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Each of the faces of the six columns of the front facade of the temple had minor panels above and below a central major panel. In the basal minor panel is the jaguar-serpentbird figure (Kubler 1962:Pl. 100A, Tozzer 1957:Fig. 318). In the upper minor panel is the mask type found on the top of the ramps ascending to the South Temple and above and below the central figures on the jambs and pilasters of the Upper Jaguar Temple (Tozzer 1957:Fig. 336). Although none of the columns stand to their original height, and the sculptures cannot be viewed in their entirety, it is evident that they are some of the finest low relief work at Chichén Itzá.

outer chamber and outer jambs of the inner doorway of the Upper Temple of the Jaguars (Maudslay 3:Pls. 37, 38; Seler 5:Figs. 110-112). One of the best examples of dress below the waist occurs on the south face of the west central column (Tozzer 1957:Fig. 577). This individual stands facing the west with feet slightly overlapping and legs coming together just below the knees. The stance is typical of the figures on these columns: lower body in profile, feet in tandem, either overlapping, touching toe to heel, or slightly apart, and legs meeting at or just below the knees. Squareheeled sandals fasten at the front of the foot, with a cord between the great and second toes and between the third and fourth toes. Puffy anklets cover the top of the sandal, and a

One can reconstruct details of posture and costume from the incomplete columns and from the few column drums scattered at the rear of the temple. A characteristic pose for these figures, if they faced to their own right, is to hold a curved stick in their left hand and carry a bag over their left arm, while the right arm is raised to shoulder level across the chest. For the figures facing their own left, the arrangement is just the opposite, with bags over the right arm and curved sticks in the right hand, with the left arm raised across the chest. A large bird-butterfly pectoral, which extends from border to border across the column, covers the chest itself. The simple headdress consists of two feathers, forming a “V” shape, between which are identification symbols such as snakes or quadrapeds. The general arrangement of the pectorals, headdresses, and symbols is not unlike the arrangement of these items on the figures on the north pilaster of the

similar adornment encircles the knee. A shield depicted in half view attaches to the backs of the figures by a tie around the waist, and streamers fall from the shields to calf level. The South Ball Court Temple shares sculptural and architectural features with each of the other ball court structures, but associations are strongest with the North Temple and the Upper Jaguar Temple. The sculptured stairway ramps are similar in style and design in both the North and South Temples, and both structures share the figures in spotted clothing below standing figures on either columns or side walls. In addition, the general lines of architectural design are most similar between these two structures than any of the others. The portrayal of individuals on the columns of the South Temple is most similar to the sculptured 52

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Architecture and Chronology at Chichén Itzá, Yucatán  

Architecture and Chronology at Chichén Itzá, Yucatán