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METHODS OF COOKERY- PART A: ELECTRONIC COOKBOOK Boiling 1. Boiling is the rapid vaporisation of a liquid, such as water, milk, blanc, stock and court bouillon, which occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, 100°C. Water is usually bought to the boil quickly and maintained at a temperature of 100°C. 2. - Farinaceous foods, such as rice, pasta and grains- start cooking by adding to already boiling water, stirring occasionally with the lid off. Cook pasta until ʻal denteʼ. - Root vegetables- start the cooking process in cold water, cover with water and put the lid on. - Bones for stocks and bouillons- start the cooking process in cold water, skim off any scum, simmering only. Blanch bones in boiling water first before before cooking to produce clear stock. - Green vegetables- start the cooking process by adding the vegetables to already boiling water. Refers in cold water to retain colour and texture. - Fresh meat and poultry- start in cold water and cover during the cooking process. 3. Stock pot, steamer, steamer basket, pressure cooker, ladle. 4. - Turn on a stove or gas cooktop. - Fill a stock pot, or other pot used for boiling, with a liquid (either water, milk, blanc, stock or court bouillon). - Bring the water to the boil. - Submerge food in the water and add a lid to the pot, which will conserve energy and bring liquid to the boil faster. - Remove food from the liquid once cooked, if necessary (for example, pasta needs to be removed from water before served). 5. - Take caution when removing hot liquid, always pour away from the body. - Ensure that all equipment and utensils are cleaned prior to use. - Beware of removing lids from saucepans when contents are boiling as steam burns. Remove lid away form the body. - Keep watch on the boiling food, ensuring it doesnʼt over boil. - Donʼt directly touch hot dishes, may cause burns. 6. - Boiled eggs. - Spaghetti bolognese. 7. - Simmering- boiling gently, at a temperature of 95-98°C with gentle surface motion. - Blanching- the process where food is bought rapidly to the boil in salted water and boiled for a short period. Food is refreshed by plunging it into iced water to stop the cooking process. The ratio of food to water for blanching is 10:1. - Al dente- applied to pasta, describing the point in cooking where the food is still chewy when bitten into, translation from Italian “to the tooth”.


8. - When cooking with stock, it may turn cloudy. This is as a result of boiling to vigorously or not skimmed effectively. - The process of cooking is more time consuming, opposed to others, including deepfrying. - When cooking pasta, it may turn too soft, this is as a result of overcooking or not serving fast enough. 9. - Bacteria, including Clostridium Botulinum, is destroyed through boiling food for 10 minutes. - Maximum colour and nutritional value of food is retained through boiling, especially in green vegetables. - Loss of water soluble vitamins B and C is high. - Reusing boiling water in stock, soups and gravies allows lost vitamins to be retained.

Poaching 1. Poaching involves the food to be submerged completely in liquid (such as court bouillon, stock, stock syrup and milk) just below boiling point. There should be no visible movement of the liquid throughout the cooking process.At poaching temperatures, the liquid won't be bubbling at all, though small bubbles may form at the bottom of the pot. 2. - Fresh or dried fruits- usually poached in stock syrup, submerge the fruit within the liquid during the process to ensure no discolouration and uneven cooking. - Poultry- best cooked in boiling liquid, usually stock, sealing in the flavour and retaining moisture. - Seafood- large whole fish should start in a cold court bouillon to enable the cooking process to be even, smaller fish however should be started in a hot court bouillon. - Eggs- best cooked in a deep pan with the water just below simmering, allowing the egg to float and retain an oval shape. - Offal- pre-cooked delicate offal (such as brains and sweetbread) should be cooked before poaching in a court bouillon, aiding to retain its structure during poaching.


3. Pots, saucepans, ladles, spatulas and baskets. 4. - Heat the liquid to boiling point and reduce the temperature until little liquid movement is occurring. - Gently lower food into the cooking liquid and cover, according to food item. - Ensure that the liquid temperature is maintained to 93-95掳C, just below simmering. - Leave food in liquid until fully cooked. - Once cooked, remove the food from the liquid. Reserve the liquid for a sauce, if needed. 5. - Take caution when removing hot liquid, always pour away from the body. - Ensure that all equipment and utensils are cleaned prior to use. - Beware of removing lids from saucepans when contents are boiling as steam burns. Remove lid away form the body. - Take caution when removing hot liquid, always pour away from the body. - Keep watch on the food, ensuring contents don始t spill. - Don始t directly touch hot dishes, may cause burns. 6. - Eggs Benedict. - Poached pairs and passionfruit syrup. 7. - Court bouillon- an aromatic liquid, which enhances the flavour of the food being poached. The liquid contains acid (either with vinegar, lemon juice or white wine), establishing the protein of the food. - Submerge- to place food below liquid during cooking process. 8. - High temperature of the liquid will cause poached fish to be tough and rubbery. - High temperature of the liquid will cause food to break up and overcook. - Discoloured fruit occurs when the fruit is not fully submerged into the liquid during the cooking process or was exposed to air (oxidisation). 9. - A loss of water soluble vitamins, including B and C, during the cooking process. - Reusing liquids from the cooking process for stocks, sauces, soups and gravies will retain lost vitamins.


Steaming 1. Steaming cooks is a cooking process by which food, which is suspended above boiling liquid, is surrounded by steam. Steaming is best suited to foods which can be cooked without deterioration of colour, texture and flavour. 2. - Tender cuts of meat. - Poultry. - Dried Fruit. - Vegetables. - Seafood. 3. Convection steamers, high-pressure steamers, combi-steamers, perforated trays, baskets, lids and tongs. 4. - Prepare food as necessary for recipe. - Place liquid in the lower section of the steamer, bringing and sustaining to the boil during the entire cooking process. - Place food on perforated tray. Ensure the steamer has a tight, preventing steam loss and that there is room for steam to freely move around the food. - Once food is cooked, remove from steamer. 5. - Take caution when removing hot liquid, always pour away from the body. - Ensure that all equipment and utensils are cleaned prior to use. - Beware of removing lids from steamer as steam burns. Remove lid away form the body. - Keep watch on the boiling food, ensuring it doesn始t over boil. - Don始t directly touch hot dishes, may cause burns.


6. - Steamed Asian vegetables. - Steamed buns with BBQ pork. 7. - Direct steaming- food is in direct contact with steam. - Indirect steaming- there is a barrier between the food and steam. 8. - Green vegetables are flavourless and not crisp, due to overcooking the food. - Food may be unevenly cooked, due to uneven portion sizes. - Puddings may be cooked but be too soggy, this is as a result of exposure of air and moisture to the pudding. Wrap pudding to prevent moisture from entering. 9. - This method of cookery is extremely nutritious, as there is less nutrient loss that with any other method. Also, the food始s natural colours, flavours and vitamin C remain stable.

Stewing 1. Stewing is the principle of cooking where the food is covered with liquid and cooked slowly. A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in water or other water-based liquid, typically by simmering, and that are then served without being drained. Stewing is a long cooking process. It retains colour and flavour of the food and sauce. 2. - Tough/cheap cuts of meat. - Fresh or ocean fish and shellfish. - Vegetables- garlic, tomatoes, capsicum, zucchinis and all root vegetables. 3. Bratt pans, casserole dished, plastic or wooden spoon. The size of the dish used depends on the amount of food being stewed.


4. - Cut the ingredients into even, bite-size pieces. If using meat, seal and brown it before stewing in a shallow frying hot oil. - Add seasonings and flavourings prior to stewing. Note, the use of salt is not required until the end, as natural salts within the foods add flavour. - Leave the stew to cook, unattended. Ensure that the stew does not turn into a boil. 5. - Ensure that all equipment and utensils are cleaned prior to use. - Use a pot appropriate for the size of the ingredients within the stew. - Use heat-proof gloves when handling hot pots and dishes. - Beware of removing lids from stewing equipment as hot steam burns. Remove lids away from the body. - Take caution when removing hot liquid, always pour away from the body. - Keep watch on the food, ensuring contents don始t spill. 6. - Chicken bacon and mushroom stew. - Bouillabaisse. 7. - Bouillabaisse- traditional French fish stew. - Blanch- cover mea with cold water and bring to the boil, then drain and refresh under cold running water. 8. - Meat may turn out tough, due to being overcooked or the meat is too though for the length of the cooking time. - If the stew is not skimmed adequately, fat is not trimmed from meat or stew is left standing too long prior to service, the sauce will appear and taste greasy. 9. There is little nutrient loss in the process of stewing, as the ingredients either retain their vitamins of loose them in the sauce, which is still consumed.


Braising 1. Braising is when food is slowly cooked in a liquid in a firm-lidded, heatproof vessel.the ingredients are in large pieces and the liquid halfway covers the meat during the cooking process. The liquid used is the accompanying sauce for the meal. 2. - All kinds of meat- lamb beef, pork, furred and game meat, as well as tough and course meats. - Offal. - Poultry and feathered game meat. - Vegetables- celery, fennel, leek, lettuce, cabbage and onion, as well as root vegetables. 3. A heavy, thick-sided pan with a tight fitting lid, known as a braisiere. The size of the pan should reflect the size of the food being cooked. 4. - Preheat an oven or stove on low heat. - Blanch the vegetables before cooking. - Seal the meat in hot fat or oil to retain the meat juices, providing colour and flavour to the base sauce. - Check that the braising temperature is at 180-200째C for meats and 140-160째C for vegetables. Ensure that the food is cooked for a long and slow period of time, ensuring the interchange of flavours from the meat, vegetables and liquid. This process helps the breakdown of connective tissue in meat and enables the juices to enter the cooking liquid, giving it flavour. - To check if cooked, push a skewer through food, with little resistance. 5. - Ensure that all equipment and utensils are cleaned prior to use. - Use a pot appropriate to the size of recipe. - Use heat-proof gloves when removing hot dishes from oven or stove. - Take caution when removing lids from dishes as steam burns. Remove lids away from the body. 6. - Braised lamb shanks and penne pasta. - Braised chicken in white wine. 7. - Mirepoix- evenly diced vegetables. - Marinade- used to impart flavour, tenderise and preserve. Can be cooked liquid, uncooked liquid or dry. A reduced marinade is used to intensify the aromatic flavour of some dishes.


8. - If the temperature is too high during the cooking process or the lid is not tight enough when cooking, there may be a loss or liquid or over-thickening of the liquid. - Is the stove or oven is too hot during the cooking process or the meat has been cooked for too long, the meat will shrink. - The sauce will be too thin is it is not reduced enough or too little thickening is added. 9. Minimal nutrient loss occurs in the braising method of cookery as all nutrients lost from meat and vegetables remain in the cooking liquid and are reused as a stock or gravy.

Roasting 1. Roasting is where food is cooked in an oven, using indirect dry heat, suitable for slowly cooking large pieces of meat. 2. - Vegetables grown in winter- pumpkin, zucchini, potato, turnip, parsnip, cauliflower, squash and peppers. - Large cuts of meat, with or without the bone. Game and poultry are suitable. 3. Ladles, spoons, meat forks, roasting equipment including specific racks, meat thermometer and pans. The size of the pan used should be appropriate for the food cooked. 4. - If necessary, trim or truss meat prior to cooking. - Set the oven temperature on a temperature appropriate for the size and type of meat. A higher temperature will seal the meat juices within the meat and promote a brown crust. Reduce the oven temperature once meat has reached its desired colour to prevent it from drying out.


5. - Ensure that all equipment and utensils are cleaned prior to use. - Use a dish appropriate to the size of recipe. - Take caution when removing roast from the oven. Use appropriate heat-proof gloves. 6. - Roast leg of lamb and rosemary. - Roast chicken and winter vegetables. 7. - Trussing- the wrapping of meat prior to roasting using twine or elastic netting to hold it in shape and allow for even cooking. This is used on large cuts of meat and poultry, where the legs are tied together. - Meat thermometer- indicates the internal temperature of the meat. It is an accorate measurement of 驶doneness始. 8. - If food is overcooked it will be overcooked and dry. This can occur if oven is too high, turning was not complete, meat needed larding or the meat was not suitable for roasting. - If oven is not hot enough meat will not brown. - If the initial temperature of the oven was too high, trussing was not completed correctly or meat was over-exposed to heat, the surface of meat will burn. 9. Minimal nutrient loss occurs in the roasting cookery method as all the nutrients lost from the meat and vegetables remains in the cooking liquid, later used for a gravy or sauce.

Baking 1. Baking is the principle of cookery where food is subjected to dry heat in an oven. Dry heat converts the water content of the food into steam, which bakes the food.


2. - Meat. - Fish. - Chicken. - All vegetables. - Breads, cakes, etc. 3. Baking trays, water baths and cooling racks. Dishes used for baking will depend on the quantity of food being cooked. 4. - Preheat a gas oven, electric oven, microwave oven or convection oven. - Ensure that the temperature is set during the whole cooking procedure. 5. - Ensure that all equipment and utensils are cleaned prior to use. - Use a dish appropriate to the size of recipe. - Use heat-proof gloves when handling hot dishes. - Take caution when removing dishes from the oven as they will be hot and heavy. 6. - Sour dough bread. - Baked alaska. 7. - Bain marie- a tray of water that food/containers of food are placed in before cooking in the oven. This helps food to cook evenly and assists the setting of the proteins and emulsifiers through slow cooking. - En papillote – refers to the cooking of food in a hot oven in a buttered and sealed envelope or bag made of aluminium foil or greaseproof paper. 8. - If oven temperature is too high or the item was put on the wrong shelf of the oven, foor will be too dark. - Pastry will shrink if there is too much liquid or not enough fat in the mixture; over-mixed or not rested prior to cooking. 9. Minimal nutrient loss occurs in this cookery method as all the nutrients lost from meat and vegetables remain in the cooking liquid and are reused as part of the gravy or sauce for service.


Grilling 1. Grilling is where food is cooked by radiated heat directed heat from above of below the food. The source of heat can be gas, electricity or charcoal. 2. - Any fruit or vegetables. - Fish- should be scaled, skinned and fins cut off. - Meat. - Tomatoes. - Onions. 3. Salamander, spatulas, various grills including charglo griller, charcoal grill, etc, tongs. 4. - Preheat grill before adding food. - Lightly oil the grill to prevent food from sticking. - Cooking times will vary according to the type of food, size, thickness and physical properties. 5. - Ensure that all equipment and utensils are cleaned prior to use. - When grilling, use tongs. - Take caution when dealing with the grill and avoid touching hot surfaces. - Take caution when removing hot foods. - Don始t directly touch hot dishes, may cause burns. - Take caution when using oils to cook foods, ensuring oil doesn始t 驶spit始. 6. - Grilled eggplant and mushroom salad. - Grilled lemon and herb fish. 7. - Barbecuing- food cooked on bars over hot coals or on a hotplate. - Broiling- an American term referring to food grilled under a salamander.


8. - If the temperature of the grill is too low, food, especially meats, will not brown. - Fish will be dry if it is overcooked or the temperature of the grill is too high and fish was not covered prior to the cooking process. 9. Grilling results in little loss of nutrients, however some fat-soluble vitamins are lost with well done red meats.

Shallow-frying 1. Shallow frying is the cooking food categorised by the use of minimal cooking oil in a pan; typically enough to lubricate the pan.As a form of frying, pan frying relies on oil as the heat transfer medium and on correct temperature and time to retain the moisture in the food. Because of the partial coverage, the food must be flipped at least once to cook both sides. 2. - Most vegetables, including capsicum and onions. - Eggs. - Pancakes. - Rice. - Tender cuts of meat, including schnitzels. 3. Low-sided, heavy base pan, palette knives, egg lifters, tongs. 4. - Preheat the pan and oil before adding food. - Drain and season all food prior to cooking. - During the cooking process, move the pan, allowing for the even distribution of heat. - Leave the food on the pan until cook, ensuring care is taken when removed.


5. - Follow correct personal hygiene rules prior to cooking. - Ensure that all equipment and utensils are cleaned prior to use. - Donʼt directly touch hot dishes, may cause burns. - Donʼt allow fat to smoke, it will be hot and catch on fire easily. - Never leave pan unattended. - Place the food into the pan carefully, away from the body. 6. - Chicken schnitzels with lemon, parsley and parmesan. - Shallow-fried scallops. 7. - Sweating- the food is partially cooked in butter and oil which enhances the flavour of the dish. Gentle heat and frequent stirring prevents colouring and gives an even cooking of the vegetables. Usually used in preparing ingredients for soup. - Sautéing- a French term meaning ʻbouncedʼ or ʻjumpedʼ, whereby food is browned, whilst preserving its texture, moisture and flavour. 8. - Sautéed vegetables may break or discolour if frying was too flats or slow, if too many were being cooked at the same time, or the food was tossed to vigorously. - If oil is not hot enough or the meat was damp prior to cooking, meat will not brown. 9. Some fat-soluble vitamins are lost during the cooking process. This method of cookery is relatively high in fat.

Deep-frying 1. Deep frying is where food is cooked by fully immersing it in extremely hot fat or oil. This is a fast cookery method and incorporates flavour from the item itself, the coating or batter (if used) and the oil.


2. - Foods coated with a covering, such as batter or breadcrumbs. - Raw vegetables. - Potato batons. - Poultry, meats and fish. - Yeast products. 3. Deep-fryer, tongs, spider strainer, deep-frying basket. 4. - Depending on the food being cooked, set the deep-fryer between 177-195°C. - Season and flavour food prior to cooking. - Test if the oil is hot enough before submerging food by observing if there is a light haze rising from the surface of the oil, or placing a small piece of bread into the oil, if it turns brown immediately the oil is hot enough (if it turns dark too quickly the oil is too hot and needs to be cooled down before food is cooked). - Ensure that there is enough oil in the deep-fryer, but not too much so that when the food is submerged, it doesnʼt overcrowd the fryer and overfill. - Submerge the food and wait until cooked. Food will turn golden brown or rise to the top of the oil. - Remove the food with a spider or frying basket and drain on absorbent paper. - Strain oil after every service, removing excess food particles. 5. - Ensure knowledge of safety procedures for oil fires before operating a deep-fryer. Oil and water donʼt mix, throwing water on oil fires will make the situation worse. - Use a spider to remove food from the deep-fryer, as well as small food particles. - Filter fat daily after service. - Ensure the correct level of fat is used in deep-fryers, as per manufacturerʼs instructions. - Donʼt allow fat to smoke, it will be hot and catch on fire easily. - Never leave deep-fryer unattended. - Donʼt use any equipment or utensils containing copper, as this will contaminate oils. - Caring for deep-fryers extends the life of equipment. Manufacturerʼs instructions should be followed to ensure warranty is valid. - Keep sleeves rolled down when using deep-fryer to prevent oil burns. 6. - Churros. - Beer-battered fish and chips. 7. - Spider- a circular wire straining device. - Paner alʼanglaise – a coating of flour, then egg wash (equal parts egg and milk), then breadcrumbs. 8. - Ensure that the temperature of the deep-fryer is hot enough, allowing the oil to seal the food as soon as it enters the deep-fryer. - If oil is too hot, food with turn dark and be dry.


9. Fat content in deep-fried foods is high due to fat being the major cooking factor. In addition, fat-soluble vitamins are also reduced within the coating and in deep-fried foods.

Stir-frying 1. Stir-frying involves frying food quickly over very high heat in an oiled pan. While stirfrying, you generally stir continually. A special slope-sided pan called a wok is designed for stir-frying. An open flame heat source such as gas works best when using a wok. 2. - Most vegetables- asparagus, beans, bok choy, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, etc. - Tofu. - Variety of noodles and rice. - Beef, lamb, pork, chicken, poultry, seafood. 3. Wok, all purpose knives, iron palette, iron spoon. 4. - Prepare all ingredients before stir-frying. - Heat the wok, or other stir-frying pan, on medium-high heat at least one minuyte before adding oil. - Cook meat on high heat in order to keep it juicy. Remove the meat before stir-frying the vegetables. Add the meat back into the mix once the vegetables are almost cooked.


5. - Follow correct personal hygiene rules prior to cooking. - Ensure that all equipment and utensils are cleaned prior to use. - Donʼt directly touch hot dishes, may cause burns. - Never leave wok unattended. - Place the food into the wok carefully, away from the body. - Ensure knowledge of safety procedures for oil fires before operating a wok. Oil and water donʼt mix, throwing water on oil fires will make the situation worse. 6. - Thai red curry prawn stir-fry. - Hoisin pork fillet with stir-fried Chinese vegetables. 7. - Boa technique- the wok is heated to a dull red glow. With the wok hot, the oil, seasonings and meats are added in rapid succession with no pause in between. The food is continually tossed, stopping for several seconds only to add other ingredients such as various seasonings, broths or vegetables. When the food is deemed to be cooked it is poured and ladled out of the wok. The wok must then be quickly rinsed to prevent food residues from charring and burning to the wok bottom because of residual heat. - Chao technique – similar to the Western concept of braising. 8. - An overfilled wok will reduce stir-fry method and cause an increase in liquid from the food, resulting in braising, rather than stir-frying. - Keep the temperature high enough and ensuring movement of the ingredients during the cooking process, confirming the ingredients donʼt stick and evenly cook. - Ensure that all ingredients are cut into equal or similar size pieces, allowing for even cooking. 9. Stir-frying is a nutritious cookery method. All nutrients remain due to the cooking process because the ingredients are rapidly cooked; they retain much of their vitamin and mineral content. It is also a low-fat method of cookery due to the pan being so hot that it is possible to stir-fry with very little fat.


Pan-frying 1. Pan-frying is a dry heat cooking method whereby food is semi-submerged in hot oil in a pan on the stove top. 2. - Tender and delicate cuts of meat including cutlets, shortloin, middle loin chops, rump chops. 3. Stainless steel fry pans and deep fry pans. 4. - Pat meat and vegetables dry prior to cooking, as it will not brown and cook properly. - Preheat the pan and oil. - Place the food in the oil and wait until the first side is browned before turning and cooking both sides (the second side requires less time than the first as the food is hotter than when first cooked). - Remove food from pan when cooked, straining food particles from oil. - To keep food crisp after frying, drain it well on absorbent paper. 5. - Follow correct personal hygiene rules prior to cooking. - Ensure that all equipment and utensils are cleaned prior to use. - Donʟt directly touch hot dishes, may cause burns. - Never leave pan unattended. - Place the food into the pan carefully, away from the body. - Ensure knowledge of safety procedures for oil fires before operating a pan. Oil and water donʟt mix, throwing water on oil fires will make the situation worse. 6. - Crumbed lam cutlets. - Pan fried fish fillets with lemon and parsley. 7. - Frying mediums- various oils and fats which do not burn at high temperatures and have long life are most commonly used for frying. - Frying pans or skillets – the base of a skillet should be thick so that the heat spreads evenly and food cooks at the same speed without burning. Copper and cast iron fry pans are preferred because they conduct heat evenly. 8. - An overcrowded pan will cause the food to be soggy and not cook evenly. - Ensure that food is cut evenly allowing for even cooking. - When adding ofd to the hot oil the temperature of the oil will drop. Adding a lot of food will lower it so much that it cannot recover quickly enough before sufficient steam is produced to prevent the oil from infiltrating the food. 9. All ingredient nutrients are maintained in the cooking process. This is due to the rapid cooking technique. Only some fat-soluble vitamins are lost.


gasparovic- methods of cookery  
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