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The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Will the renewable energy engine be re-started?

Partnering for Acceleration Growth in Wind Power The Politics of Solar Siting PLUS‌

Geothermal Buyers Guide & WINDPOWER 2009 show in print

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For over 40 years, Applied Materials has been the world leader in nanomanufacturing technology, helping make electronic innovations like flat panel TVs, smart phones and powerful computers both possible and affordable with our thin film engineering expertise. Today, we’re applying this same capability to help our customers make solar power accessible to everyone, everywhere. To learn more, visit

Applied Materials and the Applied Materials logo are registered trademarks in the U.S. and other countries. Š 2009. All rights reserved.

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RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR A COMPLEX WORLD Wind, solar, geothermal, hydropower, and bioenergy—these sources offer clean and sustainable alternatives to help meet the world’s rising energy demands. Tetra Tech supports energy projects from the earliest site investigation through operations and maintenance, with expertise in facilities siting, environmental studies, permitting, engineering design, and construction, including EPC and BOP. Tetra Tech provides clear solutions in consulting, engineering, program management, construction, and technical services worldwide.

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For over 30 years, Baja Construction has been building turn-key solar support structures, ssteel storage buildings, RV and boat storage and carports throughout the United States. O Our staff of professional sales representatives and experienced installation crews assure you of maximum efficiencies n no matter where your project is located. Our in-house engineering and architectural team is ready to meet any special n needs...Call on us if we can help. A All components in our pre-engineered, prefabricated packages meet or exceed industry standards and the prevailing b building code. And our Zincalume® or Galvalume® coated steel panels carry a 20-year corrosion resistance warranty. • Standard plans available to architects and designers • Complete pre-engineered package • Pre-fabricated • Pre-paid freight • Competitively priced • Designed for architectural compatibility • Specifically designed to meet your local loading requirements • Bonded, experienced installation crews • Standard Design’s available for various solar systems ...we also perform repairs

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The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009


Will the renewable energy engine be re-started?

Partnering for Acceleration Growth in Wind Power

March/April 2009 Volume 3, Number 2

The Politics of Solar Siting

The Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009: Will the renewable energy engine be re-started?


Geothermal Geotherm Geother mal B Buyers Guide & WINDPOWER 2009 show in print


Partnering for Accelerated Growth: Developing a strong supply chain


Project Site Performance & Design: Achieving Quality Measurements in Anemometer Calibration


View from the Top: Fall protection and rescue during wind turbine construction


Small VAWT Technology: Ideal for urban settings


Preserving Ecology when Designing a Wind Farm: The evolution of renewable energy in the Galapagos Islands


The Race to Develop Utility Scale Solar Projects: Project siting, permitting, timing, and more


Reading Between the Lines: Solar Photovoltaic systems


Michelle Froese ART DIRECTOR

Rommel Ramirez SALES MANAGER


Kristy Vail

Cover photo by P2 Photography |

departments News Bites


Wind Energy


Solar Energy


Investing in Clean Energy


Geothermal Energy



Hydro and Marine Energy


Port Moody, B.C. V3H 5H1 Phone: (604) 461-6223

Waste to Energy



Beyond the Solar Panel: Building Integrated Photovoltaics

Biomass and Biofuels



Politics of Solar Siting

Energy Efficiency



Events Calendar


Making it Worth the Risk Risk transfer methodology for renewables

Advertiser Website Directory



WINDPOWER 2009 Show in Print


Part II: The Price of Geothermal Power



Ian Stuart

North American Clean Energy is published bi-monthly by Action Media Ltd. Subscriptions: $48 per year. Foreign $89 per year. Editorial, Advertising, Production and Circulation are at 255 Newport Drive, Suite 336, Port Moody, B.C. V3H 5H1 (604) 461-6223. North American Clean Energy accepts no responsibility or liability for reported claims made by manufacturers and/or distributors for products or services; the views and opinions expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of North American Clean Energy. No portion of this publication may be reproduced without the permission of


the publishers. Copyright 2008, Action Media Ltd. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to Circulation department, 255 Newport Drive, Suite 336, Port Moody, B.C. V3H 5H1 email: Return undeliverable U.S. addresses to 515 University



2009 Geothermal Buyers Guide


SOLAR 2009 Show in Print


Renewable Ocean Energy Development: High-tech seabed mapping


New Methane Cracking Process may Turn Landfi ll Greenhouse Gas Woes to Cash



Converting Banana Peels to Energy…under the Kitchen Sink

Go to website for new subscriptions, renewals or change of address


Oxy-fuel Technology Advances Possibilities for Converting Carbon Dioxide


The International BIOMASS Conference & Expo Show in Print


Re-charging Battery Life

Ave., Henry, IL 61537. Subscription updates can be made at

NACLEANENERGY.COM Information will remain strictly confidential.

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Photo by Michelle Moore

editor’s note Sometimes it seems all we need is right in front of us. The sun, wind, and waves (at least for those of us on the coast) are just outside. Organic matter surrounds us. Yet, it never fails to amaze me how scientists and researchers can turn the seemingly every day and ordinary into something extraordinary and powerful. Take butterflies, for example. One or two fluttering by might make the perfect summer day for you or me; but researchers have discovered that those pretty little wings may actually hold the secret to higher efficiency solar cells. Turns out butterfly wings have scales that act as miniature solar collectors, leading scientists in Japan and China to design a more efficient solar cell that could be used for powering our homes, businesses, and possibly more. Canadian company WhalePower, as their name might suggest, took inspiration for designing wind turbines from the ocean. They were intrigued by the flippers of Humpback whales, which are lined with irregular bumps or tubercles that would appear to promote anything but smooth sailing. Yet, these mammals—all 75,000-plus pounds of them—move with remarkable ease and agility, even swimming in tight circles to capture their prey. As a result of a complex combination of dynamics and biomechanics, wind turbines built with similar tubercles (or Tubercle Technology as WhalePower calls it) demonstrate reduced drag time, increased stable lift and pitch performance—much like the Humpback.

Yet another company is following in Mother Nature’s footsteps, albeit reproducing what in nature it takes years to grow: trees. Made up of “Nanoleaves,” each individual Nanoleaf on these synthetic trees is said to be much like a natural leaf, which flows back and forth in the wind. According to designers Solar Botanic, with multiple Nanoleaves and strong winds, “a tree can produce between 2000 and 12,000 kWh of energy per year.” Bear in mind, these trees don’t just use wind, but a combination of Nano photovoltaic-Nanothermovoltaic and Nanopiezo generators, which are said to convert light, heat, and wind energy into green electricity (learn more at Certainly, we do not lack for ideas, research, or inspiration in the renewable energy sector. The answers to our environmentally conscious energy needs are, at least in part, found within the environment itself. Now the question remains as to how much research will be stunted as a result of a failing economy, at least in North America. For a breakdown of the new stimulus plan and its effect on renewable energy efforts in the US, turn to page 8. For the latest products and services that will be presented at WINDPOWER 2009 this May, the largest annual wind conference and exhibition in the world, check out page 38. And, this issue’s Buyers Guide, which focuses on geothermal energy, is on page 65. We hope this issue inspires even more new ideas, research, and project…from nature and beyond.

Sincerely, Michelle Froese

news bites Report forecasts 37 million jobs from renewable energy and energy efficiency in US by 2030

The renewable energy and energy efficiency (RE&EE) industries represented more than nine million jobs and $1,045 billion in US revenue in 2007, says a new report released by the non-profit American Solar Energy Society (ASES), which offers the most detailed analysis yet of the green economy. Accordingly, the renewable energy industry grew three times as fast as the US economy, with solar thermal, photovoltaic, biodiesel, and ethanol sectors leading the way, each with 25%+ annual revenue growth. Key conclusions from this report include:

• Renewable energy and energy efficiency currently provide more than nine million jobs and $1,045 billion in revenue in the US (2007). • 95% of the jobs are in private industry. • As many as 37 million jobs can be generated by the renewable energy and energy efficiency industries in the US by 2030—more than 17% of all anticipated US employment. • Hottest sectors include solar thermal, solar photovoltaics, biofuels, and fuel cells (in terms of revenue growth). • Hot job areas include electricians, mechanical engineers, welders, metal workers, construction managers, accountants, analysts, environmental scientists, and chemists. The vast majority of jobs created by the renewable energy and energy efficiency industries are in the same types of roles seen in other industries (accountants, factory workers, IT professionals, etc). • Renewable energy and energy efficiency can create millions of well-paying jobs, many of which are not subject to foreign outsourcing. These jobs are in two categories that every state is eager to attract—college-educated professional workers (many with advanced degrees), and highly skilled technical workers. • The renewable energy industry grew more than three times as fast as the US economy in 2007 (not including hydropower). Renewable energy is also growing more rapidly than the energy efficiency industry, but the energy efficiency industry is currently much larger than the renewable energy industry. The full report is at: 6

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Energy efficiency programs can reduce growth in electricity consumption by 22%

Energy efficiency programs in the United States could realistically reduce the rate of growth for electricity consumption by 22% over the next two decades if key barriers can be addressed, according to an analysis released by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The potential energy savings in 2030 would be 236 billion kilowatt hours, equivalent to the annual electricity consumption of 14 New York Cities. Stated differently, the demand for electricity over the next two decades could be reduced from the 1.07% annual growth rate projected by the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) in its 2008 Annual Energy Outlook down to 0.83%, slowing the rate of increase by approximately 22%. The analysis comes at a time when utilities, regulators, and policymakers are aggressively seeking ways to meet growing electricity demand while reducing the nation’s carbon footprint. The key challenge is to maximize potential gains in energy efficiency while ensuring adequate new electric generation to maintain reliability and meet future demand. The EPRI analysis, entitled “Assessment of Achievable Savings Potential From Energy Efficiency and Demand Response in the US,” found that under an ideal set of conditions conducive to energy efficiency programs, the consumption growth rate could be further reduced to as low as 0.68% annually by 2030. However, achieving the ideal would require costly investments as well as political and regulatory support. The report defines a realistic achievable figure that includes a forecast of likely customer behavior, taking into account existing market, societal, and attitudinal barriers, as well as regulatory and program funding barriers. The barriers could reflect customers’ resistance to doing more than the minimum required or a rejection of the attributes of the efficient technology. A maximum achievable figure assumes a scenario of perfect customer awareness of utility or agency administered programs and effective, fully funded program execution. The maximum achievable number includes the effect of customer rejection of efficiency technologies. For its baseline assumptions, the EPRI study relied on EIA projections of growth in electricity consumption and peak demand for the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors from its 2008 Annual Energy Outlook. The EPRI report and its executive summary can be downloaded online. “This study is well suited to inform utilities, policymakers, regulators, and other stakeholder groups,” said Arshad Mansoor, vice president of Power Delivery and Utilization for EPRI. “Estimates of energy efficiency potential affect forecasts of electricity demand, and electric utilities must make prudent investments in generation, transmission, and distribution infrastructure to reliably and cost-effectively address this demand.” Faced with the challenges of managing energy resources wisely, maintaining low-cost reliable power service, and reducing carbon emissions, utilities and policy makers are looking to energy efficiency as a means to achieve these objectives. Many states have established, or are considering, legislation to mandate energy efficiency savings levels. EPRI |

ENERGY STAR residential water heater program

EnerWorks solar water heating appliances are the first to qualify for the Department of Energy’s new ENERGY STAR residential water heater program. EnerWorks two, three, and four collector High Performance appliances, as well as all SpaceSaver single tank solar + electric appliances, bear the ENERGY STAR registered trademark. The ENERGY STAR program for residential water heaters went into effect on January 1st, 2009. Qualifying products are posted on the Energy STAR website. For more information, please visit EnerWorks |

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The Group 3/11/09 1:36 PM

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Will the renewable energy engine be re-started?

Ed Feo is a partner in the international law firm of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy LLP. He co-chairs the Firm’s project finance and energy practice and is a member of the Firm’s Global Executive Committee.

By Ed Feo | Milbank Tweed Hadley & Mc Cloy LLP


n my last column, I discussed the status of the discussion in the transition period on energy legislation and, of increasing importance, getting the economy moving again. The slow, downward spiral of the economy in 2008 turned into a sickening dive after the Lehman bankruptcy in September 2008, and the debate on restructuring our energy infrastructure was overwhelmed by the need to stimulate the economy. After the new administration took office, the drumbeat of bad economic news continued. With impressive alacrity, Congress debated and passed, and the President signed, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (the “Act”), a $789 billion package of appropriations and tax benefits intended to get the economy back on its feet. Renewable energy fares extremely well under the Act in terms of grants, loan guarantees, and tax breaks. Among the notable provisions are the following:

PTC Extensions

The Act extends the section 45 production tax credits (“PTC”) for certain renewable energy generating facilities. Under the Act, to qualify for PTCs, wind energy facilities must be placed in service by year-end 2012. Qualifying closed- and open-loop biomass, geothermal, landfill gas, municipal solid waste, hydropower, and marine and hydrokinetic facilities (together with wind, the “eligible facilities”) must be placed in service by year-end 2013. No PTC extension is provided for small irrigation power, refined coal, and Indian coal production facilities. ITC Election

In lieu of claiming PTCs, the Act allows qualifying wind, closed- and open-loop biomass, geothermal, landfill gas, municipal solid waste, hydropower, and marine and hydrokinetic facilities placed in service after December 31st, 2008, and before the relevant PTC expiration date (year-end 2012 in the case of wind, and year-end 2013 for all others) to elect an investment tax credit (“ITC”) for 30% of the costs of new equipment. Prior to the Act, only solar facilities were eligible for the up-front 30% ITC. Geothermal facilities had been permitted a 10% ITC, but this is increased to 30% by the Act. Bonus depreciation, permitting an additional depreciation deduction equal to 50% of the adjusted basis of property, is extended to eligible property placed in service in 2009. Section 45 has also been amended to permit a lessor of an eligible facility to qualify for the PTC (or ITC). Previously, this financing device was only available for certain biomass facilities. Renewable Energy Grants

The ability to claim a cash grant in lieu of a tax credit is, perhaps, the most remarkable option afforded by the Act. Under the innovative new program, the monetization of tax credits is provided directly by the government: the Act directs the Department of Treasury to issue grants equal to 30% of the cost of facilities that would otherwise qualify for the ITC. The grant program is available for 30% of the cost of eligible facilities, 30% of the cost of fuel cell, solar, and small-wind energy properties that qualify for the ITC under Section 48, and 10% of the cost of qualified microturbine, combined heat and power, and geothermal heat pump property. No PTC or ITC may be claimed for facilities for which a grant was made. The program is designed to spur development in the near-term. As such, to be eligible for a grant, a project must either: 1) be placed in service in 2009 or 2010, or 2) initiate construction in 2009 or 2010 and be complete by the “credit termination date,” defined as 2013 for wind; 2014 for closed- and open-loop biomass, geothermal, landfill gas, municipal solid waste, hydropower, and marine and hydrokinetic facilities; and, 2017 for fuel cell, solar, small-wind energy, and other properties that qualify for the ITC under Section 48. 8

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The Act requires that grants be paid by the Treasury Department expeditiously, within a period of not more than 60 days after the later of: 1) the date of application, or 2) the placement in service date. However, because of the post-completion funding of the grants, the program will not directly provide construction financing. The Treasury Department is expected to provide guidance in defining what constitutes an application and how “begins construction” is defined. Finally, grants under the program are not taxable income: the Act specifically provides that the grant is not to be included in the recipient taxpayer’s calculation of gross income. Enhanced Loan Guarantee Program

The Recovery Act expands the current federal loan guarantee programs under Title XVII of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 to permit loan guarantees for proven renewable energy, transmission, and biofuels projects. The new program makes loan guarantees formerly available only to “new or innovative technologies,” now available for: 1) “renewable energy systems, including incremental hydropower, that generate electricity or thermal energy, and facilities that manufacture related components,” 2) “electric power transmission systems, including upgrading and reconductoring projects,” and 3) “leading edge biofuel projects.” Loan guarantees under the new program are available for projects that commence construction no later than September 30th, 2011. In addition, the Act appropriates $6.0 billion to pay for the costs of loan guarantees under the new program. This appropriation to subsidize the cost of loan guarantees is expected to support $60 billion in loan guarantees. Furthermore, Secretary of Energy Steven Chu has committed the DOE to begin offering loan guarantees under the augmented program by early summer 2009, and to disperse 70% of the Recovery Act investment by December 2010. Secretary Chu has indicated that he will streamline and simplify the loan application process, defer the payments of fees to closing, permit accelerated underwriting by outside partners, and allow rolling appraisals of applications. What are the Consequences for Financing?

A few of these provisions merit further discussion… The extension of the PTC for three years, the option to elect an ITC in lieu of the PTC, and the availability of a grant in lieu of claiming the ITC on a tax return are all good news for renewables relying on the federal tax incentive scheme. Tax incentives are fine if there are taxpayers able to use them. But the combination of restrictive tax rules, plus the financial services sector meltdown has meant that there have been only a handful of investors actually able to monetize these benefits. The grant in lieu of credit scheme means the federal government is replacing the tax equity investor in monetizing the ITC—and at a rate in excess of the value that a private investor would offer. The next challenge involves what to do with accelerated depreciation, the other federal tax benefit available to these projects. With the ability to engage in a financing lease for any renewable project, the optimal structure would appear to be a lease of the project, with the tax equity investor being the lessor and using the depreciation. We believe that these transactions can be structured such that either the lessee or the lessor may receive the ITC grant (and there may be better reasons in terms of tax efficiency for the lessee to take it). This lease could then be leveraged with debt. Although this approach seems the most efficient scheme, there is one problem: there are not enough tax equity investors in the current market willing to absorb the early year losses incurred with accelerated depreciation. So, what’s the solution? It may be that for many projects, the capital structure will be the ITC grant (think of this, essentially, as a buy down equal to 30% of the installed capital cost of the project) with the remaining portion of the capital structure covered by senior debt and any remaining gap filled with pre-tax equity or mezzanine debt. In this structure, the project sponsor, as the continuing owner, will absorb the deprecia-

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tion, booking losses in the years of accelerated depreciation, and carry those losses forward to later years when the project generates taxable income. Though this is not as efficient as a front-end monetization of the depreciation (if for no other reason than the time value of money to the sponsor), it may be the easier deal to do in the market of 2009. So, who isn’t excited about the ITC grant? Any project that qualifies for PTC and has a high capacity factor. There are a number of e-mailed tables circulating in the project finance world showing the crossover where the project capacity factor makes the PTC preferred to the ITC. The math can be simply stated as: 2.2 cents/kwh times high output has a higher net present value than 30% of the capital cost. Geothermal projects, in particular, are disadvantaged because they have very high capacity factors. What’s the upshot? There is a market of projects where private investors can provide a better deal than the federal government, and we expect that the tax equity world (as small as it currently is) will be focused on these projects. What about debt? The debt market actually seems to have hit bottom. There are a number of lenders still in business, although this number is reduced and their hold positions may be lower. The lenders include some of the companies formerly active as tax equity investors. The consequence is that deals currently are looking at $200 to $300 million as the maximum amount of debt. Although this level should rise as the financial sector recovers, for the time being the effect is that portfolio transactions (grouping together a number of projects into one transaction) are less likely, and mid-sized single asset deals are in the sweet spot of the market. Rates, of course, also reflect the financial times. Margins on senior debt are in the 300-plus basis point range compared to less than 200 a year or more ago. Mezzanine debt, a slice of current focus from private equity firms, carries a pre-tax rate in the mid-teens. Unless, of course, we consider the effect of the federal loan guarantee program. The existing federal loan guarantee program did not advance much of anything, as no guaranties were granted, mainly as a result of underfunding and understaffing of the Department of Energy Loan Guarantee Office. But the current administration has made it clear that the guarantees and grants contemplated by the Act will move out the door briskly. The principle benefits of the federal loan guarantee will be to permit larger-scale financings, for a longer term and at lower rates on debt, than the current market will be able to offer without a guarantee cover. For larger projects, especially with newer technology, we expect the federal loan guarantee program to be the way to financial close in 2009. The interesting issues, among

others, will be how the Department of Energy decides to prioritize among very different competing technologies (commercialized large-scale wind versus less commercialized large-scale solar thermal, or for that matter even less developed technologies), and how the federal loan guarantee program will fare in terms of default risk given the current push to get money out the door.

What’s next? The Administration is moving forward with additional energy legislation to address other challenges to the conversion to a flexible, green electric system. We should expect the federal renewable portfolio standard to receive much attention. Transmission siting will be on the agenda. Bills are already circulating on both topics. And, of course, at some point in the next two years, climate

change legislation. How the politics of these portions of the energy agenda play out is not yet clear, in light of the extraordinary priority of economic recovery. Stay tuned! Milbank Tweed Hadley & McCloy LLP

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been an industry leader with 79 projects and more than 7,600 megawatts installed in North America, totaling over $2 billion. Since launching our children’s book, Catch the Wind, Mortenson team members have visited schools across the country, teaching the next generation about wind power and renewable energy. At Mortenson, we’re proud to serve the communities we work within.

Mortenson Renewable Energy Groups For more information contact: Elling C. Olson at 762-287-5489 or

North American Clean Energy

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wind energy

Partnering for Accelerated Growth Developing a strong supply chain By Juan Marin & Matthew Turnbull

We are experiencing a difficult eco-

nomic environment, and many manufacturers in the wind sector are evaluating long-term partnerships to position their businesses for short-term profitability and longer-term share growth. The ability to properly assess strategic partnerships and, ultimately, select preferred suppliers is critical for ongoing competitiveness and profitable growth. Strategic sourcing teams for turbine, tower, blade, and nacelle manufacturers are being challenged to contribute to the global growth of their companies. A need to develop a strong supply chain among diverse operations is becoming an important consideration in terms of market entry acceleration, competitive positioning, and long-term viability. Highlighted are a few key elements strategic suppliers should embrace when considering a partner for a supply chain. Every single component or service is reflected in the end product, the brand, the market position and, ultimately, in a customer’s perception. When evaluating

strategic partnerships, it is important to evaluate all of the company’s requirements, so as to establish a lasting relationship, to achieve competitiveness, and profitable growth. Global. With an interest in pursuing new markets and accelerating the efficiency of new operations, a global scale is increasingly important. Today’s requirement for the expansion of renewable energy, and the rapid expansion of new markets, demands a truly global partner that can help accelerate entry into these markets, while seamlessly integrating existing operations and associated business practices. Wind industry expertise. Partnering with a supplier that has industry expertise is of great importance. Considerations for existing suppliers, as well as for pending supplier qualifications, include: benefitting from those suppliers that can offer the best practices to accelerate localization, optimize

transportation and logistics costs, and reduce supplier and component qualification cycles. A good supplier proposes key benefits for an operation—this is a live process, one that continually seeks better ways and alternatives to improve operations. In short, identify and partner with suppliers that understand the wind sector, can aid with localization efforts, and transfer practices that positively impact operations. Healthy balance sheet. It is important to consider the financial condition of all critical or “tier 1” supplier relationships. Far too often, manufacturers are forced to terminate supply agreements due to under-capitalized manufacturers supplying critical path components, lacking the resource or capacity to scale, or meet the dynamic needs of turbine, tower, and blade manufacturers. Establishing long-term relationships, while ensuring key suppliers are well managed, have proven track records, and can support a company’s goals are important considerations. There are many operating risks in managing today’s global supply chain, and companies would be wise to eliminate or reduce as much credit and capitalization risk, particularly in the volatile financial markets we have now. Stable material supply. Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) should focus on securing critical path components. Whether pursu-

We Know Renewable Energy Troutman Sanders LLP is one of the world’s leading energy law firms. We have represented clients in energy matters since the 1920s, and our climate change practice has been active for nearly two decades. From this foundation of experience, we have developed a dynamic renewable and alternative energy practice that advises clients worldwide at every stage, from investment and tax structuring to development, construction and operation. As your plans for solar, wind and other renewable energy projects emerge, put the energy of our lawyers to work for you. For more information, contact: Craig Kline 212.704.6150 craig.kline@

Phil Spector 212.704.6004 phil.spector@

ing a vertically integrated strategy or securing critical components via an out-source model, resources should be focused on critical component supply. Supplier rationalization, which is common in many other industries, is becoming more important in the wind sector. Global sourcing and localization is essential to assure competitive pricing and the right mix in a product portfolio. Finding the balance to ensure resources are allocated strategically, while maintaining consistent quality and proper inventory positions of critical and noncritical parts that support manufacturing and project implementation, is becoming increasingly significant. Robust quality system. One of the most important decisions is material quality. Ensuring quality control and consistency in manufacturing routines is critical to ensure delivery of quality components. Eliminating any variation in results is key, so components or materials will perform as designed for the expected life of the turbine, significantly reducing field failure, and downstream costs associated with remediation. Increasing the importance of quality evaluation in the supplier selection criteria involves a delicate balance between localization requirements, resource constraints, and logistics constraints as OEMs expand into new markets. A prospective supplier’s quality infrastructure is an important consideration, one that with due diligence should evoke confidence that the product or service is meeting overall quality requirements. Working capital. Cash flow is a hot topic, particularly given the global financial crisis, and the impact on project and delivery delays. The ability to rapidly adjust to production and project schedule changes is vital. Equally important as the ability to react to demand changes is a capacity for global inventory re-balancing. Partners should improve working capital and accommodate changing global business conditions, while providing a significant operating and financial impact. Business practices. Integrity and ethical business practices are the foundation for sustainable business relationships. The aforementioned elements are all significant; however, ensuring your supplier selection closely evaluates general business practices and fosters a culture of openness will cement a lasting and mutually beneficial business relationship. Gexpro |


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Portable filtration system

Designed with wind turbine maintenance in mind, the Donaldson Filter Buddy will help improve fluid cleanliness, helping to extend equipment life. It is a handheld portable system that enables kidney loop filtration on gear boxes or hydraulic reservoirs in tight and confined spaces. Its small size and light weight (approximately 45lbs) allows users to carry it up or downstairs, or lift with a hoist via the attached lift ring. The Filter Buddy features dual filtration utilizing Donaldson’s exclusive high-efficiency Synteq filter media. The filters are plumbed in series providing the option of coarse/fine particle removal or water removal/ particle removal. The Filter Buddy is available to pump hydraulic fluids and gear oils up to 8000 SSU.

Simulation tool for wind turbines

Donaldson Company, Inc. | Industrial Hydraulics

Simerics, Inc.’s PumpLinx v2.4 is a CFD simulation tool created for designers of pumps, compressors, turbines, and other fluid devices with rotating or sliding components. Starting with a 3-D CAD design, PumpLinx enables the engineer to create a virtual test article and generate flow visualization and engineering output as accurate as a full-scale hardware test at a fraction of the time and cost. PumpLinx can be successfully used for the design of water and wind turbines, as well as other power-generation devices. PumpLinx helps improve efficiency, minimize cavitation, control pressure ripple, reduce noise, and predicts pressure, loads, and power. Key advantages are automated grid generation, a robust and accurate cavitation model, ease-of-use, and same day turn-around. The accuracy of the code has been thoroughly validated against production hardware. Simerics, Inc. |

Drive train with optimized permanent magnet generator

The Switch offers a drive train for megawatt-class wind turbines that utilizes an optimized permanent magnet generator (PMG) and full-power converter package. The Switch Drive allows active power extracted from the turbine, and the reactive power produced, to be precisely controlled over a range of operating speeds. The Switch’s PMG maintains efficiency in partial load situations, producing high output despite variable wind speeds. It is available in traditionally geared, semi-geared, or gearless designs. The full-power converter allows for a 100% reactive power feed, even in the absence of wind. It features lightweight construction, modular power packs with liquid or air cooling, customizable software developed for a range of turbine designs and wind conditions, and a rugged design that provides grid support through FRT functionality. The Switch |

North American Clean Energy

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wind energy

Project Site Performance & Design

Achieving Quality Measurements in Anemometer Calibration By John Obermeier and Rachael Coquilla


ecent conferences and workshop presentations on power production have noted that, on average, actual power production has been 10% below predicted estimates. This difference may be driven by the uncertainties in wind power predictions and in the operation of the wind power plant. Accurate wind speed readings are important in wind project site performance through the use of wind turbine power curves and historical wind speed distributions. Fundamentally, wind power is proportional to the cube of the wind speed, translating small errors in wind speed measurements to a much greater error in the wind energy production estimate. To achieve required measurement precision, it is recommended that calibrated anemometers be employed and post-deployment calibrations be performed as a check on the process. Anemometer calibration is essentially the relationship of the anemometer’s raw output to a reference wind speed measurement. Performing anemometer calibrations provide an important quality check on a resource assessment project, but it is equally important to assure the quality of the calibration performed. Factors to consider

when selecting a qualified test laboratory include: 1. Calibration test method 2. Test facility capability 3. Personnel background and experience 4. Quality management system accreditation 5. Participation in inter-laboratory comparisons

to recognized national standards, such as NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). As required by published standards, test methods should record and report all relevant variables during each test, including local test conditions such as temperature, barometric pressure, and humidity.

1. Calibration test method

Considerations for test facility capability should include investigations in the applicable test speed range, facility flow quality evaluation, and uncertainty for each measurement point. For wind energy applications, a recommended test speed range is 4 m/s to 26 m/s, which matches the typical range of wind turbine cut-in speed (4 m/s) and cut-out speed (26 m/s). It is particularly important to review the facility flow quality since the basic idea of calibration is to find a quality representation of wind speed to the signal output of an anemometer under test. Uncertainty is essentially the key value that represents the quality of the test lab, since it summarizes all the possible factors that could affect the calibration. Other important factors for evaluating

Anemometers are calibrated in a wide variety of test methods, including sideby-side sensors on a meteorological tower, outflow from a pipe or fan, moving vehicle, and multiple sensors in a wind tunnel. According to test methods defined in standards, it is generally accepted that only wind tunnels with one anemometer at a time provide the required level of control over experimental variables. Wind tunnel reference sensors can be Pitot tubes, hot wire anemometers, LDV (laser Doppler velocimetry), or model substitution. It is important to use reference sensors that are traceable to internationally recognized standards. Currently, most qualified laboratories in the wind industry use Pitot tubes (with related sensors and transducers) traceable

2. Test facility capability

the capabilities of a test facility include the method of sensor installation at the appropriate location, the ability to record the anemometer output signal along with other test variables, and the time required to complete the work. Regardless of the test method, a sensor is installed in a test facility so that its presence does not disturb the measurement of the local wind speed. To have a quality calibration, the reference wind speed is essentially a measure of the undisturbed wind ahead of the anemometer under test. For most rotating anemometers, output signals may present some type of a waveform whether a sine wave, square wave, or even an impulse. Consideration must be made to the method at which a test lab would read such signals, and converting the signal into a measured rotating rate or frequency. A final capability consideration is the time required to complete the work; customers involved in tower installations may require faster turnaround times to meet project deadlines. 3. Personnel background and experience

Experience of laboratory personnel should also be reviewed. Relevant experience includes wind resource assessment work, measurement and instrumentation experience, knowledge in atmospheric boundary layer meteorology, background and training in aerodynamics, and experience with experimental methods. To design the capabilities of a test facility for calibrating anemometers, laboratory personnel should have basic knowledge in fluid flow and laboratory instrumentation. To understand the application of anemometer calibration, background in field assessment and atmospheric meteorology is critical. Continuous participation in the wind industry would reflect the overall experience of the test facility. 4. Quality management system accreditation

A quality management system accreditation is recommended. The most commonly used accreditation standard in test laboratories is ISO/IEC 17025:2005. Laboratories use ISO/IEC 17025:2005 to implement a quality system aimed at improving their ability to consistently produce valid results. It is also the basis used by an independent accreditation body to assess test laboratories. Since the standard is about competence, accredita12

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tion is a formal recognition of a demonstration of that competence.

Windmill breakthrough

A new design of wing, based on aircraft technology, made it possible to provide a highly efficient, compact, and silent wind generator. It starts to rotate at 1.2 mph wind and reaches maximum output at 12 mph. Because of the high efficiency, even at lower wind speed, application is quite wide without constructing the high tower, which might have disturbed the landscape, Maintenance is quite easy.

5. Participation in interlaboratory comparisons

Participation in inter-laboratory comparisons is critical. Inter-laboratory comparisons provide an external check on the validity of laboratory results. For this case, it is critical to investigate a common sensor and the methods used to perform inter-laboratory comparisons. In the mid-1980s, a comparison program was started using an RM Young Propeller designated as the Round Robin 2 (RR2). This program continues to be active and has included test labs from all over the world. Inter-laboratory comparisons have also been performed by MEASNET, the international Measuring Network of Wind Energy Institutes. Some members of MEASNET include laboratories in Germany, Denmark, Spain, and Greece.

Riso Kagaku Corporation |

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OTECH Engineering, Inc.

\M__U[ZR[^Na_UZQ__$ _[Xa`U[Z_R[^XUbUZS$ Addinol lubricants

Unicoatings Canada has been appointed a Canadian distributor for Addinol Oil products. Addinol is a line of long-lasting, environmentally friendly, oil products manufactured in Germany. Addinol also has a “Longlife x 4” program that warrantees the life of oil for gears for up to four years. For instance, Addinol lubricating oils for wind turbines carry a four-year warranty, and will not support oxidation, micro pitting, or allow sludge buildup. The low co-efficiency of friction (0.05 to 0.06) helps produce more power with less energy. Conversely, machinery will turn easier with less energy used (ex. either carbon fuels or electricity). Unicoatings is a worldwide distribution network, and Unicoatings Canada is part of this system, dedicated to supplying the highest quality nanocoatings (Unicoatings brand line of products), Rewitec Nanocoating, Kustom Shop Quality Automotive Products, and now the Addinol line of lubricating oils and greases. Unicoatings Canada |


is home to the world’s largest producer of renewable energy— and many other companies that are generating better solutions to make renewable energy available for everyone. From advanced photovoltaics and high-yield solar parks to state-of-the-art wind turbines and biofuels, discover how Spain-based companies can help your business succeed.

BU_U`_\MUZ`QOTZ[X[Se$O[Y%QZQ^Se North American Clean Energy

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wind energy

View from the Top Fall protection and rescue during wind turbine construction By Steve Jervis


he view from the top of a newly constructed wind turbine is spectacular. Standing atop the nacelle, the worker can see for miles around, a perspective that only those brave enough to work at extreme heights can enjoy. Along with the rolling vista, however, the ground—often hundreds of feet down—is only one spine-chilling glance away. For those who work in the wind turbine construction industry, fall protection is a primary safety concern. The world’s tallest wind tower reaches a height of almost 525 feet (160 meters), and with new construction continuing to push the limits, workers are exposed to a unique set of dangerous fall hazards. After the infrastructure and foundation work has been completed at a construction site, individual sections of a tower will be installed. This involves work from a ladder system installed within the tower sections, which may or may not have a vertical fall arrest system in place. If a cable or rail ladder safety system is not in place, one can be specified and installed onsite. A ladder safety system is designed to stop or arrest a fall should a worker slip or let go of a rung. Running the length of the ladder, this system can either be a stainless or galvanized steel cable, or an aluminum or stainless steel rail. A shuttle or sleeve connected to the system attaches to a worker’s full-body harness and follows the worker’s movements up and down the ladder. Should a fall occur, a brake will engage in the shuttle/sleeve to arrest the fall. Once a tower is complete, the nacelle (the structure at the top of a tower, housing the electrical control units and generator) will be installed. This will require installation of cabling that runs the length of the tower, which can be completed from a service lift or ladder. If using a service lift, a full-body harness connected to a lanyard and tied off to the lift should be worn. If working from the ladder, a restraint or work positioning device should be used to allow a worker use of both hands—and this should be in addition to the fall arrest system. When the rotor (the combination of the blades and hub) is lifted in preparation for attachment to the nacelle, workers will need to be outside, atop the nacelle. In almost all cases, built-in anchorage points will be available for connection of a shock absorbing lanyard or self retracting lifeline (SRL). Before a worker steps onto the nacelle, he or she should attach one end of the lanyard or SRL to the anchor, and the other end to the dorsal D-ring of his or her harness. Twin-leg lanyards and SRLs offer an advantage as they allow for 100% tie-off. Should a worker need to switch anchorage points, he can keep one leg of the lanyard connected to the first anchor point, while he connects the other leg to a second anchor point. Upon connection to the second anchor point, he would remove the leg connected to the original anchor point. Other anchorage options for the nacelle are tie-off adaptors, which can be wrapped around a structural member to create an anchor point, or self-contained vacuum anchors that operate with onboard compressed air to provide a secure anchorage point. Benefits of a vacuum anchor include its portability and ability to be placed anywhere on the structure. Though it is important to ensure the vacuum anchor is rated for fall arrest. One of the most important considerations for fall protection during wind turbine construction is rescue equipment. Should a worker fall from the top of a nacelle, rescue by conventional means will be virtually impossible. To compound the problem, speed is of great importance when it comes to rescue because a worker may have suffered an injury that led to the fall, or been injured during the course of the fall—or both. Furthermore, a worker suspended in a harness may develop suspension trauma, a condition in which lack of motion and constricted veins may cause blood to pool. Suspension trauma does not always result in long-term injuries, but the possibility demands prompt attention. The often remote location of wind farms necessitates trained rescuers be available at the job site as emergency services may not be able to respond very quickly. They may also lack appropriate equipment for the rescue, which is why equipment that is simple to use and quick to set up must be kept on site. Suspension trauma can be avoided by the provision of suspension trauma relief straps, worn by every worker on his or her harness. The straps also give rescuers a much more relaxed period in which to perform a rescue, preventing any potential accidents from rushed connections. Evacuation may become a necessity if a complete mechanical failure or fire occurs on 14

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the turbine. Rapid descent, available for multiple users, is an absolute must for construction crews. Equipment such as an automatic descent control device or evacuation device can be used for both evacuation and rescue. Pre-engineered pulley based rope rescue systems and remote rescue systems can be used to rescue fall victims. The turbine should be properly equipped with self-rescue, personal evacuation, and emergency evacuation equipment at multiple points, including the tower and nacelle. Fall protection equipment selection should be a part of a larger fall protection program, in which a hazard analysis is conducted, control methods are determined based on the fall protection hierarchy and workers are thoroughly trained. For more information on how to create such a program, take a look at ANSI Z359.2, a voluntary consensus standard covering fall protection for general industry in the US (the full publication is available, for a cost, at To read a related white paper, please visit Steve Jervis is the global product director for Systems and Anchors with Capital Safety Group, a designer and manufacturer of height safety and fall protection equipment under the DBI-SALA and PROTECTA brands. Capital Safety |

Electronic packaging protects electronics

Carlo Gavazzi Computing Solutions recently announced its enhanced 500 Series of CompactPCI/VME enclosures, used within the industrial and renewable energy sectors (including wind and solar sectors) to package sensitive electronics from their surrounding environments in SCADA, RTU, and Control Panel applications. The 500 Series includes four configurable models (505, 535, 545, and 555), each designed to meet VITA and PICMG backplane specifications. Each enclosure features the redundancy of hot-swappable N+1 power supplies and front-pluggable cooling systems for high reliability and low MTTR. The 500 Series enclosures can be configured for both AC and DC power inputs with a ground stud and ESD jack on the rear I/O panel to meet NEBS requirements. Available through Carlo Gavazzi Computing Solutions’ unique ‘Quick-Turn’ program, the 500 Series can be delivered within two weeks of order. Carlo Gavazzi Computing Solutions |

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wind energy

Small VAWT Technology: Ideal for Urban Settings Traditional wind farm site disadvantages are advantages in urban settings By Tracy Twist

T Using our past to

connect to the

future Since its founding in 1924, FCI-BURNDY® Products has had a reputation for being a leader in innovation in the design as well as manufacturing of high quality compression connectors, tooling and grounding products. Today FCI-BURNDY® Products brings that rich tradition of product innovation to the renewable energy industry. To learn more about what FCI-BURNDY® Products can do for you, please call or visit our website today.



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he propellers of large scale wind turbines have become the global icon for wind energy. Most clean energy publications and renewable energy websites feature images of towering, mega-scale propeller turbines. Large propeller turbines, also known as horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs), are the standard in the large wind industry due to their excellent efficiency in converting wind to power. However, what makes them ideal for large scale wind farms (large and remote open spaces with consistent wind direction) does not necessarily make them a great fit for urban sites. Conversely, the traditional limitations of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) technology for wind farm applications can turn into advantages for more urban locations. Increasingly, homeowners and small businesses are considering VAWTs to help overcome the challenges associated with many small wind sites. It is important to recognize the difference between HAWT and VAWT technology to understand why each is well suited to particular applications. HAWTs have blades that rotate vertically around a horizontal axis, similar to a propeller on an airplane. Propeller turbines need to be oriented perpendicular to the direction of the wind to be efficient and, in variable or more turbulent wind conditions, they need to constantly re-orient themselves, losing efficiency in the process. Propeller blades are designed to use “lift” (differential air flow in front of and behind the blade) to propel themselves around faster than the speed of the wind. While the part of the blade near the hub turns at a reasonable speed, due to their rigid outstretched blades, the tips whir around at greater speeds (think of a parade line turning the corner). Typically, the tips of blades speed along at seven to ten times the speed of the wind (known as a “tip speed ratio” of 7-10). Although propellers are efficient in using lift to maximize energy transfer and electricity production, the main drawback in an urban setting is that their tip speeds can create high levels of noise, which can be bothersome to neighbors. More modern HAWT designs seek to lessen noise by employing special curvature in the blades. The high speeds also add strain on the blades so, to keep them safe, turbines (especially propeller style turbines) require use of special braking controls. One common method of braking is “furling,” when the propeller re-orients itself perpendicular to the wind to stop it from turning. As it turns, it makes a resounding roar—which is not a major problem if it happens occasionally, but it can be very noisy in high, gusty winds. Lastly, while wind direction in the open spaces of wind farms is fairly consistent, wind direction in urban settings is often changing. HAWTs are not able to adapt quickly to changing wind directions and, therefore, operate extremely inefficiently in more turbulent conditions, as compared with VAWTs. VAWTs include two main classes: a tall vertical airfoil style (Darrieus), and a solid winged style (Savonius). Darrieus Turbines come in a few varieties. Some have rotors with curved blades that look like an eggbeater and rotate about a vertical axis. Another variation uses straight-sided airfoils and is called a Giromill. Like propeller turbines, Darrieus turbines utilize some lift to capture wind energy and operate with tip speed ratios in the lower-middle range: their tips spin slower than propellers, but faster than Savonius designs. Savonius Turbines have rotors with solid vanes or “scoops” that rotate about a vertical axis, using “drag” to allow the wind to push them around. Savonius turbines provide very high starting torque and they typically start rotating in the slightest wind. The principle drawback of Savonius turbines is that drag produces far lower energy efficiency than the other

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SCADAPack controllers

Control Microsystems’ SCADAPack 330E and 334E are two of the latest additions to the SCADAPack family of telemetry and control devices. These cost-effective controllers are based on the popular SCADAPack 330/334 hardware platform and address the growing demand for secure and authenticated data. SCADAPack 330E and 334E provide multi-vendor interoperability and reliable communications through native DNP3 and IEC 60870-5. Data integrity for billable applications or critical operations is supported with AGA12 encryption. The E-Series controllers support a full-featured FAT32 (PC compatible)

types of wind turbines. Most anemometers (wind measuring devices) are a form of a Savonius turbine. Traditionally VAWTs are not recommended for large wind energy production because they are a little less efficient than HAWTs, and they do not scale as well to very large applications. However, the ability of VAWTs to operate silently and efficiently in variable and turbulent wind conditions make them a viable option for urban locations in which these are common site characteristics. The fact they operate at lower RPMs and with tip speed ratios only two to three times the wind speed means they can produce power without creating noise. VAWTs also readily capture wind energy from any direction, allowing them to work with the constant changing wind directions in urban settings. At the end of the day, the most important factor is power output. If a VAWT is able to provide ample energy output in an urban setting, then it is a real option for homeowners, small businesses, and governments to consider. For those considering urban installations, it is important to research the various VAWT and HAWT turbines. There are currently no standards in place for measuring performance in small wind turbines, so it is important to look for products with independent testing and realistic claims, based on how large the rotor is and how much energy the manufacturer is claiming the turbine will provide. It is also important to do a solid assessment of wind at the site by evaluating if wind speeds are adequate for decent power production, if the site is open enough to avoid huge obstacles, and what levels of turbulence and gustiness are in the area. With the right wind and siting conditions, small VAWTs offer consumers and small businesses the opportunity to participate in renewable energy on a more personal level. Tracy Twist is the vice president of marketing at Mariah Power. Mariah Power manufactures the Windspire, a small scale vertical axis wind turbine.

file system and command line, which is accessible over FTP, Telnet, DNP3, or local serial port. The command line provides direct access to the file system and configuration commands. An IEC 61131-3 programming environment provides support for two logic applications running simultaneously, which allows system integrators to introduce password-protected applications that offer value-added functionality in their chosen industry, all while leaving the second application open for the end-user to add custom control if required. All SCADAPack E-Series controllers come with a three-year warranty. Control Microsystems |

COMPOS SITE CURING OVENS THAT SAVE YOU MONEY E ergy En gy efďŹ fďŹ fďŹ ci ďŹ ci c en e t cons nstr t uc tr cti t on sH s Hiigh gh efďŹ ci fďŹ ciien e cy y pan a el el con nst stru ru uct ctio ion io n pr prov ovid ov ides id es s you wi with th better insula lati t ng and fue fue uell ef e ďŹ cie enc ncy. y. s-A s -AXI -A X MIZE MIIZE ZEY YYOU O R RE EN NER ERGY GYSSAV GY AVIN I GSSW IN WITTH H AN A % %NE NERG RGY RG Y Y %FlCIENT% 0AC CKŠ K /VEN5PGRRAD DE E V si Vi s t www. w.ov w. o en-e epa p ck k.c com FOR FO RM MO OREIINF N OR O MA MATI TION TI O  ON 6ACU 6A CUUM0IPIN NG G3Y 3YST 3Y STEM E W WITTH HPR PRRES P E SURE E TRRAN TRAN A SD SDUC UCER E SAND DA ATHER ERMO MOCO COUP UPLEJ LE EJ JAC JAC ACK K PAANE NEL

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wind energy Preserving Ecology when Designing a Wind Farm The evolution of renewable energy in the Galapagos Islands As one of the world’s most unique and ecologically sensitive regions, the Galapagos Islands are a natural choice for green energy technology. To help preserve the delicate ecological balance of this world heritage site, the government of Ecuador has embarked upon a mission to eliminate fossil fuel-based power production from the Galapagos archipelago by 2015. As the first step in this initiative, the community of San Cristóbal is employing renewable energy technology as an environmentally friendly complement to the island’s existing diesel-powered generating plant. In 2007, San Cristóbal’s new wind energy facility came online as part of a hybrid wind-diesel solution, generating electricity for the island’s 6,000 inhabitants while reducing the community’s diesel fuel consumption by half. Appropriately, even the flashing obstruction lights that sit atop the three giant wind turbines use renewable energy (in this case solar energy) as a showcase of environmentally friendly technology at work. Adapting to life on the islands

Located on the equator some 600 miles from the coast of Ecuador, the Galapagos archipelago consists of 13 large islands and more than a hundred smaller islands, islets, and rocks that are home to some of the world’s rarest birds and sea creatures. Although mariners have frequented the islands for 500 years, attempts to maintain self-sufficient communities in this remote location have historically proven challenging and, at times, problematic. Invasive plants and animals introduced intentionally or incidentally over the years have plagued the native species and threatened their habitats. Ongoing efforts to restore and protect the region’s ecological balance have seen some success but, in recent years, a new threat emerged as the growing communities and expanding tourist trade demanded ever-more energy from the region’s existing diesel-based power generation facilities.

By Anthony Tisot

Concerns about the risk of environmental contamination proved valid when, in January 2001, the Ecuadorian tanker “Jessica” ran aground at the entrance to Puerto Baquerizo Moreno on San Cristóbal Island, spilling 160,000 gallons of diesel oil into the fragile ecosystem. Though a combination of favorable currents and a determined response by Galapagos National Park Service staff, local fishermen, and volunteers helped to lessen the extent of the damage, the incident underscored the need for a more sustainable and environmentally friendly source of energy for this unique location.

Harnessing the power of the wind

Fortunately, today’s renewable energy technologies offer a range of alternatives that can help minimize the ecological impact and risks of traditional energy sources. In its role as steward to this irreplaceable ecosystem, the Government of Ecuador prepared to implement a renewable energy solution in the form of a $10.8 million, 2.4-megawatt wind farm on San Cristóbal Island. The San Cristóbal Wind Project would be built in partnership with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), private businesses in Ecuador, and the e8—a non-profit organization of the world’s largest electricity companies dedicated to promoting sustainable energy development worldwide. To reduce diesel consumption, while ensuring a reliable power supply in all seasons, the project’s three massive wind turbines would work in conjunction with San Cristóbal’s existing 650 kilowatt diesel generators. Together, this hybrid wind-diesel system would fulfill the island’s power requirements while reducing CO2 emissions by an estimated 2,800 tons per year and cutting diesel fuel shipments by fifty percent. Those selected for the project include

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ditions can result in a thick, persistent fog at higher elevations. Another benefit was the lights’ ability to endure vibration and buffeting from the elements while shielding all components— solar modules, batteries, LEDs, and electronics—within a compact and durable enclosure.

Leading the way with renewable energy

Madrid-based Made TecnologĂ­as Renovables to supply the wind turbines, diesel automation, and hybrid control equipment; SANTOS-CMI of Ecuador to construct the turbines onsite; and ELECDOR of Ecuador to install the transmission line. Choosing a suitable location

The turbines’ location was carefully chosen to minimize any impact on the region’s indigenous species, such as the Miconia plant and the Galapagos Petrel, an endangered seabird that nests on the island. As part of a stringent environmental impact assessment, extensive research was conducted to determine the typical flight paths and areas favored by the petrel. Based on the findings of this research, a suitable project site was identified at El Tropezon—a location in the highlands, well away from the areas where the petrel typically flies and nests. To further reduce any danger to the petrel and other local birds, potential obstacles were eliminated wherever possible; transmission lines were buried underground, fencing was minimized, and the turbine towers themselves employed a design free from tension wires or lattice. A solar-powered lighting solution

With two airports in the vicinity, effective obstruction markers were a necessity on the three 50-meter tall structures; although, as lighting can sometimes prove hazardous to birds, these too were chosen with care. For this project, Made Tecnologías Renovables selected a set of solar-powered LED (light emitting diode) obstruction lights from Canadian manufacturer Carmanah Technologies Corporation. Initially designed for the United States Air Force and approved for use in the Galapagos by the Ecuadorian Aviation Authority, the solar-powered obstruction lights were found to be an effective and environmentally friendly lighting solution. Suitable for locations with limited access to sunlight, the stand-alone beacons require just 1.5 hours of sunlight per day to operate effectively—a valuable asset in an area where seasonal con-

As the first stage of an umbrella program to implement renewable energy alternatives throughout the Galapagos archipelago, the San Cristóbal Wind Project is a remarkable achievement. While reducing air pollution, cutting fuel deliveries, and introducing an affordable and inexhaustible source of electricity to the region, the hybrid wind-diesel system provides a functional link between traditional fossil fuel-based technologies and the new generation of sustainable energy alternatives. Since the project’s completion in October 2007, San Cristóbal’s new wind-energy facility has performed according to plan, supplying more than 50% of the island’s energy needs through wind power. Though it can supply up to 80% of the island’s electricity during the region’s windiest season, the facility can also work in conjunction with additional alternative energy technologies to further reduce the community’s reliance on diesel generation. To this end, the project also includes a number of PV panels connected to the island’s electricity grid. The solar panels, donated by the e8, represent an additional source of clean energy that can help to demonstrate the potential of a solar-powered solution, while providing the means to train local utility staff on yet another renewable energy alternative. Looking ahead

As Ecuador’s first large-scale wind project and one of the largest wind-diesel hybrid systems in the world, the San Cristóbal Wind Project is a milestone in sustainable development, equally notable for the scale and innovative design of the project, as for the shared commitment to environmental conservation and sustainable development that has characterized each stage of this six-year endeavor. Following the successful completion of the San Cristóbal Wind Project, a second renewable energy project is underway for the archipelago. In 2008, the Project for Renewable Energy for Galapagos (ERGAL) announced a proposed 3.2 MW wind energy project to accommodate the islands of Baltra and Santa Cruz. With the San Cristóbal Wind Project leading the way as an example of environmentally friendly energy generation, Ecuador is making significant progress towards its goal of eliminating diesel-based power generation from the Galapagos Islands. Carmanah Technologies Corporation |

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wind energy news briefs Turbine manufacturers push capacity investments while bracing for slower 2009

Turbines officially spinning in Antarctica

Eight wind turbines in Antarctica are withstanding temperatures of -60 degrees Celsius and winds of over 90 m/s. The Princess Elisabeth Station was officially inaugurated in Antarctica on February 15th, 2009. This station is the only polar base operating entirely on renewable energies. It marks a major change as most stations rely on diesel generators because no wind turbines, until now, were thought to be robust enough for such extreme conditions. The turbines will endure the most severe weather conditions on earth. They will be operating in average winds of 53 mph and winter gusts of over 200 mph, while still providing 230V electricity for the stations heating, computers, lights, and scientific instruments. The electricity generated is expected to be the highest output of any small wind power system in the world. Proven Energy, a Scottish based small wind turbine manufacturer, supplied the 6kW wind turbines. The turbines are designed to work in extreme environments. Previous installations have weathered ice storms in Slovenia and typhoons in Japan. The official launch represents a technical achievement, blending the best both science and technology can offer. By bringing together international technology and expertise, Princess Elisabeth will combine eco-friendly construction materials, clean and efficient energy use, optimization of the station’s energy consumption, and the best waste management techniques. These techniques and facilities will aim to reduce the station’s ecological footprint on the pristine environment of Antarctica, following the principles set forth by the Antarctic Treaty. In addition to the turbines, both solar thermal and photovoltaic (PV) will be used on the building itself. The water supply for the station will use solar thermal panels to melt the snow, thereby limiting the use of electrical energy to pump water.

Emerging Energy Research’s annual “Wind Turbine Market Share Update” reveals a 2008 global turbine market in which high demand and supply chain backlogs offered plenty of room for all: established players averaged installation growth of more than 50%, while several newer players saw installations jump by 100%, and more. Buoyed by 2007s bursting order books, turbine manufacturers installed almost 11 GW more turbines in 2008 than in the previous year—totaling nearly 30 GW of turbines activated during the year, almost double the volume in 2006, with the US and China accounting for 48% of that amount. “The battle for market share is expected to intensify in 2009-2010 as the economic slowdown continues, and as local suppliers in the United States and China ramp production,” says Keith Hays, EER research director. Players with diversified order books are best positioned to grow in 2009 as the slowdown will be felt most acutely in the US, a market that weighs heavily in the order books of the major vendors. At the same time, China remains less impacted by the recession; steady performance can be expected from China’s growing number of local turbine suppliers, as well as global players, with an existing foothold in that market. Investments and plant capacity expansion point to a collective optimism on the part of many manufactures for the long-term market, despite their expectations for modest growth in 2009. “The industry saw record installations in 2008, even though new production facilities had not yet come on line in the US and China,” said Hays. “With an improving market in 2010, manufacturers with capacity expansion plans, such as Acciona, Gamesa, Suzlon, Siemens, and Vestas, will be well-positioned for the recovery, although full utilization will depend on their ability to demonstrate flexibility in pricing and delivery terms.” EERs “Global Wind Turbine Market Share Update” is developed annually by their Wind Energy Advisory research team, and uses on-the-ground research combined with extensive access to key players in global wind energy industry. Emerging Energy Research |

Wind Energy Training Consortium

Proven Energy | |

It is no mystery that much of the focus for the American economy in the coming years will be on renewable energy sources, with wind power at the forefront. Wind industry experts know that utilizing wind as a major new source of energy will require a huge effort. The entire infrastructure needs to be addressed, including the power grid network and manufacturing capabilities, as well as training the huge numbers of workers needed to build and sustain the wind-generation system. This effort will require an unprecedented collaboration among industry participants from all levels of government, manufacturing, service, and education. To this end, Snap-on Industrial, a division of Snap-on Tools Company, recently convened an industry consortium at its Kenosha, Wisconsin manufacturing facility to talk specifically with key members of industry, trade associations, labor groups, government officials, and technical colleges about the future needs of both the American and global wind power markets. Some industry experts estimate that manpower requirements to service this market over the next several years could reach 200,000 workers. “It was our goal to bring together in one room people who not only see the need to train the next generation of technicians in the wind power industry, but people who can make that happen,” said Frederick Brookhouse, senior segment sales support manager-education, Snap-on Industrial. Representatives of the newly formed group, tentatively named Wind Energy Training Consortium, met in January of this year to discuss partnership development, implementation of wind technician training, and tooling requirements. Snap-on Industrial | 20

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Renewable energy accounts for largest share of annual increase in US electrical generating capacity For the first time ever, non-hydroelectric renewable energy, led by wind power, was the leading source of new electric generating capacity in the United States, according to a recently released report, “Electric Power Annual 2007� from the US Energy Information Administration. The study found that in 2007, electric power generation increased 2.3%, from 4,065 million megawatt-hours (MWh) in 2006 to 4,157 MWh in 2007. Total net summer capacity increased 8,673 MW. Wind capacity accounted for 5,186 MW of this new capacity. So, for the first time ever, renewable energy sources, other than conventional hydroelectric capacity, accounted for the largest portion of capacity additions. Net generation produced by renewable energy sources, excluding hydroelectric generation, grew by 9.0% as compared to 10.5% growth in 2006. Renewable energy accounted for 2.5% or 105 million MWh of total net generation in 2007. This marks the fourth consecutive year in which renewables share of total net generation has increased. In 2007, wood and wood derived fuels accounted for 39 million MWh or 0.9% of total net generation. These fuels continued to be the largest sources of renewable generation, accounting for 37.1% of total net renewable generation, excluding conventional hydroelectric generation. Wood and wood derived fuels have maintained fairly stable output levels averaging 38 million MWh per year. Other biomass supplied 17 million MWh of net generation. It has declined from a 23 million MWh peak in 2000 to 17 million MWh in 2007. Wind generation was the second largest renewable energy source, contributing 34 million MWh or 0.8% of total net generation in 2007. It is rapidly gaining a larger share of total renewable generation. In 2007, wind accounted for 32.7% of total net generation from non-hydroelectric renewable sources, as compared to 4.3% in 1997. The annual growth in solar thermal and photovoltaic generation has been sufficient for this renewable source to account, on average, for 0.5% of all non-hydroelectric renewable energy. Geothermal power plants contributed 15 million MWh of net generation and accounted for approximately 0.4% of total net generation in 2007. Geothermal has maintained fairly stable output levels averaging 15 MWh per year. Conventional hydroelectric power continues to decline as a share of total net generation. It declined 14.4% from 289 million MWh in 2006 to 248 million MWh in 2007. In 2007, conventional hydroelectric generating capacity accounted for 6.0% of total net generation, as

compared to 10.2% in 1997. The decline in conventional hydroelectric generation is consistent with the drought conditions, which according to the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) prevailed over the West and Southeast for much of the year. According to NCDC, evapo-

ration caused by above normal summer temperatures exacerbated drought conditions in these regions. Moreover, precipitation was below average in the Southeast and the mountain snowpack in the Rocky Mountain and Western States was significantly below normal levels.

The report “Electric Power Annual 2007� was issued by the US Energy Information Administration on January 21st, 2009 and be found online at: http:// epa_sum.html.









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solar energy The Race to Develop Utility Scale Solar Projects Project siting, permitting, timing and more By Connie Farmer


ith the world’s increased emphasis on renewable energy development, utility scale solar technologies are becoming a more attractive form of renewable energy generation. New incentives for renewable energy proposed under the economic stimulus package will only heighten competition for viable solar sites. The development of these types of facilities requires the acquisition of large tracts of relatively flat land. While some developers are working with private land owners to acquire project sites, the majority of these projects are being proposed on public lands in the Southwest, primarily on lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Gaining control of prime solar sites has become very competitive as many developers vie for the same prime locations. Companies that have filed the necessary paperwork with the BLM, requesting use of a particular tract of land, must work their way through a rigorous permitting process. Consequently, having the latest technology concept, or even a proven technology, does not necessarily translate into project success. Although land and an economically feasible technology are the fundamentals needed to build a utility scale solar project, there are many steps in the permitting and approval process that must be completed prior to a site being deemed “shovel-ready.” The race to develop utility scale solar projects is being driven by state-mandated Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) requiring utilities to achieve a certain percentage of generation from renewables. The amount of electrical generation that must be achieved, and by when, varies from state to state. To reach these mandated goals, utilities are entering into power purchase agreements (PPAs) with renewable energy


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developers who commit to provide a certain amount of electrical generation within the timeframe outlined in the PPA. The process of negotiating a PPA can take up to 16 months. Achieving the scheduled inservice dates can prove extremely challenging. In an ideal world, the initial stages of developing a utility scale* solar project (ex. siting and permitting) takes 12 to 18 months to complete, with all permits in place before construction begins. The reality is that the initial stages can take 24 months or longer, depending on state regulations and the type of technology proposed. The following offers a broad glimpse into a complex process that varies from state to state and project to project, also providing a general description of the process on BLM lands. Siting process. Most utility scale solar projects start with a desktop siting study of potential solar sites to determine any fatal flaws. The siting study evaluates both physical and environmental criteria used to evaluate a site’s potential as a solar project location. One of the most important factors is the amount of solar radiation available. Other physical criteria that are evaluated include the distance to the nearest point of interconnection and the need for transmission facility upgrades, as well as the distance to the nearest natural gas line, the availability of water, land ownership, site access, and topography. Environmental factors that are evaluated include the possible presence of endangered species, the presence of known cultural resources, the distance to Class I areas (including National Parks and National Monuments), and the presence of potential sensitive receptors (people and places). This initial due diligence analysis eliminates sites that present substantial challenges for successful solar project development. Critical Issues Analysis (CIA). After narrowing down the number of sites, a CIA is conducted to characterize the environmental and permitting risks associated with each site. A typical report contains recommendations for additional investigations to help assess potential environmental issues associated with site development. In some cases, an in-depth permit feasibility analysis may be included to facilitate risk management decisions and develop a permitting strategy that works for the developer and regulatory agencies. Agency coordination. For all utility scale solar projects, agency coordination is critical to a project’s ultimate success. Agency involvement may include multiple federal, state, and local agencies (ex. BLM, state fish and game agencies, local county governments, etc.). The pre-filing process is a period prior to officially filing a project application, during which the developer meets and coordinates with appropriate agencies and key stakeholders regarding the proposed project. Since different timelines may exist for federal and state permitting processes, this period is vital for the developer to understand the regulatory agencies’ requirements and timelines, and coordinate accordingly.

Permitting. The permitting process begins with the developer submitting an application to the appropriate lead regulatory agency. The application includes a project description and describes the activities to be implemented to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the project. This includes completing a preliminary geotechnical study to assess foundation requirements, a hydrogeologic study used to evaluate the current drainage patterns across the site, and various environmental field studies, some of which are described below. Field studies. Regardless of the state and type of technology implemented, one of the major challenges is the support of field studies. Field studies include, but are not limited to, biological resources, cultural resources, geotechnical investigation, hydrogeological testing, and visual resources. In general, field studies are labor intensive due to regulatory requirements and will often drive the permitting schedule. Project Timing. A typical timeline for the siting process may span several months to identify a site for development. Once a site is identified, the prefiling process may take from six to 12 months prior to formally submitting an application, at which point the permitting clock starts. Completion of the appropriate environmental evaluations may take from 12 to 24 months, which culminates with the issuance of necessary permits for construction. At this point, the project is considered “shovel-ready.” One of the important pieces of the entire process is communication. Communication with federal, state, and local agencies is imperative. Just as important is communication with the public and stakeholders (ex. private landowners potentially affected). Communicating early and often with both agencies and the public allows the developer to identify any unforeseen issues that may be encountered during the formal application period. Communication should continue until completion of construction. Although complex, the initial project development stages are designed to involve regulatory agencies and key stakeholders, address potential environmental concerns, and provide an open and transparent process in developing a utility scale solar site for the benefit of many commercial and residential end-users. * In this article, utility scale solar indicates a solar project that intends to sells its output to a utility customer, as opposed to using the output for a direct use end-user. ~ Constance Farmer has over 30 years of experience, with a focus on licensing both commercial-scale alternative energy and traditional energy power projects, and permitting and construction compliance for large-scale electric transmission projects. Tetra Tech EC, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Tetra Tech, provides a full suite of consulting services for the solar energy industry. Tetra Tech EC, Inc. |

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solar energy

Reading Between the Lines Solar Photovoltaic systems By John Bianchi


hinking about going solar? If so, then it is worth becoming familiar with a few items that will help ensure realistic expectations about the benefits

of going solar. First things first… if thinking about installing solar on the roof of a building, please consider having a reliable roofing contractor

inspect the conditions of the roof beforehand. The expected life of a typical solar system is 20 to 40 years. Rooftop problems (such as leaks) after



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a solar system has been installed are not worth the risk—and this applies to both residential and commercial installations. The good news is that, once installed, solar panels will act as a barrier and provide a certain degree of protection to a roof from direct exposure to sunlight, hail, and snow. In terms of grid parity—the point at which photovoltaic (PV) electricity is equal to, or cheaper than, grid power— is expected to be reached by 2015 in the US. But, like with everything else, there are a lot of variables affecting this date. The bottom line is that, until a solar PV system is paid off, expect to pay more for electricity. How much more? Well, there are so many variables involved it would be unfair to quote a general amount. Consider contacting a reputable solar PV system installer and requesting a quote. Keep in mind, there are many alternatives available for obtaining solar PV system financing, including rebates from local, state, and the federal government. As an example, after doing some research, a solar PV owner found that the monthly cost of obtaining a second mortgage to cover the cost of purchasing a solar system was less than the amount of his average monthly electric utility bill. Some more points to consider… System size. When calculated correctly, the size of a PV system should match the annual amount of electric energy consumed, expressed in kilowatt hours per year, for the specific electric meter for which a household is now paying electric utility bills. To install solar for a residence, the annual number of kilowatt hours consumed in the previous 12 month period will be the primary factor in determining the appropriate system size. Electric utility meters. Imagine owning a residence located on the family farm. Out in the corn field is a well used for watering crops. If interested in going solar for this residence and for powering the well, two different solar systems are required. The reason for this is because the well pump and the place of residence will be on two different electric meters. More importantly, the billing rates will be different.

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And, the last thing the utility will want to do (or is allowed to do) is to combine these rates. So, for every electric meter billed, a separate solar system is required. Going green. Once the decision to have a solar PV system installed either at home or work (or for a well pump, etc), choose a reputable solar installer. They will perform an energy audit for the residence and/or business facility, and provide a written report about how to improve energy efficiency. This report will include simple things, like using compact fluorescent lamps in place of incandescent lamps, or replacing T-12 fluorescent lamps using magnetic ballasts with T-8 fluorescent lamps using electronic ballasts. After reviewing this report, one might even decide to forego having a solar PV system installed and just make the energy efficiency improvements. Going solar. After a comprehensive look at going solar, research will show it is not only expensive but, from a holistic, whole-earth viewpoint, it is also not really “green” (because the manufacturing process of all things solar is inherently “dirty,” as is the installation). The good news is that, once installed, solar offers one of the

most dramatic and effective reductions to carbon footprints possible. As a citizen, living in the most energy intensive country on earth, one will do more for the environment by going solar than by any other means. (Granted, selling your car and walking to work will also have a big impact—and in a number of good ways…the planet, your health.) After a solar PV system is paid for, the cost savings is substantial. If the system is correctly sized, the only monthly payment to the utility is the charge they impose for “their” electric meter. As a consumer of electrical energy, there are always going to be costs associated with that consumption. Now, here is the primary reason for going solar: you will feel good! Buying solar is like purchasing a pair of shoes or a shiny new car. When all is paid and done for, the lower cost of electricity made possible by a solar PV system is well worth it, the appearance of all those solar panels on the roof looks quite attractive, and the neighbors are thoroughly impressed (especially when they see the equipment used to connect the solar system to the grid). Going solar is a smart investment in the way that a good education will last a lifetime. And, a solar PV system will help to bring the country one step closer to eliminating dependence on non-renewable resources. Early solar installer adopters viewed their bottom line as a function of “Profit, People, Planet.” Today, these same business owners now realize that sustainability demands a paradigm shift to “Planet, People, Prosperity.” Solar is one way to get there. John Bianchi is the utilities program administrator for Renewable Technologies, Inc. Renewable Technologies, Inc. |

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solar energy Beyond the Solar Panel: Building Integrated Photovoltaics By Jay Goth


s the world relies more and more on renewable energy, the trend of incorporating solar into our energy sources grows every day. Utilities are using it to generate power, businesses use it to lower their peak energy demands, and eco-minded consumers are using it for their homes. When most people think of solar energy, their natural inclination is to picture large panels placed upon the roof of a building to generate electricity or to heat water. However, new technologies have brought about a revolution in the design and functionality of solar energy systems. One of the most interesting evolutions in photovoltaic (PV) or solar electricity generation application is Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPVs). In this type of application, solar electricity generation is built right into the building. By simultaneously serving as the building envelope material and a power generator, BIPV systems can provide savings in materials and electricity costs, reduce use of fossil fuels and emission of ozonedepleting gases, and add architectural interest to the building. BIPVs can take many forms, including the following‌ Thin-film is a type of PV application that uses different active materials than a typical solar module to interact with sunlight and generate electricity. These materials can be deposited on glass, metal, or plastic foundations. The film can be flexible and incorporated directly into building products. Although the energy conversion efficiency of these cells might be higher than traditional silicon,

overall applications today are generally less efficient. However, the potential applications can usually cover a larger area. Thin-film technologies offer a promise of lower future costs due to fewer requirements of active materials and energy in their production, at least when compared to thick-crystal products. Semi-transparent thin-film modules allow light to pass through cells, providing an opportunity to incorporate PV into glass windows. In this case, the windows of a building can provide insulation, lower UV penetration, and generate electricity at the same time. Just imagine the south facing walls of a large office building covered in glass, while invisibly generating electricity every day. Traditional solar cells are being placed on transparent panels, which can then be incorporated into awnings, atriums, skylights, and parking structures. These types of structures can provide diffused shade and protection from rain and snow while generating electricity. This application can be especially useful for larger structures, such as hotels and high-rise office buildings, which may have limited roof space but also large parking structures that could benefit from a cover over the top level. Even residential homes can benefit from incorporating traditional cells. The New American Home, for example, which was featured by the International Home Builders Association, incorporated panels into the building itself, providing a shaded patio next to the pool. As you

can see in the photos, the solar panels fit right into the roof of the patio itself. Entire roofs are now being constructed using traditional solar modules, connected together in a way that creates a cohesive and unified structure. This eliminates the aesthetic disruption of traditional solar panels standing out against the roof background. It can also increase the amount of area that can be used to harvest solar energy on any given day. Roofing shingles that are coated in thinfilm materials can be built into a roof along with traditional shingles to provide a more consistent appearance. Each shingle would be a mini-generator and, connected together, the shingles create an electricity generating system. Many find this application more aesthetically pleasing than traditional panel designs and, since thin-film shingles can be designed in different colors, the potential for this type of technology is bound to become more popular. Blinds, shades, and shutters can be coated in thin-film to provide additional electricity generation while blocking sunlight. In many cases, the opening and closing of the blinds can be tied to solar exposure, creating an automatic solar-powered shading system that provides comfort and electricity at the same time. Using the sun to power our lives is limited only by our imagination. Incorporating the ability to generate electricity into our everyday lives

through building designs is only the beginning. As technology advances, expect to see new and innovative uses of the nearly limitless energy of the sun to create electricity, heat our water, cool our buildings, and power our transportation. Jay Goth is vice president of sales and marketing for Suntrek Industries, Inc., a provider of solar energy systems designed for home, business, industrial, and swimming pool applications. Suntrek Industries, Inc.

XRF glass panel sampling tool

Solar Metrology, provider of X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis tools, has expanded its SMX XRF tool portfolio for film composition and thickness measurement of CIGS and CdTe photovoltaic depositions with the addition of the FPV, Full panel view, SMX model. SMX-FPV is designed for nearline film composition and thickness control of CIGS and CdTe film stacks. The tool has a full 600 by 1200mm lateral xy range of measurement and is designed for measurement of rigid glass substrates. The FPV provides process control of active, contact and TCO layers. Detailed analysis of full PV panels is possible, including fast and repeatable copper and gallium ratio determination and as panel gradient analysis, which allows for yield improvement and management and conversion efficiency gains in production. Solar Metrology’s SMX Measurement System provides a production-ready suite of film thickness and composition measurement tools for research and process development, in-process monitoring and post-process quality control. Solar Metrology


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Temperature profiling system

Designed specifically for the solar industry, Datapaq’s Solar Cell temperature profiling system was created to monitor wafer temperature as it travels through a furnace—without disrupting production. This system can be used for various thermal processes including contact firing/metallization, diffusion, PECVD, lamination, and others, which is critical to ensure PV cell efficiency. Consisting of data logger, thermal barrier, and analytical Insight software, the Solar Cell system is easy to use and powerful enough to handle all profiling needs. The data logger, which is placed inside a thermal barrier to protect it from heat, takes temperature readings of the wafer as it travels through a furnace. Datapaq’s Insight software interprets all information gathered to give an in-depth analysis of the process, along with information such as peak temperature, time above temperature, slopes, and Delta T. Alarms are also built in to alert a user when a process is out of specification. Datapaq, Inc. |

Mirror film with peel-off liner

ReflecTech Mirror Film now comes standard with a peel-off liner to protect the mirror surface during processing, transportation, and installation. Film will be available in three widths: 48", 59", and 60". ReflecTech Mirror Film is a highly reflective (>94%), silver-based polymer film for concentrating sunlight. It was developed to replace the fragile glass mirrors in concentrating solar collectors. Commercially proven, ultra-lightweight, and highly durable, ReflecTech Mirror Film is demonstrated to be stable under UV light, and is self-adhesive for easy application to many substrates. It was developed through cooperative research with the United States National Renewable Energy Laboratory. ReflecTech |

Corrosion protection for slew drives

The R&D Department of IMO Antriebseinheit is responding to the demands of many tracking system manufacturers with the development of a new concept to protect slew drives, which are often used in tracking systems to guard against corrosion and mechanical efforts. IMO’s design with corrosion protection is available immediately for the approved slew drives. The corrosion protection package consists of a special coating of the slewing ring, a highly resistant twocomponent coating of the housing, and a special seal ring. The IMO Slew Drive can also be recoated by the customer in individual colors.

Turn-key solutions for thermal energy At Apricus, we make the distribution, design and integration of solar thermal systems easier than ever with our turn-key systems. Now available with a pumping and control station designed and manufactured locally in the USA by Watts Radiant, an Apricus solar system is more reliable and easier to install than ever before. With Apricus, helping your customers go green has never felt so good—and expanding your business has never been so easy.

Hot Water, Powered by the Sun. Delivered by Apricus. Become an Apricus dealer! We’re here to help you grow in 2009 with easy shipping arrangements and product lead times, as well as a nationwide marketing and public relations team to help bring business to your doorstep. Find out more by calling Apricus at 203.488.8215.

IMO Antriebseinheit GmbH & Co. KG North American Clean Energy

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solar energy news briefs Testing at NREL

For the next several months, engineers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will be testing the performance of the SkyTrough, SkyFuel’s high-performance, low-cost parabolic trough receiver for use in utility scale solar power system. The SkyTrough will be mounted on NREL’s Large

Payload Solar Tracker, which supports solar components that require dual-axis tracking. The testing will focus on confirming SkyTrough’s system efficiency. The SkyTrough will remain at this test site for at least three seasons to verify the performance under a variety of weather conditions and sun angles. SkyFuel |

Safeguarding against storm damage

When Hurricane Kyrill swept across Europe in January 2007, it left a trail of devastation behind it. The storm reached gusts of up to 225 km/h, took 47 lives and, in Germany alone, it caused damage amounting to Euro 4.3 billion. A two-

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megawatt solar plant, valued at around 10 million Euros, was destroyed. “In future we will have to reckon with more and more storms like this,” said Artur Deger, founder and managing director of DEGERenergie. “This is why it is so important to actively deal with the subject, rather than just waiting for something bad to happen. After all, there are currently new solar plants being put up everywhere.” According to Deger, the problem begins with legislation: “Up to now, there have been no pertinent guidelines for erecting photovoltaic plants. It has not even been decided whether such a plant is to be classified as a building or a machine. Consequently, building permits are usually awarded without any structural engineering inspection.” Artur Deger and his engineers spent a lot of time and money on developing a design tool that takes account of wind loads in different regions of the world. They have created a so-called design tool that planners and operators of solar plants can use to safeguard against storm damage—this means DEGERenergie is offering a standard of safety that is currently not even demanded by legislators or insurance companies. Tracking systems from DEGERenergie increase the energy yield of PV systems by up to 45%. A solar plant planer only has to enter three values: country, height above sea level, and the official wind load factor. The software reveals which DEGERtraker can be used in this region, and with how many solar modules for it to be appropriate and safe for installation. A safety reserve ensures that, as a rule, even peak gusts will not affect a plant installed according to these specifications. “The wind load strain on systems differs greatly depending on the region,” explains Deger. “This fact is taken into account by our design tool. This makes DEGERenergie the first manufacturer to offer its customers genuine safety, and to ensure that its products remain durably operational and do not cause any damage.” DEGERenergie

Solar power plant surpasses 100,000kWh of renewable energy

North Carolina’s largest rooftop solar power plant has generated 100,000kWh (kilowatt hours) of renewable, carbonfree electric power. In March of last year, Hamlin Energy Solutions installed the state’s largest building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) laminate rooftop solar power plant at its sheet metal fabrication plant in Benson, NC and, in less than

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seven months, the 107kW thin film solar installation generated an average of more than 14,000kWh per month. Company officials at Hamlin believe it is the first thin-film rooftop solar power installation in North Carolina to reach the 100,000kWh mark. According to Will Hamlin, executive vice president of Hamlin Energy Solutions, the Benson facility achieved this milestone in one-third less time than projected. “Although our initial estimates saw this solar plant generating 100,000kWh of electric power output by the end of 2008, we have been extremely pleased with the accelerated production of the system.” As part of the system, Hamlin provides real-time data monitoring of the solar power plant. This online tool can be viewed at, displaying the current and cumulative power production, as well as a wide variety of environmental offset calculations.

Testing services

Atlas Testing Services offers durability and performance qualification testing through a network of global exposure sites, natural and accelerated test methods, I-V curve tracing and solar radiometric measurements for individual test specimens, modules, and complete in situ systems. While there are many published standards for qualification and performance testing of both thermal and PV solar devices, the long-term durability of these devices continues to be a concern for the industry and, ultimately, the end-user. Atlas Testing Services offers ISO accredited test services to understand the impact of long-term exposure of systems in almost any environment. Additionally, Atlas can provide radiometric measurements to better understand the performance of solar devices in end-use environments or solar simulation. Atlas is ISO accredited to provide calibration of solar radiometers. Atlas Material Testing Solutions |

Hamlin Energy Solutions

New Laser Micro Processing Applications Center

IPG Photonics Corporation recently announced the opening of a new 8,000-square-foot Laser Micro Processing Applications Facility that will serve west coast customers. The Facility will concentrate on the advancement of laser micro-processing for the photovoltaic and medical device industries. Located in Santa Clara, California, the heart of Silicon Valley, it will also work with IPG’s other applications facilities around the world including Oxford, MA; Novi, MI; Yokohama-shi, Japan; Moscow, Russia; Daejon, Korea; Beijing, China; Milan, Italy; and Burbach, Germany. IPG Photonics is already well known for their ability to develop unique fiber lasers. “I have always enjoyed working with the latest laser technology as this often allows new processing regimes to be identified,” said Dr Tony Hoult, general manager of the west coast operations and an industry veteran with over 22 years of hands-on laser applications experience, particularly in the field of fiber lasers. “Bringing these new lasers and process capabilities together will allow IPG to make this facility a unique Center of Expertise for advanced laser microprocessing,” said Dr Hoult. “We will split our time between internally generated projects aimed at improving our understanding of fiber laser processing, processing customer samples, and providing feedback on the performance of the many new fiber laser products that are emerging from IPG Photonics.” IPG Photonics | North American Clean Energy

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solar energy

Politics of Solar Siting By Roger Rosendahl

“Location, location, location!” The well-known real estate maxim has equal application to the siting of solar projects. Perhaps not the most exciting of topics in the hierarchy of such solar power complexities as tax equity and utility finance, siting is the first prerequisite and arguably the single most important aspect of any solar project. It is where every project begins and ends. It is the one part of any project that you cannot get wrong—or fix if you do.

Controllers Have you discovered them yet?

A key aspect of solar siting that is often underestimated or even overlooked in the planning stage is politics, a common theme among the multi-faceted obstacles that must be overcome to achieve successful solar siting. Land acquisition, transmission, water rights, environmental regulation and constraint, overlapping government and regulatory jurisdictions, and community support all require savvy and skillful navigation of the shoals of political seas. If all politics is local and all siting is local, it is not a gross overstatement to conclude that all siting is political. If so, then even the most economically viable projects will need to survive in a world where, at times at least, common sense may appear to be a random variable. Location of land and water

It is no coincidence that the most abundant sources of US solar energy are located in the remote, arid regions of the American Southwest, a great deal of which is federal or Native American tribal land uniquely sensitive to political issues. This brings many solar power developers into contact with the Bureau of Land Management (“BLM”) to both secure project approval and negotiate terms of the project site lease. The BLM, in turn, both applies federal standards, including compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (“NEPA”), and coordinates with other agencies having jurisdiction. While such coordination may substantially mitigate the competing interests of disparate agencies, the need remains to carefully assess and balance key political interests. In remote, desert areas, water is a special problem, for both solar technologies that require it and the related support and maintenance facilities. With such a scarce commodity, political competition for access can be especially fierce. Transmission

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Remote locations also offer special challenges to transmission. How far is the nearest population center and how far is the nearest access to the power grid? Is the best solution integration with existing transmission facilities or parallel development of new ones? Invariably, whether by negotiation of access to construction and operating rights of way or competition for integrated access, solutions to the above will entail the politics of persuasion. A particular and often overlooked focus of political concern is the interest of local Native American tribes on neighboring or adjacent desert land.

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Often these tribes hold the key to local political support, not to mention potential access to project sites, transmission rights of way, and water rights of their own. Regulatory logjam

Much like other alternative energy, solar development is subject to a maze of overlapping government and agency jurisdiction, and a multi-polar process of approval. Apart from the BLM on the federal level, for example, there is the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (“FERC”), which has been delegated authority to regulate the market for interstate electricity. This authority has been the subject of modern-day “states rights” battles with the overlapping and competing jurisdiction of state and local power authorities. State and local jurisdictions governing approval of both the project and project siting frequently overlap. Approval by one may not assure approval by another and disparate political interests may prove an obstacle to uniform compliance with disparate standards. At the most local level is the permitting process requiring assessment of a conglomerate of local political interests, extending at the most micro-level to overturning homeowner association bans on solar projects for residential housing. It is not surprising that negotiating the regulatory approval and permitting process is one of the most daunting tasks of solar siting.

eliminating some of the “corporate world stigma” perceived by some opponents of project development. The future

Solar power remains the great untapped resource that, if and when effective solar storage becomes a reality, could literally fuel America. Exceptional savvy and skill

are required to wind one’s way through the maze of mirrors that is today’s solar political and regulatory environment. Happily, energy needs and political winds favoring renewable energy have never been greater. Roger Rosendahl is a partner in the Corporate & Finance Department of Kaye

Scholer LLP’s Los Angeles office, where his practice focuses on corporate, finance, and securities transactions including energy and other natural resource transactions, mergers and acquisitions, and project finance. Kaye Scholer LLP

Environmental schizophrenia

Perhaps the most politicized of all components of siting is the critical need to address environmental concerns, whether mandated at the federal, state, or local levels. It is well known that mixed feelings about solar energy give many environmentalists a headache. Some think it is an answer to clean energy and energy independence. Others think it is an expensive blight on the environment. Some think both. In fairness, part of this is a legacy of early wind power development, beginning back in the 80s, including early political enthusiasm, substantial subsidies and, eventually, large tracts of highly visible land strewn with inefficient or abandoned projects. Lessons have been learned and solar power enjoys the advantage of the newcomer, being at once the smallest (1%) of US power production and the fastest growing (30% increase in 2007). Both requisite standards (ex. NEPA) and mitigation measures are now clearer. Environmental approval techniques now include employing pro-renewable energy “Green Power” to counter the anti-development crowd, thereby

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solar energy Solar fab management software for PV production Rudolph Technologies, Inc. recently introduced Discover Enterprise Solar, the first fab management software tool designed specifically to help photovoltaic (PV) manufacturers increase cell efficiency and reduce costs. Discover Enterprise Solar incorporates a re-engineered database structure and analysis engine, optimized for the unique requirements of high-volume photovoltaic production. It provides comprehensive analysis of process

performance information, allowing manufacturers to discover and act upon opportunities to improve the energy conversion efficiency of their products. Using Discover Solar, PV process engineers can monitor the health of a complete production line and quickly identify tool and sub-component problems, as well as incoming material issues that could impact the line. Rudolph Technologies, Inc.

Powered by the Sun. Supported by RFC. • Custom roll formed and welded shapes • Galvanized, pre-painted & powder coated steel • Simple to complex shapes to fit your exact specifications • Design consultation to develop new solutions or improve existing ones

Utility Scale High Concentration Photovoltaic (HCPV) system

Amonix has announced the release of its newest product the Amonix 7700. At 53 kW(AC) the Amonix 7700 is designed for utility scale deployment and is the first PV system capable of converting one-fourth of the sun’s energy into useable electricity. The culmination of twenty years of development and rigorous field-testing of Amonix’s HCPV technology, the Amonix 7700 optimizes the entire process of deploying a utility scale solar installation from manufacturing through operation to achieve maximum system performance and reliability, while delivering industry-leading levelized cost of energy (LCOE). Utilizing multi-junction solar cells, the industry’s highest efficiency, the Amonix 7700 is comprised of seven proprietary MegaModules, which are built to maximum transportable size for rapid and cost-effective field deployment. Incorporating Amonix’s patented dual-axis tracker, the Amonix 7700 generates over 40% more energy in sunny climates than conventional fixed solar panels. The Amonix 7700 also requires less land than competing solar technologies and its modular design allows for easy maintenance and upgrade in the field. Amonix, Inc. |

Multiport manifold valves

Strong. Durable. Cost-effective. These are the characteristics you need in solar panel mounting systems — and RFC can deliver like no one else in the industry. As part of the world’s largest custom roll forming group, with 11 affiliate companies in 10 countries, we leverage the very latest technologies and innovations from around the world to transform your unique vision into reality. RFC has all the capabilities to deliver above and beyond your expectations. tel: 502-633-4435 fax: 502-633-5824 email:

Roll Forming Corporation

Asahi/America, Inc. now manufactures Dymatrix MPV PTFE multiport manifold valves, ideal for a variety of applications including solar panel manufacturing, at their 100,000 sq. ft. Malden, Massachusetts manufacturing/ distribution facility. The expansion of Asahi/ America’s facility greatly reduces domestic lead times to two to four weeks. The custom PTFE valve bodies are machined on new CNC equipment dedicated to high purity plastic machining. The valves are cleaned and assembled in Asahi/America’s recently expanded clean room. Dymatrix MPV Manifold offers a variety of capabilities in a compact valve. The MPV is a custom configured manifold to fit and eliminate tubing, fittings, and dead space. The valve design features a unique, zero dead leg diaphragm with full flush capabilities making it ideal for high purity applications. Asahi/America, Inc.


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Pipe and equipment supports

CADDY PYRAMID Pipe & Equipment Supports from ERICO provide an easy method for supporting pipes, conduit, and equipment on roofs and below raised floors. They dramatically reduce installation time by replacing other labor-intensive support methods, such as wood blocks, straps, clips, and steel foot plates, which can damage roof membranes. The CADDY PYRAMID 25 is an all-plastic, UV-resistant support for completing low-pipe-count runs. It has a small footprint of 4" x 5" and a sled design distributes the load evenly. The CADDY PYRAMID 50, 150, 300, and 600 hold up to 50, 150, 300, and 600 lbs, respectively. They consist of a foam block to absorb shock and vibration, and a metal cover for protection from weather and other environmental conditions. The load-carrying capacity for CADDY PYRAMID supports can easily be increased by combining similar supports. For example, two CADDY PYRAMID 600 supports can hold 1,200 lbs. ERICO |

Don’t let your reputation get burned. Can you answer the tough questions? How long will your product last?

R&D-scale coating system for solar cell manufacturing

Sono-Tek Corporation announced the availability of ExactaCoat SC system, a three-axis coating solution for applying coatings onto either thin film or traditional silicon solar cells. Designed for R&D and low-volume manufacturing of PV cells, ExactaCoat SC provides uniform thin film coatings of typical, nano-suspensions and solutions such as amorphous silicon, PEDOT, ITO, AR coatings, CIS, as well as several other active layers used in thin film manufacturing. Also proven successful with ultrasonic spray technology is the use of phosphoric dopants for manufacturing N-type silicon wafers. The system provides flexible XYZ range of motion and trackball control, as well as PC compatibility with advanced Windows-based programming software for automating and refining production processes. The system also incorporates SonoTek ultrasonic atomizing nozzles, available in several frequencies that allow for customization of the droplet size created. Low-pressure air or nitrogen (typically 1 to 5 psi) is incorporated to shape the atomized spray into a controlled fan pattern (usually 2 to 50 mm wide). The low-pressure ultrasonic spray results in excellent transfer efficiency with minimal overspray or bounce back of the material.

Can you stand by your product's claims 100%?

Atlas can help you get the answers you need with customized weathering testing programs and our standard line of testing equipment for the solar energy and photovoltaic markets. Test the durability and efficiency of the materials in your solar energy system so you can ensure the right material choices in the shortest time. When you know that your solar cells, modules, components and systems work right every time, you’ve got it made in the shade. Start your Atlas weathering testing program today by requesting a brochure and a free consultation, visit

Sono-Tek |


MARKETS ATLAS SERVES: Photovoltaics • Concentrated Solar Power • SolarThermal • Building Integrated Photovoltaics

Go to to see all our print content subscription and advertising information, and much more. North American Clean Energy

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solar energy Smart combiner boxes

PV Powered’s IntelliString line of smart string combiner boxes were developed to provide PV system integrators with a reliable and easy way to implement string monitoring that is affordable enough to use on every commercial PV system. String-level performance data is a valuable tool for PV system owners as it enables quick diagnosis of system-level underperformance due to failed modules, shading,

or soiling. Until now, this tool was primarily used on large, expensive systems due to the high cost of string-level monitoring hardware and the complexity of the installation process. The IntelliString smart string combiner boxes are offered in both 8-string and 16-string versions. The products are UL1741-listed and have many installer-friendly features including touch-safe fuse blocks, a NEMA 4X fiberglass enclosure, and powder coated back pan with

integrated wire management. PV Powered has selected the Obvius DC Solar Current Monitor to enable the smart string current monitoring. The Obvius DC Solar Current Monitor was chosen for its robust and easyto-use design, Modbus output, and built-in user-selectable alarming functions, which simplify data collection and reporting. PV Powered |

PV diaphragms


supply of energy with every purchase. It’s time for SolarSheat . ®



Are you tired of the ever increasing costs of natural gas, heating oil and electricity? Are you suffering through cold winters just to reduce your energy costs? SolarSheat® is an affordable and efficient heat generating solution which will help reduce your current energy bills. It supplements your heating needs with a continuous flow of thermostatically controlled warm air to the cold spaces or rooms in your home, cottage or business when the sun is shining. Each self-powered unit can be mounted on an outside wall or on your roof (perferably south-facing) and are available in a variety of configurations suited to your specific needs. With SolarSheat® you will get years of maintenance-free operation using the free, unlimited supply of clean energy from the sun. It’s time for SolarSheat®.

For more information or to locate an authorized dealer in your area visit us at: or call 905.669.2212 or toll free 1.866.556.5504

Your eco-friendly heat source

The ‘Free supply of energy with every purchase’ refers to the solar energy required to operate each unit after the units purchase. The unit generates heat from solar energy during daylight hours when the sun is shining. No other free energy source is required or implied.

Smartech International supplies PV module laminators with Steinbach Silicone Diaphragms from Germany. Smartech stocks both Steinbach’s high-quality solid silicone, as well as their patented Lamibran two-ply diaphragm in Charlotte, North Carolina. Steinbach’s Lamibran has proven its value and durability around the world. The patented second layer does not become brittle like standard silicone when exposed to EVA outgassing, which greatly increases the longevity of the diaphragm. Steinbach will quickly manufacture a custom specific size, and Smartech can arrange to stock what is needed for the convenience of prompt delivery times. A variety of PTFE release sheets are also available—custom cut and punched to specification. Smartech International LP

Solar street light manufacturer

American Solar Electric is a cuttingedge solar street light manufacturer. Their lights are FIPV (Fixture Integrated PV) solid steel powder coated fixtures. They have 18 to 50 watts of solar PV modules made from Laminated Monocrystalline, tempered glass, and Tedlar. The PV modules have a 10-year guarantee and a 20-year lifespan. American Solar Electric uses the highest quality ultra-bright LEDs. Their lights are assembled in the USA and their controllers are built in California. They have patents pending in various countries for these unique lights.

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Combiner box product line

SolarBOS has announced the expansion of their popular combiner box product line. They are now offering combiners with built-in current monitoring, transient surge suppression, and remote contactors for both 600 and 1000 VDC systems, as well as a line of smaller compact combiners designed for residential applications. All SolarBOS combiner products are ETL listed to UL 1741, and can be configured for four to 24 input circuits with NEMA-3R, 4 or 4X steel or fiberglass enclosures.

Streamlined installation

SolarBOS |

Breakthrough engineering has changed the racking and mounting of panels, modules, pipe, conduit, wire concealment, and more. Next Generation Energy’s Zilla is compatible with all existing hardware and all solar applications. It allows for easy, streamlined installation, reducing labor costs up to 75%. It has absolutely no exposed parts to breakdown, offers unmatched versatility, and unilateral strength. Integrated flashings have a warrantee for the life of a roof. Patents are pending.

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Next Generation Energy

Philadelphia  June 8 – 10, 2009 The Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) present the

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premier PV-focused industry conference and trade show in the U.S. Programming from IEEE’s renowned Photovoltaic

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Specialists Conference (June 7 – 12, 2009) is paired with SEIA’s policy and market development expertise to give you

Parking structures for PV solar panels

Alpha Energy’s diverse offering of turnkey solar power systems include Solar Shade Parking Structures, specifically designed to increase solar energy potential by taking advantage of large open parking areas. Solar Shade Parking Structures offer a dual benefit: providing parking protection from the elements and providing space for installation of photovoltaic solar panels. As a visible display of commitment to renewable energy, the Solar Shade Structures can be complimented with night-time lighting and security cameras to increase the safety of parking lots. Structures can be customized to match an existing building look and feel, and are completely flexible to fit any type of parking area. Ideal for schools, hospitals, and government agencies, solar power systems demonstrate the environmental, economic energy benefits of solar electricity. With over 1.2 MW of projects involving solar shade structures, Alpha Energy serves as the primary contractor providing a range of services including: engineering, installation, system commissioning, project management, ongoing service support, utility interconnection and help with qualifying for any applicable state and federal tax rebates.

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the most current updates on PV technology, industry trends and business opportunities. All proceeds of the event go toward advocacy work to advance policy and expand the U.S. solar industry market.

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VËËLearn about emerging PV markets in the U.S., such as PV America’s host city of Philadelphia and the Mid-Atlantic.


VËËGain cutting-edge technical information on PV cell design,

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materials, manufacturing, and deployment.

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VËËHear updates on state, regional and national business and legislative issues that impact the industry.


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Alpha Energy | North American Clean Energy

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investing in clean energy

Making it Worth the Risk Risk transfer methodology for renewables By Michael J La Fleur

he world of renewable energy is entering its next generation, one that will be ushT ered into being by President Obama and his team, working with government, industry, and ultimately consumers. His mandate calls for 10% of energy to come from renewable sources by the year 2012. The future is now, as the saying goes, and it is essential to alter our view as to how consumers use and utilize energy.

Financing the Power of Green 661-799-0440


Intellectual capital and industry expertise


Delivering maximum value


Promoting the adoption of renewable sources

In California, the sight of solar panels on a rooftop is not something new; among other things they are used to heat pools or provide domestic electricity. Wind farms, similarly, are far from uncommon. Anyone who drives over the Altamont Pass can see thousands of modern white windmills pumping kilowatts into the grid. Iowa and, in fact, the entire mid-west have seen alternative fuel production facilities come into existence near feedstocks, corn fields, or soybean farms. For some time now, scientists in the Bay Area have been developing new strains of algae, which are converted into biodiesel, butanol, or ethanol, and used as alternative fuels in vehicles or as substitutes for petroleumbased products. The city of San Francisco has contracted to develop a cogeneration facility to turn solid wastes into liquid, and restaurant grease into either fuel or yellow grease. These measures increase use of renewable energy and reduce dependency on oil, but they

The new order of entrepreneurs and manufacturers may be no less knowledgeable about risk transfer, but may not be as aware of the risk transfer programs that are available or being developed. are only the beginning for an industry whose time has come. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) set ambitious goals for flex fuel vehicles, but there were no filling stations to pump E85, so those goals were not met. Fast forward to 2008, a time when you can rest assured that domestic auto manufacturers will be bound under their assistance program to produce flex fuel vehicles or alternatives to gasolinepowered cars. Once those vehicles are produced, where will they be able to fill up? According to the Department of Energy, California, there are a total of 19 E85 stations and 36 biodiesel stations for a state of 38 million. In California, utility companies must obtain 20% of their power from renewable resources by 2010. The California Solar Initiative calls for 3,000 MW of solar produced electricity by 2016. Utility company PG&E has had its latest proposal for a traditional power plant construction project delayed due to its inability to demonstrate that it will


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be able to meet its commitment, with current alternative energy projects (biomass, solar, wave, and wind) in planning or pre-operational phases. The reality is that on a utility scale, there are insufficient projects planned or in process to meet the mandates for renewable energy, at least in the state of California. The question of “how do we get there from here?� looms large for inventors, investors, project developers, and scientists. Along with the new products and systems being created come new challenges, both from an operational risk perspective and from a pure risk perspective. Insurance brokers in the alternative energy marketplace have their choice of several insurance carriers to provide broad coverage for traditional exposures (automobile, fire, general liability, and workers’ compensation risks, etc), but when special issues related to these operations need to be addressed, this list significantly diminishes. Environmental and pollution liability repre-

sent two areas that are increasingly becoming difficult or expensive to transfer from the renewable energy provider to an insurer. Manufacturing a combustible material in a closed environment is nothing new. Oil and gas companies have been cracking hydrocarbons in their catalytic processes for centuries to turn fossils into fuels. A new generation of manufacturers is working on new organisms, with better technology, reduced cycle times, and modern day synthesis capabilities. But, at the end of the production day, they are creating a highly volatile potential pollutant for use in a combustible system. When an alternative fuel is manufactured at scale, it means millions of barrels per year. Petrobras in Bazil has a facility that will yield 15 million barrels of cellulosic ethanol per year, for example. When that fuel is manufactured, it still needs to find its way into the fuel delivery system. There are no infrastructures, pipes, or transportation facilities to get it to the refinery where it needs to be blended.

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In October 2008, in the Bay Area a tanker truck overturned and it melted portions of Interstate 880 in Oakland, not an untraditional exposure, but one that will be ever-increasing as these new facilities come on line and ship their product to other facilities. To someone in the traditional world of manufacturing gasoline from oil, it is understood that these hazards exist. Additionally, they understand the immediate exposures, like a truck fire or long-term exposures and liability for underground storage tanks created by their businesses, and they are experts at understanding the risks they will retain or transfer. The new order of entrepreneurs and manufacturers may be no less knowledgeable about risk transfer, but may not be as aware of the risk transfer programs that are available or being developed. The risk transfer methodology deployed needs to be specific to the needs of each renewable energy company. The application in a solar company is different than that of a wind energy producer, which is different still for a fuel manufacturer. New products are available or being created that will allow a renewable energy company to transfer several liabilities, such as carbon credits, efficacy, tax, and warranty to enumerate a few. The level of retention or transfer is left for the individual company to decide. A start-up or Series A round company may elect to deploy their capital differently than a more mature, Series B, private equity funded, or public company. For instance, there are some relevant examples to be found in the solar power supplier domain. Solar providers have statistical data on ‘sun days’ and projections of throughput to the grid—if there are fewer days, there are penalties and sometimes other consequences. The right exclusive risk transfer solutions can fund those exposures via an insurance policy, in a financial transaction that shifts potential consequence from the purchaser to an insurer. Transfer protocols have been negotiated to not only transfer warranty risk from the balance sheet, something that is an industry standard for all manufacturers of solar collection apparatus. Some terms, customarily five- to 20-year warranties are required of the solar cell manufacturer, representing the performance of their installed units. As a consequence, they are obliged to maintain that as a liability on their balance sheet, since the possibility of having a purchaser draw down on that facility exists in the event of a failure or lack of performance to some specified criteria set forth in the purchase agreement. When making the return on investment decision, the issue of

“surviving the catastrophe” also needs to be a factor in the equation. In today’s economic environment, it is imperative that a company explore every possible avenue in finding ways to enhance the terms of any project or deal; fuel manufacturing plant, utility scale solar, or wind development. Project financing is increasingly reliant

Michael J La Fleur, CPCU, AIS is vice president of Hays Company of California. He works collaboratively with insurance companies and professionals in the field of renewable energy to develop programs for risk transfer through both avant-garde and established methodologies. Hays Companies

How do we make no difference?

New technologies help make the entire energy business more environmentally compatible than ever before. The need for environmentally compatible technology, especially in the field of energy, has never been greater. But the real challenge is to turn this need into opportunity. That’s why we are focused on supplying highly-efficient, reliable, and sustainable products, solutions, and services across the entire energy conversion chain. Our NetConverter® power conversion system, for example, helps ensure for a more constant power output from wind turbines. And our trendsetting CHP (combined heat and power) technology has made efficiency rates up to 95 percent a reality.

Answers for energy.

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on ever-diminishing margins and key deliverables from power providers and purchasers, as specified in the terms of power purchase agreements or fuel delivery contracts. The risk transfer initiatives employed should seek to smooth the curve, and effectively eliminate risk in a portion of the alternative energy provider’s operations.

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Show in Print Features just some of the companies and technologies attendees will see at this year’s show.

WINDPOWER 2009 Conference & Exhibition May 4th to 7th, 2009 • McCormick Place Convention Center • Chicago, Illinois WINDPOWER 2009 Conference and Exhibition is the largest annual wind conference and exhibition in the world, featuring over 13,000 attendees and over 776 exhibitors. Each year, wind energy professionals gather at this event to learn about the latest industry developments and technologies, review new products and services in the expansive exhibit hall, and network with leading industry decision makers.

Noise and air quality consulting

Harris Miller Miller & Hanson Inc. (HMMH) provides noise and air quality consulting services to the energy industry and specializes in wind energy projects. Their clients range from developers to local municipalities and their projects cover the full spectrum of project development phases related to noise, air quality, and visual analyses. HMMH has five offices across the county, serving clients nation-wide. Harris Miller Miller & Hanson Inc. (HMMH) Booth 3918

Insulated medium voltage cable

Hendrix Wire & Cable’s 34.5 kV TRXLP-insulated medium voltage cable for applications in the wind power industry is available in both aluminum and copper conductor. Standard conductor sizes ranging from 1/0 through 1250 kcmil in full and reduced concentric neutral configurations are also available. Hendrix can accommodate quantity and length changes just prior to manufacturing to adapt to last-minute changes to farm layouts. Complementing their 34.5 kV cable offering, Hendrix also manufactures a complete line of bare copper grounding conductor in sizes ranging from 1/0 through 1000 kcmil. Additionally, Hendrix provides engineering support to assist clients in aligning cable specifications with industry standards to ensure they are specifying the optimal product for their specific application. All cable is manufactured in the USA, is made and tested to meet ICEA/AEIC Standards, and is dry-cure, triple-extruded. Hendrix Wire & Cable | Booth 1053

Bearing Protection Rings extend motor life

Any “green” process must achieve sustainability and energy efficiency. AEGIS SGR Bearing Protection Rings from Electro Static Technology make this possible by extending the lives of motors controlled by variable frequency drives (VFDs). Although VFDs deliver energy savings (up to 30% or more), they also induce harmful currents on the shafts of the motors they control. These currents too often damage motor bearings, and lead to downtime and premature motor failures. Without an effective means of shaft grounding, the currents will discharge through the bearings, causing pitting and fluting damage to the bearing race walls. Over time, this can lead to noise, vibration, and bearing failure, reducing the reliability of a system and wiping out any savings from using the VFD. The AEGIS SGR shaft grounding ring channels harmful VFD-induced shaft currents safely to ground. Unlike conventional grounding brushes, SGR is maintenance-free and works with virtually no friction or wear for the service life of the motor. Because it comes in halves, the SGR ring can be installed in the field without disconnecting the motor from coupled equipment. AEGIS SGR | Booth 4609

Protection caps with volatile corrosion inhibitors

Radolid Protection Caps with Volatile Corrosion Inhibitors (VCI) protects nuts and bolts from destructive corrosion. VCI’s are a class of colorless vapor corrosion inhibiting compounds that block the corrosive effects of electrolytes. Caps are easily pressed onto nuts and bolts by hand, snapping into place when in position. Radolid bolt protection caps with Volatile Corrosion Inhibitors (VCI) are a reliable combination, preventing corrosion on different types and sizes of bolts and nuts. Advance Products & Systems | Booth 4204 38

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Design and manufacturing solutions for small wind

In addition to contacting slip rings, non-contacting rotary joints are increasingly coming into use, especially for transmission of digital data at high bit rates. SCHLEIFRING’s rotary joints, based on a worldwide-patented, offer a capacitive, non-contacting data transmission technique, and enable data rates from 2 MBit/s up to 10 GBit/s. SCHLEIFRING also offers technology for inductive, non-contacting power transmission. Power transmission at voltages 24 V and 48 V, with a range from 250 W, 500 W and 1000 W is possible. This component is available as a separate and as a self-contained system. Advantages include wear resistance, high noise immunity, combined with excellent EMC performance, high reliability, and bit error rates of <10-13. Along with capacitive systems, SCHLEIFRING provides passive optical rotary joints. This passive rotary joint unit, which facilitates each data format and data protocol, may even be used for analog transmission. It is suitable for the fastest common transmission components. SCHLEIFRING North America, LLC Booth 1315

Ginlong Technologies | Booth 2035

© 2009 Dickstein Shapiro LLP. All Rights Reserved.

Non-contacting power and data transmission for wind turbines

Ningbo Ginlong Technologies Co., Ltd. (Ginlong Technologies) recognizes the growing demand for wind turbines and has heavily invested in supplying quality components to support wind turbine manufacturers. Ginlong Technologies will be exhibiting a selection of quality, small permanent magnet alternators and advanced control grid-tie inverters specifically designed for small wind turbines.


missing from your wind project?

Hydraulic pumps and torque wrenches

The Power Team brand of SPX Hydraulic Technologies’ new Predator Series of high-performance hydraulic pumps and tools serve the global bolting industry. Products include electric and air-powered portable hydraulic torque wrench pumps and square drive and low clearance torque wrenches. The Predator Series features a constant horsepower variable flow hydraulic pump designed for greater bolting speed and efficiency, low amperage operation, and a low sound level. The latest generation of torque wrenches features faster operation and a body that is 2/3rds the size of other lightweight wrenches. The Power Team | SPX Hydraulic Technologies | Booth 3709

When Competitive Power Ventures Inc. (CPV), a power generation development and asset management company with extensive wind energy development experience, decided to sell Phase I of its wind farm development project located in Keenan, Oklahoma, to Oklahoma Gas & Electric Company, CPV turned to Dickstein Shapiro’s experienced wind energy and corporate counsel to structure, negotiate, and document the transaction. CPV continues to rely on Dickstein Shapiro’s energy transactional and regulatory attorneys in connection with all aspects of its wind energy development program to help ensure that it remains a significant player in the North American wind energy sector. Larry Eisenstat, Energy Practice Leader, (202) 420-2224,

WASHINGTON, DC | NEW YORK | LOS ANGELES Prior results do not guarantee a similar outcome.

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Self-contained rescue system

The heightec-PMI ScaffPack is a compact, self-contained rescue system, which allows a subject to be recovered by a single rescuer. Once the casualty has been connected, he or she can be raised or lowered by one person to a safe place. The wide casualty attachment hook can be fastened to various points of a subjectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s harness for simplicity and ease of operation. The whole system is failsafe in operation, and will lock if operated in panic. Using the Quadra lowering device allows rope to be given out when not under load, but will lock if subjected to a sudden impact or fall. When the Quadra handle is released, the device will lock, allowing the rescuer to attend to other issues. PMI | Booth 1415

Wind farm developer

As an affiliate of The Conti Group, a 102-year-old diversified engineering and construction firm, Alternity Wind Power is an efficient and execution-focused developer of wind farms. Alternity leverages project development capabilities to partner with landowners, developers, and utilities, which benefit from a cost-focused, detailed development approach. Alternity customizes its working arrangements with its partners to fit their needs, offering Co-Development or Fee for Development Services. Drawing upon its construction heritage, Alternity provides project development advantages such as a thorough methodology in business operations, experience in large-scale project management and cost control, extensive operational experience and proven execution. Alternityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s approach ensures development risks are identified and mitigated, and their construction knowledge base allows them to make critical, timely development decisions, keeping in mind a total project cost perspective. Alternity Wind Power, LLC www. Booth 1536

When Measurements Matter What percentage of error can you afford?

Gearbox generator shaft alignment

Th success of your investments can ride on the accuracy of your measurements. With 35 years of proven The fieeld experience, unmatched reliability, and exceptional measurement quality, you can trust Campbell Sccientific data acquisition systems when your measurements matter.


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LUDECAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s OPTALIGN SMART offers precision wind turbine shaft alignment in three easy steps: simply enter the dimensions, turn shafts, and view the results. Store and print alignment files with free PC software. With OPTALIGN SMART, better alignment reduces bearing failure, coupling wear, noise, vibration, and downtime. LUDECA, INC. | Booth 1843

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3/11/09 1:39 PM

Booth # 3516 at AWEA Windpower Chicago, IL May 4-7, 2009


Build Your Own Wind Turbines

• Design and license 650 kW to 10 MW custom wind turbines for self-manufacture in approximately 10 months

• Development and supply of full electric system • Established supply chain ready for volume production • Globally comprehensive field service and component localization support including customer training courses

• Solutions certified by GL (Germanischer Lloyd) Visit us at or email us at AMSC Windtec is a subsidiary of American Superconductor (AMSC). Wind farm developers, operators, turbine manufacturers and utilities ® face many challenges when connecting with the wind. AMSC D-VAR ® technology for grid interconnection and Windtec turbine designs and services are proving to be the solutions of choice to meet these challenges. © 2009 American Superconductor Corporation. American Superconductor and Windtec and design, AMSC, Powered by AMSC and design, Connecting with the Wind and D-VAR are registered trademarks of American Superconductor Corporation. All rights reserved.

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Advanced lubrication products for wind turbines

Castrol Industrial North America Inc. has more than 20 years of global technical expertise delivering wind turbine gear oils, hydraulic oils, grease, pastes, and corrosion preventives to the green energy sector. The new Castrol Optigear Synthetic X gear oil offers high-quality wear protection and an extremely low tendency to form aggressive oxidative by-products. Castrol focuses on all lubrication areas of the wind turbine, using proven applications expertise and advanced products to deliver solutions that provide reliable and economical performance. Castrol Industrial North America Inc. is part of BP, one of the world’s largest energy companies. BP Alternative Energy is a wind developer in the US, with portfolios in Europe, Asia, and Latin America. BP’s US wind portfolio includes the opportunity to develop almost 100 projects with a potential total generating capacity of 15,000 MW. Castrol Industrial North America Inc. | Booth 1511

Renewable energy practice

Dickstein Shapiro LLP’s Energy Practice offers a complete range of services to companies that develop, finance, operate, acquire, sell, restructure, or manage large energy infrastructure projects, including renewable and conventional power plants, transmission lines, pipelines, and water desalination plants. Dickstein Shapiro works closely with the burgeoning wind power sector, and assists a rapidly increasing number of clients in the development, construction, financing, operation, and sale of wind and other renewable energy projects. The Firm also advises the American Wind Energy Association, the leading trade association of wind power developers and operations. Dickstein Shapiro’s renewable energy professionals have significant experience in all phases of wind power and other renewable generation, including corporate structuring and project development and financings, as well as with transmission and interconnection service issues, power markets, and the business and regulatory challenges uniquely confronted by project developers, owners, and operators of renewable energy projects. Dickstein Shapiro LLP |

Non-contacting transmission Multi-Megawatt Design

Standard Design

Compact Design

Revolutionary transmission technologies for WPPs

Innovative flexible couplings for wind turbine applications. • In-house manufacturing • Electrical isolation by design • Torque-set torque limiting by design • Innovation by design Trust CENTA… the global innovator since 1970

2570 Beverly Dr. #128, Aurora, IL 60502 T 630.236.3500 F 630.236.3565 email


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Power Transmission Leading by Innovation

The proportion of wind energy in the grid is increasing steadily. The sphere of wind power application requires an unparalleled level of precision and technical reliability. Particularly the rotating couplers are a key factor in the quality of the overall system. Develop approaches to identify client needs: Approaching the wind power specific demands SCHLEIFRING offers standard technologies, which along with versatile transmission variations allow absolute reliable performance even under extreme temperature changes, shock and vibration. The increasing share of wind energy claims the timely involvement of the off-shore utilisation. The reliability of these wind power plants presents a great challenge. In the latest 5-MW offshore wind turbine generation a compact and extremely rugged encoder integrated slip ring system made by SCHLEIFRING serves as essential device for the transmission of power as well as electrical signals and data for the control of the overall rotor package. In particular the power supply of 250 A for the pitch drive meant a very special challenge due to the extremely limited installation space. A salt spray resistant design along with a special ring and contact configuration allows long life and backs up an undisturbed opera-tion of the wind turbine even under extreme environmental conditions like shock, vibration and change of temperature from -40°C to +50°C.

New slip ring technologies and their advantage for the wind power industry: SCHLEIFRING was instantly responsive to the wind turbine manufacturer's demand for longer lifetime. By optimizing special material configurations the latest generation of slip ring assemblies allows excellent operating life of >100 Mio. rotations. An integrated EtherCAP module faciliates the transmission of Fast- and Gigabit Ethernet data. An additional multiplexer even allows the transmission of any common bus system across this Ethernet interface. Although predominantly wind turbine slip rings utilizing precious metal sliding contact technology, SCHLEIFRING exclusively offers non-contacting transmission technologies for both power and data transmission, including all common bus systems up to Gigabit Ethernet and EtherCAT. A classic example: transmisson of low power (e.g. 1.5 kW) for hydraulic pitch drive systems plus Ethernet data. Along with capacitive systems SCHLEIFRING provides active optical rotary joints. The active rotary joint unit facilitates each data format and data protocol and may even be used for analog transmission and is suitable for the currently fastest common transmission components. Advantages of non-contacting technologies: wear-resistance, high noise immunity combined with excellent EMC performance, high reliability and bit error rates of <10 -13. SCHLEIFRING North America, LLC Elgin, IL 60123-5533 / USA

WINDPOWER 2009 - Hall A /Stand 1315

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Wind turbine operation and maintenance

Mariah Resources Inc. sets the standard in wind turbine maintenance, site operations, commissioning, mobile maintenance, remote monitoring, MET towering, quality inspection and lubrication solutions. Headquartered in Lodi, California, Mariah Resources Inc. currently provides services throughout the US. The company has built their reputation by employing a workforce of elite, highly trained, and experienced wind professionals. Mariah Resources Inc. | Booth 4567

Software, books, and wind farm consulting

Risø is the National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Risø DTU products include software: WAsP, WAsP Engineering, and HAWCStab. Books include: wind atlases and guidelines for design of wind turbines. Consulting services are available. WASP 10 will be released shortly before Windpower 2009. This version features Google Earth integration, whereby met. stations and reference sites, wind turbines and wind farms, wind resource maps, and other WAsP data may be shown on-thefly in Google Earth.

19,500 ft. of roads, 43,000 ft. collection system and 20 foundations in 22 days

Just another day on the job

Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy Booth 2366

Electrical equipment for wind turbines

Ingeteam’s proven track record encompasses the provision of electrical equipment for 14 out of every 100 wind turbines installed throughout the world, supplying the power converters, electric generators, control electronics, and built-in software solutions for wind farm control. At WINDPOWER, Ingeteam will be presenting some innovative solutions already developed for the medium voltage range, and which demonstrate the company’s ability to make full use of the knowledge acquired in other industrial fields, as well as its ongoing commitment to the development of in-house products. As has always been the case, all these actions are based on Ingeteam’s pledge to provide a holistic service to customers, in the form of the CRS 360º or ‘Customer Relationship Service,’ encompassing services ranging from first stage support, right up to corrective, preventive, and predictive maintenance, whenever and wherever required. Ingeteam | Booth 2554


All it took was 17,000 tons of concrete, some specialized equipment and 57 craftsmen working 16 hour days. The 20-turbine Jeffers, MN Wind Farm project began in November and was completed before the ground froze. Just another concrete example of Carstensen’s commitment to a new level of thinking.

e t th us a 2009 t i r Vis we e dPo erenc on n i f W Con ibiti Ex and



I N C.


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EXPERIENCE Counts... 5,148 experienced Michels Employees 8,023 pieces of major construction Equipment 2,457 MW of construction Experience 120 cranes-up to 660-ton capacity


Electric chain hoist

Contractor on-site building your job safely Michels is Different.

We self-perform all construction operations of building your wind farm.  920.583.3132  Brownsville, WI “An Equal Opportunity Employer”

21st Century Technology requires 21st Century Enclosures

R&M Materials Handling Inc. Booth 5856

ARCA® enclosures for Your Technology • 10 classic sizes, 100 configurations • Highest ingress ratings • Superior UV resistance • Robust strength • Higher impact resistance • Lightest weight JIC enclosure • Easily modified with standard tools • Field maintainable design

See Fibox at WINDPOWER 2009 - Booth 4112

The LoadMate Electric Chain Hoist by R&M Materials Handling Inc. is a compact, versatile, and cost-effective electric chain hoist. The LoadMate is a compact electric chain hoist that can be installed inside the wind turbine nacelle to assist with standard maintenance activities including change-outs and repairs of generators, high-speed gears, yaw and pitch motors, etc. With load capacities from 1/8 to 1-ton, a lifting height up to 262 feet, and a wide range of lifting speeds and power supplies, the LoadMate is ideal for wind turbine applications. Because of the compact design of a wind turbine nacelle, it is important for the hoist to deliver high efficiency in small work spaces. The LoadMate is an ergonomic, low-headroom hoist that allows for close trolley approaches. It is constructed of a highly durable, yet light-weight, pressure-cast aluminum with epoxy paint for corrosion resistance, and a ribbed design for better heat dissipation. The LoadMate uses premiumgrade (AGMA rated) precision gearing for smooth operation in wind turbines.

Quality construction projects

Mortenson has built safe, quality construction projects since 1954. They have led the nation in the construction of wind power facilities for 14 years, and have been at the center of constructing 79 projects totaling over 7,600 megawatts in North America. Mortenson’s solid business model incorporates the built-in flexibility to quickly adapt to changing customer needs and external market influences. As one of the nation’s largest construction contractors, Mortenson offers a heightened sense of stability in uncertain times. Mortenson is a trusted partner who maintains core values of trust, responsibility, safety, teamwork, service, and stewardship. Mortenson | Booth 2128


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Ideal site for wind development

Wind developers are selecting prime sites through the central corridor of the US to build their wind facilities, which makes Nebraska an ideal location for wind equipment manufacturers. Proximity to regional markets makes it a strategic supply chain location, as well as a hub for timely delivery throughout America. Shipped by truck or rail, equipment can be delivered within hours, if not days. In addition, Nebraska offers competitive industrial electric rates and ample location possibilities. Renewable equipment manufacturers will find a partner in NPPD. The utilityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s professional economic development team can help companies find productive and profitable locations in Nebraska. By gathering community proposals, identifying informational and financial resources, and facilitating final negotiations at the local level, they work with state and local entities to ensure the best fit between companies and communities. Nebraska Public Power District Booth 3919

Automated joint positioning and tracking system

ESAB Welding & Cutting Productsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; GMH automated joint positioning and tracking system is easy-to-use and designed for automatic joint tracking during automated welding applications. It uses sensor fingers to track weld joints, and automatically compensates for irregularities. The arc is always kept in the optimal position, minimizing repair and other adjustments after welding, and maintaining even quality throughout the weld. The operator does not need to focus on the weld head position and is better able to monitor the entire installation. GMH is available in three different versions, with control panel on the front, with remote control (no control panel on the front), and without control panel and remote control. ESAB Welding & Cutting Products Booth 2466

Measurement and control data loggers

Campbell Scientific has been manufacturing measurement and control data loggers for 35 years, including the CR800, CR1000, and CR3000. These data loggers are ideal for wind energy prospecting, and provide reliable monitoring for a large variety of wind applications. Sustainable energy researchers choose Campbell Scientific data loggers because of their wide range of sensor compatibility, reliability, and multiple communication options. The data loggers can be programmed to record data for pre-installation research, and for monitoring turbine power and performance. They offer rugged design, low power consumption, and versatility. Campbell Scientific also has wind energy experts ready to help with your wind resource applications. Campbell ScientiďŹ c Booth 2174

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Independent service provider

GES USA is an independent services provider for the entire renewable energy industry. They continually invest in training and knowledge sharing to maintain a high standard of service. As a proud part of Global Energy Services, a group of companies with over 25 years of demonstrated experience and success in assembly, installation, and maintenance of renewable energy infrastructure, GES USA is positioned to service clients through all phases of the project lifespan. Services include engineering, construction, installation and assembly, quality control, and O&M, and the company specializes in turnkey solutions. GES USA | Booth 2761

Service lifts and equipment

AVANTI supplies service lifts and equipment for safe and fast ascent and descent in wind turbine towers. The company focuses on safety for service technicians working in the wind turbine. AVANTI Service Lift, Fall Protection and PPE Equipment and Climbing Assistance has been tested and approved according to standards in Europe, USA, and Australia, and are in use throughout the world. AVANTI | Booth 3907

Fifteen-channel data logger

Value Engineered Deep Foundation System For Wind Turbines

Benefits 46

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Foundation integrity tested before commissioning


Easy monitoring of foundation integrity over lifetime


Environmentally less intrusive

g g g

Works in soil and rock Speedy construction More economical than mass foundations

CTS Western Division Tel: 604 946-5571 Fax: 604 946-5548 e-mail: CTS Eastern Division Tel: 613 342-0041 Fax: 613 342-0609 e-mail:

NRG Systems, Inc., manufacturer of wind measurement systems for the global wind energy industry, has introduced SymphoniePLUS, a 15-channel data logger built on the same platform as the NRG Systemsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Symphonie data logger. The drive for greater accuracy in wind measurement has led many customers to incorporate more than six anemometer channels in their data analysis. With the SymphoniePLUS, customers will have this additional capacity, built upon a familiar, proven reliable platform. Transitioning to the new data logger in field installation, programming, and data management is seamless. The three additional anemometer channels can be activated as needed, and users can use the included data retrieval software for processing data from both the Symphonie and SymphoniePLUS data loggers. The SymphoniePLUS data logger will be available at the same price as the Symphonie data logger. NRG Systems, an independently owned company, has served the global wind energy industry for more than 25 years. NRG Systems, Inc. Booth 3548

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Resource for relocating business

Turnkey SCADA systems for wind

Abilene is a business-friendly city with a pro-business attitude. The Develop Abilene team is committed to creating a healthy economic climate, finding the best way to strengthen its businesses, while building a better, more diverse economic base, and creating jobs for its residents. Along with site selection, marketing, and existing business retention and expansion, they are a source of comprehensive information for expanding the relocating business. Develop Abilene | Booth 3964

CCS-Inc. (Comprehensive Computer Solutions) designs, integrates, and manufactures turnkey computing solutions for wind energy and industrial applications. As a certified partner of InduSoft, CCS now offers InduSoft Web Studio software, a powerful collection of automation tools that provides the building blocks necessary to develop HMIs, SCADA systems, and embedded instrumentation solutions. Through this partnership, CCS can work with turbine manufacturers, operations and maintenance groups, and retrofitters in the wind industry to provide complete hardware and software SCADA solutions. Rather than working with multiple vendors, spending valuable time and money piecing together a system, wind professionals choosing CCS enjoy the simplicity of a single-source provider and the expertise of a dedicated engineering staff. CCS-Inc. | Booth 1113

generating power

out of thin air.

Wind power logistics

KK Integrated Logistics provides essential services to meet wind customers’ logistics needs. KKIL’s Menominee, Michigan port is a preferred point of entry for vessels carrying wind components destined for wind farms in the regional Midwest. Pioneering industry standards, KKIL has developed specialized expertise and equipment for safe and efficient operations. They have the ability to react quickly and invest in improvements and equipment to meet customers’ specialized needs. Their graded, 50+ acre onsite lay-down area offers secure storage and their employees consistently meet or exceed time standards. KKIL offers comfortable lounge accommodations for drivers and escorts waiting for their dispatch and effectively manage the flow of equipment for on-time loading out. KKIL will act as a liaison with local communities and agencies to assist with the transport of the oversize loads. KK Integrated Logistics Booth 4763

When you use ESAB products, amazing things happen.

W E L D I N G + C U T T I N G + A U T O M AT I O N = W I N D T O W E R S O L U T I O N S

As the windtower industry takes on the challenge of the growing worldwide demand for alternative energy, even everyday jobs aren't simple. Fortunately, your choice of a welding and cutting manufacturer is. As the global authority on welding and cutting, ESAB offers the broadest selection of world-class products to meet the tough demands of the alternative energy industry. From windtower manufacture to installation and maintenance, choose ESAB for powerful solutions.

Welding Systems

Cutting Machines

Welding Wire & Fluxes

Service & Support + 1.800.ESAB.123

See us in booth# 2466 at the Windpower 2009 Conference. North American Clean Energy

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Advanced permanent magnet generators

At TM4, cutting-edge technologies and extensive know-how are at the heart of their advanced permanent magnet generators. The combination of more than 60 patents provides superior efficiency and quality in a compact and affordable package. Patented winding and lamination shapes, as well as innovative cooling circuits derived from the inverted rotor topology are just a few examples of their breakthroughs. TM4’s 660 kW generator is designed for the best volumetric power density to enhance performance and maximize return on investment. TM4 also designs and delivers customized permanent magnet generators to meet the specific requirements of today’s wind turbine and genset manufacturers. TM4 | Booth 1608

Rubber Track Conversion Systems for 4x4 Vehicles and ATVs ALL TERRAIN - ALL SEASONS Mud, sand, snow, swamp, rocks, as well as hard surface!


Comprehensive Computer Solutions

Turnkeyy SCADA Solutions for the e Wind Industry


Tensioning tools

Wind power generation presents unique challenges to access work areas. Mattracks can help provide access for maintenance services and repair, and with the low ground pressure, there is minimal impact on soft terrain.

202 Cleveland Ave. E. P.O. Box 214 Karlstad, MN 56732


WINDPOWER 2009 Booth 1113

Bringing You the Power of Nature We supply the global windpower industry a full range of mission-critical components such as hubs, bedplates, planetary carriers, brake segments and gear-box housings, along with other engineered cast components. We specialize in the manufacture of complex nodular iron castings ranging from 40 to 200,000 lbs. Windpower 2009 Conference & Exhibition Come See Us at Booth 1732 May 4 - 7 – Chicago, IL McCormick Place Convention Center

E xc e l l e n c e i n C a s t i n g s S i n c e 18 76

42 Leech Rd., P.O. Box 550, Greenville, PA 16125 Phone: (724) 588-4100 | Fax: (724) 588-0152 |


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E xc e l l e n c e i n C a s t i n g s S i n c e 19 0 5 120 Filbert Street, Elyria, OH 44035 Phone: (440) 322-4657 | Fax: (440) 323-1101 |

HYTORC, a division of Unex Corporation, was founded in 1968 by John Junkers. The Mahwah, NJ-based company manufactures a full line of tensioning tools for all industries, and has service and distribution centers at 150 locations worldwide. According to Joachim Santen, HYTORC’s wind power growth manager, the company is the oldest and world’s largest manufacturer of hydraulic torque and tension tools with products that are CE, TUV, and ISO9001:2000 approved. HYTORC has also established the HYTORC Service Network, so their tools maintain industrial requirements for speed, weight, durability, user-friendliness, and safety. With a decade of wind energy experience, HYTORC’s team of wind power specialists provide expertise in field surveys, plant optimization, and offer field and classroom training. These services, combined with HYTORC’s hydraulic torque and tension equipment, provide a solid foundation for engineering, installation, and maintenance. HYTORC | Booth 1964

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3/11/09 1:40 PM

Welding solutions for wind tower industry

Lincoln Electric offers the latest welding equipment, consumables, and technology solutions designed specifically for applications in the wind tower industry. At WINDPOWER, Lincoln Electric will feature the latest submerged arc column and boom manipulator from AMET Inc., which provides the capability to efficiently weld both circumferential and longitudinal seams on large tower sections. This system—along with Lincoln’s advanced Power Wave AC/DC 1000 power sources, submerged arc welding wire and flux—can help increase overall productivity in wind tower manufacturing. With 42 manufacturing facilities in 21 countries and a worldwide network of distributors and sales offices covering more than 160 countries, Lincoln Electric has the global resources necessary to provide reliable solutions to the wind tower industry. Lincoln Electric | Booth 5712

Vertical axis wind turbine

Mariah Power and MasTech Manufacturing celebrated the first Windspire vertical axis wind turbine to come off the production line at the newly retrofitted manufacturing facility in Manistee, Michigan. A ceremonial event is scheduled for late March at the MasTech Manufacturing facility in Manistee, Michigan. Manufactured entirely in the USA, Windspire provides energy to residences, businesses, and governments by harnessing the wind with an aesthetically designed vertical axis wind turbine that operates ultra-quietly. Volume manufacturing allows Mariah Power to bring the Windspire to the US market as the lowest cost wind energy system in the one kilowatt range. Government officials from Michigan will also be in attendance to witness this historic event, which marks the creation of new jobs directly related to renewable energy. Mariah Power | Booth 1517

Maximizing wind turbine gain

PITCHmaster II, the latest PITCHmaster generation, maximizes the availability and gain of wind turbines. The PITCH servo controller was developed for the rough conditions in the hub and is well prepared for temperatures between -30 °C and +70 °C in the control cabinet. The components of the PITCHmaster II are characterised by high levels of resistance to vibration, shock, and permanent shock. A groundfault-proof brake driver provides control on battery voltage level. This leads to a reduction of components in the switch cabinet. The electric PITCH system with AC synchronous motor is a PITCH system for wind turbines of the multi-megawatt class. The electric PITCH system stands out due to its compact design and an energy store with extended service life. Due to the servo properties of the PITCH motor, position control with quartz accuracy is even possible in the case of small positional changes at low speed. For each axis of the PITCH system there is a completely independent working system, which has a charging device for the energy store, lightning protection and the PLC. LTi REEnergy GmbH | Booth 1532


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Wind farm consulting firm

16 regional service centers Uptower maintenance services Authorized OEM generator repair Generator unit exchange program Spare parts—electrical & mechanical On-site generator pickup and delivery

888.694.6200 •


Ayres Associates is a nationwide consulting firm providing client-focused services for wind farm and transmission corridor development through capabilities in survey, photogrammetry and LiDAR, real estate, feasibility analysis, route selection, environmental siting and permitting, bridge inspection, project management, and construction administration. Along with 15 offices around the country, Ayres Associates mobilizes staff for locations near the project site, and they can set up temporary project offices wherever necessary. Staff members are accustomed to working on large corridor projects miles from their associated home office, sometimes carrying out needed services in remote areas. The crews and equipment are self-contained and can carry up to three weeks of supplies on a single restocking. By doing this, crews can stay highly mobile and cost-efficient in an environment where schedules are key. Ayres Associates | Booth 4664

Wind generator repair services

TRICO TCWIND, an IPS company, offers “Coast to Coast” wind generator repair services, up-tower maintenance, and spare parts sales through a national network of 16 regional service centers and a dedicated staff of wind power field service technicians. They offer high-quality, in-house repair on all brands of wind power generators at their Litchfield, MN; Portland, OR; Shreveport, LA; and Washington, PA service centers, including authorized repair for Leroy Somer, ABB, VEM, and GE Energy. TRICO TCWIND’s dedicated wind power field service repair teams and attention to detail is unrivaled in the industry. They are a preferred distributor for many premium lines of products for the wind industry, including Kluber Grease and Oils, Morgan AM&T brushes and brush holders, Zero-Max Couplings, and AEGIS Grounding Rings. TRICO TCWIND | Booth 4120

Installation of wind turbines

KR Wind is an international crane company that specializes in the installation of wind turbines. They have erected more than 6000 wind turbines in all corners of the globe and possess both the expertise and capacity to deal with any task. KR Wind functions as a joint venture company, established in 2002, and offers turnkey solutions ranging from turbine logistics, erection, installation, and services of wind turbines. KR Wind’s core competence consists of a mobile special unit of hand-picked employees, all with specialist knowledge from the wind turbine industry. They have their own crane fleet, which is the largest in the field and consists of new and wellmaintained 600-800T crawler and truck mounted lattice boom cranes, developed and configured specifically for wind turbine erection in cooperation with leading crane manufacturers. KR Wind has its offices in USA, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, Germany, and Denmark. They cover the rest of the world via Mammoet’s, which has approximately 60 branch offices distributed globally. With a strong presence in the global market, especially in North America, KR Wind is ideally geared to offering customers professional and competitive solutions. KR Wind | Booth 5309 50

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Electrical products for wind energy projects

Border States Electric (BSE), one of the largest electrical distributors in the US, provides products for all phases of wind energy projects: turbine and tower components, collector system products, and substation and transmission lines. BSE’s experience team provides take-offs, substation packaging, material management, logistical support, and project closeout. The company’s extensive branch network provides instant access to a broad inventory of reliable, high-quality, and competitively priced products, alleviating long lead times. In addition, BSE can stage and store wind energy project materials at either the customer’s location or theirs. Border States Electric Booth 1813

Problem-solving products for wind industry

Ferraz Shawmut has offered circuit protection for industry and the electrical market for more than 100 years. Now the company is bringing its knowledge and technical expertise to the wind power industry, with a complete line of problem-solving products. A worldwide supplier of current-limiting fuses and accessories for overcurrent and overvoltage protection, Ferraz Shawmut products ensure the security of electrical components, systems, and the people who use them. A wide range of products are available for the nacelle, utility, and tower base, including gS Class NH fuses, Fingersafe Power Distribution Blocks (FSPDB) Time-delay Class J Fuses (AJT), Erated medium voltage current-limiting power fuses and more. In addition Ferraz Shawmut demonstrates an ongoing commitment to critical research in electrical safety, to help increase effectiveness, simplify applications, and enhance productivity. Ferraz Shawmut Booth 4536

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Wind turbine engineering

AMSC Windtec designs a variety of wind turbines from 650 kW to 10 MW for both on-shore and off-shore use, and licenses those designs to third-party wind turbine manufacturers. Leveraging AMSC Windtec’s proven designs, training, and localization and supply chain management services, manufacturers can begin commercial production of wind turbines in as little as 12 months to take advantage of the rapidly growing wind power industry. AMSC Windtec is now working with more than a dozen turbine manufacturers around the world, from China to the Czech Republic and Canada. AMSC Windtec also provides complete wind turbine electrical systems. Based on American Superconductor’s (AMSC) PowerModule power converter, these systems provide DC to AC power conversion, control the operation of the entire wind turbine, and monitor its performance with an advanced SCADA and Condition Monitoring System. Windtec is a subsidiary of AMSC. AMSC Windtech Booth 3516

Flash Technology Ad.indd 1

2/8/09 10:03 AM

Liberty wind turbine

First placed into full commercial production at year-end 2006, Clipper Windpower has now produced some 1,000 MW of its 2.5 MW Liberty Wind Turbine. The company brought a new, unique wind turbine onto the marketplace, while establishing its 330,000-square-foot manufacturing plant in Iowa from scratch. As the largest wind turbine built in the US, the Liberty has rotor diameters ranging from 89m to 100m. The turbine includes features such as variable speed technology, low-voltage ride-through, and four MegaFlux permanent magnet generators—a departure from previous models deployed since the modern wind energy industry began in the early 1980’s. Liberty wind turbines are currently being deployed in projects throughout the US, including Minnesota, Iowa, Texas, New York, Kansas, and California. Clipper Windpower, Inc. Booth 2133


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EPC services

Michels offers complete EPC (Engineer, Procure, Construct) services to the wind industry. Across North America, Michels is a BOP contractor that selfperforms civil, wind turbine erections and wiring, complete substations, collection systems, transmission and distribution work, fiber optics and foundations. Comprehensive HSE & QA/QC and project management support with experienced personnel help us execute projects safely and on time. Michels | Booth 4933

Brush solutions for wind turbines

Morgan AM & T will be presenting their National brush solutions, engineered specifically for the wind turbine market. Premature brush failures are very costly in labor, equipment, and loss of turbine producing power time. The National product line has been engineered for environmental specific applications needed to support global wind turbine requirements, and consists of grades of material specifically designed to handle variations in humidity, temperature range, excessive vibration, and all conditions found in the nacelle, along with performance improvements that yield brush life three to four times some OEM designs. Morgan AM & T | Booth 4808

Adhesives for wind turbine assembly

ITW Plexus offers specialized adhesives for the assembly of wind blades, nacelle assemblies, lightning suppression systems, and repair work throughout the wind energy market. These GLapproved adhesives require little or no surface preparation and cure at room temperature, eliminating the need for costly heated fixtures or secondary curing ovens. The adhesives are supplied in cartridges for field repair and small assembly, as well as in five-gallon and fifty-gallon containers for larger applications. As a manufacturer of adhesives, Plexus offers answers to bonding and dispensing needs. ITW Plexus | North American Clean Energy

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The Port of Menominee, owned by KK Integrated Logistics, is perfectly suited to help wind energy companies save time, money and headaches. Because weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re privately held, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s naturally in our best interest to put the customer first. With us, you get an expert workforce providing the best discharge times on the Great Lakes. All with no overtime, holiday or minimum hour charges to you. We have customized stevedoring equipment, over 50 acres of lay down space on site and relationships with the best carriers in the business. When you add it all up, KKIL is more than just a port. Weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re your total logistics connection.












Privately-Owned Means Lower Cost And Quick Response 50+ Acres On-Site Lay-Down Area Expert Workforce Excellent Safety Record

KK Integrated Logistics has managed the logistics for numerous wind energy projects throughout the Midwest region. Put our expertise to work for you!

Customized Stevedoring Equipment To Meet Customersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Needs Driver / Escort Accommodations

Warehousing Stevedoring Shipping Trucking ÂŽ


Menominee, Michigan










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Enclosures with CE Conformity CertiďŹ cation

Fibox ARCA JIC enclosures have gained CE Conformity Certification. Seeking third party certification, Fibox selected SGS FIMKO to perform CE conformity assessment of its ARCA enclosure family. ARCA enclosures were tested and certified to comply with the European Communityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Low Voltage Directive, and may bear the CE mark. The CE Mark is recognized worldwide and CE Conformity is required for importation of electrical equipment into the European Community. ARCA enclosures achieved ingress ratings of IP66 / IP67 and an impact rating of IK09. ARCA enclosures are also UL Listed and NEMA rated Type 4, 4X, 12, and 13. The ARCA family consists of 10 standard JIC enclosure sizes from 6 x 6 x 4" to 18 x 16 x 10" D. Fibox | Booth 4112

Quality Control Program

Turn Energy Maintenance has announced they are in the process of implementing an ISO 9001 Quality Control Program to enhance their O&M & Technician service capabilities. The company is also seeking OSHAS 18000 Safety and ISO 14000 Environmental certifications, and hopes to achieve full certification for all areas before the end of the year. ISO stands for International Organization for Standardization and is the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest developer and publisher of International. To the best of the companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s knowledge, Turn Energy Maintenance is the first O&M/Technician provider to implement ISO 9001 standards within the wind industry. Prospective and existing customers consistently communicate a justifiable concern over quality control measures in regards to third party execution of O&M & Technician services. The primary intent of this initiative is to directly address these concerns and offer piece of mind to customers. Turn Energy Maintenance Booth 1743

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Horizontal machining capabilities

HPM has a 400,000Ft2 (37,161M2) facility on 81 acres (32.8 hectares) located in central Ohio, with easy access to all major intrastate highways and a CSX rail system with a private rail spur that comes into their main assembly bay. Their large tonnage cranes, high ceilings, and wide bays allow them to handle the large hubs and bases, and other fabricated parts efficiently. HPM operates in a true production mode, rather than as a job shop. HPM currently has horizontal machining capabilities to support a part envelope of 192" (4877mm) (V) x 360" (9144mm) (H), with a lifting capacity of 150 tons (136 M/Ton). For heavy fabrication, their burn tables can flame cut steel plate up to 10.5" (267mm). Their full-service weld and forming shop can handle fabrications up to 100 tons (91 M/Ton), and their assembly bays have 150 ton (136 M/Ton) lifting capacity, with 72 feet (21.9 meter) under hook making them ideal for assembly and sub-assembly work. HPM America, LLC | Booth 2338

Planning and development of wind farms

Garrad Hassan has been at the forefront of the wind energy sector for more than two decades, advising on more wind farm developments than any other company in the world. Effective planning, monitoring, optimization, and development of wind farms are all reliant upon advanced data collection and analysis. Garrad Hassan utilizes its expertise to develop innovative software products that ensure maximum efficiency during all project stages. Garrad Hassan products includeâ&#x20AC;Ś GH SCADA: A web-based data acquisition, control, and monitoring solution for onshore and offshore wind farms that allows users to specify what to display, control, record and report, independent of any manufacturer or turbine type. GH WindFarmer: A wind farm design and optimization tool with an intuitive interface and self-learning tutorials for onshore and offshore wind farms. GH Bladed: The industry standard solution for conducting performance and load calculations to inform the design and certification of onshore and offshore wind turbines. Garrad Hassan Booth 2328



15 No. oth

Copper compression connectors ILSCO has reinvented the compression category with a new ClearChoiceR solution. SureCrimpR copper compression connectors reduce inventory requirements by accepting multiple conductor classes, including fine stranded and building wire. UL listed, CSA certified, and range taking when installed with approved tools and dies. Circumferential dies produce a tight crimp profile for greater pull-out strength. The increased contact area reduces resistance and eliminates the potential for flash. ILSCO | Booth 4115 North American Clean Energy

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Geo-support Systems

Electro-mechanical equipment repair

Con-Tech Systems supplies Geo-support Systems to anchor wind turbine tower foundations and power line towers. They offer strand, solid bar, and fibreglass anchors, as well as the CTS/TITAN Hollow Bar IBO system. The latter is particularly well suited for power line towers in all ground conditions, specifically in sandy and gravelly soils where it offers substantial advantages over conventional systems. Con-Tech Systems back all of their products through ongoing development and technical service to clients. Con-Tech Systems is developing a piled foundation alternative for turbine tower foundations, and are working together with an engineering partner, preparing for Germanische Lloyd certification.

Magnetech Industrial Services, Inc. and its 3-D Service division, which offers repair and maintenance of commercial and industrial electro-mechanical equipment, have announced the expansion of their wind power service capabilities to include pitch control slip ring repair. Their complete pitch control slip ring service includes initial testing, cleaning, part replacement, re-lubrication, and final testing. Magnetech also provides up-tower and in-shop wind power service for all brands of wind turbine equipment including comprehensive inspections, filter and lubricant replacement, bearing and slip ring replacement, coupling and gearbox service, balancing and alignment, predictive maintenance, arc flash analysis and training, and equipment repair and remanufacturing.

Con-Tech Systems Ltd. | Booth 3974

Magnetech Industrial Services, Inc. | Booth 2748



INCLUDING: N site evaluation N environmental permitting N air and noise modeling N visual and shadow ¾icker assessments N criteria selection



background measurements compliance testing litigation support greenhouse gas analyses

Slip systems for wind turbine generator protection

In wind power plants, electrical circuit problems are known to cause short-term torque peaks. In this event, slip clutches protect the costly gearbox against overload by slipping at a defined maximum torque to temporarily interrupt the drive. The slip process takes place not on the generator shaft surface, but inside the CENTA Torque Hub, which is mounted on the generator shaft in the coupling’s clamping set. CENTA’s latest development in slip systems, CENTA Torque Set, now positions the slip unit to the middle section of the shaft. By relocating the slip function, manufacturing tolerances at the generator shaft no longer cause variations in the slip torque, resulting in improved accuracy of the slip function. Another advantage of the new design is the slip system is made to be premounted as a complete unit. The maximum torque is set on a certified test bench according to the manufacturer’s requirements and documented in a test report, eliminating the need for on-site adjustments. The low-maintenance slip system is also designed to allow for multiple slip processes (> 200) without having a major impact on the slip torque setting. The new slip system can also be provided as a low-cost system component which does not include the coupling unit. CENTA |


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Merit shop green energy design-builder

Fagen, Inc. is one of the largest and most respected merit shop green energy design-builders in the US. Utilizing a database of over 20,000 civil, mechanical, and electrical direct-hire employees, Fagen, Inc. has successfully constructed 60% of the ethanol production capacity in the US. Currently, Fagen, Inc. is performing work on four major power projects, and has just finished work constructing thirty three 1.5 MW GE wind turbines. Fagen, Inc. is prepared to meet industrial demand growth with a large inventory of cranes, including several Manitowoc 18000s, and the largest CAT fleet in the Midwest. The unmatched standard for quality, safety and service has led Fagen, Inc. to be listed in the top 30 largest contractors in the US. Fagen, Inc. | Booth 4850

Investing in wind power projects

By the end of 2008, Spain had more than 16,740 MW of installed capacity, and is on track to achieve the government’s target goal of 20,000 MW in capacity by 2010. Currently, Spain is the world’s third largest producer of wind power, serving as a guide for other countries developing and investing in wind power projects. Spanish companies that already have a significant footprint in the US, include: Iberdrola Renewables—which invested $1.4 billion in wind power in the first nine months of 2008. Of the 780 MW of total capacity installed in the US, 56% of it was installed by Iberdrola. New wind farms were recently completed Illinois, Iowa, and Oregon. Gamesa, is a wind turbine manufacturer with three plants in Pennsylvania, supplying systems for wind farms across the country. Acciona Energy has six operational wind farms in North America (three in the US), with a total capacity of 402 MW. Trade Commission of Spain | Booth: Spain´s Pavilion

Industrial rescue certification

Ten members of the Carstensen Contracting wind division have completed Industrial Rescue Certification, and all field employees have completed a 30-hour OSHA training course and are now certified in First Aid, CPR, and AED. The Industrial Rescue Certification is an intensive three-day training course put on by SynTech Safety Solutions, involving a variety of mock drills. Participants put together emergency rescue plans for incidents that might occur at the top of a tower, inside or outside the nacelle, and at other areas around the site. They also practice high angle rescues to recover people from those locations and bring them down the tower safely. Since 1980, CCI has built a reputation as a company that offers quality construction and innovative thinking. Their wind energy services include general contracting, foundation design and construction, civil design and construction, tower and turbine installation, electrical design and installation, and building construction. Carstensen Contracting Booth 1117

Aviation obstruction lighting system

Flash Technology, a division of SPX Corporation, announced the availability of the FTB 360i, the most advanced LED L-864 type aviation obstruction lighting system available for the wind energy market. Flash Technology developed the FTB 360i in response to customer interviews, which revealed a need for a tightly focused light beam, status indicators to convey real-time operating information, and an efficient, compact design for easy installation and longer life. The FTB 360i addresses each of these needs, and offers exceptional operating performance compared to similar products currently on the market. The innovative LED light engine and patented optics used in the FTB 360i were developed in conjunction with Dialight plc, a supplier of advanced LED technology for various lighting applications. The patented optics for the FTB 360i generate a true 3° beam of light, producing the lowest amount of ground scatter of any ETL certified and FAA compliant lighting. The focused beam makes the FTB 360i the most community friendly obstruction light on the market. Flash Technology | SPX Corporation | | Booth 4072 North American Clean Energy

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Reliable gear solutions

Fairfield Manufacturing offers well-engineered, highly reliable gear solution to ensure the delivery of clean energy that customers demand. With Fairfield gear solutions, expect the following: 1. Reliability; quality products with continual performance and durability, using proven designs and processes. 2. Engineering; a collaborative approach that yields the best gear design. 3. Precision; high-quality gear manufacturing capability including precision ground tooth. 4. Experience; over 90 years of gear and drive system expertise. 5. Support; a global presence that can reach anywhere in the world. Fairfield Manufacturing | Booth 4127

Gearbox filter to improve wind turbine performance

Volkswind, a pioneer wind farm developer in Germany and a leading European Independent Power Producer, comes to North America. Experience. Quality. Long-term thinking. We capture the wind for the people.

Volkswind USA Inc. Tel: +1 503 560 9379 Fax: +1 503 445 1572

Donaldson, a manufacturer of filtration solutions, has engineered a revolutionary new gearbox filter to improve wind turbine performance, the new DT-1300R Element. Gearbox wear and malfunction are two of the primary concerns in wind turbine maintenance. Donaldson’s DT-1300R gearbox filter helps reduce those maintenance concerns, saving time and money. The DT-1300R uses patented, breakthrough in filter media, Synteq XP. Synteq XP delivers absolute level efficiencies with contaminant-holding capacities beyond that of competitive filters. This increases performance and provides greater protection against wear, improving overall wind turbine performance and productivity.

Developing and building wind power plants

Volkswind belongs to the leading Independent Power Producers in Europe. Their core business is to develop, build, own, and operate renewable energy wind power plants. Established in 1993, Volkswind is not only one of the pioneers in Germany, but was also one of the first movers in potentially strong countries like France, Poland, and the UK. The core of the successful business model involves an impeccable standard of quality, employees with over 200 combined years of project experience—half of which work abroad—and well-established contacts to suppliers and banks. For continuation of their track-record, Volkswind has successfully entered the US market and can already account for a considerable project pipeline. Volkswind USA Inc. Booth 4672

Donaldson Company, Inc. Booth 4512

Utility scale community wind

With 5,500 MW of utility scale community wind projects in development, National Wind is changing the definition of community wind in America. At WINDPOWER, National Wind will be showing participants that a community can effectively own utility scale projects that can not only compete with corporate utility scale projects but also offer unique advantages, which include: helping to keep the proceeds of wind energy in the community, galvanizing strong local support, and giving landowners the opportunity to positively influence the development process. National Wind is known for its ability to develop utility scale (50 MW or larger) community wind energy projects across the upper Midwest and Plain States. National Wind Assessments provides onsite meteorological (met) tower installations, and is a dealer of NRG’s 60 met tower and Composite Tower Solutions 80 met tower. National Wind Booth 1411

See us at WindPower 2009 Booth# 1843 58 2009 Ludeca March Mar Apr /09April Ad.indd 1

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Compression Terminals

FCI-BURNDY Products introduces its new Break-Away HYLUG line of copper and aluminum compression terminals (types YBA, YBA-FX, and YBA-A). The Break-Away HYLUG provides maximum field flexibility by allowing an installer (using the Break-Away feature) to easily convert a two-hole terminal to a one-hole terminal to suit the application. The FCI-BURNDY UL and CSA listed Break-Away HYLUG line of terminals is 90 degree C, 600 volts to 35kV. With a slotted second stud, the Break-Away line of terminals can conform to various bus bar dimensions. For additional flexibility, the Narrow Tongue design allows the terminal to fit into tight spaces. Plus, the Break-Away line of terminals accommodates a wide range of conductor combinations (AWG, Compact, DLO, Flex, and Metric). FCI-BURNDY | | Booth 1008

Wind Tunnel Testing & Anemometer Calibration Services

Environmental, engineering, and construction services

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Tetra Tech, at the forefront of the wind energy industry, is the only firm in the US that provides a full range of environmental, engineering, and construction services for all phases of a wind energy development project. The company has experience from more than 200 wind projects in 34 states. Environmental services include due diligence, preliminary siting, GIS applications, biological/cultural resource studies, environmental review and permitting, and public involvement. Engineering services include conceptual design, detailed design, geotechnical and seismic studies and design, surveying, and constructability reviews. Tetra Tech has the financial strength to stand behind large EPC, BOP, and other construction projects—providing project management, procurement, electrical and erection field services, construction management, safety planning and training, and environmental compliance. Tetra Tech | Booth 1510

North American Clean Energy is published 6 times a year. To subscribe, go to

ÜÜÜ°œÌiV…܈˜`°Vœ“ Visit us at WindPower 2009 Booth #4516

North American Clean Energy

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Wind tunnel testing and calibration services


Otech Engineering, Inc. provides wind tunnel testing and calibration services for wind measuring instruments (anemometers). The company was founded in 1981 as a consulting service specializing in wind energy resource assessment. In the mid-1980s, Otech began calibrating anemometers as part of internal quality control measures applied to wind resource assessment. At Otech, anemometer testing and calibration is performed in ISO/IEC 17025:2005 accredited wind tunnel laboratories. Currently, Otech manages two open circuit wind tunnels. Some rotating anemometers tested at Otech include the NRG #40, NRG IceFree, RM Young Propeller, RM Young Wind Monitor, Thies 1st Class, Riso P2546A, Vector A100LK, Vaisala WAA252, and Met One 010C and 014A. Sonic anemometers tested include the Gill WindObserver, Vaisala WS425, FT702LT, and Climatronics 102751. Otech Engineering, Inc. Booth 4516

Anyone can do the job. We ensure the job gets done right. At Turn Energy Maintenance, we feel high quality, professional O&M and technician services define us. That’s why Turn Energy Maintenance is the wind industry’s first O&M provider to seek ISO 9001 certification. This esteemed, international standard guarantees the highest quality management practices available. And because a great company should possess great responsibility, we’re also seeking ISO environmental1 and OHSAS safety2 certifications. Make Turn Energy your O&M and technician services provider, and rest assured. We’ll do the job right. To find out more about our ISO quality systems and discuss your project needs, please call (512) 457-0374 or e-mail Come meet us in our expanded booth at this year’s Windpower Show In Chicago. Booth #2806.

Access equipment and training

Wind Access Engineering is a provider of access equipment and training to the Wind Energy Industry. The company’s main focus is getting customers to the areas they need to access in order to perform their work safely and efficiently. Whether rentals or purchased equipment is needed, Wind Access Engineering has the knowledge to address access issues whether large or small. Wind Access Engineering can provide anything from a small basket to a large platform for all uses, from inspections to complicated repairs. Wind Access Engineering has qualified personnel to provide all levels of safety training to keep the jobsite safe and compliant with all governing authorities. They have offices in Chicago; Dallas, Texas; and Lomira, Wisconsin. Wind Access Engineering Booth 4301

Peace of mind. Guaranteed. Execute.



2 IS SO 14001 Environme onmental ntal Qua Quality lity S Sys ystem te OHSAS 18001 Safetyy Qual uality ity Syst System © Co Copyri pyright g 2009 Turn Energy Mainten Maintena ance nce, LLC. LL All rights re reserv served ed.



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North American Clean Energy is published 6 times a year. To subscribe, go to

3/11/09 1:41 PM

Electric, digital read-out torque wrench

With Eastern Pneumatic & Hydraulics’ new Tower Master, the residual torque value for each and every bolt rundown is logged and saved. Simply download the results to your laptop or desktop computer. This tool makes the job easier, faster, and more accurate, since each rundown is monitored by a transducerized tool. Eastern Pneumatic & Hydraulics | Booth 1309

Environmental assessments and permitting applications

Operating its LEED Platinum global headquarters on 100% renewable energy, Ecology and Environment, Inc., (E & E) is a company that practices what it preaches. The firm brings this philosophy to all of its clients’ projects; to date, this includes more than 200 wind energy development facilities across the US and internationally for major wind energy developers. To meet the growing global demand for renewable energy, E & E forms project teams from its 85+ disciplines, which work together to conduct environmental assessments, prepare environmental documentation and permit applications, perform due diligence assessments, and identify state and federal compliance issues concerning facility operations for wind energy projects. These specialized teams conduct biological surveys and avian and bat risk assessments; perform land use, visual, and noise studies; and provide the environmental engineering needed to get the projects on line. Ecology and Environment, Inc. Booth 1523

Need a Gear Solution?

Turn to Fairfield… A Global Leader in Gears and Drives If you need a well-engineered, highly reliable Fairfield gear solution to ensure e you’re delivering the clean energy performance your customers demand. We provide: Reliability ■ Quality products with continual performance and durability using proven designs and processes. Engineering ■ A collaborative approach that yields the best solution. Precision ■ High quality gear manufacturing capability including precision finish grinding. Experience ■ Over 90 years of gear and drive system expertise. Support ■ A global presence that can reach anywhere in the world.

Wind resource assessment

Meteodyn is a worldwide consulting company, gathering experienced experts in wind engineering. Meteodyn WT CFD software is dedicated to an accurate wind resource assessment, even on the most complex terrains. With Meteodyn WT, get all the wind characteristics required to optimize the met mat siting and wind production forecast. The company’s new software UrbaWind offers small wind assessment solutions to assess wind production in urban areas. Meteodyn helps reduce uncertainties, making the right decisions for all wind energy projects. Meteodyn | Booth 3249

Oerlikon Fairfield Meeting today’s green energy challenges.

Tel: 765.772.4000

Gear & Drive Solutions North American Clean Energy

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Data analysis software for wind energy

Mistaya Engineering Inc.’s Windographer is a software program that has revolutionized data analysis within the wind energy industry. Analysts use Windographer to examine wind data collected by meteorological towers, SoDAR, or LiDAR systems. One of the most noteworthy benefits of Windographer is its ability to quickly decipher enormous amounts of data over various periods of time. Windographer specializes in producing fast, graphical reports that reveal patterns in wind speed, wind shear, turbulence intensity, wind power density, and more. It also allows users to find and fix problems in the data set, and to calculate wind turbine energy production. Mistaya Engineering Inc. | Booth 5415

Pitch and yaw drives for wind industry


CANADIAN WIND ENERGY ASSOCIATION ANNUAL CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION TORONTO, ONTARIO, SEPTEMBER 20-23, 2009 Join Canadian and global industry leaders at Canada’s largest renewable energy conference. Canada’s rapidly expanding wind energy industry is well positioned for growth. More than 2,000 delegates and 225 exhibitors will come together for CanWEA’s Annual Conference and Exhibition to explore the infinite possibilities of wind energy.


Learn more about the infinite possibilities of wind energy

Promote your company and network with global industry leaders

Maximize visibility and position your company as an industry leader

Infinite Possibilities 62

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ABM DRIVES INC. Booth 1551



For more information, please visit our website:

ABM DRIVES INC., a full line manufacturer of industrial AC induction motors, brake motors, and geared motors, will be presenting pitch and yaw drives purposebuilt for the wind industry. Pitch and yaw planetary gearboxes can be combined with specifically designed AC induction motors or exceptionally powerful and efficient SINOCHRON AC permanent magnet motors. Patented SINOCHRON Motors combine high performance, minimal investments, and low operating cost to a trend-setting symbiosis. ABM can show how to save money and improve product performance.

Engineering, planning, and surveying services

Ulteig Engineers creates sustainable, cost-effective, and environmentally sound communities by delivering a comprehensive combination of engineering, planning, and surveying services. Ulteig is driven to support emerging renewable and sustainable energy solutions by offering energy, building, and land services, and civil expertise to clients. Since founding in 1944, the company has focused on electrical engineering, transmission and distribution services, overhead and underground collection systems, substation design, and right-of-way and land acquisition services. A 100% employee-owned company, Ulteig will continue to deliver innovative services to support the world’s changing energy needs. Ulteig | Booth 4921

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CONFERENCE + EXHIBITION held annually in the world taking place at the

McCormick Place Convention Center CHICAGO, ILLINOIS MAY 4 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 7, 2009 Recently recognized as one of the top 50 fastest-growing shows in North America, WINDPOWER 2009 is expecting another record-breaking year of over 800 exhibitors and over 13,000 attendees. Come experience the excitement with leaders of the wind industry and take advantage of all the growth opportunities at the largest wind conference and exhibition held annually in the world.

North American Clean Energy

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geothermal energy

Part II:

The Price of Geothermal Power By Guy Nelson


he Geothermal Resources Council (GRC), a 501 (c) 3 educational association, provides information on market pricing for geothermal power and how that price can be structured to attract utilities. The January/February issue of North American Clean Energy contained an article focused on development costsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the costs to get a plant sited, constructed, and put on line. This article described four stages, which impact the costs and include: 1. Exploration and resource assessment 2. Well drilling and development 3. Power plant, surface facilities, and transmission construction 4. Other activities related to development The economics of these stages added up to an estimated $4000/kW. The GRC has determined that the price a geothermal power plant developer can offer to a utility in a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) largely depends on the above four stages, as well as three other factors discussed below: 5. Financing charges 6. Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs 7. Resource credits

Financing charges

Financing charges are mainly affected by the amount of upfront capital needed to cover the first two development stages: exploration and resource assessment, and well drilling and development. They are also affected by the timeline of these two stages, as well as the loan terms that allow a developer to repay the upfront costs and finance the remaining development stages. These costs are generally not financed by utilities, banks, or other lending institutions, but rather by venture and equity capital or in-house reserves. A high return, typically 15% to 25%, is needed to cover the high risk associated with these two development stages. Investors correctly interpret geothermal investments as high risk due to historical delays in getting projects sited, developed, and on line. For example, exploration at the Glass Mountain Known Geothermal Resource Area in Northern California began over 20 years agoâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;and there is still no power plant located there. For the purposes of discussion, a weighted average return of 18% is assumed over a four-year period. Different types of utilities and lending institutions have varying interest rates and terms. For instance, a developer can compare two scenarios: 10% and 15 years (representing bank financing), and 6% and 30 years (representing utility financing). Each scenario assumes the plant life is the same as the loan term, and there is no salvage value to the plant afterwards. Zero salvage value may be a harsh assumption; however, in 15 years, technology may have advanced to where the existing plant would need significant upgrading to take advantage of any higher conversion efficiencies that arise. If these two scenarios cover the boundaries of reality, a developer would expect to pay $48 to $87 per mWhr for the project financing, assuming a 92% plant factor. O&M costs

Fuel costs for geothermal power plants are insignificant. These expenses are costs for steam field management and geothermal fluid impacts on equipment. These costs are covered in the power plant design expenses, as well as in operation and maintenance costs. O&M costs include those charges for employment salary and benefits, equipment replacement reserves, utilities, and administration. Most of the new geothermal power plants coming on line are going to be closed-loop, air-cooled, binary cycle plants. These O&M costs are assumed to be lower than the typical plant, and at a level of about $15 per mWhr. 64

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Resource credits

Geothermal power and other renewable resources may use rapid depreciation or other incentives, such as the Production Tax Credit (PTC) and Renewable Energy Credits (REC), to reduce final costs to supply the output to the market. Other incentives, such as pollution credits, may apply in the future. The bottom line

Taking into consideration the development, financing, and O&M costs, a typical geothermal developer can expect to charge a utility $63 to $102 per mWhr for the plant output, excluding any reduction due to resource credits. Charges could fall outside this range, or higher, due to several factors. One factor is the local, regional, national, and global competition for commodities such as steel, cement, and construction equipment. Another factor is the ability to lay out a realistic project schedule and then meet it. Any project delays are costly, especially on the front end as the first two development stages have a higher rate of return on investment than the next two stages. The GRC recognizes that more projects will come on line and within budget if adequate time and effort is spent on using reliable developers and technologies, assessing the adequacy of the geothermal field, managing the field, meeting permit and regulatory schedules and requirements, and acquiring reliable PPAs and transmission paths. Guy Nelson is the team lead of the Utility Geothermal Working Group, which provides energy education and training for utilities. The training focuses on all aspects of the utility business, including resource acquisition, transmission, distribution, power operations, billing, marketing, and rate design. The Geothermal Resources Council (GRC)

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DRILLING ThermaSource Drilling engineer and project management company ThermaSource is currently drilling in Klamath Falls, Oregon, on Oregon Institute of Technology’s (OIT) campus. OIT is developing the geothermal resource for electric power generation, which will make the campus the world’s first to have all of its energy needs met using geothermal energy. OIT’s total well depth is between 3,000 and 6,000 feet, depending upon the quality of the resource. ThermaSource is proud to be the drilling contractor at OIT, as it is a great sign of OIT’s commitment to renewable energy, which should inspire similar geothermal/renewable energy projects around the world.



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POWER Engineers POWER Engineers is an employee-owned, consulting engineering firm specializing in energy, facilities, and communications. POWER’s expertise covers the gamut of project development support, permitting, Owner’s Engineering, design engineering, and electrical testing for power plants, substations and switchyards, and transmission and distribution. Founded in 1976, POWER has offices across the country and overseas, offering worldwide expertise in renewable energy design and consultation. Geothermal, wind, solar, and waste-fired thermal plants: POWER has recently been responsible for the complete design of more than 550 MW of renewable capacity—working on projects all over the world.


Atlas Copco Available in America for the first time is the Atlas Copco Mustang 4-F1, a down-the-hole, track-mounted rig that is compact and equipped with everything needed for drilling geothermal holes. Mustang 4-F1 can reach where others can’t, such as a basement of a high-rise or a fenced-in back yard. It makes its way around landscaping with minimal disturbance. Cuttings are blown directly into a waste container, reducing debris. Mustang 4-F1 has a Tier 3 Deutz diesel engine with low fuel consumption. The quiet-running compressor puts out 350 psi, 700 cfm air, and the lubricating system allows adequate lubrication of the DTH hammer, keeping the risk of soil pollution down. The Mustang can drill down to 490 feet and runs up to 125 rpm with torque of up to 4,200 foot pounds. With a pull length of 12.8 feet, the rotation unit can effortlessly lift the drill string up. 66


Cryostar Cryostar is an international company, part of the Linde group, specialized in cryogenic rotating machinery equipment for industrial gas, natural gas, and biogas liquefaction plant. Based on this experience and on the trend to produce clean energy, Cryostar has recently expanded its activities with the development of its Lo-C (low carbon) products line, and is now offering expertise for CO2 free power generation (pressure-let-down, geothermal, waste heat recovery) with a full range of turbo expanders. Its installed base comprises of over 130 radial inflow turbines and more than 60 MW installed over the world, including 20 machines on a natural gas distribution network. For instance, in Unterhaching geothermal project (Germany), Cryostar has played a role supplying a TG-500 expansion turbine—capable of producing up to 3.7 MW of electricity—adapted to the Kalina-based power plant cycle. In Soultz-sous-Forêts (France), Cryostar also supplied a TG-400 for the Hot Dry Rock

ORC project, capable of producing 2.5 MW electricity. Those turbines were adapted from the existing Cryostar range of turbogenerators. Cryostar also provides geothermal turnkey power plants based on ORC process. Fuji Electric Fuji Electric is a manufacturer of highly efficient and reliable steam turbines, generators, and related services for the geothermal industry.

Mafi-Trench Company Mafi-Trench Company serves the geothermal industry by providing expander generators for efficient and reliable power generation. MTCs turboexpanders are used for process and energy recovery applications including geothermal, pressure letdown, and waste heat recovery. Mafi-Trench expander generators are typically used in geothermal binary cycle plants utilizing Rankine or Kalina cycle applications. These high-efficiency machines are used to produce from 1 to 15 MW per unit.

RigKits LLC RigKits offers customers the ability to assemble their own drilling equipment without spending hundreds of thousands of dollars. With the best combination of power and performance, each rig has the capability of drilling with augers, casings, and down-the-hole hammer rock drills up to 14 inches. The K40 Geothermal Drilling Rig is capable of drilling 5-inch holes to 600ft deep and is able to drill 30 degrees side to side. RigKits offers a onestop-shop in geothermal drilling equipment for new comers to the industry.

Rittal Corporation The Rittal Corporation, US subsidiary of Rittal GmbH & Co. KG, manufactures industrial & IT enclosures, racks and accessories, including efficient climate control and power management systems for industrial, data center, outdoor, and hybrid applications. All of Rittal’s customizable enclosures and system solutions are intelligently engineered and built with the strength and flexibility to meet the rigors of the evolving geothermal industry.

Stork H&E Turbo Blading Stork H&E Turbo Blading is the world’s largest ISO 9001 approved, independent turbo blading manufacturer. They have over 30 years of experience supplying utilities, OEM’s, and overhaul facilities with top-quality replacement blading. The company manufactures replacement blading for all OEM and aftermarket model geothermal steam turbines, as well as all gas turbine compressor blades, vanes, buckets, rotors, stators, and guide vanes. They save time and money without sacrificing quality or delivery.

Vooner FloGard Corporation Vooner offers conical port 316 stainless steel liquid ring vacuum pumps for removing noncondensable gases from geothermal condensers. The V4 Series’ of single stage liquid ring vacuum pumps, with capacities to 13,000 ACFM, are available in stainless steel construction for geothermal condenser service. All Vooner pumps are bolt-in replacements for 904 Series pumps, and every pump is performance tested to HEI standards in Charlotte, NC. Rigorous quality control inspections and performance tests guarantee that each Vooner pump

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ENGINEERING Tetra Tech Tetra Tech is at the forefront of the renewable energy market and has experienced remarkable growth as a result of their integrated environmental, engineering, and construction approach. Tetra Tech’s financial strength, expertise, and depth of resources enable them to provide comprehensive and integrated services to support any size geothermal project. National competence and local delivery means they are able to mobilize and support siting, permitting, designing, and construction of geothermal facilities throughout the US. Tetra Tech’s geothermal industry experts have worked on some of the earliest geothermal development projects in the country. They continue to provide a comprehensive line of services for the development of geothermal generation facilities and smaller scale combined heat and power plant geothermal solutions. Experience of geothermal developmental services include: environmental assessments, documentation, and field studies. Tetra Tech also provided support for the joint Bureau of Land Management and US Forest Service Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. matches the capacity and power consumption shown on our performance curves. In 1983, Vooner was founded to supply lower cost “bolt in replacement” vacuum pumps to replace industry standard products.

EXPLORATION & SITE ASSESSMENT Sierra Geothermal Power Corp. Sierra Geothermal Power Corp. (SGP) is a Vancouver-based renewable energy company focused on the exploration and development of clean, sustainable geothermal power. It is listed on the TSX Venture exchange under the symbol SRA. With over 365km2 (90,000 acres) of geothermal properties in Nevada and California, SGP’s projects have a combined total estimated capacity of 500 MW. The company intends to advance the development of its portfolio of projects through a combination of equity and/or joint ventures.

FINANCE & INVESTING Corix Utilities Corix is committed to sustainable energy, a practical, efficient choice that is good for the environment and long-term health of communities. It makes excellent economic sense as well—sustainable energy is a great investment. Corix offers alternatives to using fossil fuels or electrical energy for heat, hot water, and cooling such as geoexchange, biomass, and district energy systems. Corix can work with municipalities, communities, and developers to provide the best source of sustainable energy.

24/7 - 365 days a year Geothermal Energy Doesn’t Stop ThermaSource = Geothermal. As a worldwide leader in geothermal drilling and consulting, ThermaSource provides the necessary expertise and services to developers interested in the discovery and development of geothermal resources for power generation and direct use applications. is an information and news website and blog, providing posts on industry news such as deals, project, and international development. It also provides analysis on issues related to geothermal development and the industry.


Drill Rig Operations • Drilling Engineering • Geothermal Economics • Field Supervision Project Management • Resource Assessment • Well Testing Cementing • Drilling Fluids • EGS Exploration • Well Logging

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POWER PLANT POWER DESIGN Ormat Technologies, Inc. Ormat Technologies, Inc. is the only vertically integrated company primarily engaged in the geothermal and recovered energy power business. The company designs, develops, owns, and operates geothermal and recovered energy based power plants around the world. Additionally, the company designs, manufactures, and sells geothermal and recovered energy power units and other power-generating equipment, and it provides related services. Ormat Technologies has more than four decades of experience in the development of environmentally sound power, primarily in geothermal and recovered-energy generation. Ormat products and systems are covered by more than 75 US patents. Ormat current generating portfolio includes the following geothermal and recovered energy based power plants: in the US: Brady, Heber, Mammoth, Ormesa, Puna, Steamboat, and OREG 1; in Guatemala: Zunil and Amatitlan; in Kenya: Olkaria; in Nicaragua: Momotombo; and in New Zealand: GDL.


Hemmera Hemmera provides planning, engineering, and earth science services for geoexchange and geothermal systems. As a leading renewable energy and environmental consulting firm, it has completed dozens of geoexchange-related projects across Canada and the US. Hemmera has experience in institutional, commercial, and residential geoexchange projects, working

closely with developers, construction firms, energy utilities, institutions, and municipal governments. Hemmera’s team of multidisciplinary experts work to design the most appropriate system for a client’s site-specific needs. They can provide full-scope engineering design for all types of geoexchange systems including surface water, closed-loop borehole, horizontal, and open-loop groundwater. Services include: technical and economic feasibility assessments, greenhouse gas offset analysis, site investigation and testing, design modeling and optimization, mechanical system design construction specifications, construction review, and quality control.

REHAU The new RAUGEO ground loop heat exchange system from REHAU offers a high-efficiency heating and cooling solution by capitalizing on the earth’s ability to provide and store heat energy. Composed of RAUPEX pipe, EVERLOC fittings, PRO-BALANCE manifolds, and a horizontal or vertical loop heat exchanger, it works

as part of a complete geo-exchange system to offer superior energy savings of up to 70%, and can substantially reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Energy savings increase when RAUGEO is used in combination with REHAU’s radiant heating system, which provides superior comfort and efficiency by circulating warm water through a network of infloor pipes that uniformly distribute heat. Both RAUGEO U-bend vertical loop and RAUGEO Collect horizontal loop configurations are offered to accommodate job size and available ground space.


Centennial Plastics, Inc. Geothermal heat pump systems are rapidly becoming the heating and cooling method of choice for residential and commercial buildings across the country. Through understanding, knowledge, and commitment, Centennial Plastics has become a supplier to the Geothermal Exchange industry. Centennial is the first geothermal polyethylene manufacture to receive the new Geothermal Certification from NSF International. This new certification assures engineers and installers that Centennial geothermal piping products used in the Earthloops system are independently tested to meet the stringent material and performance requirements for geothermal applications.

ClimateMaster, Inc. ClimateMaster, Inc. manufactures watersource and geothermal heat pumps, which are considered to be the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly type of air conditioning and heating products available on the market. Headquartered in Oklahoma City, ClimateMaster, Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of LSB Industries, Inc., whose common stock is traded over the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol LXU. 68

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STEEL PIPE DISTRIBUTORS 101 Pipe & Casing, Inc. 101 Pipe & Casing, Inc. is a steel pipe distributor and fabricator specializing in the water well and geothermal well industry. The company threads their own pump column specifically designed for deep geothermal well turbine applications. They also supply all down-hole fabrication, as well as tube and shaft (lube string) in all sizes and pump manufacturer’s specifications.

TurboCare TurboCare provides a wide range of products and services for geothermal applications including refurbished turbines and complete turbine generator set packages. They also up-rate existing turbines, repair damaged equipment, and supply replacement parts. Whether the job involves construction of a new geothermal plant, a re-rate due to a change in resource conditions, a redesign of the turbine blades to withstand harsh geothermal environment, or the replacement of old or damaged parts, TurboCare provides the steam turbine products and services required.


2006, the company acquired “WGP Unit 1” in The Geysers Field in California. The Geysers Field has been a producer of geothermal energy since the early 1960s, and is the largest dry steam field in the world currently producing over 900 MW.

to retrofit. Vela Solaris has recently launched a special version of Polysun, which is tailored for the heat pump and geothermal industry. Polysun Simulation Software offers an efficient and professional way to design renewable energy systems, ranging from solar thermal to photovoltaic, geothermal, and cooling simulation.

SOFTWARE POWER PLANT POWER DESIGN Western GeoPower Corp. Western GeoPower Corp. is a renewable energy company in Vancouver, BC in the geothermal sector. The company currently has two projects under development, in California and in BC, and is actively pursuing additional geothermal prospects in North America and internationally. The “South Meager Geothermal Project” is located in Meager Creek, BC, and, in June

Vela Solaris To design and optimize geothermal heating and cooling systems, Polysun Heatpump Simulation is offering a modular system approach that covers the entire range—from new building design

A.R. Merante Corporation A.R. Merante Corporation is a direct-hire, heavy industrial union contractor, providing design, engineering, construction, and plant maintenance expertise in the areas of power generation, mining/minerals processing, oil/gas/chemical, renewable energy, water and wastewater, marine, food and beverage, and pulp and paper.

Iceland America Energy As a lead developer on several geothermal projects in the US, IAE has the understanding and know-how to successfully develop and manage geothermal projects. IAE has comprehensive in-house experience in all aspects of geothermal development including resource exploration and management, well field development and power plant design, construction, start-up, commissioning and operation.



101 Pipe & Casing has developed a specialized Pump Column that utilizes Geothermal Couplings and threading. Together with our modified Geo Tube & Shaft, 101 Pipe & Casing is able to outfit you with all the down-hole tubular products you need for your geothermal water wells.









GILBERT, AZ 877.585.1101

30101 Agoura Court, Suite 201

10255 Beech Avenue

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Henderson, NV 89074

Albuquerque, NM 87113

Gilbert, AZ 85298

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Raser Technologies Raser Technologies offers modular lowtemperature geothermal power generation. After completing the world's first modular

geothermal plant in Utah, providing power to Anaheim, California, Raser is developing eight additional projects using new technology to unlock the world’s vast low and medium temperature resources. Raser now holds one of the world’s largest geothermal resource portfolios, but also works with property owners to develop and commercialize their resources using Raser’s rapid deployment system.

Wood Group Field Services, Inc. As a member of the Wood Group, Wood Group Field Services, Inc. brings customers a whole spectrum of services. The company performs steam turbine installations, overhauls, and

repairs, including steam-path repairs, turbine rotor repairs, field machining, and laser alignment. Additionally, they provide repairs to balance of plant equipment such as pumps, fans, compressors, etc. Wood Group Field Services’ primary goal is to provide customers a complete turnkey service with incomparable quality workmanship on schedule, efficiently, and safely.

OTHER: EDUCATION Geothermal Energy Association Questions about geothermal energy? The Geothermal Energy Association has issued a new report that will provide the answers. “Geothermal 101: Basics of Geothermal Energy Production and Use,” edited by Leslie Blodgett and Kara Slack of GEA, covers the essentials of geothermal energy from electric power to residential heat pumps. Whether you are an educator, student, policymaker, or industry specialist, this report will serve as a guide to geothermal education. Ever wonder how a geothermal power plant works? Want to know more about how geothermal energy can help reduce global warming? Curious about where geothermal resources are located? This 50-page guide will provide the answers to these and many other questions. It includes 30 charts, tables, maps, and pictures to help readers understand the power behind one of the fastest growing renewable technologies—the power of the earth’s heat. The report is currently available on GEA’s Web site.

The Canadian Geothermal Energy Industry is Heating Up! Attend the CanGEA’s 2009 Goethermal Energy Conference to learn more about business opportunities, the regulatory process and current research in the high temperature geothermal energy section the Canadian Market. The conference will host workshops, presentations, panel discussions and an industry trade show.

April 22-24, 2009 Vancouver, British Columbia

Opening Day Workshop opens on Earth Day at Vancouver Convention & Exhibition Centre’s brand new environmentally-friendly West Expansion Facility Special Thanks to Conference Sponsor:

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ElectraTherm, Inc. ElectraTherm’s Green Machine captures heat from almost any industrial source to generate fuel-free, emission-free electricity. Built on a skid, it is both modular and mobile, meaning it is easy to transport and install, as a single unit or in a series. Automated control systems permit unattended operation resulting in low operation and maintenance costs. Green Machine benefits include: zero emissions, carbon neutral, modular and mobile, scalable from 50 to 500 kW, and the lowest operating cost in the industry. Applications include: stationary engines, geothermal, industrial, stack gas, bio gas and biomass, coal and gas plants, and solar thermal. Other industry applications include: refining, hot oils and gas, district heating, mining, bio-diesel, motor vehicles, glass, compressor oil, steam, boiler blow down, compressors, blow molding, aluminum smelting, heat treatment, etc.

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Show in Print Features just some of the companies and technologies attendees will see at this year’s show.

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SOLAR 2009 May 8th to 14th, 2009 • Buffalo Convention Center • Buffalo, New York As the premier conference on renewable energy and energy efficiency in the nation, and one of the largest, SOLAR 2009 is expected to attract more than 5,000 people to downtown Buffalo. The show, now in its 37th year, is forecasted to pump $3 to $6 million to the region, benefiting local businesses, boosting the economy, generating tax revenue, and supporting interest in renewable energy.

Data on site analysis and solar panel placement

SolarPathfinder is the benchmark in solar site analysis. For decades, solar companies have turned to the SolarPathfinder to give them the most accurate data on site analysis and solar panel placement. Now the SolarPathfinder Assistant gives installers the hard data they need when working with potential clients. SolarPathfinder Assistant provides customers with time and cost solutions on year-round panel productivity, optimal panel placement, and customizable reports to show to customers. Instead of spending hours on site analysis calculations, industry professionals can use the SolarPathfinder Assistant to get the vital numbers at the click of a button. SolarPathfinder has recently unveiled SolarPathfinder Assistant Version 4, which not only gives crucial data to solar panel installers but also provides pinpoint precision on thermal systems as well. SolarPathfinder |

Solar thermal products and pre-packaged systems

Economy option flat plate collector

Evosolar, a division of Jomar International, offers a full range of solar thermal products and prepackaged systems. Evosolar offers a broad range of solar storage tanks including dual-coil, singlecoil with electrical back-up, and single-coil with natural gas back-up models; as well large volume tanks for commercial applications. Along with Evosolar’s high-efficiency flat plate collectors, the compact reliable pump station, and the latest accessories, Evosolar is a one-stop shop for solar thermal installation needs. Evosolar offers its technical team, equipped with the latest design software, to support all residential and commercial installations. Their pre-packed systems and components make an economical and efficient choice for solar hot water.

With the Vitosol 100-F flat plate solar collector, Viessmann has added an economy option to its line of flat plate and vacuum tube solar collectors. Vitosol 100-F features highquality aluminum frame construction, impact-resistant solar glass, a selectively coated copper absorber, as well as a notable price/performance ratio. Suitable for a wide range of solar thermal applications, the 100-F Series is ideal for solar domestic hot water (DHW) or pool heating systems. For best results in colder climates, Viessmann also offers the premium series Vitosol 200-F flat plate collector with a higher insulation level, or the Vitosol 300-T heat pipe vacuum tube collector. Viessmann |

Evosolar |

Solar On

OEM solar pumping stations

Watts Radiant offers a full line of OEM solar pumping stations for the solar thermal market. Options include closed loop glycol, direct (potable), and drainback systems, as well as heat exchanger and heat-dump plug-in modules. Customization of features, benefits, and packaging for OEM accounts is welcomed. Using ETL listed controls; options include back-up heat activation, heat dump, dual tank configuration with priority, overheat/ freeze protection, and multiple system configurations. Systems interface directly with the latest in flow, temperature, and pressure measurement technology from Grundfos. The control records energy produced by the system, key to the carbon marketplace. Available software allows easy viewing of recorded system data and rapid, one-screen system configuration. Watts Radiant also offers insulated supply/return line-sets using Onix Energy transfer hose, with one-inch seamless, closed-cell elastomeric insulation with a stainless-steel jacketed, high-temperature sensor cable. Watts Radiant | Solar Greening by Design

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Renewable energy service provider

Beginning with the largest concentrated solar power plant constructed in 20 years, Broadlands has brought added value, security, and credibility to renewable energy projects across a range of technologies. Broadlands Financial Group, LLC is a comprehensive service provider working with lenders and developers to realize the vision of a renewable energy future. Broadlands’ management tools, which include pro forma preparation and financing assistance, PPA negotiation, project and contractor underwriting, project delivery contract guidance, and full program management throughout construction, have been protecting investment dollars for banks, government agencies, developers, and sureties, including their own sister company First Sealord Surety, for over 16 years. Broadlands Financial Group, LLC |


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olar Utility-Interactive Photovoltaic (PV) Power plants are very demanding and cost intensive projects. They often require the Solar PV system to be fully operational for several decades before it can yield the desired return on investment.

CITEL manufactures tures surge e protective devices (SPDs) (SPDs for Photovoltaic applications. SPDs that protect the AC main SP di t ib ti panel, l inverter, i t charge h distribution controller & PV combiner box against over voltages originating from the AC utility, industrial switching machinery & lightning strikes.

In the past, many manufacturers would guarantee a system life of greater than 20 years. All costs and investments were calculated based on this time period. However, many systems are not reaching maturity due to the nature of this exposed application to the lightning phenomena and its interconnection back into the utility AC power grid. For this reason, it is prudent to invest in surge protection to eliminate these potential threats and thus maximize the systems life expectancy.


Reliability In Surge Protection

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PV sculptures for clean energy and visual impact

Lake Michigan Wind & Sun, Ltd. has added a new design to its Solar Flairs line of PV sculptures. Solar Flairs are arrays of solar panels arranged in configurations that mimic the symmetry of nature. The newest design, the SF 1152, resembles an eight-petaled flower. It is mounted on a free-standing mast and is either fixed at an optimal angle to the sun, or equipped with dual-axis tracking that allows it to follow the sun’s path across the sky, dramatically increasing the system’s productivity. One SF 1152 can satisfy the energy requirements of a small office or classroom. Several of these units in a group increase their impact both visually and in terms of electrical output. The efficiency of Solar Flairs is equal, square foot by square foot, to that of standard solar systems, but Solar Flairs offer an alternative to the blocky rectangular appearance of traditional freestanding arrays. Their design allows them to better assimilate into the landscape, making them ideal for gardens and landscaped grounds. Their purpose is twofold: to provide onsite generation of electricity, and to make a visual, artistic, environmental statement. Municipalities, corporations, and institutions which are seeking a greener reputation are likely entities to consider “planting” Solar Flairs at their facilities. Lake Michigan Wind & Sun

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Balcony solar water heaters

Solar Destination now offers Balcony Solar Water Heaters, and can design standard water heating systems, integrating solar energy technology with architectural design. Balcony Solar Water Heaters are simple to install and are suitable for customers who cannot put vacuum tubes on their roofs. Specifications are as follows: water tank (interior), which is stainless steel; water tank (exterior), PVDF; heat preservation that lasts 72 hours; hail resistance of 25mm; and a capacity of 100/150/200L. Glass sizes are: diameter 47mm; length 0.85m; quantity 24/40/48. Solar Destination also provides various solar solutions for home, business, and industrial needs, as well as for municipalities. From solar electricity and solar water heating to solar space heating and solar pool heating, Solar Destination even offers residential wind power systems and solar street lighting. Solar Destination |

Linking manufacturing capabilities with design

Patriot Solar Groupâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s new Patriot Unify Program links their manufacturing capabilities with a clientâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s designs at an earlier, more cost-effective time. Many solar companies have incredibly innovative ideas that are being created into prototypes. At an early stage, these programs plug in to the Patriot end of the solution, which includes materials, assembly line tools, environmental issues, shipping, deployment, and cost reduction ideas. Added to the Unify Program is Unified Life Cycle Management program. Through strict management during the design and building phases of a device, Patriot Solar will achieve unified benefits. These include reduced time to market, improved product quality, reduced prototyping costs, product optimization, reduced waste, and savings through the integration of engineering to fabrication. Patriot Solar Group |

PV surge protection for grid-tie solar power systems

CITEL, Inc. has expanded its surge protector line to include models DS60PV and DS50PV, two wire and ground DC power surge protectors for applications up to 1000 Vdc. Designed for the most severe applications, DS60PV is a Heavy Duty DC surge protector, rated to withstand a direct lightning strike (10/350us waveform) as defined by ANSI/IEEE C62.41-2002 and IEC 61643-11. It is typically installed at the DC input to the inverter of a solar power system. For more general duty applications, DS50PV is surge rated at 40kA 8/20us, and engineered to protect against indirect lightning, ac utility grid surges, and internally generated switching transients and faults. These din rail mount devices can be integrated into a PV combiner box or standalone enclosure. CITEL, Inc. | North American Clean Energy

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Plug-and-play solar hot water heat transfer appliance

Heliodyne has introduced its newest plugand-play solar hot water heat transfer appliance, the Helio-Flo. The unit is an all-in-one heat transfer appliance designed for use in open loop systems or in conjunction with a closed loop integrated tank system, making it versatile for solar water heating applications. The Helio-Flo comes factory assembled with all wiring, plumbing, and fittings complete to minimize installation time. It also comes with an optional advanced controller with built in Wi-Fi technology allowing for advanced features such as remote system monitoring, automated service reminders, system performance data storage, and user-friendly adjustable settings. The HelioFlo is assembled in Richmond, California, and will be available May, 2009. Heliodyne |

Largest commercial roofmounted PV systems

National integrator, ThinkSolar, in cooperation with solar contractor Pacific Solar Energy, has completed one of California’s largest commercial roof-mounted photovoltaic (PV) systems. The 650kW turnkey solar array for Lithographix is the first commercial array in the City of Hawthorne. The rooftop installation at Lithographix’s 250,000 square-foot facility near Los Angeles International Airport features 2240 Schott ASE300 solar panels, selected for their durability and double glass encapsulation, Solectria inverters and a custom-designed UniRac ballast racking system. The array, commissioned on December 15th, 2008 is already performing up to standard and is expected to offset Lithographix’s energy demands by 30%. The array is the largest deployment of solar power of any US commercial printer. ThinkSolar |

Balance of Systems products








Magnum Energy introduces their new Balance of Systems products. Designed with the installer in mind, the Balance of Systems comes in single or dual panels, and can support up to four MS-PAE model 120/240 split phase inverters for a total power of up to 17.2kw. The single panels are expandable and can handle from 4kw to 12kw of power, and the dual panels are also expandable from 8kw to 17.2kw of power. All panels include ac and dc breakers, ac bypass breaker, ac input breakers, all prewired at the factory. Magnum Energy |

K-Flex Solar™ Twin System - ST > Stainless Steel Flexible Tubing > Thermostat Wire (2-lead) > Supplied with quick-fit couplings for easy connection > Insulation rated to +300°F > Jacketed Insulation for UV Resistance > Coils 50’ and 75’ lengths > ID sizes (IPS) - 1/2”, 3/4” and 1” > Insulation wall thickness 3/4” and 1”

K-Flex Solar™ - R


> Insulation rated to +300°F > Jacketed Insulation for UV Resistance > Coils 50’ length or tubes 6’ length > ID sizes - 3/8” thru 1-1/4” copper ID > Insulation wall thickness 1/2”, 3/4” and 1”

www.kflexusa .com Phone: 800 -765 -6475 ©No e er 20 ©Novemb 008 0 8 K-Flex Flex US USA. SA. K-Flex K-Flex Solar So iss a trad tra emark mark o off K-Fle K- x USA USA. KFAD-0 0029 0029


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Solutions for solar heating systems

K-Flex Solar Twin Systems ST and K-Flex Solar R are ideal solution for solar hot water systems. Flex Solar R (high temperature insulation) offers thermal insulation resistance to high temperatures (300° F), high mechanical resistance, and has a UV protective film. It is available in 1/2-inch, 3/4-inch, and one-inch wall thicknesses, and is offered in 6’ lengths and 50’ coils (coils only in 1/2-inch, 3/4-inch wall). K-Flex Solar Twin System – ST (solar lineset) is also thermal insulation resistant to high temperatures (300° F), providing fast and easy connections while saving installation time. It has a high mechanical resistant and UV protective film, and is designed specifically to minimize heat loss/thermal efficiency. It is available with both 3/4-inch and one-inch insulation, and in both 50 and 75 in ft coils. K-Flex USA |

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Off-grid power conversion solutions

Samlex Solar is a diversified high-technology company manufacturing and distributing renewable energy products including inverters, battery chargers, charge controllers, dc-dc converters, and solar panels. Known for having a significant and in-depth line of high-performance technologies, Samlex will feature a broad selection of off-grid power conversion solutions at SOLAR 2009. Samlex Solar is one of North Americaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fastest growing alternative energy product resources. With locations in Canada, the US, and Europe, Samlex Solar is able to reduce lead times and provide better shipping options to domestic and global clients. Samlex Solar, Inc |

Solar panel/tank water heating system

Stiebel Eltron manufactures components and thermal solar systems for domestic hot water, consisting of a well-insulated storage tank with heat exchanger(s) and flat plate collector panel(s). They constitute an economical and reliable solar domestic hot water (DHW) system for commercial and residential applications, including space heating and swimming pools. The solar closed-loop system includes flat plate collector panel(s) and mounting hardware, a storage tank with heat exchanger(s), a pump station with expansion tank, and various temperature/ pressure gauges, pressure relief and check valves, and a controller unit with corresponding sensors.There is an industry leading 5-year warranty on all Stiebel Eltron solar equipment. Stiebel Eltron

Air and dual mode systems

With over 25 years building SRCC Certified collectors, and a 10-year warranty, Sunsiarayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Northern Comfort Air and Dual Mode Systems can be well-trusted to provide heat and hot water for an entire building. With highly selective surface and unmatched performance, Northern Comfort offers the answer to any heating needs, no matter if a building is 500 or 500,000 square-feet. They can reduce the need for fossil fuel, while reducing carbon footprints at the same time. Sunsiaray Inc. |

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Inverters for renewable power applications

Development of thermal and PV solar energy projects

Solar module for grid-tie applications

Ecology and Environment, Inc.

SunWize Technologies, Inc.

The recent installation of 96 solar panels on the roof of its LEED Platinum global headquarters isn’t the only venture into solar energy development that Ecology and Environment, Inc., (E & E) has made. The firm has expanded significantly into the US solar energy market since 2006. E & E is now actively pursuing and supporting the development of both thermal and PV solar energy projects nationwide, providing services ranging from permitting to environmental/biological assessments to preparation of Right-of-Way applications and Plans of Development. Recently, the firm prepared an environmental assessment under NEPA for a high-profile solar project on NASA-owned land. E & E’s headquarters building will be featured as a tour stop during American Solar Energy Society’s SOLAR 2009 Conference. The firm is one of the world’s leading organizations in pioneering innovative yet practical solutions to support renewable energy.

Solectria Renewables, LLC is a US developer and manufacturer of a wide range of inverters for renewable power applications including 1.8kW to 100kW grid-tied PV inverters for systems from 1kW to multi-Mega Watts. Solectria Renewables has a 20-year background in inverters and other electronic power systems for harsh environments. They have also been harnessing the sun to fuel cars and factories since 1989. Solectria Renewables, LLC

SunWize Technologies, Inc. has recently added the SW180 to its own line of solar modules. Designed to meet the needs of a wide range of residential and commercial grid-tie applications, the module is in stock and available for immediate shipment. The SW180 competes favorably on price with other modules in its class and outperforms them with its quality, high-efficiency monocrystalline cells. The SW180 has an efficiency specification of 14.1%. The SW180 is manufactured according to the strict requirements of UL-1703, cUL, and IEC standards. It has a wide temperature range, from -49ºF – 203ºF (-45ºC – 95ºC), making it suitable for use in a wide range of climatic conditions. The modules carry a 25-year limited warranty. SunWize Technologies, Inc., a subsidiary of Mitsui & Co. (USA), Inc., specializes in the design and manufacture of solar energy systems, product distribution, and associated project development.

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Geographic location for renewable and sustainable energy

NY Loves Clean Tech is a consortium of like-minded organizations consisting of economic developers, academia, R&D, and equipment suppliers that have joined forces to promote New York’s assets and all the state has to offer. NY is an outstanding geographic location for renewable and sustainable energy and hightech growth. With an educated workforce, cutting edge R&D, state of the art infrastructure, and rich culture and history, NY is the convergence of technological, business, and academic excellence. NY Loves Clean Tech

3/11/09 1:54 PM

hydro and marine energy

Renewable Ocean Energy Development High-tech seabed mapping By Wendy Helfenbaum


ceanographic mapping has come a long way since Thomas Jefferson did the first coastal survey in 1807. Today’s growing focus on ocean renewable energy development is reflected in the 50 wave and tidal power projects that have already been proposed to the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. These projects all require the same thing: the latest high-tech seabed mapping techniques to pinpoint the best sites for wave and tidal power generators. Issues such as seabed depth, wind, and wave conditions, navigation lanes, whale migration routes, and environmental impact all need to be considered. Mapping the seabed involves sending hydrographic survey ships and smaller boats out to sea equipped with sonar systems, which send sound waves that bounce up to the ship from the bottom of the ocean. The sound waves find and identify objects in the water. Data is then digitally collected, processed, and stored with specialized computer systems that generate graphic displays. “Our knowledge of the seabed is incredibly limited; the charts that exist were prepared using basic echosounders,” says Burt Hamner, chair of the Marine Technology Society’s Renewable Energy Committee. “All we know is how deep it is, with very little knowledge of what the seabed condition is.” Over the past 20 years, technology for seabed mapping has become incredibly advanced, says Dr Mitchell Roffer, whose Florida-based company provides oceanographic consulting services worldwide. “They’re mapping from satellites in planes looking down, looking at the surface with drifting buoys and acoustic systems to measure the currents, and looking up from the bottom using submersibles or cables left on the bottom. It’s a three-dimensional mapping effort.” High-resolution side scan sonar enables hydrographers on the surface of the ocean to observe a big swath of the seabed in real time, so they can learn about bottom conditions, hazards and habitats, adds Hamner. “The sonar resolution is good enough to identify an object the size of a chair on the seabed bottom from three or four miles away. It’s also able to characterize the type of seabed, such as sand or gravel or mud, and then portray all of the information in 3D colored maps.” Unmanned, undersea gliders are another exciting development, says Roffer. “They’re very quiet, and require very little energy; they actually come up to the surface, release their data streams and then go back down. They can operate for weeks in very shallow water or very deep water.” Many of these cutting-edge techniques are widely used across Europe, Hamner adds. “When people start realizing that the technology to develop offshore energy really exists, they become quite excited about it.” But high-resolution surveys are extremely expensive. “To survey a significant chunk of seabed to find a precise spot for a wave energy device can cost millions of dollars,” notes Hamner. “As a consequence, most coastal states have done very limited seabed mapping using these technologies.” The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, which is responsible for charting roughly 3.4 million square nautical miles of US navigable waters, performs about 80 hydrographic surveys each year. “Seabed mapping data is important to a lot of communities, including offshore renewable energy, and there is a growing demand for this type of data, but there is only so much capacity within the federal mapping agencies, primarily NOAA, to meet all of these needs,” reports Roger Parsons, NOAA’s Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Coordinator. That’s why Hamner is circulating an online petition, asking Department of Energy to recognize seabed mapping as critical for ocean energy development, and to fund offshore hydrographic surveys. “There is no way ocean renewable energy can be developed without ocean survey data, and no private company can afford to do it,” says Hamner. “It’s a great time for the Department of Energy to stimulate ocean energy development, and create ‘green’ jobs on the waterfront and at sea right now by mobilizing the survey ships and local fishing boats, because they’re ready to go.” Hamner reports that meetings between the Department of Energy, NOAA, and the coastal states are in the works to “help everybody understand why this is a good,

integrated solution. It’s in the interest of the energy industry to actively promote and support NOAA and the coastal states. Managed together, this is the largest renewable energy project in the USA.” The online petition is available at: Wendy Helfenbaum is a Montreal-based writer and television producer. Grays Harbor Ocean Energy Company | Marine Technology Society | NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping |

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hydro and marine energy ecoENERGY Agreement

Plutonic Power Corporation has announced that the Toba Montrose General Partnership has signed a Contribution Agreement with the Government of Canada for funding of the East Toba River and Montrose Creek Hydroelectric Project under the ecoENERGY for Renewable Power program. Under the ecoENERGY for Renewable Power program, the East Toba River and Montrose Creek Hydroelectric Project will receive a $10 per MWh incentive over the first ten years of operations, in accordance with the terms of the agreement. Net annual electrical generation from the Project is expected to be 726.95 Gwh per year. Payments will commence once the Project is commissioned, which is on schedule for completion in mid 2010. “The development of clean, renewable energy projects is instrumental in achieving both federal and provincial governments’ initiatives on climate change, and federal support through programs like ecoENERGY are important to the industry’s success,” said Plutonic Power vice-chair and CEO Donald McInnes. Once completed, the East Toba River and Montrose Creek Hydroelectric Project, a partnership with GE Energy Financial Services, will potentially displace an estimated 455,000 tonnes of greenhouse gases (GHG) annually. This is the equivalent of taking about 80,000 cars off the road per year or planting about 60,000 hectares of trees. With an estimated capital cost of $660 million, this 196 MW project has been under construction since July 2007 and is on budget and on schedule for commercial operation by mid 2010. Plutonic Power Corporation |

Electricity from ocean waves

Pelamis Wave Power Ltd. (PWP) is the manufacturer of a unique system to generate renewable electricity from ocean waves. The Pelamis Wave Energy Converter is the result of many years of engineering development by PWP. It was the world’s first commercial-scale machine to generate electricity into the grid from offshore wave energy and the first to be used in commercial wave farm projects. For energy companies, utilities, and their customers, Pelamis machines offer the ability to unlock an immense clean energy resource with limitless potential. Pelamis Wave Power changed its name in September 2007, and was previously known as Ocean Power Delivery Ltd. The company recently received an order from E.on, one of the UK’s renewable generators, for the next generation of Pelamis Wave Energy Converter, known as the P-2. This machine will be built at PWP’s new Leith Docks facility Edinburgh and put through its paces at the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) in Orkney. P-2 will be 180m long, including a range of enhanced design features to improve performance and ease manufacturing. Pelamis Wave Power Ltd. |

Utility scale and autonomous power applications

Ocean Power Technologies’ PowerBuoy is designed to convert ocean wave energy into useable electrical power for utility scale grid connected applications. The PowerBuoy can be deployed in arrays scalable to 100’s of megawatts. Ocean Power Technologies also offers the Autonomous Power Buoy (APB), which converts ocean wave energy into useable electrical power for remote at-sea power application where there is no need to connect to a shore-based grid. The APB has been proven effective and reliable in sea trials and can be tailored to meet the weight, volume, and power generation requirements for a wide variety of commercial applications. Ocean Power Technologies | Ocean Power Technologies, Inc. PowerBuoy®

Wave and tidal technology in one

Aquamarine Power has signed a Development Agreement with Airtricity, the renewable energy development division of Scottish and Southern Energy (SSE), aimed at developing sites capable of hosting 1,000 MW of various types of marine energy by 2020. Under the agreement, the two companies will enter into a 50/50 joint venture to develop wave and tidal energy sites in the UK and Republic of Ireland. Work on the development of the first two sites has already started, with plans to roll out further sites over the next three years. The companies’ goal is to deliver marine energy sites suitable for deploying Aquamarine’s wave and tidal technologies, including the Oyster Wave Energy Converter and the Neptune Tidal Device. Aquamarine is simultaneously pursuing a similar contract for developments in Southern Europe. “This contract is the biggest deal in the history of marine energy. Fully consented offshore wind farm sites are selling to owner operators at anywhere between £150,000 [US $217,000] and £400,000 [US $579,000] per MW consented, giving a strong indication of the large potential value of this deal if all 1,000 MW of sites receive full consents and grid connection,” said Martin McAdam, CEO of Aquamarine. Aquamarine Power


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waste to energy

New Methane Cracking Process may Turn Landfill Greenhouse Gas Woes to Cash By Juzer Jangbarwala


ir quality and emissions requirements are continually increasing in stringency, creating major compliance challenges for landfill operators struggling to dispose of large volumes of methane produced by landfills. Methane is generated by the anaerobic degradation of organic materials in municipality solid waste, and is 21 times more damaging to the environment as a “greenhouse gas” than carbon dioxide. Many landfills are emitting methane directly into the atmosphere without flaring. This is upsetting the surrounding communities and environmental groups who are demanding this practice cease. Some of the landfills are reducing the damage by flaring the gas—burning it to convert methane to heat and carbon dioxide. The heat is typically wasted. Since the methane content of landfill gas is low (30% to 55%), it is very difficult for landfills to use this potentially valuable source of energy to generate revenues for themselves. Power generation equipment on site typically requires extensive pre-treatment of the gas and wastes 75% or more of the energy as heat, since a landfill currently does not have much use for thermal energy. The combination of pre-treatment costs and low efficiency of electricity generation equipment produces very small revenue streams. For those landfills situated close to natural gas pipelines, it is possible to feed the purified gas into the pipeline. The purification costs, once again, combined with compression costs, make it a fairly unattractive financial proposition. The environmental damage from landfills could be avoided if landfills were given a profitable way to abate the methane, justifying the capital costs of extensive equipment required on closed, non-operating landfills. A new approach to sequestering carbon from landfill gas has been designed and is about to be piloted in San Diego County, California. This process uses a patented

catalyst, which cracks methane gas (a major component of natural gas and bio gas), into its elemental constituents, carbon and hydrogen. The catalyst was originally developed to produce highly organized platelets of graphite from natural gas. The graphite is further treated to manufacture Platelet Graphite Nanofibers, an extremely valuable nanomaterial with vast possibilities in materials performance enhancement. Graphite produced from the landfill gas will be sold to a wide variety of industries that use it, such as the aerospace, automobile, manufacturing, steel, and chemical industries. In the past, methane cracking to sequester carbon has not been a viable process because of the low value soot produced as the carbon product. Additionally, such processes would generate other undesirable byproducts, such as carbon monoxide. However, the new sequestra-

tion process will generate high-quality graphite and hydrogen from the methane source—with no additional byproducts. A pilot facility, which will take a small side stream of the landfill gas and produce graphite and hydrogen, is expected to be operating in the next few weeks. The complete processing plant will use conventional techniques, such as vacuum swing absorption, to purify landfill gas, and then utilize the technology to produce a precursor material (high-quality graphite) for high value nano powders. This approach helps landfills eliminate the need for flaring the methane, or obtaining extensive permitting for air quality emissions required for electric turbines/internal combustion engines. Additionally, producing a higher value product will enable the technology owners to compensate the landfills better than current projects.

Network. . y a D y r e v E

As a potential added bonus, this type of landfill methane processing could be a source for medium-scale urban production of hydrogen. By nature, the hydrogen would have a zero carbon footprint, and could address environmentalists’ concern about the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) Green House Gas Effect of current hydrogen production technologies. The hydrogen produced at the landfill site could also be utilized to power fuel cells at the landfill site and feed green energy into the power grid. Juzer Jangbarwala is founder and CEO of Catalyx, Inc., an incubator specializing in developing sustainable, green technologies for manufacturing energy and water treatment. He holds multiple patents and is a member of multiple Boards of NGOs on water treatment. Catalyx, Inc. |

Networking opportunities including the WasteExpo Welcome Reception, Boxed Lunch Discussions, the EIA Inspirational and Awards Breakfast, and the Environmental Research and Education Foundation’s (EREF) Equipment Auction – all designed for you to stay in touch with the industry and your colleagues. Here’s a great opportunity to network with your colleagues and become more effective Environmentalists. Every Day.SM Register by May 8, 2009 and Save!


The largest event in North America serving the $52 billion solid waste and recycling industry.

Conference: June 8-10, 2009 Exhibits: June 9-11, 2009 Las Vegas Convention Center, South Halls Las Vegas, NV North American Clean Energy

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waste to energy Converting Banana Peels to Energy…under the Kitchen Sink Gathering food waste for production of biogas By Kendall Christiansen


t some point in the coming decade, food fights will break out—but not in school cafeterias. Instead, the fight will be over food waste generated by a variety of sources. The fight will be waged between wastewater treatment plants anxious to boost biogas production in their anaerobic digesters, operators of various biogas technologies financed by subsidies for renewable fuels, and compost facilities that need feedstocks to make products that replenish our soils (and replace petro-based fertilizers). But sometimes the weapon of choice is right in front of us, hidden in plain sight—under the kitchen sink. That weapon is the food waste disposer (i.e. disposal or garburator), a device that begins the process of converting food scraps into energy and fertilizer products. Already thousands of biogas/biomass facilities operate in the relatively mature EU market, leading the pressure to expand into North America. In the US, over 500 wastewater treatment plants (mostly large ones) operate anaerobic digesters, using their heat and biogas to operate the facilities. The emerging energy crisis is

spurring their attention to the potential sources of energy in our midst, waiting for the opportunity to be captured. “Wastewater treatment plants, if they take an aggressive approach, cannot only do more to increase self-reliance, but they can offer a direct solution to our dependence on foreign fossil fuels,” said David Parry, vice president of Camp Dresser and McKee, a consultant, engineering, construction, and operations firm, in a recent article in WEFTEC. Here’s where the fight gets interesting: in the battle over food waste, at some point the question of how to best collect and deliver food waste must be considered. The two basic options are: 1) collecting it for delivery in trucks to a biogas facility; and, 2) using food waste disposers to pulverize food scraps into a liquid slurry for transport via underground sewers. In fact, disposers have served that purpose for more than 50 years in the US, and are rapidly growing in international acceptance, especially in regions and countries where restrictions on the landfilling of organic waste are being imposed. In the States, an estimated 60 million residential and, perhaps, 500,000 commercial food waste disposers are in daily use, diverting millions of tons of food scraps from garbage trucks and landfills. Instead, those scraps—averaging 70% water—are ground and flushed to wastewater treatment plants. Yet disposers are often overlooked and misunderstood for the essential role they play, given their common presence in





North American homes. Stockholm is an excellent example of the more conscious view of disposers that is rapidly developing. In 2008, Stockholm’s Water Board reviewed a comprehensive report on the use of disposers and decided to remove both its surcharges on disposers and any geographic restrictions on their use. Stockholm’s concern? Increasing production of biogas, on which Stockholm relies to fuel its bus fleets, was a significant impetus. However, the study confirmed that disposers could be used without concern while helping Stockholm achieve its goal of diverting 35% of its food waste. In the UK, Worcestershire County’s “Sink Your Waste” initiative is directly subsidizing disposer installation as the preferred alternative to curbside collection. In the US, a study conducted by the East Bay Municipal Utility District in Oakland, California, with support from EPA’s Region 9, confirmed that food waste can boost biogas production by as much as 20%. EBMUD’s study also found that more than 120 anaerobic digesters at California’s wastewater treatment plants had excess capacity of 20% or more, suggesting the opportunity to take in additional material for biogas production. Last year, the San Antonio Water System announced a 20-year deal with Ameresco to boost its production, collection, and beneficial use of biogas, projecting $250,000 in annual revenue. Stockholm’s enlightened thinking, and San Antonio’s public-private partnership es-











W E S T F I E L D ’ S C H A N T I L L Y ,












2009 Conference Highlights -Plenary Session representing viewpoints on WTE from within the industry -Eight technical sessions featuring over 50 industry-leading presentations -Special focus on project case studies, compliance issues & greenhouse gas mitigation -Energy Recovery Council (ERC) hosted Health and Safety Workshop -Two WTERT Hosted sessions featuring presentations on Alternative Feedstocks and Designing the Next Generation of WTE Facilities -Facility Tour of Covanta Fairfax

For More Information or To Register Visit I N



tablish important precedents that will stimulate broader consideration of the role of wastewater treatment plants as generators of energy, and spur consideration of their compelling role in handling the challenge of food waste for municipalities searching for environmentally sound answers. Kendall Christiansen is senior consultant on environmental affairs with Insinkerator, manufacturer of residential and commercial food waste disposers. Camp Dresser | Insinkerator |

UK paves the way for energy recovery from biomass and waste “Landfill is the worst environmental option” According to the UK Waste Strategy landfilling waste is the worst environmental option. The methane it produces is a potent greenhouse gas, 21 times more potent than carbon dioxide. Consequently, the Landfill Directive calls for a 50% reduction of the biodegradable municipal waste that is dumped at increasing costs. Energy recovery from biomass and waste is going to play an important role in this scenario. The Waste Strategy encourages a variety of energy recovery technologies including anaerobic digestion for biogas production and mechanical-biological treatment, which can produce refuse-derived fuels. Energy from waste is expected to account for 25% of municipal waste by 2020, compared to 10%. This creates a need for new infrastructure. Estimates vary between 100 and 500 new operational plants that are required to deal with the United Kingdom’s residual waste. “Using waste as a resource for energy and materials recovery makes total sense,” explains Dr Ines Freesen, managing director of the Energy from Biomass and Waste UK (EBW UK) Conference and Exhibition. “Not only is it beneficial to the environment, it also helps the public and private sector to cut costs dramatically.” The steadily increasing landfill tax makes waste disposal a costly exercise in the UK. Freesen & Partner GmbH, a Germany-based consulting firm and trade show organizer launched of the first international EBW UK Conference and Exhibition, modeled after the Waste to Energy (Bremen) and Energy from Biomass and Waste (Pittsburgh, PA) conferences. EBW UK, which took place in January of this year, gave a voice to the growing market for bioenergy production and landfill diversion. EBW UK Conference and Exhibition


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Turning waste oil to biodiesel

Pacific Natural Energy (PNE), a Los Angeles-based startup has unveiled a costeffective way to turn urban waste oil into biodiesel. The company supplies both mobile processing reactors and fully processed biodiesel fuel—which offer a new option for individuals, businesses, entrepreneurs, and local communities to become fuel manufacturers and produce ASTM grade biodiesel at approximately $1.24 per gallon, opening a new market of legal

biodiesel production in the 250,000 gallon per year range. According to recent surveys, almost two-thirds of Americans are interested in making “greener” choices, including making the switch from gasoline or diesel to more environmentally friendly forms of fuel. Unfortunately, opportunities in the alternative fuel market have been quite limited. As a producer of high-grade biodiesel fuel (manufactured from common vegetable oil or animal fats), PNE decided to provide the opportunity for other

Biogas flow meter for biomass fermentation and process

Engineers at large food/beverage industry operations, which are harvesting their bio-waste in fermentors or digesters to generate heat or power and reduce pollution, will find the ST98 Biogas Flow Meter from Fluid Components International (FCI) provides precise measurement of these wet, dirty, mixed methane composition gases. On dairy farms, for example, large amounts of cow manure accumulate that are a rich source of biogas, which can be harnessed for the eco-friendly production of green electric power. The output from the manure biomass digestion process results in a complex gas mixture that includes methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), water, and trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). This biomass production process requires optimizing gas creation, cleansing, drying, and storage (tank or bag-type accumulator) to use the biogas as a fuel source for heating or powering a co-gen engine to produce electricity. Biogas flow must be measured at several points in the system to provide operators with critical information for optimal gas production, control, and reporting. A ground flare is an integral part of the safety system for the process. Mass flow measurement of biogas is challenging. This gas is typically 65% CH4 and 35% CO2. Biogas is dirty and corrosive with particulates that will quickly clog any flow meter designed with orifices, and it will foul meters with moving parts. Low flow measurement sensitivity and a wide turndown are essential due to biogas flow variability, based on biomass supply and environmental fluctuations. With its reliable thermal mass sensing element, the advanced ST98 Mass Flow Meter from FCI delivers precision gas flow rate, totalized flow, and temperature measurement. It is ideal for biogas measurement and features high accuracy to ±1% of reading, 0.5% of full scale. ST98 further offers repeatability to ±0.5% of reading and is temperature-compensated for accurate measurement under variable environments. The insertion style ST98 Flow Meter operates over a wide flow range from 0.75 to 600 SFPS (0.21 to 172 NMPS). It features a turndown ratio that is factory preset from 10:1 up to 100:1 within the calibrated flow range and operates at pressures up to 250 psig [17 bar (g)]. Fluid Components International LLC

innovators to produce their own biodiesel fuel onsite for business uses. The company offers an efficient and functional mobile biodiesel processing unit that is available anywhere in North America, and that can exceed ASTM quality standards. These processors are self-contained and come installed in one standard 20 x 40-foot cargo container. The containers can be easily transported and set up anywhere that the materials in the supply chain dictate. By introducing highly mobile units, PNE will overcome many of the problems

conventionally associated with biodiesel production, including the cost. Now the manufacturing plant can go to the supply in many cases, reducing transportation costs, and the need to order fuel far in advance. The PNE business model allows for a new mid-range of biodiesel production. Restaurant chains, governmental bodies, and entrepreneurs can service their own fleets of trucks, vans, or sell biodiesel at a profit. Pacific Natural Energy

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biomass and biofuels Oxy-fuel Technology Advances Possibilities for Converting Carbon Dioxide By Larry Kristof

Developments in carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology have provided an effective, and ultimately, more valuable means to convert carbon dioxide into useful fuels and chemicals. For technologies like the electro-reduction of carbon dioxide (ERC), cross-disiplinary collaborations like these can transform blue sky ideas into commercially viable products.


he world is waiting with urgency to see if carbon capture and storage projects are feasible on a large scale. On January 28th, 2009, the European Union invested in that possibility by approving a €1.25bn ($US 1.6bn) financing package for carbon capture and storage projects (CCS). Carbon capture and storage describes a broad set of technologies that will recover carbon dioxide from industrial or energy related point sources and store it in deep geological formations, in ocean reservoirs or as mineral carbonates. Four years ago, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimated that by 2100, CCS projects could potentially lower annual global CO2 emissions by 55%. They also stated that if successful, the global CCS market value is expected to increase to over $US 236bn by 2012, a compounded annual growth rate of 22%. So far, however, there has yet to be a full-scale industrial CCS project that links the processes of CO2 capture, transport, and storage because for the most part, the costs still outweigh the global perception of the consequences of climate change. At a minimum, the average cost of an industrial CCS program is $US 80 per metric ton of sequestered CO2. With world carbon dioxide emissions projected at 37 billion metric tons per year by 2020, that creates a rather big dilemma as to what to do with the potentially massive amounts of gas that may be captured. Questions are also being raised about the unknown environmental risks of storing large quantities of CO2 underground. As currently envisaged, carbon capture and storage projects will add costs to industrial processes without generating any revenue. An alternative to burying the ‘waste’ CO2 is to convert some of the captured CO2 into valuable fuels or chemicals. Treating CO2 as a commodity would substantially offset the costs of carbon capture. There are several ways to convert CO2 including thermochemical, biological, electrochemical, and photochemical processes. To become commercially viable, however, the processes need to be technically efficient, economically feasible and have established a potential market for their products. Research at a variety of institutions is underway in response to this challenge. One technology showing potential is the electro-reduction of carbon dioxide (ERC). Initiated at the University of British Columbia in Canada, the ERC aims to take CO2 directly from industrial waste gases and convert it to formate salts and/or formic acid, both valuable chemicals. Several potential markets for the products of the ERC have been established. Formic acid can be used in a variety of industrial applications, such as steel pickling, to replace mineral acids, improve the finished product and alleviate the problems of effluent disposal. The organic acid also has the potential to play a leading role in fuel cell development, both as a direct fuel and as a fuel storage material for on-demand release of hydrogen. One of the challenges remaining for the ERC is to find a cost-effective way to obtain highly concentrated CO2, necessary for technical efficiency and economic feasibility. The answer to this challenge may have been found in the small German town of Spremberg. In Spremberg, beside the old coal-fired power station of Shwarze Pumpe, the Swedish power group Vattenfall has built a 30 megawatt (MW) CCS pilot plant to deliver concentrated CO2 directly from the flue gas. Relying on oxy-fuel technology, the plant burns coal with pure oxygen rather than in air. Whereas conventional air combustion gives a flue gas with 10 to 15% CO2, oxy-fuel increases the concentration of CO2 emitted to better than 90%. The directive of the Vattenfall project is to link the full chain of CO2 capture, transport, and storage with near zero net emissions. As CCS projects need high concentrations of CO2 before the gas can be liquefied, transported, and stored, the Shwarze Pumpe project has eliminated the costly and energy intensive post-capture process of CO2 concentration. Apart from thermal power stations, oxy-fuel can also be used to boost the CO2 content of flue gases in a wide spectrum of industrial processes, including cement manufacture, glass making, and iron and steel production. The outlook is bright for Vattenfall, as the first tonnes of CO2 captured at Shwarze Pumpe had a purity of 99.7vol%. The company has further plans to build a 3000 MW lignite-fired power station based on oxy-fuel in 2015 in Janschwalde, Germany. Praxair, 82

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a second company involved in oxyfuel, is also developing a 50 MW coal-fired electric pilot plant in Jamestown, New York. Oxy-fuel at the industrial scale will allow the ERC and similar CO2 conversion processes to achieve a higher intensity of reaction and use smaller reaction surfaces. The translation for investors is lower capital and operating costs. Carbon conversion technologies like the ERC, used in combination with oxy-fuel, may provide an economic incentive for industry to take the next step toward emission reductions. As the climate crisis continues, connecting the intelligence of science, the foresight of business, the know-how of industry, and the political will of government will be the key to environmental protection. The future of climate mitigation efforts will depend on the ability for all partners to communicate and collaborate on ideas and initiatives. Venture companies and clean tech business entrepreneurs, in particular, play an important role as translators. They bridge the gap between science and investment by investigating opportunities and connecting research partners, contributors, and licensees. Most likely the answer to climate change will not be a single silver bullet, but will involve a variety of solutions. The attractiveness of climate change mitigation options will depend on our ability to link innovations and create a set of commercially viable products. With the scientific knowledge available to us, the key will be putting the pieces together. Larry Kristof is chief executive officer of Mantra Venture Group, a venture company facilitating investment in sustainable, commercially viable clean technologies. The ERC technology is now owned by Mantra Energy, a subsidiary. Mantra Energy Alternatives Ltd. |

Purification of biodiesel

Schroeder BioFuels has introduced its EWU unit for purification of biodiesel fuel. Each treatment tower holds 50kg (or 110 lbs) of Eco2Pure media, increasing the amount of time between media changes. EWU is designed for industrial use and features a continuous flow with a connection arrangement that allows for simple, online, treatment tower recharging. The unit is designed to filter fatty acid methyl/ethyl ester fluids (crude biodiesel that has already had the glycerin and methanol removed), and is equipped with Schroeder’s own TCM laser particle monitor for measuring particle contamination. The towers use Eco2Pure media to remove soap, production residues, and contaminants from biodiesel. Schroeder Biofuels can design, build, and commission a purification system to suit specific needs of biodiesel producers. Schroeder BioFuels |

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biomass and biofuels news briefs Recommendation on biomass harvesting Volatile oil prices, concerns about carbon dioxide emissions, and catastrophic wildfires have created new interest in removing wood from forests as an alternative energy resource. In response, states from Maine to Missouri are developing guidelines for the harvest of forest biomass— logging slash, small-diameter trees, tops, limbs, or small trees. A report by the Forest Guild, entitled “An Assessment of Biomass Harvesting Guidelines,” is the first comprehensive review of these biomass harvesting guidelines. The report provides recommendations to ensure that new guidelines promote sustainable use of biomass from forests. “New interest in woody biomass is a double-edged sword,” says Dr Zander Evans, Forest Guild research director and the report’s author. “If harvested sustainably, biomass can meet some of our energy needs and leave our forests healthier than they are now. However, without appropriate guidance, biomass harvests can seriously degrade our forests.” Forest harvesting guidelines provide foresters and loggers advice on how to remove woody biomass and how much should be left in the woods for healthy watersheds, wildlife habitat, protection of long-term productivity, and other ecosystem functions. Previously developed forest practice guidelines by states did not anticipate the increased removal of biomass and thus offer no specific guidance on removal limits needed to keep forests healthy. In general, wood that would have been left onsite under traditional harvest conditions is removed in a biomass harvest, which can mean a reduction of dead wood. Dead wood plays an important role in the ecosystem by providing wildlife habitat, cycling nutrients, aiding plant regeneration, decreasing erosion, and storing carbon. The reduction of dead wood is one of the key differences between biomass removal and traditional harvest; it should be a focus of future guidelines. Guidelines should make clear and specific recommendations to retain standing dead trees (snags), existing coarse woody material (CWM), harvest-generated CWM, fine woody material (FWM), and the forest floor and litter layer. The creation of new guidelines for forestry presents the opportunity to encourage practices that go beyond minimum acceptable practices and in-

stead focus on enhancing the full suite of ecological values. Key report recommendations are as follows:

• Consider the full range of potential impacts of biomass removals when developing new guidelines.

• Use the best available science for the ecoregion(s) covered by the guidelines to determine appropriate recommendations. • Include as much public input and collaboration as possible in guideline development. • Define terms such “woody biomass” clearly and appropriately.

• Make clear and specific recommendations to retain standing dead trees, existing CWM, harvest generated CWM, FWM, and the forest floor. The Forest Guild |

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The International BIOMASS Conference & Expo April 28th to 30th, 2009 â&#x20AC;˘Â Oregon Convention Center â&#x20AC;˘ Portland, Oregon

Show in Print Features just some of the companies and technologies attendees will see at this yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s show. The International BIOMASS Conference & Expo unites current and future producers of biomass-derived power, fuels, and chemicals with waste generators, energy crop growers, municipal leaders, utility executives, technology providers, equipment manufacturers, project developers, investors, and policy makers. The event fosters public and private partnerships that help bioenergy producers, and large scale waste generators identify and assess available production resources and viable technology solutions for improving operational efficiencies and reducing industrial greenhouse gas emissions. BBI International expects up to 1,200 attendees, and more than 150 exhibitors.

Development of commercially viable cellulosic ethanol

Following a successful start-up in the fourth quarter of 2008, POET Research Center in Scotland, SD is now producing cellulosic ethanol at a pilot scale, completing a crucial step toward development of commercially viable cellulosic ethanol. The Scotland plant is producing ethanol at a rate of 20,000 gallons per year using corn cobs as feedstock. The $8 million endeavor is a precursor to the $200 million Project LIBERTY, a commercialscale cellulosic ethanol plant that will begin production in 2011. The pilot plant is the site of a nine million gallon per year starch ethanol production facility and a starch pilot facility. POET is pursuing an integrated starch- and cellulose-to-ethanol biorefinery model that could see cellulosic production capacity added to their 26 plants that currently produce 1.5 billion gallons of ethanol from corn per year. The pilot project is the result of a significant investment in research by POET over the last eight years toward commercializing cellulosic ethanol. In 2008 alone, POET spent $20 million on research, doubling its research staff and tripling the size of its lab in Sioux Falls. POET Research Center |



Flue Gas Recirculation technology

Hurst Boiler and Welding Co., Inc. recently announced the addition of Flue Gas Recirculation technology to its renewable biomass gasification/heat recovery system product line. Flue Gas Recirculation (FGR) technology has been used for many years in the automotive industry (every new car has an FGR valve), and the packaged gas fired boiler industry as a very successful and cost effective way to help mitigate the production of Nox during the combustion process. HBC has modified this technology to apply it to its biomass gasification and combustion process with excellent results enabling HBC's systems to meet newly implemented Nox regulations in several US states. Hurst Boiler and Welding Co., Inc. |



Mass acquisition and environmental reporting software

Call toll-free: (877) 582-7800 201 East Shady Grove Road Grand Prairie, Texas 75050 84

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Phone: (972) 790-7800 Fax: (972) 790-8733

LECO Corporationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s TruTOF offers continuous full-range mass acquisition rates up to 80 spectra/second for accurate identification of unknown and targeted compounds in complex samples. New ChromaTOF 4.20, the latest version of their exclusive operating software, now features a more intuitive user interface, as well as Statistical Compare and Fisher Ratio results that can be exported into peripheral software for additional analysis. The TruTOF also includes environmental reporting software, and offers both electron and chemical ionization sources for increased laboratory flexibility and productivity. LECO Corporation |

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Biomass engineering and design services

Evergreen Engineering is at the forefront of the biomass movement, defining the industry standard for biomass engineering and design services. From concept development to training and start-up, Evergreen offers a complete range of services to the biomass industry. A full-service A&E firm, with 24 years of experience and thousands of projects completed, Evergreen has a formidable track record. Evergreen provides specialized engineering services to many of the most notable public and private corporations in the US and beyond, as well as numerous local, state, and federal government agencies. With a business structure designed to accommodate any project, large or small, domestic or international, Evergreen has earned its place as a leader of the biomass energy industry. Evergreen Engineering






Fine grinder for wood waste market

The Schutte-Buffalo Hammermill Series 15 Hammer Mill is the most efficient, high-production fine grinder of its kind. Built specifically for the wood waste market, it can process chips, shavings, bark, hogged scrap, and other materials to the exact finished, particle size required for downstream processing. With over 80 years of experience, Schutte-Buffalo Hammermill has built more fine grinding hammer mills for processing wood than any other hammer mill manufacturer. International Biomass Conference

For fuel wood production, nothing is built stronger and lasts longer than a Bandit whole tree chipper. Our unique machines quickly and efficiently convert whole trees into dimensional chips. Now featuring eight high-powered machines to maximize productivity. Choose the machine that’s right for you: two-wheel feed, four-wheel feed, or five-wheel feed systems effortlessly pull and crush material.

Replacement components for solid fuel combustion systems

Powerhouse Tech produces and inventories key replacement components for all solid fuel combustion systems: grates, rails, chains, seals, and nozzles. The company supports all major brands of traveling grate or reciprocating grate furnaces, along with major brands of circulating fluidized bed (CFB). They are well known for their ability to produce longer lasting metal components. Unlike most OEMs, Powerhouse Tech is willing to improve existing designs based on client ideas.

6750 Millbrook Road • Remus, MI 49340

1-800-952-0178 • 1-989-561-2270

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Stationary electric grinder

Titan Horizontal Grinder processes high volumes of stumps, land clearing debris, and urban wood material into biomass fuel for Gre Energy in Thailand. This stationary electric grinder features dual electric drive motors and a fully proportional hydraulic feed system for efficient processing of diverse feedstocks. The heavy duty multi-strand drag chain in-feed and large diameter power feed roll provide superior feeding of large batch loads. The massive grinder features a 54" diameter by 72" rotor assembly with rigid hammers and replaceable tips. The 800 HP electric drive system utilizes dual 400 HP motors for efficient and economical operation. Modular sizing screens insure a consistent sized finished fuel product. Machine capacity ranges from 40 to 100 tons per hour, depending on feedstock and finished product size. WSM Titan Horizontal Grinders are available in a range of sizes with drives from 500 to 1500 HP. West Salem Machinery



Dual shaft shredder

Vecoplan offers the unique Hurricane dual shaft shredder. This heavyweight, two-story high machine is designed to process C&D debris, MSW, plastics, wood, paper, and all types of organic matter. The Hurricane’s throughput of 100 tons-plus per hour makes quick work of big municipal composting projects, alternative fuel preparation jobs, as well as large scale recycling and size reduction needs. A dedicated drive motor powers each of the Hurricane’s twin cutting rotors. These are available as either hydraulic drive motors or Vecoplan’s patented energy saving HiTorc electric drive motors. Other features include: hydraulic aggregates with high torque pumps, encased in sound enclosures; a center anvil with a replaceable hard faced counter knife and removable screen grates for consistent particle output size; hydraulically operated double-wing drop-down doors for easy access to the cutting chamber; and built-in tramp metal protection to minimize downtime. The Hurricane’s exclusive closed rotor design sets it apart in durability and performance but, more importantly, in ease and speed of maintenance—from the open disc, segmented rotor designs found on conventional counter rotating twin shaft shredders. Hurricane Pre-Shredders are offered in six models, all of which are available in both stationary and portable configurations. Vecoplan |

PETERSON’S Patented Impact Release System

Minimizes damage caused by contaminants.

Full-service electrical contractor BLUE is the color of POWER. BLUE is the color of RELIABILITY. BLUE is the color of PETERSON. Heavyweight performance in a middleweight package! For high production combined with portability Peterson is the one name to trust. Less downtime, higher productivity. Ask us!


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Electrix, LLC is a full-service electrical contractor specializing in alternative energy, heavy industrial, and advanced technology markets. The company’s experience in the renewable energy sector includes multiple biomass plants, and they recently completed a processing facility for Reklaim Technologies that reclaims energy, carbon, and steel from recycled tires. Electrix, LLC has completed projects and are licensed in most of the Western States and across the nation, including Alaska, Florida, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, California, Mississippi, Alabama, Arizona, Oregon, and Washington. They focus on highly technical projects with mission-critical schedules; and pride themselves on quality work and the ability to safely and successfully manage complex projects with operational excellence, ahead of schedule, and within budget. Their commitment to safety has resulted in a 2008 EMR of .62 and industry recognition. Elextrix, LLC |

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energy efficiency

Re-charging battery life When it comes to batteries, many consumers are in the habit of buying cheaper batteries and throwing them away once the battery’s strength is gone. A company called Responsible Energy Corporation aims to educate consumers about how using throwaway batteries negatively affects the environment. The company gears its energy toward marketing rechargeable batteries for all common uses—or green batteries that can be used again and again. Responsible Energy Corporation realizes that even consumers who buy rechargeable batteries will often only buy these for the products that require them…digital cameras, games, portable music players, GPS, and other electronics that normally drain the life from a battery quickly. With more than 15 billion batteries being produced and sold worldwide annually, the company is promoting the use of rechargeable batteries, no matter what type of product or how efficiently the product uses a battery’s energy. “Many of the batteries being sold are alkaline batteries. These are discarded after a single use. We want to change that by encouraging folks to spend just a little more now on rechargeable batteries to save hundreds of dollars later, while simultaneously contributing to a greener planet,” said company owner Curtis Randolph. What many do not realize is the environment suffers in a three-fold manner with this many disposable batteries being sold each year. For one, batteries are often disposed of improperly. Secondly, battery factories have to use extra time and energy (along with dangerous chemicals) to create more batteries. Lastly, consumers spend their money on more batteries than are really needed throughout the year, not realizing how much they could save by simply switching to rechargeables. “Think of the new energy saver light bulbs that have become so popular in recent years. Sure, you can still get the cheaper varieties, but the energy-saver bulbs last years longer and save the consumer many dollars on their energy bills…the benefits are similar with rechargeable batteries,” said Randolph. Consumers can save money by

switching to Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) batteries. Whether AA or AAA batteries are needed, users can easily and affordably replace them with NiMH to enjoy a much longer battery life. Lithium Ion (li-ion) batter-

ies are not normally available in consumer sizes and voltages, but there are some exceptions. Visit to learn more. This site also offers other green battery related products, such

as solar battery chargers, battery testers, converters, holders, adapters, and more. Responsible Energy Corporation

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energy efficiency Green computing

Userful Desktop is a complete public computing solution that allows users to manage, monitor, and multiply PCs from a simple administration website. Userful Multiplier software can create up to 10 independent workstations from a single, standard computer box by simply attaching extra monitors, keyboards, and mice. It is simple to install and configure, offering


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virus-free settings and over 40 applications, supporting over 30 languages. Turning one computer into 10 reduces CO2 emissions by up to 15 tons per year, per system, and reduces electronic waste by up to 80%. In 2008, Userful users saved over 40,000 tons of CO2 emissions over what would have been generated with stand-alone PCsâ&#x20AC;Śthatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the equivalent of taking 7,000 cars off the

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road, or planting 10,000 acres of trees. This technology has made it feasible for schools in developing regions to give their students computer access. It started with 2,205 Userful Multiplier desktops in 105 South African schools and, most recently, the company has provided thousands of desktops to Brazilian schools. Userful |

The Climate Group launches Forward Chicago

The Climate Group, in collaboration with Chicago 2016 and the City of Chicago (a member of The Climate Group), officially launches Forward Chicago, a unique public-private partnership that engages leading area businesses and local, non-profit organizations. By bringing together the resources and expertise of the public and private communities, Forward Chicago seeks to help the city achieve its greenhouse-gas emissions reduction targets, â&#x20AC;&#x153;greenâ&#x20AC;? the bid for the Olympic and Paralympic Games, and leave an environmental legacy for all Chicago residents. In June 2008, The Climate Group and Chicago 2016 introduced 21st Century Green Centers, geographically targeted areas surrounding proposed Olympic and Paralympic venues, a concept that was born out of Chicago 2016s environmental advisory council. Forward Chicago furthers this initiative by providing an ongoing platform for the programâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s partners and participating companies to work collaboratively to make Chicago the greenest, most environmentally friendly city in the country. Based on existing research, Forward Chicago has identified three major environmental challenges facing Chicagoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s neighborhoods: urban heat island effect, open space, and greening and flooding. Each 21st Century Green Center will feature business and nonprofits working together, focusing on various sustainability initiatives that support Mayor Richard M Daleyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ambitious plans to make Chicago the most environmentally friendly city in the country. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Through this ongoing partnership, we look forward to helping Mayor Daley achieve his ambitious plans to reduce the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s greenhouse emissions to 25% below 1990 levels by the year 2020, and to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050,â&#x20AC;? said Michael Allegretti, The Climate Groupâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s head of government relations, North America. The Climate Group

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eventscalendar MARCH 2009 24-25 Geothermal Innovation & Investment San Francisco, CA; 30-APR 3 National Hydrogen Association Conference & Hydrogen Expo Columbia, SC – Columbia Metropolitan Convention Center; APRIL 2009 7-8 Carbon TradeEx America Washington, DC – Walter E. Washington Convention Center; 15-16 Global Marine Renewable Energy Conference Washington, DC – Carnegie Institution for Science 15-17 Canadian Geothermal Energy Association Conference and AGM Vancouver, BC; 27-28 2009 International Biomass Conference & Trade Show Portland, OR – Oregon Convention Center; 27-29 2009 Implementation of Renewable Energy in the Emerging Markets of Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean Conference (REEM09) San Francisco, CA – Hotel Nikko; 27-29 Energy Efficiency Global Forum & Exposition 2009 Paris, France – Palais des Congres; MAY 2009 3-6 Solid Waste & Recycling Conference with Trade Show Lake George, NY – Sagamore Resort Hotel ; 3-7 Clean Technology Conference & Expo 2009 Houston, TX – George R. Brown Convention Center; 4-7 WINDPOWER 2009 Chicago, Il – McCormick Place Convention Center; 8-14 SOLAR 2009 - American Solar Energy Society Buffalo, NY – Buffalo Convention Center; 11-13 National Hydropower Association 2009 Annual Conference Washington, DC – Capital Hilton Hotel; 18-20 NAWTEC’s North American Waste-to-Energy Conference Chantilly, VA – Westfields Marriott; 18-20 OPTOmism Conference & Exhibition Santa Clara, CA – Santa Clara Convention Center; 20-21 ALL-ENERGY ’09: The 9th Renewable Energy Exhibition and Conference Aberdeen, Scotland – Exhibition and Conference Centre; 24-26 ARE GREEN 2010 Conference & Trade Show Washington, DC – Washington DC Convention Center; 27-29 Post-Stimulus Renewable Finance Summit New Orleans, Louisiana – Harrah's New Orleans; 27-29 INTERSOLAR 2009 Munich, Germany – New Trade Fair Centre; JUNE 2009 08-10 PV America Philadelphia, Pennsylvania – Pennsylvania Convention Center 10-11 27th West Coast Energy Management Congress Long Beach, California – Long Beach Convention Center; 16-18 EnergyOcean 2009 Rockport, Maine – Samoset Resort; 17-19 HiT Barecelona: World Innovation Summit Barcelona, Spain – Congress Center of Fira de Barcelona; 17-19 District Energy: CDEA 14th Annual Conference & Exhibition Halifax, Nova Scotia – The Lord Nelson Hotel; 25-27 4th Canadian Solar Buildings Conference Toronto, Ontario – Delta Chelsea, Toronto; 29-JUL 3 European Biomass Conference & Exhibition Hamburg, Germany – CCH: Congress Center Hamburg; JULY 2009 14-16 InterSolar North America 2009 San Francisco, CA – Moscone Center; 8-10 Clean Energy Expo China Beijing, China – China International Exhibition Center, 9-10 4th Annual Investing in Solar San Diego, California – The Hilton Del Mar; 10-12 Art of Being Green Lanark, Ontario – Middleville Fairgrounds, Lanark Highlands;

Send us your clean energy show and event listings. Email information to the Editor at 90

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advertisers’websitedirectory 69 101Pipe & Casing 38 Abilene Industrial Foundation 40 Alternity Wind Power, LLC 88 American Solar Energy Society 41 AMSC Windtec 45 Anderson Trucking Service, Inc IFC APPLIED MATERIALS 27 Apricus Solar Hot Water 78 Association of Energy Engineers 33 Atlas Material Testing Solutions 63 AWEA 4 BAJA Construction Co. Ltd. 85 Bandit Industries Inc 40 Campbell Scientific 70 CanGEA 62 CanWEA 43 Carstensen Contracting Inc 48 CCS-Inc 42 CENTA Corporation 72 Citel Inc 46 Con-tech Systems Ltd IBC DEGERenergie Tracking Systems 39 Dickstein Shapiro LLP 20 Ecology and Environment 21 EnXco 47 ESAB 15 Fagen Inc 61 Fairfield Manufacturing 16 FCI-Burndy Products 44 Fibox Enclosures 52 Flash Technology 49 Garrad Hassan 16 Gexpro Services 50 Global Energy Services 84 Granutech-Saturn 56 Harris Miller Miller & Hanson Inc. 48 Hodge Foundry OBC HPM America 31 HUBER+SUHNER 46 Hydac 53 Hytorc 83 International Biomass Conference and Expo 24 Intersolar North America 51 John Deere Credit Company 74 K-Flex USA 54 KK Integrated Logistics 52 KR Wind 87 Lead Wizard 7 Liebherr Cranes Inc. 55 Lti REEnergy GmbH 58 Ludeca

48 Mattracks 44 Michels 18 Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy LLP 9 Mortenson Construction 36 National City Energy Capital 80 NAWTEC 56 Nebraska Public Power District 25 Next Generation Energy 54 Northwind Solutions 57 NRG Systems 68 Ormat Technologies, Inc 59 Otech Engineering Inc 89 Parker Hannifin Corporation 73 Patriot Solar Group 86 Peterson 26 Pfister Energy 60 Pigeon Mountain Industries 35 PV America 72 Quick Mount PV 12 R&M Materials Handling 88 REFF Wall Street 30 RESOL 32 Roll Forming Corporation 23 Satcon 42 Schleifring North America, LLC 37 Siemens AG 71 Solar Destination 75 Solectria Renewables, LLC 25 Sopogy 18 Space Potential 76 Stiebel Eltron 77 Sunrise Engineering Inc. 3 Tetra Tech 67 Thermasource 72 Think Solar 50 Titan Technologies International, Inc 13 Trade Commission of Spain 50 TRICO TCWIND, Inc 29 Trina Solar 10 Troutman Sanders 60 Turn Energy Maintenance 22 Urecon Pre-Insulated Pipe 12 VBINE Energy 81 Vecoplan, LLC 58 Volkswind USA Inc 79 Waste Expo 11 White Construction 19 Wind Access Engineering Inc 17 Wisconsin Oven Corporation 28 World Innovation Summit 34 Your Solar Home

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Make the most of every sunbeam.

Up to 45 % more energy produced with the DEGERconecter Reflecting the intelligence of the natural world. Solar tracking systems from DEGERenergie exactly align each individual solar module to the most intensive light source – whether the sun is shining or it‘s heavily overcast. An impressive energy gain of up to 45 percent.

Patented control system: DEGERconecter works out the strongest light source at any time of day.

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DEGERtraker: The photovoltaic modules are optimally positioned by the one- and two-axis fastening systems.

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North American Clean Energy - March April 2009  
North American Clean Energy - March April 2009  

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Actof 2009: Will the renewable energy engine be re-started?; Partnering for Acceleration Growth in Wi...