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// S T U D I O A I R J O U R N A L P A R T

A , B + C T U T O R S // B R A D E L I A S P H I L I P B E L E S K Y

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CIARA 03

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DESIGN FUTURING

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DESIGN COMPUTATION

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Third year Architecture student that lives in Melbourne’s inner city suburb of Brunswick, and has constantly been exposed to the ever so fast pace of city life.

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COMPOSITION/GENERATION

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CONCLUSION

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES

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APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

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PART A: REFERENCES

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RESEARCH FIELD

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CASE STUDY

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CASE STUDY

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TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

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TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES

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TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES

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APENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

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DESIGN CONCEPT

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TECTONIC ELEMENTS

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FINAL MODEL

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ADDITIONAL LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS

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REFINEMENT

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES

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APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

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D ’ A L B E R T O

Over the years of growing up in such a diversly multicultural and eclectic suburb, and being surrounded by the prospect of change, I have been able to experience the notion of an ‘evolving city’ and urbanisation within Melbourne. Along with the ideas that come with an evolving city, there has also been a will to want to preserve what remains, and maintain a sense of identity. This is something that we all experience throughout our lifetime in the cities that surround us. From as far back as i could remember, and although it may sound cliché, i have always wanted to persue a career in architecture. In a sense, i feel as if i made this decision based on my upbringing, and the way in which i was constantly exposed to the world of architecture and construction, which can be traced back as far as my ancestors. For me, it was also a will to want to contribute to the world in which i live, and create buildings and spaces that people can experience and not just enter. This idea of evoking feelings within a space or environment, is what makes the architetcural world so intriguing and immersive. Form is what makes a building, and after studying the master Le Corbusier in my previous studio subject, i have grown an appreciation when it comes to the thought of simplistic forms that are fueled by an immersive and intriguing journey. This is where my appreciation for minimalistic, monochromatic and simplistic forms evolved from.It is through the complex and qualitative construction systems that this category of buildings employ, that aids the form to speak for itself, instead of sacrificing the integrity of the building by exposing intrusive elements. I hope that Studio AIR will expose me to the world of parametric design, as well as the notion of sculptural architecture. i feel that this will expose me to a different dimension of form, and enhance my knowledge for the future as an all around designer and architect.

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One of the main points to respect whilst designing for this site, is to make sure that you understand the significant history of the site and its geograohy. This will, in some way or another, inform the way in which the design proposal comes about. The design must be pragmatic, to a degree, as well as constructable, and its height must not exceed 125 metres in height [05].

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The site response requires a Three-Dimensional Sculptural Form, that is, in some way or another, able to stimulate and challange the mind. It must capture energy from nature and somehow convert it into electricity. STORE,

TRANSFORM,

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Lastly, it must not create Green house gas emissions, and be sensitive to its surrounding, as o not pollute them.

S I T E

D E S C R I P T I O N

All in all, the design must be innovative, parametric and unlike anything witnessed in design history. I look forward to exploring the way in which technologies and design can simultaneously collaborate.

The site located within the Danish city of Copenhagen, and also known as ‘‘Refshaleøen’, encompasses an array of scenic views which overlook the water and force one to explore the horizon line which lays in the background [5]. The sites rich heritage and past historical placement as a Shipyard, gives the site a sense of rich context, which can further me adapted into potential design proposals, and inform any future decisions for preservation and redevelopment. The mermaid statue which lies in the foreground of the panoramic shot [02], clearly juxtaposes with the former use of the site, yet at the same time creates a canvas at which one can start to draw ideas from.

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SITE PHOTO SITE PHOTO ARIEL VIEW

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LMS > Melbourne University > Studio Air LMS > Melbourne University > Studio Air LMS > Melbourne University > Studio Air

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ARIEL VIEW LAGI SITE

LMS > Melbourne University > Studio Air http://landartgenerator.org/competition2014.html

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I was primarily drawn to analyse this particular project from the 2012 LAGI (Land Art Generator Initiative), as i was interested in the notion of incorprating modern technologies, such as Solar, to a site of waste deposition and decomposition [06]. This project stood out to me, as throughout my time as an architecture student, we have constantly been reminded to explore notions and ideas of ‘SUSTAINABILITY’ , and in doing that, adapting it to the built environment. The innovative quality of this project, along with the fact that it has been designed for people to interact and experience by literally ‘immersing’ themself within the Solar Bath, has prompted me reconsider and re-evaluate my stance on the limits of interactiveness that one may have with architetcure as a whole [02]. The way in which this project works, is that the Salt Water Ponds, situated on the southern end of the site, capture and store heat that has radiated directly from the sun and the surrounding landfill area. Each pond is coupled with a tall solar chimeny [01,03] that then extracts the heat from the ponds, and converts it into electricity, thus fueling the temperature control of the Solar Baths [06]. In a project like this, there needs to be a specific focus on ‘Strategic Production’ [05] , as in order for the baths to store water from rainfall, the base of the structure must be slanted and slightly offset from one another, depending on the natural slope of the site [03]. This attention to detail shows us that the enironment and site plays a huge role in the way in which the prospect of this project would perform.

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This idea is inventive, yet at the same time it is somewhat mocking the lifestyle of their proposed demographic of New Yorkers, as the project invites them to “... stew in the own heat of their trash”. In a sense, it forces the potential visitors of the site to realize their own agency and actively engage in the problems of energy production, which can seem daunting.

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“ The main aim of this project, is to promote this idea of ‘Retain and Reuse’, whilst embracing this idea of the bathing culture ” [06].

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SOLAR BATHS PERSPECTIVE SLOPE

http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/LT388DF2/# http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/LT388DF2/# http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/LT388DF2/#

For me, the prospect of this project takes the idea of Sustainability to a whole new level, by exhausting the mere thought of trash as a way of fueling the electricity of the world in the future.

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COMPONENTS STRATEGIC

http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/LT388DF2/# http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/LT388DF2/#

SOLAR BATHS

http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/LT388DF2/#

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Kinetic energy is the energy which something encompasses, and it is generally created by nearby motion. As all moving things possess a degree of Kinetic Energy, there is a possibility that it can be easily generated, whether it be through the movement of nature, organisms or merely the superficial movements of man made creations. As motion is found in almost anyhting, there is definately a prospect in being able to create energy to power a small project, sculpture or building. Although it is the pace and speed of motion, that will ultimately filter the way in which the potential project will perform.

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There are complicated algorithmic expressions, which are able to explain these notions in a more in depth way... but for us average people and creative tinking architects, all we needto remember is that Motion causes power, which ultimately turns that into energy, which we can then store and use in the future to power our masterpieces.

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D I R E C T I O N

In conjunction with the brief, and as a way of incorporating Kinetic energy in the proposal for the 2014 LAGI competition in Copenhagen, a prospect or direction of thought may be to consider the past use of the site as a shipyard, and potentially draw energy from the ripple created in the water, through the motion of a ship... food for thought i suppose!

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The use of generating energy through architecture is an upcoming obsession, that is taking the architectural world to a whole new level. In a sense,

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An innovative designer known as Gunwook Nam, explored the notion of creating kinetic Energy through the concept of Human Foot traffic to power a system of water pumps.

To a degree, there is a high demand for creating sustainable architecture whilst maintaining aesthetical properties, and this building seeks to minimise the negative environmental impact of buildings by enhancing efficiency and moderation though the materials chosen.

The way it works, is that when people walk in close proximity to the structure, energy will be created and stored, and in the future, water will be pumped to the surface [03].

This particular project combines the ideologies of Kinetic energy, by absoring the motion of the soundwaves [06], and converting it into usable energy.

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WATER RIPPLE HUMAN PUMP HUMAN PUMP

http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/LT388DF2/# http://www.tuvie.com/human-pump-using-kinetic-enerhttp://www.tuvie.com/human-pump-using-kinetic-ener-

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EVOLO ENTRY ENERGY ENERGY

http://www.evolo.us/competition/soundscraper-caphttp://www.evolo.us/competition/soundscraper-caphttp://www.evolo.us/competition/soundscraper-cap-

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P A V I L I O N A C H I M,

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IT IS POSSIBLE TO CLAIM THAT A DESIGNER’S CREATIVITY IS LIMITED BY THE VERY PORGRAMS THAT ARE SUPPOSED TO FREE THEIR IMAGINATION.”

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Terzidis, Kostas (2009). Algorithms for Visual Design Using the Processing Language (Indianapolis, IN: Wiley), p. xx

C O M P U T A T I O N D E S I G N N E W W O R L D A R C H I T E C T U R E As computation deisgn is becoming more and more common in the architectural world, it is beginning to expand, and architects are becoming dependant on these software methods to influence their designs. Referring to the image above, which looks at the interior and structural quality of the

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Research Pavilion, there is a clear difference to what is computational design and what is not. There is a clear sense of curvilinear form, compared to the static quality of the rectilinear built form that we are used to. This particular precedent (above), interests me through its geometric and explorative quality, that encompasses an array of dynamic experience for a user.

RESEARCH PAVILION http://www.digitalcrafting.dk/?cat=9archi-

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P R O J E C T M E T R O P O L

M E T R O P O L P A R A S O L C O M P U T A T I O N A L D E S I G N

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The ‘Metropol Parasol’ located in Seville, Spain, resembles the form of giant mushrooms that were initially derived from the vaults of the Cathedral of Seville.

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S E V I L L E, S P A I N

The architect Jürgen Mayer-Hermann, has created a structure that is very interactive, to the extent that people are encouraged to walk above the structure and on the roof. This is the main reason why this design interested me, as even though it appears as a structure the focuses on the idea of form and timber as its main material, it is a mode of architecture that forces people to interct with, through its intriguing visual display and juxtaposing qualities.

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I was particularly eager to research this construction, as it is a clear indication of how computational design can somewhat drive the creativity of the architect, and as mentioned by Branko Kolarevic “The consequences of new digitally driven processes of design, fabrication and construction, are increasingly challanging the historic relationship between architecture and its means of production”, and in a sense, this is what gives a sense of ambiguity and excitement, when it comes to exploring with design. [5]

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This design, to an extent, relates to oxman’s theologies regarding the limits and benefits which contribute to the computational design process. He states that ‘the growing method of digital architecture design is developing simultaneously with softwares for energy and structral solutions’, and at the same time increasing the depth of capacity that architects are exploring, as computational design is teaching architects to rely on algorithmic and research based experimental design processes’, in order to strenghten and give depth to their design. [6]

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This particular design and method of construction, demonstrated through the Metropol Parasol, may further inspire the process and the need to respond to the LAGI project, as based on this example, i want to explore the limits which architecture has to offer. Creating and interactive and immerssive experience, is what makes a building so encompassing, whilst giving people a sense of intrigue, and i feel as if the computational design process will in a way, alter the conventional process which one may take when designing, but at the same time will inform stronger concepts and interesting forms.

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METROPOL PARASOL METROPOL PARASOL METROPOL PARASOL

http://archidose.blogspot.com.au/2006/02/halfhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metropol_Parasol http://www.yatzer.com/Metropol-Parasol-The-

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METROPOL PARASOL (FORM)http://design-porteur.com/2012/05/14/j-mayKOLAREVIC OXMAN ‘Therories of the digital architecture’

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B I R D ‘ S

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N E S T D E S I G N

The Bird’s Nest building was designed for the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympic Games, and its form was derived using the method of computational design. The building comprises of a double skin, with the outer skin being made up of skeletal steel, and the inner ‘skin’ of double-layered plastic, which keeps out wind and rain and filters out UVA light.

N E S T

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I chose to explore this particular piece of architecture, it was is a building that everyone has seen, due to the public focus it pulled in 2008. I was world reknowned, especially at that time, due to its different and interesting form, not to mention the structural surface patterning, which was used not only for stability, but also for aesthetical purposes, when coupled with lighting. In the reading by Kalay, he explores the notion that “It is relatively easy to communicate information from computers to humans, who posses the intelligence needed to understand textual, numerical, graphical, and auditory messages. But it is frustratingly difficult to communicate information from humans to computers, who lack the intelligence and the ability to interpret messages, unless they are coded in a completely unambiguous manner.” This point demonstrates the constrants put upon deisgners when they translate their design ideas into computational platforms.[5]

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When designing the Bird’s Nest Stadium, Swiss architects Herzog & de Meuron chosen after a six month long international competition, and their revolutionary design was comissioned to be the new Olympic Stadium. The overall design is said to be based on Chinese Style crazed pottery, and Computational fluid dynamics , has been used to calculate airflow speed at each angle of the structure in order to optimise ventilation within the building.

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BIRD’S NEST BIRD’S NEST BIRD’S NEST

This design and computational process may assist in forming our LAGI entry, as they have clearly used a series of data in order to calculate the location of certain members and adjust the form. This is something we should consider when designing and producing our entry, using computational platforms.

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http://www.designbuild-network.com/projects/nationhttp://www.arup.com/projects/chinese_national_stadihttp://www.chinadaily.com.cn/olympics/2008-07/25/

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BIRD’S NEST MODEL KALAY

http://bimtroublemaker.blogspot.com.au/2011/01/ LMS > Melbourne University > Studio Air

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COMPOSITION & GENERATION S O L A R P I X E L S

...AS WE KNOW, PARALLEL MOTIVES DO NOT COMPOSE UNLESS SOME OF THEIR ELEMENTS, OR FOREIGN ELEMENTS, SERVE AS A TIE.”

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Van Pelt, John Vrendenburgh (1902) A Discussion of Composition, especially as applied to architecture (New York: Macmillan)

Focusing on the process of composition and generation, I have explored the computational approach that was taken to produce the notion of these ‘solar pixels’. The purpose of the project is to pixelate the 100 acre site at Freshkills Park, with these dome shaped structures. The enclosures will be fitted with photovoltaic panels that will ansorb energy by day, and emit a certain colour as night time approaches.

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SOLAR PIXELS SOLAR PIXELS

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In regards to computational generation, the project was based on the use of certain typography co-ordinates, that have been programmed using algorithmic expressions, and in turn, this imformation has been adapted in a way that is reflective of the specific location. Using site specific information, creates a stronger connection and sense of relevence, when it comes to generating architectural designs, and the composition of the solar pixels somewhat reflect the aim to connect to the site, through their organic yet varying forms.

http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/as03aj90/ http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/as03aj90/

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L O U I S V U I T T O N P R O J E C T C O M P U T A T I O N A L D E S I G N Designed by a team of world reknowned architects lead and inspired by the one and only, Frank Gehry, This project aims to explore the limits that computational design can reach, whilst enabeling both “intricate collaboration and unprecedented engineering” [06].

P A R T N E R S’ F O N D A T I O N L O U I S

V U I T T O N

P A R I S , F R A N C E

In order to compose and generate the design for the new art museum in Paris, new technologies and modelling platforms were created, which would ultimately create a ‘cloud’ database, from which the design could be edited and controlled via. The abstract and curvilinear nature of this warped creation consists of a collaboration of both ‘mass-customised’ folded glass and curved concrete panels, and these have been parametrically optimised to cater to the building’s encompassed geometric quality. The contours to generate the design and composition, were infact generated in a freeform way, that required the embedding of fabrication and geometry rules t simulate the curves.

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Figure [05] explores the nature of the virtual model of all glass cylinders used to create the facade, and this followed a specific algorithmic process which involved: the extraction of reference surfaces, penetrating and seperating the surface, constructing an algorithmic pattern, creating panels and then fusing them into optimised panels. This specific process, of creating parametric algorithims, allowed the architects to continuously adjust the scale cloud provided a natural way to scale-up computation methods for design optimisation.

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The enabled movement of the model to the cloud platform generated for this particular project, combined a number of digital programs, that all contributed to the generation of the proposed composition. Some of which included Digital Project, XSteel, SketchUp, Rhino, and many other platforms.

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“In many circumstances, the result of many algorithms working simultaneously” [06], results in a new scale of design computation and optimisation, which ultimately was necessary to address some of the complex geometric issues of the project.

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GEHRY GEHRY GEHRY

GEHRY PARTNERS’ FONDATION LOUIS VUITTON GEHRY PARTNERS’ FONDATION LOUIS VUITTON GEHRY PARTNERS’ FONDATION LOUIS VUITTON

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GEHRY GEHRY GEHRY

GEHRY PARTNERS’ FONDATION LOUIS VUITTON GEHRY PARTNERS’ FONDATION LOUIS VUITTON GEHRY PARTNERS’ FONDATION LOUIS VUITTON

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M E S S E B A S E L - N E W H A L L H E R Z O G & D E M E U R O N

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World class architects Herzog and De Meuron, have been infatuated by the prospect of incorporating computation in the design process. In their design of the Messe Basel - New Hall, they have introduced a new platform of digital scrpting and algorithmic expressions that reflect the way in which Herzog & De Meuron operate. They claim that “Normally what [they] do is write one tool, one piece of software for one project...” [06].

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B A S L E , S W I T Z E R L A N D 01

Basically, the generation of the facade was informed by a computer program developed in-house by the Digital Technology Group. Randomisation was used to generate the initial pattern, though later on in the process the design became fixed. Computational design techniques were used to control the data structure right up to the end. P F

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At Herzog & De Meuron, the architects and designers believe that the physical model is vital to understanding architecture, to anticipating the construction of a building or component. This is exampled and explored through the way in which they approached the design process of this particular building. A fabrication prototype, which consisted of a double-layer cladding system with a rainscreen of wavy elements over a facade was composed and tested in-situ. This experimentation allowed the architects to gain an understanding of how the building would operate in a real life situation. This pattern, reffering to image 04, could have been created using the process of patterning lists, as a way of mass producing a pattern on a surface.

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The practice lives by the notion that “Ornament as decoration is not what we try to achieve”, and instead, one needs to understand that the generation of geometry and material configurations, is what gives the building character and a sense of dpeth beyond its facade.

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As mentioned by Peter Brady in ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, that “We are moving from an era where architects use software to one where they create software” [06], is something that Herzog & De Meuron epitomise. Their approach to the Messe Basel - New Hall, was revolutionary, in the sense that trial and error and continuous prototyping further enhanced the quality of the overall design.

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MESSE-BASEL MESSE-BASEL MESSE-BASEL

COMPUTATION DESIGN AT HERZOG & DE MEURON COMPUTATION DESIGN AT HERZOG & DE MEURON COMPUTATION DESIGN AT HERZOG & DE MEURON

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MESSE-BASEL MESSE-BASEL MESSE-BASEL

COMPUTATION DESIGN AT HERZOG & DE MEURON COMPUTATION DESIGN AT HERZOG & DE MEURON COMPUTATION DESIGN AT HERZOG & DE MEURON

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H E Y D A R A L I Y E V C E N T E R Z A H A H A D I D In her design of ‘Heydar Aliyev Center’, Zaha Hadid aspired to create and express the ambitions of the Azeri Culture and nation, as they look to the future of modern design and architecture in their cities, and try to over-ride the past.

Z A H A H A D I D A L I Y E V C E N T E R

B A K U , A Z E R B A I J A N

The building reflects a continous and flui relationship, that is unlike anything else seen within this particular area of Baku in Azerbaijan. This central location of the masterpiece, posiitons it as a nucleus for the nation to look upon...

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The generation and overall composition of this piece is aimed to reflect that of musical rhythm, and this was most evidently the design intent. The computational process entailed the need to generate a series of panels that would be used as a clad for the surface, and as a way of clinging to the direction of the lofted curves and overall curvilinear form of the building. The interior approach somewhat echoes the exterior, although there is a focus on the use of offsetting to create a degradation of scale and sense of repetition. The organic and fluid quality of the building, positions it as being ultra modern and almost futuristic, and this epitomises the direction in which Azerbaijan is heading in the future, and in particularly through architecture.

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HEYDAR ALIYEV http://www.archdaily.com/448774/heydar-aliHEYDAR ALIYEV http://www.archdaily.com/448774/heydar-aliHEYDAR ALIYEV http://www.archdaily.com/448774/heydar-ali-

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HEYDAR ALIYEV http://www.archdaily.com/448774/heydar-ali-

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R E F L E C T I O N P A R T C O N C L U S I V E R E F L E C T I O N After exploring and exposing myself to the world of Parametric design and computational processes, I believe that there is a lot to be learnt, and this will only come from delving into the unknown beauty of experimentation. Part A introduced me to an array or computational processes and challanged me through the algorithmic approach, that I was encouraged to embark upon. Along with learning these skills, there was also an opportunity for us to further explore the possibilities of ‘computation’ processes, in the form of precedents. Looking back and exploring the work of others, opened my mind up to a whole other world... a world where any form is possible! Trial and error is the main driver for using computation design in my eyes, as the possibilities are endless, and you are often encouraged to explore the limits of such programs (Rhino and Grasshopper... and many more I still don’t know). I N T E N D E D F U T U R

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A P P R O A C H O J E C T

In part B, and as I embark on the next journey of STUDIO AIR, I have decided to approach my intended design with an alternative mode than usual. In past years, i have taken a somewhat stark approach, where i gather influence from a site attribute, and adapt it into a design and take it through the design process. I will still maintain the essence of my approach, but in doing so, i am looking to introduce myself to the world of ‘trial and error’ and testing parametres of a potential design. Referring to images 01 and 02, this is an example of how i adapted a potential situation to the LAGI site, as i modelled a surface based on the wind rose chart of copenhagen (where the LAGI site is situated)... i feel like this experimentation gave me a grasp of what is to come. I feel as if computation design is another world of its own, and using tools such as grasshopper, to drive something such as rhino, you are able to explore ENDLESS possibilities

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by the click of a button and insertion of an algorithmic component... something that in the past, would have been foreign to me! This approach is innovative, as not only will i gain the oportunity to push my limits, but to also be exposed to the unknown world (and sometimes frustrating world) of NURB based programs, driven my algorithms. In a sense, it is significant to design like this sometimes (... considering that you are not in a strict time constraint), as you often come accross tools and skills, that were in the past foreign and non existant. Although this approach may be risky for some (...and certainly sounds risky to me), if feel as if it is the only way that my designs will improve... EXPECT THE UNEXPECTED... that’s my approach for Studio AIR. I will certainly benefit from this... although my sleep pattern may not... Ergo...

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‘THE LIFE OF AN ARCHITECTURE STUDENT”! L

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In learning about architectural computing, i have developed a stronger understanding , compared to the beginning of the semester (where i was completely against the thought of having to use Rhino again... Thanks Virtual Environments), as now i understand the possibilities that it can provide to potential designs. I’ve never been a fan of creating parametric inspired designs (although i was envious of those who could), simply because of the need to use programs such as Rhino... although now i am a transformed student. In the past, my designs have been purely rectilinear inspred and somewhat lacked the intriguing quality of curvilinear features. Regretfully, i will admit that sometimes, i contrained my creative mind and simplified my designs so that they’d be able to be created using 3D modelling programs, or hand draw them in a pragmatic and simple way. I have now learnt that i shouldn’t let technology drive my design... instead use it to imrpove and explore the lengths of it!

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S K E T C H I N G

In order to introduce myself to the wonderful world of algorthimic 3D modelling, i took it upon myself to attempt the weekly rhino tasks, which were coupled with the platform Grasshopper. In conjunction (... and most importantly with the help of the accompanying videos), i was able to successfully produce various models,,, and sometimes i even suprised myself. Most of my outcomes were admittingly achieved through the process of trial and error, and when i was still unclear of the process, i further researched and refferred to additonal videos which i sought throughout various internet platforms... youtube was my go to mode!

P A T T E R N I N G L I S T S A L G O R I T H M I C S K E T C H I N G Figure 03 demonstrates an attempt to create a patterning list parametric model, using a series of tools, but most importantly implementing the ‘voronoi’ component, i was able to create a varying grid patterns, reminiscent of a honeycomb! Of course there are many more possibilities when it comes to creating models like this. In order to give the pattern a little more dimension and depth, i implemented the component ‘offset’, as a way of creating multiple linework within the pattern. I started off using a surface, therefore a tool like this would be useful to a potential LAGI project, as any pattern could be generated onto a simplistic rectilinear or even curvilinear surface.

01 P A T T E R N I N G L I S T S A L G O R I T H M I C S K E T C H I N G Figure 01 and 02, are exmaples of using a gridshell generation process. This included the use of the geodesic component as one of its main drivers, although there were also a range of generic grasshopper tools that were coupled along with it. This particular process could be related to a potential LAGI response, as it could be used to create a undulating structure that is riddled with a patterned surface... a lattice like response.

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P R E C E D E N T S R E F E R E N C E S

L A G I S I T E (PG 04 - 05) Copenhagen ‘LAGI’ site, 2014, LAGI http://landartgenerator.org/competition2014.html (accessed on the 10th march, 2014)

L A G I S I T E (PG 04 - 05) IMAGES 01, 02, 03 AND 04 ‘LAGI’ site, 2014, photographs http://landartgenerator. org/competition2014.html (accessed on the 10th march, 2014)

[06] S O L A R B A T H S (PG 06 - 07) ‘Solar Baths’, 2012, Ian Mackay, Steve Muza http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/LT388DF2/ (accessed on the 10th march, 2014)

S O L A R B A T H S (PG 06 - 07) IMAGES 01, 02, 03, 04 AND 05 ‘Solar Baths’, 2012, computer generated image http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/LT388DF2/ (accessed on the 10th march, 2014)

3

[03] H U M A N P U M P (PG 08) ‘Human Pump’, 2014, unknown author http://www.tuvie.com/human-pump-using-kinetic-energy-to-power-the-water-pumps-system/ accessed on the 10th March, 2014)

K I N E T I C E N E R G Y (PG 08) IMAGE 01 ‘Water Ripple’, date unknown, photograph 2012/LT388DF2/# (accessed on the 12th March, 2014)

4

[06] E V O L O S K Y S C R A P E R S (PG 09) ‘The Soundscraper’, 2013, Julien Bourgeois, Olivier Colliez, Savinien de Pizzol, Cédric Dounval, Romain Grouselle http://www.evolo.us/competition/soundscraper-captures-sound-kinetic-energy-whilereducing-noise-pollution/ (accessed on the 10th march, 2014)

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[05]

P R E C E D E N T S I M A G E R E F E R E N C E S

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R E S E A R C H P A V I L I O N (PG 11) Referred to the Studio Air - LECTURE 3 ‘Design Computation’

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M E T R O P O L P A R A S O L (PG 12 - 13) ‘Metropol Parasol’, 2012, J. Mayer H. Architects http://design-porteur.com/2012/05/14/j-mayer-h-architects-metropol-parasol-now-complete/ (accessed on the 16th march, 2014) Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003) Suggested start with pp. 3-62 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 T H E

N E S T (PG 14 - 15) ‘The Birds Nest’, 2014 http://www.designbuild-network.com/projects/national_stadium/ (accessed on the 16th March, 2014)

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B I R D ‘ S

Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 S O L A R P I X E L S (PG 17) ‘Solar Pixels’, 2012, Ana Saiyed http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/as03aj90/ (accessed on the 22nd March, 2014)

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[06]

G E H R Y P A R T N E R S ‘ - L O U IS V U I T T O N (PG 18 - 19) ‘Gehry Partners’ Fondation Louis vuitton’ photographs and computer generated images http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/ journal/10.1002/%28ISSN%291554-2769/issues (accessed on the 22nd March, 2014)

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http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-

1 2

3

H U M A N P U M P (PG 08) IMAGE 02 ‘Human Pump’, 2014, computer generated image http://www.tuvie.com/human-pump-using-kinetic-energy-to-power-the-water-pumps-system/ accessed on the 10th March, 2014)

4

E V O L O S K Y S C R A P E R S (PG 09) IMAGES 03 AND 04 ‘The Soundscraper’, 2013, computer generated image http://www.evolo.us/competition/soundscraper-captures-sound-kinetic-energy-whilereducing-noise-pollution/ (accessed on the 10th march, 2014)

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R E S E A R C H P A V I L I O N (PG 11) IMAGE 01 ‘Research Pavilion, date unknown, photograph, http://www.digitalcrafting. dk/?cat=9architects-metropol-parasol-now-complete/ (accessed on the 16th March, 2014)

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M E T R O P O L P A R A S O L (PG 12 - 13) IMAGES 01, 02, 03 AND 04 ‘Metropol Parasol’, 2006, computer generated image http://archidose.blogspot.com.au/2006/02/half-dose-23-metropol-parasol.html (accessed on the 16th March, 2014) T H E B I R D ‘ S N E S T (PG 14 - 15) IMAGES 01, 02, 03 AND 04 ‘The Birds Nest’, 2014, photograph http://www.designbuild-network.com/projects/national_stadium/ (accessed on the 16th March, 2014)

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S O L A R P I X E L S (PG 17) IMAGES 01 AND 02 ‘Solar Pixels’, 2012, Ana Saiyed, computer generated image http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/as03aj90/ (accessed on the 22nd March, 2014)

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G E H R Y P A R T N E R S ‘ - L O U IS V U I T T O N (PG 18 - 19) IMAHES 01, 02, 03, 04 AND 05 ‘Gehry Partners’ Fondation Louis vuitton’ photographs and computer generated images http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/ journal/10.1002/%28ISSN%291554-2769/issues (accessed on the 22nd March, 2014) M E S S E B A S E L - N E W H A L L (PG 20 - 21) IMAGES 01, 02, 03, 04 AND 05 ‘Realising the Architectural Idea’, 2012, photographs and computer generated images http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/ journal/10.1002/%28ISSN%291554-2769/issues (accessed on the 22nd March, 2014)

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Z A H A H A D I D - H E Y D A R A L I Y E V (PG 22 - 23) IMAGES 01, 02, 03 AND 04 Heydar Aliyev Center, 2013, photographs and computation diagram http://www.archdaily.com/448774/heydar-aliyev-center-zaha-hadid-architects/

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[06] M E S S E B A S E L - N E W H A L L (PG 20 - 21) ‘Realising the Architectural Idea’, 2012, Herzog & De Meuron http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/ journal/10.1002/%28ISSN%291554-2769/issues (accessed on the 22nd March, 2014)

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H A D I D - H E Y D A R A L I Y E V (PG 22 - 23) ‘Heydar Aliyev Center’, 2013, Zaha Hadid Archutects http://www.archdaily.com/448774/heydar-aliyev-center-zaha-hadid-architects/ (accessed on the 24th March, 2014)

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W A Y O F F U E L I N G T H E P R O C E S S O F D E S I G N

...PARAMETRIC DESIGN DEPENDS ON DEFINING RELATIONSHIPS AND THE WILLINGNESS OF THE DESIGNER TO CONSIDER THE RELATIONSHIP DEFINITION PHASE AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE BROADER DESIGN PROCESS...”

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F I E L D

Woodbury, Robert F. (2014). ‘How Designers Use Parameters’, in Theories of the Digital in Architecture, ed. by Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 153–170

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Geometry has always been the basis of all forms of constructed design, as without geometry, structure would not exist. From the basic form, we are able to manipulate and explore the lengths of design. By adding surface patterns and penetrations, warping pure forms and combining different geomteries, we enable our artistic minds to further explore the possibilities of design through form. Nowadays, geometry has become, somewhat, a driver for contemporary architecture, in the sense that we are combining it with computational programs, and further exploring the lengths of manipulation.

01

This approach in contemporary design has come about through the will to create geometrical relationships between structures, rather than focusing on the distinction between different built volumes. This approach has given the architetcural world an alternative and exciting direction for the future, as the P O S S I B I L I T I E S A R E E N D L E S S ... essentially! Combining different geometries within a structure , is what gives it a dynamic yet intrinsic quality.

FACADE ENGINEERING http://www.wintech-group.co.uk/news/2011/08/ the-future-of-facade-engineering/

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Designed by the famous Spanish Architect Antonio Gaudi, La Sagrada Familia began construction towards the end of the 19th century, and to this day, it is still in the process of being completed (talk about good things taking time).

B A R C E L O N A , S P A I N

This piece of architetcure can be described by many as a fusion of styles ranging from various influences, such as Spanish Gothic Architecture, Modern Architecture and Art Nouveau. To a degree, these styles are clearly evident throughout this highly detailed and ornately decorated structure, for example, the use of ribbed vaults and spires are reminiscent of Spanish Gothic Architetcure, or Gothic Architetcure in general. The heavy use of geometry and mass materiality can be connected with the characteristics of modern architetcure, and the Art Nouveau style is explored through the extremely decorative elements seen upon the facade as well as the muted lighting within the interior spaces. Gaudi developed a system of angled columns and ‘hyperboloidal’ vaults, as a way of eliminating the need for flying buttresses, therefore, rather than relying on exterior elements, the horizontal loads are transferred through the columns within the interior. Geometry is experienced in a multi-faceted way within and upon this building, as it is comprised of various three-dimensional forms including hyperboloids, parabolas, helicoids and conoids. As it is a cathedral, Gaudi made these geometric design decisions as a way of enhancing the acoustics within the space... in a sense, it follows the notion of F O R M F O L L O W I N G 1 F U N C T I O N S! In a sense, a design such as La Sagrada Familia, was revolutionary for its time, and it tested the parameters of using geometry in an intricate and inventive way. Nowadays, this is something we would expect to see generated on a platform such as Rhino and by using a driver such as Grasshopper. If we were to translate this to a grasshopper platform, and generate a parametric interperetation of this building, VoltaDoms would most likely be a way in which we could explore the repetition of forms and manipulation of the heights and radius’ of the elements.

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1 LA SAGRADA FAMILIA http://www.archdaily.com/438992/ ad-classics-la-sagrada-familia-antoni-gaudi/

01 LA SAGRADA FAMILIA http://nomadicalsabbatical.com/best-cities-arhttp://strangesounds.org/2013/09/antoni-gaud02 SAGRADA INTERIOR

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SAGRADA PARAMETRIC

http://wewanttolearn.wordpress.com/2011/10/17/

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F I E L D This installation, titled VoltaDom, was developed by SJET, which was founded by Skylar Tibbits. Ultimately, it was created as an entry for the 150th FAST Arts Festival, and as a result, it is currently situated on the MIT campus, and spans through a coridoor.1 This design explores the use of computational processes, and this is evidenced through the developemnt of a complex and highly geometric pavilion structure. In a sense, this design is reminiscent of the vaulted ceilings, which are a common feature of ‘Gothic Architetcure’, in particularly within cathedrals, as they play a part in enhancing acoustics. Fittingly, this can be further explored through my previous exploration of Antonio Gaudi’s ‘La Sagrada Familia’. Ultimately, this design was developed in conjunction with computer coding, and was later craeted using fabrication technologies. The white use of materials gives the structure a dynamic quality, in my opinion, as the geometry in conjunction with light, adds a multi-faceted view, which in turn comes down to the intricacy and detailing of the extruding elements. The VoltaDom, explores the ideas associated with architectural “surface [panelling]”, which came into play through the assembling of this installation. Fabrication strips were used as a method of creating the curved vaults (as evidences through the seems where the vaults intersect).2 In conjunction with the algorithmic sketches that follow , and through the manipulation of the VoltaDom Grasshopper definition, we were able to test the parameters of changing and maniuplating hte base geometries. In matrix 1 (evidenced on pages 38 and 39), the components were manipulated by changing the numerical values , and through this, we discovered that the components remained fairly constant, although there were discripensies in regards to the total surface area covered and overall scale. In the pages that follow, I aimed to explore the lengths of manipulation, by substituting the geometries for others, ie. a cone to a sphere, as well as experimenting through ‘culling’ patterns by inputting ‘true’ and ‘false’ sequences. 1 VOLTADOM, SJET http://www.sjet.us/MIT_VOLTADOM.html 2 VOLTADOM http://www.evolo.us/architecture/ voltadom-installation-skylar-tibbits-sjet/

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VOLTADOM, SJET

http://www.sjet.us/MIT_VOLTADOM.html

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Considering the notion of GEOMETRY as an architectural approach, I have used the VoltaDom definition as a nucleaus for manipulation and exploration. Using the original form as a starting point (refer to the original form in ROW 2), I have explored different variations, and studied the way in which each compontent can vary the forms.

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0.70

P O I N T S S E E D R A D I U S = H E I G H T =

= 10 = 3 0.75 0.80

P O I N T S S E E D R A D I U S = H E I G H T =

= 12 = 5 0.65 0.90

P O I N T S S E E D R A D I U S = H E I G H T =

= 14 = 7 0.55 1.00

P O I N T S S E E D R A D I U S = H E I G H T =

= 16 = 9 0.45 1.10

0.80

0.90

1.00

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P O I N T S = 18 S E E D = 11 R A D I U S = 0.35 H E I G H T = 1.20

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V A R I S E C O N D

As an alternative measure, and in order to explore the various possibilities of using the Grasshopper VoltaDom definitions, I opted to substitues the conical forms, with spherical geometries. This example explores the additional possibilities that can be created using the grasshopper platform as a driver. I also experimented by adding a cull pattern to figure [05].

A T I O N 1 D E F I N I T I O N

Focusing on the Second Definintion as a base for this manipulation exploration, I decided to explore the possibilities of the geometry, by changing the bounds of the form. This particular diagram was a result of decreasing the lower bound and increasing the upper bound.

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V A R I S E C O N D

In connection to architetcural design in general, and more relevantly in regards to our potential LAGI design, these geometries could possibily be used as a way of creating occupiable spaces that are seperate (which can be achieved by decreasing the radius or width), or alternatively by creating interlocking spaces (by increasing the radius’). This is a simple example, although it explores a degree of manipulation and exploration that can be achieved by using grasshopper as a design driver.

A T I O N 2 D E F I N I T I O N

Again, focusing on the second definition as a base for manipulation, I then explored the opposite of the geometry above, and instead I increased the lower bound and decreased the upper bound.

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This iteration was concerned with the manipulation of bounds, and the ways in which we can create variations in dimensions, by overlaying structures of different radius measurements. This could be used in the LAGI design to explore the idea of creating a double skin facade or alternatively a structure with numerous spaces within one another.

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I T E R A T I O N 4 S P H E R E W I T H C U L L P A T T E R N

Iteration 2 was manipulated by chnaging the geometry from a cone form, to a spherical form. This gave me the opportunity to understand the grasshopper platform as a tool for exploring possibilities in a fast paced way. This could be used in the LAGI entry, as once we create a base design and layout, we will be able to explore the various uses of geometry and test our limits.

Similarly to Iteration 1, iteration 4 explores the notion of multiplication with regards to the various spherical forms, although it has an added dimension, as a cull pattern was added. Again, a design like this could be potentially used as an approach to the LAGI project, as surface patterning can be created, giving a sense of dynamic quality to the internal spaces as well as a multifaceted dimension to the exterior of a potential structure.

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Iteration 1 focuses on the previous study of manipulating the various domains of a particular conical formation, indicated by the VoltaDom definition. and manipulating a ‘combination’ of the points, seeds, radius and height. This can be adapted to the future LAGI Project and potential design, as there is an opportunity to create multiple spaces that are uniform to each other, and can be explored by interlocking or seperating various platforms.

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E X P E R I M E N T A T I O N V O L T A D O M Focusing on pushing the geometry further, and pushing it into a realm of complete unknown limits, i was able to come up with a geometry that connects with the notion of stalictites. I decided to explore this form of architectural geometry, using the platform of grasshopper, as i had previously explored and became familiar with the famous ‘La Sagrada Familia’ through my case study. I mainly experimented by changing the degree and numerical factor of the height ratio, mainly within the second definition. Within the first definition, I experimented by appropriating the geometry to make a much smoother transition between the stalictite’s neck (where the two cones join up and intersect.

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LA SAGRADA FAMILIA http://www.redesignrevolution.com/photo-of-the-

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E X P L O R I N G G E O M E T R Y G E O D E S I C D O M E

...IT IS NOW POSSIBLE TO MATERIALLY REALIZE COMPLEX GEOMETRIC ORGANIZATIONAL IDEAS THAT WERE PREVIOUSLY UNATTAINABLE.”

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Kolarevic, Branko and Kevin R. Klinger, eds (2008). Manufacturing Material Effects: Rethinking Design and Making in Architecture (New York; London: Routledge), pp. 6–24

The ‘GEODESIC’ dome was a break through in post World War II architecture, as there was a high demand in mass production and the ability to pre-fabricate architecture, to a degree. This idea of the geodesic dome, was based on the concept, thought about by Buckminster Fuller, of fold away architetcure that was easy to transport, and create shelter for those who were homeless after the wrath of WWII.1 The partial spherical structure is laced with an array of triangulation patterning, which are designed to distribute stress accross the structure.

This form of architetcural deisgn was created well before the introduction of computational platforms and programs, and demonstrates a strong attention to detail in regards to the rigidity and effectiveness of the geodesic steel structure. The with that In a

structure has then been laced a thin layer of epoxy sheeting, acts as an environmental barrier. a sense, tent to

it a

take the idea of whole new level!

1 Buckminster Fuller Institute http://bfi.org/about-fuller/big-ideas/geodesic-domes

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BUCKMINSTER FULLER http://designmuseum.org/design/r-buckminster-fuller

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Designed by ‘Cox Architects’, this piece aims to “...achieve world standards and be extraordinary in terms of structure, atmosphere and spectator experience”.1 The stadium is currenlty used for most of the sporting events held in The City of Melbourne, and has a minimum seating capacity of 30,000, as to accomodate for large crowd sizes. In regards to the design of this stadium, and in particularly the use of G E O M E T R Y, creates an eye-catching monument that acts as an incentive by “promoting the use of public transport, existing facilities and infrastructure where possible”.2 The overall geometric component of the stadium, which frames the parametre of the ground, in a sense ‘...represents the next generation of stadium design’, through its innovative and daring, not to mention ground breaking design of the structure.3 Its materiality, and in particularly the bioframe, is constructured out of lightweight steel, which has been references to the ‘structural efficiencies of the Buckminster Fuller geodesic dome’, yet it uses 50 percent less steel.4 The design embodies a strong relationship to ‘sustainability’ as a new age focus, and it consists of high embodied energy steel, which contricutes to the benefit of the environment in a significant way.

02

The cladding triangulated surface, ensures heat gain and loss to the structure and the overall stadium as a whole, and ‘each glass and metal panel is designed to allow various degrees of sunlight to penetrate the stadium, as well as allow views’.5 The external cladding of the structure incorporates an array of LED lights, which have been installed as a part of a unique public art installation, and, in a sense, they enhance this use of ‘sustainability’, as the lights consume one tenth less energy, than conventional lighting systems. 1 AAMI PARK http://www.lsaa.org/index.php/projects/ stadiums/280-aami-park-stadium-melbourne 2 AAMI PARK http://www.lsaa.org/index.php/projects/stadiums/280-aami-park-stadium-melbourne 3 AAMI PARK http://www.lsaa.org/index.php/projects/stadiums/280-aami-park-stadium-melbourne 4 AAMI PARK http://www.lsaa.org/index.php/projects/stadiums/280-aami-park-stadium-melbourne 5 AAMI PARK http://www.lsaa.org/index.php/projects/stadiums/280-aami-park-stadium-melbourne

01 02

AAMI STADIUM AAMI STADIUM

http://garyannettphotography.com/blog/aami-park-melhttp://garyannettphotography.com/blog/aami-park-mel-

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C O D E

Attempt to create a series of spheres along a rectangular outline: Create basic outline in rhino and then select points of curves. Divide and explode to break it up into groups from which spheres can be adjusted accordingly. Achieving Volume: Once points or curves are divided and exploded, put into a list command to and find a way to specify groups and values. We plan to connect this to a sphere and attach number sliders to enable easy change and adjustment of shape sizes, and then loft or bake to see what kind of shape is achieved. Hollow: Create a surface through a brep or mesh and explode or split and delete overlapping sections. Then play with boolean tool and perhaps even creating shapes within the existing spheres and delete those shapes to hollow out the 3D surfaces. Panels: Look at triangulation commands and Voronoi.

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S T U D Y

G E O M E T R Y

E N G I N E E R I N G

01 S T E P

1

The stadium is basically a series of spheres which overlap, change in volume and follow a rectangular layout. Therefore, to create the basic outline for the spheres to follow, a rectangular 2D outline was created on rhino and using the “fillet” command, the points of the corners were rounded to match the circular edges of the final form.

02 S T E P

3

The original ‘set curve’ and geometry of the stadiums overall shape was then offset to create a boundary for the internal ‘intersecting’ curve to follow.

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2

This curve was then selected in grasshopper, divided and exploded. This was done so spheres (when created) could be adjusted and change in volume in groups rather than as a whole to match the changes seen in the form for AAMI Park.

03 S T E P

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The geometry (the spheres), were then trimmed with the intersecting form, and this created the overall form for the stadium. This idea of a shell like structure that followed the parameter of the stadiums oval/rectangular form, was achived through subtracting the inner ‘trimmed’ part of the sphere.

S T E P

5

After trimming the surface to create the shell structure, we resort to creating a ‘Brep’ with the geometry, in order to enable the meshing functions. Lastly, we meshed the edges in order to create a surface that resembled that, demonstrated upon the AAMI PARK stadium itself.

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B . 3

C A S E R E V E R S E

S T U D Y

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G E O M E T R Y

E N G I N E E R I N G

F I N A L

O U T C O M E

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E X P L O R A T I O N

Towards the end of the Reverse Engineering exercise, and as a way of testing the possibilites of such a structure, we began thinking about how we would create a surface that would be able to explore the notion of M

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So, in response, we looked at the notion of creating a series of contours, defined by the shell like structure, which we decided to explode into a series of points that would, in turn, open up an array of possibilities which we could translate into the I

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Using these divided contours, we would like to explore the notion of extrusion, possibility relating that to the data we obtained earlier and within PART A which was concerned with the wind rose diagrams of the copenhagen site, which responds directly to the LAGI brief. Playing with surfaces and the idea of motion through form shall be explored to see if we can create a humble, kinetic design that surrenders itself to nature by using the 2012 winning Lagi competition entry, Scene-Sensor, as a key p r e c e d e n t . We would also like to re-explore gridshells to see if any interesting forms and patterns can be created from using data and diagrams to convert a conceptual idea into a logical, mathematical and energy based design.

Our process will explore new possibilities by building on from previous weeks work, such as inspiration gained from material qualitative data and diagrams, and seen if it can be incorporated and manipulated by the re-engineered D E F I N I T I O N! We are looking forward to the prospect

06

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B . 3

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E X P L O R I N G

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T H E C A P A B I L I T I E S O F W E A V E R B I R D P L U G - I N

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M E S H

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M I D E D G E

S U V D I V I S I O

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T H I C K E N

The Grasshopper plugin ‘Weaverbird’ was adopted as a means of exploring mesh capabilities in the AAMI Park reverse engineering definition. Through this plugin a range of textural surfaces and surface patterning outcomes can be achieved that are not attainable through standard Grasshopper components. Despite using geometry as the underlying research field for design, it is evident that textural quality and patterning can assist in the development of a visual response to energy harnessing in the design and a means for human interaction. Such features in combination with motivating geometry will also enhance the overall aesthetic of the design and create a point of interest for installation visitors.

B E V E L

M E S H

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O F F S E T

Manipulation of the model via weaverbird components stimulated ideas in regards generating a sense of movement and tactility in the design via textural surfaces and material capabilities. Furthermore it was established that whilst some patterns are intriguing and thought provoking their potential for application is limited as it was detected that fabrication would be unrealistic. Whilst the AAMI park geometry has been used as the main geometry for the manipulation activity, the application of the weaverbird components can be applied to various geometric outcomes obtained in the manipulation of the reverse engineering definition.

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G E O M E T R Y

E N G I N E E R I N G A R R A Y T R A N S F O R M A T I O N S The iterations in Matrix 2.0 were developed utilising the Aami Park reverse engineering definition as a basis. ‘Array’ components were incorporated into the definition as a medium for exploring the arrangement of the form. This resulted in evolution of the original stadium of spheres to produce various configurations. Three species of iterations were producing using the ‘polar array’, ‘rectangular array’, and ‘curve array’. In addition key parameters in the definition were manipulated to produce diversified iterations. The altered parameters include, the number of points, which affected the number of spheres and the radius of these spheres. Furthermore, a number slider was connected to the point array component and this parameter was shifted to enhance variation. The number of points explored in the iterations was 5, 10 and 20. As the number of points increase the density of the iteration increased producing more complex iterations. The radius manipulation ranged from 1 to 3. The definitions with a radius equal to 3 produced a spare iteration compared to that of radius equal to 1; this factor was key to the differentiation of spatial configuration within the model. The greatest variation was achieved in the curve array iterations; furthermore these iterations were most successful in regards to stimulating design ideas and their potential for adaptation to meet the design brief. The curve used for these iterations was not conceptual however, the potential to base the parametric model on a meaningful curve that is design related and site responsive is apparent. It is evident that overall the outcomes presented by this matrix are valuable and thought provoking in regards to development of design ideas and have the potential to stimulate intriguing ideas in combination with experimentation explored in other matrices to produce interesting design brief responses.

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The iterations in Matrix 2.0 were developed utilising the Aami Park reverse engineering definition as a basis, and by introducing the ideologies that are incorporated within the evaluating fields definition, we were able to explore the lengths of manipulation in regards to varying forms. This particular matrix, began to push the limits in regards to striving away from the original ‘repetitive’ linked structure, and pushed towards an exploration of warped iterations.

The most interesting variations we derived from the introduction of the cone geometry, as we felt these iterations explored the idea of wind, which was one of the conditions of the site that we are interested in adapting to our design throughout the later stages of the project. However, there were a few of the sphere experimentations that triggered our creative brains, and made us consider how they would adapt to the LAGI site in the future and through further manipulation.

The first lot of iterations were produced continuing on with the notion of ‘spheres’, yet distancing them from the original ‘voltadom’ based definition that was explored in part B.2 and B.3, by inputting a graph controller, and using the various controllers to warp the structure. The second row explores the outcomes of switching the sphere geometry to a ‘cone’, and this allowed us to explore the discrepancies of having a different geometry that drives the outcomes. Lastly, we reverted back to the spheres, although focused on inputting the wind rose data, that is site specific to the LAGI Copenhagen site for 2014. Their outcomes resembled Aami stadium through the strong emphases on repeated forms, unlike the previous iterations that were focused on the idea of singular forms. Some of the key parameters and ‘various controllers’ that were used to alter the forms, included the number of points, which affected the amount of spheres or cones that were present along the base curve and the radius of the geometries. One other main factor, which altered the appearances, was the graph controller, which enabled us to alter the nature and path of the model as well as a b-factor (which was attached to the graph controller), and this altered the height and elevation of the geometry. Most of the iterations in row 1 and 2, explored the notion of minimising the number of points, and in turn they are ranging mainly from 2 – 5. Although, the last row is site specific to the data derived from the month that the data was taken from (July – December; therefore they range from 7 – 12, in consecutive order).

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E V A L U A T I N G - KINETIC ENERGY

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E V A L U A T I N G - MATERIALS

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RAD CNT DCY B

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G E O M E T R Y

F I E L D S

M A T R I X GRIDSHELLS

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B . 4

C O P E N H A G E N W I N D

The outline of a Copenhagen wind diagram was used as a base curve for sketches. Using the 'Graph Mapper/ Bezier Curve' warped spherical shapes were created. This variation of the wind data sketches was selected to be further considered. This was due to the iteration creating a form which may be usefully adapted to the LAGI site. It's envisioned that the extending curves could be used as sculptural arms reaching throughout the site to different points allowing freedom of space in between, which would be useful as the site is predicated to be a growing urban area. This would therefore allow the design to connect to the site as a whole yet simultaneously allowing for growth and development within and around the sculptural/architectural structure.

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D A T A

W I N D

G E O M E T R Y

E X P L O R A T I O N

Furthermore, the fact that the form is derived from Copenhagen wind data and graphs addresses the LAGI brief in terms of creating a connection to the environment and the specific site, as considering an energy source to trigger design, in this case that being kinetic energy. The sculptural arms and the changes in volume, direction and twisting literally visualises wind and air movement. Therefore, through the form and perhaps based on materials used wind could be used to flow through these arms and adapt the facade/surfaces in relation to wind load and direction, and may even trigger subtle and controlled movement of the structure itself. This would create an ever-changing design that collaborates with nature and the site specificcally,

This form could produce kinetic energy as well as embrace it from a visual point of view. The sculptural arms could be used as pipes of some sort to allow wind to be captured and flow through them. Points where the sculpture ends, shifts, opens, or rotates may be used as energy producing stations that capture the wind that flows through the pipe arms. The orientation of the arms and 'points of distribution' could be determined by site location. General direction of heavy wind flows and wave currents from the water around the site could determine opening points.These locations of heavy wind loads may also be blocked through the arms to encourage people movement in wind calm areas triggering people movement with the wind as opposed to against it.

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B . 4

76

I T E R A T I O N S 3 . 0

W I N D

M A T R I X

3 . 0

G E O M E T R Y

D A T A

M A T R I X

A R R A Y T R A N S F O R M A T I O N S Matrix 3.0 worked mainly on conceptualising matrix 2.0 and 3.0 to meet the LAGI Brief through making a connection between design and the environment, and to the located site in Copenhagen specifically. To address the brief’s need for an energy source to be incorporated into the design, Copenhagen wind data was used to trigger form and iterations by using wind graph shapes as a starting ‘curve’ for both the ‘array’ and ‘graph controller’ grasshopper definitions built on from the reverse engineering process. Points and sliders were adjusted to meet data collected, such as Copenhagen wind calm and speed from different time periods, including this very month, April 2014. For example, the month April from which data was collected was created as a ‘number slider’ with the number four. April was recorded with a wind calm of 7.3% and an average speed of 10.6 mph. Such numerical values were transferred into logical grasshopper data to create sketches and iterations. Inspired by previous precedents such as the Dragon Skin Pavilion and the ITKE Pavilion, consideration of material quality and behaviour was incorporated and iterated based on Matrix 1.0. A graph displaying steel stress and strain properties was directly traced and used as a base curve which was plugged into Matrix 1.0 array definitions. Data based on steel stress and strains were incorporated into number sliders to adjust and iterate forms. This data was based upon a tension test of a steel specimen with an original diameter of 0.502 inches and a gauge length of 2.00 in. A stress-strain diagram presented the modulus of elasticity, yield stress, ultimate stress and rupture stress. Values stated in the data table such as a 1.50 load (kip) creating a 0.0005 elongation

In the Matrix 3.0 ‘array’ definitions and iterations mainly spheres were used striving back to the ‘repetitive’ linked structure seen in Aami Park and Matrix 1.0. By incorporating wind and material data a variety of iterations were produced that were able to contain both conceptual and logical meaning and data. As Matrix 2.0 pushed the limits of the reversed engineered model further from matrix 1.0, matrix 3.0 even further extended possibilities of form and iterations. Expanding on from the notion of ‘spheres’ and the ‘Voltadom’ based definition previously explored, in Matrix 2.0 a graph controller was used to warp structure. Once again Copenhagen wind data and graph shapes were used as base curves and slider numbers to produce a series of iterations. Spheres were used to trigger geometric forms based along curves of wind graph outlines that created a range and variety of abstract, conceptual forms which relate to the LAGI brief in terms of connection to the site and the use of an energy source, thus iterations being based on kinetic energy. To offer further variety to the iterations as a whole, Matrix 3.0 also incorporated the ‘Gridshell’ definition from Part B 2 and 3 into the reengineered definition. By using the ‘explode tree’ command, points along the shape of the Aami Park final result were selected to form a series of horizontal arcs which were adjusted through the use of number sliders and changing in points along the original Aami Park form. By doing so, an interesting small collection of curved, twisting forms were produced which could be interesting if further developed in regards to wind and the LAGI site.

(inches) were used as starting points and adjustments for ‘number sliders’.

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B . 4

T E C H N I Q U E 2 0 1 2

C R O S S I N G

S O C I A L

A N D

L A G I

D E V E L O P M E N T

W I N N E R

S C E N E

S E N S O R

E C O L O G I C A L

F L O W S

2 0 1 2 L A G I S C E N E S

W I N N E R E N S O R

The 2012 winning LAGI entry “Scene Sensor” harnesses wind flows through the tidal artery of the Fresh Kills site in New York in combination with pedestrian flows to establish a mirror window which is ultimately a reflection of the landscape back to the landscape. The contrast established between the flow of human and ecological energies, both of which have previously transformed the site, have been converged in this design as a means of generating an architectural landscape. This is based on the notion of sensing the scene of visible and invisible forces, hence the name “Scene Sensor”.1 The combination of human and the environmental force is a thought-provoking prospect, which generates ideas in relation to a design proposal for the 2014 LAGI competition based on kinetic energy fuelled by both human and environmental systems. This addresses the goal of immersing humans in the design in order to solicit contemplation in regards to energy and resource generation and consumption. The design is there aligned with previous study and research into wind data in Copenhagen as well as the potentials of kinetic energy produced by human movement as a large-scale energy resource. Furthermore, the use of wind is the intended principle energy source for the design as it is strongly correlated with the site context and Copenhagen’s overall environmental conditions.

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01, 02 and 03 James Murray and Shota Vashakmadze, Scene Sensor, 2012, digital design, Land Art Generator Initiative, http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/ap347043/#, (accessed 18 April 2014) 1 “Scene Sensor”, James Murray and Shota Vashakmadze, Land Art Generator Initiative, accessed 18 April 2014, http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/ap347043/#

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B . 4 R E V E R S E

T E C H N I Q U E

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D E V E L O P M E N T

G E O M E T R Y

I T E R A T I N G

C O N N E C T I O N

W I T H

K A L A Y

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C O N N E C T I O N W I T H A L A Y

The successes of matrices 1.0 and 2.0 were established and further developed in matrix 3.0 through the integration of meaningful data and conceptual ideas to generate iterations which are more highly correlated with the design brief and site context. In Kalay’s reading relating to “search” techniques, analysis is advocated as a means of revealing the constraints on accomplishing goals. Through team communication a collation of opinions was obtained with a general consensus that the design goal is to create an installation, which has energy harvesting capabilities. Furthermore, a design that relates to the specific site context is desired. As a result iterations were selected and developed further through incorporation of data relating to the chosen energy source – kinetic energy derived from wind force.

SEARCH PROCESSES INVOLCE TWO STEPS: (1) PRODUCING CANDIDATE SOLUTIONS FOR CONSIDERATION, AND (2) CHOOSING THE ‘RIGHT’ SOLUTION FOR FURTHER CONSIDERATION AND DEVELOPMENT”

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Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of ComputerAided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25

Kalay suggests that analysis exposes constraints, which may limit the ability to achieve such goals, and that subsequent actions need to be devised to ensure the goal is met. In relation to this project, development of the iterations through Rhino and Grasshopper is achievable however a constraint in achieving the overall goal is limited by fabrication. It was evident that despite the conceptual complexity and intriguing nature of various iterations, their practicability and buildability is limited. In some cases this rendered them unachievable or unworthy of consideration as in order to make them realizable the key essence and point of interest would be lost. The notion of generative design enabled by Grasshopper was vital to this realization as we were able to easily and efficiently recognize the potentials for fabrication of the developed model through this visual medium. Therefore Grasshopper ultimately allowed for an efficient trial and error process to establish constraints and attempt overcoming these constraints through parametric manipulation of the model.

Kalay establishes that search processes involve two stages – “producing candidate solutions for consideration… and choosing the right solution for consideration and development. Furthermore, he explores the notions of ‘depthfirst’, ‘breathfirst’ and ‘bestfirst’. Depthfirst involves exploration of a candidate solution, which presents considerable potential before exploration of alternative candidate solutions. Whereas, breathfirst develops several ways in which a candidate solution can be explored before any of the ways is followed through. On the other hand, ‘bestfirst’ evaluates all available candidate solutions and the most promising is selected for further exploration. A couple of these notions have been considered and explored to a certain degree in relation to the project. In terms of depthfirst, the brief was visually linked with the design and the potential to further meet the brief was established. In practice we developed various iterations of one form to establish its strengths and weaknesses and test its potentials before moving on to another. Whilst breathfirst was explored by dividing the iterations and producing varying results which were then combined to create logical solutions and conclusions. This lead to selecting a final few that were further developed to establish their potentials for fabrication. It is intended that ‘bestfirst’ be explored in later stages of the design process as will further ideas suggested by Kalay in regards to “search” techniques when refining the design.

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D E V E L O P M E N T R E V E R S E

G E O M E T R Y

E N G I N E E R I N G

S E L E C T E D

E V A L U A T I N G C O N

F I E L D S E S

After analyzing and exploring the potentials of the outcomes from the iteration process, we decided to further realize this variation of the cone geometry in the evaluating fields definition. Our first attempt at enhancing this geometry and further developing it, was by inputting the data, which was site specific to the 2014 LAGI Copenhagen site, and in particularly the data from APRIL 2014. This included the wind speed, the month and the calm of the wind. By inputting this data, the form became much more elongated, compared to the previous geometry that was spread out and flatter in form. The architectural potentials of this iterated development, triggered thoughts of how this concept may interact with the site in a more sculptural way, as the undulating interweaving surfaces could possibly explore the potential of wind movement, and the filtering of wind as it enters the structure and exits. This, in turn, could also explore the generation of energy, by potentially looking at the generative qualities of the material used, and the velocity of the wind that is passing through. For example, by using a porous material that is highly acoustic, we would be able to explore the absorbtion of wind vibrations, which would in turn explore the energy’s impact that is decreasing as it exits the structure... Just a thought. When preparing the files for fabrication, there was a need to panel the surface and triangulate it, so, we had to alter the degree of segments that would be used to create the form. This was achieved by using U Value and V Value number sliders, which were attached to the mesh surface. We plan to test this prototype model, using a wind force and various materialities, in order to assess the limits of the structure and the way in which it interacts under wind pressure and different circumstances.

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E V A L U A T I N G S P H E LEN RAD B

F I E L D S R E S

After analyzing and exploring the potentials of the outcomes from the iteration process, we decided to further realize this variation of the sphere geometry in the evaluating fields definition.

RAD CNT B

We first approached these 2 geometries, and explored the thoughts of creating individual pod like structures that would be scattered along the LAGI site, and interacted with each other. Although, we took an alternative route, and decided to loft the 2 forms together, to create a sense of flow that would react with the ideas of wind and flow. After lofting the forms, we decided to enhance this geometry by inputting the same data, which was site specific to the 2014 LAGI Copenhagen site, and in particularly the data from APRIL. This included the wind speed, the month and the calm of the wind. By inputting this data, the form became much more elongated, just like the cone experiment in the previous iteration development. Again we explored this notion of undulating surfaces that would in some way or another explore the idea of flow and filtering of wind within the site. Although, this model may potentially explore the idea od acceleration, in regards to energy production, as the winds movement is more likely prone to swiftly brushing past the curvilinear ‘lofted’ surface. Ideally, in order to achieve this, the use of a harder material , such as a metal sheeting, would be more suited... again... just a thought! There was a need to slightly simplify the curves of this structure, when preparing it for FabLab, and in a sense, this was a main constraint of fabrication. Although seeing as it is a prototype, we plan to test this model using a wind force and various materialities, in order to assess the limits of the structure and the way in which it interacts under wind pressure and different circumstances.

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D E V E L O P M E N T R E V E R S E

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S E L E C T E D

A R R A Y T R A N S F O R M A T I O N S C U R V E A R R A Y Through analysis of the iterations produced via manipulation of the reverse engineering definition, it was noted that the curve array species in Matrix 2.0 was particularly successful in terms of stimulating design response ideas and presenting opportunities for further development, which could be explored via prototyping. The development of individual geometries in an interesting configuration was achieved in the first iteration of the species and triggered an idea of pod-like structures, which could be dispersed on the LAGI site in an interesting and meaningful configuration. These pods present an opportunity for the development of individual ‘hubs’ that have the potential for variation and furthermore differentiated design, structure, features or use. The idea is that the pods would interact with each other and a connection between each would be established however they could also function independently. In the original iteration the parametric model was driven by a nonconceptual curve, hence in order to create a response which was engrained in the site context and receptive to site conditions, the input curve was derived from a wind speed curve of a wind data graph that related to average wind speed in Copenhagen. Not only the shape, but the position of the curve in relation to the pods resulted in varying configurations.

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A R R A Y U S I N G W I N D C U R V E

TOP

VIEW

For the purposes of prototyping, individual pod-like structures produced by the definition were extracted and focused on for fabrication. In order to create a buildable m¬odel the surface was panelled. Two variations of the pod design were developed, one with rectangular panelling and the other with triangular panelling. Panelling is an imperative tool in order to achieve a developable model however, more importantly panelling created an additional feature on the geometry, which has the potential to drive energy production and stimulate human interaction. It is intended that the panels alternate – some operable and others nonoperable. The operable panels have the potential to move dynamically, not only utilising wind energy as a source for the movement by also capturing this energy for harvesting. We intend to test this concept using wind force to access its limits and establish the manner in which such an idea would react to wind pressure and varying wind circumstances such as direction, speed and strength. In Part A kinetic energy was investigated as a source for energy generation and hence we intend to explore the idea of operable panels as an interactive feature, which humans could control and exert force upon in order to produce useable energy. In addition, human tactility is a key concept as it is imperative that installation visitors can be immersed in it the design and interact with it. The idea of pods is opportunistic as it enables exploration of a design, which humans can interact with in various ways due to the notion of separate and independent yet interrelated structures that could be of different materiality, features and functions.

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triangulation

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ITERATION 1.0

ITERATION 2.0

Ways to fabricate iteration 1.0 model have been speculated and briefly explored. It was noted that the original form is perhaps too complex and detailed to physically model, therefore, points of distribution and radius factors were adjusted to try to simplify the form whilst still maintaining its integrity.

Iteration 2.0 uses a Copenhagen wind data map from the month of March 2014 as a base curve for this 'graph controller' sketch. Iteration 2.0 addresses the brief in the same way that iteration 1.0 uses wind data to create a design that connects to the site, the need for an energy production to influence and be a factor of design.

Each architectural arm may be unrolled individually and fabricated using a light, flexible material, such as ivory card. By creating the spheres from which the form is based around through the use of boxboard or perspex the geometric shapes could be unrolled into a net and have slots cut into them from which the arms could be placed in for both stability and to achieve the shape. If fabricated wind tests may be conducted to test wind flow through the form to see how the shape may warp/alter under wind pressure.

It may potentially use kinetic energy by collecting travelling wind through openings in its curvilinear form and using that wind to generate a power source. The interesting shapely form communicates the potential for a structure that could work in a range of ways, such as a system of dispersed pods or as a single homogenous form, therefore, making this iteration flexible to build ideas upon. If fabricated,tests may be conducted to see how different wind pressures would flow in and around the sculpture.

This iteration has potential to meet the brief through it's connection to wind, which may be used a kinetic energy source, and its direct relation to the site. This iteration specifically envisions sculptural arms reaching throughout the landscape, intertwining with nature. These arms may also act as some sort of shelter or pavilion to incorporate human interaction with the design.

To explore how iteration 2.0 could be fabricated the form was adjusted through the grasshopper definition. By using an interpolate curve, lofting, setting the loft to a brep, then adding a mesh and lists, the original form was transferred into a surface that has potential to be unrolled into sections/strips, successfully sent throto Fab Lab, and constructed in a manageable and logical manner.

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ITERATION 3.0

Iteration 3.0 incorporates a ‘Gridshell’ into the Aami Stadium reverse-engineered defintion. The shape was formed using a series of points into a ‘three point arc ‘command. This form triggers the thought of wind capture, travel and disposal, therefore displaying potential to use the arc as a sculpture which produces kinetic energy. To

push iteration 3.0 further, an attempt to turn the arc into a tube-like sculpture took place. This tubed curvilinear from may spread throughout the site, potentially along areas of waterfront, reflecting the shape of waves and wind movement. This however, showed a twist in the curve itself, preventing the form to successfully develop into an unrolled and fabrciated shape. Attempts to simplify the arc, mesh and triangulate the mesh to rid the twist were also unsuccessful. This tube-like arc form may be formed into a pavilion to act as shelter and as a viewing platfrom to the water surrounding much of the sites perimeter. It may also act as a wind tunnel of some sort to produce kinetic energy. This shape has potential to be elongated, stretched and modified in the relation to site and wind data, such as using the curve of the arc to follow wind paths of the site.

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This intertwining cone like structure was manipulated through the introduction of a graph controller, in the grasshopper platform. This digital model was then unrolled successfully, though exploding the original digital model into individual segments and then joined into segments in order enhance buildability. This outcome was then laid out, using the FabLab template file, and sent in for fabrication. The model was fabricated in various materials including 3.0mm Boxboard, 290GSM Ivory Card and 300GSM Black Card as a means of simulating the materiality required to build such a design. The fabrication of the ‘intertwining pods’ prototype was successful in highlighting the strengths and weakness of the model and hence which aspects of the design require further development and overall improvement. Although, once fabricated, this prototyped model was not successful in achieving an understanding of our digital model in a tangible form, as it highlighted the weakness of effectively fabricating the intertwining curvature in an efficient manner via parametric modelling and laser cutting. There were considerable negative qualities in regards to the interlocking of the developable segments created for the purposes of fabrication. This was detrimental to the overall precision of the model’s geometry. Therefore, we weren’t able to construct and achieve a ‘true’ representation of the form. Due to our limited knowledge when it came to creating an efficiently unrolled model, this caused some misunderstanding when it came to realising the laser cut outcome. A main issue, once again, were the tabs that we created in the rhino platform, and hence we correct placement was not achieved, which in turn affected the accuracy of edges in the model itself.

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These intertwining oblong pod structures that were lofted together using the parameters of grasshopper have been prototyped both physically and digitally. The physical triangulated fabrication model was achieved through a combination of exploding the original digital model into individual segments, and then joined into segments that would ensure easy build ability. This outcome was let laid out, using the FabLab template file, and sent in for fabrication. The model was fabricated in various materials including 3.0mm Boxboard, 290GSM Ivory Card and 300GSM Black Card as a means of simulating the materiality required to build such a design. Again, the fabrication of the ‘intertwining pods’ prototype was successful in highlighting the strengths and weakness of the model and hence which aspects of the design require further development and overall improvement. This prototyped model was successful in achieving an understanding of our digital model in a tangible form, as it highlighted the ability to effectively fabricate and construct curvature in an efficient manner via parametric modelling and laser cutting. One major setback of this fabrication model, was that there were many setbacks regarding the efficiency of the process, concerned with building the actual model. There were considerable negative qualities in regards to the interlocking of the developable segments created for the purposes of fabrication. This was detrimental to the overall precision of the model’s geometry. Therefore, we weren’t able to achieve a ‘true’ representation of the form. Due to our limited knowledge when it came to creating an efficiently unrolled model, this caused a little bit of a misunderstanding when it came to realise the laser cut outcome. A main issue, once again, were the tabs that we created in the rhino platform, as we didn’t achieve correct placement, which in turn affected the accuracy of edges in the model itself.

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In conclusion, we came to the realisation that the curvature of the geometry, required the tabs needed to span the entire length of the strip and hence be of scale and flexibility capable of maintaining a connection. All in all, we came to the conclusion, as a group, that we needed to refine the accuracy and effectiveness of unrolling, in particularly through the process of tabbing. This will create a much more efficient model making process, and thereby inform a much more clean-cut outcome, depending on the selected materiality. Once again, the 1mm boxboard stimulated the behaviour of a timber material as it was quite rigid and caused a minor setback, when trying to create heavily curved forms. They were almost segmented and created an edge surface, as opposed to a singular curved surface. This, in a sense, caused a minor discrepancy, as the fabricated prototype diverged from the digital prototype. In contrast to the Boxboard, the Ivory Card prototype was too fragile and hence had to be abandoned due to the inability to construct a sturdy form. The rigidity was also limiting in that the operable panels were not as dynamic as intended due to the strength of the material and fabrication method. Hence when tested in accordance to wind load the prototype was only slighting responsive. This is not ideal, as in terms of the design the panels need to respond to wind forces enough to produce kinetic energy, which we are exploring as a main attribute of the site. The indented positioning and orientation of the structure on the site will be assumed by the greatest exposure to wind load, which is explored further in site analysis.

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The habitable and energy harvesting pods concept was prototyped via both digital and tangible fabrication. This was achieved through panelling the model in Grasshopper and then decomposing the panelled model into developable strips in Rhino, these were then sent to the ‘FabLab’ to be laser cut. The model was fabricated in various materials including 3.0mm Boxboard, 290GSM Ivory Card and 300GSM Black Card as a means of simulating the materiality required to build such a design. The fabrication of the ‘pod’ prototype was successful in highlighting the strengths and weakness of the model and hence which aspects of the design require further development and overall improvement. This initial prototyping experiment was efficacious in terms of achieving a semispherical shape, highlighting the ability to effectively fabricate and construct curvature in an efficient manner via parametric modelling and laser cutting. A key issue was the development of tabs as a means of connecting the developable strips to generate a cohesive form. A critical error in the Boxboard fabrication process was that the prototype was sent to the fab lab with discontinuous tabs, hence during the construction process there were excessive gaps between the strips, which compromised the form. It therefore became apparent that due to the curvature of the semi-spherical geometry. This error was accounted for in the Black Card prototype and hence the process of fixing strips together was more efficient and precise. The Boxboard rigidity was also limiting in that the operable panels were not as dynamic as intended due to the strength of the material and fabrication method. Hence when tested in accordance to wind load the prototype was only slighting responsive, which was not ideal in responding to wind forces sufficient enough to produce kinetic energy.

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In terms of materiality, Boxboard simulated the behaviour of a timber material in that it was quite rigid and did not adapt to the fluidity of the curvature, which is viewed as a both a strength and weakness. In contrast to the Boxboard, the Ivory Card prototype was too fragile and hence had to be abandoned due to the inability to construct a sturdy form. In order to experiment with a more flexible material than Boxboard the additional Black Card prototype was developed. This assisted in establishing a material that achieved a balance of stability and flexibility in order to survive the process of laser cutting and joining as well as moving in accordance to wind load. The Black card simulates a more malleable material such as thin aluminium sheeting and hence is successful in representing a more fluid, dynamic and operable structure that is a key element of the design intent. The use of card materials for prototyping was strenuous as it lead to deriving an interesting form from the prototypes – one in which the internal façade of the semisphere represented a system of weaving and interlocking in the Boxboard case, and patterning in the Black Card case. This was an interesting concept for development in terms of how the design’s elements interconnect and prevent structural collapse. However, the connection system lead to a slight enlargement and change in the shape, which resulted in inability to connect the top and bottom unrolled ‘seam’ sections of the semi-sphere due to differing scales. Overall, it was evident through this prototyping process that the connection method needs to be refined to achieve a more eloquent model which represents connection in the real, built form of the design according to the selected materiality. The indented positioning and orientation of the pods on the site will be assumed by the greatest exposure to wind load, which is explored further in site analysis.

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F A B R I C A T I O N FABRICATION AND ASSEMBLY LAYOUTS UNROLLING OPTION #1

PROBLEMATIC ‘SEAM’ MOST EFFECTIVE UNROLLING

‘POD’ MODEL

UNROLLING OPTION #2

S I T E

D E S C R I P T I O N

To stay true to computational design, selected iterations were prototyped specifically from the 3D modelling program Grasshopper. Iterations were simplified to allow the unrolling of the shape and the physical construction of the prototypes to be a logical process. The process of model making directly from a computational based process and program offers a method of both simplification and increased difficulty. Trial and error was a re-occurring theme during the fabrication process. A combination of Grasshopper and Rhino was used to unroll and tab shapes to send

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to the University of Melbourne FabLab. It was this process that was time consuming as opposed to the model making itself. A variety of plug-ins were tested to unroll shapes in Grasshopper, which were both successful and unsuccessful in achieving desirable outcomes. Therefore, when entering into Part C, unrolling using Grasshopper needs to be further practised and successfully used as it is a far more efficient process as opposed to exploding a panelled form and grouping sections in Rhino which are then unrolled strip by strip.

In regards to both real life construction processes and studio projects, the process of building a design is expensive. Therefore, in both scenarios the organisation of how to build a form in a cost efficient manner is vital. Decisions must be made that will justify both the amount of money spent and structural integrity. For example, although the card cutter is cheaper, the laser cutter was used as it was less likely to rip fragile, small-scaled pieces. Also, the amount of unrolled pieces to fit per sheet sent to FabLab was maximised in order to reduce material wastage.

Main problems with assembly layout files were more so due to factors such as tabs being too small to be successfully joined, therefore having to adjust and re-send files to FabLab, which is ineffective in terms of both time and cost. Scale was also a constant issue during the assembly layout stage, as prototypes were unrolled at a scale far too small, making a few printed versions to small too physically cut, join and hold together.

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W I N D

E X P E R I M E N T

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E X P E R I M E N T I N G

E X P E R I M E N T A T I O N D O C U M E N T A T I O N In order to test the performance of the prototypes in respond to wind force, which is integral to the energy producing aspect of the design, pressurised air was blown onto the prototype in an attempt to simulate movement of the operable panels. In regards to the Boxboard pod prototype, the experimentation was unsuccessful with minimal movement of panels in response to air pressure. This highlighted that the operable panel connection needed to be more flexible in order to achieve a greater range of movement in the panels. This was reiterated in experimentation with the Black Card prototype as the lightweight and flexible nature of the material was capable of dynamic movement hence, the panels were considerably responsive to the air pressure.

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In addition, due to an interest in the way in which wind flows throughout and around the pods, experimentation with flour and air pressure was conducted as a means of creating a visual representation of this wind pathway. This experimentation was efficient in demonstrating the way in which wind would travel within and past the pods - a key element in regards to the experiential qualities of the design. As a result the experimentation process was a success and provided an indication that through further material refinement there is considerable potential for the design concept to be functional and energy efficient as well as conceptually rich.

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T E C H N I Q U E // P R O P O S A L L A G I

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A S S E S S M E N T & P A T H S

There are many industrial installations within this site, in particularly along the west and south parameters of the ‘Refshaleøen’ area, especially the shipyard itself.1 As a result of a range of Wind tests that were conducted , it was discovered that there is a point of initiation in regards to the south and southwest areas of the site,2 and due to the large scale area and open water front, there is a general divergence of wind paths. These wind paths are defined by their origin along the south and south-west directions of the site. (Refer to the Wind Flow diagram below)

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The site located within the Danish city of Copenhagen, and also known as ‘‘Refshaleøen’, encompasses an array of scenic views which overlook the water and force one to explore the horizon line which lays in the background. The open plan landscape, causes a sense of constraint in regards to the limitless possibilites that are available for a design proposal.. In a sense, it is the site attributes which have vaused us to re consider the layout and overall motive of out proposal.

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01 02

In order to give our concept a sense of purpose and connection to the site, we thought it was imperative to explore the specifics in regards to the wind direction and force, as this is the chosen form of energy that will be fueling our design. It is this research, as well as the experimentation undertaken in the previous stages of fabrication and prototyping, that will allow us to connect our design to the site, making it an encompassing and informative proposal.

LAGI SITE LMS > Land Art Generator Initiative > Site Photos LAGI SITE LMS > Land Art Generator Initiative > Site Photos

Approximate initiation point 1 Land Art Generator Initiative Robert Ferry & Elizabeth Monoian: ‘a field guide to renewable energy technologies’ 2 Land Art Generator Initiative Robert Ferry & Elizabeth Monoian: ‘a field guide to renewable energy technologies’

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“ encapsulating progression and movement�

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T E C H N I Q U E // P R O P O S A L D E S I G N

P R O P O S A L

H A B I T A B L E A N D E N E R G Y H A R V E S T I N G P O D S

D E S I G N

P R O P O S A L

After thorough exploration and deliberation, based on various experiments and prototyping methods, we have unanimously decided to continue on with the pod experimentation. Refshaleøen, Copenhagen is a cultural hub poised to be an important area for new development within the city. The environmental context of the site, and its place in Copenhagen’s future has informed our overall design proposal. This proposal titled ‘Habitable and Energy Harvesting Pods’, aims to explore the dispersion of pods within the LAGI site.

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These kinetic pods will be used to collect and disperse wind. Based on previous wind research and experimentations, we have gathered various data results that have, in turn, informed our decision as to where we should situate these pods within the site, so as to maximise the incoming force of the wind, without encouraging wind tunnels. Ideally, these pods will be intertwined within the growing landscape, and strategically positioned based on wind direction and pattern, and as to allow for future growth and development within the site.

“ A HUMBLE design that surrenders itself to TIME and NATURE”

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T E C H N I Q U E // P R O P O S A L D E S I G N

P R O P O S A L

H A B I T A B L E A N D E N E R G Y H A R V E S T I N G P O D S

U R B A N

These Habitable and Harvesting Pods will be used to collect and dispense wind. Based on previous wind research and experimentations, we have gathered various data results that have, in turn, informed our decision as to where we should situate these pods within the site, so as to maximise the incoming force of the wind, without encouraging wind tunnels.

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C I T Y

L A N D S C A P E

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It is essential that all aspects such as energy, architecture, the use of city spaces, climate change, and use of resources are considered in parallel, when we adapt and create our future cities.

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The pods act as pavilion structures in which people can encompass themselves e.g. shelter, space for reading, meeting space Each of the pods will have varying function and structure – as well as varying directional positioning, further informed by the action of the wind itself. Building upon the energy functions of the operable panels, the panels will also act as an interactive surface which users can operate themselves by exerting mechanical force, which will be captured as a form of energy, in addition to the wind force. Furthermore, the user can adjust the panel to meet their desirable lighting level and the exposure to breeze, hence personalising the experiential qualities. Users therefore are involved in the dynamic movement of the structure and the energy harvesting process.

The semi-spherical surface acts as an energy harvesting façade in that the panels alternate between fixed and operable, with the operable panels capable of responding to wind conditions through movement. The operable panel openings of the pod are positioned in accordance with the main wind load pathway in order to maximise the amount of wind force received by the structures and hence the amount of kinetic energy harvested via their dynamic movement. The mechanical energy produced by the panel movement will be converted to electricity via a micro-inverter within the piezometric material from which the panels intend to be built. This energy will then be transferred via a conduit within the structure to the base of the pod where it can be connected to the city’s electricity grid through an underground medium.

In turn, they are presented with a visual representation of wind force and hence the potentials of natural energy production as a medium for harvesting electricity for the city. The pod aesthetics are visually pleasing heightening the experiential qualities for the users, and the panels are visually engaging due to the continuous transformation of views hence, establishment of a continuous connection to landscape that is intermittent . We plan to create a stronger connection between each pod, whether that be a visual, physical or simply an experiential and conditional connection… we are intrigued to explore.

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T E C H N I Q U E // P R O P O S A L D E S I G N

P R O P O S A L

H A B I T A B L E A N D E N E R G Y H A R V E S T I N G P O D S

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DIRECTION OF WIND-FLOW, INTERACTING WITH THE HARVESTING PODS

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Referring to the image above, demonstrating the mapped out wind path, initiating from the south easterly direction, there is a clear deterioration when it comes to strength of the wind, as it travels. As the wind path begins to interact with the positioned ‘harvesting pods’, there is a clear divergence in the pathway, as the wind gushes are forced to split , thereby travelling against either wing of the pods. The further away the pods are positioned, the less wind interaction they will gain, as the evergy and force lessens.

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In order to explore the connection between each of these harvesting pods, we are looking to create a much more dinstinct physical connection. This connection will create, and almost map out a path, for the wind to follow, thereby creating a closer reaction from the previous pod.

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The positioning and overall rotation of the habitable and energy harvesting pods, is subject to the action of the wind force. As the wind diverges across either side of the pod, It would ideally capture the force, which in turn, would emphasise the action of ‘harvesting’ the ‘energy’, created by the wind force. In a sense, the positioning of the pods will almost affect each other, as the overlapping placements may cause a wind path to re-direct itself, thereby affecting the degree of interaction and diretcion of force it has, on the following structure. Therefore, each pod is subject to the behaviour of its previous inhabitor.

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H A B I T A B L E A N D E N E R G Y H A R V E S T I N G P O D S

F U N C T I O N

A N D

The materiality of the pod like structures is currently under investigation, and will be concluded via further prototyping exercises and overall design refinement. The initial prototyping experience aimed to simulate the behaviour of a fluid material such as a malleable metal and contrast this with a more rigid material such as timber. Materials must achieve a balance of structural integrity and flexibility, to encompass wind flow. This balance is positioned to reflect contemporary earth materials combined with synthetic new age technologies. The reason for exploration of such materials is associated with an interest in a fluid, dynamic structure as well as a design which

M A T E R I A L I T Y

is raw and organic and evokes the structure of Buckminster fuller’s geodesic dome which was key to the Aami Park stadium. Evidently, a rigid geodesic dome-like structure is a stimulating concept for the LAGI installation design, which would be an effective means of exploring the material system of geometry as a medium for creating an encapsulating design. In the iterative process, the tensile qualities of steel were explored which stimulates design intent that is partially driven by the notions of elasticity, stress and strain of materials. It is intended that regardless of the selected materiality, parametric modelling techniques be utilised to simulate such material performance characteristics.

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To say the ‘habitable pod’ design is innovative based on the process of incorporating data into our iteration and design process would be incorrect as this has been done so by many other students, and also is a common technique in contemporary computerised design. Also, using wind as the key energy source to meet the LAGI brief is a re-occurring theme throughout this studio. However, what differentiates this design proposal to wind- based solutions from other assignments is the aim to incorporate and produce kinetic energy; that of not only wind but people as well. Furthermore, as opposed to presenting a single pavilion, this project specifically focuses on dispersal. This idea of spreading the design around various locations of the site is proposed to allow nature and society to grow amongst the sculptural, energy producing installation. Kinetic, wind and human based mechanical energy pods dispersed around the site is a preferable approach as it directly addresses the design intent to “produce a design that surrenders itself to time and nature”.

‘PODS ARE A BUILDING BLOCK FOR SCULPTURAL DISPERSAL THROUGHOUT THE SITE’

The simplicity of the pod was selected as a conceptual representation for design intent based on its simplicity to clearly display how the design is to be scattered around the site. Indeed the ‘pod’ itself is far too simple in terms of design, however, the point of selecting this basic form is that it creates a firm ‘building block’ for ideas in Part C. Indeed it could be argued that such a simple form which leaves so many options open for the next stage of design may in fact be a burden, as too many choices may become insufficient in terms of working towards a deadline. Nonetheless, in every design project there is a need to be conscious of the danger of having range of options that is too broad, especially due to computational design.

Process is all about selectivity and timelines. Essentially, a good designer will know when to stop designing. Therefore, the variety of options that a pod offers in terms of development should be embraced as an opportunity to test our own decisionmaking and design skills. The pods have been successfully fabricated, constructed and tested, making them a valid starting point from which manipulation opportunities are vast. It was justified due to fabrication and testing during this Part B process that it is generally more effective to start with an already build-able, logical form, as opposed to starting with an overly-complex sculpture from which simplification would essentially involve taking a step backward in Part C. The pods ultimately trigger a forward, developable and broad beginning of process continuum in the final stage of design.

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L E A R N I N G P A R T

C R I T E R I A

O B J E C T I V E S

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D E S I G N Interim feedback focused mainly on the need to further work on how energy is to be generated through the proposed design concept and to provide valid proof that the selected method would be successful. Also, the pod itself needs to be further developed working especially on scale, orientation and distribution over the selected site. These two main points of feedback will develop hand-in-hand in Part C. As further knowledge and understanding of how to produce energy is gained the form of the pods and their positioning will alter accordingly. Prior to presentation feedback it was known and intended to ‘break the pod’ and manipulate its scale and shape, however now the need to produce enough energy to run ten to twenty or even thirty households needs to be heavily focused on during the manipulation of the pod in order to successfully meet the brief. From a visitors point of view, experience in each pod needs to be considered more, with the need to find a way to differentiate experiences in each ‘pod’ in order to encourage people not only to visit the site, but to ensure that people will want to travel from one pod to another. Therefore, the pods need to differ from each other to provide a range of enticing options for visitors, however they will also need to be cohesive. A balance between variety and unification needs to be found in the next stage of design process.

Explore the limits of materiality and function, and the way it responds to the sites conditions”

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Based on exploration, experimentation and feedback a clear sense of direction has been established for progression into Part C. Below a checklist has been created as a starting point and guide for the final stage of design: Clarify and verify energy generation: Further research and experimentation needs to be the first and foremost issue to address and solve. Basic research to start this process could be finding data and statistics about how much energy is needed to run an average household in Copenhagen, in order to calculate how much energy production is required to sufficiently meet the brief. Research into successful energy producing projects that have incorporated kinetic

energy and use as tangible evidence will be of assistance in Part C. Also, experimentation is vital. Prototypes need to be constantly produced and tested from this point onwards, as well as other means of experimentation, such as using software programs such as EcoTech. Construction and Materiality: Further explore and finalise materials to be used to both fabricate the final design model and also what would be used to actually build the final sculptural installation on the site. It has already been identified during Part B fabrication that a balance between structurally stable and fluid, flexible materials needs to be achieved. Therefore, the choice of real scale materials should be directly tested. For example, if we intend to use timber as a structural material, timber should be used and tested in prototypes. More tensile materials are also to be tested in accordance to wind flow and movement. How the structure would be joined, what method would be used to connect panels and materials also needs to be explored and resolved. Break the Pod: The idea of the ‘pod’ was used to simply communicate the design intent of dispersal. Now the pod needs to be manipulated and iterated based on its need to produce a certain amount of energy to meet the requirements set in the LAGI Competition brief. The form, scale and position of these ‘pods’ will indeed drastically modify in accordance to energy and material solutions. The final design needs to incorporate a balance of the concept of a “humble” design yet simultaneously be sophisticated in terms of computational design, construction and real-life experience. The pod needs to be varied in appearance and function to verify that people will want to travel around the site to actively involve themselves in the sculptural dispersal. This variation around the site needs to also create a visually, structurally and functional homogenous design overall, which successfully connects to nature and people.

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B

D E S I G N Interim feedback focused mainly on the need to further work on how energy is to be generated through the proposed design concept and to provide valid proof that the selected method would be successful. Also, the pod itself needs to be further developed working especially on scale, orientation and distribution over the selected site. These two main points of feedback will develop hand-in-hand in Part C. As further knowledge and understanding of how to produce energy is gained the form of the pods and their positioning will alter accordingly. Prior to presentation feedback it was known and intended to ‘break the pod’ and manipulate its scale and shape, however now the need to produce enough energy to run ten to twenty or even thirty households needs to be heavily focused on during the manipulation of the pod in order to successfully meet the brief. From a visitors point of view, experience in each pod needs to be considered more, with the need to find a way to differentiate experiences in each ‘pod’ in order to encourage people not only to visit the site, but to ensure that people will want to travel from one pod to another. Therefore, the pods need to differ from each other to provide a range of enticing options for visitors, however they will also need to be cohesive. A balance between variety and unification needs to be found in the next stage of design process. Based on exploration, experimentation and feedback a clear sense of direction has been established for progression into Part C. Below a checklist has been created as a starting point and guide for the final stage of design: Clarify and verify energy generation: Further research and experimentation needs to be the first and foremost issue to address and solve. Basic research to start this process could be finding data and statistics about how much energy is needed to run an average household in Copenhagen, in order to calculate how much energy production is required to sufficiently meet the brief. Research into successful energy producing projects that have incorporated kinetic

energy and use as tangible evidence will be of assistance in Part C. Also, experimentation is vital. Prototypes need to be constantly produced and tested from this point onwards, as well as other means of experimentation, such as using software programs such as EcoTech. Construction and Materiality: Further explore and finalise materials to be used to both fabricate the final design model and also what would be used to actually build the final sculptural installation on the site. It has already been identified during Part B fabrication that a balance between structurally stable and fluid, flexible materials needs to be achieved. Therefore, the choice of real scale materials should be directly tested. For example, if we intend to use timber as a structural material, timber should be used and tested in prototypes. More tensile materials are also to be tested in accordance to wind flow and movement. How the structure would be joined, what method would be used to connect panels and materials also needs to be explored and resolved. Break the Pod: The idea of the ‘pod’ was used to simply communicate the design intent of dispersal. Now the pod needs to be manipulated and iterated based on its need to produce a certain amount of energy to meet the requirements set in the LAGI Competition brief. The form, scale and position of these ‘pods’ will indeed drastically modify in accordance to energy and material solutions. The final design needs to incorporate a balance of the concept of a “humble” design yet simultaneously be sophisticated in terms of computational design, construction and real-life experience. The pod needs to be varied in appearance and function to verify that people will want to travel around the site to actively involve themselves in the sculptural dispersal. This variation around the site needs to also create a visually, structurally and functional homogenous design overall, which successfully connects to nature and people.

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A L G O R I T H M I C

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S K E T C H I N G

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E X P R E S S I O N S A L G O R I T H M I C S K E T C H I N G

T R E E M E N U A L G O R I T H M I C S K E T C H I N G

E V A L U A T I N G F I E L D S A L G O R I T H M I C S K E T C H I N G

Figure 01, demonstrates an attempt to explore the limits of expressions, and the way in which Grasshopper incorporates expressional platforms as a way of encouraging endless possibilities, in partiuclarly through the explorative process during iteration. What interested me about this task, was the ability to explore the variations of surface representation, by creating various degrees of density and dispersement along the lofted surface.

The ‘Tree Menu’ exercise, introduced me to the notion of creating geometric surface patterning, as well as the ability to extrude and create a three dimensional surface feature. This demonstrated a learning core of computational principles, as it prompted me to consider the way in which surface patterning and the textural aesthetics of a form interact with the prospect of spatial relationships. To a degree, this algorithmic task influenced the overall deisng process visually, through the ways in which we experimented with surface panel arrangement, during the fabrication process.

Figure 03, demonstrates the exploration of the Evaluating fields definition, along with the introduction of a graph controller input. By exploring the parameters of introducing these inputs, i was able to investigate and examine the way in which a simple geometry can be dispersed and somehow ‘feathered’ through the site. I felt that by introducing this algothimic measure and definition into the manipulation of the reverse engineered Aami Park file, it would introduce a degree of spatial relationship. Some of the common themes demonstrated through geometry, were the simplification of forms, or alternatively, the multiplication of geometry... influenced by our initial exploration of the voltadom definition in part B.2. The Evaluating field inputs, culminated these geometries and introduced a degree of complexity, through the way in which it warped the forms.

This idea of expression was, to a degree, explored in the arrangement of the ‘harvesting pods’ on the LAGI site, as it played with the idea of density and dispersement throughout the site proposal. This idea of using expressions, could further inform our refinement, in regards to exploring the placement of the geometric pods on the site.

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During the next platform of this project, I would possibly like to consider experimenting with a more three-dimensional representation of surface, in particularly as human will be interacting with the surfaces.

B.4 OUTCOMES Adapting this knowledge throughout the iterative design process.

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P A R T

B: R E F E R E N C E S T E X T

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LA SAGRADA FAMILIA (PG 35) Jones, Rennie (2013) http://www.archdaily.com/438992/ad-classics-la-sagrada-familia-antoni-gaudi/ (accessed on the 2nd April, 2014) VOLTADOM, SJET (PG 37) SJET, (2013) http://www.sjet.us/MIT_VOLTADOM.html (accessed on the 8th April, 2014)

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VOLTADOM (PG 37) Lidija Grozdanic,(2011) http://www.evolo.us/architecture/voltadom-installation-skylar-tibbits-sjet/ (accessed on the 8th April, 2014) GEODESIC DOME - BUCKMINSTER FULLER (PG 47) Buckminster Fuller Institute http://bfi.org/about-fuller/big-ideas/geodesic-domes (accessed on the 9th April, 2014)

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AAMI PARK STADIUM (PG 49) http://www.lsaa.org/index.php/projects/stadiums/280-aami-park-stadium-melbourne (accessed on the 9th April, 2014) SCENE SENSOR (PG 78) James Murray and Shota Vashakmadze Land Art Generator Initiative http://www.lsaa.org/index.php/projects/stadiums/280-aami-park-stadium-melbourne (accessed on the 18th April, 2014) LAGI SITE (PG 105) Land Art Generator Initiative Robert Ferry & Elizabeth Monoian: ‘a field guide to renewable energy technologies’ (accessed on the 25th April, 2014)

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P R E C E D E N T S I M A G E R E F E R E N C E S FUTURE OF FACADE ENGINEERING (PG 33) IMAGE 01 photograph, 2011 http://www.wintech-group.co.uk/news/2011/08/the-future-of-facade-engineering/ (accessed on the 2nd April, 2014)

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LA SAGRADA FAMILIA (PG 34) IMAGE 01 photograph, 2014 http://strangesounds.org/2013/09/antoni-gaudis-sagrada-familia-a-majestic-alien-cathedral-to-adore-goz (accessed on the 2nd April, 2014)

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LA SAGRADA FAMILIA - INTERIOR (PG 34) IMAGE 02 photograph, 2014 http://nomadicalsabbatical.com/best-cities-architecture-in-europe/ (accessed on the 2nd April, 2014)

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LA SAGRADA FAMILIA (PG 35) IMAGE 04 Arthur Manou-Mani, parametric model, 2011 http://wewanttolearn.wordpress.com/2011/10/17/marc-burry-the-sagrada-famillia-and-the-responsive-wall/ (accessed on the 2nd April, 2014)

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VOLTADOM, SJET (PG 37) IMAGE 01 photograph, 2011 http://www.sjet.us/MIT_VOLTADOM.html (accessed on the 8TH April, 2014)

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VOLTADOM, SJET (PG 37) IMAGE 01 photograph, 2011 http://www.redesignrevolution.com/photo-of-the-day-la-sagrada-familia-in-black-and-white/ (accessed on the 8TH April, 2014)

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BUCKMINSTER FULLER (PG 47) IMAGE 01 photograph http://designmuseum.org/design/r-buckminster-fuller (accessed on the 9th April, 2014)

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AAMI PARK STADIUM (PG 48) IMAGE 01 photograph, 2011 http://garyannettphotography.com/blog/aami-park-melbourne/ (accessed on the 9th April, 2014)

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AAMI PARK STADIUM (PG 48) IMAGE 02 photograph, 2011 http://garyannettphotography.com/blog/aami-park-melbourne/ (accessed on the 9th April, 2014)

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SCENE SENSOR (PG 78) IMAGE 01 impression scene, 2012 James Murray and Shota Vashakmadze http://www.lsaa.org/index.php/projects/stadiums/280-aami-park-stadium-melbourne (accessed on the 18th April, 2014)

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P R E C E D E N T S R E F E R E N C E S

P R E C E D E N T S I M A G E R E F E R E N C E S LAGI SITE (PG 104) IMAGE 01 photograph LMS > Land Art Generator Initiative > Site Photos (accessed on the 25th April, 2014) LAGI SITE (PG 105) IMAGE 02 photograph LMS > Land Art Generator Initiative > Site Photos (accessed on the 25th April, 2014)

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P A R T P A R T

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R E F I N I N G

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C . 1

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D E T A I L E D

F I N A L I S E D

D E S I G N

D I R E C T I O N

H A B I T A B L E A N D E N E R G Y H A R V E S T I N G P O D S

F E E D B A C K & D I R E C T I O N The Interim presentation highlighted the need to refine energy generation in the proposed design concept to enhance the installation’s ability to provide a more significant amount of energy and hence meet the LAGI brief. Thorough research into successful wind harvesting energy technologies and methods, lead to the discovery of horizontal axis wind turbines. In due course, we may even consider a different form of energy generation… possibly looking at the Piezo Electric materiality. The presentation feedback encouraged divergence from the semi-spherical ‘pod’ form to achieve further abstraction and dynamism hence, generation of a more stimulating design. The pod form was warped in the Part B iterations; this form has been derived and adapted to meet the conceptual proposals established in the initial proposal. Furthermore, ‘digital prototype number 1.0’ has been revisited. This prototype was an intriguing iteration development however fabrication difficulties limited our ability to realise it using the FabLab for Part B prototyping. The prototype has been incorporated in conjunction with the ‘pod’ notion. The design concept therefore incorporates sculptural arms reaching throughout the site to different points from which wind can be captured and flow through. The positions at which these architectural arms converge will be used as energy producing stations or alternatively, spaces for human use and interaction. At the convergence points ‘pod’ forms will be integrated for human use whilst other points will encompass horizontal axis wind turbines.

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F I N A L I S E D

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F E E D B A C K & D I R E C T I O N This will maximise the amount of energy the design produces, as whilst the kinetic piezoelectric panels on the pod surface are an innovative and interactive means of producing renewable energy, the amount of energy produced is not substantial. Furthermore, in order to maximise the amount of energy produced, the sculptural arms are positioned in relation to maximum wind exposure, tapering out towards the water to harness the significant wind load received at the waterfront.

Despite a greater degree of physical connection and cohesion between the pods and hence a larger design, the notion of ‘dispersal’ is maintained in that the actual hubs of human interaction are dispersed across the site and the architectural arms diffuse into the landscape”

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In addition, to enhance human use, a large arm opening will be positioned near the water taxi terminal so that visitors to the site are immediately greeting by a pathway leading them to a pod in which they can engage in an iterative experience. The interim presentation highlighted the way in which visitors interact with the design and encouraged refinement to achieve a design in which visitors are enticed to progress and experience each ‘pod’. In order to address this issue, the size and shape of the ‘pods’ will be varied, with larger pods offering a place of public assembly and smaller pods for small-scale interactions or individual contemplation. The larger, more public ‘pods’ will be positioned on the exterior of the installation, to not only maximise exposure to wind load and hence increase energy harvesting, but to create a threshold of privacy. The privacy threshold increases as one meanders further into the installation and hence core of the site. User’s are encouraged to travel further into the installation due to manipulation of the site terrain, and this generates a sense of enticement, which is important to the success of the design. We aim to create a design that is able to respond to an ever-changing environment and society, as the arms allow freedom of space between to ensure that integration with urban development and growth,

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This diagram aims to highlight the selected iterations, which we plan to derive our final design ideologies form. Furthering our knowledge of the LAGI site in relation to the winds influence and action, including the actions which wind turbines act in. We have looked at information in relation to the average energy generation and consumption in denmark. This information has caused us to further consider the effectiveness of our design, prompting us to enhance our overall understanding. The adjacent diagram was including and derivd as a part of our digital protoyping stage. W e are planning to use it as a ‘mapping’ tool, and potentially emboss and excavate throughout the flat plane LAGI site, enhancing this idea of undulation.

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C . 1 O F

warping spheres

creat ing and trimming spheres

D E T A I L E D

D E S I G N

P S E U D O C O D E P A R A M E T R I C P R O C E S S

H A B I T A B L E A N D E N E R G Y H A R V E S T I N G P O D S

denconstruct trimmed spheres

divide

curve

contour surface

divide contours

contour lines moved by graph mapper

shift for

list curve

euclide an distance

spheres at points on curve

points

merge field and connect to field line

dispatch panels to create open and closed panels

offset panels and create brep aireframes

loft interpolation

multiply graph mapper output

interpo late points

extrude

offset base curve

solid union spheres + extrusion

field line curve moved by graph mapper

field line curve interpolated

extract brep wireframe of inner panels

rotate axis of inner panels

base

curve

extrude field

field

line

line

curve divided

base curve

creat ing field form

apply points to point charge

apply

creat ing wind panels

create triangular panels

apply attractor curve

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to spin force

curve

merge

wire-

frames

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C . 1

I T E R A T I O N F O R M

D E V E L O P M E N T

F O R M A T I O N

H A B I T A B L E A N D E N E R G Y H A R V E S T I N G P O D S

B A S E CURVE

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I T E R A T I O N E N E R G Y

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D E T A I L E D

E N V I S A G E D

C O N S T R U C T I O N

H A B I T A B L E A N D E N E R G Y H A R V E S T I N G P O D S

POTENTIAL MATERIALS

CONCRETE

STEEL

TIMBER

AIM: TO BALANCE RAW & SYNTHETIC

POTENTIAL ASSEMBLY

PRE-CAST:

PANELLING & SKELETAL STRUCTURE

IN-SITU:

ON SITE ASSEMBLY:

LANDSCAPE ARMS PRECEDENT: ITKE PAVILION

AIM: COMBINE PRE-FAB & IN-SITU ELEMENTS. ASSEMBLE ON SITE

POTENTIAL TECTONICS

POTENTIAL FABLAB

HINGES

3D PRINTING: LASER CUTTER: CNC ROUTER:

MALLEABLE STEEL

BOLTS & NUTS

AIM: SEAMLESS, FLEXIBLE & FUNCTIONAL

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D E S I G N

PODS

ARMS

TERRAIN

AIM: PROTOTYPE, TEST & COMMUNICATE DESIGN CONCEPT/FINAL

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T E C T O N I C S T E C T O N I C

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S K E L E T A L S T R U C T U R E The underlying skeletal structure utlises rigid metal ribs (constructed using aluminium metal straps), and this forms a grid bases to which the panels will be added. The timber panels will be fastened using a series of bolts, secured through drilled out holes, which span along the surface of the structure.

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The panels are placed at varying angles, further deined by the definition within the computational process, outlines throughout the refining process, and are hinged to allow for a restricted amount of movement.

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M E C H A N I S M & S T R U C T U R E The underlying skeletal structure utlises rigid metal ribs (constructed using aluminium metal straps), and this forms a grid bases to which the panels will be added. The timber panels will be fastened using a series of bolts, secured through drilled out holes, which span along the surface of the structure.

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M E C H A N I C A L H I N G E S Using a series of conventional hinges, the timber panels will be attached to the triangular timber flap, enabelling the pivoting motion and allowing for movement. This is a pivotal characteristic of the future pod fabrication, as it examples the way in which energy will be generated in the prospect of the structure being built.

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M E C H A N I C A L H I N G E S In the prospect of these pods being constructed, we would alternatively opt to utilize an architecturally designed hinging system, consisting of a metal rod that pivots in the range of the fastene metal rings, which wrap around it. Refer to the accompanying images for a visual representation of this hinging system:

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P I E Z O M A T E R I A L I T Y The piezo electric ceramic rings, will be placed strategically on the underside of the timber flapping panel, as a way of absorbing the potential energy created by the movement of the triangular panel itself. There will be around 8-10 ceramic rings , as this is an optimum amount according to further reaeacrh presented in the later stages of the project research.

Piezo-electric ceramic ring forms are of approximately 20mm in diametre, therefore there will be multiple rings placed on the underside of the timber flap panel.

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Ceramic Piezo Ring Form

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During the construction stage of the prototype tectonic model, we experimented with trying to find different hinges that we could use to achieve the movement of the timber panels. We began the process on the rhino platform, by selecting eight of the panels, found on our final baked rhino model. These panels were then unrolled and sent to the FabLab to be laser cut on 3mm MDF board. Using 2mm Aluminium metal straps obtained form the hardware store, and using a series of nuts and bolts, we fastened the timber panels to the underlaying metal structure. Moving onto the hinging panels, we were unsure as to how we would be able to fasten them, as the width of the structure at this particular scale, did not allow provision for us to use a screw system... therefore, for fastening purpose, we opted to use glue, withstanding that we could still achieve a degree of pivoting. This approah was successful, although it did re-itterate the fact that the materiality in the potential sturcture would need to be of a sufficient width and thickness, in order to accomodate for the fastening system. Through the construction of this detailed panelling model, there posed antoher issue, which was to ensure the underlaying metal structure would be malleable enough to bend into a curved form, which in turn further resembled the pod itself. Although, we have discussed that in true constuction, there would need to be provision for pre-fabricated steel members which would be formed offsite, enabeling successful construction in-situ.

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The site model aimed to clearly express the manipulation of contours, the integration of ‘architectural arms’ and the orientation of the pods sitting within the evolved LAGI site. The means to justify the designed terrain triggered the use of the CNC Router for fabrication. The Router allows for contours to be clearly expressed and is commonly used for landscape modelling. The main challenges sending to the Router were inexperience with the machine and what to fabricate specifically; whether it be just the terrain itself, or members of the ‘built’ design as well. Due to the Fab Lab queue, and unsure of what would work best for a CNC Router fabrication, three different versions of the site model were to ensure that at least one would be a definite success within limited timing. These three files consisted of: the terrain itself, the terrain with slots for the architectural arms and the terrain with the ‘architectural arms’. All three versions were fabricated with MDF board to accomplish an earthy aesthetic. This, therefore, reflected the design intent to balance the synthetic and nature. Plywood was also considered, however, it was more expensive and might have chipped the architectural arms and slots for versions two and three. The site model was set at a scale of 1:500 to enable the entire site to sit comfortably within the Fab Lab template for the CNC Router.

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Site model version two was more rigorous than the previous fabrication. The grasshopper version of the terrain and the architectural arms were once again baked into Rhino. However, the baked version was problematic due to the file having too many separate surfaces, which made the model difficult to explode, group, extrude and trim. Therefore, majority of the ‘arms’ were remade in Rhino using the interpolate curve, extrude and loft commands. This enabled the form to stay true to the Grasshopper version yet simultaneously allowing surfaces of each arm to be more singular and therefore easier to manipulate. This tweaking of the original baked version was rather time consuming yet worth while in terms of manipulating the model for fabrication.

FabLab PREPARATION ADJUSTMENT OF SITE

Prior to commencing with the Fab Lab submission, the existing site had to be slightly modified to comply with CNC Router specifications and requirements. Many of the ‘architectural arms’ had to be cut at certain points as they would’ve become too messy for the CNC to successfully fabricate. Also, the arms had to be spread out to allow for the 6mm (at least) drill space. Version two consisted of slots being placed in the terrain where the architectural arms were positioned. This allowed the arms to be fabricated in a different material and with the ability to seamlessly and accurately place them onto the MDF terrain.

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The arms were unrolled and tabbed at the bottoms to provide space for them to slot into the terrain and hide the connection/glueing method. These unrolled pieces were sent to to Laser Cutter in both Ivory Card and Black Card for a flexibility of choice once fabricated. These materials were specifically selected as they are low in GSM thus more capable of achieving the curved lines of the ‘arms’.

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To create the slots the terrain was copied and pasted 6mm below the existing surface to act as a base when extruding and trimming the arms. The base terrain was aimed to ensure that all the slots would be of an equal length, which was important for both the need to fit the final poly-surface into the required thicknesses of materials for MDF and so the process of attaching the Laser Cut ‘arms’ to be as neat as possible. Once all the ‘arms’ were extruded to the bottom surface and trimmed from the top surface the ‘base terrain’ was deleted and a line in the middle of each slot was created to ensure that the Router would be able to read where to cut. The slots were then grouped to the terrain to make them a singular poly-surface. This file was also fabricated using MDF board 25 mm thick. Once the Laser Cut and MDF files were successfully fabricated it was decided to use version three of the site model due to time limitations. The cutting and pasting of each individual arm was deemed as a process that may have taken too long and caused too many errors which couldn’t be risked with the presentation deadline fast approaching.

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The third and final method of fabricating the site model was incorporating the ‘arms’ within the terrain and sent to the Router together. This method consisted of using the modified baked version to once again manipulate the terrain for 6mm drill space needed for the Router and to connect to the terrain and ‘arms’ using extrude and trim commands in Rhino. This file was fabricated with 12 mm thick MDF, which consequentially became the preferred option. The thinner MDF looked neater and enabled the terrain to stand out more than the MDF board itself, which appeared somewhat bulky in the 25 mm thick versions. Fabrication version three was therefore selected as the final site model due to the preference of material thickness and due to time limitations as the ‘arms’ didn’t need to be separately constructed and joined. The boarder of the model and the sides of some of the ‘arms’ came out of the fabrication process a little rugged. However, this was easily fixed using sand paper to smooth surfaces and give the model a neater finish.

FabLab PREPARATION ADJUSTMENT OF SITE

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The pods were then constructed by hand in a simplistic form using card to convey their orientation and positioning on the site as opposed to reflecting their warped shapes which would’ve been far too difficult to make at such a small scale. Also due to time and budget 3D printing wasn’t used. None the less, renders and drawings convey the accurate form of the pods themselves. CNC Router was a new method of fabrication learnt in a short and rather mayhem period of time. It was a journey that was most useful, exciting and taught a lot about this particular method of fabrication which shall indeed be most useful for future projects.

CNC ROUTER FabLab FINAL SITE MODEL SCALE: 1:500

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H A B I T A B L E A N D E N E R G Y H A R V E S T I N G P O D S

“INTERTWINING design, nature and time”

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D I M E N S I O N S & P A R A M E T E R S The design proposal of the Habitable and Energy Harvesting Pods, predominantly span the entire parameter of the site. The site is approximately 240 metres, by 150 metres (in regards to the land area itself), and these Kinetic Pods are dispersed throughout this area.

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SITE SECTION A:A 1:1000

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P R O J E C T D E S C R I P T I O N This design, consisting of an array of Kinetic Pods, is both humble and balanced through its attempt to intertwine itself with nature. The finite and infinite elements of this design are juxtaposed with the raw and technologic elements, which together achieve an overall harmonization within the site. Due to the sites past reputation as a reknowned shipyard in Copenhagen, Denmark, there is a substantial amount of open land area that os planar and predominantly flat. Throughout time, this area is expected to have a substantial amount of urban growth, and we believe that our deisng will, in a sense, accomodate for this future prospect by generating a design that disperses itself throughout the site. As aforementioned, this idea of dispersal will allow the future cities to be intertwined and encompassed in conjunction with the kinetic Pods. The dispersal of the pods and overall plan layout of this design was derived from the previous iteration stages, based on the wind rose diagrams adapted to the computational platform. Sinilarly to the ‘scene sensor’ entry from the 2012 LAGI competition, we strived to create an everchanging and dynamic design - without encouraging wind tunnels. The specific arrangement takes advantage of the various views, by positioning pods at different angles, further relating back to the idea of avoiding wind tunnels, whilst playing along with the idea of ‘Hide and Reveal’ within this interactive format.

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P R O J E C T D E S C R I P T I O N A triggering factor for the deliberate typography placement, was wanting people to move between pods. This was partially achieved by adjusting and varying the scale of the pods, as well as warping them to furthe rinform the function within the site. Architectural arms act as pathways and extend out of the morphed terrain and into the open landscape. To ensure that people would want to travel around the site and visit different pods, we created a variety and warped forms accordingly. The pods have been deliberately divided into small medium and large pods, in order to cater to different groups and purposes. Public gathering spaces and communal seating are found within the larger pod areas, tofurther encourage interaction between people. The medium pods, aim to create more intimate spaces for small groups of people, and seating can be changed accordingly, and to achieve more enclosure within the pod space. Lastly, the smaller pod areas encourage individual reflection as well as acting as sculptural pieces, to an extent. These spaces are specifically designed for relaxtion and contemplation, and can be used for provate study areas etc.

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P R O J E C T D E S C R I P T I O N The underlying skeletal structure utilises rigid metal ribs (constructed using aluminium metal straps), and this forms a grid bases to which the panels will be added. The timber panels will be fastened using a series of bolts, secured through drilled out holes, which span along the surface of the structure. The panels are placed at varying angles, further defined by the definition within the computational process, outlined throughout the refining process, and are hinged to allow for a restricted amount of movement. Not only do these timber panels create motion and have a functional purpose, but they also serve as a atmospherical element, through their attempt to play on the notion of light and shade, introduced through the culmination of movement paired with natural lighting and sun direction. This will also add to the ephemrical quality experienced throughout the internal and habitated spaced within the pod.

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E L E V A T I O N 1:500

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E L E V A T I O N 1:500

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= INITIATION POINT OF WIND FLOW

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These diagrams demonstrate a simulated wind flow path through the LAGI site, based on the mapped out representation of our proposal. The wind, initiating from the Northwesterly direction (further indicated on the accompanying maps), travels in accordance to the strategically places ‘architectural arms’, that were derived from during the iterative process. As deomonstrated through the mapped diagrams, the traveling motion of wind through the arms, acts as a filtering process, so that when the wind force reaches the pods, there has been a depreciation in force, further enhancing the comfort propoerties for inhabitants, by minimising the risk of creating wind tunnels.

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These diagrams demonstrate a simulated motion path based on the water taxi drop off point at the south end of the LAGI site, based on the mapped out representation of our proposal. People are planned to travel in accordance to the strategically placed ‘architectural arms’, that were derived from during the iterative process. As deomonstrated through the mapped diagrams, this idea of ‘hide and reveal’ is optomised, depending on the route which one plans to embark upon.

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O U R A I M & E N E R G Y JUSTIFICATION Our Kinetic Harvesting Pods focuses more so on VISUALISING energy production as opposed to producing large amounts of energy itself. Through the dispersal of pods in accordance to wind direction throughout the site, and the movement of panels in accordance to wind load and direction, the pods are primarily aimed to demonstrate the mere potential of kinetic energy. Visitors are encourgaed to travel around the site through the design of a contoured landscape and architectural arms which reach out of the terrain and lead to the pods which are ‘hidden and revealed’ through the walking journey. Through seating and positioning within the pods, visitors are able to sit and enjoy the landscape and diversity of views from every pod, whilst being able to watch the wind move the panels and cause the piezoelectric tiles to shrink and expand due to wind hitting its surface and creating voltage. This tranquil experience with nature and architecture allows visitors to visualise energy production. This therefore INFORMS them about the ability and POTENTIAL of using natural resources to peacefully create energy. The experience on site and their intereaction with the pods aims to also ENCOURAGE them to assist in working towards a sustainable way of life.

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H A R M O N I Z I N G T H E R A W & T H E T E C H N O L O G I C The design of the site and the pods themselves is derirved from the aim to combine nature and humanity: to create an equilibrium between the infinite and finite. The dispersal of pods are to intertwine with time and nature, allowing the natural and technological world to grow around and within the designed site whilst the pods themselves display the process of producing kinetic energy. Therefore, a hamrony of materials was selected to encapsualte this balance between the natural and synthetic world: European Cedar (Cedrus) TIMBER is a local1, earth material used for the panels of the pods. Cedar wood is scented, humble in colour and has a strong characteristic in the grain of the timber itself. Timber represents and blends with the natural environment of the specific site. Due to the panels sitting within the external environment, and move in accordance to wind , they are to be approximately 18mm thick and waterproofed through staining the timber. also ENCOURAGE them to assist in working

STEEL is used for the skeleton of the pods to ensure structural stability and to maintain intergrity of the warped shapes of the pod design. Steel is to be galvanised to prevent weathering of the external environment therefore maintaining its synthetic look and the members would be approximately 25 mm thick. Steel also creates that contrast between nature and human advancement, and is aimed to visually and structurally combine it with raw mateirals to further highlight the concept of harmony and balance. CONCRETE is to be used for the architectural arms that reach in and out of the designed terrain leading to the pods, as well as the seating within the pods. The concrete for the ‘arms’ are to be raw, rough 150 mm thick reinforced concrete. The seating however, is to be of a smoother more polished finish for comfort and functionality reasons.The concrete acts as a medium between the steel and timber, visualising a raw, earhty finish, yet being an old but still dominant building material used as a result of technologic advancement, just from a much more dated time period. The aggregate-based material was deemed appropraite for the ‘arms’ specifically as they were produced from the re-adjusting of the earth to create terrain, therefore symbolically intertwining the landscape and architectural design process.

1

European Cedar , associated timber services, http://www.associatedtimber.co.uk/

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A piezoelectric ceramic is the result of a mass of pervoskit of ceramic crystals, each of which contain small, tetravalent metal ion, generally titanium or zirconium, which are contained within larger, divalent metal lead, barium or O2ions. Each crystal of the piezoelectric element has a “dipole moment”, which separates the magnitude of the charges1. A voltage is created by a ploed piezoelectric ceramic element through mechanical compression or tension. Compression along or tension perpendicular to the direction of polarisation generates voltage of the same polarity as the poling voltage. These “generator actions” of the ceramic product converts the energy of compression or tension into electrical energy.

ABOVE: PIEZOELECTRICITY USED AS ENERGY PRODUCTION SOURCE BY 2012 LAGI COMPETITION WINNER: SCENE-SENSOR

The direction of the poling voltage shrinks and expands in size and diameter in accordance to the amount of voltage and its polarity in comparison to the poling voltage applied to the piezo-ceramic element. Therefore, voltage is created when the wind of the LAGI site, averaging 19.3 kilometres an hour, hits the piezoelectric element placed on the panels of the ‘kinetic harvesting pods’. The individual ceramic elements shall lengthen and shorten cyclically depending on wind pressure hitting its surface. This “motor action” converts electrical energy into mechanical energy sufficient to operate and power electrical devices and systems.

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Ceramic Piezoelectric material, https://www. americanpiezo.com/knowledge-center/piezo-theory/piezoelectricity.html

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P R O D U C T I O N

C A L C U L A T I O N

H A B I T A B L E A N D E N E R G Y H A R V E S T I N G P O D S

PODS & PANELS: Small:

6 PODS x 40 Panels = 240

Medium:

4 PODS x 60 Panels = 240

Large:

5 PODS x 120 Panels = 625

240+240+ 625=

1, 105 PANELS PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMIC TILE: TYPE:

Double-Quick Mount

PIEZO & PANELS: 1, 105 PANELS 13 Tiles per panel (average) 0.0013 kWh

AVERAGE DAILY ENERGY USAGE PER DANE: 3 kWh

PODS THEREFORE PRODUCE ENERGY EQUAL TO ABOUT A WEEKS WORTH OF CONSUMPTION OF THE AVERAGE DANE.

0.0013 x 13 x 1,105 = 19

Extention Sensors

RATED OUTPUT POWER AT RATED DEFLECTION AND FREQUENCY: 1,300 mW

= 0.0013 kWh

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CITY OF COPENHAGEN STATISTICS AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION; http://subsite.kk.dk/sitecore/content/Subsites/CityOfCopenhagen/SubsiteFrontpage/LivingInCopenhagen/ClimateAndEnvironment/CopenhagensGreenAccounts/EnergyAndCO2/ Consumption.aspx (accessed on the 20th May, 2014) PIEZO SYSTEMS (MATERIAL CHARACTERISTICS AND INFORMATION); http://www.piezo.com/prodexg8dqm.html (accessed on the 20th May, 2014)

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S U S T A I N A B I L I T Y H A B I T A B L E A N D E N E R G Y H A R V E S T I N G P O D S

ENVIRONMENTAL I M P A C T S T A T E M E N T This humble design aims to create a degree of awareness in and amongst the community of Copenhangen, Denmark, by educating the public about the sustainability in regards to energy production, in conjunction with the regeneration and reuse of the abandoned shipyard site, identified and outlined through the LAGI brief. This proposal hopes to influence people and create awareness about the overall degree of sustainability in their own lives, and through their individual life and everyday activities. The site itself does not require energy, as it does not utilise it, although through the introduction of piezo electric material, evidenced through the tectonic elements in the paneling system. Therefore, it has the ability to generate a small degree of energy, explored through the aforementioned energy calculation study, although, not enough to fuel energy usage within a humans life. Alternatively, it aims to promote and encourage people to engage in activities which don’t require the use of energy… therefore it is promoting a sustainable style of living, which people will be invited to embrace and explore through their everyday life – and this comes into play with the notion of investing energy awareness in the future. In due course, it in turn aims to encourage people to become more active by going for walks, reading in the outdoor environment and spending time with nature… in the open aired site, experiencing the open flow of filtered wind. We are hoping that our design becomes reknowned not only within the realm of Copenhagen, if it were to be realised, although in a wolrdly manner, so that this awareness can reach the spectrum of different countries.

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R O C H E W O O D s

In response to the final presentation there was a need to refine the ‘architectural arm’ element of the design proposal. These forms were critiqued due to the concrete materiality and abrupt manner in which they extruded from the landscape. In order to address this feedback the notion of walls which were subtler, more natural and landscape based was considered. Precedent projects were referred to as a means for gaining inspiration and refining this idea.

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Francois Roche’s ‘Spider in the Woods’ project was of key interest. This 2007 project is aligned with the LAGI design proposal, as the labyrinths established in this precedent is associated with the notion of ‘hide and reveal’ and the somewhat maze-like experience created via the architectural arm feature of the design1. In this project, the labyrinths lead to a house in the centre of the pathways, simulating spider legs leading to the central body of the creature. This can be reinterpreted and applied to the design proposal, whereby users follow the pathway of the ‘architectural arms’ until they are greeted with the habitable ‘warped pod’ pavilions. Francois Roche has achieved the corridor spaces through netting and wrapping vegetation to a polypropylene mesh. 2 This has influenced the idea of a steel mesh structure supported by steel posts, which graduate in height. This refined proposal diverges from the monolithic, harsh nature of the solid concrete wall offering a design, which is more dynamic, and integrated with the environment. The notion of blurring boundaries established in Spider in the Woods was also considered and is emulated in the merge of vinelike vegetation with the synthetic steel materials for the design proposal. Furthermore, Spider in the woods considers confusion with nature and architecture, which is an interesting concept that is of relevance to the LAGI project in that the proposal is architectural based however manipulation of the natural landscape is key to the success of the design. 1 Spidernethewood / R&Sie(n), Arch Daily, published 5 June 2008, http://www.archdaily.com/1878/ spidernethewood-rsien/ 2 François Roche. Spidernethewood, We Find Wilderness, published 17 November 2009, http:// www.we-find-wildness.com/2009/11/francois-roche-spidernethewood/

01 & 02 R&Sie(n), Spidernethewoods, photograph, We Find Wilderness, http://www.we-find-wildness.com/2009/11/francois-roche-spidernethewood/, (accessed 5 June 2014) 03 & 04 R&Sie(n), Spidernethewoods, photograph, New Territories, http://www.new-territories.com/spidernet2.htm, (accessed 5 June 2014)

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N E W ‘A R M S’ INTERTWINING V I N E S Francois Roche’s ‘Spider in the Woods’ assisted in envisioning the alteration of the architectural arms. Indeed the challenge was to maintain a sense of structure and path, yet to soften the ‘arms’ and bring them back to nature through the use of vegetation. The ‘spider legs’ Roche designed triggered the concept of a post and mesh design. Steel posts taper in and out of the ground, graduating in height in approach towards the pods. These posts follow the lines created for the previous ‘architectural arms’ as they are based on wind and people motion, thus still incredibly relevant to the overall design layout. The tapering allows the posts to appear as if they are growing out of the ground as opposed to being placed onto it. The notion of tapering relates back to design feedback about connecting the ‘arms’ more to the site and landscape itself. The graduating in height and tapering encompasses journey and the concept of ‘hide and reveal’ as the growing of the posts creates a sense of subtle suspense and approach.

A key aim after feedback was to also make what was originally concrete walls much lighter in terms of structural design. The replacement of concrete with steel was to contribute to this desired lightweight aesthetic. Steel also relates back to the design concept of ‘harmonising the raw and the technologic’ through materiality, presenting a synthetic material. Similar to the skeletal frame of the pods, the steel posts are to be galvanised to prevent rusting and erosion, to further highlight its difference to the raw materials yet combining them into a homogenous design. The posts are to be 50x50 mm to ensure structural stability and also so they aren’t too imposing on the site. In between the posts a wired mesh is to be placed for vines to grow upon. This enables vegetation and structure to be unified more so than the previous concrete ‘arms’. The idea of progression of time due to vine growth and intertwining with nature thus becomes quite literal through the design. The vines will gradually thicken and enhance the idea of ‘hide and reveal’ acting as somewhat of a delicate wall system.

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M E C H A N I C A L H I N G E S As aformentioned, this architectural style hinge would most ideally be incorporated within the prospect of the final structure, as it ensures a much more streamline and understated appearance. Although, this approach will now incorporate a more functional use, demonstrated below, throught the introduction of tubular formed piezo actuators.

P A

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Power piezo stack actuators will be used as an engergy collector, which is recieved form the hinge motion, along the facade of the pod like structures. These tubular actuators , have the capacity of: - Pushing Forces to 4500 N - Pulling Forces to 500 N These piezo mechanisms are adaptive and have active vibration damping, which is relevant to the motion of the flaps along the facade.

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C A L C U L A T I O N

H A B I T A B L E A N D E N E R G Y H A R V E S T I N G P O D S

PODS & PANELS: Small: 6 PODS x 40 Panels = 240 Medium: 4 PODS x 60 Panels = 240 Large: 5 PODS x 120 Panels = 625 240+240+ 625= 1, 105 PANELS PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATOR: Steel encased, high force piezo actuator

PIEZO ACTUATORS & PANELS: 1, 105 PANELS 3 hinges per panel (average) 0.0083kWh x 3 x 1,105 = 27.5 per year

AVERAGE DAILY ENERGY USAGE PER DANE: 3 kWh

KINETIC HARVESTING PODS THEREFORE PRODUCE ENERGY EQUAL TO ABOUT A WEEK AN A HALF WORTH OF CONSUMPTION OF THE AVERAGE DANE.

RATED OUTPUT POWER AT RATED DEFLECTION AND FREQUENCY: 30,000 n*m (information given by PI manufacturer) = 0.0083 kWh

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CITY OF COPENHAGEN STATISTICS AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION; http://subsite.kk.dk/sitecore/content/Subsites/CityOfCopenhagen/SubsiteFrontpage/LivingInCopenhagen/ClimateAndEnvironment/CopenhagensGreenAccounts/EnergyAndCO2/ Consumption.aspx (accessed on the 20th May, 2014) PIEZO SYSTEMS (MATERIAL CHARACTERISTICS AND INFORMATION); http://www.piezo.com/prodexg8dqm.html (accessed on the 20th May, 2014)

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O U T C O M E S

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H A B I T A B L E A N D E N E R G Y H A R V E S T I N G P O D S

L E A R N I N G O U T C O M E S Throughout the semester, and after exploring and exposing myself to the world of parametric design and the field of computational processes, I believe that I have expanded my knowledge immensely, from that of the beginning of the semester. For me, it was difficult to get started during the preliminary stages of the semester, as I was unsure of the Rhino platform, and Grasshopper was almost an alias to which I was foreign to. In a sense, by delving into the programs and exploring the skills presented through the weekly ‘tutorial’ videos, I was able to pick up skills by EXPERIMENTING, ultimately through trial and error. In Part A, I opened my mind up to a whole other world... a world where any form is possible! Trial and error is the main driver for using computation design in my eyes, as the possibilities were endless, as one was often encouraged to explore the limits of such programs. Part B extended upon this approach, and as a group, Simone, Audrey and I were able to share our knowledge and skills that we had learnt through part A, and adapt this into a pragmatic approach in conjunction with the DESIGN PROCESS. The most enjoyable experience throughout this project was that of the iterative, where we were able to quite LITERALLY, explore the LIMITS, and produce diagrammatic representations which were VISUALLY and EXTREMELY diverse to that of our reverse engineered model. Although, the Reverse Engineering process

was tedious and trying on our limited knowledge of this computation program, we learnt a variety of skills that were useful in CREATING and DESIGNING our final proposal. Part C presented us with the freedom to use Grasshopper to our advantage, and to show off our knowledge obtained through the strenuous ‘TECH’ sessions throughout the semester. The main difficulties we faced in regards to the development of our final design, was making our IDEOLOGIES, REALITIES! Often, we let our creative mind over power our knowledge of the computational platform… yet, through the dedicated assistance of our tutors and by going to the technical help sessions (as well as harassing the Masters student up on Level 7 of 757 for help… haha), we were able to create our envisaged final design… with minimal appropriations! Although, the beauty of trial and error allowed us to further push our design, by exploring new limits and different options for the final fabrication.

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H A B I T A B L E A N D E N E R G Y H A R V E S T I N G P O D S

OBJECTIVE # 1

OBJECTIVE # 2

OBJECTIVE # 3

OBJECTIVE # 4

I N T E R R O G A T [ I N G ] T H E B R I E F

A N A B I L I T Y T O G E N E R A T E A V A R I E T Y O F D E S I G N P O S S I B I L I T I E S

S K I L L S I N V A R I O U S T H R E E - D I M E N S I O N A L M E D I A

A N U N D E R S T A N D I N G O F R E L A T I O N S H I P S B E T W E E N A R C H I T E C T U R E A N D A I R

By interrogating the brief during the initial stages of the project, i was able to gage the requirements which were imperative to address and represent in the final presentation stages of the project. For me, the main difficulty of this requirement, was ensuring that the proper measures were taken by using grasshopper instead of rhino to generate the final design... and even though my knowledge was limited in some fields, i seeked to find out alternative assistance in order to achieve my goals, whether that meant going to the technical help sessions or collaborating with other students. Planning was also a key stage of interroagating the brief, as it is during this initial stage that everything needs to be considered and a timeline needs to be generated, in order to abide by the submission details of the final outcomes.

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During the iterative stage, in particularly through Part B, but also through the Algorithmic sketchbook, i was able to explore the lengths of using grasshopper, by approaching the reverse engineered ‘AAMI park’ model without inhabitions and with a pure manipulative mind set. This allowed to discover new computational techniques which i was able to apply through Part C, and which made our design more parametric. The main difficulty was often discovering these new tools, and most importantly where they would plugin into, on the grasshopper data tree.

Not only did i learn skils using primarily the grasshopper platform, but through the generation of a design, and by going through a design process, i was able to explore how these three-dimensional models would become a tangible object, through the fabrication stages. Using rhino, with the assisted FabLab Files, i was able to gage how these files would be unrolled or prepared for the CNC router and laser cutter (which were relevant platforms during the fabrication stages of our final design). Often, the most difficult set back with all of these 3D generative platforms, was time and preparation, in particularly when sending to the FabLab.

This project presented me with creating design strategies, which would be highly responsive and interactive with the active environment within the surroundings, site specific to the LAGI Copenhagen location. Seeing as the Shipyard has an abundance of wind, there was a need to incorporate this sense of understanding and sensitivity, so as not to encourage further wind force... but alternatively to filter it and use it as an advantage to enhance the properties of the design. With our design, it was imperative that we ensured there was no encouragement of wind tunnels through the pods, and in particularly through the architectural arms. Directions variated and relocation of some pods was necessary to avois this issue.

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T H E A B I L I T Y T O M A K E A C A S E F O R P R O P S A L S

D E V E L O P C A P A B I L I T I E S F O R C O N C E P T U A L , T E C H N I C A L, A N D D E S I G N A N A L Y S E S

D E V E L O P F O U N D A T I O N A L UNDERSTANDINGS OF COMPUTATIONAL G E O M E T R Y , D A T A S T R U C T U R E S A N D T Y P E S O F P R O G R A M M I N G

BEGIN DEVELOPING A PERSONALISED REPERTOIRE OF COMPUTATIONAL T E C H N I Q U E S

The ability to make a case for proposals was sometimes difficult, as it meant delving into the construction realm, and researching various materialities... including their constructive and adhering measures. Research took place in order to achieve this, although sometimes it was difficult to envisage how certain elements would go together.

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Through the exploration or past precedent projects explored throughout the Design Studio Air Journal, in particularly through part A... but also more fittingly in parts B and C, we were able to explore different computational approaches and learn a new set of skils, whether it be purely design basd or technically driven. These explorations provided me with the capabilities to push my designs further, even throughout the iterative stage. for example, i looked at ‘La Sagrada Familia’ as a key precedent project, and through parametric design, i was somewhat able to re-create the structural stalictite like columns found within this building. Therefore, it enabled me to test my knowledge and further explore these technologies.

Through the use of Grasshopper as a main driver for this semesters work, i was able to develop a foundational understanding of computational geometry, especially due to the fact that we used ‘geometry as a main driver for our explorative reverse engineering. Although, one main issue that i faced throughout this process, was ensuring that the data struture was as parametric as possible. In some circumstances, my group and i had difficulty in simplifying our data trees... therefore we required assistance in order to do so. Althoughm through all of this trial and error, i was definately able to enhance my knowledge on this issue. Simplifying these data structures also enabled us to easily change and alter components.

This entire computational platform was initially a struggle for me to grasp, due to the complexity of the algorithmic measures which needed to be taken, and firstly needed to be understood. The weekly algorithmic tasks were useful in expanding my knowledge, and in turn allowing me to develop a personalised repertoire of various techniques. Towards the end of the design process, it was clear that there were multiple advantages of using grasshopper as a driver for design. It simplifies these structures and allows for things to be changed and altered easily by either adding a number slider, graph controller or changing the tolerance of certain components through other inputs.

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The development of the operable panel feature on the ‘warped pod’ façade was a complex activity considering the degree of understanding of Grasshopper.

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We began by incorporating the methods of curve array stemming from the spherical form in the initial stages, although, by introducing a graph controller onto the original sphere, we were able to explore the further maniuplation of this for. By moving away from the spherical form, which was part of our part B feedback, we began to explore this idea of an unfurling ribbon that almost wrapped around into a semi-circular form, following the direction of wind paths and therefore acting as a wind filter. The outcome developed a series of interesting iterations however the most successful has been selected for the design proposal due to not only the aesthetic quality but also its practicability in regards to fabrication and hence realised construction. The incorporation of an attractor curve through Grasshopper was a key aspect of the definition, which generated variation in the panelling of the warped pods as well as acting as a means for generating an optimised panelling pattern that responded to wind in the site context. Merging the pods with the ‘architectural arms’ derived from a field component on Grasshopper, enhanced design outcome, generating a more innovative and experientially rich proposal. The development of this aspect was limited in Grasshopper hence manipulation was required through Rhino to ensure buildability.

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O P E R A B L E P A N E L S In the developmental stages of the design proposal a key emphasise was placed on the merging of definitions developed in Part B iterative stages to achieve a design which extended upon the concept presented at the interim presentation. This involved an understanding of the definitions separately and the way they could be combined in Grasshopper using additional components to form a coherent whole. We began by incorporating the methods of curve array stemming from the spherical form in the initial stages of iterative design. By deconstructing the spheres and simplifying them into a series of contours we were able to introduce a graph controller onto the original sphere, and hence further manipulate the regular geometric form. A warped pod form was derived through interpolation of the points achieved using the graph mapper. The outcome was a series of pod forms of varying shapes and sizes, which was essential to the design concept - of varying pavilions appropriate for differing functions. Hence, using grasshopper we were able to ‘break away from the spherical pod’ as proposed in the interim submission feedback. The development of the operable panel feature on the ‘warped pod’ façade was a complex activity considering the degree of understanding of Grasshopper. The outcome developed a series of interesting iterations however the most successful has been selected for the design proposal due to not only the aesthetic quality but also its practicability in regards to fabrication and hence realised construction. The dispatched panels in Grasshopper were offset to create a frame which represented an underlying base structure for the pod, important to this notion of constructability and furthermore the success of the proposal.

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ARCHITECTURAL A R M S It was important to the design concept to achieve an interesting program for selecting which panels would rotate. Hence, the incorporation of an attractor curve through Grasshopper was a key aspect of the definition as it generated variation in the paneling of the warped pods as well as acting as a means for developing an optimised paneling pattern that responded to wind in the site context. In addition, in response to interim presentation feedback, we began to explore the idea of an unfurling ribbon that almost wrapped around the warped pod form, following the direction of wind paths and therefore acting as a wind filter. The ‘architectural arm’ development involved exploration of charge and field related components in Grasshopper, which had been introduced in video tutorials. An understanding of the point charge, spin force and merge field components in particular was key to the success of this design element. With further manipulation of the form using the graph mapper, an intriguing form was derived which was conceptually meaningful due to the use of a key windrose for Copenhagen as the base curve. Merging the pods with the ‘architectural arms’ derived from a field component on Grasshopper, enhanced design outcome, generating a more innovative and experientially rich proposal. The development of this aspect was limited in Grasshopper hence manipulation was required through Rhino to ensure buildability.

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SPIDERNETHWOOD (PG 35) Arch Daily (2008) http://www.archdaily.com/1878/spidernethewood-rsien/ (accessed on the 5th June, 2014) SPIDERNETHWOOD, WE FIND WILDERNESS (PG 35) Franรงois Roche published on the 17th November, 2009 http://www.we-find-wildness.com/2009/11/francois-roche-spidernethewood/ (accessed on the 5th June, 2014)

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EUROPEAN CEDAR (PG 191) Associated Timber Service http://www.associatedtimber.co.uk/ (accessed on the 20th May, 2014) CERAMIC PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIAL (PG 193) American Piezo https://www.americanpiezo.com/knowledge-center/piezo-theory/piezoelectricity.html (accessed on the 13th May, 2014) CITY OF COMPENHAGEN STATISTICS AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION (PG 193) City of Copenhagen http://subsite.kk.dk/sitecore/content/Subsites/CityOfCopenhagen/SubsiteFrontpage/ LivingInCopenhagen/ClimateAndEnvironment/CopenhagensGreenAccounts/EnergyAndCO2/ Consumption.aspx (accessed on the 20th May, 2014)

I M A G E

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SCENE SENSOR, PIEZOELECTRIC (PG 192) IMAGE 01 impression scene, 2012 James Murray and Shota Vashakmadze http://www.lsaa.org/index.php/projects/stadiums/280-aami-park-stadium-melbourne (accessed on the 18th April, 2014) SCENE SENSOR, PIEZOELECTRIC (PG 192) IMAGE 01 impression scene, 2012 James Murray and Shota Vashakmadze http://www.lsaa.org/index.php/projects/stadiums/280-aami-park-stadium-melbourne (accessed on the 18th April, 2014) SPIDERNETHWOODS, WE FIND WILDERNESS (PG 200) IMAGE 01 & 02 photograph, 2009 http://www.we-find-wildness.com/2009/11/francois-roche-spidernethewood/ (accessed on the 5th June, 2014) SPIDERNETHWOODS, NEW TERRITORIES (PG 201) IMAGE 03 & 04 photograph http://www.new-territories.com/spidernet2.htm (accessed on the 5th June, 2014)

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PIEZO SYSTEMS (MATERIAL CHARACTERISTICS AND INFORMATION) (PG 193) http://www.piezo.com/prodexg8dqm.html (accessed on the 20th May, 2014)

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