Page 1

HOW DOES YOUR NEIGHBOURHOOD GROW? 2014 EXHIBIT CATALOGUE


HOW DOES YOUR NEIGHBOURHOOD GROW? was produced by the

Centre for City Ecology, in partnership with Agents of Urban Change, with generous support from Urbanspace Property Group and Urbanspace Gallery. The exhibit was first shown from September 26, 2014 to January 3, 2015 at Urbanspace Gallery.

Research, writing, and exhibit design by: CENTRE FOR CITY ECOLOGY Annabel Vaughan Claire Nelischer Thevishka Kanishkan Density model designed by: AGENTS OF URBAN CHANGE Court Sin Craig England Goran Sudetic Special thanks to: URBANSPACE GALLERY + URBANSPACE PROPERTY GROUP Cynthia Mykytyshyn Margie Zeidler Catalogue photos courtesy of Sarah Palmer, Jason Paris (Flickr), and Helge Høifødt (Wikipedia Commons). Catalogue content and design by Claire Nelischer and Thevishka Kanishkan This catalogue is copyright of the Centre for City Ecology, March 2015. All rights reserved.


CATALOGUE CONTENTS EXHIBIT INTRODUCTION THE DRIVERS OF CHANGE INTRODUCTION PANEL DEMOGRAPHICS PANEL POLICY & SOCIAL NORMS PANEL INFRASTRUCTURE & TECHNOLOGY PANEL MARKET ECONOMICS PANEL LAND ECONOMICS PANEL UPHEAVAL & DISASTER PANEL TIPPING POINT PANEL INTERACTIVE CITY-BUILDING MODEL EXHIBIT HANDOUT


INTRODUCTION

In the last decade the unprecedented global migration has made cities a major destination worldwide. Canada tipped the rural urban divide in 2006 with 80% of residents now living in urban centres. Toronto is projected to welcome 100,000+ new residents every year for the next decade - how we deal with this growth will be a testament to our maturation as a city. It marks a tipping point for Toronto - a city that is bursting at its seams, full of crumbling infrastructure and plagued with a transit system that is 30 years behind its capacity to service existing riders. How will we manage this influx of people into our city and our neighbourhoods? It is a complex question that requires innovative models and creative ideas. It will require responsive city building that is driven by creating sustainable neighbourhoods that can accommodate growth without losing the very things that makes Toronto so ‘good’ - its diversity, its connectedness and its remarkable livability while making sure that the city remains affordable and accessible to all. This exhibition is meant to be a provocation for reflection - it is not a comprehensive research project but a series of observations about what precipitates change in a city. It points out moments of growth and looks at radical shifts, subtle aggregations, economic drivers as well as politically motivated and socially responsive strategies that other cities have used to manage their growth. These drivers of change often impact the shape and form of the city that results. It asks the question how do cities cope with and prepare for the constant [or catastrophic] change that seems to be the one constant we share in common and what can Toronto learn from them?


THE DRIVERS OF CHANGE TIPPING POINT The confluence of one or more factors that precludes a necessary shift towards increasing density in the city.

UPHEAVAL & DISASTER A crisis, disaster, or revolution leads to a sudden change in the way the city is imagined and built.

DEMOGRAPHIC SHIFT Neighbourhoods and building types must change to accommodate changing populations.

MARKET ECONOMICS The state of the economy, whether good or bad, has a drastic effect on the development of the built form.

LAND ECONOMICS The value of land awaiting development, and the speculative opportunity placed on the land affects what is built and what the market will bear.

INFRASTRUCTURE & TECHNOLOGY The introduction of the new infrastructure or a change in technology can alter the way the city looks, feels, and functions.

POLICY & SOCIAL NORMS Policies, reflective of social values and norms, alter the city’s natural evolution and produce particular forms of development.

Cityplace in Toronto, Ontario


DEMOGRAPHIC SHIFT DEMOGRAPHIC SHIFT DEMOGRAPHIC SHIFT

Neighbourhoods and building types change to accommodate shifting populations.

DEMOGRAPHIC SHIFT

New building typologies respond to the particularand needs and circumstances of their In many cities, Neighbourhoods building types change to users. accommodate older, compact urban forms reflect thepopulations. necessity to live in close proximity to work, places of worship, and shifting local services. As technology changed and new modes of transit became available, the wealthy often moved out to more spacious suburbs, confining the working class to the dense, walkable central city. However, New building typologies respond to the particular needs and circumstances of their users. In many cities, as apartment buildings gained popularity amongst the middle class, living within walking distance of your Neighbourhoods and types change toplaces accommodate older, compact urban forms reflect the necessity to livebuilding in close proximity to work, of worship, and workplace soon became an urban luxury. This is first seen in developments like Tudor City on Manhattans’s shifting and populations. local services. As technology changed new modes of transit became available, the wealthy often moved East Side, which marketed a walkable lifestyle to new homebuyers. Today, in many cities throughout North out to more spacious suburbs, confining the working class to the dense, walkable central city. However, America and the world, compact, downtown living is the new urban ideal, particularly for younger generations. as apartment buildings gained popularity amongst the middle class, living within walking distance of your New building tocores, the particular needsdensification. and circumstances of their users. In many cities, These groups typologies are flockingrespond to urban necessitating workplace soon became an urban luxury. This is first in developments like Tudor City on Manhattans’s Neighbourhoods andseen building types change to accommodate older, compact urban forms reflect the necessity to live in close proximity to work, places of worship, and East Side, which marketed a walkable lifestyle to new homebuyers. Today, in many cities throughout North shifting populations. local services. As technology changed and new modes of transit became available, the wealthy often moved America and the world, compact, downtown living is the new urban ideal, particularly for younger generations. out to more spacious suburbs, confining the working class to the dense, walkable central city. However, These groups are flocking to urban cores, necessitating densification. as apartment buildings gained popularity amongstneeds the middle class, living within walking your New building typologies respond to the particular and circumstances of their users.distance In manyofcities, workplace soonurban became an urban This is first seen in developments Tudor Cityofonworship, Manhattans’s older, compact forms reflectluxury. the necessity to live in close proximity tolike work, places and East Side, which a walkable new homebuyers. Today, in many the cities throughout North local services. Asmarketed technology changed lifestyle and newto modes of transit became available, wealthy often moved America and spacious the world, compact, downtown is the new ideal, walkable particularly for younger generations. out to more suburbs, confining theliving working class tourban the dense, central city. However, In New York, the marked shift towards higher density, multi-unit These groups are flocking to urban cores, necessitating densification. as apartment buildings gained popularity amongst the middle class, living within walking distance of your residential buildings was sparked by massive waves of European workplace soon became an urban luxury. This is first seen in developments like Tudor City on Manhattans’s immigration throughout the 19th century. The rapid influx of new East Side, which marketed a walkable lifestyle to new homebuyers. Today, in many cities throughout North residents to the city and the necessity to live in close proximity to America and the marked world, compact, downtown is the new urban ideal, particularly for younger generations. In New York, shift towards higherliving density, multi-unit both your place of work and your clustered cultural community These groups are flocking to urban necessitating densification. residential buildings was sparked bycores, massive waves of European led to the proliferation of tenement-houses, the first multi-unit immigration throughout the 19th century. The rapid influx of new Before the massive influx of By 1847, the city had apartment-style buildings in the city. Throughout New York City’s European immigrants in the expanded to meet the residents to the city and the necessity to live in close proximity to demands of its growing 1800s, New York City covered East Village and Lower East Side, many of these tenement-houses a relatively small geographic immigrant population and both your place of work and your clustered cultural community In New York, markedarchitectural shift towardstypology higher density, multi-unit remain as thethe dominant area. industrialization. led to the proliferation of tenement-houses, the first multi-unit residential buildings was sparked by massive waves of European Before the massive influx of By 1847, the city had apartment-style buildings in the city. Throughout New York City’s European immigrants in the expanded to meet the 1900s immigration throughout the 19th century. The rapid1850-1900 influx of new The need for housing for immigrants demands of its 1800s, New York City covered First subways aregrowing constructed, East Village and Lower East Side, many of these tenement-houses near industrial areas residents 1811 to the city and the necessity to live in close proximity toresults in tenement a relatively small geographic immigrant population and enabling residents of outer houses, the first multi-family dwelling remain asAdoption the dominant architectural typology area. industrialization. boroughs to easily commute of Commissioner’s both your place work and clustered cultural community In New York, theof marked shiftyour towards higher density, multi-unit typology in New York City to centre city Plan introduces Grid Pattern led to the proliferation ofsparked tenement-houses, first multi-unit residential buildings was by massivethe waves of European 1850-1900 1900s Before the massive influx of By 1847, the city had The need forof housing apartment-style buildingsthe in 19th the city. Throughout New York City’s First subways are constructed, immigration throughout century. The rapid influx newfor immigrants European immigrants in the expanded to meet the near industrial areas results in tenement enabling residents of outer 1811 1800s, New York City covered demands of its growing East Village and Lower East Side, many of these tenement-houses houses, the first multi-family dwelling residents Adoption to the ofcity and the necessity to live in close proximity to boroughs to easily commute Commissioner’s a relatively small geographic immigrant population and typology in New York City to centre city Plan introduces Grid Pattern remain as place the dominant architectural typology area. industrialization. both your of work and your clustered cultural community led to the proliferation of tenement-houses, the first multi-unit 1850-1900 Before the massive influx of By 1847, the city had 1900s apartment-style buildings in the city. Throughout New York City’s The need for housing for immigrants European immigrants in the expanded to are meet the First subways constructed, near industrial areas results in tenement 1800s, New York City covered enabling demands of its growing residents of outer 1811and Lower East Side, many of these tenement-houses East Village houses, the first multi-family dwelling a relatively small geographic immigrant and boroughs to population easily commute Adoption of Commissioner’s typology in New York City remain asPlan theintroduces dominant architectural typology area. industrialization. to centre city Grid Pattern

DEMOGRAPHIC SHIFT NEW YORK CITY, USA NEW YORK CITY, USA NEW YORK CITY, USA NEW YORK CITY, USA

1800s

Population rises and New York becomes America’s premier port

1898

The five boroughs are amalgamated into New York City 1850-1900

2000s

After economic decline and out-migration in the 1980s, NYC`s prime industry is now real estate.

1900s

1800s

Adoption of Commissioner’s Plan introduces Grid Pattern Population rises and New York becomes America’s premier port

The need for housing for immigrants First subways are constructed, near industrial areas results in tenement enabling residents of outer houses, the first multi-family dwelling boroughs to easily commute 2000s 1898 typology in New York City to centre city After economic decline and out-migration in the The five boroughs are amalgamated into New York City 1980s, NYC`s prime industry is now real estate.

1800s

1898

2000s

1800s

1898

2000s

1811

Population rises and New York becomes America’s premier port

Population rises and New York becomes America’s premier port

The five boroughs are amalgamated into New York City

The five boroughs are amalgamated into New York City

After economic decline and out-migration in the 1980s, NYC`s prime industry is now real estate.

After economic decline and out-migration in the 1980s, NYC`s prime industry is now real estate.


POLICY & SOCIAL NORMS POLICY & SOCIAL NORMS POLICY & SOCIAL NORMS

Policies, reflective of social values and norms, alter the city's natural evolution and produce particular forms of development.

POLICY & SOCIAL NORMS POLICY & SOCIAL NORMS

Urban policies -- official plans, zoning bylaws, building codes -- are created to guide growth, development and Policies, reflective of social values and norms, alter the city's natural form in a way that aligns with broader goals for the future of our cities. These policies produce very real and evolution and produce particular forms of development. specific patterns of development (though not always as intended). Urban Growth Boundaries limit sprawl by restricting the outward reach of urban development and necessitating increasing density and infill. Building Urban policies -- official plans, zoning bylaws, building codes -- are created to guide growth, development and height limits are implemented to preserve views of monumental architecture, as in Washington, DC, or views form in a way that aligns with broader goals for the future of our cities. These policies produce very real and of natural features, as in Vancouver, BC, and produce site-specific architectural typologies andcity's incarnations of Policies, reflective of social values and norms, alter the natural specific patterns of development (though not always as intended). Urban Growth Boundaries limit sprawl by density. Such policies are a reflection of the value placed on forms particular landscape features. It's evolution andsocietal produce particular of urban development. restricting the outward reach of urban development and necessitating increasing density and infill. Building a desire to shape a city that reflects of the values of its residents by prescribing how, where, and why the city height limits are implemented to preserve views of monumental architecture, as in Washington, DC, or views will grow. Urban policies -- official plans, zoning bylaws, building codes -- are created to guide growth, development and of natural features, as in Vancouver, BC, and produce site-specific architectural typologies and incarnations of reflective social and norms, alter the city's natural form in a way that aligns withPolicies, broader goals for theof future of values our cities. These policies produce very real and density. Such policies are a reflection of the societal value placed on particular urban landscape features. It's evolution produce particular forms of development. specific patterns of development (thoughand not always as intended). Urban Growth Boundaries limit sprawl by a desire to shape a city that reflects of the values of its residents by prescribing how, where, and why the city restricting the outward reach of urban development and necessitating increasing density and infill. Building will grow. Urban -- implemented official plans, to zoning bylaws, building codes -- are created to guide growth, development and height policies limits are preserve views of monumental architecture, as in Washington, DC, or views form in a way that aligns with broader goals the future of our cities. These policies produce very real andof of natural features, as in Vancouver, BC, and for produce site-specific architectural typologies and incarnations specific patterns of development (though notsocietal alwaysvalue as intended). Urban Growth Boundaries limit sprawl by density. Such policies are a reflection of the placed on particular urban landscape features. It's In Portland, aresidents city known for itshow, strong land regulations restricting outward reachreflects of urban development and necessitating increasing density anduse infill. Building a desire to the shape a city that of the values of its by widely prescribing where, and why the city and commitment to urban sustainability, the Urban Growth height limits are implemented to preserve views of monumental architecture, as in Washington, DC, or views will grow. Boundary has become a symbol of this prescriptive style of of of natural features, as in Vancouver, BC, and produce(UGB) site-specific architectural typologies and incarnations policy. The UGB, on adopted in 1979, establishes strong urban/ density. Such policies are a reflection of theurban societal value placed particular urban landscapea features. It's In Portland, a city known widely for its strong land use regulations rural distinction by controlling urban expansion into agricultural a desire to shape a city that reflects of the values of its residents by prescribing how, where, and why the city and commitment to urban sustainability, the Urban Growth and forest lands. Its adoption coincided with a concerted effort to will grow. Boundary (UGB) has become a symbol of this prescriptive style of These two maps from the recent Portland Plan show the densify and revitalize Portland’s downtown core, with brownfield expected household growth and job growth in the city from urban policy. The UGB, adopted in 1979, establishes a strong urban/ 2005-2009, demonstrating Portland's commitment to securing redevelopment near the waterfront and infill development in rural distinction by controlling urban expansion into agricultural growth within its Urban Growth Boundary and centering downtown a growth thatuse continues today. development in the core and along avenues, where possible. In Portland,neighbourhoods, a city known widely for its strategy strong land regulations and forest lands. Its adoption coincided with a concerted effort to and commitment to urban sustainability, the Urban Growth These two maps from the recent Portland Plan show the densify and revitalize Portland’s downtown core, with brownfield expected household growth and job growth in the city from Boundary (UGB) has become a symbol of this prescriptive style of 2005-2009, demonstrating Portland's commitment to securing1943 redevelopment near the waterfront and infill development in growth within its Urban Growth Boundary and centering policy. The UGB, adopted in 1979, establishes a strong urban/ Duringurban WWII, Portland is a major 1980s downtown neighbourhoods, a growth strategy that continues today. development in the core and along avenues, where possible. shipbuilding centre. The population The Urbanland Growth Boundary is In Portland, a citybyknown widelyurban for itsexpansion strong use regulations rural distinction controlling into agricultural 1890 swells by 67,000, prompting the Federal established, and the planning and to commitment toofadoption urban sustainability, the Growth Government construct thousands new Electric streetcars are shifts towards smart growth, and forest lands. Its coincidedfocus with aUrban concerted effort to housing units, including Vanport. introduced densification, and sustainability. These two maps from the recent Portland Plan show the Boundary (UGB) has become a symbol of this prescriptive style of 1943 densify and revitalize Portland’s downtown core, with brownfield expected household growth and job growth in the city from During WWII, Portland is a major 1980s urban policy. The UGB, adopted in 1979, establishes a strong urban/ 2005-2009, demonstrating Portland's commitment to securing redevelopment near the waterfront and infill development shipbuilding centre. The population The Urban Growth Boundary is in growth within its Urban Growth Boundary and centering 1890 swells by 67,000, prompting the Federal established, and the planning rural distinction by controlling urban expansion into agricultural downtown neighbourhoods, a growth strategy that continues today. development in the core and along avenues, where possible. Government to construct thousands of new Electric streetcars are focus shifts towards smart growth, and with a concerted effort to housing units,forest including lands. Vanport. Its adoption coincided introduced densification, and sustainability. These two maps from the recent Portland Plan show the densify and revitalize Portland’s downtown core, with brownfield expected household growth and job growth in the city from 1943 redevelopment near the waterfront and infill development in 2005-2009, demonstrating Portland's commitment to securing 1980s During WWII, Portland is a major growth within its Urban Growth Boundary and centering The Urban Growth is centre. The neighbourhoods, population downtown a growth strategy that Boundary continues today. development in the core and along avenues, where possible. shipbuilding

PORTLAND, USA

PORTLAND, USA PORTLAND, USA PORTLAND, USA

1890

swells by 67,000, prompting the Federal Electric streetcars are Government to construct thousands of new 1948 Vanport. introduced1912 housing units, including “Greater Portland Plan” predicts Massive flooding in Vanport prompts rethinking population growth to 2,000,000 1943 of how and where to construct public housing During WWII, Portland is a major shipbuilding centre. The population 1890 swells by 67,000, prompting the Federal Government to construct Electric streetcars 1912 are 1948 thousands of new introduced“Greater Portland Plan” predicts housing units, including MassiveVanport. flooding in Vanport prompts rethinking

established, and the planning focus shifts towards smart growth, 1968 densification, and sustainability. The Downtown Waterfront Plan revitalizes the Harbourfront

1980s

The Urban Growth Boundary is established, and the planning focus shifts towards 1968smart growth, densification, and Thesustainability. Downtown Waterfront Plan

population growth to 2,000,000

of how and where to construct public housing

1912

1948

1968

1912

1948

1968

“Greater Portland Plan” predicts population growth to 2,000,000

“Greater Portland Plan” predicts population growth to 2,000,000

Massive flooding in Vanport prompts rethinking of how and where to construct public housing

Massive flooding in Vanport prompts rethinking of how and where to construct public housing

revitalizes the Harbourfront

The Downtown Waterfront Plan revitalizes the Harbourfront

The Downtown Waterfront Plan revitalizes the Harbourfront


INFRASTUCTURE & TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE & TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE & TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE & TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE & TECHNOLOGY

The introduction of new infrastructure or a change in technology can alter the way the city looks, feels, and functions.

Urban infrastructure and technology have huge implications for how residents and live in The introduction of new infrastructure or aunderstand, change in use, technology the city. Historically, advancements in transportation infrastructure have been the impetus for can alter the way the and citysanitation looks, feels, and functions. new forms of urban development. The construction of underground sewers and the introduction of streetcars, suburban rail lines, and highway facilitated the creation the first suburbs, further Urban infrastructure andmassive technology have investment huge implications for how residentsofunderstand, use, and live in separating residential, commercial, and industrialof uses insanitation the city. Asinfrastructure changes in change infrastructure andimpetus technology The introduction new infrastructure or a in technology the city. Historically, advancements in transportation and have been the for allow for new forms of urban development, weway are left the question of how tofunctions. make this infrastructure and can alter the the city looks, feels, and new forms of urban development. The construction ofwith underground sewers and the introduction of streetcars, tech workrail for lines, us—how create systems lay the groundwork city weofwant livesuburbs, in. suburban andtomassive highwaythat investment facilitated for thethe creation the to first further Urban infrastructure technology have huge implications for how and live in separating residential,and commercial, and industrial uses in the city. As residents changes infrastructure and technology The introduction of new infrastructure orinaunderstand, change inuse, technology the city. in transportation and sanitation infrastructure have been the impetus allow for Historically, new forms ofadvancements urban development, we are left with the question of how to make this infrastructure and for can alter the way the city looks, feels, and functions. new formsfor ofus—how urban development. The construction of underground of streetcars, tech work to create systems that lay the groundwork for thesewers city weand wantthe to introduction live in. suburban rail lines, and massive highway investment facilitated the creation of the first suburbs, further Urban infrastructure and technology have huge implications for how residents understand, use, and live in separating residential, commercial, and industrial uses in the city. As changes in infrastructure and technology the city. Historically, advancements in transportation and sanitation infrastructure have been the impetus for allow for new forms of urban development, we are left with the question of how to make this infrastructure and new forms of urban development. The construction ofmost underground sewers and the introduction of of the well-known andwe evident redevelopments ofstreetcars, the tech work for us—how to create systems thatOne lay the groundwork for the city want to live in. suburban rail lines, and massive highway investment facilitated the creation of of theParis firstbetween suburbs,1853 further urban fabric was the Haussmanisation and 1890, separating residential, commercial, and industrial useswide in the city. As changes in infrastructure technology where new boulevards, parks, running water andand underground allow for new forms of urban development, we are left with the question ofwiped how to make thisneighbourhoods, infrastructure and sewage systems were built. It out whole One most well-known and we evident redevelopments of the tech work for us—how to create systems that lay of thethe groundwork for the wantand to live in. perceived dangerous andcity unhealthy, poor the urban fabricaswas the Haussmanisation of Parisremoved between the 1853 andand 1890, disenfranchised from the centre of running the city. water The new network The 1615 Merian Map of Paris By 1870, Huassman’s Paris where new wide boulevards, parks, andweb-like underground shows the medieval city, prior is a reality, with more social of streets and boulevard extensions followed etoile’ star pattern sewage systems were built. It wiped out whole an neighbourhoods, to Haussman’s overhaul, spaces, wider streets, and the city was a dangerous, easier navigation through the that created focal points of urban exchange and activity, of the One of theas most well-known evidentand redevelopments of theand perceived dangerous and and unhealthy, removed the spaces poor unhealthy, and frustrating city. surveillance, and allowed for future military access and control. The place to inhabit. urban fabric was the Haussmanisation of Paris between 1853 and 1890, disenfranchised from the centre of the city. The new web-like network The 1615 Merian Map of Paris By 1870, Huassman’s Paris radical Haussmanisation is what we running see in any modern mappattern of Paris. shows the medieval city, prior is a reality, with more social where new wide boulevards, parks, water and underground of streets and boulevard extensions followed an etoile’ star

PARIS, FRANCE PARIS, FRANCE PARIS, FRANCE PARIS, FRANCE

to Haussman’s overhaul, spaces, wider streets, and 1800s the city was a dangerous, easier navigation through the the over-crowding, Paris is the unhealthy, and Despite frustrating city. place to inhabit.largest manufacturing city in the world, a major financial centre, had built a The 1615 Merian Map of Paris By 1870, Huassman’s railway and was reinventing itself as a Paris shows the medieval city,city. prior is a reality, with more social modern to Haussman’s1800s overhaul, spaces, wider streets, and Despite the over-crowding, Paris is the the city was a dangerous, easier navigation through the manufacturing unhealthy, andlargest frustrating city. city in the world, a major financial centre, had built a place to inhabit. railway was reinventing itself as a Paris The 1615 Merian Mapand of Paris By 1870, Huassman’s modern city. shows the medieval city, prior is a reality, with more social to Haussman’s overhaul, spaces, wider streets, and 1800s the city was a dangerous, easier navigation through the Despite the over-crowding, Paris is the unhealthy, and frustrating city. largest manufacturing city in the world, place to inhabit. a major financial centre, had built a railway and was reinventing itself as a modern city.

1884 1800s

A cholera epidemic killed twenty Paris is the Despite the over-crowding, thousand people and precipitated largest manufacturing city in the world, the massive the name a majoroverhaul financialincentre, had of built a medicine and and art. was reinventing itself as a railway modern city.

sewage systems built. It wiped out whole neighbourhoods, that created focalwere points of urban exchange and activity, spaces of One of the most well-known and evident redevelopments of the 1900s perceived as and dangerous and access removed poor and surveillance, allowedand for unhealthy, future military andthe control. Thethe 1853-90 Avenues 1853 radiate across Paris from urban fabric was the Haussmanisation of Paris between and 1890, disenfranchised theisParis centre of see the city. The new web-like radical Haussmanisation what in any modern map of network Paris. the Arc du Triomphe in the ‘etoile’ The razingfrom of medieval for we where newHaussman’s wide boulevards, parks, running waterpattern and underground street plans of streets and boulevard extensions followed an etoile’ star pattern sewage systems were built. It wiped out whole neighbourhoods, that created focal points of urban exchange and 1900s activity, spaces of perceived1853-90 as dangerous and unhealthy, and removed the poor and the Avenues radiate acrossThe Paris from surveillance, andofallowed forfor future military access and control. the Arcweb-like du Triomphenetwork in the ‘etoile’ The razing medieval Paris disenfranchised from the centre of the city. The new pattern map of Paris. Haussman’s street plans radical Haussmanisation is what we see in any modern of streets and boulevard extensions followed an etoile’ star pattern that created focal points of urban exchange and activity, spaces of 1900s surveillance, and allowed for future military access and control. The 1853-90 Avenues radiate across Paris from the Arc du Triomphe in the ‘etoile’ The razing of medievalis Paris for we see in any modern radical Haussmanisation what map of Paris. pattern

Haussman’s street plans

1879

A view of the completed avenue de l’Opera, with the straight 1853-90 avenue leading from the building, The razing of medieval Paris for as envisioned by Haussman Haussman’s street plans

2014

Rue Haussman today demonstrates the high 1900s density accommodated on a typical Parisian street Avenues radiate across Paris from the Arc du Triomphe in the ‘etoile’ pattern

1884

1879

2014

1884

1879

2014

1884

1879

2014

A cholera epidemic killed twenty thousand people and precipitated the massive overhaul in the name of medicine and art.

A cholera epidemic killed twenty thousand people and precipitated the massive overhaul in the name of medicine and art. A cholera epidemic killed twenty thousand people and precipitated the massive overhaul in the name of medicine and art.

A view of the completed avenue de l’Opera, with the straight avenue leading from the building, as envisioned by Haussman

A view of the completed avenue de l’Opera, with the straight avenue leading from the building, as envisioned by Haussman A view of the completed avenue de l’Opera, with the straight avenue leading from the building, as envisioned by Haussman

Rue Haussman today demonstrates the high density accommodated on a typical Parisian street

Rue Haussman today demonstrates the high density accommodated on a typical Parisian street

Rue Haussman today demonstrates the high density accommodated on a typical Parisian street


MARKET ECONOMICS MARKET ECONOMICS MARKET ECONOMICS

The state of the economy, whether good or bad, these swings can have a drastic effect on the development of the built form.

MARKET ECONOMICS MARKET ECONOMICS

Booms and busts produce particular forms of development in cities. Often, a strong economy encourages The state of the economy, whether good or bad, these swings can more growth, urban sprawl, high-end residential and commercial spaces to meet the demands of the have a drastic effect on the development of the built form. expanding urban elite. Whole neighbourhoods often shift to accommodate an influx of capital, realizing new building forms and displacing residents who have called these neighbourhoods home for decades. Booms and busts produce particular forms of development in cities. Often, a strong economy encourages This constant change and flux has always been part of the cycle of growth in a city. The speed of global more growth, urban sprawl, high-end residential and commercial spaces to meet the demands of the Theofstate of the whether or bad, thesehousing swingsout canof capital has accelerated the rate change and economy, inflated market prices,good pushing affordable expanding urban elite. Whole neighbourhoods often shift to accommodate an influx of capital, realizing have a drastic effect on the development of the built form. the reach of many. new building forms and displacing residents who have called these neighbourhoods home for decades. This constant change and flux has always been part of the cycle of growth in a city. The speed of global Booms and busts produce particular forms of development in cities. Often, a strong economy encourages capital has accelerated the rate change and economy, inflated market prices,good pushing affordable Theofstate of the whether or bad, thesehousing swingsout canof more growth, urban sprawl, high-end residential and commercial spaces to meet the demands of the the reach of many. have a drastic effect on the development of the built form. expanding urban elite. Whole neighbourhoods often shift to accommodate an influx of capital, realizing new building forms and displacing residents who have called these neighbourhoods home for decades. Booms and busts produce particular forms of development in cities. Often, a strong economy encourages This constant change and flux has always been part of the cycle of growth in a city. The speed of global more the growth, urban to sprawl, high-end residential and commercial spaces to meet the demands of left the To the is a From mid-1990s the Ireland capital has accelerated the mid-2000s, rate of change and experienced inflated market prices, pushing affordable housing out of map outlining the expanding urban elite. Whole neighbourhoods often shift to accommodate an influx of capital, realizing Docklands area the “Celtic Tiger”; a period of massive economic growth during reach of many. in Dublin, which new building and displacing residents who have called which Dublin’sforms population increased by 61.6%. In 2007, the these neighbourhoods home forhasdecades. been targeted This constant change and flux has finally alwaysburst, been part of the cycle of growth in a city. The speedforof global residential, city’s overheated property bubble developments To the left is cultural a commercial, From the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s, Ireland experienced capital has accelerated the rate of change and inflated market prices, pushing affordable housing out the of map outlining development as the were abandoned mid-construction, and two years later, Docklands area the “Celtic Tiger”; a period of massive economic growth during city emerges from its the reach of many. unemployment had reached 10.8%. In recent years, Dublin has in Dublin, which economic crisis. which Dublin’s population increased by 61.6%. In 2007, the has been targeted targeted intervention to regenerate the most disadvantaged for residential, city’s overheated property bubble finally burst, developments commercial, cultural areas with new residential buildings and cultural landmarks. development as the were abandoned mid-construction, and two years later, To left is afrom its From thecareful mid-1990s the mid-2000s, Ireland experienced citythe emerges Through and to innovative planning and investment map outlining the unemployment had reached 10.8%. In recent years, Dublin has economic crisis. Docklands area the “Celtic Tiger”; a period of massive economic strategies, Dublin’s star is once again on the rise.growth during targeted intervention to regenerate the most disadvantaged in Dublin, which which Dublin’s population increased by 61.6%. In 2007, the has been targeted areas with new residential buildings and cultural landmarks. for residential, city’s overheated property bubble finally burst, developments To the left is cultural a commercial, Through and to innovative planning and investment From thecareful mid-1990s the mid-2000s, Ireland experienced map outliningas the development the were abandoned mid-construction, and two years later, strategies, Dublin’s star is once again on the rise.1986 Docklands area city emerges from its the “Celtic1660-1760 Tiger”; a period of massive economic growth during unemployment had an reached Dublin has in Dublin, which economic crisis. Dublin becomes aristocratic,10.8%. In recent years, The Urban Renewal Act is passed, 1980s which Dublin’s population 2007, has increased been targeted Protestant city, resulting in increased by 61.6%. In targeting thethe transformation of the Rent prices in the city have targeted intervention to regenerate the most disadvantaged residential, more luxurious, Georgian-style industrial Docklands into high-density by 18% since the lowestfor prices in the city’s overheated property bubble finally burst, developments cultural buildings. and commercial areas. crisis period, indicating commercial, that the city is areas withresidential new residential buildings and culturalresidential landmarks. development as the were abandoned mid-construction, and two years later, slowly on the rise. 1660-1760 and innovative planning and investment 1986 Through careful city emerges from its unemployment had an reached Dublin has Dublin becomes aristocratic,10.8%. In recent years, The Urban Renewal Act is passed, 1980s economic crisis. strategies,Protestant Dublin’s star isin once again on the rise.targeting the transformation of the city, resulting Rent prices in the city have increased targeted intervention to regenerate the most disadvantaged more luxurious, Georgian-style industrial Docklands into high-density by 18% since the lowest prices in the buildings. and commercial areas. crisis period, indicating that the city is areas withresidential new residential buildings and culturalresidential landmarks. slowly on the rise. Through careful and innovative planning and investment strategies,1660-1760 Dublin’s star is once again on the rise.1986

DUBLIN, IRELAND DUBLIN, IRELAND DUBLIN, IRELAND DUBLIN, IRELAND

1775

Dublin becomes an aristocratic, Protestant city, resulting in more luxurious, Georgian-style residential buildings.

The Wide1660-1760 Streets Commission, Europe’s Dublin becomes aristocratic, first official town planningan authority, is Protestant city, resulting in established to implement decongesting more luxurious, Georgian-style strategies for the city core. residential buildings.

1775

The Wide Streets Commission, Europe’s first official town planning authority, is established to implement decongesting strategies for the city core.

The Urban Renewal Act is passed, targeting the transformation of the industrial Docklands into high-density residential and commercial areas.

1990s-2000s 1986 Population growth during the Celtic Tiger

The Urban Renewal is passed, period leads to a realAct estate and residential targeting the transformation of the development boom. industrial Docklands into high-density residential and commercial areas.

1990s-2000s

Population growth during the Celtic Tiger period leads to a real estate and residential development boom.

1980s

Rent prices in the city have increased by 18% since the lowest prices in the crisis period, indicating that the city is slowly on 1968 the rise. The real estate bubble bursts, 1980s 40% of all jobs lost are from Rent prices the city havesector, increased theinconstruction and by 18% since the lowest are prices in the developments abandoned. crisis period, indicating that the city is slowly on 1968 the rise. The real estate bubble bursts, 40% of all jobs lost are from the construction sector, and developments are abandoned.

1775

1990s-2000s

1968

1775

1990s-2000s

1968

The Wide Streets Commission, Europe’s first official town planning authority, is established to implement decongesting strategies for the city core. The Wide Streets Commission, Europe’s first official town planning authority, is established to implement decongesting strategies for the city core.

Population growth during the Celtic Tiger period leads to a real estate and residential development boom.

Population growth during the Celtic Tiger period leads to a real estate and residential development boom.

The real estate bubble bursts, 40% of all jobs lost are from the construction sector, and developments are abandoned. The real estate bubble bursts, 40% of all jobs lost are from the construction sector, and developments are abandoned.


LAND ECONOMICS LAND ECONOMICS LAND ECONOMICS LAND ECONOMICS LAND ECONOMICS

Both the speculative opportunity of land and its value upon development affects what is built and what the market will bear. The value of land determines what will be built and what the market will purchase. In recent decades, many former brownfield and industrial areas, lining key waterfront areas, haveand become increasingly Both the often speculative opportunity of land its value upon valuable as residents seek downtown urban lifestyles and manufacturing uses and steadily move the periphery, where development affects what is built what thetomarket will bear. land prices and property taxes are substantially lower. The speculative and inflated value of this land for residential mixed uses results in will its large-scale redevelopment. In will other areas, speculation on futuremany The value oforland determines what be built and what the market purchase. In recent decades, land values has resulted in the purchase and holding of potential development sites, surrounding Both the often speculative opportunity of land itscausing value upon valuable former brownfield and industrial areas, lining key waterfront areas, haveand become increasingly developments to soar to newurban heights to accommodate for theishigh land prices paid acre. development affects what built and what theper will bear. as residents seek downtown lifestyles and manufacturing uses steadily move tomarket the periphery, where land prices and property taxes are substantially lower. The speculative and inflated value of this land for Both thebe speculative opportunity will of land and In itsrecent valuedecades, upon The value oforland determines what built and what the market purchase. residential mixed uses results in will its large-scale redevelopment. In other areas, speculation on futuremany development affects what is built and what the market will bear. former brownfield and industrial areas, often lining key areas, have become increasingly valuable land values has resulted in the purchase and holding of waterfront potential development sites, causing surrounding as residents seek downtown lifestyles and manufacturing uses steadily to the periphery, where developments to soar to newurban heights to accommodate for the high land pricesmove paid per acre. The value of land determines what will be built and what the market will purchase. In recent decades, many land prices and property taxes are substantially lower. The speculative and inflated value of this land for former brownfield and industrial areas, often lining key waterfront areas, have become increasingly valuable residential or mixed uses results in its large-scale redevelopment. In other areas, speculation on future as residents seek downtown urban lifestyles and manufacturing steadily move to the periphery, where Vancouver a city that has with the of aof boom and uses land valuesishas resulted inpulsated the purchase andcycles holding potential development sites, causing surrounding land prices andonproperty taxes are substantially lower.part Thethis speculative and inflated value of this land for bust economy an almost 30 year cycle. For the most developments to soar to new heights to accommodate for the high land prices paid per acre. residential mixed uses results its large-scale growth wasor naturally contained byin mountains to theredevelopment. north and east, In other areas, speculation on future land values the of potential development sites, causing surrounding the ocean tohas the resulted west andin the USpurchase border toand the holding south. When the developments to soar new heights accommodate for the high land prices paid per acre. global real is estate market took hold with ofto the city in the ‘80s, there Vancouver a city that to has pulsated the cycles of late a boom and

VANCOUVER, CANADA VANCOUVER, CANADA VANCOUVER, CANADA VANCOUVER, CANADA

was perfect confluence of30 policy, political capital, bust aeconomy on an almost year cycle. Formigration, the most part this brownfield andcontained the introduction of a new housing growth was sites, naturally by mountains to the north‘product’ and east,-the ocean condominium. The impact ofborder this global phenomenon to the west and the US to the south. Whenhas the put extraordinary ontook cities around the world, issues Vancouver a pressure city market that has pulsated with the cycles ofcreating a boom and global real is estate hold of the city in the late ‘80s, there of affordability, and equitable access tomost the city. bust ondiversity an almost year cycle. Formigration, the part this was aeconomy perfect confluence of30 policy, political capital, growth was sites, naturally by mountains to the north‘product’ and east,-brownfield andcontained the introduction of a new housing Vancouver is a city that has pulsated with the cycles of a boom and to the west and the US to the south. Whenhas the put the ocean condominium. The impact ofborder this global phenomenon bust economy on an almost 30 year cycle. For the most part this global real estate market hold of the city in thecreating late ‘80s, there extraordinary pressure ontook cities around the world, issues growth was naturally contained by mountains to the north and east, was a perfect confluence of policy, political migration, capital, of affordability, diversity and equitable access to the city. 1892 . When the the ocean 1873 to the west and the US border to the south brownfieldVansites, and Vancouver the introduction of a new By housing ‘product’ -Horne makes the western the end of the 1890s the city global realterminus estate market hold late ‘80s,andthere of the CPR. The took population of of the city in hasthe 10,000 residents its first the condominium. The impact of this global phenomenon has put Vancouver explodes to 400 within months residential ‘suburb’ was a perfect confluence of policy, political migration, capital, extraordinary pressure on cities around the world, creating issues brownfield sites, and the introduction of a new housing ‘product’ -of affordability, diversity and equitable access to the city. the condominium. The impact of this global phenomenon has put 1873 1892 Van Horne makes Vancouver the western By the end of the 1890s the city extraordinary pressure onpopulation cities around the world, creating issues terminus of the CPR. The of has 10,000 residents and its first Vancouverdiversity explodes to 400 within months residential ‘suburb’ of affordability, and equitable access to the city.

An aerial view of False Creek in 1971 shows the area still dominated by industrial uses, primarily the logging industry.

By 2014, the redevelopment of False Creek the Olympics brought with it a massive wave of development, completely transforming the False Creek area.

An aerial view of False Creek in 1971 shows the area still dominated by industrial uses, primarily the logging industry.

By 2014, the redevelopment of False Creek the Olympics brought with it a massive wave of development, completely transforming the 1970 False Creek area. The introduction of the condominium law creates the2014, perfect market An aerial view of False Creek By theglobal redevelopment for the point tower in 1971 shows the areaconditions still of False Creek the podium Olympics form of development -one of the most dominated by industrial uses, brought with it a massive ubiquitous Vancouver exports primarily the logging industry. wave of development, completely the An aerial view of False 1970 Creek By 2014, thetransforming redevelopment False Creek area. in 1971 shows the areaThe stillintroduction of False Creek the Olympics of the condominium dominated by industrial uses, with it a massive law creates brought the perfect global market primarily the logging industry. wave development, conditions for theofpoint tower podium completely--transforming the form of development one of the most False Creekexports area. ubiquitous Vancouver

1970

1873

1892

Van Horne makes Vancouver the western terminus of the CPR. The population of 1889 Vancouver explodes to 400 within months Looking north to False Creek from 1873 Westminster and 7th Avenue shows Van Horne makes Vancouver the western the city as a young colonial outpost terminus of the CPR. The population of Vancouver explodes to 400 within months

By the end of the 1890s the city has 10,000 residents and its first 1942 residential ‘suburb’ This industrial port is still the major 1892 economic activity in Vancouver. An By the end of the 1890s the city exstensive streetcar system allows for has 10,000 residents and its first residential development to role out residential ‘suburb’ across the growing city.

1889

1942

1889

1942

Looking north to False Creek from Westminster and 7th Avenue shows the city as a young colonial outpost

Looking north to False Creek from Westminster and 7th Avenue shows the city as a young colonial outpost

1889

Looking north to False Creek from Westminster and 7th Avenue shows the city as a young colonial outpost

This industrial port is still the major economic activity in Vancouver. An exstensive streetcar system allows for residential development to role out across the growing city. This industrial port is still the major economic activity in Vancouver. An exstensive streetcar system allows for residential development to role out 1942 across the growing city. This industrial port is still the major economic activity in Vancouver. An exstensive streetcar system allows for residential development to role out across the growing city.

The introduction of the condominium law creates the perfect global market conditions for the point tower podium form of development -- one of the most 1970 2000s ubiquitous Vancouver The introduction of theexports condominium The density of the downtown core is law creates the perfect global market encroaching on older neighbourhoods. conditions for the point tower podium In recent years Mount Pleasant has form of development -- one of the most come under intense development ubiquitous Vancouver exports increasing the pressure on afforbability for residents and art organizations.

2000s

The density of the downtown core is encroaching on older neighbourhoods. In recent years Mount Pleasant has come under intense development increasing the pressure on afforbability for residents and art organizations.

2000s

The density of the downtown core is encroaching on older neighbourhoods. In recent years Mount Pleasant has come 2000sunder intense development increasing on afforbability The densitythe of pressure the downtown core is for residents on and art organizations. encroaching older neighbourhoods. In recent years Mount Pleasant has come under intense development increasing the pressure on afforbability for residents and art organizations.


UPHEAVAL & DISASTER UPHEAVAL & DISASTER UPHEAVAL & DISASTER UPHEAVAL & DISASTER UPHEAVAL & DISASTER

A crisis, disaster, or revolution leads to a sudden change in the way the city is imagined and built. A dramatic natural, physical, A orcrisis, social phenomenon cause a profound in the capabilities theway city. disaster, or can revolution leads to shift a sudden change inofthe This may take the form of a natural oris man-made disaster, a sharp economic shift, massive social unrest, or the city imagined and built. government overthrow. It has the power to prompt a re-thinking of our ideas about how our cities should look, feel, and grow. In many cities around the world, historical shifts in the typology of growth have been A dramatic natural, physical, A orcrisis, social phenomenon cause a profound shift in the capabilities theway city. disaster, with or can revolution leads to sudden change inofthe preceded by fires that levelled neighbourhoods, disastrous effects on a both the built environment This may take the form of a natural oris man-made disaster, a sharp economic shift, massive social unrest, or theit.city imagined and built. and the communities occupying Neighbourhoods are confronted with the task of re-envisioning their government overthrow. It has the power to prompt a re-thinking of our ideas about how our cities should neighbourhood or city - and a rare opportunity to break from accepted norms and imagine a new future look, feel, and grow. In many cities around the world, historical shifts in the typology of growth have been based on updated desires, and phenomenon needs. A dramatic natural,ideals, physical, orcrisis, social cause a profound shift in the capabilities theway city. A disaster, or can revolution leads to sudden change inofthe preceded by fires that levelled neighbourhoods, with disastrous effects on a both the built environment This may take the form of a natural oris man-made disaster, a sharp economic shift, massive social unrest, or the city imagined and built. and the communities occupying it. Neighbourhoods are confronted with the task of re-envisioning their government overthrow. It has the power to prompt a re-thinking of our ideas about how our cities should neighbourhood or city - and a rare opportunity to break from accepted norms and imagine a new future look, feel, and grow. In many cities around the world, historical shifts in the typology of growth have been based on updated desires, and phenomenon needs. A dramatic natural,ideals, physical, or social can cause a profound shift in the capabilities of the city. preceded by fires that levelled neighbourhoods, with disastrous effects on both the built environment This may take the form of a natural or man-made disaster, a sharp economic shift, massive social unrest, or and the communities occupying it. Neighbourhoods are confronted with the task of re-envisioning their government overthrow. It has the power to prompt a re-thinking of our ideas about how our cities should neighbourhood or city - and a rare opportunity to break from accepted norms and imagine a new future look, feel, and grow. In many cities around the world, historical shifts in the typology of growth have been based on updated ideals, desires, and needs. In Christchurch, NZ, the massive of environment February 2011 preceded by fires that levelled neighbourhoods, with disastrous effects on earthquake both the built seriously damaged a significant portion of re-envisioning the core city and killed and the communities occupying it. Neighbourhoods are confronted with the task of their 185 residents. Out ofaccepted catastrophic circumstances, were neighbourhood or city - and a rare opportunity to break from norms and imagine aresidents new future presented with an unprecedented planning opportunity to envision based on updated ideals, desires, and needs. In Christchurch, NZ, the massive earthquake of February 2011 and build the city that they wanted. After months of consultation seriously damaged a significant portion of the core city and killed Christchurch decided to move towards a mid-low rise central city 185 residents. Out of catastrophic circumstances, residents were by consolidating development in the core. They envisioned a dense, presented with an unprecedented planning opportunity to envision walkable, and accessible central city that maintained a sense In Christchurch, NZ, the massive earthquake of February 2011of and build the city that they wanted. After months of consultation This map demonstrates the intentions for rebuilding postthe human scale in aitssignificant built form. The vision will take decades to seriously damaged portion of the core city and killed earthquake, with development condensed in the central city. Christchurch decided to move towards a mid-low rise central city achieve, but rebuilding efforts are already underway. 185 residents. Out of catastrophic circumstances, residents were by consolidating development in the core. They envisioned a dense, presented with an unprecedented planning opportunity to envision walkable, and accessible central2010-2013 city that maintained a sense In Christchurch, NZ, the massive earthquake of February 2011of and build the city that they wanted. After months of consultation 1960s Two major earthquakes hit Christchurch, necessitating the This map demonstrates the intentions for rebuilding postthe human scale in aitssignificant built form. The vision take decades to seriously damaged portion of the core city and killed demolition of much ofwill the City’s central business district Christchurch expands along the in the central city. earthquake, with development condensed Christchurch decided to move towards a mid-low rise central city and killing 185 people. The population decreases by 5% gird pattern with low-density achieve, but rebuilding efforts are already underway. 185 residents. Out of catastrophic circumstances, residents were between andThey 2013. envisioned a dense, residential growth by consolidating development in the 2010 core. presented with an unprecedented planning opportunity to envision walkable, and accessible central2010-2013 city that maintained a sense of and build the city that they wanted. After months of consultation 1960s Two major earthquakes hit Christchurch, necessitating the This map demonstrates the intentions for rebuilding postthe human scale in its built form. The vision will take decades to Christchurch expands along the in the central city. demolition of much of the City’s central business district earthquake, with development condensed Christchurch decided to move towards apeople. mid-low rise central city gird pattern with low-density and killing 185 The population decreases by 5% achieve, but rebuilding efforts are already underway. residential growth between andThey 2013. envisioned a dense, by consolidating development in the 2010 core. walkable, and accessible central2010-2013 city that maintained a sense of 1960s Two major earthquakes hit Christchurch, necessitating the This map demonstrates the intentions for rebuilding postthe human scale in its built form. The vision will take decades to demolition of much of the City’s central business district Christchurch expands along the in the central city. earthquake, with development condensed and killing 185 people. The population decreases by 5% gird pattern with low-density achieve, but rebuilding efforts are already underway.

CHRISTCHURCH, NZ CHRISTCHURCH, NZ CHRISTCHURCH, NZ CHRISTCHURCH, NZ

between 2010 and 2013.

residential growth

1960s

1850

1980s

2010-2013 2010-2013

1850

1980s

2010-2013

1850

1980s

2010-2013

1850

1980s

2010-2013

The city is founded as a British colony, and Christchurch expands along the grid. planned with a uniform gird pattern with low-density residential growth

The city is founded as a British colony, and planned with a uniform grid.

The city is founded as a British colony, and planned with a uniform grid.

The city is founded as a British colony, and planned with a uniform grid.

hitisChristchurch, the Christrchurch’s central business district Two major earthquakes Blueprint Plan released, andnecessitating a dense, much of the City’s central district densifies and welcomes taller buildings. demolition of compact low-mid-rise centralbusiness city. and killing 185 people. The population decreases by 5% between 2010 and 2013.

Christrchurch’s central business district densifies and welcomes taller buildings.

Christrchurch’s central business district densifies and welcomes taller buildings.

Christrchurch’s central business district densifies and welcomes taller buildings.

Blueprint Plan is released, and a dense, compact low-mid-rise central city.

Blueprint Plan is released, and a dense, compact low-mid-rise central city.

Blueprint Plan is released, and a dense, compact low-mid-rise central city.


TIPPING POINT TIPPING POINT TIPPING POINT

The confluence of one or more factors that precludes and necessary shift towards increasing density in the city. When cities approach a Tipping Point, they face a necessary re-thinking of how to accommodate density -The confluence of one or more factors that where it will go, how it will emerge in form and function. A Tipping Point could beprecludes precipitatedand by any number shift towardsan increasing density in the city. desire to of factors: a necessity to curbnecessary outward urban expansion, influx of new residents, a strategic support public transportation, a commitment to environmental sustainability. Governments and residents must strategize how toa accommodate densification while enhancing When cities approach Tipping Point, the theyrequired face a necessary re-thinking of how to affordability, accommodateequity, density -livability, andgo, resilience -- both a challenge an opportunity. where it will how it will emerge in form and function. A Tipping Point could be precipitated by any number confluence of one or factors that precludes of factors: a necessity to curb The outward urban expansion, an more influx of new residents, a strategicand desire to shifttotowards increasing density in the city.and residents support public transportation,necessary a commitment environmental sustainability. Governments must strategize how to accommodate the required while enhancing affordability,and equity, The confluence of densification one or more factors that precludes livability, andapproach resiliencea --Tipping bothnecessary aPoint, challenge and opportunity. When cities theyshift facean a necessary re-thinkingdensity of how to density -towards increasing inaccommodate the city. where it will go, how it will emerge in form and function. A Tipping Point could be precipitated by any number of factors: necessity atoTipping curb outward urban expansion, an influx of new a strategic desire to -When citiesa approach Point, they face a necessary re-thinking ofresidents, how to accommodate density support a commitment environmental sustainability. and Norway’s booming oilitindustry has helped the A EU’s where it public will go,transportation, how will emerge in formOslo andtoavoid function. Tipping Point could Governments be precipitated byresidents any number must strategize how the required densification enhancing affordability, economic slump, andto has attracted a talented, high-earning of factors: a necessity toaccommodate curb outward urban expansion, an influxwhile of new residents, a strategic equity, desire to livability, and resilience -- with both aaa desire challenge opportunity. workforce to the city core for aand downtown lifestyle.sustainability. Governments and residents support public transportation, commitment toan environmental

TIPPING POINT TIPPING POINT

OSLO, NORWAY OSLO, NORWAY

To move past this Tipping Point, twelvethe residential commercial must strategize how to accommodate requiredand densification while enhancing affordability, equity, midto high-rise towers, the “Barcode Project”, Norway’s booming oil industry helped Oslo the are EU’sto livability, and resilience --known bothhas aas challenge and avoid an opportunity. be completed on Oslo’s waterfront year. Norwegian culture economic slump, and has attracted this a talented, high-earning abhors suburban sprawl; placed keeping surrounding workforce to the city corethe withvalue a desire for on a downtown lifestyle. map shows the location of the Barcode Project on the greenspace, paired with anPoint, expected influx of 100,000 people by 2040, This To move past this Tipping twelve residential and commercial Oslo Harbourfront, adjacent to the Oslo Opera House and the trendy downtown area. has resulted in taller towers and increased urban density Oslo. midto high-rise towers, known as the “Barcode Project”,inare to be completed on Oslo’s waterfront year. Norwegian Norway’s booming oil industry has this helped Oslo avoid theculture EU’s abhors suburban value placed on keeping surrounding economic slump, sprawl; and hasthe attracted a talented, high-earning map shows the location of the Barcode Project on the greenspace, with an with expected influx people by 2040, This workforce topaired the city a desire forof a 100,000 downtown Oslo Harbourfront, adjacent to the Oslo Opera House and the Norway’s booming oilcore industry has helped Oslo avoid thelifestyle. EU’s trendy downtown area. has resulted inthis taller towersPoint, and increased urban density in Oslo. To move past Tipping twelve residential and commercial economic slump, and has attracted a talented, high-earning midto1969 high-rise known as the “Barcode Project”,lifestyle. are to workforce to the towers, city coreNorth with desire for a downtown 1972 2040 Oil is discovered in Norway’s Sea,aand be completed oneconomy Oslo’s waterfront this year. Norwegian culture Norway votes “No” by a slim margin Oslo’s population will have increased transforms throughout the 1970s. To move past the this Tipping Point, twelve residential and commercial on joining the EU, instead negotiating by 100,000 people, and the city will Nationalisation of oil shares means that the abhors suburban sprawl; known theonvalue placed on keeping surrounding trade agreements, have to densify to accommodate this has towers, money to spend public mid- togovernment high-rise asservices, the “Barcode Project”, are to and avoids the This map shows the location economic crisis. number.of the Barcode Project on the spaces, and urban development. greenspace, paired with an expected influx of 100,000 people by 2040, Oslo Harbourfront, adjacent to the Oslo Opera House and the be completed on Oslo’s waterfront this year. Norwegian culture trendy downtown area. has resulted in taller towers and increased urban density in Oslo. abhors1969 suburban sprawl; the value placed on keeping surrounding

OSLO, NORWAY OSLO, NORWAY

Oil is discovered in Norway’s North Sea, and

1972

2040

spaces, and urban development.

economic crisis.

number.

1972

2040

map shows the location of the Barcode Project on the votes “No” by a slim This margin Oslo’s population will have increased transforms the economy the 1970s.influx of 100,000 Norway greenspace, paired withthroughout an expected people by 2040, Oslo Harbourfront, adjacent to the Oslo Opera and the on joining the EU, instead negotiating by 100,000 people, and theHouse city will Nationalisation of oil shares means that the trendy trade in agreements, the downtown area. have to densify to accommodate this has resulted in has taller towers increased urban density Oslo. and avoids government money to spend and on public services,

1969

Oil is discovered in Norway’s North Sea, and transforms the economy throughout the 1970s. Nationalisation of oil shares means that the 1940s 1969 government money to spend on complexes public services, After WWII,has large-scale residential are built Oil is discovered in development. Norway’s North Sea, and spaces, and urban to accommodate immigrants, resulting in “satellite transforms the economy throughout cities” dotting Oslo’s periphery; theythe are1970s. known as Nationalisation oil shares that the “drabantbyer”.ofThis is Oslo’smeans first Tipping Point. government has money to spend on public services, spaces, and urban development.

Norway votes “No” by a slim margin Oslo’s population will have increased on joining the EU, instead negotiating by 100,000 people, and the city will 2014 trade agreements, and avoids the have to densify to accommodate this The booming oil industry has attracted 1972 2040 economic crisis. number. a talented workforce that expects a high Norway votes “No” by a slim margin Oslo’s population will have increased quality of life in the downtown core. The on joining the EU, instead negotiating by 100,000 people, and the city will resulting “Barcode Project” towers are to trade agreements, and avoids the have to densify to accommodate this be completed by the end of this year. economic crisis. number.

1940s

2014

1940s

2014

After WWII, large-scale residential complexes are built to accommodate immigrants, resulting in “satellite cities” dotting Oslo’s periphery; they are known as “drabantbyer”. This is Oslo’s first Tipping Point.

After WWII, large-scale residential complexes are built to accommodate immigrants, resulting in “satellite cities” dotting Oslo’s periphery; they are known as 1940s “drabantbyer”. This is Oslo’s first Tipping Point. After WWII, large-scale residential complexes are built to accommodate immigrants, resulting in “satellite cities” dotting Oslo’s periphery; they are known as “drabantbyer”. This is Oslo’s first Tipping Point.

The booming oil industry has attracted a talented workforce that expects a high quality of life in the downtown core. The resulting “Barcode Project” towers are to be completed by the end of this year.

The booming oil industry has attracted a talented workforce that expects a high quality of life in the downtown core. The 2014 resulting “Barcode Project” towers are to The booming oil hasthis attracted be completed byindustry the end of year. a talented workforce that expects a high quality of life in the downtown core. The resulting “Barcode Project” towers are to be completed by the end of this year.


The Barcode Project in Oslo, Norway


TORONTO

TORONTO TORONTO

How do the drivers of change affect us?

Front Street looking towards King and Parliament in 1804, painting by Elizabeth Hale.

Front Street looking towards King and Parliament in 1804, painting by Elizabeth Hale.

Toronto is projected to welcome 100,000+ new residents every year for the next decade. It marks a tipping point for Toronto -affect a city that How do the drivers of change us? is bursting at its seams, full of crumbling infrastructure and plagued with a transit system that is 30 years behind its capacity to service existing riders. Many of the tipping points in this exhibit can be Toronto is projected to welcome 100,000+ new residents every year for the next deseen in the development of the city. cade. It marks a tipping point for Toronto - a city that is bursting at its seams, full of crumbling infrastructure and plagued with a transit system that is 30 years behind its capacity to service existing riders. Many of the tipping points in this exhibit can be seen in the development of the city.

DEMOGRAPHIC SHIFT DEMOGRAPHIC SHIFT

Typical built fabric of the typical suburban tower neighbourhoods.

2006 Map showing immigrant population distribution within the city.

Typical built fabric of the typical suburban tower neighbourhoods.

2006 Map showing immigrant population distribution within the city.

Suburban Toronto, the area that rings the pre-amalgamation city, contains a high concentration of modern concrete residential high-rise towers. While many of these towers were built in the 1950s and 60s for middle-class empty nesters and young professionals during the period of post-war, auto-centric urban expansion, these neighbourhoods today are now home to an incredibly Suburban Toronto, the area that rings the pre-amalgamation city, contains diverse population. With many new immigrant and low income residents today, a high concentration modern concrete residential high-risehave towers. While the physical design ofofthese structures and neighbourhoods not kept many of these towersofwere in the Project’s 1950s and 60s for middle-class emptyare pace with the needs theirbuilt residents. like Toronto Tower Renewal nesters andayoung professionals during the period post-war, auto-centric prompting re-thinking of how these buildings andof neighbourhoods should urban expansion, these neighbourhoods today are now home to an incredibly perform for their residents. diverse population. With many new immigrant and low income residents today, the physical design of these structures and neighbourhoods have not kept pace with the needs of their residents. Project’s like Toronto Tower Renewal are prompting a re-thinking of how these buildings and neighbourhoods should perform for their residents.

POLICY & SOCIAL NORMS POLICY & SOCIAL NORMS

The grassroots fight for Trefann Court marked the end of Toronto’s urban renewal projects that saw neighbourhoods replaced with housing towers.

2010 Key components of the Avenues and Mid-Rise Buildings Perfomance Strandards

The grassroots fight for Trefann Court marked the end of Toronto’s urban renewal projects that saw

2010 Key components of the Avenues and Mid-Rise Buildings Perfomance Strandards

In 2010, the City released the Avenues and Mid-Rise Buildings Study; one of the guidelines was that buildings with a height approximately equal to the width of the adjacent road right-of-way would present an effective solution to accommodate increased density along mixed-use corridors abutting lowdensity residential neighbourhoods. Although Toronto has not seen mid-rise In 2010, the City releasedas the Avenues and Mid-Rise Buildings one of development proliferate anticipated, recent changes to the Study; Ontario Building the guidelines was that buildings with aon height approximately equal to themaket Code that would permit wood framing buildings up to six-storeys may width of thetypolgy adjacent roadappealing right-of-way present an effective solution he mid-rise more andwould financially beneficial to developers. to accommodate density along mixed-use corridors abutting low- and The way in which increased the Mid-Rise Guidelines are adopted throughout Toronto, density residential neighbourhoods. Although has not seen their effect on our ‘stable’ neighbourhoods andToronto urban form, is yet to mid-rise be seen. development proliferate as anticipated, recent changes to the Ontario Building Code that would permit wood framing on buildings up to six-storeys may maket he mid-rise typolgy more appealing and financially beneficial to developers. The way in which the Mid-Rise Guidelines are adopted throughout Toronto, and their effect on our ‘stable’ neighbourhoods and urban form, is yet to be seen.

INFRASTRUCTURE & TECHNOLOGY


DEMOGRAPHIC SHIFT

Typical built fabric of the typical suburban tower neighbourhoods.

2006 Map showing immigrant population distribution within the city.

Typical built fabric of the typical suburban tower neighbourhoods.

2006 Map showing immigrant population distribution within the city.

The grassroots fight for Trefann Court marked the end of Toronto’s urban renewal projects that saw neighbourhoods replaced The grassroots fight for with housing towers. Trefann Court marked the end of Toronto’s urban renewal projects that saw neighbourhoods replaced with housing towers.

Suburban Toronto, the area that rings the pre-amalgamation city, contains a high concentration of modern concrete residential high-rise towers. While many of these towers were built in the 1950s and 60s for middle-class empty nesters and young professionals during the period of post-war, auto-centric Suburban Toronto, the area that rings the pre-amalgamation city, contains urban expansion, these neighbourhoods today are now home to an incredibly a high concentration of modern concrete residential high-rise towers. While diverse population. With many new immigrant and low income residents today, many of these towers were built in the 1950s and 60s for middle-class empty the physical design of these structures and neighbourhoods have not kept nesters and young professionals during the period of post-war, auto-centric pace with the needs of their residents. Project’s like Toronto Tower Renewal are urban expansion, these neighbourhoods today are now home to an incredibly prompting a re-thinking of how these buildings and neighbourhoods should diverse population. With many new immigrant and low income residents today, perform for their residents. the physical design of these structures and neighbourhoods have not kept pace with the needs of their residents. Project’s like Toronto Tower Renewal are prompting a re-thinking of how these buildings and neighbourhoods should perform for their residents.

POLICY & SOCIAL NORMS POLICY & SOCIAL NORMS

In 2010, the City released the Avenues and Mid-Rise Buildings Study; one of the guidelines was that buildings with a height approximately equal to the width of the adjacent road right-of-way would present an effective solution to accommodate increased density along mixed-use corridors abutting lowIn 2010, the City released the Avenues and Mid-Rise Buildings Study; one of density residential neighbourhoods. Although Toronto has not seen mid-rise the guidelines was that buildings with a height approximately equal to the development proliferate as anticipated, recent changes to the Ontario Building width of the adjacent road right-of-way would present an effective solution Code that would permit wood framing on buildings up to six-storeys may maket to accommodate increased density along mixed-use corridors abutting lowhe mid-rise typolgy more appealing and financially beneficial to developers. density residential neighbourhoods. Although Toronto has not seen mid-rise The way in which the Mid-Rise Guidelines are adopted throughout Toronto, and development proliferate as anticipated, recent changes to the Ontario Building their effect on our ‘stable’ neighbourhoods and urban form, is yet to be seen. Code that would permit wood framing on buildings up to six-storeys may maket he mid-rise typolgy more appealing and financially beneficial to developers. The way in which the Mid-Rise Guidelines are adopted throughout Toronto, and their effect on our ‘stable’ neighbourhoods and urban form, is yet to be seen.

2010 Key components of the Avenues and Mid-Rise Buildings Perfomance Strandards 2010 Key components of the Avenues and Mid-Rise Buildings Perfomance Strandards

INFRASTRUCTURE & TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE & TECHNOLOGY

1961 vision of the Spadina Expressway overlayed on the existing homes of Annex.

2010 Waterfront Toronto holds an international competition to develop innovative design options for the Gardiner Expressway 1961 vision of the Spadina 2010 Waterfront Toronto and Lake Shore Boulevard Expressway overlayed on the holds an international existing homes of Annex. competition to develop 1818 innovative design options Philpott map of the Plan for of theYork Gardiner Expressway (later know as Toronto) and Lake Shore Boulevard

Transportation infrastructure has massive implications for urban form, and in Toronto, we see this manifested in the Gardiner Expressway and surrounding areas. When first built, the Gardiner passed through industrial sites along the waterfront to allow simple vehicular access to the downtown core. Today, as Transportation infrastructure has massive implications for urban form, and in increasing land values have resulted in the massive transformation of Toronto’s Toronto, we see this manifested in the Gardiner Expressway and surrounding waterfront into a residential and leisure destination, the Gardiner’s place in areas. When first built, the Gardiner passed through industrial sites along the that landscape is increasinly called into question. Unrealized highways like the waterfront to allow simple vehicular access to the downtown core. Today, as Spadina Expressway that would have cut through the Annex, Chinatown and increasing land values have resulted in the massive transformation of Toronto’s UofT remind us of how critically important our transportation infrastructure waterfront into a residential and leisure destination, the Gardiner’s place in decisions are for the future of our communities. The current and protracted that landscape is increasinly called into question. Unrealized highways like the debate around subways and the network of all modes of transportation - has Spadina Expressway that would have cut through the Annex, Chinatown and gripped the city in stiffling gridlock. What will it take to get the city moving again? UofT remind us of how critically important our transportation infrastructure decisions are for the future of our communities. The current and protracted debate around subways and the network of all modes of transportation - has 1913 gripped the city in stiffling gridlock. What will it take to get again? The the built city formmoving and density of

Toronto at the turn of the century.

1818

1913

Philpott map of the Plan of York (later know as Toronto)

The built form and density of Toronto at the turn of the century.

MARKET ECONOMICS 1879

1904

1879

Bird’s eye view of the City of Toronto, showing the density and limits of the city.

Box retail stores on main streets that ‘placehold’ future development sites

1930

The Great Fire, as a result of Coloured tourist postcard of the Danforth the fire, more stringent safety shows the scale of the city. laws were introduced and an expansion of the city’s fire 1904 Skyrocketing land values in Toronto opens department was undertaken. 1930 the city’s neighbourhoods to intense The Great Fire, as a result of land speculation. Predictions of the future value of land in ofthe core Coloured tourist postcard the downtown Danforth the fire, more stringent safety shows the scale of the city. and throughout theancity encourages developers to hold onto under-developed laws were introduced and expansion of the city’s fire up land values of surrounding lots. The speculative properties, pushing department was undertaken.

Bird’s eye view of the City of Toronto, showing the density and limits of the city.

2014 average Toronto housing prices by type

land market makes single lot and smaller grain developent difficult - while encouraging ‘placeholder architecture’, embodied by single-storey, purposebuilt box retail stores on large lots along main streets. These sites are holding out for changes in zoning and land economics to maximize their profits.

LAND ECONOMICS Toronto’s booming real estate market has resulted in the massive densification of the downtown core and former brownfield sites along the waterfront, key


painting by Elizabeth Hale.

TORONTO 1967 aerial view of Toronto’s industrial harbour.

Typical built fabric of the typical suburban tower neighbourhoods.

DEMOGRAPHIC SHIFT

Toronto’s booming real estate market has resulted in the massive densification of the downtown core and former brownfield sites along the waterfront, key transportation corridors, and former industrial nodes. As the brownfield lands are built out, development pushes into ‘stable’ neighbourhoods and underdeveloped ares of the older suburban fabric that ring the pre-amalgamation city of Toronto. This places intense pressure on older building stock and light industrial sites adjacent to coveted single-family residential neighbourhoods. Suburban Toronto, the area that rings the pre-amalgamation city, contains These sites present developers and communities with complex questions a high concentration of modern concrete residential high-rise towers. While how livability, density, and how to integrate newand building into historic many of these towers were built in the 1950s 60s forforms middle-class empty residential fabric. nesters and young professionals during the period of post-war, auto-centric

2014 Artists rendition of the Lower Yonge Precinct Waterfront Toronto

urban expansion, these neighbourhoods today are now home to an incredibly diverse population. With many new immigrant and low income residents today, the physical design of these structures and neighbourhoods have not kept pace with the needs of their residents. Project’s like Toronto Tower Renewal are prompting a re-thinking of how these buildings and neighbourhoods should perform for their residents.

UPHEAVAL & DISASTER

2006 Map showing immigrant population distribution within the city.

POLICY & SOCIAL NORMS

Toronto’s July 2013 flood was listed as Ontario’s most costly natural disaster.

The grassroots fight for Trefann Court marked the end of Toronto’s urban renewal projects that saw neighbourhoods replaced with housing towers.

The severe and unprecedented damage experienced during Hurricane Hazel in 1954 prompted a re-thinking of how Toronto’s built environment should co-exist with its natural water systems. As a result of the flooding caused by the storm, many former residential areas near floodplains were converted to parkland and Toronto’s modern ravine system was born. More recently, the City pledged $3.1 billion over 10 years to improving wastewater and stormwater management as a result of the massive flooding experience Julyof In 2010, thesystems City released the Avenues and Mid-Rise Buildings Study;in one 2013. As extremewas weather events occur more frequently, the city must continue the guidelines that buildings with a height approximately equal to the The ice storm in 2013 put to develop solutions to naturalwould disaster and incorporate width of innovative the adjacent road right-of-way present an effective these solution huge pressure on the power solutions into the built form ofdensity the city, particularly in waterfront areas. lowgrid leaving 100,000s in the to accommodate increased along mixed-use corridors abutting dark for weeks. density residential neighbourhoods. Although Toronto has not seen mid-rise development proliferate as anticipated, recent changes to the Ontario Building Code that would permit wood framing on buildings up to six-storeys may maket he mid-rise typolgy more appealing and financially beneficial to developers. 2010 Key components of the The way in which the Mid-Rise Guidelines are adopted throughout Toronto, and Avenues and Mid-Rise Buildings their effect on our ‘stable’ neighbourhoods and urban form, is yet to be seen. Perfomance Strandards

TIPPING POINT

INFRASTRUCTURE & TECHNOLOGY

Toronto finds itself now at a Tipping Point. The post-amalgamation city is experiencing incredible, unprecedented growth. As Toronto prepares to welcome hundreds of thousands of new residents over the next decade, land values soar, high-rise development continues at a feverish pace, and lower-density residential neighbourhoods struggle to maintain their cultural identity. At this point, the city must think creatively about how and where to accommodate theinfrastructure density necessitated by this population and and howinto Transportation has massive implications for growth, urban form, make this an to enhance equity, affordability, connectivity, livability, Toronto, weopportunity see this manifested in the Gardiner Expressway and surrounding 1915 map showing the density 2006 map showing density andareas. resilience. When first built, the Gardiner passed through industrial sites along the of Toronto, the dense downtown and expansion of the city core was evident early on. with evidence of suburban waterfront to allow simple vehicular access to the downtown core. Today, as nodes taking root. increasing land values have resulted in the massive transformation of Toronto’s waterfront into a residential and leisure destination, the Gardiner’s place in that landscape is increasinly called into question. Unrealized highways like the Spadina Expressway that would have cut through the Annex, Chinatown and 1960s 1961 vision of the Spadina 2010 Waterfront Toronto 2000s infrastructure UofT remind usdevelopment of how critically Suburban creates important our transportation Expressway1949 overlayed on the holds an international Market and social pressure triggers A map showing Toronto’scompetition future decisions future of our communities. The current and redevelopment protracted of theare first for wavethe of demographic existing homes of Annex. to develop the mixed-use subway system. innovative design options withinsubways the city as the debate shift around andmiddle the network of all modescity-owned of transportation Regent Park.- has for the Gardiner Expressway of the downtown grippedclass themoves city inout stiffling gridlock. What will it take to get the city moving again? and Lake Shore Boulevard 1818

1913

Philpott map of the Plan of York (later know as Toronto)

1954

Hurrican Hazel swamps the city, prompting zoning and building bylaw changes and a heightened awareness of the flood plain

1879

Bird’s eye view of the City of Toronto, showing the density and limits of the city.

The built form and density of Toronto at the turn of the century.

1970s

A view of the industrial land and brownfeild sites that are now home to City Place

1904

The Great Fire, as a result of the fire, more stringent safety laws were introduced and an expansion of the city’s fire department was undertaken.

2014

New building forms of development are redefining how density can be integrated into existing neighbourhoods and reflect new urban living patterns.

1930

Coloured tourist postcard of the Danforth shows the scale of the city.


LAND ECONOMICS

Skyrocketing land values in Toronto opens the city’s neighbourhoods to intense land speculation. Predictions of the future value of land in the downtown core and throughout the city encourages developers to hold onto under-developed Skyrocketing land values in Toronto opens the city’s neighbourhoods to intense properties, pushing up land values surrounding speculative land speculation. Predictions of theof future value of lots. landThe in the downtown core land market makes lot and smaller developent difficult - while and throughout the single city encourages developers to hold onto under-developed Toronto’s booming real estate market hasgrain resulted in the massive densification encouraging ‘placeholder architecture’, embodied single-storey, purposeproperties, pushing up and land values brownfield of surrounding lots. The speculative of the downtown core former sitesby along the waterfront, key built box retail stores on large lotssmaller along main sites are holding land market makes single lot and grainstreets. developent difficult - while transportation corridors, and former industrial nodes.These As the brownfield lands out changes in zoning architecture’, and land economics maximize their and profits. encouraging by single-storey, purposeare for built out,‘placeholder development pushes into embodied ‘stable’to neighbourhoods underbuilt box retail large lots along mainthat streets. These sites are holding developed aresstores of theon older suburban fabric ring the pre-amalgamation out changes This in zoning and land economics toolder maximize their profits. city for of Toronto. places intense pressure on building stock and light industrial sites adjacent to coveted single-family residential neighbourhoods. These sites present developers and communities with complex questions how livability, density, and how to integrate new building forms into historic residential fabric.

Box retail stores on main 2014 average Toronto housing streets that ‘placehold’ prices by type future development sites Box retail stores on main 2014 average Toronto housing streets that ‘placehold’ prices by type future development sites 1967 aerial view of Toronto’s 2014 Artists rendition of industrial harbour. the Lower Yonge Precinct Waterfront Toronto

LAND ECONOMICS LAND ECONOMICS UPHEAVAL & DISASTER

1967 aerial view of Toronto’s industrial harbour. 1967 aerial view of Toronto’s industrial harbour. Toronto’s July 2013 flood was listed as Ontario’s most costly natural disaster.

Toronto’s booming real estate market has resulted in the massive densification of the downtown core and former brownfield sites along the waterfront, key transportation corridors, and former nodes. As massive the brownfield lands Toronto’s booming real estate marketindustrial has resulted in the densification arethe built out, development pushes brownfield into ‘stable’sites neighbourhoods and underof downtown core and former along the waterfront, key developed of the older fabric that ring the pre-amalgamation transportation andsuburban former industrial nodes. As the brownfieldHazel lands The severeares andcorridors, unprecedented damage experienced during Hurricane city of Toronto. Thisa places intense pressure onneighbourhoods older stock light are built out, development pushes into ‘stable’ and and underin 1954 prompted re-thinking of how Toronto’s builtbuilding environment should industrial sites to coveted single-family neighbourhoods. developed ares of the older suburban fabric thatresidential ring the flooding pre-amalgamation co-exist with itsadjacent natural water systems. As a result of the caused by These sites present developers andpressure communities withbuilding complex questions city Toronto. This places intense on floodplains older stock and light the of storm, many former residential areas near were converted to how livability, and toravine integrate newwas building into historic industrial sitesdensity, adjacent to how coveted single-family residential neighbourhoods. parkland and Toronto’s modern system born. forms More recently, the residential These sitesfabric. present developers communities with complex questions City pledged $3.1 billion over 10and years to improving wastewater and stormwater how livability, density, to of integrate new building into historic management systemsand as ahow result the massive flooding forms experience in July residential fabric. weather events occur more frequently, the city must continue 2013. As extreme to develop innovative solutions to natural disaster and incorporate these solutions into the built form of the city, particularly in waterfront areas.

2014 Artists rendition of the Lower Yonge Precinct Waterfront Toronto 2014 Artists rendition of the Lower Yonge Precinct Waterfront Toronto The ice storm in 2013 put huge pressure on the power grid leaving 100,000s in the dark for weeks.

UPHEAVAL & DISASTER UPHEAVAL & DISASTER TIPPING POINT

Toronto’s July 2013 flood was The ice storm in 2013 put listed as Ontario’s most costly huge pressure on the power natural disaster. grid leaving 100,000s in the Toronto’s July 2013 flood was The in 2013 put darkice forstorm weeks. listed as Ontario’s most costly huge pressure on the power natural disaster. grid leaving 100,000s in the 1915 map showing the density dark2006 map showing density for weeks. of Toronto, the dense downtown and expansion of the city core was evident early on. with evidence of suburban nodes taking root.

The severe and unprecedented damage experienced during Hurricane Hazel in 1954 prompted a re-thinking of how Toronto’s built environment should co-exist with its unprecedented natural water systems. a result of the flooding caused by The severe and damageAs experienced during Hurricane Hazel the1954 storm, many former residential areas near floodplains were converted in prompted a re-thinking of how Toronto’s built environment should to parkland andits Toronto’s modern ravine system was More recently, co-exist natural systems. As aThe result ofborn. the flooding caused by Torontowith finds itself nowwater at a Tipping Point. post-amalgamation city isthe City pledged $3.1 billion over 10 years to growth. improving and stormwater the storm, many former residential areas near floodplains were converted experiencing incredible, unprecedented As wastewater Toronto prepares to to management systems a resultravine of massive flooding experience in July parkland Toronto’s modern system was born.the More the welcome and hundreds of as thousands of the new residents over nextrecently, decade, 2013. As extreme weather events occurtomore frequently, the cityand must continue City $3.1 high-rise billion over 10 years improving wastewater stormwater landpledged values soar, development continues at a feverish pace, and to develop innovative solutions toof natural disaster and incorporate management systems as aneighbourhoods result the massive flooding experience in July lower-density residential struggle to maintain theirthese cultural solutions into the builtthe form ofmust theoccur city, particularly in waterfront areas. 2013. As extreme weather events more frequently, the must continue identity. At this point, city think creatively about howcity and where to to develop innovative solutions to natural and incorporate these accommodate the density necessitated bydisaster this population growth, and how to solutions the built form the city,equity, particularly in waterfront areas. livability, make thisinto an opportunity to of enhance affordability, connectivity, and resilience.

TIPPING POINT TIPPING POINT 1960s

1949

2000s

Suburban development creates

A map showing Toronto’s future subway system.

Market and social pressure triggers

the first wave of demographic Toronto finds itself now at a Tipping Point. The post-amalgamation city is the mixed-use redevelopment of shift within the city as the middle city-owned Regent Park. experiencing unprecedented growth. As Toronto prepares to classincredible, moves out of the downtown welcomefinds hundreds of thousands of new residents over the next decade, Toronto itself now at a Tipping Point. The post-amalgamation city is land values soar, high-rise development growth. continues a feverish pace, and experiencing incredible, unprecedented Asat Toronto prepares to lower-density residential neighbourhoods struggle over to maintain cultural welcome hundreds of thousands of new residents the nexttheir decade, identity. At this point, the city must thinkcontinues creatively at about how and where land values soar, high-rise development a feverish pace, and to accommodateresidential the densityneighbourhoods necessitated by struggle this population growth, and how to lower-density to maintain their cultural make thisAtan opportunity to enhance equity, affordability, connectivity, livability, identity. this point, the city must think creatively about how and where to 2006 map showing density and resilience. the density necessitated by this population growth, and how to accommodate and expansion of the city with evidence of suburban make this an opportunity to enhance equity, affordability, connectivity, livability, 2006 showing nodesmap taking root. density and resilience. and expansion of the city with evidence of suburban 2014 1970s

1915 map showing the density of Toronto, the dense downtown core was evident early on. 1915 map showing the density of Toronto, the dense downtown core was1954 evident early on. nodes taking root. Hurrican Hazel swamps the city, prompting zoning and building bylaw changes and a heightened 1949 awareness of the flood plain A map showing Toronto’s future subway system.

1949

A map showing Toronto’s future subway system.

1954

Hurrican Hazel swamps the city, prompting zoning and building 1954 bylaw changes and a heightened Hurrican Hazel swamps the city, awareness of the flood plain prompting zoning and building

A view of the industrial land and brownfeild sites1960s that are now home to City Place Suburban development creates the first wave of demographic 1960s shift within the city as the middle Suburban development creates class moves out of the downtown the first wave of demographic shift within the city as the middle class moves out of the downtown

1970s

A view of the industrial land and brownfeild sites that are now 1970s home to City Place A view of the industrial land and

New building forms of development are redefining how density can be integrated into existing neighbourhoods and reflect new urban 2000s living patterns. Market and social pressure triggers the mixed-use redevelopment of 2000s city-owned Regent Park. Market and social pressure triggers the mixed-use redevelopment of city-owned Regent Park.

2014

New building forms of development are redefining how density can be integrated into 2014 existing neighbourhoods and reflect new urban New forms of development are livingbuilding patterns. redefining how density can be integrated into

1961 Expr exist


Agents of Urban Change (AoUC) is a Toronto-based interdisciplinary studio that combines innovative design, visual communication and theory to create authentic urban environments for people. AoUC was commissioned to develop an interactive density model for the How Does Your Neighbourhood Grow? exhibit as a hands-on tool to explore the impact of varying degrees of density in Toronto’s neighbourhoods. The Density Model incorporated movable building blocks and statistical projections, allowing visitors to manipulate Toronto’s future density and form and visualize the impacts of building typology on the way in which density is captured. Each building block represented a particular building typology and accompanying population increase. As users placed building blocks onto the model of a downtown Toronto neighbourhood, statistics representing the corresponding change in population, density, transit use, and energy use were projected and displayed in real time. By altering the building typologies and population represented on the model, users could further their understanding of the ways in which density affects our neighbourhoods and seek a balance between growth, change, and stasis.


INTERACTIVE DENSITY MODEL


EXHIBIT HANDOUT UPCOMING CENTRE FOR CITY ECOLOGY EVENTS MID-RISE CITY BUILDER CAMP : NEIGHBOURHOOD SUMMIT A workshop to catalyze conversation for the January Mid-Rise City Builder Camp. WHERE : URBANSPACE GALLERY, GROUND FLOOR 401 RICHMOND STREET WEST, TORONTO WHEN : NOVEMBER 6TH, 6:00PM MID-RISE CITY BUILDER CAMP A day-long workshop where stakeholders in Toronto’s development debate can engage in transparent, productive dialogue about our city’s growth. WHERE : TBA WHEN : JANUARY TBA

HOW DOES YOUR CITY GROW?

WANT TO GET INVOLVED? CONTACT US AT : info@cityecology.net 416-583-5763 www.cityecology.net

TYPOLOGY & SUSTAINABILITY IN THE MID-RISE DEBATE EXHIBIT INFORMATION

TORONTO IS AT A TIPPING POINT. We are a city bursting at the seams, with crumbling infrastructure and a transit system that is 30 years behind its capacity to service existing riders. In addition, we are projected to absorb more than 100,000 new of people into our neighbourhoods? This is a complex question that requires creative ideas and responsive city-building. We will have to create well-rounded, sustainable neighbourhoods that can accommodate growth without losing the very things that makes Toronto so great – our diversity, our remarkable What will this next version of Toronto look like? The solution lies in shifting from the deceptively safe notion of neighbourhood ‘stability’, development, and amenities that will cycle naturally through our neighbourhoods. Whatever happens, it is clear that we can no longer succumb to the market and let speculative real estate drive the built form of our city. With this exhibit, the Centre for City Ecology aims to change the tone of the development debate from one of frustration and fear, residents versus developers, to a dialogue that is transparent and full of the courage to meet the impending wave of change. Through the interactive tool, residents can understand how neighbourhoods around them. On the panels, we discuss seven drivers of change currently acting in Toronto, and fantastic international design precedents for dealing with each one. Thank you for coming, and we hope that this exhibit has inspired

SEVEN DRIVERS OF CHANGE TIPPING POINT necessary shift towards increasing density in the city.

UPHEAVAL & DISASTER

A crisis, disaster, or revolution leads to a sudden change in the way the city is imagined and built.

DEMOGRAPHIC SHIFT

Neighbourhoods and building types must change to accommodate changing populations.

MARKET ECONOMICS

The state of the economy, whether good or bad, as a drastic

LAND ECONOMICS

The value of land awaiting development, and the speculative the market will bear.

INFRASTRUCTURE & TECHNOLOGY

The introduction of new infrastructure or a change in technology can alter the way the city looks, feels, and functions.

POLICY & SOCIAL NORMS city’s natural evolution and produce particular forms of development.

OPEN HERE TO LEARN HOW TO USE THE INTERACTIVE TOOL


The graphic below shows the instructions that were given to users of the Interactive Density Model. It describes the building typologies represented by different wooden blocks, and how placing different blocks on the model surface could affect changes in the nieghbourhood.

BUILD YOUR OWN DEVELOPMENT BY PLACING WOODEN BLOCKS ON THE MAP. SEE HOW IT AFFECTS THE SURROUNDING NEIGHBOURHOODS BY WATCHING THE STATS CHANGE ON THE SCREEN. HERE ARE FOUR SAMPLE DEVELOPMENTS FOR YOU TO TRY OUT :

x4 Block 1

x8 Block 2

Retail Commercial 1 Storey Area 950m2

Residential Point Tower 3 Storey Area 2400m2 60 People

x6 Block 2

Residential Apartment 3 Storey Area 1425m2 36 People

x4 Block 2

Residential Townhouse 3 Storey Area 900m2 16 People


How Does Your Neighbourhood Grow? 2014 Exhibit Catalogue  
How Does Your Neighbourhood Grow? 2014 Exhibit Catalogue  
Advertisement