WORK EXPLORING THE THRESHOLDS BETWEEN INTERFACES.
MARCH II STUDENT AT THE GRADUATE
TRANSCE NDENTAL MUSINGS OF OF IDEAS WORKS PORTFOLIO
EXP CHRISOULA LOR KAPELONIS ATIO FALL 009SPRING 015 NS SCHOOL OF DESIGN
A COLLECTION OF PEDAGOGICAL, PROFESSION, AND INDIVIDUAL MANIFESTATIONS
A COLLECTION OF MEDIA AND DIALECTIC IMAGINATIONS
MUL TIDI SCIP LINA EPHEME RY RAL THRESHO LDS
PORTFOLIO OF CHRISOULA KAPELONIS
EXPLORATIONS Media greatly shapes the process.Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s incredible how media has rapidly increased the speed at which we obtain information. Data is constantly streaming through the consciousness of the web into interfaces that interpret it. Man lived in an acoustic space before the advent of writing, and lived in a physical space before the digital. We are now living in an ephemeral space. Gone are the days of linear evolution, of predicted progression. Gone are the days of controlled growth. Things are different now. The internet has procured possibilities that approach infinity, extending thought beyond our capabilities for comprehension. It is limitless in the scope of the human scale. The Internet provides the infrastructure for serendipitous freedom. As a social concept, the repetitious exchange of information is utopian. Our world has become a pixelated continuity. We are living in a strange time; an evolutionary mutation. We are living in a new normal. It is a time where transience is the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s religion and information, is its crack. We are amidst a revolution.
THESIS/ Chrisoula Kapelonis
spy-der THE SECOND EYE Critics: Krzysztof Wodiczko and Anne Liu Architecture of Cultural Prosthetics Harvard GSD Fall 2014
THEY ARE WATCHING US. OUR EVERY MOVE IS BEING TRACKED, ARCHIVED, PROCESSED, AND ANALYZED. OUR WALLS HAVE EARS, OUR WINDOWS EYES, OUR SPACES BRAINS. Today we are living in a digital symphony. A world comprised of a convoluted soliloquy of data transfer. A world where bytes are our currency, and information is our crack. We are living in hyperpixelated massiveness. They are watching us. Our every move is being tracked, archived, processed, and analyzed. Our walls have ears, our windows eyes, our spaces brains. The world is watching. Top row: Detail photos of device. Bottom images from left to right: Security Camera Footage Collage, Axonometric of Movement.
SPY-DER/ CHRISOULA KAPELONIS How can we defend ourselves against a world so untrustworthy, and discreet? Simple. We track it back. The [SPY]der dress reverses the role of surveillance, to make the user and the surrounding population aware of the presence of security cameras. When the dress senses the presence of security cameras, it engages by lifting its arms. The closer the wearer gets to the gaze of the camera, the higher the arms raise. Once they are within the cone of vision, the arms point in the direction of the camera, both seducing and fighting with its gaze.
Top left image: Diagram of Alertness. Bottom left image: Plan of Device. Images on right page: Activated Device. Following page: Details of Prosthetic.
SPY-DER/ CHRISOULA KAPELONIS
egoskeleton DEFENSIVE SECOND SKIN Critics: Krzysztof Wodiczko and Anne Liu Architecture of Cultural Prosthetics Harvard GSD Fall 2014
EGOSKELETON/ CHRISOULA KAPELONIS Top left image: Disengaged Back.. Bottom left image: Detail of Module. Images on right page from left to right: Front of Device, Back of Device
EGOSKELETON: (N).A SECOND SKIN MEANT TO PROTECT THE INNER AND OUTER SELF. [EGO] ME + [SKELETON] SUPPORT
We are partaking in the juxtaposition of two unique epochs: the Age of Anxiety + the Age of Narcissism. This is a time of massive surveillance living in conjunction with the love of attention. The EGOSKELETON acts as the users second skin, embedding itself onto the user rather than being an addition.The armor has two goals: DEFEND + SEDUCE. The sensors trigger the arms to move when another person approaches within a distance, mimicking the movements of both fight and dance.
omniveillance DEFENSIVE SECOND SKIN
Critics: Krzysztof Wodiczko and Anne Liu Architecture of Cultural Prosthetics Harvard GSD Fall 2014
OMNIVEILLANCE / CHRISOULA KAPELONIS
We live in a world of second selves; of digital replicas and carbon copies. The virtual blurs the line between the physical self, and its unrestrained extension. We can do or say anything in the digital world because it lacks tangibility. The infrastructure of online surveillance is invisible. It is because of the presence of interface and lack of apparent monitoring, that we can remove ourselves further from repercussions of our actions; a false sense of fearlessness. Top row: Wearing the Device. Bottom image: Inside the Mirrors. Opposite Page: Details of the Device.
OMNIVEILLANCE / CHRISOULA KAPELONIS In order to be truly fearless, one must know all, while knowing themselves; surveillance + sousveillance. The combination of these truths presents the real face of Omniveillance; the monitoring of the world with the monitoring of the self. This piece places the user in a world of duality. The external world is revealed in tandem with the reference of the self, allowing for constant personal awareness within outer context. The hinge distorts the space, blurring the boundary between self reflection and outer observation.
OMNIVEILLANCE: THE MONITORING OF EVERYTHING; AWARENESS OF INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CONTEXT.
wrinkle. DISRUPTING THE EDGE
Critics: Hunter Tura and Amanda Happe Edit to Amplify Harvard GSD Winter 2015
WRINKLE/ CHRISOULA KAPELONIS
A WRINKLE IS A RIDGE, A DISTRUPTION IN A SURFACE. IT IS THE MANEFESTATION OF MEMORY AND CHANGE.
Top row from left to right: Pages of the Book, Book in Encasement. Bottom image: Unfolded Pages. Opposite Page: Poster, Details of Book Pages.
FLAT-SHEET ACTUATED SCURRYING TETRAPOD
In Collaboration with: Spyridon Ampanavos and Jacob Hamman Critic: Chuck Hoberman TA: Jonathan Grinham and Dan Aukes Informal Robotics Harvard GSD Fall 2014
F.A.S.T./ CHRISOULA KAPELONIS + SPYRYDON AMPANAVOS + JACOB HAMMAN HOUSE(S)/ Chrisoula Kapelonis
F.A.S.T IS A WALKING ROBOT WHICH UTILIZES A MODULAR LEG UNIT CONNECTED TO A RIGID BODY. THIS MODULAR LEG IS DERIVED FROM AN ORIGAMI FOLDING PATTERN AND USES A SPHERICAL LINKAGE FOLDING MECHANISM F.A.S.T is a walking robot which utilizes a modular leg unit connected to a rigid body. This modular leg is derived from an origami folding pattern and uses a spherical linkage folding mechanism. Four legs complete the current assembly which is constructed using a lamination technique. Our robot is built up from thirteen flat sheets of different materials which are laminated and then folded into place. This fabrication technique takes advantage of widely available lasercutters and cheap materials to produce a robot that is extremely thin, flexible, and structurally robust. The design of the assembly is focused on reducing complexity of actuation while achieving the ability to autonomously navigate a given environment. FAST achieves forward or backward movement due to a slow, then fast gait which makes static friction with the foot and ground greater than the opposing dynamic friction. Turning is achieved by varying the timing of each foot strike. The ambulatory behavior is reminiscent of a small animal or insect moving hurriedly with short quick steps, which is why we have used the descriptor ,”scurrying”. The electronics and batteries are all housed on the underside of the rigid center allowing for a streamlined visual appearance and capacity for expansion.
Top left image: Wood Module. Bottom left image: Paper Module. This Page: Iterations of Robots.
On this page: Robot with Wired Assembly On right page from top to bottom: Plexi Assembly, Hexpod Assembly, Wired Tetrapod Assembly. On following page: Details of final F.A.S.T. robot.
ruinology A LIBRARY IN RUINS Critic: Jeremy Edmiston Thesis: Studio 5.1-5.2 Fall 2013-Spring 2014 Spitzer School of Architecture
RUINOLOGY/ CHRISOULA KAPELONIS
FRAGILITY: THE UNEASYNESS THAT AT ANY MOMENT, NORMALCY CAN RETURN TO RUIN.
Today we live in an ephemeral state. A transitional period where the lines of reality and simulation are blurred. We are embarking on a threshold to a pure digital state. All forms of media are rapidly transcending from an analog existence to their non-physical counterpart. For some mediums, the transition seems natural, almost necessary for the evolution of its being. But for others, the analogical nostalgia is triggered, And resistance is eminent.
On this page: Ghost Buildings of Roosevelt Island from 1700s to current. On opposite page: Drawing the Ruin and the Invisible Elements, Model of the Ruining.
But, Is it all truly pure nostalgia?
RUINOLOGY/ CHRISOULA KAPELONIS
What is the role of the library now that it has lost its power as the primary search tool? The internet has procured possibilities that approach infinity, extending thought beyond our capabilities for comprehension. It is limitless in the scope of the human scale. The Internet provides the infrastructure for serendipitous freedom. Yet, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s utilization as an immortalizing tool is often undermined. As a social concept, the repetitious exchange of information is utopian; in practice, it is withdrawn from its ideal state as a superpower.
Top Image: Unfolded Elevation of Ruin. Bottom images from left to right: Twisted surface model, Enclosure surface model, Section through Ruin and New Library.
the ruin in use
heal the seal
The building was used as a Smallpox Hospital from 1856-1875 and then as the Nurses Training school until the 1950s.
Walls that are not salvageable need to be torn down and replaced with new materials/forms.
The building was used as a Smallpox Hospital from 1856-1875 and then as the Nurses Training school until the 1950s.
abandonment After Charity Hospital closed and moved its facilities to Queens, the building was abandoned in the 1950s and left to ruin
Collapse Over the years, the elements started to accelerate the depletion of the building, eventually leading to the rood collapse.
Parasite Vines and other forms of vegetation (even trees) started to grow within and on the ruinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s walls. This caused cracks and mortar issues.
Failure In 2007, the North wall collapsed after years of water seeping through the tops of the walls. Moisture trapped made the mortar fail.
The walls of the ruin become a container for the insertion of foreign architecture. The walls become objects, rather than integrations with the interior.
The addition of steel or masonry structure provides support to prevent the ruin walls from collapsing.
build a roof
The new is integrated with the cracks of the old. It becomes a part of the old fabric.
The roof provides both structural support and environmental protection for the walls of the ruin.
exhibition The ruin is untouched, put on display for the inhabitants to experience it frozen in time.
protection The new architecture engulfs the ruin to protect it from the elements.
cover edges The biggest issue plaguing the ruin is the water damage from the tops of the walls. In order to prevent water from seeping through and damaging mortar, the edges need to be sealed.
underpin If the soil near the ruin has been drastically shaken, the foundation of the ruin could be failing. In order to remedy this issue, sometimes foundation repair and underpinning are necessary.
AD & BUL
SEC ED BY THE
- 1857 OF WAR
RY OF WAR
6" CL PI
CB BURIED CONC ROADWAY
AP OF NYCT
(R) (R) 12"INV=4.50 CB
12"INV= 4.89 (R)
STONE WALL W/CONC CAP
BURIED CONC ROADWAY
(R) BURIED N FOUNDATIO 6" INV= 7.95
BURIED FOUNDATION/ FILLED HALF-BASEMENT
(R) (R) (R) (R) (R)
BURIED FOUNDATION (R)
BURIED CONC ROADWAY
BURIED CONC ROADWAY (R)
STRECKER LABORATORY (R)
BURIED FOUNDATION/ FILLED-HALF BASEMENT
FOR EASEMENT "F" THE NEW YORK COMPANY TELEPHONE (SEE NOTE NO.4)
SUBWAY WORK ENTR.
BURIED CONC ROADWAY
CONC SLAB/W SUBWAY
BURIED CONC ROADWAY
BURIED N FOUNDATIO
8' CLF & MET SHEETS
3 STORY BRICK & STONE BUILDING (ABANDONED - SMALL POX HOSPITAL)
R = 70.0' L = 63.2'±
R = 50.0' L = 78.5'±
D LINE APPR
OVED BY SECR
ETARY OF WAR
4.67 8" INV= 4.71
8' METAL & CLF
D & BULKHEA
- 1857 & MOD
4" INV= 7.90 LIMITS OF PILINGS FOR PIER REMAINS
(EASTER RIV CHANNEL)
APPROX. LOCATI ON OF NYCTA SUBWA Y TUNNEL
(EAST CHANNEL) RIVER
The issue lies in the structure of our psychology and generational values. We are sloths; over saturated with so much information that our brains have become desensitized. Truly numb. Instead of surpassing our current realm of knowledge, we dismiss the vastness of our technologies and focus on the task at hand, one small enough to be tangible. This is where the library emerges from the ashes. Opposite Page: Catalogue of Ruin and Rejuvination, Model of the ruins of Roosevelt Island. This page, from top to bottom: Site Plan, Model of ruining.
mrkt EPHEMERAL FOOD
Critic: Joan Krevlin Studio 4.2 Spring 2013 Spitzer School of Architecture
MRKT/ CHRISOULA KAPELONIS
THE MARRIAGE OF CRAFT AND COLLABORATION FOSTERS INNOVATION; A BROOKLYN STAPLE.
On opposite page: Second Floor Plan. On this page, from top down: First Floor Plan, Third Floor Plan, Roof Plan.
MRKT/ CHRISOULA KAPELONIS The site: a broken rhythm of frozen harmony. It serves as the threshold between the pixelization of townhouses to the south, and the monotone massiveness of the northern civic buildings. The solution; a market/incubation space. The textured nature of these programs allows for a rush of people coming to interact with the site, attracting them further along the Avenueâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s journey, and space for culinary masters to practice their art. The building becomes and extension of Atlantic Avenue; a city within a city.
On opposite page from left to right: Massing Sequence, Vendor Breakdown. On this page from left to right: Section thorough vendor spaces, Section through market space, Front Elevation.
manhattanism ANONYMOUS D. COMPETITION HONORABLE MENTION In Collaboration: Artur Dabrowski Anonymous D. Competition Summer 2013
MANHATTANISM/ CHRISOULA KAPELONIS + ARTUR DABROWSKI MANHATTANISM: WHERE CONGESTION = CONGREGATION NEW YORK -- Manhattanism begins with the story of creation. Time ago, religious buildings were fashioned as the cultural and physical cores of our urban enterprise. These pivotal formal expressions were the foundation for symbolic resonance and a focal point for the eyes of the people. It was understood that within such tangible dimensions, an intangible, spiritual importance was emanating. But as the urban constructions became more complex, these places of dedicated spiritualism started to lose its hallowed ground. Towers of offices and residences soared and like a chess game of Manhattanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s blocks, lot by lot was dominated by these idolatrous objects. Soon the spiritual centers, overshadowed by these new urban manifestations, occupied the negative space of the city.
THE MODERN PILGRAMAGE TO THE SQUARE BECOMES A JOURNEY NOW WROUGHT WITH THE ELEMENTS THAT DEFINE OUR SOCIETY: THE DIGITAL, THE NATURAL AND THE SEDUCTIVE.
On opposite page, from top to bottom: Rendering of enclosure in Greenway, Rendering of Greening of TImes Square. On this page: Rendering of elevated pilgramage.
MANHATTANISM/ CHRISOULA KAPELONIS + ARTUR DABROWSKI
AS CONGESTION OCCURS IN THE NEGATIVE SPACE OF THE CITY, SO MUST MANHATTANISM’S CONGREGATION. BECAUSE DIGITAL TOOLS ALLOW US VENTURE OUTSIDE AND EXPERIENCE THE WORLD BEYOND, TO PRACTICE MANHATTANISM IS TO PARICIPATE IN A DERIVE, AS THE SITUATIONISTS UNDERSTOOD, THROUGH MANHATTAN’S MANY “ISLANDS.”
Spiritualism lost its poetic formalism as architects desecrated land to build style and visions in the image of their egos. As these tangible obsessions became more apparent, materialism prevailed. The logic was simple; all things tangible were perceived as obtainable desires. Spiritual values, in contrary, were beyond immediate satisfaction. But as the machines continued to perfect these objects, the world witnessed the emergence of a digital commodity. Information, was the embodiment of knowledge and communication; intangible like faith, but obtainable like other material desires. People, through the transference of kilobytes, exercised a new spiritualism. As we consumed more and more of this intangible experience, we understood the destruction wrought by our urban masterpieces. And so the urban city, in dismay of its cold palette, awoke with a new passion to renew its forgotten negative space. But our spiritualism has transformed; we seek intangible connections though tangible objects.
fjordFALL 120 HOURS COMPETITION In collaboration: Jasmine Ibrahim and Berta Cus贸 Cuquerella Critic: Joan Krevlin Spring 2013
FJORDFALL/ CHRISOULA KAPELONIS THESIS/ Chrisoula Kapelonis
THE TERMINAL MUST SING THE HARMONIOUS SONG OF THE FJORD. WE TUNED TO LISTEN.
Serenity: the spirit of Geiranger. One must embrace the rule of the natural in order to play in the symphony of landscape. The terminal must sing the harmonious song of the fjord. We turned to listen. The strong presence of the seven sisters waterfalls inspired the whole system of the terminal. The waterfall became a source of energy, image of identity, and a closer and more intense experience through a new path that allows the visitors to climb the mountain following the water line. On opposite page: Section through Hydroelectric system, Inspiration Images. On this page: Terminal Extension into the Mountain.
FJORDFALL/ CHRISOULA KAPELONIS
The fractal structure of the form became the defining pattern of the shipâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s terminal, giving it the organization and elegance it needed. A light ramified surface shapes the docks, which include programs for locals and foreigners, such as fishing facilities, bike and kayak rental, while an organic unifying mesh covers parts of the waterfall-fjord system varying in its to serve the different programs. On opposite page from top to bottom: Process Diagram, Intervension at cruise boat entrance. This page: Night Rendering of Entire System, Solution Diagram, Plan of System.
PLACE/ Chrisoula Kapelonis
i-dorm PHYSICAL SOCIAL NETWORK Critic: Timothy Collins Studio 4.1 Fall 2012 Spitzer School of Architecture
I-DORM/ CHRISOULA KAPELONIS
The current system of education is weak; It’s boring, It’s uninspiring, It’s safe. But it is efficient, For the means of standardization. So even though other methods could plausibly yield greater results, We stick to what is easiest. Easiest for the educator, Easiest for the student And easiest for the system. On this page: Plan of Unit, Section of Unit. On opposite page: Section through dorms and street, Second Floor Plan
THE DORMITORY AS THE PHYSICAL SOCIAL NETWORK. THE COLLABORATION OF ARCHITECTURE AND CHANCE.
I-DORM/ CHRISOULA KAPELONIS
True learning, True knowing, Does come from immersion in the idea. I agree, that in reality, we understand concepts as whole ideas, Not divided by disciplines. Imagine a world where people learned in these unconventional atmospheres. It would be beautiful, no? On opposite page from top to bottom: Rendering of Facade, Diagram of Interactions. On this page: Section through public to private spaces, Section through Street, Ground Fl Plan
house[s] DOUBLE LIVING
Critic: Elisabetta Terragni Studio 3.1Fall 2011 Spitzer School of Architecture
HOUSE[S]/ CHRISOULA KAPELONIS
“FOR OUR HOUSE IS OUR CORNER OF THE WORLD. AS HAS OFTEN BEEN SAID, IT IS OUR FIRST UNIVERSE, A REAL COSMOS IN EVERY SENSE OF THE WORD...”
â&#x20AC;&#x153;...As has often been said, it is our first universe, a real cosmos in every sense of the word. If we look at it intimately, the humblest dwelling has beauty.â&#x20AC;? The Poetics of Space Gaston Bachelard. Because of the scale of the art, Architecture is immersive; allowing it to foster intimacy aallows for the user to connect with a space, constructing their own reality and relationship with it. As a child, a corner space might bring joy, a cradling nook where one can play with toys. This memory, will be forever engrained in the mind, so the next time he enters a space with similar conditions, warmth of familiarity will ensue, and the space will be perceived as beautiful. Architecture has a particular conversation with the inner self. When one experiences a space, it is perceived as a sequence; Architecture is relational. On opposite page: Rotating Perspective Plans. On this page from top to bottom: Site Plan, Axonometric of Circulation and Bones.
On this page: Picture of model showing all levels: On opposite page from left to right: Picture of moment in writerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s house, Sections showing how stairs sculpt two houses.
place ORGANIC SPACE
Critic: Nandini Bagchee Studio 1.1 Fall 2009 Spitzer School of Architecture
PLACE/ CHRISOULA KAPELONIS The feeling of place is intangible. It is a state of being, not a physical object. It, being a qualitative entity, cannot be fully understood; only assumed. And yet, the sense of place is the driver of many of our everyday decisions.
PLACE IS THE MOMENT OF BELONGING; ITâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S THE INSTANTANEOUS ASSOCIATION.
On opposite page from top to bottom: Axonometric, Section. On this page: Model from Below.
PLACE/ CHRISOULA KAPELONIS HOUSE(S)/ Chrisoula Kapelonis On this page: Photo of model from side, On opposite page: Detail of parametric systemm Sections, Plan, Perspective.
metrics DESCRIPTIVE GEOMETRY In Collaboration: Artur Dabrowski Critic: Bradley Horn Descriptive Geometry Summer 2010 Spitzer School of Architecture
j2 m2 h2
e,f di l
WHEN RATIONAL THOUGHT AND POETRY COEXIST ARCHITECTURE RESONATES.
METRICS/ CHRISOULA KAPELONIS Architecture is a marriage between purity of function and beauty of form; a contradiction. In its truest form, it is meant to house, to shelter. Architecture is about enclosure, And protection from the elements. Architecture is in itself, a practical art. But, within this function, aesthetic quality still resonates, because architecture is also about place.
f2 i2 l
On both pages: Spatial excersices using the process of 2D Descriptive Geometry.
m2 i2 j2
synthetics UNSEEING THE FAMILIAR Independent Project started in 2012
SYNTHETICS/ CHRISOULA KAPELONIS
NEIGHBORHOODS ARE INTEGRAL TO THE FABRIC OF THE CITY. THEY ARE THE PIXELS THAT COMPRISE THE IMAGE On this page: Collage of Greenpoint looking East/West. On opposite page: Collage of 14th Avenue, Whitestone.
SYNTHETICS/ CHRISOULA KAPELONIS
To understand the city, one must look at it from all scales. The street, with its built areas and voided spaces. The district, with its blocks of commonalities And finally, the city, A homogenizing entity, the final picture.Every scale has its own identity, Its own temperament .But when viewed from afar, those identities mold to form, Its character. From top to bottom: Collage of 135th street and Boradway, Collage of Manhattan Skyline from the Hudson River, College of Smith Street, Brooklyn.
A STORY OF DECLINE Critic: Jeremy Blatter Media, Method and Practice Harvard GSD Fall 2014
DE-TROIT/ CHRISOULA KAPELONIS
THE GLOSS OF TECHNOLOGY IS PERPETUATING THE INITIATION OF AN ARCHITECTURAL EXPIRATION DATE. OBSOLESCENCE; THE OMINOUS GROWTH TOWARDS IRRELEVANCE. We have a pandemic. Our cities are no longer honest. Our cities are riddled with infants; inexperienced structures of form. Architecture has become fashion, where priority in innovation exceeds sustainability. We are embarking on a pandemic of disappearance. The current state of architecture is one embedded in the desire for rapid transformation. We no longer strive for architectural longevity. Our obsessive technological literacy has transformed our process from one of permanence to fleeting ephemerals. On opposite page: Industrial Detroit, Blight Map. On this page: Cultural Map, Expansion of Detroit, Infrastructure Map, Program Diagram, Graph of Population History.
INFO SHORTS/ Chrisoula Kapelonis
SUSTAINABLE PRACTICE SHEETS FOR BKSK ARCHITECTS BKSK Architects Winter 2013 In collaboration with Jennifer Preston and James Wilson
New Marketing Material for the firmâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Sustainable agenda.
GREEN SHEETS/ CHRISOULA KAPELONIS
Perhaps architects should stop designing with the ephemeralness of current practices, and become aware of architectural longevity. If buildings were allowed to adapt to the changing times, as opposed to relying heavily on rapidly obsoleting representations, then perhaps the trajectory of spatial longevity could be saved.
From top left, to bottom right: St. Hildaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s House, Olmstead Center, Queens Botanical Garden, Schmul Park, Washington Square Park, Mamaroneck Library, 14th Street.
Washington square part BKSK
What is it: Fritted glass takes an enamel or ceramic image and fires it onto the surface of glass. Patterns range from a simple aggregation of small white pixels to complex graphics. Shading is also a benefit and so fritted glass is often used to mitigate solar gain and glare. Benefits: Reduces solar heat gain in the building and energy costs|Maximizes daylighting while reducing glare for occupants|Silent, solid state shading device with little to no maintenance or pollution from operation|Can be applied to create functional and unique design features that are integrated into the building facade Challenges and Solutions: May add to initial costs of installation but can be balanced out by savings on cooling costs and gains on privacy How it Works: Depending on the ratio of the pattern, glass can cross the spectrum of transparent to opaque in one glazing sheet. A pattern is achieved by transferring images onto glass panes which are processed through a ‘horizontal tempering furnace’. The furnace screens a ceramic enamel frit onto the surface of the glass. Common fitted glass patterns include dots, lines, or holes. Ceramic frit can also be applied to glass with a fine mesh screen in order to achieve the desired pattern. $0,000 per sf.
Case Studies: Bank of America: New York, NY : 000,000 sq. ft.
The 945-foot Bank of America skyscraper houses 2.1 million square feet of office space so minimizing solar heat gain in the glass tower was critical. As a result, the 55-story exterior curtain wall features fritted glass with a low-E coating. The ceramic fritting on the glass controls glare and allows for unobstructed views of New York. The glass is floor to ceiling with a white graduated frit, similar to that in a car windshield and at eye level, the glass is completely clear. Diana Center, Barnard College: New York, NY: 000,000 sq. ft.
Translating conventional brick and mortar into an all-glass design, the Diana Center enunciates the material character of glass as “masonry,” through layers of tinted ceramic frit and acid-etched glass. Varying modules of opaque spandrel glass and custom ceramic frit creates a rhythm that reflects the various needs of the mixed-use programming. Composed of 1,154 clear and etched color glass panels, the frits gradate across the surface, modulating daylight and visibility. For architect Marion Weiss, “The vertical frits are biased towards one side, and, like a curtain, offers a sense of domesticity.”
www.bksk.com Schmul Park BKSK
Mamaroneck library: BKSK
Challenges and Solutions: Local regulations initiatives|Can add to initial costs of the facade while re
How it Works: A horizontal and/or vertical project wood, aluminum, concrete and incorporate solar BIPV te rays. Often horizontal louvers are used to prevent the v What is it: Solar water heating systems use the heat of provide passive solar heating. As a result, these passive heat into electricity, bills. solar thermal is generally used directly f
producing photovoltaic (PV) and can offset a larger portion when compared to PV.
What is it: A geothermal heat pump or ground source h Benefits: Generated on site to heat and store water|Low heat to &/or from the ground by using the ground or groun materials|Reduces hot water heating costs. warmer than the air above during the winter & cooler than t What is it: Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPVs) convert solar radiation into electricity on site by utilizing PV elements as an and Solutions: First costs can be miti integral part of the building “skin” (roof or façade.) While serving as both materials for the building envelope and poweragenerator for heat sink (inChallenges the summer) theforsystem takes advantage of rebates up to $4,000 residential and $25,000 non-resid the building, BIPV systems can provide savings in materials and electricity costs, while reducing fossil fuel usage and carbon emissions. operational costs of a building’s heating & cooling systems. BIPV systems may have lower overall costs than PV systems which require separate, dedicated, mounting systems. it Works: A collector, oftentemperatures fastened to a roofare or a HVAC & water How heating since underground Benefits: Reduces energy demand from the utility grid|Minimizes energy costs for the building|Creates functional and unique system) or driven by natural convection (passive system) th design features|Silent|Solid state device with little to no maintenance|No pollution from operation or depletion of materials include heatingtransfer buildings, growing plants inmaygreenhouses, fluid (HTF) for the absorber be the hot water hfr
containing anti-freeze and a corrosion inhibitor which delive Energy generated on site to heat and cool the cooling systems on the market|Can reduce heating & coolin How it Works: BIPVs can be integrated into the façade of a building, complementing or replacing traditional or spandrel glass, or maintenance system thatCase canStudies: last 50+ years|Effective in hu in awnings and saw-tooth designs. They can be used in roofing systems, replacing metal roofing and asphalt shingles or for skylight Queens Botanical Garden: Flushing, NY : 000 improving humidity levels|Low to no emissions or depletion systems as an economical use of PV, creating a distinct design feature.
Challenges and Solutions: Costs can be mitigated by incentives|NYSERDA’s “PON 2112” program offers rebates up to Benefits: $10,500 for residential and $75,000 for non-residential projects
The two scales of brise-soleil at QBG work in tandem to winter sun. The large scale canopy in front of the admin and Solutions: Some sites not acM facade, horizontal louvers mitigate annualcan sun angles. built with locally sourced black locust wood, the louvers mitigated by long term heating/cooling savings
While the majority of BIPV systems are tied to the utility grid, BIPV may also be used in stand-alone, off-grid systems. Grid-tied BIPV’s reduce energy costs for the building owner while the exported solar electricity also helps support the utility grid. Challenges
be high but through December 31, 2016|Initial costs can be financed w
$0,000 per sf.
688 Broadway: NoHo NY, NY: 000,000 sq. ft.
A recent success with the Landmarks Preservation Com heat pumps tap into the ea How it Works: Geothermal masonry rhythms of NoHo. This performative design fea representative from thepump Society for the Architecture of t and cool buildings. A geothermal heat system consist What it: Deconstruction is the contempt selective for dismantlin solar energy Panel say, is of our time without displaying the pas aka borehole (pipes Because buriedofina heightened the shallow ground near the isb awareness of environmental use of the deconstruction services i winter, the heat pumpconstruction removeswaste, heatthefrom heat exchange at is it: In 2012, Delos introduced the WELL Building Standard™ with former U.S. President Clinton, this building standard hardware, trim and lumber is being reused. Another gro process is reversed, construction and the heat pump es primarily on enhancing people’s health and well-being through the built environment. Delos designs include a range of methods during moves the designheat phase from that willth m PV AS roof PV AS Glazing PV AS CLADDING alsoalso makesbe a bigused difference as demolitioh ative health amenities that research suggests will improve various aspects of occupants’ health including: cardiovascular, indoor air during theDeconstruction summer can to provide
atory, sleep, and orthopedic health, weight and metabolism management, stress reduction, mood, cognition and memory ncement, health awareness and behavioral changes. The strategy is to design environments with superior indoor air, lighting, and quality,Case visual Studies: acuity, physical comfort, acoustics and psychological impacts so that occupants’ cardiovascular, respiratory and ne systems can be positively affected by their indoor environment. The Solaire: 20 River Terrace NY, NY : 336,000 sq. ft.
Solaire, a multi-family residential in downtown one of theoffirst designed high-rise to residential efits:The Consideration of occupant healthbuilding and physical needsManhattan, from the isbeginning theresponsibly project|Holistic approach design, towers in NYC and one of toxicity, the first buildings the United States to incorporate use ofwith Building Photovoltaics (BIPV). ng on the occupant|Reduced healthierinbuilding systems and materialsthe chosen littleIntegrated to no off-gassing|Results in independent systems,sleep the BIPV elements in areducing distinctively recognizable building façade. The 33kW of BIPV indoorComposed air, light, ofandthree water quality|Creates inducing andresult stress environments array provides 34,300 kWh/yr for the building, which is 2.8% of annual energy and 5% of peak energy at max power. The project’s annual pollution was reduced by 1,662 tons/yr of CO, 1.9 tons/yr of NOx and 1.9 tons/yr of SOx.
llenges and Solutions: First costs can be high but mitigated by long term health gains|”Luxury” health solutions are attainable to aTower: small percentage the population|No third sq. party Millenium 101 W67thofStreet NY, NY: 340,000 ft. certification process to validate the level of health residential high-rise condo building in downtown Manhattan is an example of sensitive integration of BIPV technology in the vementThis achieved
design of the building. The BIPV array was located on the west face of the mechanical bulkhead at the top of the building while the glass panels utilize aReal darker more efficient solarstrive cell and a dark blue back-sheet blend for intoboth the building’s overalland design. “Wellness Estate” strategies to incorporate all that iswhich beneficial the occupant the The w it Works: installation took two only days. The solar power system, which offers 27.3 kilowatts of peak power, uses 126 BIPV solar panels onment. Real Eatate Developer, Delos LLC spent four years collaborating with doctors and researchers at Columbia University connected to an industrial sized PV inverter.
annually, according to the Deconstruction Institute. Mean
Case Studies: building material waste each year while only a fraction is
salvaging a building’s materials. Community of the Holy Spirit: New York, NY : 000 The 11,000 square foot convent is a leading exampleininlandf sus Benefits: Reduction of solid waste deposited virginofresources|Reduced energy usage andthan emission re square feet solar collectors that provide more 60 pe money while starting process|Results emissions. Completed in thethe falldemolition of 2010 and designed byinBt Challenges andpaid Solutions: Mayfrom needNYCEEC to addre portion of the panels were for by a grant deconstruction|Lack of awareness of decon services & Delta House: Brooklyn, NY: 000,000 sq. ft. than deconstruction
The DeltaHow Houseit isWorks: one of the first mixed-use private develo A number of steps can be taken to soilown of the building’s energy needs—generating its electric lead and asbestos, should be identified and removal sch provide an interesting design element as welletc. asare solar therm aquifier appliances, windows, doors, hardware, removed
dismantled from the roof down. If tax write-offs or LEED storage should be developed, notingheat which items are to be salva al School and Cleveland Clinic, as well as with architects, engineers and contractors, to identify systems, design, and technology is often managed by a deconstruction company. www.bksk.com summer ims to prevent illness while improving occupant health and quality of life through daily exposure to innovative and Case Studies: Green building programs and local jurisdictions are begi h-oriented building features. Shangri-La and Webcor Builders are now partnering with Delos to bring their collective expertise to their compliance programs. The U.S. Green Building Cou r the healthiest design, functionality and construction methods across residential real estate, hotels, and office buildings materials,Flushing, reusing a building shell, recyclin Queens Botanicalsalvaged Garden: NY : and 000,00 ghout California. $0,000 per sf.
tpacking District Loft: New York, NY : 000,000 sq. ft.
WELL Buiding standard
The Visitor & Administration Center at QBG designed by BKS space, meeting rooms, administration offices, and mechanic strategies including geothermal energy for heating and coo recycling, 100% storm water management on-site, a 3,000 over 800 native plant species. Overall the building realizes generates 17.5% of Case its renewable energy on-site. Studies: IRS KansasNY: City Complex: Kansas City, MO : TKTS Booth: New York, 000,000 sq. ft.
The IRS consolidated eight processing centers nationwid The iconic located on a slender triangular-shap unveiled the first “Wellness Loft,” located in lower Manhattan’s Meatpacking District in June 2011. The loft was commissioned for TKTS Booth tasked with developing an economically efficient, environ ily seeking a home that would enhance their lifestyle and optimize their health. It was the creation of this home thatinstitution led to the with a building that is not only anspace. eye-catching office, industrial, and community Consisting of gl 80
are no longer a challenge to green attributes due to NYC’s “Zone Green” educing heating and cooling bills over the lifetime of the building
tion extends from the sun-side facade of a building. Brise Soleil can be made of echnology. They can be static or dynamic and programmed to track the sun’s vertical summer sun falling on the facade, but allow the horizontal winter sun to the sun to provide hot water. While some fluid based collectors can convert e daylighting controls can effectively and inexpensively reduce HVAC energy
for domestic hot water. These systems are less expensive than electrical of utility costs. In general, the payback period on solar thermal is very low $0,000 per sf.
heat pump (GSHP) is a central heating and/or cooling system that pumps w maintenance|No pollution from operation, and no depletion of natural nd water to heat & cool buildings. The shallow ground temperature is the air in the summer. By using the earth as a heat source (in the winter) or igated by rebate incentives|NYSERDA’s “PON 2149” program offers the moderate temperatures in the earth’s surface to reduce the dential. . These systems are amongst the most energy efficient technologies for wall facing the sun, heats fluid that is throughout either pumped (active eamore stable than airworking temperatures the year. Applications hrough the unit. Heat is stored in a hot water storage tank where the heat heating water, andor industrial processes. rom the tank (direct) more commonly, a separate loop of fluid (indirect)
heat to the tank through thermal heat exchange. eersbuilding|One of the most cost-effective &$0,000 longest-lasting heating and per sf. ng costs 25-75% as compared to conventional systems|Low umid areas by maintaining about 50% relative indoor humidity thus sq. ft. n0,000 of natural resources
o shade harsh, hot summer sun and permit the beneficial warmth of horizontal nistration center breaks the direct summer sun rays.While at the scale of the ccomodate a researched geothermal (drilling & exploration) can Many materials were for the system|First louvers and while theycosts were initially were recently replaced with a more durable aluminum. s|A 30% federal tax credit for the installation, with no cap, is available
with Energy Star® loans from banks and other financial institutions
mmission, 688 Broadway uses a vertical terra cotta brise soliel to play on the arth’s steady temperature, between 50° and 60°F (10° and 16°C,) to heat ature of the brise soliel echoes notes of the past with a fresh modern tone. A the City stated thatpump, the designan wasair proofdelivery that "a newsystem building can(ductwork), be, as they ts of a heat and a heat exchange ng of buildings in order maximize reuse and recycling of itsand materials. st." hot to water heater sinks showers
building.) Vertical arecosts 100 to 400 feet deep. In the ssues, sustainable buildingboreholes strategies and typically the increasing of disposing www.bksk.com iserquickly fromindoor stone, brick, wood flooring, and increasing. pumps itEverything into the air appliances, delivery system. In the summer, the owing trend is designing for deconstruction by choosing materials and he air, back into easier the heat exchanger. heat removed from Asthe makeindoor deconstructing the building and more efficient in theThe future. Arsenic on in the U.S. results in 125 million tons of debris hot& renovation water forof buildings the building. $0,000 per sf. nwhile, the New York City construction industry generates 7 million tons of s recycled. As a result, there are benefits and incentives to deconstructing and C4 0,000 sq. ft. Chloroprene Chloride stainable design. The hotmaterials|Decreased water system consists 216 fills while extending the convent’s lifespan of solar salvaged needoffor eleasedoffrom manufacturing, and transporting new materials|Saves ercent therefining, domestic hot water needs, saving 12,400 lbs of CO2 tax write-offs and nearly avoidance of tipping LEEDiscredits BKSK Architects, every aspectfees|Earns of the building sustainable. A Ews Endangered Wood ess hazardous building material disposal issues if identified during C which BKSK helped to obtain Species benefits|Need for more creative reuse of salvaged goods|Can take longer heat exchanger
opments Newcomplete York Citydecon to combine solar wind energy, meeting 100% result in ainmore process. First,and hazardous materials, such as soil city, hot water and heat. The solar thermal panels gracing the exterior, heduled. Next, the building is “soft-stipped” of non-structural elemets so all mal function, aiding in the property’s green energy aquifier d. After the nonstructural deconstruction is complete, theinitiatives. building can be
D points are to be earned, a list of quanities of each material for removal heatofstorage aged, recycled or disposed and the vendors disposing them. This inventory Winter inning to incorporate deconstruction and the use of salvaged materials into uncil’s LEED program gives participants credit for diverting waste, using ng deconstructed 00 sq. ft. building components.
PERSISTENT BIO ACCUMULATIVE TOXICANT (PBT) DEVELOPMENTAL
EYE & SKIN IRRITANT
Cpvc Chlorinated Polyvinyl
Hbr* Halogenated Brominated Flame Retardants
Pfp* Petrochemical Fertilizer
Hexavalent Chromium (VI)
Volatile Organic Compounds
www.bksk.com $0,000 per sf.
From top left, to bottom right: Example of Back of Sheet, Well Building Standard Diagram,
Soleil Diagram, BIPV Diagram, Hot Water Heater Diagram, Ground Source Heat SK Architects, includes a reception area, auditorium, gardenBrise store, gallery Pump Diagram, cal room. This precedent setting site rigorously applies many sustainable Salvage and Deconstruction Diagram, Sustainable Landscape, Red List oling, PVs for solar energy, rainwater and gray water collection and 0 sq ft green roof that mitigates urban heat island effect while sustaining a cost savings of 40.5% compared to a typical building of its size and
000,000 sq. ft.
de into one campus for Kansas City’s Service Center. The project team was ped public park in Times Square, provides a New York City landmark nmentally responsible and healthy building with 1 million sf of commerical lassnewurban sculpture an example of structure, forward-thinking 0% construction and 20%but renovation of an existing diversion of sustainable
SUSTAINABLE MARKETING MATERIAL FOR BKSK ARCHITECTS BKSK Architects Winter 2013 In collaboration with Jennifer Preston and James Wilson
New Marketing Material for the firmâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Sustainable agenda.
IT’S TIME TO MAKE SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES MORE TRANSPARENT. WITH TRANSPARENCY COMES APPLICATION. On opposite page,: Constructed Wetlands. On this page: Proximity to Nature, Green Roof, Well Building Standard.
INTER FACE LESS MEDIA
WORK EXPLORING THE THRESHOLDS OF DESIGN.