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Sensory Regulatory Processing – Bodies That Tell Stories

DIR® Regional Institute Session 3 Milagros J. Cordero, EdD, OTR/L


What Do We Want for Our Children?


Axis III – Regulatory-Sensory Processing Capacities Type I - Sensory Modulation (challenges)  Type II - Sensory Discrimination (challenges)  Type III - Sensory Based Motor (challenges) Abilities, including postural control and motor planning 


Regulatory Sensory Processing Capacities - Definition ď‚—

is a term that refers to the way the nervous system receives messages from our senses and turns them into appropriate motor and behavioral responses


Sensory Processing Development – A Continuum 

The behaviors observed in a child will exist in a continuum ◦ from within typical guidelines and its variations to From newborn until toddler – In alertness / Diffuse From toddler to pre-school – Transitional Period By kindergarten – Discriminatory/Manual dexterity established

◦ disorders


Master Observer: A.J. Ayres 

“The child’s innate ability drives and neural capacities lead him to an abundance of responses, many of them involving maximal effort, that enable him to master those demands and result in experiences that foster his development.”


Master Observer: J. Piaget ď‚—

J. Piaget - stressed that the early sensorimotor (including reflex) stages of infant development extends into reflective intelligence through process of accommodation and assimilation


Master Observer: M. Levine ď‚—

Multiple forces (genetic factors, environmental influences, family factors, cultural values, educational experience, physical health, influence of peers, temperament/emotional factors) determine a child’s neurodevelopmental profile.


Master Observer: S. Greenspan 

S. Greenspan – In discussing areas that influence the child’s development, he identifies them as: ◦ Biological and genetic factors ◦ Cultural, environmental, and family factors ◦ Child/caregiver interaction patterns It is this interaction patterns that then determines the child’s capacity for relative mastery


Sensory Processing Development According to Ayres, sensory integration (the term) is the organization of sensation for use. We need to have this skill so as to: ◦ Play ◦ Engage and maintain social interaction ◦ Have the ability to stay modulated ◦ Completion of activities of daily living ◦ Development of new skills – including academics


Development of Sensory Integration 

Sensory Integration is a normal process that supports all our behavior and actions. (Influenced by the developmental level)  S. Szklut, 1999

It involves not only the 5 senses we learn at school, but also the vestibular and the proprioceptive systems  It is also influenced by the environment  It is influenced by the individual presenting the stimuli 


D.I.R.速/Floortime & Sensory Processing Models MC, EdD, OTR/L

Logical & Abstract Thinking Symbolic and Creative Use of Ideas Complex Presymbolic , shared social communicati on Two Way Communicat ion Engagemen t Shared Attention & Regulation

2009

Emotions

Cognitive

Language

Ideation,

Motor Planning

Proprioceptiv e Tactile Muscle Tone & Muscle Strength

& Execution

Vestibular

Taste

Vision Vision

Smell

Auditory

Range of Motion

Primitive Reflexes

Protective Reactions

&

Balance

Equilibrium Modulation


Development of modulation 

“When inhibition and facilitation are balanced, we can make smooth transitions from one state to another.” “Modulation determines how efficiently we selfregulate, in every aspect of our lives.”  C. Kranowitz


How is Regulation Accomplished? 

It is the “capacity to regulate and organize the degree, intensity, and nature of responses to sensory input in a graded and adaptive manner. …to achieve and maintain an optimal range of performance and to adapt to challenges in daily life.”  Miller & Lane, 2000


What is meant by Regulation/Modulation? Co-regulation? How Does it Look? 

Self regulation is the nervous system’s ability to attain, maintain, and change levels of arousal or alertness ◦

(William & Shellenberger, 1994)


Body Centered vs. Far Centered Senses 

Interoceptive (body centered) senses - tactile, vestibular, and proprioceptive senses - operate without conscious thought - includes state of arousal Far senses - responds to external stimuli - sight, sound, taste, smell, and touch - respond to external stimuli from the environment  C. Kranowitz


Mechanisms to Self Regulate Modulation - brain will turn switches on or off to regulate its activity and our activity level  Inhibition - brain will reduce connections between sensory intake and behavioral output when information is not needed  Habituation - when we become accustomed to familiar sensory messages our brain automatically tunes them out  Facilitation - brain will promote connections between sensory intake and behavioral output by sending messages - it lets us known when we need to stop or continue activities 

C. Kranowitz


Importance of Arousal Arousal is our level of alertness  The ability to maintain appropriate states of arousal develops from our ability to balance the sensory input from our environment  With adequate arousal, we can then attend and learn 


How is a Disorder Identified? A disorder is identified when a behavior interferes with the age expected performance of the individual ď‚— A disorder can appear in one or more of the developmental areas of: physical, emotional, social, cognitive, learning ď‚—


The Range of Challenges None  Challenges but with normal range of variation  Mild to Moderate Impairments  Severe Impairments 


Sensory Modulation Patterns 201 – Over-Responsive, Fearful, Anxious  202 – Over-Responsive, Negative, and Stubborn  203 – Under-responsive, Self-Absorbed 

◦ 203.1 – Self Absorbed and Difficult to Engage Type ◦ 203.2 – Self-Absorbed and Creative Type 

204 – Active, Sensory Seeking Pattern


Using the Functional Developmental Growth Chart Questionnaire 

By 3 Months – Focusing and Attention/ Shared Attention and Regulation ◦ Does your infant usually show an interest in things around him/her by looking at sights, turning towards sounds?

By 5-6 Months – Engaging in Relationships ◦ Does your baby seem happy or pleased to see you and / or other favorite people: looking and smiling, making sounds or some other gesture, such as moving arms, that indicates pleasure or delight?


Early Identification of Regulatory and Sensory Processing Problems Sleep Disturbances  Eating Problems  Sensory Reactivity  Attentional Problems  High Irritability 


Levels 1 & 2 Attention and Engagement 

“These first two crucial thinking levels, attention and engagement, are exactly where the trouble shows up first.”  S. Greenspan. The Learning Tree, 2010

Experience shows us that even as children continue to grow and develop, we often need to revisit these areas since they are the first ones to be affected when the individual faces other challenges.


Questions to keep in Mind When Playing with an Infant/Child How does the infant/child respond to movement?  How does the child deal with transitions?  What is the quality of their motor planning at the gross and at the fine motor level?  Is the intensity and frequency of the behaviors demonstrated at par with the child’s age?  What strategies does the child use to calm herself? 


Interaction with dad at 10 weeks


Interaction With Mom and Dad at 8 Weeks


Sensory Profile 

A profile is not always obvious because it can vary according to ◦ Circumstances ◦ Who is with the child

Therefore, good observations are very important  According to S. Greenspan, “As you play, talk, or interact with your child, no matter how old, always remember to check whether he is calmly engaged and in control of his emotions and behavior.” The Learning Tree, 

pp.160


Identifying a Child’s Sensory Profile How would you describe the sensory profile for Child #1, for Child #2?  Areas that Support Development  Areas that Hinder Development 


Sensory Modulation Pattern .201 – Over-Responsive, Fearful, Anxious Characterized by responses that are larger than the ones expected  Individuals are often seen to over-react to stimuli or to the possibility there will be a stimuli coming their way 


Sensory Modulation Pattern .201 – Over-Responsive, Fearful, Anxious


Sensory Modulation Pattern – .202 – Over-Responsive, Negative, and Stubborn (Sensory Avoiding) Respond to touch with aggression or withdrawal  Afraid of or becomes sick with movements and heights  Cautious or unwilling to take risks  Uncomfortable in loud or busy environments  Very picky eater and/or overly sensitive to food smells 


Negative and Stubborn


Overly Sensitive


Sensory Modulation Pattern .203 – Under-responsive, Self Absorbed


Sensory Modulation Pattern – .204 Sensory Seeking Behaviors Hyperactivity – as they seek more input  Unawareness of touch or pain or touching others too often or too hard  Engaging in unsafe behaviors  Being too loud/too soft spoken or enjoying the extremes in volume 


Sensory Seeking


Co- Regulation


Accompanying Emotional States     

Anxiety Depression Anger hostility Functional performance Attentional concomitants ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

Distractibility Disorganization Impulsivity Hyperactivity Miller, 2000


Other Identified Behaviors Expressions 

Parents have reported concerns related to: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

Poor social participation Insufficient self regulation Inadequate perceived competence Inadequate self esteem  Cohn & Miller, 2000


Strategies to Support Levels 1 & 2

fromPfeiffer, Koenig, Kinnealey, Sheppard, Henderson – Effectiveness of Sensory Integration Intervention in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study. AJOT January/February 2011, Vol 65, Number 1

         

Arrange the room to entice engagement Ensure physical safety Present sensory opportunities Attain and maintain optimal arousal level Taylor activity to present just right challenge Ensure that activities are successful Guide the self-regulation of behavior Create a playful context Collaborate in activity choice Foster therapeutic alliances


Supporting Each Other‌ quietly


And in a more active Environment


Type II – Sensory Discrimination Defined as “inability to distinguish one type of input from another.”  Discriminatory skills include: different weights, different temperatures, different 


How Sensory and Regulatory Issues Affect Interaction


Need to ‘express’ versus ‘control’ the Sensory Input – How it affects engagement  Many individuals engage in self stimulatory behaviors to either calm or arouse themselves  These behaviors are looked at as negative or inappropriate by other neurotypical individuals  The relationship between those that need this input and those that observe it but do not need it do not support engagement


All I can Do is “Concentrate”


Peers may be Interested, but not Understand‌


Teaser… Moving into Motor Planning 

“…that neurological process by which cognition defines motor action…”  Ayres 1985


Maintaining High Self Esteem Difficulties in understanding the environment will affect higher levels of motor planning  The child has the choice of showing frustration, or withdrawing  Other children may express activities are too babyish, ‘stupid’ and refuse to complete them  Child may keep from participating in group/team activities 


Remember… it is a Family Affair…


Suggested Readings Delaney, T. The Sensory Processing Disorder Answer Boook. Naperville, Ill: Sourcebooks, Inc, 2008  Greenspan, S., Greenspan, N. The Learning Tree. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2010  Miller, L.J. with Doris A. Fuller. Sensational Kids. New York, NY: Perigee Book, 2006  ICDL Diagnostic Manual  ICDL Clinical Practice Guidelines 


Goals for the Presentation     

On viewing video, identify strengths and constrictions within FEDM 1 and 2 Describe strategies to support FEDM 1 and 2 Describe regulatory-sensory processing capacities (DMIC Axis III) Identify and describe a child’s sensory profile and how it supports or hinders a child’s development Describe the role of affect in understanding and working with a child with regulatory and sensory processing concerns. *Provide in-depth discussion of Regulatory-Sensory Processing Disorders (DMIC Axis I)   * For DIR C


Outline of the Presentation     

Review of Axis III – Regulatory Sensory Processing Capacities Sensory Processing Development as a Continuum Importance of Sensory Processing/ Integration Capacities Development of Modulation Identifying a Child’s Sensory Profile ◦ Supports development ◦ Hinders development

Identifying early markers of sensory processing development  Identifying difficulties/ patterns of difficulty in sensory processing capacities  Discussion of how these difficulties affect development of Functional Developmental Levels  Role of affect in our work with children with SPD 

Sensory regulation ppt  
Sensory regulation ppt  
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