumentation deployment, supervision, maintenance, and subsequent data analysis. AL-PRO GmbH & CO. KG |

The Power Team |

Drive-train, gearbox, and bearing solutions RomaxWind offers conceptually advanced software and expert consultancy specifically for wind turbine gearboxes, drive-trains, and bearings. A unique, whole system approach to design and analysis facilitates a vital understanding of each component and its interactions, leading to more reliable and robust drive-train systems. RomaxWIND offers the following services for the wind energy industry: design and advanced analysis gearboxes, bearings, and drive-train components; software for all aspects of gearbox, bearing, and drivetrain design and simulation; drive-train concept evaluation and benchmarking; certification and manufacturing support on mechanical system components; technical due diligence on bearing and drivetrain design; and, strategic consulting, technology transfer, and training. Romax Technology | North American Clean Energy

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wind energy

Solving Wind Tower Logistics and Transportation Problems By Mike Breslin


oday, Canada is North America’s most proactive developer of wind generated electricity with approximately 6,000 MW installed, almost on par with the US. As the Canadian Wind Energy Association likes to say, it is “an infinite source of clean power.” On both Atlantic and Pacific Coasts, across the Great Plains, and Great Lakes, there are strong wind corridors. But reaping that power faster and more efficiently through a better supply chain for wind farm construction is the next great challenge to the industry. Over the past decade, turbine capacity factors have improved substantially, some say

Higher wind towers are becoming the new standard because the higher the turbine is elevated the greater the energy efficiency. This 100-meter Northstar is composed on six tower sections.

Milbank 30 years of experience in renewable energy Over 180 successful deals completed More than 9,000 MW of renewable power developed We get this business.

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by 25% to 45%. Average commercial turbines have grown from 700 kW to today’s standards of 1.5 and 2.0 MW. Virtually all turbine manufacturers have, or are releasing, 2.5 and 3.0 MW machines. Even bigger ones are coming on line. In Europe, 6 MW offshore turbines are being deployed. Gearboxes and blade designs are continually being refined to handle greater loads and stresses for greater output and longevity. Tower designs have evolved from open-lattice structures that were expensive to maintain and that attracted nesting birds, to sleek monopoles. Tower heights continue to rise to support more powerful turbines and harvest stronger winds that occur at higher elevations. Heights of 60 to 80 meters are being supplanted by 100, 120, and even 140 meters. For every additional ten meters of height, there is roughly a 5% improvement in energy output. Like many industries, wind has been affected somewhat by declining demand due to difficult credit conditions and the inability of many wind energy developers to secure needed project financing; yet turbine manufacturers are at or near capacity through 2010. However, as oil and natural gas prices are destined to rise, investment in wind will likely offer more predictable returns to investors than many other sectors. As it does, there are glaring logistical problems that need to be addressed to facilitate faster, more cost-effective construction of wind farms. The US Department of Energy’s “Achieving 20% Wind Energy in the US by 2030” identified a major problem: “Transportation logistics issues, if unresolved, are potential showstoppers to achieving the 20% wind scenario. Taller, wider towers, and larger, heavier blades will likely exceed the current transportation envelope for both rail and highway systems. Vehicles capable of transporting larger components will be needed…” Transportation logistics is the prime supply chain dilemma that builders of wind farms face. Towers made by wind turbine manufacturers and heavy steel fabricators are virtually all transported by truck. Consider the behemoth sizes that must be moved. A conventional 80-meter tower is fabricated in four tubular sections, each welded together from numerous curved steel plates. A base section alone can be 80 feet long, have a diameter of 14 feet, and weigh 50 tons. To handle these loads, specialized, Schnabel-type trailers must be used—trailers that cost up to a half-million dollars each and that are among the largest and heaviest vehicles allowed on highways. To transport one tower section, these trailers split in two and connect to each end of the tower section, often requiring a second tractor to position the rear section during loading. Depending on the distance, transport costs between $140 and $180 per tower per mile. But there are other associated costs and delays with oversized loads. Special routes must be planned An 80-meter Northstar is delivered on to account for lane capacity, bridge height clearances, bearing weights, and tight curves. seven standard flatbed trailers and two standard double-drop trainers that hold the There are time-of-day travel restrictions smaller, fully assembled upper tower sections. over certain areas. Advanced permitting is required that varies by state, county, city, and municipality. Front and rear pilot cars are required and through many areas the shipper must pay for additional police escorts.

For more details, contact: Ed Feo 213-892-4417

Attorney Advertising. Prior results do not guarantee a similar outcome.


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Moreover, the compounded cost of late or early deliveries can have staggering effects on construction costs. Wansek Construction, one of the largest general contractors of wind farms in the US, has built over 2000 MW of wind power. “A lot of times you just have to wait,” explains Rush Waite, VP in charge of wind at Wansek. “When you have a six- or seven-million-dollar crane sitting idle that’s about $800 an hour. That’s just the big crane. Then you have other crews and two or three auxiliary cranes that go with that operation.” Northstar Wind Towers offers one solution to the escalating cost of steel needed to build towers through a new, modular manufacturing process that also solves the transportation problem. The design employs rollformed panels with patent-pending bolted connections that are assembled onsite, rather than the conventionally welded mega-structures that cause the transport problems. Peder Hansen, a partner in the company said, “We have a design that is configured like a conventional tower so it accommodates standard platforms, ladders, and lifts.” These towers are scalable up to 140 meters, and can handle 5 to 7 MW turbines with rotor diameters in the 150-meter range. The product also lowers the overall price of a tower by 15 to 20%. By manufacturing in a controlled, modern factory setting, the modular panels can be mass produced quickly, made to strict tolerances, and the steel coated with high-tech finishes to reduce long-term maintenance costs—with an expected life of 20 years or more. An 80-meter tower can be transported on seven standard flatbed trailers and two standard double-drop trailers, which hold the two smaller, fully assembled upper tower sections. The loads can be pulled by regular trucks without permitting because the trailers fall within standard over-the-road dimensions, which offers a transportation savings of 75% to 80% compared to a conventional tower. The modules are delivered with jigs that hold them in place, while the sections can be bolted together by unskilled labor. Bolting is similar to methods that have been used for decades in heavy steel construction. This method, called Angle of Rotation PreLoading—DIN 8.6.4, eliminates the need for specifying torque. The bolting process is relatively foolproof and only requires visual inspection for a high safety margin in the connection. For large wind farm projects, on-site assembly of tower sections could be precisely scheduled to feed cranes, thereby minimizing crane and labor costs. After the sections are assembled, the jigs are returned to the factory on one flatbed trailer. The assembled tower sections are lifted in place by conventional cranes, and bolted together to form structural connections that are stronger than welding. With all of the economic challenges facing the economy and the pressing need for more wind energy, new tower designs that reduce construction costs and answer one the major logistical issue facing the industry may be the answer.

High-efficiency rotor blades Wind Sail Receptor, Inc. is developing a rotor blade design that could change how wind turbines harness power. The Wind Sail Receptor’s Quad Blade Construction uses Bayer MaterialScience’s polyurethane raw materials to increase durability and weatherability, while reducing the weight of the blades and maintenance costs. The resulting polyurethane system offers flexibility and resistance to the elements that is vital to the success of Steinke’s design. According to the World Wind Energy Association, most rotor blades on the market are made of glass-fiber or carbon-fiber reinforced plastics, which can be vulnerable to cracking or drooping after prolonged exposure to the elements. The unique design of the Wind Sail Receptor blades improves their ability to capture wind—they can generate power in winds of five miles per hour and continue generating at up to 50 miles per hour, depending on the size of a new technology for a variable generator. The Wind Sail Receptor’s design is also more compact and lighter than existing blades. Wind Sail Receptor, Inc. |

Northstar Wind Towers North American Clean Energy

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wind energy Next-generation wind assessment In response to evolving needs of wind energy developers, 3TIER recently released its Portfolio Climate Variability Analysis (CVA), a low-cost automated tool designed to accelerate clients’ decision making processes. The nimble, scalable solution enables developers—particularly those with large networks of met towers—to put observational data into a long-term, climatological perspective, which ultimately reduces uncertainty about a location’s wind energy value. The rapid turn-around product is of particular value to developers as they face increasingly stringent standards for due diligence by mitigating the downside risk of wind resource variability. By utilizing Portfolio CVASM, developers can predict future megawatt potential and identify the locations with the most robust wind energy. Further, monthly updates allow developers to easily examine the sensitivity of changes that occur with each month of data, which extends the efficiency of their evaluation and monitoring process. In addition to Portfolio CVA, 3TIER provides a full suite of assessment and forecasting services for wind, hydro, and solar energy projects.

Wind measurement systems NRG Systems Inc. recently announced a joint venture with Leosphere, leading specialist in lidar (laser radar) for atmospheric observations, to expand the use of remote sensing with lidar in the wind energy industry. The first product of the partnership is the Windcube lidar wind measurement system, a remote sensor used in site assessment and wind farm performance monitoring. In addition to the Windcube, NRG Systems has introduced the SymphoniePLUS, 15-channel data logger built on the same platform as the NRG Symphonie data logger. The three additional anemometer channels can be activated as needed, and users can process both Symphonie and SymphoniePLUS data with the data retrieval software included in the package. The SymphoniePLUS will be offered at the same price-point as the Symphonie. NRG Systems Inc. |

Telescopic crawler crane

SEaB Energy’s WINDBUSTER is a vertical axis 5kW wind turbine, 6 meters high, and 3.5 meters wide. The turbine captures wind from all directions and is made of a proprietary recycled plastic mix. The unit is designed to power private homes, small businesses, and schools with its unique, lightweight design. WINDBUSTER can be connected back to the grid or can store up to three days of power. WINDBUSTER’s size and weight allow it to be roof- or ground-mounted and its design is eye-catching, making it an ideal way to make energy.

Telescopic crawler crane LTR 11200 recently moved out of the newly constructed assembly shop for large cranes at the Liebherr factory in Ehingen. Wind power is the main operational area for the LTR 11200. The 100 m telescopic boom and the slewing platform were adopted from the mobile crane LTM 11200-9.1, which has proved itself numerous times at wind power plants. On suggestion of the wind power plant manufacturer Enercon, Liebherr developed the concept of a telescopic crawler crane on a narrow track crawler chassis, which is optimized for the driving of the crane in assembled state on the narrow roads in wind parks. The crawler width amounts to a maximum of only 4,8 m. For the crane operation, the LTR 11200 is supported on a star support with a basis of 13 m x 13 m. The boom systems with Y-suspension and the fixed and luffing lattice fly jibs, well known from the LTM 11200-9.1, are also incorporated in the crawler version of the 1200-ton crane.

SEaB Energy Ltd. |

Liebherr Cranes, Inc. |


Small wind turbine



Join Canadian and global industry leaders at Canada’s largest renewable energy conference. Canada’s rapidly expanding wind energy industry is well positioned for growth. More than 2,000 delegates and 225 exhibitors will come together for CanWEA’s Annual Conference and Exhibition to explore the infinite possibilities of wind energy.

Research-grade weather stations For more information on exhibitor and sponsor opportunities, please visit our website.

Onset Computer Corporation has introduced a line of Wind Sensor Adapters for connecting the company’s researchgrade weather stations to RM Young, Inc.’s wind speed and direction sensors. The new adapters extend the range of wind monitoring applications that are possible with Onset weather stations, while broadening the company’s weather sensor product offerings. Onset’s line of research-grade weather stations include HOBO U30 Remote Monitoring Systems, 4-channel HOBO Micro Stations, and 15-channel HOBO Weather Stations. The systems offer plug-and-play operation, and can be equipped with a range of sensors for measuring air temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, barometric pressure, and more. A range of data communications options are available, including GSM cellular, Wi-Fi, Ethernet, and direct USB. Onset Computer Corporation


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BIOFUELS/NEXT GENERATION BIOFUELS NewEarth Renewable Energy Inc. E-Coal is a 100% renewable and sustainable biomass ex fuel alternative to fossil coal and natural gas. E-Coal can be used in any ratio with fossil coal without any retroďŹ tting, downtime, loss of productivity, or service to customers in any coal-burning power plant. It has all of the energy of fossil coal without the pollution. E-Coal features include: CO2 neutral/negative; 100% sustainable; cost-competitive with fossil coal; it is smokeless and odorless with no land, water, or air pollution; it does not compete with food crops and offers an inďŹ nite supply; it is cleaner, cheaper, and safer than fossil coal; and is an upgraded form of biomass that is superior to regular wood pellets.



LumaSense Inc. The Andros Model 6511 is the ideal core sensing element for biogas measurement instrumentation. Using NDIR technology, the Andros 6511 can measure the quality of methane biogas being produced. SpeciďŹ cally, methane as a biofuel can contain large amounts of CO2 as a contaminant. The Andros 6511 measures CO2 up to 60%, methane up to 100% and CO to 20%. The wide dynamic measurement range of the Andros Model 6511 with realtime temperature and pressure compensation provides the capability to monitor Anaerobic Digestion processes and to control these processes to maximize methane production over a wide range of operating conditions. Adding an optional oxygen measurement, the Andros 6511 can provide the capability to monitor the combustion efďŹ ciency of equipment that uses biogas as a fuel.

Blackmer The ProVane Motor Speed Vane Pump line from Grand Rapids, MI-based Blackmer is ideally suited for biodiesel and ethanol processing, blending, and transfer applications. Available in either ductile iron or the feature-enhanced stainless steel model, the highly energy efďŹ cient ProVane is designed for continuous duty operations in low and medium viscosity process applications. ProVane pumps utilize self-adjusting vanes to eliminate efďŹ ciency robbing “slip,â€? maintaining near original volumetric output capacity and consistency even after signiďŹ cant wear. Under many operating conditions, thanks to the ProVane’s hydrodynamic journal bearing, there is no bearing wear because the shaft rides on a uid boundary to eliminate bearing-to-shaft (metal-tometal) contact. Because friction is signiďŹ cantly reduced, heat build-up and energy loss are greatly reduced, resulting in higher mechanical efďŹ ciency and energy savings.





Call toll-free: (877) 582-7800 201 East Shady Grove Road Grand Prairie, Texas 75050 44

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Phone: (972) 790-7800 Fax: (972) 790-8733

Penn State The BioEnergy Bridge at Penn State University is a university-industry-public consortium created to address the critical need for integrated research and technology development in the area of biofuels and biopower research. By conducting integrated research into every stage of the biofuels and biopower process, the BioEnergy Bridge will address the full range of challenges to reduce dependency on imported oil and fossil fuels by increasing production of biofuels. Penn State is seeking industrial participation across the entire bioenergy spectrum. All organizations participating in the BioEnergy Bridge will work together to attract signiďŹ cant federal, state, and foundation funding to leverage the partners’ commitments. Interested companies should attend the ďŹ rst meeting at Penn State, to be held from July 15th to 16th, 2009.

Lake Erie Biofuels Lake Erie Biofuels, LLC recycles used oils, reďŹ nes soybean oil, and puriďŹ es feedstocks, turning them into tomorrow’s fuels. Lake Erie Biofuels is a 45mgpy reďŹ nery based in Erie, Pennsylvania, with access to transportation assets in rail, truck, and vessel/barge via the Great Lakes. Their sustainability efforts reach along all ďŹ rst-, second-, and third-generation feedstocks through partnerships with state-ofthe-art organizations. Lake Erie Biofuels collaborates to meet customers’ demands while keeping today’s earth clean for tomorrow’s generation.

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BIOFUEL PRODUCTS & EQUIPMENT Fluid Components International Fluid Components International (FCI) has released its new Model ST51 Mass Flow Meter for owners, operators, and manufacturers of biogas production and methane capture and recovery systems. These users will find the new Model ST51 provides the high performance and features required of these applications in an explosion-proof instrument that is easy to install, safe, and requires virtually no maintenance to deliver a truly best cost solution. FCI’s ST51 Flow Meter is designed specifically to measure biogas and all methane composition gases including natural gas. ST51 features a thermal mass, insertion-style flow element with flow accuracy to ±1% of reading over a broad flow range, from 0.3 to 400 SFPS (0.08 to 122 MPS), and repeatability of ±0.5% of reading. The flow element is available for use in line sizes from two to 24 inches (51 to 610 mm) diameters.

The 100% Biomass Flex Fuel Alternative to Fossil Coal

LPP System for an 85 MW Gas Turbine

LPP Combustion, LLC LPP Combustion, LLC (LPP), a Maryland-based company, has developed a fuel conditioning technology that converts liquid biofuels, such as biodiesel and ethanol, into a substitute for natural gas called LPP Gas. This LPP Gas can then be burned with low emissions in virtually any combustion device in place of natural gas, providing users substantial fuel flexibility. A gas turbine utilizing LPP combustion technology to burn biofuels provides a clean and reliable form of “dispatchable” renewable energy that can be a primary source for power generation or be a back-up source for inconsistent renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. The technology allows for clean use of biofuels in combustion devices without the use of post-combustion pollution control equipment, and it can easily be incorporated into both new and existing gas turbine power plants. No changes are required to the gas turbine combustor hardware.

Introducing E-Coal, the Missing Link in the Fight to End Global Warming Novozymes Novozymes has cut cellulosic ethanol enzyme costs by more than half and is on track to deliver the first commercially viable enzymes by 2010—an important step on the way to enabling the commercial success of cellulosic ethanol. Novozymes new second-generation enzyme family is one of the highest performing and most cost-effective enzyme solutions available today. Novozymes is now making the product more broadly available to help enable further development of cellulosic ethanol.

E-Coal is a 100% renewable and sustainable, biomass Flex Fuel alternative to fossil coal and natural gas. E-Coal can be used in any ratio with fossil coal without any retrofitting, down time, loss of productivity, or service to customers in any coal burning power plant. It has all of the energy of fossil coal without the pollution. • CO2 Neutral / Negative • Cost Competitive with fossil coal • 100% Sustainable • Does Not Compete with Food Crops • Smokeless and Odorless

• No Land, Water or Air Pollution • Infinite Supply • Cleaner, Cheaper and Safer than fossil coal • Upgraded Form of Biomass that is Superior to Regular Wood Pellets

For more information on the many uses of E-Coal please go to: North American Clean Energy

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CW Mill Equipment Co., Inc. Custom-built HogZilla Grinders are preferred by experienced grinding professionals. CW Mill has been building electric- and dieselpowered grinders for decades. Used in the toughest applications, HogZilla tub and horizontal end-feed style grinders are built to last, produce, and to be efficient. Electric powered units have no diesel engine to maintain. With fewer transportation concerns, a larger, heavier HogZilla is attained with massive mill and superwide discharge conveyor to handle the massive amounts of material that the machine is capable of producing. Whether a grinding operation can be geared around electric power or not, be aware of the added efficiency and torque that these torque-multiplying converters provide.

Optomized Biogas Flow Meter


PeopleFlo Manufacturing, Inc. PeopleFlo Manufacturing’s EnviroGear pumps are magnetically coupled gear pumps designed to lower maintenance costs and eliminate environmental costs at an affordable price. They have a magnetic coupling that replaces traditional mechanical seals and provides zero leakage. It is also maintenancefree and requires no flush water. EnviroGear’s unique, patented design provides “betweenthe-bearing” support of the pumping elements and allows for a simple, compact design. PeopleFlo is working with many industry leaders in biodiesel and ethanol.

Wilks Enterprise, Inc. Wilks Enterprise, Inc. recently introduced two portable, easy to use mid-IR analyzers for use by distributors, fleet managers, or regulators for on-site measurements of biodiesel in diesel and ethanol in gasoline. These analyzers can be operated by personnel having little or no knowledge of infrared analytical techniques. The InfraCal Blend Analyzers are low-cost, single wavelength analyzers for measuring the blend ratio of biodiesel in diesel fuel or ethanol in gasoline in less than one minute. Since tax incentives, government regulations, and engine warrantees are often based on “% biofuel,” it is important to have an accurate measurement method. The analyzers are compact, portable, readout directly in percent blend, and provide the capability to measure the blend ratio on-site at a manufacturing or distribution facility. 46

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Hurst Boiler The Hurst Reciprocating Grate Stoker with automated ash removal is the latest edition in the company’s biomass boiler series. This unit offers the very best of solid fuel combustion allowing mechanical replacement of fuel with the least amount of moving parts. The efficient multi-fuel design is offered in various configurations to utilize a wide selection of solid fuels. All Hurst factory stokers are cast from the highest quality steel alloys and mounted on a robust undercarriage system. Capable of burning wood, coal, bark, construction debris, nuts, shells, husks, paper, card/board products, hog fuel, sawdust, shavings, sludge, and agricultural biomass, the Hurst BIOMASS-TER features a CO2 Neutral Release and PLC-based total systems monitoring. Hurst’s biomass product line is available with options including flat grate stokers, underfeed stokers, and traveling grate stokers to meet all biomass system requirements.

Bandit Industries, Inc. Bandit Industries, Inc. provides the equipment necessary to produce low-cost wood fiber and agricultural residues for the growing bioenergy markets. Their complete line of biomass chippers and high-capacity horizontal grinders transform unused biomaterial into a valuable, marketable product. Users can produce dimensional chips for wood-fired boiler system, a uniform product for use in pellet operations, and even convert agricultural residues such as grass and straw into valuable biomass products. Bandit offers six drum-style whole tree chippers and four different Beast Recyclers. Bandit Industries’ chippers and grinders have proven themselves throughout the world with over 40,000 units in operation worldwide. More industry professionals trust the Bandit name for all their biomass processing needs.

Bliss Industries, LLC Bliss Industries, LLC is a manufacturer of processing equipment for the industrial, agricultural, food, chemical, wood, and fiber industries. They specialize in particle reduction, pelleting, and cooling—providing efficiency, productivity, and profitability to customers. They are also a manufacturer of processing equipment for the biofuels industry. Founded in 1981, Bliss Industries maintains a reputation of manufacturing some of the most efficient, reliable, and well-built equipment in the industry. They work closely with cus-

tomers to find the best solutions for their specific needs, and work continuously toward improvement to meet the demands of this changing world. With traditional hard-working values and innovative technologies, Bliss Industries look forward to what the future will bring.

KEITH Manufacturing Co. The bulk handling of certain types of biomass presents unique challenges. Compared to free flowing materials like liquids, gasses, grains, coal, or pet coke, most biomass materials can cause material handling headaches. When systems’ engineers and plant managers recognize and address these challenges early in the design process, equipment can be selected to ensure efficient and reliable flow. KEITH WALKING FLOOR systems reliably automate the receiving, storage, and metering of difficult bulk materials into grinding, screening, and refining processes—or when used as unprocessed fuel. WALKING FLOOR systems are also used at the back end of these processes to collect ash, filter cake, sludge, and spent distiller grains for transport to the next process.

Morbark The Morbark Model 40/36 Whole Tree Chipper is a compact, affordable, productive drum chipper designed with the biomass industry in mind. Equipped with the same internal drive perfected on Morbark horizontal grinders, along with an extra wide feed opening, the Model 40/36 aggressively feeds brushy tops

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BIOMASS PRODUCTS & EQUIPMENT Metso Power Metso Power provides engineering, construction and manufacturing services, as well as technology (CFB&BFB) products, along with automation, instrumentation, and integrated solutions by delivering environmentally friendly combustion solutions to the power, industrial, and pulp and paper sectors. Metso boilers use Fluid Bed technology, combining high-efficiency combustion of high calorific value fuels with low emissions, even when burning various fuels simultaneously. Boiler Service: rebuilds and repairs including, but not limited to, chemical cleaning consulting, inspections, maintenance, replacements in kind, made to order, pressure parts, spare parts, lifecycle service with local manufacturing and service facilities. Pressure Parts: membrane wall panels, long flow economizers, generating banks, tubular heat exchangers, super heaters, loose tube bending. Full metal fabrication is available, including 2D/3D laser cutting (6-axis), engineered solutions, tube shields, alignment bars, headers, air heater seals, machining and saw cutting, assembly, shearing, bending, welding, plating, and powder coatings. Plus, a complete range of tube shield styles to solve tube wear problems fast. | and limbs quickly and effortlessly, filling a chip van to maximum legal load capacity. The feed system is more efficient due to a staggered knife configuration and contains less moving parts, reducing maintenance. The 40/36 comes equipped with the Morbark Integrated Control System allowing for diagnostic monitoring both on-site and remotely. This heavy-duty brush chipper is also easily moveable in the woods and requires no extra permits for transport.

Percival Scientific Percival Scientific sets a standard of excellence for environmental growth chambers by designing and manufacturing several lines of reliable plant growth chambers, biological incubators, environmental control rooms, and other special application chambers. They offer the largest choice of chamber solutions designed to meet specific research requirements, timelines, and budgets, and are able to meet individual requirements to control multiple critical testing variables. Every Percival Scientific chamber is designed and manufactured in America’s heartland, in Perry, Iowa.

Standard Filter As a complete solution provider for entire environmental air pollution filter needs, Standard Filter manufactures a complete line of aftermarket filter bags for nearly every baghouse or dust collector in operation to control plant emissions. Using the most innovative, technologically advanced methods for improving the performance of filter

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bags, Standard Filter manufactures its own fabric ensuring the highest quality filter bags available. They offer complete lab testing and expert analysis to help with all baghouse problem areas. For over 35 years, Standard Filter has been servicing the energy, cement, asphalt, wood, mining, metal, and food manufacturing industries. With attention to detail, exceptional customer service, and after-sales support, at Standard Filter Corporation our motto is “The Right Bag, The Right Price, Right Now!”

Weis Environmental Biomass is seen as one of the most important sources of renewable energy for the future. Low- to medium-temperature gasification of biomass always leads to the formation of tar. Tar is the number one source of equipment fouling, pipeline plugging, and unnecessary down-time of gasification systems. Weis Environmental is a company specialized in the manufacturing of Tar Electrostatic Precipitators designed to clean the fuel gas from biomass utilization. Features include: volume flow rate from 300 acfm to 59,000 acfm; temperature up to 185-degrees Fahrenheit; explosion pressure shock resistant design; and, if required, vertical gas flow direction.

West Salem Machinery West Salem Machinery (WSM) has announced the completion of a wood fiber preparation system for converting green chips, sawdust, and

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Peterson The 5710C is part of Peterson’s latest generation of high-production track grinders. Powered by the Caterpillar C27 engine at 1050 horsepower, this grinder provides the highest power to weight ratio of any Peterson grinder. At 82,330 pounds (37331 kg), the 5710C was designed for operations requiring high production and frequent moves between jobs. With a feed opening of 60 x 44 inches (1524 x 1118 mm), combined with Peterson’s high lift feed roll, the 5710C can readily reduce a wide range of material including stumps. The 5710C utilizes Peterson’s new generation of Impact Release System that can be set in the detent mode to provide consistent product sizing or switched to the floating anvil mode for a primary reduction where accurate sizing is less critical. The floating anvil mode provides a high production primary reduction with more protection from contaminated feedstocks and reduced fuel consumption.

Rotochopper, Inc. For over 10 years, Rotochopper has been supplying “Perfect In One Pass” biomass sizing solutions for unlocking the energy potential of a broad range of resources, from forestry slash to switchgrass bales. Known for superior particle size and texture control, Rotochopper grinders offer the efficiency and reliability necessary for consistent production of high-quality boiler fuel, briquette stock, and other end products with demanding specifications. Rotochopper, Inc. manufactures horizontal grinders from 75 to 765 horsepower. In addition to portable and track mounted diesel models, Rotochopper offers a fully developed line of electric grinders. Recent innovations include a unique bale processing system. Designed for optimal horsepower efficiency, Rotochopper grinders allow operators to consistently deliver “Perfect In One Pass” finished products at low operating costs.

McCormick Construction Company McCormick Construction Company (McC) is an industrial contractor specializing in the handling, storage, and processing of bulk materials and provides turn key construction of facilities in the renewables industry. The company performs deep excavation, cast-in-place concrete, concrete slip-form tanks, steel tanks, buildings and equipment installation. Their project managers work closely with superintendents to make sure deliveries are on time and that construction schedules and budgets are met. McC millwrights, equipment operators, riggers, iron workers, laborers, and finishers are fully trained in their respected fields and in safety practices and procedures. Their objective is to provide a safe working environment for employees while delivering value and satisfaction to customers.

shavings to pellet fuel. The system handles up to 100 green tons per hour of fiber, and includes pre-screening and shredding/milling of material to an approximate 1/2- to 3/4-inch, minus product size. The system includes two WSM drag chain reclaims, which allow bulk loading and metered feeding of wood fibers, a WSM belt conveyor with overhead self-cleaning permanent magnet, WSM vibrating screen, and WSM 4272S swing hammer shredder/hammermill. Pre-screening the incoming material provides increased thru-put with less energy consumption. This complete package was engineered and manufactured by WSM, providing a quick and easy installation.

towoc 18000’s. Fagen, Inc. also has control of a variety of support cranes and the largest CAT fleet in the Midwest. The unmatched standard for quality, safety, and service has led Fagen, Inc. be placed in ENR’s largest contractors in the US at number 30, and ENR’s largest contractors in the world at number 98.

Vermeer The Vermeer HG8000 horizontal grinder offers the largest in-feed opening on the market and is powered by a 1050-hp (783 kW) Tier 2 CAT diesel engine. With a millbox opening of 50 inches (127 cm) high by 71.5 inches (182 cm) wide, the HG8000 allows operators to load a higher volume of raw material and grind materials usually reserved for tub grinders. To maximize productivity, the exclusive SmartGrind feature stops and reverses material from feeding into the patented Duplex Drum when engine RPM drops below an efficient operating range. The machine is equipped with two screens that allow for countless screen combinations and end-product sizing. The screens are hydraulically positioned and are designed for easy removal through the top of the mill box opening.

CONSTRUCTION Fagen, Inc. Fagen, Inc. is the largest and a well-respected merit shop, green energy design-builder in the United States. Utilizing a database of over 20,000 civil, mechanical, and electrical directhire employees, Fagen, Inc. has constructed 60% of the ethanol production capacity in the US, and has been involved with biofuels related construction since 1988. Fagen, Inc. owns and controls a large inventory of cranes, including two new Mani48

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Ormat Technologies Ormat Technologies announced that its Peetz Recovered Energy Generation (REG) project reached commercial operation. The project consists of a 4 MW REG power plant that converts recovered waste heat from the exhaust of existing gas turbine at a compressor station located along a natural gas pipeline near Denver, Colorado. The electricity produced by the power plant is sold under a 20-year power purchase agreement to Highline Electric Association Inc. (HEA), a consumer-owned cooperative in Colorado and Nebraska. The ORMAT REG facilities consist of ORMAT Energy Converters (OEC), based on Organic Rankine Cycle technology, which converts recovered heat to electric power without the need for any additional fuel or water. The OEC units are environmentally benign, as they have no emissions of CO2 or NOx.

ENGINEERING AND DESIGN River Consulting River Consulting recently provided engineering services to convert a petroleum terminal into a biodiesel processing facility with movement of 800,000 barrels a year to meet the client’s production goal of 40 million gallons of biodiesel annually. River delivers multidiscipline engineering and project solutions for major capital projects and facility and process expansions, including biodiesel facility design and biomass material handling services. River is responsive and flexible, providing nationally recognized, reliable solutions. From modifications to major expansions, River’s project expertise spans 28 years and 57 coun-

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Price BIOstock: The Price Companies, Inc. The Price Companies, Inc. of Monticello, Arkansas have formed a division called “Price BIOstock” that negotiates and manages supply contracts with biomass power facilities and biorefineries. These “upstream” services include: feedstock procurement, harvesting, logistics, design/construction of receiving yards, feedstock storage/ preparation, and facilities management. Using time-tested equipment, systems, and policies developed during 24 years of service to the paper and pulp industry, customers can be assured of reliable and safe, on-time delivery and performance. This division is expanding beyond wood and woody biomass to include ag waste, energy crops, and waste-derived fuel. Find out how Price BIOstock makes biomass supply simple.

NAES Corporation As a worldwide provider of third-party power plant operations and maintenance (O&M) services, with a track record of approximately 150 power generation plants and 38,000 MW, NAES Corporation is dedicated to making a plant run safely, reliably, and cost-effectively. NAES has operated the broadest range of technologies and fuels in the business, and is a leading operator of biopower facilities in the US, with a resume that includes 14 plants and 325 MW. NAES also provides specialized services to improve plant technical and economic performance while enhancing personnel effectiveness. Born from 22 years of best-in-class operations, these technical support services include customized operating procedures and system descriptions, plant operational programs, NERC Compliance, computerized maintenance management systems (CMMS), oversight/assessment, and start-up and commissioning services.

Wamar International, Inc. Wamar International’s Energy Division provides overhaul, repair, and maintenance services for industrial turbines of all sizes. Primesouth, a Wamar International Company, has over 20 years experience in providing third-party operations and maintenance (O&M) services to power, ethanol, biodiesel, and facilities throughout the US and internationally, with a proven track record for excellence and dependability. Primesouth Trade Services stands ready to provide short- and long-term construction and maintenance labor support specializing in welders, pipe fitters, millwrights, and other construction trades. Wamar Renewables, which includes Primesouth, stands ready to assist every step of the way with biomass, solar, wind, or biodiesel projects. From project development to complete EPC & O&M services, they are ready to turn vision into reality.

tries. An Engineering News-Record Top 500 Design Firm and ZweigWhite’s 14th fastest growing A/E firm, River’s offices include Columbus, Ohio; New Orleans, Louisiana; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Houston, Texas; and Salt Lake City, Utah.

WIKA Instrument Corporation The WIKA TRONIC A-10 pressure transmitter provides resistance to shock, vibration, temperature variations, RFI, and other environmental conditions typically found in industrial applications. Reliability, simple installation, set-up, and operation—combined with competitive pricing—set the A-10 apart. The A-10 also has a short lead time that is measured in days, not weeks or months. All of these attributes are the result of state-ofthe-art production technologies, fewer component parts, and one-piece flow assembly. The A-10 is particularly well suited for a variety of applications at cogeneration (CHP) plants: Fuel filter (typical pressure range: 150 PSI—pressure measurement detects clogged filters, which improves the efficiency of the combustion process); cooling/heating water (typical pressure range: 60 or 100PSI— controls water pressure); charging air pressure (typical pressure range: 25 PSI—pressure control improves the efficiency of the combustion process.

FOREST AND WOOD PROCESSING (Equipment & Engineering)

DuraTech Industries With a 40- x 60.5-inch feed opening and a HPTO 15

wet clutch, DuraTech Industries’ new 9564 Horizontal Grinder can grind an entire tree, large stumps, branches, wood pallets, or green waste. Equipped with an enclosed engine compartment producing the lowest decibel reading in its class, and the only self-cleaning air intake system on the market, the 9564 is heavy duty and safe. With the downward drive of the hammermill, more debris will stay contained. It comes with the CAT C27 Tier II diesel engine that puts out 950 HP. The HPTO wet clutch transfers power to the 64-inch wide 12,100-pound hammermill. The high-capacity 315 cubic foot hopper will handle the largest trees and stumps.




The Eriez Technical Center The Eriez Technical Center, located adjacent to Eriez Headquarters in Erie, Pennsylvania, has more than 100 types of permanent magnetic, electromagnetic, vibratory, screening, electronic metal detecting, hydraulic, and flotation equipment to handle a wide variety of materials. Eriez provides a complete laboratory facility to evaluate and assess material samples and establish the most efficient and profitable ways for customers to process or handle these materials. The Eriez Technical Center offers both expertise and state-of-the-art testing equipment for flowsheet development, determination of potential use, characterization of product, best handling procedures, or best separation approach for sample materials submitted from all over the world. Visual inspection and basic assessment of each sample is standard. If a positive assessment of the sample is made, Eriez may recommend additional testing.

PETERSON’S Patented Impact Release System

Minimizes damage caused by contaminants.

BLUE is the color of POWER. BLUE is the color of RELIABILITY. BLUE is the color of PETERSON. Heavyweight performance in a middleweight package! For high production combined with portability Peterson is the one name to trust. Less downtime, higher productivity. Ask us!

SOLID BLUE. 1-800-269-6520

North American Clean Energy

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SEaB Energy Ltd. SEaB ENERGY’s MUCKBUSTER anaerobic digester is a distributed power generation solution, which is manufactured in the UK. It is scaled for users producing 200 to 800 liters per day of organic waste. MUCKBUSTER anaerobic digester converts organic waste into biogas. Homeowners can make their septic systems into an energy source, rather than paying for a waste collection service. Businesses such as restaurants, supermarkets, greenhouse growers, small agricultural holdings, and horse owners can use the biogas as well as the other bi-products of the system: fertiliser, CO2, and dry mulch, to increase their output and cut costs.

CBI, Inc. For more than 20 years, CBI has designed solutions for an ever-changing marketplace. As opportunities change, they continue to be at the forefront in creating new, innovative processes to efficiently utilize wastes currently going into the landfill, and help customers realize the “Lost BTU’s.” With a focus on reducing dependence on foreign oil, CBI continues to engineer and build equipment and systems that will fuel the future. Processing C&D, MSW, RR Ties, telephone poles, and countless other contaminated waste streams, as well as traditional wood wastes, at a lower cost per ton strongly positions CBI for entering the next era of utilization and waste reduction. From portable or stationary and horizontal or vertical to single units or complete engineered systems, CBI provides more value by design.

eFACTOR3, LLC The WEIMA PowerLine is a versatile high-capacity shredder for the recycling and waste-to-energy industries. This machine is ideally suited as a high-capacity secondary shredder in a multi-stage operation or as a single stage shredding solution for clean material streams from post-industrial waste. Whether it is plastic in form of purging, profiles, pipes, film, fibers or paper, cardboard, electronic scrap, cables, carpet, C&D or MSW, the WEIMA PowerLine can be tailored to suit every application. The PowerLines’ unique design features make it a reliable, efficient, and robust, providing high shredding capacity at a very low cost per ton. The PowerLine can be equipped with two different versions of high-torque drives: the WEIMA WDD (WEIMA Direct Drive) or the WEIMA HDD (Hydraulic Direct Drive). Depending on the screen size, the shredding capacity of the PowerLine ranges from 5 to 25 tons/hr.

handle bags, bales, tires, or any irregularly textured, nonuniformed load. These two-way, variable speed moving floors provide controlled loading and unloading at the most confined sites, eliminating the need for tippers, rams, or push blades.


HALLCO Industries, Inc. HALLCO LIVE FLOORS are a powerful system that uses a series of moving slats that ride on a bearing surface and are powered by hydraulic cylinders. HALLCO LIVE FLOORS handle a wide range of loads, from dry materials to wet, soggy refuse and recyclables. They



WASTE-to-ENERGY Gershman, Brickner & Bratton, Inc. Gershman, Brickner & Bratton, Inc. (GBB) has worked on more than 70 waste-to-energy projects, from initial feasibility study and economic analysis to vendor negotiations and commercial operations monitoring. GBB also conducts bond feasibility studies, and monitors construction and acceptance testing. Their knowledge and experience enables them to evaluate operations, including the potential to use alternative fuels and provide recommendations that not only take into account technical issues, but also the evolving role of flow control. Founded in 1980, GBB works on solid waste collection, processing, recycling, and disposal issues, and assists in planning, procuring, and implementing sound, cost-effective facilities and services at the local, state, and national levels for both the public and private sectors.

WASTE-to-ENERGY PRODUCTS & EQUIPMENT eFACTOR3 helps companies design, implement, and maintain the most reliable waste-to-energy systems in the world. For a wide range of pre-shredding, shredding, conveying and separation equipment call us at 877.801.3232 or visit us online at Shredding, Cleaning, Granulating and Extruding Systems from:


May / June 2009


BIO-FUEL TECHNOLOGIES LLC BIO-FUEL TECHNOLOGIES are the distributors of the BFT Chain Grate Boiler with a system design that incorporates

Firestone Specialty Products Republic Services, Inc. selected the Tessman Road landfill for a pilot project featuring a solar energy cover (SEC). They selected a Thermoplastic Polyolefin (TPO) Geomembrane from Firestone Specialty Products LLC, as the final closure membrane and mounting system for the photovoltaic panels. Firestone’s membrane was selected for its durability, weatherability, and performance record. The geomembrane serves a critical role in this application, protecting the solid waste from exposure, storm water infiltration, and providing a stabile surface for mounting solar panels. This is the first time that flexible laminate PV cells have been mounted onto an exposed geomembrane cap, so selecting the right product that would give the best compatibility of materials was essential. Firestone’s thermoplastic geomembrane met all the requirements.

the three components required for efficient combustion of solid fuel: time, temperature, and turbulence. The company is able to turn waste into energy, providing heat in steam or hot water for facilities, dry lumber, and to generate electricity. They offer a versatile, economical boiler with an Innovative Self Cleaning Ash System in a compact design that can burn wood, corn fodder, poultry manure, and all other solid fuels. Systems are available with hot water, high- and low-pressure steam, and turbine generation systems with complete turnkey installations. Consulting and engineering are also available, as are grinders and magnets.

ElectraTherm, Inc. ElectraTherm’s Green Machine captures heat from almost any industrial source to generate fuel-free, emission-free electricity. Built on a skid, it is both modular and mobile, meaning it is easy to transport and install as a single unit or in a series. Automated control systems permit unattended operation, resulting in low operation and maintenance costs. Green Machine benefits include: zero emissions, carbon neutral, modular and mobile, scalable from 50 to 500kW, as well as the lowest operating cost in the industry. Applications include: stationary engines, geothermal, industrial, stack gas, biogas and biomass, coal and gas plants, solar thermal. Other industry applications are: refining, hot oils and gas, district heating, mining, bio-diesel, motor vehicles, glass, compressor oil, steam, boiler blow down, compressors, blow molding, aluminum smelting, and heat treatment.





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Granutech The Grizzly Grinder from Granutech-Saturn Systems has become the processor-of-choice for a growing number of waste-to-energy applications worldwide. Featuring a heavy duty single-shaft rotor, the Grizzly has proven successful in high volume processing of waste at exceptionally low cost; in processing light-fraction MSW prior to pelletizing; or—when used as a secondary processor in mixed waste operations—to efficiently produce a high quality fuel product. The grinder has found broad acceptance in everything from waste plastics in South Korea, to haz-waste in Mexico and Brazil, to non-recyclable combustible waste in Denmark. The Grizzly is available with either a 300hp or 400hp drive motor and an 80" (model 80) or 96" (model 96) wide cutting chamber. Both models feature low-cost stationary and rotor knives, a wear-resistant multipiece screen, and a wear plate-lined frame for optimum processing capability.

K&K Environmental, LLC K&K Environmental, LLC provides fixed base and K & K Environmental, LLC mobile Wrapped Bale System (WBS) equipment for Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) projects. FAES twin ram balers produce dense 4.2 cubic yard bales weighing up to 3+ tons. Bales are tied with welded PET plastic strap, which is compatible with energy recovery facility operations and saves over one dollar per ton compared with wire tie. CrossWrap (CW) bale wrappers tightly wrap the FAES bales in low density polyethylene (LDPE) plastic; eliminating odor, litter, and allowing outside storage while maintaining calorific value. Millions of CW—RDF bales have been wrapped for shipment and storage in support of energy recovery projects worldwide. WBS equipment allows energy recovery operators to store RDF for seasonal surge, during maintenance outages, or prior to new plant start-up. WBS equipment also allows truck, rail, and barge shipment of RDF without concern for odor or environmental impacts.

SSI Shredding Systems Since 1980, SSI has been designing and manufacturing size reduction systems to prepare solid wastes for thermal treatment or conversion to alternative fuel. SSI has supplied hundreds of systems worldwide for generating energy from many different waste materials—from industrial, municipal, and hazardous wastes to tires, mill waste, wood, and other organic materials. The growing diversity of conversion technologies and feed systems means there is no “one size fits all” system for shredding. With multiple low-speed, high-torque technologies to offer, SSI is able to address each customer’s unique application with systems known for high-performance, low-maintenance, and on-line reliability.

{ Add Firestone, Add Innovation } Innovative projects require innovative products, like Firestone Geomembranes. From anaerobic digesters which convert animal waste into an alternative energy

Biodigesters – Sao Paolo, Brazil

source to landfill caps which harness solar power and biogas – Firestone is proud to be a part of the solution. Our geomembrane products’ durability and elasticity in exposed applications, combined with our expertise, help ensure the success of even the most demanding projects.

Anaerobic Digesters – Alberta, Canada SUCCESSFUL APPLICATIONS INCLUDE: UÊ, 1/1,Ê*/-Ê Ê*" UÊ  ,"  Ê  -/ ,Ê "6 ,UÊ,,/" Ê  UÊ Ê *UÊ-/",7/ ,Ê   /

Municipal Landfill – San Antonio, Texas

McGill AirClean LLC McGill AirClean helps meet stringent emissions regulations with dependable, economical air pollution control equipment. The company’s acid gas control systems provide effective control using a variety of reagents to convert acid gas to chemical salt. Their spray-dry scrubbers utilize dual-fluid nozzles to spray finely atomized reagent droplets into the scrubber for acid gas neutralization. McGill AirClean’s dry electrostatic precipitators utilize efficient needle/plate electrodes, while their wet electrostatic precipitators are horizontal flow designed with multiple, independent fields. Their fabric filter design utilizes a single removable top lid, where the entire pulsing system is lifted off providing quick, unimpeded access to bags and cages. The company’s deNOx reactor for selective catalytic reduction systems can be manufactured in high-dust or low-dust configurations. The flowmodeled system can achieve 90+% nitrogen oxides removal.

{ Eco Friendly Energy Solutions } To learn more about geomembrane solutions from Firestone Specialty Products 800-428-4442 | |



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M&J Industries M&J Industries is a pioneer in the field of industrial shredding technology. The company manufactures shredding equipment that ef-

fectively and reliably reduces the size of waste materials of all kinds. M&J supplies shredder solutions for companies that work with recycling, landfills, incineration, hazardous waste, waste-to-energy conversion and composting, as well as industrial processes such as cement production and chemical waste processing. The company supplies a comprehensive range of both static and mobile shredders in both single-shaft and double-shaft configurations. All M&J products share key distinctive features, including the patented open cutting table and aggressive knife designs, as well an exceptionally robust construction.

Steinert ECS Steinert’s eddy-current non-ferrous metal separators are one of the best on the market today, especially in waste-to-energy. The adjustable, patented eccentric magnetic pole system features neodymium iron boron magnet materials and a unique drum shell design that not only ensures optimum separation, but also guarantees long operating life with minimal downtime. The modular construction, in widths up to 100 inches, allows for easy installation in existing or new plants.

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Fuels-from-the-forest Gasification Meeting demands for ultra-clean energy By Jim Leman


esearch continues to mount that a significant supply of renewable ultra-clean energies, including electricity and green motor fuels, can be generated from harvested forestry biomass. The leading technology driving this innovation is a fuels-from-the-forest black liquor gasification process integrated into pulp and paper mills, and the commercialization of this biorefinery technology is upon us. Estimates are that these so-produced renewable energies will go a long way toward meeting the goal of the US federal Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, to increase the production of clean renewable fuels using domestic resources. Two major studies led by researchers at Princeton University note that pulp and paper biomass black liquor gasification technology, if aggressively commercialized and deployed in the US, could: • By 2030, enable the industry to produce some eight gigawatts more of renewable elecThe proprietary Chemrec fuels-from-thetricity than it otherwise would—enough to power more than six million US households, forest black liquor gasification reactor and cooling thereby eliminating some 20 million tons of CO2 emissions per year (by displacing conunits when integrated into a pulp and paper ventional grid electricity). This would further eliminate 60,000 tons per year of NOx and mill can transform the mill into a high-margin 140,000 tons per year of SO2 emissions; biorefinery, producing renewable green motor • Allow the industry to produce about seven billion gallons per year of renewable transpor- fuels while enabling profitable pulp production. tation fuel, which represents more than 40% of the Renewable Fuel Standard target for cellulosic biofuels in 2022. “As a source of ultra-clean, renewable energy the black liquor biomass gasification route larger. At the minimum capacity size, such a that transforms pulp and paper mills into biorefineries is standing up to critical scrutiny as a viable and practical biofuel route that makes good use of the land and that is gentle to the biorefinery mill would produce upwards of environment,” notes Richard J LeBlanc, CEO of Swedish Chemrec AB and its US subsidi8.5 million gallons (32 million liters) a year ary Chemrec USA. The company developed the black liquor gasification technology. of green motor fuel. Biofuels made from this gasification process excelled in a study of alternative transportation fuels conducted by AB Volvo, the heavy equipment and truck manufacturer. The study RENEW, a consortium of 31 European ranked these fuels by their climate impact, energy efficiency, land use efficiency, fuel poten- entities that recently completed a four-year study evaluating six different production tial, and certain logistics factors. routes for second-generation renewable “Five of the options [synthetic diesel, dimethyl ether (DME), methanol, biogas, and biomass-to-liquid fuels, cited the Chemrec hydrogen+biogas] reduce the impact on the climate by over 90%,” with biomass gasificablack liquor gasification of forestry biomass tion of black liquor required to achieve the highest rating, Volvo noted. Ethanol, the study process as having the highest conversion cited, offered “a reduction of 0 to 75% depending on the production method.” efficiency, the lowest product cost, and the Gasification technology itself is well-proven in various applications worldwide, mostly highest greenhouse gas emissions reduction. for converting coal, oil, or natural gas into base chemicals and fuels. However, the gasification process using renewable black liquor rather than fossil feedstocks creates steam for the use in the pulp mill as well as syngas, which is then refined into green motor fuels. It can also be used to create renewFired Boiler Systems able olefin feedstock for plastics production. The pulp mill byproduct black liquor is a mix of lignin, some dissolved cellulose, and the spent pulping chemicals. It is traditionally If it burns, chances are we’ve already burned in a Tomlinson recovery boiler to create burned it successfully... steam and recover chemicals used in the procFrom Canada to Korea from wood chips to rice ess. In a biorefinery application, a black liquor hulls. When you choose a Hurst system, your gasification system is installed in tandem with backed by 42 years of innovative combustion or in replacement of the recovery boiler. design all packaged in modular components The components for such a biorefinery for one easy installation. are also proven in petrochemical applications. They include an oxygen plant, a black The leading choice for liquor gasifier, and gas cooler/steam generapackaged steam and hot tor (see illustration), a plant for removing water boilers systems. carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide from the raw syngas that is produced, a fuel synthesis plant where liquid fuel is synthesized from the syngas, and a distillation plant where the fuel produced is purified to meet product specifications (i.e. methanol, DME, OIL or other green fuel). GAS Mills using this method producing as COAL little as 500 tons of black liquor solids per WOOD day are viable as fuels-from-the-forest PAPER BIOMASS biorefineries. Most mills are considerably

Black liquor, shown here, is a byproduct of pulp and paper milling and is converted to renewable green motor fuels through a black liquor gasification process at the mill.

Jim Leman is a freelance writer from Grayslake, IL. He writes about the renewable energy, manufacturing, and automotive industries.


Sell Your CARBON CREDITS GO... Carbon Neutral with a Hurst Biomass System

Lower Your Fuel Cost

North American Clean Energy

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Show in Print Features just some of the companies and technologies attendees will see at this year’s show.





17th Annual Waste-to-Energy Conference

May 18th to 20th, 2009 • Westfields Marriott • Chantilly, Virginia Co-sponsored by the Energy Recovery Council (ERC), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), the Solid Waste Association of North America (SWANA), and in partnership with the Waste-to-Energy Research and Technology Council (WTERT) at Columbia University, NAWTEC is widely recognized as the industry technical conference and trade show focusing on municipal wasteto-energy operational issues and policy, technology, and research initiatives.

Waste conversion Wheelabrator Technologies Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Waste Management, offers safe and environmentally sound conversion of municipal solid waste and other renewable waste fuels into clean energy. Their waste-toenergy facilities provide safe municipal solid waste disposal for towns and cities across the US. These facilities deliver clean, renewable electric power to major utilities for distribution to hundreds of thousands of homes and businesses. As valued corporate citizens and neighbors, Wheelabrator facilities contribute to the economic and civic vitality of their host communities. Wheelabrator also operates a variety of independent power plants designed to generate electricity using an assortment of fuels including waste wood, tires, waste coal, and natural gas. In addition to producing electricity, some of these facilities also produce steam sold to nearby government and commercial establishments. Wheelabrator Technologies Inc.

Manufacturing facilities in USA Metso Power provides tube shields, full service custom metal fabrication, CNC machining, and pressure part manufacturing. The Lancaster facility is a 102,000-squarefoot facility that concentrates on pressure part manufacturing. Pressure parts include: membrane wall panels, longflow economizers, generating banks, tubular heat exchangers, superheaters, and loose tube bending. The Fairmont facility is a 58,000-squarefoot facility concentrating on tube shields, alignment bars, headers, air heater seals, plate work fabrication, and machining and headers. Process capabilities include: saws, shears, press brakes, punch presses, tube benders, CNC milling, manual machining, CNC laser cutter, high def plasma, and welding SH-D equipment. A complete range of tube shield styles are available to quickly solve tube wear problems. The Boiler Service rebuilds and repairs including, but not limited to, chemical cleaning consulting, inspections, maintenance, made to order, pressure parts, and spare parts, while providing engineered solutions.

Complete pipe and pumping systems and fabrication

Energy-from-waste and renewable energy projects

Lee Supply has over 20 years landfill experience and has developed an excellent working relationship with engineers and regulatory personnel. Along with some major engineering firms, Lee Supply has introduced a new conceptual manhole fabricated from HDPE. This has lead to other creative solutions: HDPE valve boxes, HDPE sump and pump stations, wellhead covers, and slope riser technology utilizing EPG Pump Systems. Lee Supply offers quality products and services such as: complete pipe and pumping systems, fusion equipment, fittings and valves, engineered HDPE fabrication, certified fusion technicians, a certified McElroy Service Center, a full service pump department, and complete fabrication capabilities. Lee Supply has the largest HDPE pipeyard in the North East and offers 24/7/365 emergency services.

Covanta Energy has converted over 250 million tons of municipal solid waste into clean, renewable energy. The company is an internationally recognized owner and operator of large-scale energy-from-waste and renewable energy projects, and a recipient of the Energy Innovator Award from the US Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Covanta’s 38 energy-from-waste facilities provide communities with an environmentally sound solution to their solid waste disposal needs by using that municipal solid waste to generate clean, renewable energy. Annually, Covanta’s modern energy-from-waste facilities safely and securely convert approximately 16 million tons of waste into more than eight million megawatt hours of renewable electricity, and create 10 billion pounds of steam that are sold to a variety of industries.

Lee Supply

Metso Power

On-line fireside boiler video inspection and cleaning

Covanta Energy

Dry material airlock valve

NorthAmerican Industrial Services is offering On-line Boiler Video Inspectional Services to the waste-to-energy industry. Their super resolution, remote extension video probe allows for viewing and recording of deep, internal fireside gas lane fouling of all sections of the boiler including convection, superheater, and economizer. This service can monitor slag development from start-up and allow the operator to react accordingly. Tube leaks can also be identified and monitored for size and adverse effects to surrounding areas. This high-temperature video service is highly successful when used in conjunction with NorthAmerican’s patented on-line explosive service utilizing “micro-blast” technology. This system, proven throughout Europe, works by placing and detonating small linear explosive charges within the gas lanes for highly targeted, safe cleaning—without having to cycle the boiler down. Minimum slag drop-out per blast provides reduced incidence of hopper plugging during the cleaning, while virtually eliminating risks associated with other on-line blasting techniques. To eliminate forced shutdowns or scheduled outages due to fouling issues, visit NorthAmerican Industrial Services.

To reduce maintenance time, increase efficiency, and lower costs, companies around the world choose Plattco when they need a dry material airlock valve that will: ensure a reliable, long-lasting seal (even when the material is abrasive or corrosive, pressurized, or subject to extreme temperatures); be easy and inexpensive to maintain for decades of “like new” operation; and, to fit their specific applications, using Plattco’s 50 years of experience designing exceptionally performing valves. As an integrated manufacturer, Plattco tackles the toughest applications with an experienced design team, pattern shop, foundry, and machine shop. They have a reputation for correcting process design problems in applications that involve extreme conditions. Plattco owns several US and International patents and is considered an innovator in the solid materials handling valve business.

NorthAmerican Industrial Services |

Plattco Corporation |


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Environmental maintenance services for energy industry









Advanced combustion technology

Mobile Dredging & Pumping Co. is an affiliate of the Carylon Corporation, an experienced environmental maintenance services contractor that has been solving maintenance problems for the energy industry for more than 60 years. Water blast cleaning, industrial wet/dry vacuuming, and cryogenic (dry ice) blast cleaning are just a few of the guaranteed services they have to offer. Mobile Dredging & Pumping Co.


Fuel Tech completed the acquisition of Advanced Combustion Technology (ACT). Product offerings include ultralow NOx burners, burner upgrades, and over-fire air systems, with experience on over 70 installations. Services such as airflow testing, coal flow testing, boiler tuning, and consulting services are also offered. High Energy Reagent Technology (HERT) or NOxOUT SNCR systems can be combined with burner and over-fire air systems for total NOx reductions up to 85%. Fuel Tech |

CEMS integrator EcoChem Analytics is a Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) integrator with decades of experience. Their systems are based around a MC3 multicomponent IR based analyzer capable of measuring up to eight gases including: SO2, NOx, CO, CO2, NH3, HCl, CH4, H2O and O2. The robust units typically run in the “Hot-Wet” mode. All components in contact with the flue gas are maintained above the dew point (185°C or higher). These third generation system are widely used in the waste-to-energy industry (over 500 MW being monitored with MC Series analyzers in the USA), power plants, chemical process facilities, pharmaceutical, and cement kiln applications for certified regulatory applications for Part 60, Part 75 and PADEP. Contact EcoChem Analytics to discuss an upcoming CEM replacement/upgrade. EcoChem Analytics |

Fabric filter systems McGill AirClean’s fabric filter systems meet the most stringent air pollution control requirements and provide reliable, high-collection efficiency and control of emissions, even where high temperatures and corrosive elements exist. They are designed with the proper air-to-cloth ratio, can velocity, and gas distribution to achieve the lowest possible pressure drop and longest bag life, even when exposed to acidic and abrasive particulate. When required, McGill AirClean fabric filter systems use the latest pretreatment technologies including spray-dry scrubbing and dry sorbent injection systems for controlling various pollutants from the most difficult gas streams. In addition to new systems, McGill AirClean also provides upgrade services for its customers and has retrofitted many existing waste-to-energy facilities to help meet more stringent emission standards. These upgraded systems are currently in operation at several WTE facilities in the US. McGill AirClean LLC |

OMI Industries OMI Industries has been manufacturing safe and natural odor management products since 1988. Their proprietary Ecosorb formulations have been successfully tested in industrial settings throughout the world, revolutionizing industries that deal with year-round, seasonal, or application-based malodor problems. Ecosorb breaks down and removes a full spectrum of both organic and inorganic odors—leaving workers, neighbors, and communities with a breath of fresh air. It is safe, powerful, and cost-effective. OMI Industries |

Replacement components for solid fuel combustion systems Powerhouse Technology, Inc. produces and inventories key replacement components for all solid fuel combustion systems: grates, rails, chains, seals, and nozzles. The company supports all major brands of traveling grate or reciprocating grate furnaces, along with major brands of circulating fluidized bed (CFB). PHT is well known for the ability to produce longer lasting metal components. Unlike most OEMs, Powerhouse Technology is willing to improve existing designs based on client ideas. Powerhouse Technology, Inc. | North American Clean Energy

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Powering the cars of tomorrow By Ray Cooling, London Press Service

Many experts believe hydrogen fuel is the future of motoring. Unlike battery powered vehicles, hydrogenpowered ones have the range, speed, and performance of present power plants—with no harmful emissions. One of only two hydrogen refueling stations operational in the United Kingdom has been opened at Loughborough University, central England. Among the partners that worked to bring about the installation are hydrogen fuel-cell developer Intelligent Energy (originally a spin-out company from Loughborough University), as well as Cenex, Bryte Energy, Air Products, and the East Midlands Development Agency. The facility will enable Loughborough University to add impetus to its research on hydrogen and fuel cells. Intelligent Energy will use it as a refueling point for its development programs as it looks to build and test fleets of hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. The university’s ultimate goal is to transfer its own fleet of service vehicles over to hydrogen. Based at Holywell Park, the facility is one of a number of hydrogen refueling stations being set up across the region by the British Midlands Hydrogen Forum. Known as the Midlands Hydrogen Ring, the stations will be at the heart of the hydrogen fueling infrastructure planned for the UK. The world’s first hydrogen fuel-cell motorcycle, the ENV, was the first vehicle to be refueled at the station. Staff at the Loughborough operation are working on fundamental fuel-cell research and development, including materials testing and characterization. Systems design and application engineering, durability testing, field trials, production engineering, and manufacturing development are also carried out there. Initially, an external supplier will provide hydrogen gas for the facility, but the university is investigating ways of creating its own renewable hydrogen through the use of green technologies on campus. The first hydrogen fuel station opened at Birmingham University in 2008. It is conducting trials with a fleet of vehicles. Air Products, the company that installed the fuel station, is also working with Transport for London to build fuel stations for a fleet of hydrogen-powered vehicles. Honda has developed the Clarity, the first fuel-cell car to be produced commercially. It claims the vehicle offers three times better fuel efficiency than a traditional, petrol-powered car. Loughborough University |

On-demand hydrogen fueling system

Fueling hydrogen-powered vehicles

After six years of prosecution, the US Patent and Trademark Office has issued the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Foundation in Grand Forks, North Dakota, allowance for a patent application on a system that produces high-pressure hydrogen ondemand. The final patent will be approved in the near future. The EERC technology converts alcohols or liquid fuels such as ethanol, methanol, and gasoline, to highpressure hydrogen at the time of fueling. Utilizing this state-of-the-art process, the prohibitive infrastructure costs of nationwide hydrogen transportation and storage will be eliminated so that hydrogen refueling will be accessible and affordable. The hydrogen is produced on-site and on-demand at the fuel pump, rather than at a separate location. “Through the hydrogen programs at the EERC, we are breaking down barriers, bringing down the costs, and shortening the timetable to the point where hydrogen will be a major component of our national energy future,” said EERC director Gerald Groenewold. “The high-pressure hydrogen production technology is a cornerstone technology for achieving those goals.” Researchers in the EERC’s National Center for Hydrogen Technology, with support from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory and over 85 corporate partners, have proved the conversion of methanol into hydrogen and are working toward obtaining similar results for ethanol and hydrocarbon fuels, including military jet fuel. The technology is also being commercialized for many other different applications, and includes industrial applications that provide near-term commercial opportunities for North Dakota in manufacturing and cold-weather testing. The patent term expires on December 13th, 2024.

With the newly signed Stimulus Bill’s heavy emphasis on alternative fuels, next-generation technology developed should help accelerate the commercialization of hydrogen-powered vehicles of all kinds. Linde North America, a member of The Linde Group, is introducing ground-breaking technology that provides a safe, fast, and efficient way to fuel hydrogen vehicles. The Ionic Compressor is a compression system, which has been used extensively in Europe for cars and buses, is now being introduced to North America for forklift trucks. Unlike conventional mechanical systems, the Ionic Compressor uses an ionic liquid in direct contact with hydrogen instead of a piston in the pressurizing process. Coupled with Linde’s proprietary fueling protocol and advanced station design, the Ionic Compressor is part of a complete and compact compression storage and indoor dispensing solution for the hydrogen fuel cell fork lift truck market. Linde will also introduce another high-performance hydrogen fueler to the North American market—the HF-KTA hydrogen fueling station. This transportable system, first developed and commercialized in Europe, is easy to deploy and can efficiently supply 350 bar and 700 bar hydrogen to vehicles.


The Linde Group |


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Canadians support 5% renewable fuel standard by 2010 The Canadian Renewable Fuels Association released the results of a national poll conducted by Praxicus Public Strategies on the environment and renewable fuels. Support for renewable fuels remains strong and has improved since last year. In the poll, 69% of Canadians support replacing some fossil fuels with renewable fuels like ethanol and biodiesel, and 76% support a 5% renewable fuel standard by 2010. Fewer than one in five Canadians oppose either of these ideas. Canadians want policy makers to stay focused on achieving next-generation biofuels. Overall, 87% support federal policies that would encourage the development of next generation biofuels (made from nonfood stock such as corn-stalks, waste materials, and algae). Canadians also strongly support the development of environmentally friendly and viable alternatives to fossil fuels as part of an “Energy and Environment” agenda. Given a list of possible elements of such an agenda, policies to encourage car companies to increase fuel efficiency received the highest level of support, followed by the alternative fuel development. The development of alternative fuels and more fuel-efficient vehicles ranked ahead of policies promoting the reduction of greenhouse gases. Supporting new green technologies to boost Canada’s economy ranked fourth. Canadian Renewable Fuels Association

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geothermal energy

Geoexchange: Heating up the Renewable Energy Sector By Ruben Arellano


ccording to the US Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technologies office, nearly 40% of all carbon dioxide emissions in the US are caused by using energy to heat, cool, and provide hot water for buildings—roughly the same amount of CO2 contributed by the entire transportation sector. The question is, can a clean and renewable energy source be tapped cost-effectively to reduce these emissions and meet environmental regulations? The answer is, yes. The source is the earth’s natural thermal energy, and the method used to capture it is called geoexchange. Our planet absorbs and stores 47% of the sun’s energy, and geoexchange systems tap into this renewable reserve to provide all the heating and cooling needs of residential, commercial, and industrial facilities. Geoexchange works on the principle that the earth’s temperature, six to eight feet below ground, is relatively constant and, therefore, it is warmer than the outside air in the winter and cooler than the air in the summer. In a geoexchange system, a liquid solution circulating through buried pipes absorbs heat from the earth and carries it into the building, where a heat pump converts the energy to a useful temperature and transfers it through standard ductwork or radiant floors. To produce cool air, the process is reversed: heat is extracted from the air in a building and transferred through the heat pump to the buried pipes. The liquid in the pipes then carries the excess heat back to the earth. Geoexchange uses only a small amount of electricity to operate the ground loop pump, compressor, and fan. The green alternative

According to the Environmental Protection Agency, geoexchange, also known as “geothermal heat pump systems” are the most energy efficient, environmentally clean, and cost-effective space conditioning system available because, unlike fossil fuel or electric heating, they do not create heat—they merely move it. Geoexchange is rapidly becoming mainstream: although the base technology is only a little more than two decades old, with improvements made in recent years, over half-a-million geoexchange installations have been completed in North America to date. The biggest users are commercial enterprises, including government buildings, health care facilities, factories, retail stores, office buildings, and schools. Geoexchange also helps developers demonstrate environmental stewardship because it facilitates the acquisition of LEED certification, the recognized industry standard in green building. Apart from its role in developing greener buildings, geoexchange is increasingly being recognized by industry and government as a smart business investment, especially considering rising fuel prices and its long-term cost savings and affordability. The potential opportunity

As a space conditioning system, geoexchange’s potential is enormous. The Canadian Geoexchange Coalition estimates that: • Geoexchange technology can save owners up to 70% on their current heating bills; • Compared to other heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, geoexchange systems typically save up to 50% on energy costs and use less space and pay for themselves in less time; • With geoexchange systems, the amount saved in energy costs monthly is more than enough to offset installation costs; • Geoexchange systems generate virtually no carbon dioxide emissions because they don’t burn fossil fuels on-site; • If every North American school used geoexchange technology, the amount of electricity saved would be enough to power one million homes for one year.

Cost of geoexchange

As the data suggests, geoexchange’s greatest potential for success has to do with it being a sound investment. Properly installed geothermal systems have a lower lifecycle cost than conventional technologies when the cost of operation is factored along with maintenance and replacement over time. Installation costs have declined substantially because geoexchange systems are offered by more builders, and industry has developed innovative ways to install them more efficiently. Continued on page 58…

Case Study: The Aerie—British Properties As a renewable energy and environmental consulting firm based in Western Canada, Hemmera works with developers, construction firms, energy utilities, institutions, and municipal governments in a range of geoexchange projects. One residential project of note is The Aerie— British Properties, a new neighborhood of eco-friendly luxury townhomes developed in 2008 by British Pacific Properties Limited. One of the key features of The Aerie was the installation of a shared geoexchange energy system. Hemmera provided a preliminary technical and economic assessment, conducted energy capacity testing, developed a site-specific design, and ensured an integrated design and installation process. The prospect of living in a sustainable development was an attractive selling feature of these townhomes. Moreover, by leveraging the earth’s natural energy for heating, cooling and hot water, the owners could reap the economic benefits of smaller utility bills. North American Clean Energy

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geothermal energy

…continued from page 57

The exact cost is based on a number of variables, such as building size, design, and location, as well as the brand and model of geoexchange. In residential applications, an installation costs between $20,000 and $30,000. The system can pay for itself in 10 to 15 years, after which the end-user saves money every year on energy bills. Geoexchange even enhances the resale value of a home due to reduced utility bills.

bles & Efficiency ( is a source of information on US federal, state, municipal, and utility incentives promoting energy efficiency. Natural Resources Canada’s Office of Energy Efficiency Resources provides a similar database. Many financial institutions allow home buyers to qualify for larger mortgages if they purchase a house with a geoexchange system. Contractors may also be able to offer funding through their own company or the system's manufacturer.

Financing geoexchange

Many inventive programs are offered by governments and electric utilities to make geoexchange even more affordable. The Database of State Incentives for Renewa-

Installing geoexchange

In recent years, significant improvements have been made in geoexchange systems with regards to materials used, installation methods, electronic control sys-

tems, and the efficiency of the compressors, pumps, and other equipment. But the key to a successful geoexchange installation is retaining a qualified installation technician. An experienced installer will consider the client’s needs and budget so that the appropriate system is selected. They will also consider the variables of the building’s location. For example, depending on site conditions, either holes are drilled straight down into the earth for pipe insertion, or wide and shallow trenches are dug to accommodate coiled loops of geothermal pipe. A good installer will carefully select the size of the geoexchange system, the size and design of the loop, and the type of fluid that will circulate through it. The best way to find a qualified installer is to ask for industry certification and a demonstrated portfolio of installing geoexchange systems. Testimony from past clients is another helpful indicator. Finally, ask installers about current projects and how long they have been working with geoexchange systems. What the future holds

Geoexchange is already helping reduce CO2 emissions by over nine billion pounds per year, and its impact will be even more far-reaching as awareness of the technology grows. As the push toward carbon neutrality continues, it is clear geoexchange is going to play a key role in North America’s sustainable energy future. Ruben Arellano is the energy projects director at Hemmera, a renewable energy and environmental consulting firm based in British Columbia, Canada. Hemmera | 58

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geothermal energy Geothermal Finance, Technology, and Development Workshop

Geothermal solutions

The Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) has announced its next Geothermal Finance, Technology, and Development Workshop. It will be held on June 3rd, in Seattle, Washington, at the Washington State Convention and Trade Center. The day-long workshop is being held in cooperation with the Mayor of Seattle’s office, and with the support of Gold Level Sponsors Ormat and Pratt and Whitney Power Systems. It will include an update on the US geothermal market, as well as panels and discussions on geothermal project development, technology, finance, community and environmental issues, as well as tribal and power company perspectives. “The west has a huge untapped geothermal energy potential,” said Karl Gawell, GEA’s executive director. “This workshop will help realize this potential by encouraging collaboration between leading geothermal developers, finance and investment specialists, government officials, lawyers, and technology experts from around the nation.” Geothermal Energy Association |

Geothermal resources can provide CO2-free, renewable energy with baseload capability. Atlas Copco’s expander generators utilize the expander shaft power to drive an electrical generator. In many cases, the expander generator will produce two benefits: refrigeration of the expanded process steam and electrical power out, both of which provide economic value. Atlas Copco Gas and Process offers: single or multi-stage turbine generators; up to 15 MW per turbine stage; binary cycle (ORC, Kalina); highly efficient radial inflow turbine; and partnerships with expert companies for complete geothermal binary cycle design (optimized process working fluid and pressure level). Atlas Copco |

Ground-air heat exchange system REHAU has announced the launch of its new REHAU ECOAIR ground-air heat exchange system in North America––providing improved indoor air ventilation, enhanced energy efficiency, and increased comfort in alignment with the fresh air requirements of today’s tighter building envelopes. The REHAU ECOAIR system capitalizes on the relatively consistent 45°F to 54°F (7°C to 12°C) ground temperatures found five to seven feet (1.5 to 2 meters) below the earth’s surface where, previous to entering the indoor ventilation system, fresh air is pre-warmed with ground heat in winter, and pre-cooled with cooler ground temperatures in summer. In addition to directly reducing the energy required to heat or cool incoming fresh air, the system provides a number of benefits to overall ventilation system optimization. These include lowering relative humidity during periods of cooling, and hindering condensation from freezing in heat recovery ventilators (HRV) during the heating season by raising the outside air temperature before it enters the HRV. REHAU |



101 Pipe & Casing has developed a specialized Pump Column that utilizes Geothermal Couplings and threading. Together with our modified Geo Tube & Shaft, 101 Pipe & Casing is able to outfit you with all the down-hole tubular products you need for your geothermal water wells.









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geothermal energy Testing for potential commercial permeability Western GeoPower Corp. announced that independent consultants GeothermEx, Inc. have recommended a drilling program at the South Meager geothermal reservoir to target a recently identified zone of high permeability, which has demonstrated commercial potential. Reporting on the results of airlift-assisted flow-testing of well MC-8, GeothermEx projected a new deviated well starting from a lower wellhead elevation into the same permeable zone, and at a much shorter vertical depth than well MC-8, would flow at the equivalent of more than 6 megawatts (MW) of electrical energy. Well MC-8 itself was unable to sustain self-flow following air lifting due to physical constraints imposed by the deep water table. To access the zone of permeability, GeothermEx has designed a deviated well starting from the valley floor with a projected true vertical depth of 1,660 meters, and a total wellbore length of less than 2,000 meters. Wellbore simulation indicates that this well could flow at the equivalent of 6.4 MW of electrical output at a wellhead pressure of 140 psig. If the reservoir fluid encountered by this well is at a greater temperature than the temperature measured in MC-8, or should the well be drilled deeper than the targeted 1,660 meters, the megawatt capacity of the well could increase accordingly. Several excellent and easily accessible locations for new drill pads are available on the valley floor with ready access to the permeable zones in MC-8 and MC-6. The company intends to commence the permitting process for the future wells once the snow has cleared sufficiently to allow surveying of the sites. Western GeoPower |

Renewable energy simulation software Vela Solaris AG has launched their Polysun family of products in the US, intent on making the implementation of geothermal and solar systems as straightforward and efficient as possible. The Polysun family is one of the most flexible and accurate software available for the simulation and design of renewable energy systems, optimized for any particular site and structure. Whereas other programs are often based on fixed inflexible templates, Polysun takes input for variables in building design, energy system components, and climactic variables to create a highly accurate energy analysis and system design that can be tailored to any site and structure. The Polysun family includes three product lines: Polysun HP targeting geothermal groundloop and heat pump systems, Polysun PV targeting PV, and Polysun ST targeting solar thermal. Polysun also produces reports with the data needed to obtain state and federal energy tax rebates. Vela Solaris AG |

Water-source heat pump The Tranquility 27 (TT) Series blends advanced technology with advanced design to create one of the most efficient Water-Source Heat Pump available. The TT Series utilizes EarthPure HFC-410A refrigerant, along with the Copeland UltraTech two-stage compressor and General Electric ECM variable speed motor, to bring unmatched performance and comfort. The Tranquility 27 (TT) Series is eligible for additional LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) points because of the “green� technology design. ClimateMaster, Inc. |

Rig 105: Designed for geothermal use ThermaSource and MD Cowan of Odessa, Texas have taken an oil and gas rig design and adapted it for geothermal use. This new hydraulic rigs design is classified as a Super Single, because it drills with Range 3, (45') drill pipe using top drive technology. This hydraulic rig picks up each joint as needed and places it upright at the top of the drill string below the top drive. The joint is then drilled down using the top drive, after which the process is repeated. When it is time to pull out of the hole, the process is repeated in reverse. Each joint is disconnected and then laid down with the hydraulic arm. The advantage of this type of hydraulic rig is that it is faster to operate, using less manpower, and easier to move without the cost of the crane. Together, the two companies made modifications to the rig for geothermal use, one change being the increased height of the rig floor above ground level, making it easier to work on geothermal wells where the wellheads are above ground. By utilizing these rigs, ThermaSource feels they can reduce overall well costs because they require less loads to transport, typically do not require a crane to rig up, and it rigs up faster and requires a smaller footprint. ThermaSource Rig 105 has a mast rated at 500,000#, a drawworks with 1000 hp and has a depth capacity of between 10,000' and 12,000'. This powerful, compact hydraulic rig can help the geothermal industry by limiting the cost of the wells and improving the economics of the project. ThermaSource will continually work to make rig and their operations better to benefit the industry. ThermaSource |

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investing in clean energy Joint Ventures between Regulated Utilities and Developers An alternative method for developing renewable energy generation | Part 1 of 2 By Lance T Brasher & Drew Baldinger


any states have enacted a form of renewable energy portfolio standard, and Congress and the Obama Administration appear likely to establish a similar standard at the Federal level as early as this year. These standards generally require regulated utilities to maintain a specified percentage of renewable energy in their portfolio of generation fuels. While regulated utilities generally have been meeting these standards by purchasing renewable energy and portfolio credits under power purchase agreements, they are now increasingly interested in owning renewable energy generation to comply with these standards. This is the first part of a two-part article that considers the case of joint venture structures in utility ownership of renewable energy generation.

assets. The developer’s SPE provides the developer with a vehicle to project and tax equity finance its share of project costs. Historically, regulated utilities have not needed to obtain project financing; instead procuring financing at the corporate level and recovering costs from its ratepayers. If a regulated utility needs to monetize tax credits, there may be issues associated with the tenancy in common structure that should be considered, such as structuring the joint venture to accommodate a sale and leaseback structure, an inverted lease structure, or potentially a partnership flip structure. Performance security

A key issue in any joint venture is whether either party requires security from the other party to support the performance of its obligations under the joint venture agreements. In a tenancy in common where the developer owns its interest through an SPE, the parties have unequal exposure to potential liability in the form of third-party claims, and the developer failing to pay its share of project costs or otherwise perform under the joint venture agreements. If any project liabilities arise, the developer’s liability will be limited to those assets owned by the SPE, while all of the regulated utility’s assets will be exposed to potential liability. As a result of the regulated utility having substantially more assets than the SPE (and being significantly more known to the public), the regulated utility is more likely to be sued than the SPE. To mitigate against these risks, the regulated utility may require the developer to maintain certain liability insurance, provide a guaranty from a creditworthy parent, grant the utility a security interest in its ownership interest in the project, post a letter of credit, or provide special remedies under the joint venture agreements, such as suspending project voting rights during default or granting rights to the developer’s share of power produced by the project upon payment default. The type and amount of credit support depends on several factors including whether the project is in development, construction, or operation, whether the developer has a creditworthy parent, and the regulated utility’s internal credit risk policies. A developer will want to limit exposing non-project assets to project liabilities, especially in connection with third-party claims. Accordingly, the parties will need to discuss the types and amounts of credit support that the regulated utility requires and the developer is willing to provide. Adjusting the timing of the regulated utility’s acquisition into the project may alleviate some of these risks because the type and amount of security can depend on whether the project is in development, construction, or operation. Article to be continued in the July/August issue.


Regulated utility interest in owning renewable energy generation has been spurred by several factors, including failure of developers for various reasons to complete projects as promised (thereby exposing regulated utilities to potential penalties for not satisfying applicable portfolio standards), changes in the tax code allowing regulated utilities to utilize the investment tax credit, and an interest in expanding their rate bases to include ownership of generation assets. As regulated utilities have a low cost of capital, ownership of generating assets potentially saves ratepayers money in comparison to purchasing energy under a power purchase agreement. However, many regulated utilities have limited experience in the development of renewable energy generation and are reluctant to unilaterally develop renewable energy generation. Accordingly, regulated utilities are increasingly interested in joint venturing with experienced developers as an alternative method for developing renewable energy generation. These joint ventures provide each party with an ownership interest in the project and typically provide the developer with a power purchase agreement pursuant to which the regulated utility purchases the developer’s share of the project’s energy, portfolio credits, and other renewable benefits. Developers are also finding regulated utilities to be more advantageous joint venture partners. The troubled debt, equity and tax equity markets, and other problems associated with the economic recession have made it difficult for developers to secure sufficient financing for their projects. To obtain financing in the current market, it is essential that developers enter into a long-term power purchase agreement with a creditworthy offtaker. Regulated utilities are typically creditworthy counterparties that through their capital budgets and corporate financing can provide a steady source of financing for large-scale projects, even in turbulent markets. Further, developers may need to compete with numerous competitive projects to obtain a longterm power purchase agreement with a regulated utility, and a joint venture arrangement may Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP | enhance a developer’s proposal. However, joint venture structures create several issues, and regulated utilities are subject to special laws and regulations that Renewable energy finance and Co-Organizers: create unique issues when structuring these investment in the Western US joint ventures. The parties should become aware of these issues and properly address them when negotiating the joint venture. Some of these issues are discussed below.

Ownership of project assets

The typical developer will develop each of its projects through a special purpose entity (SPE) and, therefore, a typical joint venture would involve the parties owning equity interests in a SPE. However, regulated utilities are generally required to own project assets directly to recover project costs and to avoid issues associated with affiliate sales of power (i.e. power sales from an affiliated SPE to the regulated utility). As such, joint ventures with a regulated utility are commonly structured so each party owns the project assets. This ownership structure is referred to as a tenancy in common. Under the tenancy in common structure, the regulated utility directly owns a percentage share of the project assets together with a SPE that directly owns the developer’s percentage share of the project

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hydro and marine energy Tidal bridge solution It was Einstein who said that it often takes as much time and effort to digest a new thought, as it does to create it. Twenty years in pioneering tidal power technology holds his axiom as truth. A fluid medium like wind (and this is where the similarities end), the predictable sinusoidal tidal resource is indeed an attractive and developable high energy density non compressible fluid medium.

It should be noted, however, tidal power has its own unique terms of reference and, to make the most of developmental value, it must be taken on those terms. To set the record straight, there is no such thing as a “tidal farm.” In mining, this term would be similar to a mill driven mine development, as opposed to an ore driven mine development. Some obvious for the uninitiated

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is that sea water and electrical windings have a very poor history, so to let’s pull the generator and electrical controls up out of the water. Tidal currents range from the imperceptibly slow, to 10 or 12 knots. Unfortunately, the knots are not always where we want them, and tidal power yield is a function cubed of ambient flow. The Blue Energy Tidal Bridge conversion method has build efficiencies in thin shell marine caissons achieving blockage ratios of up to 65% (including the causeway developments), providing resource flow optimization and dialed in rotor bay velocities just under cavitation pressure limits. Even more important than being able to achieve smelter price point economies of scale, the Blue Energy low-cost energy/transportation tidal bridge solution comes with its own billion-dollar built in supplemental market driver. This is a major technology propagation factor, as World Bridge Developers are not part of the entrenched vested interest gridlock typically seen in the utility space. These are more than subtle method distinctions as Blue Energy’s pre-commercial order book is already exceeding an unprecedented $40 billion dollars in buildable projects from around the world as they scale up this “well behaved” tidal bridge technology. So, will the present world capital market turmoil negatively impact progress in new energy? This low-cost clean energy future has been just ahead for most of the past century, and this future was denied but, thankfully, is available now.

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FERC and MMS Remove Jurisdictional Obstacle to OCS Hydrokinetic Projects A memorandum of understanding (MOU), signed in April by Department of the Interior (Interior) Secretary Salazar and Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Chairman Wellinghoff, removes a major barrier to wave, current, and tidal hydrokinetic project development in Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) waters. Under the MOU, the agencies agree that FERC will issue licenses and Interior’s Mineral Management Service (MMS) will issue leases, easements, and other rights-of-way for hydrokinetic projects in OCS waters. MMS had previously asserted that it had exclusive jurisdiction to site alternative energy projects—including hydrokinetic projects—in OCS waters. FERC first claimed authority under the Federal Power Act to license hydrokinetic projects in OCS waters in 2002. Subsequently, in the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Congress granted MMS authority to issue leases, easements, and other rights-of-way for alternative energy projects in OCS waters. In doing so, Congress expressly reserved existing federal authorities. MMS nevertheless claimed exclusive jurisdiction to site hydrokinetic projects on the OCS, even appealing FERC preliminary permits that granted site priority in OCS waters on the grounds that FERC lacked authority on the OCS. FERC and MMS had previously attempted to reach an MOU clarifying their respective authorities in OCS waters, but appeared to have ended those

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Certificate granted for Upper Toba Valley run-of-river project Plutonic Power Corporation’s subsidiary Upper Toba Hydro Inc. has been granted a Provincial Environmental Assessment (EA) Certificate from the Ministry of Environment and Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources for the Upper Toba Valley Hydroelectric Project. The Project is comprised of three run-of-river facilities respectively located on the Upper Toba River, Jimmie Creek, and Dalgleish Creek—all of which are in the Toba Valley 150 kilometers north of Powell River, BC. The granting of the Certificate represents a successful conclusion to a comprehensive environmental assessment process that has involved significant consultation with government agencies, public stakeholders, and the Klahoose First Nation. The Project will result in a relatively small footprint by leveraging the existing infrastructure and utilizing the same transmission line for the196 MW East Toba River Montrose Creek project, which is currently under construction in the Toba Valley by Plutonic Power and its investment partner GE Energy Financial Services. “The Upper Toba Valley Project will provide green employment opportunities during the construction phase and further significant local purchasing and community benefit for the Sunshine Coast area, building on the relationships we have already established for the Toba Montrose Project, while helping address the bigger issue of climate change,” said Plutonic Power vicechair and CEO Donald McInnes. The Upper Toba Valley Project was jointly bid by Plutonic Power Corporation and GE Energy Financial Services into BC Hydro’s efforts in late 2008. Shortly after taking office, Secretary Salazar promised to address the MMS-FERC jurisdictional dispute. The MOU resolves the agencies’ respective jurisdictional concerns and in doing so removes a jurisdictional obstacle to hydrokinetic project developments in OCS waters. In addition to clarifying FERC licensing and MMS leasing, easement, and right-of-way authority, the MOU: • Specifies that FERC will no longer issue preliminary permits in OCS waters, effectively giving MMS authority to make initial siting decisions and grant site priority through its leasing process; • Allows MMS to condition its leases, easements, and rights-of-way, and indicates that such conditions will become terms of FERC licenses; • Requires developers to obtain an MMS lease, easement, or right-of-way before FERC may issue a license; and • Indicates that each agency will conduct National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analyses associated with their approvals, thus adding to the multiple NEPA reviews that MMS has already proposed for testing and commercial leases. Importantly, the MOU does not resolve how MMS will address criticisms of its proposed regulations for alternative energy projects or when a final rule will be issued. That rule must be finalized before commercial alternative energy projects may be sited in OCS waters. Secretary Salazar has previously suggested that a final rule will be issued in 2009. Stoel Rives |

2008 Call for Power in November 2008, and has the capacity to generate up to 166 MW of green energy. The provincial EA certificate contains 52 commitments Plutonic must implement throughout various stages of the project. Key commitments include the following: • Maintaining sufficient in-stream flows to 7.5" 10" NA Clean Energy Mag protect CEEA09 fish and fishx habitat;

• Avoiding breeding birds, nesting habitats and mountain goat winter habitat; • Developing a grizzly bear monitoring plan to the satisfaction of the Ministry of Environment; • Developing mitigation, compensation, and monitoring plans in consultation with regulatory agencies;


More information on the Environmental Certificate can be found at Plutonic Power Corporation GE Energy Financial Services

3:04:12 PM


18 – 20 November


Clean Energy Expo Asia is a unique trading and knowledge-sharing platform for the clean energy industry in Asia Pacific. The Trade Fair and Conference bring together the leading players in the Technology, Services, Finance and Government sector to address key issues in the area of renewable energy, energy efficiency and sustainable development in the Asia Pacific region.


Be part of a holistic and comprehensive platform Benefit from an extensive international outreach Enjoy strong support from the industry Capitalize on Singapore’s strategic position as a regional energy hub

Be part of this holistic and comprehensive event for the solar energy, energy efficiency, biomass energy and geothermal energy industry players!

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energy efficiency LED assemblies with custom brightness Elma Electronic offers LEDs in customizable configurations, which include versions with custom brightness options. The company’s LED assemblies and arrays can be customized to include different levels of indicating brightness for each LED within the same unit to meet a specific indicating goal. For example, a dual LED assembly may have one continuously lit dimly to indicate normal conditions. When triggered, the second LED within that assembly would not only illuminate a different color, but also a different brightness to indicate the severity and urgency of this problem.

The injection molding system used by Elma allows quick and cost-effective modification of their LED and lightpipe products. Therefore, a wide range of sizes, colors, brightness, and options are available, even in small quantities. Standard color options include blue, red, and green. Customized colors are also available such as orange, amber, and white. Most LED designs are available in surface-mount or through-hole styles. Elma Electronic Inc. |

Think. Share. Create. Come to a unique World Summit where innovation and technology are opening new doors for development, business and investment. Discover how the world’s leading industry innovators, investors, entrepreneurs, venture capitalists, and business angels meet to create a better and more responsible future. For 3 days HiT Barcelona will bring together key players from around the world for an event that will look at innovation and technology as pillars for the development of the future. Innovation Plenary Congress Knowledge, inspiration and revolutionary ideas first-hand from some of the world’s foremost influential leaders: Michael Eisner, Ray Kurzweil, Vijay Govindarajan, Gary Hamel, and Rosabeth Moss Kanter, who will unveil the latest trends in innovation. CleanTech Innovation Marketplace Keynote presentations and in-depth panel discussions from global industry leaders covering the most important sector issues including: Green building development, Is water the next oil?, International policies and initiatives and other hot topics. The 2009 CleanTech Innovation Tournament showcases the best ideas from around the world. Speed-networking between potential investors, corporate partners and start-up companies. Now is the time. Join us to discover, share and generate the key initiatives that will take our economies forward.




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Empire State Building retrofit project Using the Empire State Building as a test case and model, world-class environmental consulting, non-profit, design, and construction partners—including the Clinton Climate Initiative (CCI), Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI), Johnson Controls Inc., and Jones Lang LaSalle—recently unveiled a process for analyzing and retrofitting existing structures for environmental sustainability. Adopted as core elements of the more than $500 million upgrade program presently underway at the world’s most famous office building, the program is the first comprehensive approach that integrates many steps to use energy more productively. The program is expected to reduce energy consumption by up to 38% and will provide a replicable model for similar projects around the world. Work has already commenced, and building systems work is slated to be completed by year-end 2010. The balance of the work in tenant spaces should be concluded by end of 2013. Work that is scheduled to be completed within 18 months will result in over 50% of the projected energy savings. The balance will be an additional 36 months completed by 2013. The project will prove the viability for energy efficiency retrofit projects to dramatically increase building energy efficiency, and reduce its overall carbon output with sensible payback periods and enhanced profitability. At the end of the project definition process, the team analyzed the steps to be taken in conjunction with other steps toward sustainability, as part of the Empire State ReBuilding program, within the framework of the existing USGBC LEED rating system. Internal calculations show that the Empire State Building will be able to qualify for GOLD certification for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) for Existing Buildings, and ownership intends to pursue such certification. The full analysis process is available online as open-source materials for public use at and

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Pressure-free energy tank With over 15 years of manufacturing in Germany in both residential and commercial applications, the Haase Energy Tank is now available in the US. The tank’s unique modular method of construction and its superior energy conservation make it the most sensible choice for cost-effective energy creation and storage. The Haase Energy Tank is a pressure-free tank with internal heat exchangers made from high-grade steel corrugated pipe. The tank’s interior wall is pre-fabricated using fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) and wrapped in 6 to 10 inches of fiberglass insulation for maximum heat retention. A final PVC outer shell completes the tank. Delivered in individual parts and assembled on site, the flexible design allows for larger tanks to be installed in areas not normally accessible, ensuring optimum usage of available space to increase cost efficiencies. For maximum versatility, the Haase tank is designed to work with virtually any heating system or heat source including: solar collectors, solid fuel burners, alternative fuel boilers, oil burners, heat pumps, and block-type thermal power stations. Hasse Energy Tank |

Green power programs The US Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) released its annual assessment of utility green power programs. According to the analysis, more than 850 utilities across the US now offer green power programs. Green power sales in 2008 increased by about 20% over 2007, and they represent more than 5% of total electricity sales for some of the most popular programs. Wind is the primary source of electricity generated for green energy programs nationwide. Using information provided by utilities, NREL developed a top ten ranking of utility programs for 2008 in the following categories: • Total sales of renewable energy to program participants; • Total number of customer participants; • The percentage of customer participation; • Green power sales as a percentage of total utility retail electricity sales; • Lowest price premium charged for a green power program using new renewable resources. Ranked by renewable energy sales in terms of kilowatt-hours (kWh) per year, the green power program of Austin Energy in Texas is first in the nation. Rounding out the top five are Portland General Electric in Oregon, PacifiCorp also in Oregon and five other states, Xcel Energy in Minnesota and seven other states, and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District in California. In 2008, total utility green power sales exceeded five billion kWh, about a 20% increase over 2007. More than 600,000 customers are participating in utility programs nationwide. The Green Power study was performed by NREL’s Strategic Energy Analysis and Applications Center (SEAAC), which integrates technical and economic analyses and leads NREL’s efforts in applying clean energy technologies to both national and international markets. National Renewable Energy Laboratory

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eventscalendar MAY 2009 3-6 Solid Waste & Recycling Conference with Trade Show Lake George, NY – Sagamore Resort Hotel ; 3-7 Clean Technology Conference & Expo 2009 Houston, TX – George R. Brown Convention Center; 4-7 WINDPOWER 2009 Chicago, Il – McCormick Place Convention Center; 8-14 SOLAR 2009 - American Solar Energy Society Buffalo, NY – Buffalo Convention Center; 11-13 National Hydropower Association 2009 Annual Conference Washington, DC – Capital Hilton Hotel; 18-20 NAWTEC’s North American Waste-to-Energy Conference Chantilly, VA – Westfields Marriott; 18-20 OPTOmism Conference & Exhibition Santa Clara, CA – Santa Clara Convention Center; 20-21 ALL-ENERGY ’09: The 9th Renewable Energy Exhibition and Conference Aberdeen, Scotland – Exhibition and Conference Centre; 24-26 ARE GREEN 2010 Conference & Trade Show Washington, DC – Washington DC Convention Center; 27-29 Post-Stimulus Renewable Finance Summit New Orleans, Louisiana – Harrah's New Orleans; 27-29 INTERSOLAR 2009 Munich, Germany – New Trade Fair Centre; JUNE 2009 1-3 Photovoltaics Summit 2009 San Francisco, CA – Hotel Kabuski; 3 Geothermal Energy Technology, Finance, and Development Workshop Seattle, WA – Washington Convention and Trade Center; 08-10 PV America Philadelphia, Pennsylvania – Pennsylvania Convention Center 10-11 27th West Coast Energy Management Congress Long Beach, California – Long Beach Convention Center; 16-18 EnergyOcean 2009 Rockport, Maine – Samoset Resort; 17-19 HiT Barecelona: World Innovation Summit Barcelona, Spain – Congress Center of Fira de Barcelona; 17-19 District Energy: CDEA 14th Annual Conference & Exhibition Halifax, Nova Scotia – The Lord Nelson Hotel; 24-25 The Virtual Energy Forum Online forum – 25-27 4th Canadian Solar Buildings Conference Toronto, Ontario – Delta Chelsea, Toronto; 29-JUL 3 European Biomass Conference & Exhibition Hamburg, Germany – CCH: Congress Center Hamburg;

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Carstensen Contracting Inc


Citel Inc


Clean Energy Expo Asia

DEGERenergie Tracking Systems





Equipment Express






Firestone Specialty Products


Fluid Components International Llc


Gexpro Services



HPM America




Hurst Boiler & Welding Co Inc


Hydro Solar Solutions


Intersolar 2009



Iowa Department of Economic Development


John Deere Credit Company




McCormick Construction Company


Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy


Mortenson Construction


Nebraska Public Power District


New Earth Renewable Energy Inc


Next Generation Energy


NRG Systems


Patriot Solar Group



JULY 2009 8-9 BioPower Generation Chicago, IL– Hyatt Regency McCormick Place; 8-10 Clean Energy Expo China Beijing, China – China International Exhibition Center, 9-10 4th Annual Investing in Solar San Diego, California – The Hilton Del Mar; 10-12 Art of Being Green Lanark, Ontario – Middleville Fairgrounds, Lanark Highlands; 13-14 3rd Annual Western Transmission Conference San Francisco, CA – Intercontinental Mark Hopkins Hotel 14-16 InterSolar North America 2009 San Francisco, CA – Moscone Center;


Pfister Energy




Quick Mount PV


R&M Materials Handling





AUGUST 2009 10-12 3rd Renewable Energy India 2009 Expo Pragati Maidan, New Delhi, India; SEPTEMBER 2009 14-16 PV Design for Engineers & Designers (3-day course) San Francisco, CA – Fort Mason Center; 21-25 24th European PV Solar Energy Conference Hamburg, Germany – CCH: Congress Center and International Fair

Send us your clean energy show and event listings. Email information to the Editor at


May / June 2009

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Schäfer + Peters GmbH


Siemens AG


Solar Destination


Solar Power International 2009


Solectria Renewables




Space Potential


SSI Shredding Systems, Inc


Tetra Tech




Trina Solar


Troutman Sanders


Volkswind USA Inc


Wamar International, Inc


White Construction Inc


World Innovation Summit

6/16/09 1:38 PM

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Iowa generates cleaner power — and clearer profits. You won’t find another state in America with our unique combination of business-friendly economic policies, hard-working citizens and fully developed infrastructure — all of which can give your renewable-energy business a real competitive edge. Find out why Iowa leads the nation in ethanol production, ranks second in wind energy capacity and biodiesel production, and has a greater percentage of its electricity generated by wind than any other state. Make your “what ifs” a reality. Call 800.245.IOWA or 515.242.4986 or visit our Web site today.

NACE May June 2009.indd 67

6/16/09 1:38 PM

NACE May June 2009.indd 68

6/16/09 1:38 PM

North American Clean Energy - May June 2009  

BioPower Buyers Guide, Automating Solar Manufacturing & reliable quality control, Solutions to Wind Tower Logistics and Transportation Probl...

North American Clean Energy - May June 2009  

BioPower Buyers Guide, Automating Solar Manufacturing & reliable quality control, Solutions to Wind Tower Logistics and Transportation Probl...