Table of Content 2
Introduction Trench Coat Introduction Brand analysis Positioning graphs Conclusion
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Introduction Brand analysis Positioning graphs Conclusion
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Introduction Brand analysis Positioning graphs Conclusion
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Introduction Brand analysis Positioning graphs Conclusion
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“Quality in a service or product is not what you put into it. It is what the client or customer gets out of it.” - Thomas Watson Jr. (American businessman and politician) Branding has been around for a long time. It started already in the 1800s, but really emerged as a signiﬁcant area of emphasis, not only for companies but also for other organizations and even individuals, in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Nowadays, a world without branding is unthinkable. It is not only inﬂuenced by society but also has a signiﬁcant inﬂuence on society itself. Branding can make or break a brand. Modern branding is often not even speciﬁcally about the products that the brand is trying to sell anymore, it is about creating the image of a desirable lifestyle and linking this to the brand, communicating the idea that everyone can take part in this lifestyle by buying the brand’s items. However, it has to be recognizable and legible for the customer, because if not, even the best branding idea will fail. It is not about what the brand wants to be; it is about how the customer perceives it. This is why constant research into and analysis of the consumer-side of the market that a company is trying to gain shares in, is essential. This book contains a broad overview of the international market for coats, especially looking into the designer/ supplier-side of this market. It is made as an advice for companies who want to participate in this market. In four chapters, four coat types (resp. the trench coat, the dufﬂe coat, the camel coat and the parka) and over eighty-ﬁve brands are analyzed. This analysis will not only include technical details such as the distribution strategy and the assortment of the brands, but will mainly focus on the image that the brands have - and want to have. Each chapter begins with a short introduction, brieﬂy summarizing the essence of the coat that is researched in that particular chapter, and succinctly describing the way it has been researched. Then some brands that make the certain type of coat are described. A series of three positioning graphs follows, each containing different and important brand values. These are accompanied by an explanation of the parameters and an analysis of the gaps in the market. Finally, an overall conclusion of research into the coat type and the market for it is speciﬁed.
The Trench Coat originated in 1901 when Thomas Burberry designed rain coats for the British army, however, Aquascutum also claims to have invented the coat back in the 1850’s. Whatever the case was, the Trench Coat has remained extremely relevant in fashion till this day. This chapter contains a wide range of suppliers of the Trench Coat. These brands range from luxury brands such as Louis Vuitton to more affordable brands like Berschka and Mango. People of all ages and social classes are familiar with the Trench coat and wear it in their own way, whether it’s to protect them from bad weather or simply as a fashion statement Although the Trench Coat has been altered to ﬁt the zeitgeist of it’s time, it’s classic silhouette remains the same. The criteria used for the graphs were collected from a survey answered online and on the street by 50 random people of both genders and all ages. With these opinions of each brand from the consumers we were able to determine their position in the market.
Bershka was founded in 1998. Nowadays it is part of the Spanish Group Inditex. Bershka produces both men’s and women’s wear, but focusses mainly on its women’s collections. The company has two product lines: Bershka is always up to date with the latest trends when it comes to evening wear and casual wear. As a second line Bershka focuses on fashion for the younger generation. Additionally, there is a footwear collection. Bershka is a modern brand that continuaously has the desire to be as contemporary as possible. With its colourfulness and fashionable graphic prints, Bershka catches the trendy and youthful spirit with a casual touch. With its low price segment, Bershka aims to make fashion available for the younger generations, aged between 14 and 25, who have a low income. With an interest in music and new technology, its target customer can be described as an adventurous and free-spirited person with an interest in fashion. To stay connected to their customers, Bershka presents itself as an active and vital brand by communicating through social media. Moreover, the brand promotes itself in printed campaigns. Current collections are available online, via their app or in one of Bershka’s 750 shops in 54 different countries worldwide. Price: €30 - €50
Burberry Burberry was founded in 1856 by Thomas Burberry in London. He invented gabardine as a durable and breathable fabric, which is also water resistant. It was used for the production of the Tielocker coat in 1899, the predecessor of the trench coat. Burberry still puts its main focus on the production of highly functional outerwear, including various coat- and jacket types. With the expansion of the assortment with kidswear, fragrances and swimwear, Burberry established itself as a lifestyle brand. It represents the traditional British spirit, but gives the classics a modern twist. With its timeless design for men, women and children, Burberry covers a widespread target group of people of all ages. As an iconic luxury brand the target costumer has got a high income and is style sensitive. He/she appreciates conservatism and high-quality fashion. Burberry is actively cooperating with charity organisations and musicians. Also, the company stays close to the younger generations by using social media such as Youtube, Facebook and Twitter. With the launch of an external website, www. artofthetrench.com, Burberry still emphasizes its rich, historical background. The brand promotes itself through ad-campaigns, online and in print. TV commercials are also part of their marketing strategy. The collection can be purchased in an online shop that delivers globally. Burberry stores are spread worldwide. Price: â‚Ź700 - â‚Ź5000
Calvin Klein Calvin Klein is an American company founded in 1968 by Calvin Klein himself. Originally, the brand became famous for its jeans. Using provocative television advertisements starring Brooke Shields in 1979 made the brand known worldwide. The image of the brand was sexy; celebrities often wore it and owning a pair of Calvin Klein jeans became a status symbol. The slogan “nothing comes between me and my Calvins” is still very famous. The brand offers a variety of products ranging from clothing to accessories and from fragrances to home products. The style sports a very clean cut, fresh, and sexy minimalistic look. The advertising is still very provocative and plays with the same elements; sex and fame, as it did in the 70’s. The target customer for the clothing is a well-off, conﬁdent, young adult who wants to wear a brand and wants to show it. The jeans, underwear and fragrances can be bought in nearly any country and are the main bulk of sales for the company. The ready-towear line is more exclusive and not as widely available. Price: €500 and up
This French couture brand was founded in 1913 by the iconic Coco Chanel, whose name the brand still carries. What started out as a millinery shop soon turned into a revolutionary brand that changed the way women dress. Chanel’s refreshing view on women’s fashion brought with it, iconic pieces as the little black dress and the tweed suit. The brand currently offers a large variety of products: clothing, accessories, eye wear, fragrances and cosmetics. Chanel clothes are designed to be comfortable and perceived as eternally stylish. The Chanel suit has been referred to as the female equivalent of the three-piece suit for men. In advertising and imagery the brand always aims for style, luxury and timelessness. Chanel is especially known for its extremely elaborate fashion shows. The Chanel consumer is a welloff woman who appreciates style and quality. The Chanel name is known worldwide and has shops and points of sale in nearly every major city. Price: €2000 and up
Christian Dior Christian Dior was founded in 1946 and is one the world’s top fashion houses. The brand is most known for its New Look, creating exquisite shapes and silhouettes for fashion-forward women. Dior’s vision was to ‘make ﬂowers out of women’. His look consisted of fabrics lined mainly with percale, boned, bustier-style bodices, hip padding, wasp-waisted corsets and petticoats that made his dresses ﬂare out from the waist, giving his models a very curvaceous form. As well as detailed haute couture garments, the brand has evolved and also produces ready-to-wear garments, cosmetics, perfumes, jewellery and other accessories. Christian Dior targets the wealthier, sophisticated, middle aged consumer. On a scale of importance, high society fashion and quality come way before comfort. Dior was the ﬁrst to use the term ‘A-line’ for his collection of spring 1955. This shape remained popular in the 60’s and 70’s, disappeared in the 80’s and was revived by the retro trend in the late 90’s. Dior can be purchased from Christian Dior, Bergdorf Goodman, Henri Bendel and Saks Fifth Avenue. Dior advertises in mainstream magazines as well as in high end fashion magazines. In 2000, Galliano’s leadership was extended to ready-to-wear, accessories, advertising and communications. The ﬁrst campaign under his leadership was photographed by Nick Knight and featured two girls simulating intercourse. Dior ads had such an impact that porn chic became a trend in most fashion ads. Price: €500 - €5000
Diesel This Italian brand was founded in 1978 by Renzo Rosso. His vision was to create a brand strong in both innovation and creative design. Today the brand focuses on producing clothing and accessories, fragrances, eyewear and home products. The vision of the brand is to make its customers feel part of a cool urban group of people who follow their own path and stand out as individuals. Through clever and memorable advertising campaigns the brand has gained a status of being the unconventional trendsetter and has thus succeeded in reaching the target group of these young, trend-aware adults. Collaborations of different kinds, most recently with the motorcycle brand Ducati, bring the brand to the streets, thus adding to its urban identity. The brand has a substantial presence globally with stores in over 80 countries and over 5000 points of sale. The clothing is readily available for anyone who wants to invest in an article of clothing that is both of high quality and has an innovative design. Price: â‚Ź200 and up
Inspired by her daughter Gabby, Donna Karan created DKNY in 1989 as a lower-priced offshoot of her original brand. From its famous denim origins the label has grown into a trusted lifestyle brand, with ready-to-wear, active wear, lingerie, accessories and a children’s collection. The brand reﬂects a casual, urban, American image. This is portrayed in the company’s campaigns and communications. DKNY targets all ages of the middle to upper class consumer who values style as much as comfort. Stores opened in London in 1997 and New York City in 1999. Currently there are 70 stores worldwide and DKNY also offers online shopping. Price: €100 - €1000
The modern woman knows that the secret to an affordable yet sensual and stylish look is Esprit. Each new collection reﬂects the “effortless, understated elegance that Esprit has become known for since 1968.” Esprit’s target group is a conﬁdent, natural, mature woman, above 30. The company promotes itself as an international youthful lifestyle brand offering smart, affordable luxury and bringing inventiveness and style to life. Its assortment of 12 collections means that the brand invests heavily in quality and ﬁt. There is a product line for kids, edc youth by Esprit, Esprit shoes, ESP Esprit sports, ESPRIT URBAN CASUAL, edc by Esprit, edc men, and last of all Esprit body wear. Its lifestyle and home collection emphasizes how the brand is not only about clothing, but ultimately gives a lifestyle experience. Esprit can be ordered online through its website/online store, as well as through other websites that offer multiple brands. “The Group operates more than 800 directly managed retail stores worldwide and distributes its products via more than 14,000 wholesale locations internationally, in 40 countries.” Price: €50 – €300
Jeanne Lanvin founded Lanvin, the oldest fashion house in 1889, in Paris. “After a period of decline at the end of the twentieth century, Lanvin found new ﬁnancial and critical success with the 2001 arrival of designer Alber Elbaz.” (NYmag) The company also produces men’s wear, but Lanvin is best known for its elegant, feminine clothing. Most of Lanvin’s principles have remained true to this day: ﬁne craftsmanship and impeccable ornamentation above all else. Not only does Lanvin have its ready-to-wear line, but the brand also includes an assortment of handbags, shoes, jewelry, and sunglasses. The brand has over a thousand stores around the world and is also sold online through Lanvin.com. Lanvin targets men and women, aged twenty to forty, who have a high disposable income. The brand mainly advertises in mainstream women’s magazines such as Vogue and Elle. Its website is a good indicator as to what the brand exudes: a French ‘joie de vivre’. In its 2009 campaign, photographed by Steven Meisel, a model acts out a narcissistic woman who obsesses with her reﬂection. This portrays the brand and its target customer as having a deep, sinister beauty, which is further emphasized by the subdued colours contrasting with the brightness of the clothes. After all, which woman would not be seduced by herself in an elegant Lanvin coat? Price: €2500 - €4000
Louis Vuitton Louis Vuitton is a French fashion house founded in 1854. The Louis Vuitton brand and the famous LV monogram are among the world’s most valuable brands. Products range from luxury trunks and leather goods to readyto-wear, shoes, watches, jewellery and sunglasses. Louis Vuitton’s image is the epitome of luxury, strongly inﬂuenced by French aristocracy and targets consumers at a high income level; those who are ready to spend large amounts of money for top notch quality and status. The fact that Louis Vuitton never goes on sale and that there are always price increases shows this. Today, Louis Vuitton has mastered the art of social media in their communications and advertising. As one of the world’s most famous fashion houses, Louis Vuitton is one of the most counterfeited brands in the fashion world due to its image as a status symbol. Today, Vuitton products are only available at authentic Louis Vuitton boutiques, with a very small number of exceptions. Louis Vuitton sells its products through standalone boutiques, lease departments in high-end department stores and through the e-commerce section of its website. Price: €500 – €5000
Mango opened its ﬁrst store in Barcelona in 1984, with Isaac Andik as its founder. Apart from women’s wear collections, Mango recently introduced H.E (Homini Emerito) as its ﬁrst men’s collection. Additionally, there are multiple accessory lines, with TOUCH as a premium collection. With its originality and creativity, Mango captures the Spanish spirit with a touch of sophistication and elegance. With a high comfort level and a low price segment, Mango’s fashion is made to suit each individual’s needs in their everyday life. Mango targets a strong and independent woman that embraces a modern lifestyle. She is determined, but at the same time sensual and vibrant. With social media, including Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, Google Plus and a blog, Mango reaches a wide range of customers among the middle-class, aged between 15 and 45. Additionally, promotions can be found in print and on TV. Collections are distributed online and in store, which are found world-wide. To stay updated, customers can download an app and subscribe to a blog or newsletter. Price: €40 - €80
Miu Miu is the daughter brand of Prada, founded by Miuccia Prada in 1993. Originally, the brand was founded in order to reach the younger Prada consumer. The brand specialises in clothing for women as well as fragrances. The brand is quirky chic with a bohemian twist; the niche market the brand aims at is the high end of the market, though it has a more eclectic taste. The brand uses a mixture of futuristic elements and traditional materials with emphasis on quality and details. The imagery the brand uses is of young women in sensual fantasy-themed settings, dressed in colourful clothing. This communicates a luxurious yet provocative mood which is what the brand aims to project. They aspire to reach a target group that, as mentioned before, represents the young Prada customers; young adults who like to dress in luxurious, colourful, and outspoken clothes. The brand is nearly as well known as Prada and has shops and selling points worldwide. Price: â‚Ź1500 and up
Moncler is a French brand founded in 1952 by French entrepreneur René Ramillon. The company manufactures high-end down jackets, body warmers, coats and sportswear. One of the most remarkable features in the early Moncler collection was the use of duck down, which is not bulky when used inside a coat, and was, therefore, perfect for use by skiers. Today, Moncler has been rapidly expanding by focusing on global distribution and placement of bricks-and-mortar stores. The brand has expanded its distribution strategy through branded retail stores, partnerships with major department stores and an e-commerce platform. Moncler targets the active, athletic consumer who values quality, durability, comfort and also style. Moncler is picky in choosing only the best locations for reaching its customers and spends a lot of time choosing in which cities to build stores. Once a location is chosen, Moncler takes great care in the design and layout of the store so that each embodies the brand’s image, which is luxurious as well as athletic. This is why Moncler is only interested in selling products through the top luxury retailers. However, the brand has recently taken a much more active role in its communication strategy. The new strategy is a carefully blended mix of ﬁve measurable points: going global, extensive retail expansion, digital distribution, product technology and communication strategy. Price: €200 - €800
Salvatore Ferragamo Salvatore Ferragamo, founded in 1927, is the parent company of the Ferragamo Group, one of the major players in the luxury goods industry. Top-level ladies’ footwear was the distinctive product of the Ferragamo Group, but Salvatore Ferragamo’s product portfolio consists of all kinds of leather goods, ready-to-wear clothing, shoes, silk and fragrances for both men and women. Eyewear and watches, manufactured under license by third parties in Italy, in order to make good use of local skills, complete the product range. Salvatore Ferragamo presents a “total look” men’s and women’s collection, designed to convey the brand image as a whole, together with the matching range of accessories, and to offer its customers a “complete brand experience”. The unique, exclusive design is obtained by combining style, creativity and innovation with the quality and craftsmanship that is typical for Italian-made goods. As the brand has a mature and timeless style, it targets both men and women, from the age of 30 onwards. These customers are conﬁdent, have found their identity, and are comfortable in their own skin. The brand is promoted mainly through women’s magazines, such as Vogue and Harper’s Bazaar. In terms of distribution, Salvatore Ferragamo has a broad network of 586 monobrand stores. The Group distributes its products in over 60 countries through 268 single-brand third-party operated stores. Ferragamo is also present in multi-brand department stores and specialty stores. Price: around €2,600 18
SPORTMAX SPORTMAX was launched in 1969 as one of Max Mara’s exclusive brands. SPORTMAX was the ﬁrst example of a coordinated, total look wardrobe that originated from the sportswear style (a word used at that time to deﬁne a casual style made of mix-and-match separates). Compared to MAX MARA, SPORTMAX targets a younger audience. This audience chooses to wear SPORTMAX for its freshness, its timeless glamour and its unconventional femininity. Furthermore, SPORTMAX targets women who are rather “fashion conscious than trend victims.” In order to fulﬁll the needs of this target group, SPORTMAX has developed two lines: SPORTMAX CODE, dedicated to informal, contemporary wear, with an excellent price-quality ratio and SPORTMAX BEACHWEAR, which concentrates on accessories and swimwear. The SPORTMAX collection is completed with accessories such as bags, shoes and jewelry. For the past four seasons, SPORTMAX has used photos from famous American photographer David Sims in its campaigns. In terms of distribution, SPORTMAX is present in over 70 countries, however currently it does not have its own website. It can only be purchased from third party websites, to highlight the importance of a full customer experience when entering a SPORTMAX store. To sum up, SPORTMAX’s philosophy states: “Designed for women with selfconﬁdence who face life with determination and joie de vivre, constantly looking for only the best to be beautiful and seductive: this is Sportmax today.” Price: around €750
Topshop “We started out life way back in 1964”, states Topshop’s online website. Topshop offers an assortment of trendy clothing at reasonable prices for women and men, the latter through the line Topman. In addition to this, Topshop frequently collaborates with other brands, as well as designers. Shoes, accessories and makeup also form part of Topshop’s product portfolio. Its website includes a “lookbook” section to let its target customers keep up to date with the latest items from the collection, and shows them how these are styled together – the Topshop way. Having touched upon this, Topshop’s target age group ranges from 13 to 39. For these women, fashion has no boundaries. Topshop, with its eclectic British style, is the only high street brand to show at London Fashion Week. “From our collaborations – think Christopher Kane and Kate Moss – to our fresh take on making new season pieces work for you, we’re on a mission to bring style to you, wherever you are,” claims Topshop’s website. For the full Topshop experience, head over to the company’s Oxford Circus Flagship store in London – it is every girl’s glimpse of paradise. Take a photo in the photobooth, get advice from a personal stylist, get spoilt with a pedicure: the store embodies the ultimate ‘Top’ lifestyle. In terms of distribution, Topshop has 300 stores in the UK alone, and the company ships to more than 100 countries. With all the different sections and different choices available in the store (for example tall, petite), one could never get disappointed or bored. Price: €60 - €120
Valentino Garavani opened the ﬁrst Valentino fashion house in 1960, in Italy. At ﬁrst, it sold only haute couture, but in 1975 the ﬁrst prêt-à-porter collection was shown in Paris. Valentino also has its own fragrance, a jewelry collection, a beauty line and ‘Valentino Timeless’, which sell watches. Known for its high-quality handcrafting skills, Valentino is considered to be a very exclusive brand. It wants its consumers to feel elegant and glamourous. Valentino speaks to the ﬂamboyant woman with seductive charm; a sexy and self-conﬁdent diva that is unconventionally elegant. Valentino tries to reach the younger generations through social media such as Facebook, Twitter and Youtube. Apart from the fact that Valentino promotes itself in printed campaigns and in TV-commercials, there is also “The Valentino Garavani Virtual Museum”, where the visitor gets the chance to get an insight into all facets of the brand in a personal 3D-experience. The collection can be purchased online or in one of Valentino’s stores, available worldwide. Price: €1000 - €3000
Yves Saint Laurent In 1962, the French designer Yves Saint Laurent set up his own fashion house in Paris. Among his most famous achievements are the invention of the smoking suit, the Mondrian dress, the Safari style and the “smoking” tuxedo jacket. Nowadays the company is part of the French Gucci-group. Since Laurent’s death in 2008, Hedi Slimane has taken over the lead as the creative director of the company. The YSL fashion collection for men and women is extended with a footwear collection, a fragrance line and beauty products. YSL has the luxurious French, chic feeling, with a touch of refreshing elegance and mysterious passion. This high-end label is produced for a sophisticated consumer that has an elegant and sensual attitude, aged around 30. YSL communicates via social media including Facebook, Twitter and Youtube. Additionally there are charity collaborations, TVcommercials and media ads. At this moment there is also an exhibition called “La Revolution de la Mode” in Paris, in which YSL presents its past fashions by Pierre Berge. The brand’s collections are available in stores as well as online. Price: €1000 - €4000
High importance of weather resistance
Highest potential Topshop Burberry
Little importance of slow fashion/ Fast fashion
Sportmax Monclair Salvatore Ferragamo Valentino Lanvin Miu Miu
Yves Saint Laurent Dior
Medium potential Lowest potential
River Island Esprit Mango
High importance of timeless fashion/ Slow fashion
Little importance of weather resistance
Gap in the market
For the positioning graphs, we aimed to ﬁnd the most appropriate values for the axes by means of asking the consumer. Through asking people to ﬁll in questionnaires we found that weather resistance and a classic look are two of the most important values for the consumer, when buying a trench coat. Timelessness played a signiﬁcant role for many people as they found that the trench coat will always be “en vogue” and will therefore be worn season after season. Weather resistance was an important value due to the trench coat being a cross seasonal coat, worn mainly in the fall and spring. These seasons tend to be the rainiest and windiest thus creating the demand for weather resistant outerwear.
From our market research we found out that, according to the opinion of the consumer, there are three gaps in the market. The largest gap is marked in the graph as “low potential” and is situated in the lower right corner of the graph. We found this not to be a lucrative position, as we didn’t ﬁnd there would be a market for timeless coats that are not weather resistant. The gap we chose to name “medium potential” is higher on the weather resistance axis than the previous gap and lower on the timelessness axis. We found this to be of medium potential since this gap represents slightly faster fashion that is not of very high quality (weather resistant materials), hence making it more affordable.
As there is a market for inexpensive fast fashion, this is a lucrative market segment. However, as there are several competitors not far from this gap, we chose to only view it as a medium potential segment. The position we found to be the most beneﬁcial in this representation of the market, is high on the timelessness axis as well as the weather resistance axis. As the trench coat will always remain in style, a classic design of high quality weather resistant materials would be a potentially proﬁtable product as it combines the most important values plus the segment is clear of competitors.
High importance of comfort
Miu Miu Valentino Lanvin Salvatore Ferragamo Monclair
Little importance of slow fashion
High importance of slow fashion
Esprit DKNY Topshop Medium potential
Louis Vuitton Dior Yves Saint Laurent
Little importance of comfort
Gap in the market
For this positioning graph, we started with basic research in order to ﬁnd the most appropriate values that matter most to the consumer. In order to get a clear image of their needs, we carried out a face-to-face questionnaire. As a result, we found comfort and a classical style (slow fashion) to be the key values. The comfort factor is essential, as a trench coat needs to suit people’s everyday lifestyle. In terms of slow fashion you have to keep in mind that the trench coat is known as a classical garment, which can be worn through several seasons without going out of style.
Based on our consumer research, three gaps were found within the segmentation model, starting with the lowest potential gap towards the most proﬁtable market segment. The lowest potential gap is placed at the bottom right-hand corner. With least comfort and the most classical design, we ﬁnd this to be the weakest position, because regardless of its timeless design, the feel of comfort has a higher priority for the consumer, which is clearly below the average comfort status. Secondly, the medium potential gap is positioned in the left corner. With little comfort and little importance on slow fashion, this market gap doesn’t seem to be the most beneﬁcial one.
Moreover, the fact that there are still various competitors around this market area, which offer higher comfortable fashion, we found this to be quite a risky area to invest in. Thirdly, the market gap with the highest potential was placed in the upper part of the graph for a number of reasons. First of all, this market segment has the highest comfort possible and an average importance on slow fashion. Therefore, the trench coat can be worn for more seasons than the average amount it would normally be worn for. Thirdly, this market gap has distinctively less competitors. These reasons mentioned make it one of the most proﬁtable market gaps.
Price € 3000 Louis Vuitton Salvatore Ferragamo Lowest potential
Chanel Lanvin Medium potential Miu Miu
Little importance of current fashion
High importance of current fashion
€ 1500 Valentino Yves Saint Lauren Burberry
€ 750 Sportmax Esprit
Diesel Topshop Mango
DKNY River Island
Price € 0
Gap in the market
In order to distinguish between the different axes, we ﬁrst decided to ask consumers what the most important values are in a Trench coat. Their response was price and importance on fast fashion. Price is deﬁnitely a key value to consider when buying a trench coat, because above all other values, price will determine whether the customer ends up buying it. The horizontal axes range from little importance in fast fashion, towards a high importance in fast fashion (trendy). This is an important value considering the fact that the trench coat is a timeless wardrobe piece, hence clients may want to have a more up-todate version depending on the fashion season.
Having positioned our brands, we found three potential areas, each of which are ranked in order of importance. The largest gap was mainly situated on the upper half of the horizontal axes, meaning there is a general potential to sell higher priced trench coats. The ﬁrst gap is situated in an area of high importance on current fashion (thereby fast fashion), also with a price range above 1500 euros. Although free of competitors, this is a risky position because clients may not want to invest in such a high price for a trench coat that may only last one fashion season. Dior and Louis Vuitton are relatively tough competitors as they are established brands and hence it would be too risky to compete, thus making this area of least potential.
The second gap has little importance on fast fashion and calls for a price range that is above 1500 euros. This connotes that there is potential for a very original/classic trench coat at a high price. People would be willing to invest as it is not adapting to the fashion season, and hence will associate a high price with higher quality. Currently Chanel may be too tough to compete with, and so this is classiﬁed as an average area to look into. The last gap sits in the bottom left corner of the graph where the price is below 750 euros, but has little importance on fast fashion. This is targeting a very particular consumer area: a demand for affordable trench coats with a classic design. This is the most interesting area to look into, as clients would be purchasing value-for-money trench coats.
Conclusion Based on our graph results we found the most lucrative segments in the Trench Coat market. In the price and fashionability segment, price is deﬁnately a key value to consider seeing as people would rather buy something that’s affordable. As far as fashionability, most people want a more up-to-date version of the Trench Coat therefore following the latest trends. Concerning timelessness and weather resistance, these were two factors that gained a lucrative position . As the trench coat is always in fashion, a classic design of high quality weather resistant materials would be a proﬁtable product. Not forgetting that the Trench Coat was made to protect one from bad weather circumstances, the weather resistance value is important. When looking at comfort and classical style, these two values stood out as important values. A Trench Coat is a coat is worn a lot by those who are active and outdoors a lot. The fact that the coat must be comfortable is therefore essential. The coat is also a classical garment so in terms of slow fashion, it will always remain, in it’s own way, fashionable and worn through several seasons, making this one of the most proﬁtable market gaps.
Renewed History The thick, woollen, dufﬂe coat, which was originally worn by the British Royal navy during the First World War, changed its image throughout the years. From a functional coat into a fashion statement; it has evolved into different styles, but still it can be recognized by its original characteristics. The dufﬂe fabric, the three-quarter length, the two large outside pockets, the hood and the togglefastenings are signiﬁcant for this coat. This chapter contains a wide range of contemporary suppliers of the dufﬂe coat. For example; traditional brands like Gloverall, affordable brands like H&M and high fashion brands like Proenza Schouler. By analysing this broad range of suppliers we could see what they offer today and what the wants and needs are from the consumer. The criteria in the positioning graphs are based on survey’s we did on the streets. The positioning of the brands are based on an online survey we did, which was ﬁlled in by ﬁfty people. At the end of the
research from a consumers point of view, we were able to determine their position in the market. This will lead us to a potential market segment. This will lead us to a potential market segment. Still, there are many brands that are positioned in a reasonably safe market segment. Our research has shown that extravagant clothing is often to be found in the higher price range. While truly extravagant clothing is mostly worn for only one or two seasons. Something contradictory, but overall very interesting. This contrast between suppliers has inspired us, but also the smaller gaps which are surrounded by some other brands are very interesting. A challenge to create our own market segment. This characteristic coat has a long history . Although, the traditional British style is still the most popular today. The identity of the coat changed, but is still well known and nowadays a popular fashion item. The dufﬂe coat; never out of fashion.
Founded in 2000, ASOS is a global online fashion and beauty retailer and offers over 50,000 products from both its own label as well as other brands. The products include women’s wear, men’s wear, footwear, accessories and jewelry. The clothing line is mostly described as fashion forward. The brand’s goal was, and still is to reach a wide, varied target group and provide them with fashionable clothes at a reasonable price. ASOS’ target group is broad, has an average income and ranges from the ages of 10 to 50. The brand only promotes and communicates via Internet by means such as online promotions and collaborations with magazines. The brand distributes to almost 200 countries and reaches 18.5 million visitors a month. Price: €70 - €200
Burberry P. Burberry Prorsum is a part of the luxury brand Burberry, which was founded in 1856. In 1901, the word Prorsum was added to recast Burberry’s conservative, rather fusty image, as youthful and sexy while emphasizing their quintessential London look. Within the authentic Burberry label, Burberry Prorsum is the most expensive of the brands because it is their luxurious, high end, runway brand. They design for men and women. Additionally, shoes and bags form part of the collection. The customer which buys Burberry Prorsum products can be anywhere between 20 and 60 years old, regardless of the gender. There are youthful, basic as well as more extravagant designs, which are retraceable in their collections. The authentic Burberry Brand is promoted in various different ways, but Burberry Prorsum makes up only a small part of this brand, thus they rather communicate online, on runways and in ad-campaigns. Their collections are available for purchase in their own shops, online shops and in multi-brand stores. Price: €400 - €1500
Cacharel is a French brand that produces ready-towear clothing, perfume and accessories. The brand was created by Jean Bousquet in 1962. He is the head designer together with Eley Kishimoto. Bousquet was one of the ﬁrst to develop an international brand image. The talent of photographer Sarah Moon was linked to Cacharel to form a powerful visual identity for its products. Thanks to Jean Bousquet, the signature looks of Cacharel have become popular and are still being reinvented nowadays: the shirt for women, the Liberty and crêpe fabrics. Cacharel became known for semicasual, matching separates, which captured the Zeitgeist by bringing relaxed styles into broader use. This style of dressing was widely copied by other designers. The aim of Cacharel is to signify a rough, uncontrolled image, which banned the formality of clothing preferred by more mature generations. Cacharel sells ready-to-wear clothing for women, sportswear, perfume and accessories. Jean Bousquet started a worldwide advertising campaign as soon as the company was well established. This helped the brand achieve its wellknown status. Bousquet wanted to establish Cacharel with a unique communication- and promotion strategy. This suits the brand fully. Cacharel represents innovative, iconic goods with a great fashion value. Price: €150 – €1000
Dsquared2 “Born in Canada, living in London, made in Italy” - this is the credo of Dsquared2 twins Dean & Dan. The pair has been creating collections for the fashion house since 1994. Dsquared2 offers an assortment of womenswear, menswear, accessories, eyewear and toiletries. The collections reﬂect their Canadian wit, mostly ridiculing the American Dream. The core of their designs is paired with detailed Italian tailoring skills and a hint of British inﬂuence. The brand offers provocative and racy clothing that has recently been enriched by maturity, which targets a broader range of customers. The brand adds a chic touch and sophistication, without losing its sex appeal. The target customer is self-conﬁdent but still pays attention to good tailoring to separate provocative from tacky. Dsquared2-clothing can be purchased in the company’s own mono-brand store, as well as in multibrand stores. To further increase availability, the brand’s clothes are also available in its own online shop and in other online shops. Thanks to Dsquared2’s communication strategy, information about the brand, such as editorials featuring Dsquared2 clothing, can be found on the brand’s homepage. With social media like Twitter, the brand creates a closer connection with its customers. Also, internet is an important way of communication for the brand. Furthermor, it provides 360° marketing, for example a cooperating with the MINI company. All in all, the brand created a Dsquared2 lifestyle, to turn the brand into a real experience. Price: €1000 and up
French Connection French Connection was founded by Stephen Marks in 1972. It offers a fashion-forward range of clothing, with a quirky spin on design. The brand is proud of its quality and affordable prices, and promotes these aspects. It produces design-led products presented in a unique and innovative way. French Connection has developed a sexy and stylish brand identity. It sells women’s-, men’sand children’s fashion, combined with accessories and toiletries. The brand is set out to create well-designed, fashionable clothing that appeals to a broad market. FCUK is a short, sharp abbreviation for French Connection United Kingdom. This name was launched with a simple advertising campaign featuring the line ‘fcuk fashion’. This line hit the headlines and when ‘fcuk advertising’ followed, the attitude of the brand was established. To stand out from the crowd, both the advertising and media choices are increasingly important for French Connection. It uses fashion magazines and billboards with high impact non-conventional media such as moving projections and radio stations. More recently, the company has wrapped outdoor billboards with gaffer tape and placed light motion banners. FCUK has its own online shop, but it’s also sold in mono-brand stores, multi-brand stores and in other online shops. Price: €190 - €280
Gaastra is the leading sailing sportswear fashion company in the world of sailing, founded in 1897. Starting as a company that was a supplier of sailing equipment, it now produces a wide range of sportswear, this took place after the ﬁrst collection was released in 1996. Divided into Gaastra Pro and Gaastra Sportswear collections, the differentiation gives a clear view of the type of clothing the company produces. Gaastra Pro is the professional line which uses cutting edge technology and materials to protect the wearer. Gaastra Sportswear is the more fashionable label inspired by sportsmen and casual clothing. Gaastra Pro and Gaastra Sportswear also offer a wide selection of shoes and other accessories. Gaastra’s goal is toprovide comfortable, durable clothing of great quality. The brand aims to be constantly innovative in both the technical ﬁeld as well as considering the quality of the materials. Gaastra’s target group has a broad range of consumers from the ages 10 - 50. The target consumer has an income that is above average and has an association with sailing. As promotion Gaastra uses advertisements in fashion and sport magazines. Next to that the brand sponsors sailing events in the likes of Les Voiles de St. Tropez and KChallenge. The distribution of the clothing goes through mono-brand and multi-brand stores, as well as in multiple online shops. Price: € 100 - € 200
Gloverall started supplying Dufﬂe coats after World War I and II and has been the ﬁrst supplier since 1951. This British brand sells authentic Dufﬂe coats according to true British Tradition. Their focus has always been on the coat and quality, and still is today. Their assortment is quite simple, divided in coats, toggles and scarves. Even though Gloverall is very popular in the United Kingdom, their campaign has expanded internationally as well. Recently, they made three fashion videos for the brand for their 60th anniversary and they have started several collaborations with designers such as Junya Watanabee and Fred Perry. Additionally, they´ve created a new concept which is called ` Me and my Gloverall´, where people all over the world can send in photos online of themselves wearing their dufﬂe coats to make the brand more personal and which can make them feel part of the ´Dufﬂe Family´. This `Dufﬂe Family´ consists of a wide range of people as Gloverall supplies coats for small children, youngsters and to the older public. They sell their coats in multi-brand stores and online. The price for a children’s dufﬂe coat is around 70 pounds, and it can go up to 350 pounds for a general model. Price: €80 - €400
Erling Persson discovered that clothes that are less expensive were sold in large quantities in the United States, and brought this idea to Europe. He opened a store in Västerås, Sweden: his homeland. The store that originally only sold women’s wear enlarged rapidly and became a worldwide phenomenon. The Swedish fashion retailer nowadays provides affordable clothing, accessories and beauty products for men, women, and children. The brand has different labels, each sporting a different image and target group. For example, the colourful label Divided, which is meant for the younger generation, and the athletic label L.O.G.G., which is developed for people who think comfort is the most important value when buying clothes. The different approach to the target groups is also visible in the design of the dufﬂe coats. H&M sells its collections in 34 different countries and has more than 1700 stores. Seventy-one of these stores are located in the Netherlands, there’s one in almost every single city. Besides that, customers can order H&M’s collections via catalogue or online. This makes the brand easily available. Communication is very important for H&M and therefore the quality of this communication is of a high standard. Because it has such a broad assortment and target group, H&M uses different sorts of communication and promotion (e.g. stores, commercials, its own magazine, advertisement in magazines and free newspapers) in order to achieve a large audience. The overall target group includes teenagers, young adults, boys, girls, men and women up to about 50 years old. Price: €40 - €80
Izzue is a fashion company known for original creation and local design, founded in 1999. The brand started as an emblem of luxurious individualism, designing special pieces for the youth on the brink for adulthood. The company expanded and after only a few years the ﬁrst coat was developed, inspired by and made from the same fabric as a tent. Izzue’s goal is exploring must-have elements and mixing their signature details and subtle surprises in order to bring ﬂamboyance to the wardrobe of their consumers. The brand later expanded to children’s wear. Izzue’s target group has a broad range of consumers from the age of 5 - 50. The target group has a high disposable income. In terms of promotion, Izzue uses advertisements in fashion magazines in the countries where their stores are located. Next to that they also have fashion shows. The distribution of the clothing goes through mono-brand stores, as well as in multiple online shops. Price: € 70 - € 200
Jack & Jones Jack & Jones is one of the leading brands in men’s jeans and was founded in 1989. It’s part of Bestseller, a familyowned clothing company. It’s divided in four divisions to help the consumer to assemble their look. Jack & Jones’ goal is to provide comfortable, trendy, vintage and stylish clothing for the fashion conscious man. The brand wants its customers to ﬁnd their look through their four divisions. The division Jeans Intelligence is for the young adult, Vintage for the adult man, Prium for the more mature customer and ﬁnally Premium Tech is for the more sporty man. Their target group is 18 - 25 and 25 - 40, for fashion conscious men who want to create their own personal style. The income of these consumers is above average. In terms of promotion Jack & Jones use advertisements in fashion and retail magazines. The brand also organizes events and is present at multiple Brand Fairs in Europe. The distribution of the clothing goes through mono-brand and multi-brand stores, as well as in multiple online shops. Price: € 70 - € 200
Junya Watanabe Junya Watanabe is a well renowned Japanese designer. After he worked for Comme des Garçons for eight years, he established his own womenswear line in 1992, which is owned by Comme des Garçons. In 2000, Junya Watanabe also began creating a menswear line that is shown in Paris, just like the women’s collection. These ready-to-wear fashion shows are also part of the promotion of his collection. In addition to women’s and men’s fashion, he also designs shoes and handbags. Watanabe frequently combines uncommon materials with natural ﬁbres, which sets him apart from other designers. His signature pieces are the camouﬂage jacket, the camouﬂage skirt and the swing dress. These are designed in an unusual way, which allows the wearer of the clothes to stand out. Junya Watanabe’s clothes are sold in several online shops, what makes his collection easily available. There are relatively large differences in the price of the items. This is due to the big variety of techniques and materials used. Price: €1000 - €4000
Franco Moschino created the brand in 1983 and became famous for his innovative and colourful designs. After his death, Rossella Jardini became creative director and she still ﬁlls this position today. This Italian brand provides clothing and accessories for men, women and children. It sells perfumes and cosmetics to make the brand more available for the ‘average’ consumer, and own labels like Moschino Cheap and Chic and Love Moschino. The brand’s designs are spontaneous, fun, colourful and destined for people who feel young at heart. Alongside some basic items, most of their designs include at least a crazy print or a funky detail. The same applies for the dufﬂe coats: a renewed version of the original is created. The brand advertises in magazines such as Harpers Bazaar, Vogue and Nylon. The concept hotel in Milan, ‘Maison Moschino’, is another way of communicating the exclusive brand image. It is all about design and creativity. Moschino’s collections are available worldwide in exclusive stores and online shops. The company has also opened multiple shop-in-shops in luxurious department stores. Additionally, Moschino has its own shops in the big fashion capitals of the world and its own online shop. The brand is for women and men from the ages 25 to 45 and also has a children’s line. Its customers choose remarkable and fun fashion and have a rather big budget to obtain this. Price: €800 - €1200
Contrary to his colleagues, Paul Smith initially did not plan on becoming a designer. His actual passion was sports. Nowadays, the brand offers more than some of his competitors: it creates a lifestyle with their assortment ranging from clothing, accessories, furniture, art and luggage. When entering a Paul Smith store the customer is confronted with the whole lifestyle the brand wants to communicate. The British origin is always reﬂected in the collections, mixed with a sense of humour. The brand is colourful, with references to school boys and girls in an ironic way. Crazy prints, contrasting colours and fabrics are united in immaculate tailoring, making it bizarre. These elements target a younger audience that has a sense of humour. The brand has a broad way of communication: it uses printed media, as well as social media to cover a big part of the market. Purchases can be made online as well as in the brand’s stores. Price: €1000 - €1500
Jack McCollough and Lazaro Hernandez are the designers of Proenza Schouler. They represent “the next generation of American talent,” according to The New York Times. The designers collaborated on their ﬁnal assessment at Parson’s School of Design. This project was their ﬁrst collection as Proenza Schouler. The company produces women’s- and men’s wear, and accessories. Proenza Schoulers has a high standard of craftsmanship, which is also visible in their dufﬂe coats. The brand is sold in the more luxurious online shops, where clothing and accessories from numerous designers are sold. The brand also has its own online shop, but this shop is quite small, and the brand is sold worldwide in exclusive shops such as Belinda in Melbourne, Printemps Haussmann in Paris and in Bergdorf Goodman in New York. The brand’s way of communication represents the target group. It uses social media and its clothing was worn on the cover of the independent magazines ‘Nylon’ and ‘Hot Links’. In addition, the company produces special projects, e.g. a short movie called ‘Act Da Fool’. This was made in collaboration with Harmony Korine, an American ﬁlm director. As they say themselves: “Our fashion is for women, not kids”. Its target group includes women from the age of 20 to 40 years old, who seek immaculate quality in clothing, with a unique design, and who aren’t afraid to stand out. Price: €950 - €1600
Raf Simons is a Belgian Designer who launched his label in 1995. This men’s wear designer creates for, and is inspired by conﬁdent outsiders. The message he wants to communicate is “Pride in Individuality”. His designs are both eccentric and modern with clean lines, street wear inﬂuences and crisp tailoring. His collections only contain menswear, but within these collections, one can also ﬁnd accessories, shoes and eyewear. His designs are suitable for men between the ages of 20 and 40. Raf simons communicates through fashion video’s, runways and his online website where he merges art, fashion and music together. You can ﬁnd his designs in mono, multi and online stores. Price: €200 - €1000
Rick Owens The American fashion designer Rick Owens launched his own label in 1994. The business started off in Los Angeles and later shifted to Italy, ﬁnally ended up in Paris. He is being celebrated for his avant garde style and subversive eye for detail all over the world. He has an aesthetic of minimalist palettes, dramatic structures and provocative silhouettes. His style is seen as “grunge meets glamour”. Rick Owens designs clothes, accessories, and shoes for both men and women. Next to that he also designs furniture. His exclusive stores in Paris, Tokyo, Hong Kong, Seoul, New York and London are furnished with his own designs and have an edgy decor. His furniture designs cost up to €10.000. In addition, Rick Owens communicates his brand through fashion videos, runways and online websites. You can get his designs in monobrand stores and online stores. As his designs are quite exclusive, they are more suitable for men and women between the ages of 20 and 40 who are intrigued by a more edgy and grungy look. Price: €700 - €2000
River Island was founded in 1948 by Andrew Hunt and Bernard Lewis, operating from a small shop in London, called Lewis Separates. The company has gone through several name changes since (Chelsea Girl, Concept Man) before becoming River Island in 1988. River Island’s collections are designed by a team of in-house designers and the brand is one of the most popular highstreet brands. It offers a large assortment of women’s- and men’s clothing and accessories. River Island is known for its stylish and affordable fashion. Glossy, trendy and highstreet-chic are terms that can describe River Island’s image and advertising. The brand targets young, fashionable consumers, both male and female, who want glamour and the latest trends for an reasonably price. River Island has 300 stores worldwide and is also available online, in its own online shop. Price: €60 - €120
S. Oliver is one of Europe’s largest fashion and lifestyle brands, founded in 1969. It started as a boutique in Würzburg under the name ‘’Sir Oliver’’ which changed into S. Oliver in 1978. Starting as a company that was a supplier of sailing equipment, the brand now produces a wide range of sportswear after the ﬁrst collection was released in 1996. The company expanded and changed and added new collections within the brand having now separate division within the company. S. Oliver is fashion for everyone and every situation. This is their mission and actual secret of success. The brand stand for sincerity and authenticity, genuine products at fair prices, an excellent quality and tradition. Their target group has a broad range of consumers from the age of 10 - 50. The target group is style conscious and they have an average income. For promotion, S. Oliver uses advertisements in fashion magazines. They also organize fashion shows and collaborate with celebrities on special clothing lines. The distribution of the clothing goes through mono-brand and multi-brand stores, as well as in multiple online shops. Price: € 70 - € 300
Highest potential Rick Owens Junya Watanabe
Moschino River Island Asos
Affordable brand image H&M
Proenza Schouler Izzue Dsquared2
French Paul Connection Smith
Jack & Raf Simons Jones Gloverall
Burberry Miu Miu
Exquisite brand image
Max Mara Ralph Lauren
Gap in the market
As mentioned before, we asked people about their criteria for purchasing a coat ahead of proceeding with our survey. This led us towards the conclusion that the design of the coat was the most important value. We took this into consideration when creating the variables for the brand positioning. We decided to measure the design from traditional to innovative on the vertical axis. Another important criteria according to the consumer was the brand of the coat. This is why it was crucial for us to relate the design to the brand image. The brand image could be rated from affordable to exquisite. Hereby it has to be stressed, that the exclusivity of the brand is not related to the prices of the garments but to their appearance.
After positioning the brands this is not the best market we spotted three possible segmentation for branding. gaps. These are ranked according to their potential. The biggest gap, with the highest potential, could be traced within The lowest potential was found the segment of “innovative and in the ﬁeld of Traditional and af- exquisite”. An exquisite image fordable. This can be explained attracts the most customers bedue to the fact that traditional cause of its luxurious approach, is often related to classic and which is independent from their will to be worn for more than prices. Paired with innovative deone season. This means that du- sign, the brand will be constantly rability is an important aspect. up-to-date and attract peoFor that, people tend to invest ple with high fashion awareness. more money and with the brand having an affordable image the customer might not trust in the durability of their garments. We spotted a medium potential in the segment of “innovative and affordable”. However, since customers prefer buying at a brand with an exquisite image,
Old target group Age 70
Medium potential Burberry
Proenza Schouler Paul Smith Junya Watanabe Moschino Miu Miu
French Connection Raf Simons S. Oliver
Lowest potential Dsquared2 River Island Izzue
Zara Jack & Mango Jones Asos Bershka
Young target group
Gap in the market
Graph two is dedicated to the consumer. We took a closer look at the shopping behaviour of the younger, as well as the more mature target group. This behaviour was measured according to the market in which they purchase. The market was hereby separated into niche and mass market. This gave us a deeper insight into the target group of any age, which made it possible to ﬁnd interesting gaps. It also made us aware of social tendencies.
The lowest potential is seen within “The niche market for young people”. This is due to the fact that young people tend to follow trends and shop in mainstream stores. These stores already provide sub collections that deliver a broad variety of different styles, which automatically targets a bigger audience. “Medium potential” can be spotted within the niche market for older people. The tendencies of our society lead towards an older generation. This makes the more mature customer incredibly
important for the fashion industry. Due to retirement, the older generation has time to be trend aware and also to create their own opinions about it. Nowadays, old does not mean old-fashioned anymore. This is why the niche is very important for this market. The highest potential lies within the mass market for the older public. This can also be explained with the reasons mentioned above. Additionally, the older target group has money to spend, which makes it highly proﬁtable for a new company targeting these customers.
Burberry Prorsum Junya Ralph Lauren Max Mara Watanabe Proenza Moschino Gaastra Miu Miu Schuler Cacharel French Paul Gloverall Connection Smith
Raf Simons Rick Owens
Dsquared2 S. Oliver
Jack & Jones
Lowest potential Zara
River Island Mango
Gap in the market
Another conclusion we took from the survey we did on the streets was that quality is an important value for purchasing a coat. By that, we mean durability and quality of the fabric. Because coats in general provide protection, this leads us towards the decision to start with a medium quality level. For branding, communication is an important factor. Thus we were interested in the presence of the brand, meaning the amount of campaigns, online advertising etc. that the brand is launching. To conclude, highend fashion brands mostly communicate within the upper class consumers, which leads towards a low presence for the average consumer.
The lowest potential lies within the center of the graph. Although there are not many companies competing with average quality and presence, the ones who are, are major competitors, such as H&M, which makes it impossible to compete. In conclusion this is not a realistic market segment. Medium potential can be seen within the segment of low presence and low quality. However, because we live in a time of social media, low presence is not something a brand can afford. On top of that low quality calls for low proďŹ t. This may allow for a better start up than the ďŹ rst option, due to weaker competition, however, competitors will not be known.
Recession inďŹ‚uences the trends of today in that timeless design seems to be the way forward. This means that high quality is important, so that people can wear their timeless pieces, especially coats, for a longer period of time, with high durability. High presence is essential nowadays. In summary, this is the most relevant gap.
Conclusion We live in a time of recession. People think twice before they purchase something, especially a coat. Therefore good quality and timeless design is the ďŹ rst priority for a consumer when they buy a coat. This allows them to wear this item of clothing for several years. The importance of these values is conďŹ rmed by our survey we did additionally to the positioning. Timeless design also matters within generations. Statistics have proven that our population will grow older, which makes the older generation more important for the fashion industry. A mergence of young and old can be acquired with a timeless design. This will create a mass market with high proďŹ t possibilities. Within this, it is important to have a broad communication, covering both digital and print media, i.e. billboards, ad campaigns, social media, newspapers, to reach both young and old. All in all, the zeitgeist and our gaps go hand in hand. With the recession nowhere near its end, this is a possible solution to the problem the consumer is facing in these rough times.
The camel coat is one of the most copied garments in the world. It is one that reappears time and time again in numerous winter collections by countless designers. It originally became popular in the 1980’s, but was inspired by comfort in war fashion as well as some of time’s most inﬂuential designers. Anne Marie Beretta, a designer for Max Mara, revolutionized the camel coat and made it what it is today; functional, classic, and contemporary and desired by women in need of something timeless. The camel coat marked a time when women became emancipated and where being able to dress freely, without uncomfortable restrictions, was socially acceptable. The camel coat’s roots are quite obviously masculine and back when Paul Poiret already designed oversized coats in the late forties, it was clear that the camel coat was going to evolve further. This was Achille Maramotti’s (the founder of Max Mara) gateway into fashion in 1951. Combining quality, comfort and technology; the iconic 101801 camel coat became the epitome of new
luxury and freedom of movement. This coat is wildly prevalent to this day, and is without a doubt here to stay for many years to come. The following pages will determine the positioning of brands in today’s market that design the camel coat. Important factors for the consumers of this coat are a mixture of values connected to emotion, and values connected to hard facts. Due to the fact that the camel coat has been reproduced in such large quantities, by so many different brands, a few potential market gaps were found when researching the values. These values include the formality or informality of the brand selling the coat, together with the availability of the brand in the market. Secondly, The youthfulness or maturity together with a hard value such as price and whether the brand is affordable or expensive, made for an interesting graph. Lastly, a highly important factor for the camel coat is of course the durability. This was found to be intriguing if put together with a brands that either have a more feminine style, or a more masculine style.
Alexander Wang The New York based designer launched his eponymous line in 2004 and quickly established a loyal following with his grunge-cool mantra style. Wang is known for his edgy, somewhat masculine women’s wear designs. His designs always have a chic, New York look mixed with athletic undertones. Growing up as kid Alexander Wang never did sport, that’s why sportswear has always intrigues him. Alexander Wang is a high end ready-towear line for women. His other lines include accessories and shoes. In the last 8 years Alexander Wang has built a loyal following for his grunge-cool style mantra and has fashionistas like Erin Wasson among his many fans. His fan base is consisting of Stylish girls around their mid 20’s preferring the chic model of duty look. The Alexander Wang ad campaigns include the effortlessness that Wang is known for. The campaigns are grungy mixed with a simple, cool style. As for the Alexander Wang vibe, it’s all about a certain, nonchalant, cool mixed with a New York twist. The Alexander Wang collection is sold throughout its own freestanding stores, multi-brands stores, department stores and high-end online stores such as Net-A-Porter and My Wardrobe. Price: €250 - €1000
Alberta Ferretti Italian designer Alberta Ferretti has been proﬁled as the “queen of chiffon,” and her signature ﬂowing, goddess gowns have entranced Hollywood and women in search of the romantic, ethereal look for more than 30 years. Alberta Ferretti is known for her designs featuring twisting, tucking, and draping techniques resulting in a youthful, ultra feminine brand. Alberta Ferretti is a high end ready-to-wear line. The collection also includes eyewear, handbags and shoes. Besides the main line there is also a lower priced line intended for young businesswomen called Philosophy by Alberta Feretti, which includes knitwear, fragrances & shoes. Ferretti’s glamorous designs are very popular in Hollywood amongst stars such as Jennifer Lopez & Scarlett Johansson. The other target group is the cocktail crowd consisting of strong, feminine women. According to Feretti the world is very hard at the moment, so her customers should be very strong women. Alberta Ferretti’s ad campaigns are always undeniably soft and romantic, perfectly in line with the brand’s image of youthful femininity. The ads are always showcasing the label’s rufﬂed and sheer fabrics, its layered look and draping techniques, all resulting in an ethereal atmosphere. The Alberta Ferretti line is distributed over 20 countries worldwide and is sold throughout mono-brand stores, multi-brand stores, department stores, their own online store and high end online stores such as Net-A-Porter and My Wardrobe. Price: €300 - €2000 62
Acne Studios is part of the creative collective Acne, founded in Stockholm, Sweden in 1996. In 1997, co-founder Jonny Johansson created one hundred pairs of jeans in raw denim with red stitching and gave them to friends and family in Stockholm, which became the foundation of the clothing branch of Acne. Today, the brand is recognized internationally as a creative collective, unique for its corporate diversity in fashion, graphic design, ﬁlm production and advertising, as well as product, business and concept development. By designing simple, functional items Acne aims to create a modern framework for individuality. The brand stand for subtle luxury and understated items that are cool and personal. Acne Studios designs, markets and distributes fashion apparel and jeans worldwide. Their assortment includes women’s wear, men’s wear, shoes, leather products and accessories. The brand’s target customers are consumers who feel attuned to the culture industries and have high demands on what they consume. Consumers tend to see the brand as rather expensive, but highly available with products of high durability. The core of the brand is their aim to approach design more holistically, working on various areas rather than concentrating on being known for just one thing. The brand is currently working in ﬁlm, architecture and design as a lifestyle in general. The brand also has its own magazine, Acne paper, with which it aims to show people the foundation story of the brand’s inspiration. Acne products are sold at more than 600 retailers and 20 mono-brands stores in 40 countries around the world as well as in an online store. Price: €800 - €1200
Romantic, free spirited and easy to wear reﬁned classics. Everything a youthful, feminine and modern woman wants. The French brand Chloé was founded by Egyptian born Gaby Aghion in 1952. It is hard to imagine that the origin of this company was six poplin dresses and that it is now a renowned high fashion brand. Karl Lagerfeld and Phoebe Philo were among the designers that undertook the hard work of making the company what it is today. Stella McCartney however is the one to thank for making the brand embrace a certain lightness and prettiness, with a fresh touch of femininity. Chloé sports luxury ready-to-wear garments, as well as fragrances, shoes and handbags. Research shows that consumers have low awareness of this brand and many assume that it is much more affordable than it actually is. This might be due to the fact that Chloé has a subbrand called “See by Chloé” which is comparable to Marc by Marc Jacobs; a more affordable label for a younger target group. Chloé makes use of online retail, such as ASOS and net-a-porter, but also has many boutiques around the world, as well as offering the collection in department stores. Advertising for Chloé is all about using a natural colour palette that is easy on the eyes and evokes a calm feeling. This includes billboards, magazines, online videos and websites. Price: €200 - €650
Céline is a French luxury fashion house founded in 1945 by Céline Vipiana and is today owned by LVMH. It was originally created as a made-to-measure children’s shoe business but eventually grew into a women’s shoes and accessories brand. The brand was founded by a woman, and historically it has always stood for clothes for women by women. Celine still continues with feminine interpretations of elegance, creating fashion through the introduction of new design expressions. The brand’s style is strong, free, easy and independent, which is represented in their collections of women’s wear, purses, shoes, small leather goods and accessories. Céline, full of contemporary French luxury, represents the charisma of professional women. Its target group is mainly women in their 30s, conﬁdent, with life experience. Research shows that consumers see the brand as representing a feminine, mature and formal look. As means of communication Céline uses advertising campaigns and shows collections in fashion shows. The brand is now sold in more than 400 stores worldwide as well as via the its ofﬁcial online page. Price: €1500 - €2000
Donna Karan The Donna Karan label was launched in 1985. Donna Karan is the creative director of her namesake brand. It offers sophisticated but comfortable fashion at a high price. The collections include only what the designer would have in her own wardrobe. The brand offers simple, clear and urban clothing, sportswear, accessories and shoes for both men and women. The clothes are of high quality, which is reﬂected in the high prices. This is mainly due to the brand’s use of high quality fabrics, such as for example cashmere, in the collections. Donna Karan´s target group is wide spread: people at the age of 25 to 45 years. The brand aims to design comfortable high fashion for “creative people who never know where a day is going to take them”. Donna Karan is available through its mono-brand stores, in bigger department stores worldwide, and trough online stores like shopstyle.com. Price: €1000 - €4000
The Derek Lam label was launched in 2002. Starting out with only women’s clothing, the brand expanded in 2007 to include handbags, shoes, jewelry and eyewear. Derek Lam offers high fashion for women of 25 to 35 years of age, with a high disposable income. The brand is known for girly and feminine fabrics that are used for clear-cut silhouettes, creating a sophisticated, rational and modern look. Derek Lam uses high quality fabrics such as cashmere to give a more exclusive look and to guarantee the high quality in their clothes. The company aims to create clothes that are luxurious and wearable with ladylike beauty in them. In 2010 Derek Lam launched an e-commerce website that sells a limited collection of ready-to-wear and accessories. There are many online stores that sell Derek Lam, for example shopbop.com. Derek Lam clothing is also available in the Derek Lam boutique in New York. Price: €1000 - €1500
Noted as one of the major labels, popularizing the minimalist aesthetic of the nineties, German designer Jil Sander originally targeted women who were conquering the executive positions in the eighties. The uniform could consist of a neatly cut pantsuit, a slim blouse and a formﬁtting coat made of luxurious materials in plain colours. Therefore, it is no surprise that Jil Sander has been described as the ‘Queen of Less’. Having introduced a boutique in Hamburg ﬁve years earlier, Jil Sander launched a women’s ready-to-wear collection and presented it in Milan in 1973. The line expanded rapidly and grew into an empire that includes menswear, accessories and multiple perfumes. Buyers from big department stores such as Barney’s and Neiman Marcus saw potential and immediately opted to start selling the brand. In 2005, Raf Simons was hired as the new creative director, maintaining the label’s heritage and spicing it up with his own eccentric style. Jil Sander does not have mono-brand stores, but sells the clothes in exclusive high-end online stores, shop-in-shops and the brand’s own online shop. As an high-costly brand Jil Sander appeals to a niche market with a high disposable income. Price: €1000 - €2000
Essential and precise; clean cuts and decisive lines. These are the main values of this Italian luxury brand which is here to stay. Founded in 1951 by Achille Maramotti, Max Mara is known for its specialization in coats; especially the camel coat. Maramotti was fascinated by women and their clothing and wanted to specialize in this ﬁeld. Max Mara has an assortment of women’s ready-to-wear clothing, accessories, shoes, bags, eye wear, fragrances and even has exquisite bridal wear. The glamour chic designs are perfectly tailored, always complementing the woman’s ﬁgure. The style ranges from luxury contemporary wear, to comfortable everyday wear, due to the various labels under the Max Mara name. Maramotti came up with 9 different labels that support many different types of women of all shapes and sizes. The labels are all aimed to the sophisticated woman with style who wants a touch of understated elegance. Research has shown that consumers highly enjoy the brand’s quality, and that Max Mara’s identity truly levels with what the public perceives. The company’s advertising is always clean cut and precise, showing off their products using one model. Max Mara is widely distributed world-wide and is increasing continuously with over 10000 multi-brand stores and over 2000 monobrand stores. The brand has proven that working with online retailers is not necessary for their success in the industry. Price: €450 - €1600
MARNI The Marni line is known for feminine combinations of bright colours, bold graphic patterns, elaborate fantasy prints, and natural textures, including many furs. The result is an offbeat, funky aesthetic brand that remains elegant but yet wearable. In general, Marni women’s clothing resonate more with female customers than with men, who do not ﬁnd the clothes sexy. Being bold in colors, and print is more important than sex appeal. Marni is a high end ready-to-wear line. Today the company produces a full array of ready-to-wear clothing, handbags, jewellery and eyewear. The Marni look can be carried off by women of many different ages. Its target group starts with women in their mid-20’s and goes up to the more mature women. Being sexy is not important for these women. Marni has created a truly unique concept, mixing its quirky designs with the most reﬁned fabrics and materials. The bright colours and graphic patterns are always appearing in the company’s advertising, creating a joyful and artsy image around the brand. Marni creates trans-seasonal collections, made to be mixed with each other, as it’s is not following any trends made to last forever. The Marni line is distributed in over sixteen countries worldwide. The line is sold through the company’s free standing stores, multi- brand stores, department stores and other high-end online stores such as Net-A-Porter and My Theresa. Price: €100 - €1500
Michael Kors Michael Kors began his namesake label in 1981. The brand’s image is minimalism combined with a luxurious, tailored sportswear tradition. The brand offers sexy, highly practical American sportswear that often draws attention to the body. The brand has a long time focus on femininity, elegancy and simplicity. Michael Kors also has remained constant in the use of luxurious, often unique fabrics to create upscale yet wearable pieces. The brand has a high end ready-to-wear line, including men’s wear & women’s wear. The other product lines include beauty, eyewear, fragrances, home, handbags, jeans, shoes, and underwear. In addition to the Michael Kors runway collection, the MICHAEL Michael Kors and KORS Michael Kors lines were launched in 2004. MICHAEL is more reasonably priced and available to the public. KORS is considered the mid-tier line, between the runway and MICHAEL collections. Fashion conscious men and women who enjoy practical clothing are the primary target groups for the brand. Both the lifestyle and brand personality that the company carries are representative of a young jet-set lifestyle. Michael Kors ad campaigns often reﬂect the jet-set sportswear that Kors fans are fond of. All three Michael Kors lines are sold through mono-brand stores, multi-brand stores, department stores, the company’s own online shop and other high end online stores such as Net-A-Porter, My Theresa, My wardrobe etc. Price: €150 - €01500
Marc Jacobs Marc by Marc Jacobs was established in 2001, as a sub-label of the original Marc Jacobs brand, established in 1986. As Marc Jacobs had found his righteous and well-deserved place in the fashion industry, he decided to create a new label which sported a cool, yet effortlessly stylish and elegant look. Marc by Marc Jacobs is a continuously growing label with a wide assortment of women’s and men’s ready-to-wear clothing, accessories, shoes, bags, fragrances and eyewear. The brand is wildly popular with a younger generation who are also known as “the downtown crowd”, known for having an eclectic and edgy taste. This target group also includes young trendsetters who have a feel for the New York style with a Parisian touch. Having been very clever in his designs, Marc Jacobs offers quality for the older generation through his original Marc Jacobs label and the previously mentioned image to the younger generation through Marc by Marc Jacobs. The brand is promoted by using celebrities to enhance the feeling of familiarity to the consumer. The brand offers timeless luxury in an understated, cool way. This is why a camel coat from Marc by Marc Jacobs was an essential addition to the collection. Coats are not what the brand is famous for, but because of the sense of quality and ﬁne ﬁnishes, a camel coat was an obvious and smart choice. Price: €200 - €800
The Philip Lim brand has the identity of being effortlessly elegant & chic. Philip Lim describes his brand as very classical but at the same time also embodying youthful elegance and personal style. The designer’s cleancut silhouettes, pared-back palettes and clever fabric combinations meet all the demands of a modern wardrobe, fusing understanding luxury with a New York feel. Philip Lim is a high-end ready-to-wear line including both woman’s wear and men’s wear. His other collections include: eyewear, lingerie, bags, accessories and a children’s line. The Philip Lim woman is cool, contemporary, utterly feminine and living in the big Apple. The perfect name for this target is the sophisticated New York youth. Phillip succeeded to make a high fashion brand, now well recognized because of his signature as brand logo, simple but elegant fashion advertising and chic fashion campaigns all done in stylish minimalism. His stores are impeccably elegant decorated and designed – clear and simple shape and colours, similar to his fashion and advertising. The Philip Lim collection is sold throughout mono-brands stores, multi-brands stores, department stores and high-end online stores such as Net-A-Porter and My Wardrobe. Price: € 250- €1500
Prada is an Italian fashion label that specializes in luxury goods for men and women. The brand was founded by Mario Prada in 1913. Careful observation and interest in the world, society, and culture are at the core of Prada’s creativity and modernity. The essential values are a minimalist approach and innovative creativity together with sophisticated and elegant taste with a strong sense of craftsmanship. Through the brand’s cohesion with the art world, Prada has not only created a label of hyper luxury but also developed an entire lifestyle. The products vary from women’s wear, men’s wear, accessories, handbags, wallets, fragrances, eyewear, jewellery, watches, shoes, hats, travel items, amongst which the most important are their leather goods. Prada’s target group is the sophisticated business men and women who want to be fashionable. Based on a research, consumers tend to see the brand as very expensive, but with highly durable products. The brand’s focus is on the shopping experience; it puts a huge emphasis on the stores as that’s where the products are on display. The Group operates in 70 countries through 345 directly operated stores, 30 franchise stores and a network of selected high-end multi-brand stores and luxury department stores as well as via the brand’s online store. Price range: €1500 - €5000
Ralph Lauren A redeﬁnition of American style. When people think Ralph Lauren, the word “preppy” comes to mind. Consumers feel a sense of comfort when it comes to this brand. Polo Fashions was founded in 1968 by Ralph Lauren and in the early 1980’s, Ralph Lauren (the brand) was established. It is known for its immaculate quality and idealization of America’s image of itself. The camel coat has always been extremely popular with this brand, especially for men. Ralph Lauren designed various labels to meet the needs of all types of consumers, and this has been very successful in doing so. Men’s wear, women’s wear, children’s wear and a variety of accessories (including home accessories) are part of what makes up the brand. This has allowed for the company to reach a larger audience. The timeless, yet modern brand has always been exceptionally well promoted through well kept up stores and intriguing advertisements of the “perfect, sporty chic family”. For Ralph Lauren, it is about the experience as a whole. When somebody walks into a store, they must feel as though they are literally at home. Price: €350 - €700
Steven Alan Steven Alan opened its ﬁrst retail store in 1994 and the ﬁrst collection was launched in 1999. The company has over 100 designers producing innovative yet classic clothing for women, men and children. Steven Alan offers clothing, shoes, bags, jewelry, watches, interior products, swimwear and sunglasses. The brand is aimed at upper class Americans with their “easy feeling clothes”. The style is simple, conventional and silhouettes have straight lines keeping the appearance clear and neat. Steven Alan also cooperates with other brands such as Nike and designs for other brands, for instance Chari & Co. Steven Alan has its own stores only in the USA but there are over 300 stores worldwide selling his clothing and accessories. Steven Alan clothing is also available online on the brand’s website. Price: €350 - €500
Tommy Hilﬁger Tommy Hilﬁger was founded in New York in 1984, introducing a signature menswear collection. The brand has many product lines including Hilﬁger Denim, Tommy Girl, Tommy Sport, Tommy Hilﬁger Home and Tommy Sailing. Its focus is put on luxury sports such as sailing and polo. Tommy Hilﬁger represents the American dream within their advertising and imagery used. The company’s logo is very recognisable and a big selling point for the clothing. Its target group consists of well earning men and women among various ages. Since the brand offers a children’s collection Tommy Hilﬁger is also an attractive choice for families. The brand prefers to stick to the traditional idea of Tommy Hilﬁger, but also shows modern ready-to-wear collections on the runway every season. Overall, its traditional fashion has been interpreted in a modern way. Generally, the overall look of the collections has a nautical, preppy style. Tommy Hilﬁger advertising campaigns run in most of the mainstream magazines. Additionally, the brand promotes through billboards to raise more awareness. Besides of having mono-brand stores all over the world, collections are being sold in its online shop with a worldwide shipping. Price: € 150 - €400
Zara is a Spanish brand that is part of the Inditex group. The ﬁrst store featured low-priced lookalike products of popular, higher-end clothing fashions. After a while however they started changing the design, manufacturing, and distribution process to react to new trends in a quicker way. This is called “instant fashions”. The company based its improvements in the use of information technologies and using groups of designers instead of individuals. Innovation and ﬂexibility are of a high importance for the brand, together with the concept of selling medium quality clothing at affordable prices. The brand’s products include women’s wear, men’s wear, children’s wear, cosmetics, complements, shoes, accessories and home products. Zara’s primary target group is women between the ages of 25 and 40 years. They are women who like to be fashionable but at a low cost; the everyday woman who wants to go to work well dressed. The secondary group is men at the same age range who are classic and understand fashion but don’t want to take it too far by spending too much. According to research, consumers see the brand as highly available, representing a more formal wear. One of the key concept factors of Zara is investing in expansion rather than in advertising and a low importance of sales. The brand has an online store and more than 1700 stores in 77 countries. Price: €40 - €80
Formal Brand name
Medium potential Highest potential
Max Mara Burberry Lowest Celine potential Derek Lam Michael Kors Marc by Marc Jacobs LV Alberta Feretti Zara Donna Karan Marni Acne Stella McCartney Prada YSL
Jil Sander Chloe Topshop
Mango Tommy HilďŹ ger
Gap in the market
After having asked the public what they ﬁnd important when buying a camel coat, these two values made for an interesting combination. Due to the variety of brands that produce camel coats, consumers ﬁnd the difference between brands that design formal wear and brands that design informal wear to be important in their purchasing decisions. This, combined with how available the brands are worldwide, form a positioning graph that creates a few potential gaps in the market. Most brands fall in the category of being formal and highly available and the least amount of brands fall in the category of being informal and highly available. The conclusions below were drawn from the graph.
The horizontal axes are divided on a scale of low availability of the brand and high availability of the brand. The vertical axes depict whether the brand has a more formal, or informal image. The market segment that has the least potential would have to be the mixture of formal brands and their high availability. There are too many already in this segment, which would make it difﬁcult for anything new and innovative. Consumers believe high end brands to be mainly formal and also highly available. This is normal because the camel coat is overall quite a formal coat. The amount of competitors here are excessive. A “medium potential” market opportunity for the camel coat would be a blend of medium availability and high formality. Consumers believe that many brands that are expensive, automatically fall into the “formal” category. This might
have to do with speculations that high end brands are assumed to be formal, and are therefore also widely available. This is a reasonable point of view, which makes it a medium potential opportunity. Stepping away from the assumption that only formal brands are highly available would provide the most proﬁtable segment. This is therefore our “highest potential” market opportunity. Because of the fact that the focus of brands for the camel coat are all more formal and widely available, the highest potential would be to reach a target group looking for more informal coats that are still highly available. This would fall under the category of brands such as H&M, Steven Alan etc. The fact that they are more informal does not necessarily decrease the quality. A brand with focus on high quality, with an informal look would be needed.
High Availability H&M Louis Vuitton
Max Mara Celine Donna Karan
Ralph Lauren Tommy HilďŹ ger
Chloe Stella McCartney
Acne Topshop Steven Allan Alexander Wang
Phillip Lim Jil Sander
Gap in the market
Before making our axes we spoke to several consumers in order to ﬁnd out what they are looking for when buying a coat. One of the values that we often heard was availability. This graph gives insight to the availability of brands on the market. Every brand has a speciﬁc look that distinguishes it from others. Some are feminine while others have a more masculine appeal. The task was to ﬁnd out if brands with an ultra masculine appeal for women are widely accepted in the market. When something is widely accepted, it often has a high availability in the market and to ﬁnd out if this was also the case for brands with a masculine appeal for women, the following results were found.
The horizontal axe is divided from ultra feminine to ultra masculine. The same goes for the Vertical axes. However, the values used here are “low availability” and “high availability”. After our research we found 2 main gaps in the market. The ﬁrst one can be found at the upper left side, in the corner of feminine and high availability and the other one can found at the upper right side, in the corner masculine and high availability. This connotes that brands with an ultra feminine appeal and brands with a masculine appeal are still not highly available on the market. Brands that have a masculine/feminine appeal are in the middle of the graph and are highly available.
This is obvious because brands want a variety of customers, that’s why they produce clothing that can be masculine and feminine at the same time. Thus, there is potential for feminine and masculine camel coats in the market. In order to make them available, awareness of their existence should be created. The surveys concluded that many people don’t know much about the selling points of some brands. A lot of consumers think that the only way to purchase them are through a brand’s own store. But something that is not commonly known, is that one can easily purchase garments in department stores or online shops.
Youthful Highest potential
Jil Sander Marc by Marc Jacobs
Philip Lim Alberta Feretti Donna Karan
Derek Lam Alexander Wang Louis Vuitton
Stella McCartney YSL Burberry Max Mara Tommy Hilﬁger
Michael Kors Celine Ralph Lauren
Gap in the market
Starting our brand research, we thought about what consumers think are important values. A big factor for most consumers is whether the brand of the coat has a youthful or more of a mature image. A person who is at the point of his life where he is really enjoying his social life, will shop for a fresh, youthful brand, whereas a 50 year old woman would want to buy a coat from a brand that speaks to their consumers in a classic way, using images in their campaigns of older women, rather than the typical model. On the other side of the axes we chose to look into the most important value for consumers; price. This is relevant to every age group and type of person. Some people are only interested in really low prices, but there are also people that are very aware of wearing brand names and are willing to pay a lot of money for their clothing.
While analyzing the results of our consumer surveys and positioning our brands in this graph, we came to a couple of interesting conclusions. There are the three gaps in the market that we have found from this. The ﬁrst gap is in the Expensive / Youthful area. There seem to be no brands that are appealing to consumers as being extremely youthful, in a price range that is between middle and high-end. We think this gap is here because most consumers who buy youthful brands don’t have enough money to buy a € 800,- coat. This gap is not a very interesting opportunity because we don’t think consumers are looking for this type of brand. We see this as a low opportunity gap. Another gap we found in our positioning graph was in the Affordable / Mature sector. The reason why there is such a big gap in this part of the graph
is because overall, people think that the majority of the brands are expensive. In the eye of the consumer there are basically no brands that are mature in style at a reasonable price. This is because brands that portray a mature style want to have a high quality to their clothes, and this costs a lot of money. A way to solve this problem would be looking for different developments in fabrics to make their clothing in the same standard, but for a lower price. This gap has a medium opportunity. The most interesting gap we came across was in the Affordable / Youthful area. You can see the problem probably lies in the fact that brands like H&M, Mango and Zara are branding themselves in a way that looks far more expensive than what they really are. With some intelligent branding concepts that appeal to young people as affordable, these gaps can easily be ﬁlled up. This is a high opportunity gap.
Conclusion Besides femininity and masculinity we also decided to have a look at availability compared with formality of the brands. Here, it was found that consumers believe that high-end brands are mainly formal and also highly available. Additionally, the amount of competitors here are excessive. Stepping away from the assumption that only formal brands are highly available would provide the most proﬁtable segment. Therefore, inforDuring the conversation, it was found that avai- mal clothing with a high availability may include lability is a very important value when it comes to brands such as Steven Alan and Mango, but the purchasing a coat. That is also the reason why graph shows that there is certainly room for more this value came back twice in the segmentation as long as company values differ. graphs. Overall, the brands that have a more feminine-masculine (neutral) appeal have a higher Another interesting gap found is in the affordable availability. This is obvious because they try to versus youthful area. There is a big opportunity for appeal to a wide range of customers. Brands with a brand to start in this area, the most appealing a low availability are the ultra feminine and the part of this brand should be that it is affordable, ultra masculine brands. The reason that they seem and young people want to buy it. Of course there to have a low availability is that a lot of people are brands such as H&M that are very youthful but are not aware of the different selling points of the- in our research it was concluded that young peose brands. Something that is not commonly known ple still see the brand as averagely priced. This is is that one can easily purchase their clothing in mostly thanks to their branding; their images look department stores or online shops. Therefore, in way more expensive than they really are, which order to make ultra feminine and ultra masculine can occasionally intimidate the public. With some clothing highly available it is vital to ﬁrst create creative branding we are sure we can ﬁll this gap awareness of all the different selling points of with an remarkable concept. brands. What makes a brand beautiful is the experience it gives to the customers. Keeping this in mind, the research was based on the consumer’s point of view. One of the most important questions to ask the public is what they ﬁnd to be the most important aspects when purchasing a coat. The survey was based on the values gained from the conversations had with customers.
Traditionally, a parka is a knee-length coat with a fur-lined hood, stuffed with warm down feathers or synthetic ﬁbres. This coat, which is quite similar to the anorak, which was originally invented by the Inuit of the Arctic region, who needed it to protect them from the cold and wetness. The fur lining around the hood served to protect the face from the weather. In the 1950’s however, a new version of the parka was developed in the United States, for military purposes. The coat was made especially for the soldiers stationed in extremely cold areas. In the 60’s, the parka also became available for the civilian market. In the United Kingdom it even became a symbol of the mod subculture, because of its practicality while driving their signature vehicle, the scooter, and cheapness (it was widely available in army surplus shops). Moreover, it became popular in the United States, but in the late 80’s it was commonly associated with geeks hence it became unfashionable. However, from the mid-90’s onwards, it gained popularity
again, being associated with the grunge culture, and it has been in fashion ever since. Even though it still resembles the ﬁrst military parkas, technological innovation has given today’s parkas the same, or even better protection from the weather, while making them more comfortable and lightweight. This chapter is based on the division in the parka market nowadays. There are two main types of consumers. Firstly, there are the consumers who want the parka for its original purpose: to protect them from the extreme weather circumstances when they go out. These people prefer durable coats, as functionality is a lot more important than trends and therefore they would generally spend more on a parka. Secondly, there is a larger group of customers who want a parka coat mainly because of its look and when it is in fashion. They look for a more affordable version. However, in this segment there are still exceptions - those who want good quality fashion, but for a different purpose.
‘Atelier de Production et de Creation’, A.P.C., is a French ready-to-wear brand, known for its minimalistic designs. At ﬁrst the brand’s distribution was exclusive, but nowadays A.P.C. shops can be found in several big cities around the world. The brand incorporates the characteristics of military garments in its clothing and uses a lot of stiff materials in its collection, for example denim. The brand focuses on a lot of aspects at the same time such as fashionability, quality, comfort and functionality. Its clothing is authentic and fashionable at the same time. The customers of the brand demand both fashionable and functional clothing. The brand is popular amongst trendy people who can afford to spend more for a higher quality. Price: €300 - €400.
The brand Bench is known for its young and athletic image. It was founded in the 1980’s. The brand’s inspiration comes from the streets, originally from the real streets of Manchester. Bench is a lifestyle brand for the active, young generation that lives in the now. The brand stands out with its fresh advertising and its distinctive look. It has a broad range of tools to communicate with its customers. The Internet and social media are two of the most important means, in addition to the television and print campaigns. The main factors of communication are the clothes themselves as they are worn by the younger skater-generation. The brand uses its logo as a print on for example t-shirts so that other people recognise it and connect it to the hip and sportive lifestyle. In other words, the target group itself is utilised to communicate the brand‘s image. The target group consists of younger girls and boys and teenagers, but also of people interested in the earlier mentioned lifestyle. Since Bench doesn’t just sell clothes, but a lifestyle, Bench ﬁnds its costumers also in the people that want to be hip and up to date in their daily lives. Bench is available at the brand’s own shops, multi-brand shops and online. Price: €100 - €200
C&A stands for Clemens & August, the two founders of this Dutch company. Founded in 1861 and became popular in the beginning of the 20th century. From 1911 onwards, the company expanded abroad and nowadays it has over 1500 stores in Europe. It sells its goods (womenswear, menswear, childrenswear, underwear and accessories) in monobrand stores, in its own online shop and in other online shops. In the Netherlands, C&A is the market leader on the retail clothing market. This is thanks to its strategy and broad target group. The company’s low prices create a broad potential market, making it affordable for everyone. Moreover, the company has different brands within it (like Yessica and Your Sixth Sense), which appeal to different age groups and thus further broadens its customer base. C&A’s strategy is to sell cheap clothes from stores with good locations (in city centres), aiming for high sales. In the past few years, C&A has tried to improve the quality of its clothing (and thereby raising its prices slightly) to get rid of its negative image. Unfortunately, although C&A wants to be seen as a company providing fashionable items of reasonable quality for a very good price, the customer has a different view of the store: they don’t expect too much of the quality and they don’t consider the styles really fashionable. Also collaborations with celebrities have not been able to boost C&A’s image. Price: €25 - €70
Camel Active is a German lifestyle brand for men that was established in the 1970’s. Their collection is always inspired by other cultures such as Yogykarta, Borobudur, Jakarta, and Kalong. The target group is a man between the age of 20 to 50 years old. This lyfestyle brand has its own stores and is also sold in multi-brand stores. Camel Active has 250 stores and 1.535 shop-in-shops in more than 50 different countries. Their products including shoes and watches, are also available through online-shops. Purchasing the collection on the ofﬁcial Camel Active website is not possible. Camel Active promotes its products through advertisements in magazines and campaigns. Price: €300-€350,-
Canada Goose Since 1957 Canada Goose has produced high-performance outerwear, originally developed for cold winters in Canada. Now the brand is recognized by consumers as the leading manufacturer of extreme weather outerwear in the world. With its production in Toronto, Canada Goose offers a broad range of products to the world such as men‘s and women’s wear, clothing for kids and outdoor accessories. Canada Goose’s priority is very clear: it wants to provide high quality for a high price, which means the target group is willing to pay for durable, arctic parkas with a focus on fashion. The target group consists of people from many different ages, with an interest in outdoor activities. They need the best protection in very cold surroundings from Alaska to Europe over to the South Pole. The communication of the brand is strong, focussed on outdoors and protection combined with fashion. Outdoor magazines and high fashion magazines like GQ feature Canada Goose. The company’s image is also strongly communicated on their website. With „Goose People“ (website) it tries to get people to identify with the brand: it displays people that do extreme winter sports and succeed in Canada Goose parkas. The brand’s exclusivity is made clear by its way of distribution. Online shops like Mrporter.com and multi-brand stores such as Metz&Co offer the brand in Amsterdam. These shops stand for a very luxurious product, high price and quality. Price: €750 - €1000
Founded in 1993, Filippa K is one of the most successful Scandinavian fashion houses specialized in clean cut designs and simple ready to wear fashion. The brand started with the bare essentials, which allowed the wearer to combine the garments in their own style, while owning clothing of a high quality standard. This way of thinking and working is still present in the company today. Filippa K’s goal is to create designs that are pure and modern which give a personal, minimalistic and timeless look. This is all available for an affordable price and the consumer certainly receives value for their money. Filippa K’s target group consists of consumers from the age of 25 to 45. The target group has a high disposable income. In terms of promotion and communication, Filippa K uses advertisements in fashion magazines, billboards and ad campaigns. Alongside this, the brand makes appearances in fashion shows. The distribution of the brand goes through mono-brand and multi-brand stores. Price: € 350 - € 450
Fjällräven is a Swedish company, founded in 1960. It produces a wide range of outdoor equipment, but the main focus is on outdoor clothing. Its original product, a backpack with an external frame, made the brand popular in less than a decade. The company expanded and after only a few years the ﬁrst coat was developed, inspired by and made from the same fabric as a tent. Fjällräven’s goal was, and still is: providing comfortable, durable clothing of great quality and constantly innovating on a technical ﬁeld to make clothing that protects the customers from extreme outdoor circumstances, while being as comfortable as possible. Fjällräven wants its customers to know that with their clothing, they can go out and enjoy spending time in nature, regardless of the weather conditions. Fjällräven’s target group consists of people of different ages (the company produces both menswear and womenswear), but with a reasonable income and most importantly an interest in outdoor activities. This means Fjällräven does not focus on fashionability too much, as its target group ﬁnds functionality really important. This is also why Fjällräven does not really advertise in mainstream fashion magazines; one is more likely to ﬁnd its advertisements in sports magazines. Another big part of Fjällräven’s promotion comes from its website and a special event the brand organises every year: The Fjällräven Classic, an annual trekking competition. Fjällräven clothing is available in monobrand and multibrand stores, as well as in multiple online shops. Price: €300 - €400 95
Jack Wolfskin The brand was founded in 1981 in Frankfurt, Germany. Today the headquarter is located in Idstein, near Frankfurt. The image of the brand is built up with protection being the core value. It is an outdoor brand and thus the image is focused on an active outdoor life and sportive adventures all around the world. This implements the brand‘s slogan: „Feel home outside.” As the brand is marketed as an outdoor brand most of the advertisements are found outside on billboards but also in magazines and on television. The trademark of Jack Wolfskin is a paw, which can be found on all their apparel. The target group is very broad as Jack Wolfskin produces apparel that is protective against rain, cold and wind but still focuses on current trends. Jack Wolfskin is available at their own stores, multi-brand stores and online. Price: €200 - €400
Khujo was founded in 1996 by Tobias Schröder in Hamburg, Germany. He had a simple vision for his brand; coats inspired by the style of the movies in the 70’s.Nowadays the focus is still on jackets and coats but the assortment also includes tops, trousers and accessories. The apparel is produced with attention to details and function without losing the character and the main idea. The brand calls itself a Guerillabrand since it’s gained its popularity by word-of-mouth advertising. Today the brand also advertises in magazines. The brand’s target group is quite broad since the style can be worn by a variety of people. The main customers however are teenagers and younger men and women who appreciate the high quality of the Khujo apparel. Examples of this are the detailing with lots of pockets, fur trimmings, adjustable waist bands and good insulation in the winter wear. Khujo clothes are available at several online shops and at multi-brand stores. Price: €100 - €200
Founded in 1853, Levi’s is the leading jeans wear fashion company in the world. The brand started with a few basic garments such as t-shirts and jeans, which now have grown into being the most recognizable and imitated clothing in the apparel world. Levi’s goal is to create designs that express the effortlessly classic American style. Levi’s target group has a broad range of consumers from the age of 20 to 55. The target customer has an income that is above average and is interested in sailing. As promotion Levi’s uses advertisements in fashion magazines, billboards and ad campaigns. Next to that they have fashion shows, sponsor events and donate to charities. The distribution of the clothing goes through mono-brand and multi-brand stores, as well as in multiple online shops. Price: € 150 - € 300
Founded in Istanbul in 1991, Mavi Jeans is a brand that designs a full collection of jeans wear and accessories, for young men and women. Mavi’s goal is to build a brand around the creation of the perfectly tailored blue jeans. These jeans are meant to give a Mediterranean feel combined with a high standard of quality. This is the ﬁrst Turkish brand to become recognized world-wide, and is now the leading jeans wear brand in Turkey for the past twelve year. To this day, Mavi sells its collection in mono-brand stores, multi-brand stores and department stores in over 50 countries. Mavi has 192 retail stores around the world, as well as an online-store. Mavi’s target group are women and men between the age of 25 to 45 in the middle to high-income consumer segment. In 2006, Time Magazine placed Mavi amongst the top 16 best jeans wear brands worldwide. Mavi also has its own magazine and places advertisements in magazines and billboards. Price: €150-€200,-
Parajumpers Parajumpers was founded in 2005 as a sub-brand for the brand Ape and Partners, which was founded in1963. The brand‘s image is all about functionality. It promotes its apparel for its high quality and technological innovations. It is very important for the brand to create something unique and trend-related every season. The brand‘s name is part of the image as it refers to parajumping, where high quality and durability are the most important factors. This is also true for the brand’s apparel. The brand uses a special closure on their jackets which is related to parajumping. This is an important factor in the brand’s communication with the costumer. The consumer who buys a Parajumpers coat does not only buy a high-end coat but also the image of the brand; an active and sportive lifestyle. From the price levels of the coats is clear that the consumer buys a coat to last for several seasons, and he/she belongs to a well-earning part of society. Parajumpers is available online or in multi-brand stores. Price: €250 - €600
Stella McCartney Stella McCartney can be described as a mixture of sharp tailoring, minimalism, natural conﬁdence and sexy, cool femininity. Stella McCartney enjoys a unique positioning as a modern, lifestyle, designer brand characterized by functional & eco friendly fashion. Ethical values lie at the heart of the brand’s identity. Stella McCartney is a high end ready-to-wear line. The collection also includes accessories, lingerie, eyewear, fragrance, organic skin care products and a children’s line. The Stella McCartney target group consists of cool and conﬁdent women who are not afraid to embrace simplicity and are interested in the ethical values that lie in the heart of the brand’s identity. The Stella McCartney ready-to-wear line is quite expensive and is mostly bought by young successful business women that range from their 20’s to mid-30’s. Ethical values are communicated through the entire product range, from organic products to non-leather shoes and accessories. The image of the brand lies in its ability to create green clothes. In ad campaigns elements that somehow refer to green fashion or the environment can certainly be found. The Stella McCartney collection is distributed over 50 countries worldwide and is sold throughout mono-brand, multi-brand and department stores, and through their own online store and high end online stores such as Net-A-Porter and My Wardrobe. Price: €200 - €2000
‘’ Casual Fashion for a casual life’’ is Tom Railor’s motto. Tom Tailor is a fashion company specialized in casual wear for men, women, teenagers and children in the middle-income consumer segment and was founded in 1962. Tom Tailor has ﬁve different product lines: Women Casual, Men Casual, Kids, Minis, Baby, Denim Male and Denim Female. In its twelve collections, Tom Tailor also launches accessories and they use elements such as seasonal colours and natural trends. Tom Tailor advertises in magazines and billboards for clothing and for fragrances. With 158 stores, an online shop, 175 franchise stores, 1441 shop-in-shops, more than 6000 multibrand stores, Tom Tailor is a company with a long track record and is consistently expanding. As of 31st December 2010, Tom Tailor opened stores in 35 countries and has a long track record. Price: €100- €150
The north face Recognized worldwide on all mountaintops and in deep valleys, the North Face produces functional and durable outdoor wear that is made with high standards. The brand focuses on a consumer that participates in outdoor sports such as hiking and mountain climbing. The company organizes camps and festivals for enthusiastic consumers such as The North Face® Snow Safety Camps and UK Banff Mountain Film Festival. This matches with their motto, which is: “Go outdoor and participate in our events.” The brand is known for the wide assortment of equipment it sells. Along with outdoor jackets and hiking boots it also sells a total base camp collection. The availability of stories written by exploring customers gives the consumer the feeling of enthusiasm to go out and participate in an outdoor sport. The brand does not only create outerwear for men and women, but also for children. By its wide range of shops, varying from online shops to mono-brand and multi-brand shops, the North Face is a widely recognized and easy to buy brand. The North Face is for those who pay attention to functionality, durability and affordability. Price: €200 - €300.
VERO MODA was one of the ﬁrst brands created by Bestseller A/S, a clothing company based in Denmark and one of the largest fashion companies in Europe. Bestseller also created brands like VILA, Jack & Jones, ONLY and Pieces. It has stores all over the world but has an extremely strong position in the Scandinavian market, where it has most of its stores. VERO MODA clothing is sold in monobrand stores, but also in stores that combine multiple Bestseller-brands and other multibrand stores. Apart from that, Bestseller has its own online store, and VERO MODA is also sold in other online stores. VERO MODA’s strategy is to be as efﬁcient as possible, so that it can ensure the customer value for money, fashion and innovation. The company focuses on growth by conquering new markets and investing in the current markets. It has big billboards, a detailed website and its own magazine for promotion. VERO MODA says their target group is ‘young women’, but the brand is also quite popular with teenage girls, and as the brand is not too outspoken, it also appeals to some slightly older women. The customers see the quality as reasonable, especially when compared with the prices. They feel VERO MODA lives up to its aim of providing fashionable items, even though they are not too impressed with the company’s level of innovation. Price: €50 - €70
Vintage Industries The upcoming, Netherlands-based brand Vintage Industries’ image can be described as authentic and not trend-orientated. The brand uses the street as inspiration and then ﬁlters it down to the minimum, which is then combined with expert workmanship and quality materials. The brand describes its style as “less is more” for the streets. Their apparel is highly protective and made of high quality materials and ﬁnished without losing the rough look. Since the brand is still very small, advertisements are only to be found in magazines. The brand only manufactures clothing for men. Vintage Industries is available online or at multi-brand stores. Price: €80 - €150
After 180 years of traditional American fashion with a touch of Italian design, Woolrich still produces fashionable outdoor clothing and work wear for a challenging customer. The clothing company is an authentic brand that embraces the outdoor lifestyle. It operates with three different labels. The ﬁrst one is Woolrich - The Original Outdoor Clothing Company - founded in 1830. The second one is Woolrich Woolen Mills. It only produces men’s products, almost exclusively made in the USA. It is the most expensive, designer-driven line of the three. Woolrich John Rich & Bros is the third label. It produces men’s, women’s and children’s products and is not quite as exclusive in distribution as the Woolen Mills line, but still very fashion-driven and has higher prices than the outdoor label. The Woolrich brand is recognized worldwide, offering functional, comfortable and durable men‘s and women‘s clothing and outerwear. The brand uses innovative fabrics for a high performance and produces well-designed home and living products as well as accessories for the garden. The manufacturer of the iconic parkas is opening concept stores, using showrooms and even showing its collection at Mercedes Benz Fashion Week. In ad campaigns, printed media and online, Woolrich is clearly present. It even cooperates with online blogs to reach a younger generation. Its target group ranges from a young age up to the age of 60+, with a higher income, a personal preference for good quality and an interest in outdoor lifestyle. Woolrich is available in mono- and multi-brand stores as well as in its own and other online shops. Price: €200 - €600
Positive Brand Image
Fillipa K FrenchConnection
H&M Levi’s Topshop ASOS River Island Stella Mc Cartney High potential
Canada Goose A.P.C. Tommy Hilﬁger Parajumper Mavi
North Face Vero Moda Jack Wolfskin Medium Jack&Jones Tom Tailor potential Bench
Negative Brand Image
Gap in the market
For this graph we tried to ﬁgure out the essence of the brand in question: the awareness of the brand shown in “niche” or “mainstream”, and whether the consumer recognizes the brand image. Consumers were asked to indicate their personal relation to it and in general how familiar they are with the brands that sell parka coats. Thus, this graph focuses on how the consumer reacts to the brand and how the awareness affects the image. It additionally shows that a positive image mostly leads to a mainstream and successful brand.
This segmentation shows three main empty gaps that are indicated as “low potential” gaps. Any combination that includes a negative brand image is not an interesting nor lucrative value. A positive brand image known by very few consumers is a great starting point for a brand, but not a desired gap. The medium sized gap is also ranked as a “medium potential” gap. Positive image is of course what a brand tries to reach but the popularity is missing. A brand that is successful wants to be recognized worldwide, has a big range of customers and does not
want to play in any medium potential ﬁeld. Therefore, the smallest gap in the market is the desired market but also the most challenging market, due to the fact that the majority of the competitors are present within this section. It would be the most proﬁtable one and best for the brand image. High brand awareness and a very positive brand image leads to a successful company. This gap is perfect for the fashionable brands, which produces the parka with a huge focus on the fashionability aspect and not so much on functionality.
High potential Low potential
Stella McCartney FrenchConnection
River Island Jack&Jones ASOS C&A
Jack Wolfskin Levi’s Woolrich Fjällräven Tommy Hilﬁger Fillipa K Parajumper A.P.C. Vintage Industries Vero Moda Canada Goose Mavi Bench Camel Active Tom Tailor Khujo Topshop H&M
Gap in the market
With this graph we wanted to create an image of how the brands are seen for their quality and functionality. We think that in our society, no matter which garment we talk about, the quality aspect must be taken into account to grab the consumer’s interest for a particular brand. Especially for the parka, quality is a major value, since it is a garment that is bought for the winter. The functionality, in terms of the chosen materials but also the detailing on the parka (including pockets, hoods, linings and adjustability) is another important value. We found out that the client wants to be able to carry their belongings with them, without extra bags. Relevant factors to consider when purchasing a parka would be insulation, lining, and adjustable waistbands.
Evidently, most brands are located on a relatively high quality level, which is no surprise since a parka is a garment that needs to be a certain degree of quality. Likewise, as previously mentioned, functionality is a signiﬁcant value. This explains the huge gaps in the graph. We ﬁgured out that a low quality combined with no functionality is a gap in the market that proves as an undesirable position for a brand. There will be no customer that is interested in such a coat. Even if the overall quality of the garment was better, the functionality and thus the important values like insulation and detailing are still missing. A more desirable gap is located at a lower quality but a higher functionality. If the quality is low, the price also declines, but the essential functions can still be
provided. Therefore, this could be a parka for only one season. The gap with the highest potential is very high quality and medium functionality. With these speciﬁcations, a brand can provide a parka from very good material and ﬁnishing that provides the customer with a garment that can be worn for a very long time. The functions will be reduced to the necessary parts like the hood and adjustability.
Vero Moda C&A
Stella H&M McCartney ASOS FrenchTopshop Connection River Island Levi’s Fillipa K A.P.C. Khujo Woolrich Jack&Jones Tommy Hilﬁger Bench Para- Canada Goose Mavi Jumper Vintage Industries
North Face Jack Wolfskin
Camel Active Fjällräven
Gap in the market
In this graph, the fashionability of the chosen brands is compared with their levels of innovation. This is especially with regard to technical innovation, because parka coats are often still used for their original purpose. This is to offer protection in extreme outdoor circumstances, therefore technical improvements are constantly made to make the coats better and more comfortable. Putting fashionability on the other axis helps to see how the more outdoor-oriented brands try to incorporate a fashion aspect in their garments. Although the brands are more focussed on functionality, this is the consumer’s point of view.
As shown in the graph, almost all brands fall between medium and medium-high fashionability and innovation. Remarkably, none of the brands are really considered ‘timeless’, from which we can conclude that parkas are still seen as fashion items and not really as a classic coat, even though it has been broadly accepted since the beginning of the 21st century. The gap with the lowest potential is to be found in the ‘timeless’ area together with low innovation. For the parka coats to be seen as timeless is a positive factor for the brand. As it is a practical coat, and not often purchased for its looks but for its function, they would have to stand out through another ﬁeld, such as innovation. This way, they would be worth the money the customer invests. This is
because timeless coats, designed for outdoor sports, are usually bought for several seasons. This means that the high-potential area lies at the bottom right corner of the graph, where high innovation is combined with a timeless look. The medium-potential gap is to be found in the low-innovation and medium to high-fashionability area. As parkas are seen as fashion items, there is not really a need for technical innovation. That is because the typical parka coat customer is more likely to wear it in an urban atmosphere where the requirement for practical purposes and technical innovation is minimal. As a result, the price could be lowered and sales could be increased.
Conclusion From the three graphs can be concluded that customers do not really see the distinction in the market we described in the introduction: the difference between functionality-based brands and fashionability-based brands. So ďŹ rst of all a good advice for brands would be: choose one of these two options and make this extremely clear in the visual communication towards the customer. This because the biggest two groups of potential customers are either interested in one side, or in completely the other. Secondly, when zooming in more, a signiďŹ cant gap can be found in the combination of high quality and medium functionality or timeless design. This means that money otherwise spent on creative design or technical innovation can now be used to improve the quality of the coat and thereby to increase the durability. These coats would be timeless, so pretty basic, and good enough to last a few seasons, and there would be a reasonable de
mand for this kind of coat. Then there is the potential which focusses mainly on trends and a fashionable look. This would have to be combined with lower quality, so that the money otherwise used for expensive materials or other quality-related things would now be spent on creating a fashionable design. The low quality would not be a problem, for really trendy coats usually do not last more than one season, because they go out of fashion reasonably quickly. Lastly there lies great potential in the opposite of the previously described area: high quality combined with high technical innovation and a timeless design. This would be ideal for brands that focus on functional parkas especially made for outdoor activities. High innovation levels would provide high quality, durability and comfort, and the timeless look would enable the coats last multiple years.
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