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STUDIO AIR JOURNAL

2015, SEMESTER 1, CHRISTOPHER DUNKLEY


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CONTENTS 1

INTRODUCTION

PART A: CONCEPTUALISATION

pg sec content

by CHRISTOPHER DUNKLEY 2015 ALESSANDRO LIUTI tutor

II

CONCEPTUALISATION

4 4 5-8 9-10

A1.0 DESIGN FUTURING a1.1 DISCUSSION A1.2 precedent project 1 - Spanish pavilion A1.3 precedent project 2 - one main street

12 12 13-14 15-16

A2.0 DESIGN COMPUTATION A2.1 DISCUSSION A2.2 precedent project 1 - serpentine pavilion A2.3 precedent project 2 - gantenbein vineyard

18 18 19-20 21-22

A3.0 COMPOSITION / GENERATION A3.1 DISCUSSION A3.2 precedent project 1 - barcelona fish A3.3 precedent project 2 - the absolute towers

23 24 25-26 27-31

A4.0 CONCLUSION A5.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES A6.0 APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES - References

PART B: CRITERIA DESIGN

33-34 35 36

B1.0 RESEARCH FIELD B1.1 PRECEDENT PROJECT 1 B1.2 PRECEDENT PROJECT 2 B1.3 PRECEDENT PROJECT 3 -

37-38 39-42 43

B2.0 B2.1 B2.2

44 45-46

B3.0 CASE STUDY 2 - Munich olympic stadium B3.1 reverse engineer design

47-50 51 52

B4.0 B4.1 B4.2

CASE STUDY 1 - GREEN LAVA void DESIGN EXPERIMENTATION DESIGN Iterations

53-54

B5.0

TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES

55-56 57-58

B6.0 TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL- site context B6.1 design : PROPOSAL - site context

59

B7.0 LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES

60 61-62

B8.0 APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES - References

63 PART C: DETAILED DESIGN 64 C1.0 DESIGN CONCEPT - Reviewed Feedback 65 C1.1 Precedent Project 1 - Palais de tokyo 66 C1.2 Precedent Project 2 - madness is part of life 67 C1.3 Digital construction process 68 C1.4 physical construction process 69-70 71-72 73-74

C2.0 PROTOTYPES - joinery & structure C2.1 techtonic elements & prototypes C2.2 prototypes

75-76 77-78 79-80 81

C3.0 FINAL DETAIL MODEL C3.1 FINAL digital model C4.0 LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES - References

TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT TECHNIQUE: Disscusion TECHNIQUE: SELECTION CRITERIA

CONCEPTUALISATION III


Introduction

Hi,

my name is Christopher Dunkley I am currently a third year student studying Bachelor of Environments at the University of Melbourne. Currently, I am also working as a draftsman at Rudds Engineering to fur ther extend my exper tise in the building industr y while studying.

Fig.1 REVIT PROJECT OF 2013

Fig.2 REVIT PROJECT BOAT HOUSE

I was born and raised in Canberra, Australia where I attained an Advanced Diploma of Building Design at the Canberra Institute of Technology (CIT) in 2013. Through this study as well as others I am capable in many drafting and 3D modelling soft wears such as Auto CAD, Revit, ArchiCAD, Vectorworks and others. This has allowed me to be involved in some of my ver y first building design plans with small scale projects. Digital Architecture is something that is new for me to be learning. I am not completely familiar with Rhino and it is my first time using Grasshopper however I am hoping my previous skills and quick learning will help me to overcome the challenges and learn to take full advantage of digital designing.

Fig.3 REVIT PROJECT BOAT HOUSE- COURT YARD

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CONCEPTUALISATION

CONCEPTUALISATION 2


A1.0 Design Futuring

Part A Conceptualisation

A1.1 Discussion

D

esign has always been an on going, transforming tool for man-kind and helping us shaping our perfect world, however is it time for us to re-invent our way thinking and bring in the new era of tools for our world? Tony Fr y’s book, ‘Design futuring sustainability, ethics and new practice’ suggest that design must be changed in order to overcome the issues of global warming and create not only a sustainable future for our natural environment, but also for our biodiversity and wellbeing (1). To achieve this there needs to be a push to advance the design and development of constructional products, not only the way in which they are constructed, but also by creating interdisciplinar y solutions. Suggested by Fr y is the idea of design intelligence, which he believes can be the solution, and from that potential, the design style of the current era (2). This can bring great advantage towards future design by creating ground breaking solutions to the current problems, or limitations of design. As well as this, the idea of design intelligence can allow designers to take a fur ther leap into research, experimentation and advancement towards securing human advancement and sur vival. To fur ther this, I have offered two built projects that that in some ways reflects the purpose of what is preached in this discussion and show potential in design intelligence.

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A1.2 Precedent Project 1

The Spanish Pavilion Bendetta Tagilabue, Miralles Tagliabue Architects 2010

Fig.5 mATERIAL WICKER PANELS Fig.4 SPANISH PAVILION

Fig.6 INTERNAL VIEW LOBBY AREA

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he Spanish Pavilion project is one of the most striking architectural designs in my opinion. There is no one spot where the eye is focused to directly but rather draws the eye to capture the design as a ‘whole’ object. This design has been set to focus on the idea of the future and moving towards a low and high tech combined process of building as well as looking at sustainable applications(3). It draws on the idea of studying the old traditional methods of Spanish basket making and applies them to a modern, new, creative building form through computational design to allow the structure and form to be a reality. By this concept the design actually won the prize for the top future project at the world architecture festival in 2010. Tagliabue has created the design from using a simple and sustainable material called wicker, a type of willow wood, and forms them into woven panels that then clad the steel structural frame and shape of the building. This technique aims to bridge both traditional eras of design as well as connections between the involved countries, Spain (the designer), Germany (the producer) and China (the host) and many others which give connection between all (4).

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CONCEPTUALISATION

With the steel frame acting as the bones of the design Tagialbue used the wicker panels not only as an international, traditional and sustainable design style, but also to allow great flexibility and creativity on which to make the vir tual/ digital drawing designs become an easy-to-build reality while also having a lighter impact in material use and embodied energy (5).

These ideas behind the pavilion has allowed the design to be appreciated well into the future by capturing the theme of traditional culture, something that has always been appreciated world-wide, and allowing to form into modern sustainable design.

CONCEPTUALISATION 6


FIg.7 SPANISH PAVILION ROOF DESIGN night


One Main Street

A1.3 Precedent Project 2

Mark Goulthorpe, dECOi Architects 2010

This

Architectural design tends to focus more on the interior designing, however is still ver y successful in expressing and promoting the exploration of design intelligence and computational architecture. The architect, Mark Goulthorpe of dECOi Architects is a par t of a small company that is highly focused towards new design technologies and strategies. As well as this he is also a teacher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) where he spends a lot of time in small scale projects that redefine todays common materials e.g. the Hypersurface wall (a physically dynamic wall structure)(6). The design of One Main Street offers an aesthetic customised fabrication of a space digitally created and cut from using a sustainable and carbonabsorbing raw material; which is translated efficiently into refined and functional elements via dexterous lowenergy digital tooling (7). This highly efficient way of designing allows digital design to be fur ther promoted as a future resource by exampling the benefits of eco-friendly solutions as well as low embodied energy methods.

Fig.8 WOODEN FURNITURE IN DESIGN

Fur thermore the space not only consisted of ply wood design in the walls, roof and floor but also in the furniture and accessories apar t from windows. All the designs are produced from a 3D numeric command milling machine that adds to ergonomic function and comfor t based from computer design (8). This digital and milling process creates almost no waste in timber offcuts and amazingly built the project in as little as 1200 planks (9). The vents between the wood allow for continuous air flow for the office work space, while also par tially covering up the building ser vices. This example shows a small but ver y impressive step towards future design and possibilities.

Fig.10 WINDOW MATERIAL & COLUMN DESIGN

Fig.9 RECEPTION AREA OF OFFICE- NOTE ROOF

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A2.0 Design Computation A2.1 Discussion D

esign has been a continually adapting process to over-come problems and to provide the most efficient solutions to the requirements of a brief or client. This process, as out lined by Kalay in Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of ComputerAided Design, was a style that was first relevant for the occupation of an architect in the 1400s where-by efficient problem solving, analysing, synthesising, evaluation and communication was need to design a strategy that provided the most effective solution (10). Today this design process now has not only the coordination of architects but also tools to aid architects, engineers, designers and other involved disciplines to reach dynamic solutions in a more sustainable and reliable process. Design computation is becoming a major asset towards design by re-defining a new form of design logic through approaches such as parametric designing, which allows a variation of outcomes to be created depending on pre-developed values of geometric relations (11). This allows designers to create a variety of solutions from one vir tual design, therefor allowing greater capabilities in scales, elements, materials and structure, in a more creative ethic. Computing for design has also allowed for designers more recently (last 30 years) to be capable in creating biological forms as well as fractal design concepts, which was of great interest for leading designers such as Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright (12). Computation design can expand and explore, what were then, un-creatable geometries such as morphological simulations.

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More recently, in the early 2000s, computational design allowed fur ther styles to be born. Many European and Asian design and research companies explored the effor ts of computational geometr y which lead to the creation of design environments in which form is driven by performance (13). This process was done through the ability to model and research into material systems and structural design that created greater results toward sustainable design solutions. Computation can be the solution towards future designing to overcome the problems, from project brief specifications to globally effected problems (global warming). The tools computers offer for designing can create greater understanding for multiple involved disciplines through the innovations of BIM soft wear by creating a vir tual product that can be understood and added to by all (14).

Digital materiality created within computer design also contributes to evidence and performance based designing methods by allowing new vir tual materials to not only be applied but also researched and tested on in a digital design. Fur thermore, vir tual designing has allowed greater efficiency for the design to go from the concept stage though to the built stage by application and fabrication technologies (15).

Provided are two examples that explore some of the many possibilities of computational design.

CONCEPTUALISATION 12


A2.2 Precedent Project 1

Serpentine Pavilion Toyo Ito & Cecil Balmond 2002

P

rior to the computational design era, structure and architectural form were considered separately. The initial design process was not always fulfilled and often compromised. In Toyo Ito’s Serpentine Pavilion, the design of the building was considered from all aspects (engineering, designing, building, occupancy) with the aid of computational design. This was achieved by both Toyo Ito (architect) and Cecil Balmond (structural engineer) when they coined the idea of creating a pavilion that does not por tray traditional structural methods. Instead the pair chose to integrate the structure into the design aesthetic by geometric reconfigurations of a square that was algorithmically repeated and offset continuously (16). The result provided both a pleasing design and an approved structural form. Not only this, but the design also uses the algorithmic structure to create a more organic and creative design rather than a harsh and heavy square look (17). The material elements of sporadic glass windows help to focus more on the natural aspects and surroundings in the building and help to provide context for the pavilion and its location in nature. Fig.11 DESIGN PROCESS, SQUARE REPEATED

Fig.13 DESIGN PROCESS APPLICATION

Fig.12 INTERNAL OF PAVILION, VIEW TO NATURE 13

CONCEPTUALISATION

Fig.14 SURPENTINE PAVILION

Fig.15 PAVILION, NO DIRCET COLUMN VISABLE CONCEPTUALISATION 14


Gantenbein Vineyard

A2.3 Precedent Project 2

Gramazio & Kohler of Bearth & Deplazes Architekten 2006

A

second example is shown in a more conser ved project, hidden up in the mountains of Switzerland. Designed by architects Gramazio & Kohler of Bear th & Deplazes Architekten, the Gantenbein Vineyard design takes a fur ther step than the previous example by applying the design to not only through digital computation but also fabrication technology. The original brief created was to design a wine fermentation room for processing grapes as well as storage and tasting. The specifications of these requirements meant that there was more consideration need towards not only sheltering the wine and those tasting, but also to allow precise treatment of the wine to the natural elements (18). With this in mind the design was digitally created to replicate a basket that, through digital simulation of gravitational effects, por trayed the look of various sized grapes falling into a basket (19). The digital computation that created this theme had also worked out the angles on which to place each individual brick (20,000 in total) so as to allow precise dappled sunlight and required amounts of air flow into the building. Once simulated the computational design was scripted into robotic fabrication lab at ETH Zürich were a robotic brick layer would place each brick precisely in the correct position, the design was considered to be too impossible and/or expensive to do via manual labour (20). The end result created a ver y rare brick design that shows and works perfectly in terms of aesthetics, building requirements, costs and timeframe and provides a look of natural contexts through the ‘basket look’.

Fig.16 INTERNAL VIEW, SHOWING DAPELLED LIGHT

Fig.18 EXTRENAL, NOTE WINE GRAPES ON WALL

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CONCEPTUALISATION

Fig.17 BRICK STACKING FROM COMPUTATION

Fig.19 DIGITAL DESIGN SIMULATION

This design shows how computational design can explore and solve design problems from initial concepts and building requirements through to fabrication and natural aesthetic.

Fig.20 INTERNAL DESIGN LAYOUT, NOTE EACH BRICK ANGLE DIFFERENCE

CONCEPTUALISATION 16


A3.0

Composition/ Generation

A3.1 Discussion The

shift from composition to generation is a necessar y shift that all designers must adopt. If a designer is not up-to-date (broadly) then they will not be able to systematically interact with resources, other designers (engineers) or be able to produce the trending designs of the modern times. Digital design was first brought into architecture in the 1980s through Computer Aided Design (CAD) (21). From there generational design has brought in capabilities such as parametric modelling, algorithmic design, 3D printing and fabrication technologies and much more. The capabilities of parametric design emerged fur ther in the late 1990-00s where the logic of parametric design was in the values of parameters between different forms, allowing the boundaries to be variable (22) From this growing shift of digital design, architectural focus was towards “procedural design and scripting and away from compositional and representational theorizing” (23), which gave many benefits to design researching.

The shift towards the new age of design has had many positive adoptions and critical judgments over its lifetime. Originally, and like most things related to technology, it took time for the industr y to completely accept digital generation as the way of design, however even still today there are architects who don’t use computer design, such as Santiago Calatrava and Herman Her tzberger (24) as well as a few I personally know. At the star t of the digital era architects such as these often questioned if CAD actually limits the design oppor tunity and dulls it down to a well-documented but non creative design (25). CAD has been suggested, even recently to have a restraint to a designer’s imagination through rationalistic determinism and quantitative design (26).

By the time that computers were actually affordable to have a personal computer (PC) there was a wider variety of digital design tools available to architects. Although the question of whether these tools added or subtracted to the creativity of designers was still a question being asked, it allowed a connection between a rivalled engineer and architect to work collaboratively using parametric models rather than having to create one (through a back and forward process) known as Building Information and Modelling (BIM) (27). Fur thermore digital design has led to allow designers to do much more than just creativity; designers are now able to experiment with materials, environments and structural techniques to simulate the response to a question or problem, thus forming ‘computation’ (28).

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CONCEPTUALISATION 18


A3.2 Precedent Project 1

Barcelona Fish Frank Gehry 1992

F

rank Gehr y’s Barcelona fish is an iconic landmark in Barcelona’s seafront, built for the 1992 Olympic games. Made out of a perforated, gold tinted stainless steel form, it is one of Gehr y’s most favoured designs throughout his carrier (29). It is also one of his first designs that was created though use of computer design and fabrication, when the digital world was star ting to have an influence on early designers (30). Through his firm’s research they were able to create the design through computer aided three-dimensional interactive application (CATIA) and then process the fabrication straight out of the 3D model (31). This is a great example of one of the first designs to ever undergo a complete digital process and was thereafter seen as an iconic inspiration towards the potential creativity within the generational process.

Fig.21 FISH FROM FRANK GEHRY

Fig.22 MATERIAL OF PERFORATED STEEL

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Fig.23 DIGITAL DESIGN AND FABRICATION PROCESS

CONCEPTUALISATION 20


A3.3 Precedent Project 2

The Absolute Towers MAD Architects 2012

The

absolute towers are a recently completed project by MAD architects in 2012 that is a residential twin tower skyscraper complex. Recently it has won the best tall building Americas award 2012. The design of the towers is an algorithmic repetition of oval shapes that are offset at cer tain degrees continuously so as to allow all residents a different view of the city (32). The design was heavily controversial in terms of it structural performance however with the help of engineering and digital technologies and simulation the design was approved for the city and was such a success that the designers built a second one that runs parallel to the original tower, however has slight differences in terms of materials, rotation and height (33). These towers show an example of how the digital design today can be used to take creativity and structural performance fur ther beyond what has previously been done, giving great confidence towards this shift from composition to generation. Fig.26 THE ABSOLUTE TOWERS

Fig.24 ABSOLUTE TOWERS CREATED IN GRASSHOPPER

Fig.25 EACH OVAL FLOOR OFFSET & REPEATED 21

CONCEPTUALISATION

Fig.27 COMPUTATION PROCESS TO ACHIVE DESIGN CONCEPTUALISATION 22


A4.0 Conclusion

People

often think of architects as the person that adds the creative detail to a building, which is by all means true, however not limited to. An architect is a person who must understand the principal functions of a building whilst integrating a form that creatively suits, in other words create the function over the form. An architect must also do this whilst understanding the boundaries of the client’s needs and costs, whilst thinking about the materials, the ergonomic layout and the environment in which the building is set. An architect must think and work with others to solve issues of structure and building associated compliance standards. They should aim to create an example for the future to step forward in terms of sustainability and wellbeing in design. They should evoke creative stimulation with design.

A5.0

Learning Outcomes

The

knowledge gained from the past few research topics has given me a concise introduction to the world of computation. I believe that this design style is a completely new way of thinking and creating to that of traditional methods, which is ver y promising aspect that design could lead towards. Previously I wouldn’t have known much, if any, of the terminology and practical skills that we have covered recently and I feel with fur ther exploring and knowledge the topic will star t to make more sense. I would have enjoyed applying the skills and knowledge gained into my previous works, par ticularly the studies and studio modelling classes focusing on Toy Ito and Kazuyo Sejima, because of their focus and appreciation towards algorithmic design and computational methods.

Design computation is an invaluable resource that helps provide all of these answers in some way. Through the research shown it is clear that parametric designing can lead to new ideas of creativity; algorithmic modelling and scripting can produce quick and cost saving outputs to fabrication methods or environmental problems. Over the last few decades’ digital design has influenced many designers into a new style of creativity, although controversial at first it is clear that the digital design capabilities allow the greater role of the architect to be at its full potential. All of these tools are not a step back but a step forward into the new age of design and possibly the new architect.

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A6.0 Appendix

Over

the past few weeks learning this brand new program of grasshopper has been ver y heavey and intense with wrapping your head around the basic functions. I feel after a few weeks I have a beginers understanding of the interface and tools, however I am ver y much still learning exactly what all the tools mean and do. I am ver y much looking forward to exploring the options in grasshopper for my design and keen to see the result. The binging works I have completed in my sketchbook have helped me to understand the basic creations used to make forms in grasshopper, which I can see how it might relate to some of the precedent projects that have been studied in this journal. It is clearer how materials can be formulated or how structrual desgins can be made to be applied to a building or researched fur ther through simulation. My examples shown, I think show my varetiy of what I have learnt ofver the last few weeks

Week 1

25

Week 2

Week 3

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References - Text

References - Text

(1) Tony Fry, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and new practice (New York, Berg, 2009), P. 4

(14) Brady Peters, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design (UK, John Wiley & Sons, 2013) 83, 2, pp. 08-15 (p.14).

(2) Ibid, P. 12

(15) Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds, Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge, 2014), p.5

(3) Rodolphe el- Khoury and Andrew Payne, States of Architecture in the twenty-first century (UK, Thames & Hudson Ltd, 2010), p.51 (4) Architype, Spanish pavilion (Unknown location, Architype, 2015) <http:// architype.org/project/spanish-pavilion/?issue_id=684#> [accessed on 8 March] (5) Vania, Braided marble by Benedetta Tagliabue and Decormarmi fo Marmomacc (Unknown location, Interior line, Sept 2014) < http://interiorzine.com/2014/09/25/braidedmarble-by-benedetta-tagliabue-and-decormarmi-for-marmomacc/> [accessed on 8 March]

(16) Giles Worsley, Opening up a box of delights (UK, The Telegraph, 2002) <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/art/3580220/Openingup-a-box-of-delights.html> [accessed on 11 March] (17) Balmond/studio, Serpentine Pavilion 2002 (UK, BAlmond/Studio, 2002) <http:// www.balmondstudio.com/work/serpentine-pavilion-2002/> [accessed on 17 March] (18) Gramazio Kohler Architects, Gantenbein Vineyard Facade, Fläsch, Switzerland, 2006

(6) Eric Markowsky, Rethinking Architecture (Massachusetts, MIT, July 2014) <http:// newsoffice.mit.edu/2014/re-thinking-architecture> [accessed on 8 March]

Non-Standardised Brick Façade (Zurich, Gramazio Kohler Architects, year unknown) <http://www.gramaziokohler.com/web/e/bauten/52.html> [accessed 18 March]

(7) dECOi Architects, One Main Street, dECOi Architects (2008-09) http://tomorrowawards. com/uploads_showcase_document/1347/1600.pdf [acessed on 10 March] (p.3).

(19) Gramazio Kohler Architects, Gantenbein winery by Gramazio & Kohler Architects (Zurich, Gramazio Kohler Architects 2009) <http://travelwithfrankgehry.blogspot.com. au/2009/05/gantenbein-winery-by-gramazio-kohler.html> [accessed 18 March]

(8) Ibid, P. 4

(20) Ibid

(9) Ibid, P. 34 (10) Kalay Yehuda, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004), p6 (11) Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds, Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge, 2014), p.3 (12) AIACC, Parametric Design: A brief history (California, AIACC.org, 2012) <http:// www.aiacc.org/2012/06/25/parametric-design-a-brief-history/> [accessed on 10 March]

21- Daniel Davis, A history of Parametric (New York, Daniel Davis, 2013) <http:// www.danieldavis.com/a-history-of-parametric/> [accessed on 19 March] 22- Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds, Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge, 2014), p.3 23- Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds, Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge, 2014), p.4

(13) Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds, Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge, 2014), p.4

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References - Text

References - Images

24 Bryan Lawson, CAD and Creativity: Does the computer really help? (England, White Rose University, 2002) <http://eprints.whiterose. ac.uk/1427/1/lawson.b1.pdf> [accessed on 19 March] p.327

Fig.1. Christopher Dunkley, Personal image reference

25- Bryan Lawson, CAD and Creativity: Does the computer really help? (England, White Rose University, 2002) <http://eprints.whiterose. ac.uk/1427/1/lawson.b1.pdf> [accessed on 19 March] p.329

Fig.3. Christopher Dunkley, Personal image reference

26- Kostas Terzidis, Algorithmic Architecture (UK Elseiver, 2006) p. 28 27 - Daniel Davis, A history of Parametric (New York, Daniel Davis, 2013) <http:// www.danieldavis.com/a-history-of-parametric/> [accessed on 19 March] 28 - Brady Peters, ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design (UK, John Wiley & Sons, 2013) 83, 2, pp. 08-15 (p.1) 29- Barcelona Low down, Frank Gehry’s golden fish sculpture (Barcelona, , Barcelona low done, 2014) <http://www.barcelonalowdown.com/ frank-gehrys-golden-fish-sculpture/> [accessed on 19 March] 30- Mimoa, Fish - Gehry Partners (Barcelona, MI_moa 2015) <http://www. mimoa.eu/projects/Spain/Barcelona/Fish> [accessed on 19 March]

Fig.2. Christopher Dunkley, Personal image reference

Fig.4. Zhonghai Shen / KDE, Spanish Pavilion, 2010, <http://architype. org/project/spanish-pavilion/?issue_id=684> [accessed 8 March] Fig.5. Aguirre Bujedo Iñigo, Shanghai Expo, 2010, <http://www.dezeen.com/2010/04/26/ spanish-pavilion-at-shanghai-expo-2010-by-embt/> [accessed 8 March] Fig.6. Vania, Interior view Spanish pavilion, 2010, <http://interiorzine. com/2014/09/25/braided-marble-by-benedetta-tagliabue-anddecormarmi-for-marmomacc/> [accessed 8 March] Fig.7. Design boom, Spanish Pavilion, 2010, <http://www.designboom.com/design/ benedetta-tagliabue-rattan-tina-chair-for-expormim/> [accessed 8 March] Fig.8. Crespin Raphael, Reception desk, 2010, < http://archinect.com/ raphaelcrespin/project/one-main-decoi-architects > [accessed 8 March]

31 - Ibid

Fig.9. Unknown, Office reception, 2010, <http://radlabinc. com/projects/one-main> [accessed 8 March]

32- Mathew Allen, An empathetic twist (Mississauga, Domus, 2012) <http://www. domusweb.it/en/architecture/2012/11/07/an-empathetic-twist.html> [accessed on 19 March]

Fig.10. Crespin Raphael, One main, 2010, <http://archinect.com/ raphaelcrespin/project/one-main-decoi-architects> [accessed 8 March]

33- Bas Lagendijk, Anthony Pignetti and Sergo Vacilotto, Absolute world towers, Mississauga (Mississauga, CTBUH, 2012) <http://www.ctbuh.org/LinkClick.as px?fileticket=C7pQ9leoTCc%3d&tabid=3840&language=en-US> p.14- 15

Fig.11. Balmond Cecil, Design process, 2013, <http://www.thearchitect.lk/2010/07/ creating-new-horizons-in-architecture-cecil-balmond/> [accessed 10 March] Fig.12. Deleu Sylvain, Serpentine Gallery Pavilion, 2002, <http:// www.archdaily.com/344319/serpentine-gallery-pavilion-2002toyo-ito-cecil-balmond-arup/> [accessed 10 March] Fig.13. Nataliealima, deep surface diagram explode, 2013, <http://www.iaacblog.com/ maa2013-2014-advanced-architecture-concepts/2013/11/toyo-ito/> [accessed 10 March] Fig.14. Balmond Studio, Serpentine Pavilion, 2002, <http://www.archello. com/en/project/serpentine-pavilion-2002#> [accessed 10 March]

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References - Images

Fig.15. Unknown, Serpentine Gallery Pavilion, 2002, <http://openbuildings.com/ buildings/serpentine-gallery-pavilion-2002-profile-45080> [accessed 10 March] Fig.16. Degn Andreas, Gantenbein Vineyard Façade, 2015, <https://www. pinterest.com/pin/325385141803751163/> [accessed 11 March] Fig.17. Gramazio & Kohler, baustelleohnegerust_DK_006, unknown, < http://www. archdaily.com/260612/winery-gantenbein-gramazio-kohler-bearth-deplazes-architekte n/501f4a8228ba0d0242000059_winery-gantenbein-gramazio-kohler-bearth-deplazesarchitekten_080701_036_innenaufnahmen_ralphfeiner_02_pr-jpg/ > [accessed 11 March] Fig.18. Gramazio & Kohler, Winery_010, 2009, http://travelwithfrankgehry.blogspot.com. au/2009/05/gantenbein-winery-by-gramazio-kohler.html [accessed 11 March] Fig.19. Gramazio & Kohler, Winery_014, 2009, http://travelwithfrankgehry.blogspot.com. au/2009/05/gantenbein-winery-by-gramazio-kohler.html [accessed 11 March] Fig.20. Gramazio & Kohler, Winery_011, 2009, http://travelwithfrankgehry.blogspot.com. au/2009/05/gantenbein-winery-by-gramazio-kohler.html [accessed 11 March] Fig.21. Shayan, The Frank Gehry fish and the Barcelona grand casino, Unknown, http:// www.everystockphoto.com/photo.php?imageId=2768227 [accessed 19 March] Fig.22. Unknown, Frank Gehry’s Fish, 2012, <http://been-seen.com/ travel-blog/animal-houses> [accessed 19 March] Fig.23. Mafana, Computer and built models for Gehry´s fish sculpture 1992 Barcelona, 1992, <https://mafana.wordpress.com/page/2/> [accessed 19 March] Fig.24. Lee Sid, Absolute tower, 2011, < http://www.grasshopper3d.com/ photo/absolute-tower-1?xg_source=activity> [accessed 19 March] Fig.25. Baan Iwan, Absolute towers, 2012, < http://www.archdaily.com/306566/ absolute-towers-mad-architects/50c8c96db3fc4b7062000009_absolute-towers-madarchitects_absolute_mad_1001_by_iwan_baan-jpg/> [accessed 19 March] Fig.26. Arban Tom & Lum Morris, Absolute towers, 2012, <http://www.domusweb.it/ en/architecture/2012/11/07/an-empathetic-twist.html> [accessed 19 March] Fig.27. Arban Tom, 306569, 2012, <http://www.archdaily.com/306566/ absolute-towers-mad-architects/> [accessed 19 March]

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B1.0 Research Field Geometry

Part B - Criteria Design

G

eometrical form is a process that has been described with architecture for centuries, however it is only recently that researchers and designers have been able to algorithmically pull apar t the parameters defining geometric form. Per vious to computational methods, humans often associated geometr y and form via words, gestures or detailed two-dimensional drawings (1). Today designers have the tools to explore the intrinsic proper ties of threedimensional objects through understanding the definitions that form the parameters of the shape, structure and eventually the materials or principals of the design.

Minimal Surface Fur thering from the idea of geometr y as a holistic topic, more specifically geometric form can have influences upon the material applications and surface structure. With this in mind it is beneficial to explore the outcomes of minimal surfaces within the design. Minimal surfaces are considered to be surfaces that span across a given set of points or cur vatures that form a result that applies the least amount of energy across that surface whilst still connecting to its original parameters (2). This provides benefits of design by exploring the possibilities of light weight design (as seen in B.3) or design solutions towards material performance and fabrication as well as allowing structural creativity.

Tension | Relaxation | Pneumatic structure Tension structure and relaxed form are techniques fur ther specified as a type of geometr y. They incorporate the use of components or anchors acting to hold the structure in tension rather than construction methods relating to ideas of compression (3). With the use both minimal surface intentions and structural proper ties of tensions or relaxations; I hope to achieve an outcome that benefits the site of Merri Creek with a connecting and sustainable design.

New FormFinding Methods_ Experiment 2.0 - AA 2011

Minimal Surface Pavilion Interdiscplinar y team 2011 33

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Khan Shatyr Enter tainment Center - Foster + Par tners 2010

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B1.1 Precedent Project 1

B1.2 Precedent Project 3

Serpentine Sockler Gallery

We Stopped Here Just at the Time

Zaha Hadid 2013

Ernesto Neto 2002 1 -

Tentlike poles

that allow light in.

The

Serpentine Sockler Galler y is a successful architectural project that combines the old and the new. Hadid's 21st centur y design is one of two par ts of the design, the other being a classical 19th centur y brick design, The new addition to the building is one the designers first permanent tensile structures that uses computational methods to create a tension sheltered, open space for a restaurant (4).

2 -

Extrenal view,

showing the cur ve form

The design encompasses the use of central tentlike columns that protrude to the roof surface structure, giving the surface a tensioned result whilst also providing a light well into the usable space. The design has an air y, light atmosphere about it due to this construction method as well as the use of glass fibre materials to create the tensioned roof surface membrane (5) of which forms an intention towards minimal surface design evident in the resulting form.

Another

interesting project that explores the use of minimal surface and tension is an ar t work by Brazilian ar tist Eresto Neto. This design is created from Lycra tulle netting which is then typically suspended and weighed down to give more 3-dimentaional volume (6). His ar t also takes a step fur ther by allowing people to do more than just look at the work, by allowing people to touch and even climb onto the structure. As well as this, he weighs the ar t works down with small bags of herbs and spices to let the viewer use more of their senses and smell the ar t before they see it (7). Using the minimal surface and tension design, this ar t work shows some of the creative outcomes that can appear from computational methods. Unlike the previous projects it is also interesting to note the different materials used here. This design shows great potential for the adaptability of these geometric fields.

4 -

Herbs weighing down the structure

This example shows how computational design, par ticularly focusing on tensile principals can create a project that is not only a temporar y or lightweight/ transpor table design but also a solid and permanent solution and can still inform the benefits of tensile form finding.

3 -

Light polls

hold tensile sur face

5 -

Overall

design in space

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B2.0 Case Study 1.0 Geometry Relaxation | Minimal Surface Green Void | LAVA 2008

Created

closer to home is the design of the Green void in the central atrium of Customs House in Sydney. The design is suspended to a height of 20 meters and covers 5 levels within the heritage building (8). The design is focused on exploring the use of minimal surfaces with the application of light weight Lycra material that totals to a weight of only 40kg (9). Using more from less in this way, the design applies a natural formation created un-explicitly through the result of computational explorations with basic geometr y that has under gone simulations of relaxations to create a mesh surface as seen in the result of the design.

Own compuational work - Green void 37

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This project is a fur ther exploration of the famous Munich Olympic Stadium by Frei Otto 1972, where the roofing was first experimented to create a tensile structure (10). This design takes these ideas to the next level in computational design through physics simulation programs in Grasshopper. Sustainability wise, this example shows how effective the minimal, light weight, relaxed surface can become an effective solution towards lowered fabrication processes and the use of recycled material. This example shows impor tant characteristics that would be beneficial towards the future design, through minimal surface design and tensions that create similar benefits as shown.

6 -

The Green Void by L AVA in atrium space CRITERIA DESIGN

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B2.1 Design Experimentation Geometry Green Void - Lava Species 2

Species 1 Iteration Iteration

Species 2 - Different geometries and mesh thickening (exoskeleton)

Species 1 - Process of changing the population of anchor points and mesh complexity

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B2.1 Design Experimentation Geometry Green Void - Lava Species 3

Species 4

Iteration

Iteration 5

1

Species 3 - Redefined anchorpoints from kangaroo physics.

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Species 4 - Redefined anchor-points exploring the addition of weaverbird & exoskeleton components for mesh surface possibilities.

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B3.0 Case Study 2.0

B2.2 Design Iterations

Munich Olympic Stadium Frei Otto 1972

T

Species 1.3

Species 3.3

Through

the developing exploration of the Green void, several species with sub-iterations were explored and studied. From the examinations 4 overall iterations show the methods used that could possibly be employed in future designs for the given site. Iteration 1.3 shows the possible outcomes of random points to create different geometrical forms. Iteration result form applying different cur vatures that can be give different results towards the stiffness and mesh

populated 2.7 shows a simulated to pattern.

Iteration 3.3 explored the effects of Kangaroo Physics through simulation processes and redefined anchor points. The final iteration 4.9 took a step fur ther with the Kangaroo components by also incorporating the use of material fabrication possibilities with weaverbird and exoskeleton components added to create different mesh methods that react depending on the joint complexity.

Species 2.7

Species 4.9

he one that with

Munich Olympic stadium, created by of the most prestigious architects is renowned for early experimentation tensile and minimal surfaces.

The stadium's roof design is formed from a total of nine 'saddle' shaped nets spaced in a square grid that cover most of the seating areas in the stadium. These surfaces are tensioned via steel anchors that are placed strategically around the surface to anchor them down to a tensile and minimal surface form (11). From this design method the roof results in a lightweight minimal surface design that is tested to provide adequate structural efficiency so that pressure to the surface, such as wind can be minimal. Fur thering from this, the design also considers more specific environmental aspects to the site such as rain and snow. These elements can have a huge effect upon tensile structures and often lead to their failure.

7 -

Roof of the Munich Oylmpic Stadium by Frei Otto

This leading example of tensile and minimal surface design shows the optimisation that can be achieved through these par ticular fields of design. Although this design was not computationally design it stands as an achieved example for designers to take the principals that guide this project fur ther through computational experimenting.

8 -

Roof membrane showing cur ves

from tensile material & anchors

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B3.1 Case Study 2.0 Reverse Engineering F

rom this exploration it was useful to understand the requirements of Kangaroo physics, from which it is possible to test the dynamics of mesh membranes in a relaxed and tensioned form.

Step 1

I hope to fur ther push this introduction of the definition towards a proposal that encompasses the complete creativity of both minimal surfaces and tensile structures with the collaboration of gravitational effects and/ or different material results.

Step 5

Step 2 Step 6

Step 1 - To process the design strategy of the Munich stadium I firstly decided on a basic geometr y that could represent the non-relaxed form of the perimeter of the roof. For this I chose a rectangle. Step 2 - Create a mesh surface from the joined cur ves. Step 3 - Then, once referenced in Grasshopper the location of the anchor points are set around the outline form for which to apply in grasshopper.

Step 3

Step 4 - Add a unar y gravitational force to the definition so that when simulated the surface is effected in a +Z direction. Step 5 - Once set at an acceptable level, the central anchor points from the divided mesh can be baked into Rhino and set as the ver tical anchor points of the design. Step 6 - Apply a -Z force and run the physics simulation so that the mesh surface relaxes thus giving the resulting form.

Step 7

Step 4

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Roof of the Munich Oylmpic Stadium by Frei Otto

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B4.0 Technique | Development Munich Olympic Stadium

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B4.0 Technique | Development Munich Olympic Stadium

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B4.1 Technique | Discussion

Throughout

the iterations I explored the possibilities of different 2D and later 3D volumes from a basic mesh surface. Experimenting was used with the definitions that focused on different effects of unar y forces, mesh structures and open and closed frames to explore the potential volumes in and around the given form. This was intended to see how adaptable the form could come to within different contexts.

Design iteration Iteration 7 was intended to explore the geometrical forms specific to 2D shapes. The design was intended to show a stretched connection between all the separate surfaces. However I felt that this lacked depth and could be taken fur ther.

Design iteration Iteration 24 represents the attempts of conver ting more 3D depth into the design and also exploring different mesh structures to see how they act differently when relaxed. From this generally a triangulated mesh structure worked best, which was noted.

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B4.2 Technique | Selection Criteria

Below

are some of the successful outcomes that were achieved from the iterations. They show the potential of adaptability for different contexts and environments as well as potential for 3d form. These outcomes show the direction of the experimentation that I hoped to achieve with the consideration of my design intent and criteria. Through the benefits of minimal surface design and tension, I hope to create an outcome that has minimal effect upon the environment it is in (lightweight) as well as conser ve embodied energy levels. These iterations have helped to define how this could be done.

Design iteration Iteration 20 intended to explore other, creative ways of looking at how the design can be adaptable. With this in mind I choose to explore more into rounded or cur ved outcomes as I figured they would be more suited for this type of effect.

Design iteration The final iteration (50) has taken on board what I had exploded through the previous outcomes and also looked at the possibilities of multiple closed and open frame geometries.

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B5.0 Technique | Prototypes

1

2

3

Prototype Design 1 -

Prototype Design 2 -

This experiment also showed slight imperfections on the material due to not all of the face being in tension and therefore creating creases in the centre.

6 14

The second prototype explores the some of the effects of tension using a mesh hexagonal grid attached to a triangular base frame. Due to the lack of elasticity in the material the result was minimal however it is possible to see the tension areas closer to the boundar y of the frame (in image 6). Below also shows a series of photos showing how the shape of the material changes under tension.

7

8

13

third prototype uses spandex that has a clean single face surface. In this model, the material has been stretched to prebuilt anchor-points that give the effect similar to Frei Otto's stadium with the 'saddle' like cur ves that find the minimal surface.

first prototype was an experiment to study the full effect of how minimal surfaces react in the physical world. Soap bubbles are a perfect display for showing how a minimal surface form will look from a given perimeter base shape (circle, triangle, cube etc). This process was ver y interesting as unexpected outcomes also always would form for ever y shape, however it proved to be hard to document the outcomes via pictures due to the transparency of the soap film.

5

12

The

This

4

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Prototype Design 3 -

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Below also is a series of photos showing how this material is adabtable and changes as the anchor-points are tensioned.

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19 All images were self produced

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B6.0 Technique | Proposal Site Context

Merri

Creek is both an environmental and recreation corridor that provides for local communities, fauna and flora wildlife and acts as a green patch corridor for ever yday commuters (12). The site is often utilised as an ideal walking or cycling track and consists of many community playgrounds and group effor ts, such as wishing trees, manmade wetlands, aboriginal ar t works and various viewing platforms and BBQ areas.

Areas close to the site

Merri Creek F

rom both the obser vation and research upon the site, it is clear that Merri Creek and the surrounding areas have a clear intention towards growing the natural beauty of the site whilst it is situated within the heavy urban areas of Melbourne. Continuous community and local councils are raising money towards fur ther planning for a creative and natural corridor from which both humans and wildlife can access and enjoy (13). Many areas along the walking track had been tended to by small working par ties which had aimed to create the site into a more interactive and enjoyable area, such as wishing trees, the aboriginal labyrinth various seating areas and community gardens. As stated the area is often used as beneficial pathway or connection for many cyclists and walkers going to and from the train station, city or home. This is an obvious alternative as the corridor provides an easy and enjoyable route home away from traffic and the typical urban setting. It was obser ved that many groups actively use the playgrounds, fields and community gardens. These areas, as well as the cycle path were locations for which the most human activity was happening within the natural area.

Community areas

Playground

Bike path

Community developments All images were self produced

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B6.1 Initial Design Proposal

The Site - Bridge crossing

Site Context

From

the obser vations and potentials of the site and in response to the brief, my design is to incorporate an illuminated design that is placed amongst the tree tops overlooking the river at one of the main river crossings. This area I feel reflects one of the major intersecting points along the site for commuters, local community members utilising the park area just up from the bank and also where I believe there is the most natural beauty and elements visible (water, nature, wildlife, rock etc). The design would capture these existing elements that are obser ved here without creating a bold or detracting setting, but rather a more sustainable light weight structure. This design would allow both a practical and creative use to the site by illuminating the area for safety. The design intends to show the potential of tensioned and minimal surface designs in an aesthetic and interactive way by obser vation and touch (to an extent). By utilizing tension structure and minimal surfaces, an illuminating structure can have great benefit from this field by testing the different effects of light and shadow contrasts. And also allow projection of light via tensile surfaces. This geometr y field can easily explore the options of translucent materials or mesh structure that can illuminate ample amounts of light with giving a negative effect of light pollution in the natural area.

Design

location - Situated above the crossing within the trees. The design is a lightweight structure that can be placed at height and connect with the trees - connecting with nature. Allows an appreceated view of computational design amongst nature without giving a negative effect to the environment.

All images were self produced 57

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B7.0 Learning Objectives and Outcomes

B8.0 Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches

Objective 1, From the development of comutational design within this project the brief fredom of a technical and creative design. The design must consider the within this design studio - the feild chosen to explore the computational site that benefits most from this and who or what stakeholders would be

aimed at giving us the three major aspects development, the specific interested in this design.

Objective 2, Understand that computational desgin can deliver endless amounts of possibllities that can all be dynamic and experimental to look at the optmium solution to the problem in the site. Objective 3, In order to be able to have a successfull outcome you need to be able to design, test, produce and explain a design to understand it pros and cons. This is a challenge in the studio as it gets us thinking about the 'whole' picutre of a design project

Attempted re-design of the Pompidou metz building, looking at the complexity of different topological surfaces, and then mesh structure tool used as a projection to a lofted surface.

Objective 4, Fur thering, the designing allows us to explore the construction both in the physical world and computer and learn how fabrication, joiner y and structure can work, or be effected.

Objective 5, From the development of Pt B so far and the presentation, I know that it is impor tant to have a sound understanding on the topic relating to your feild as well as to keep thinking about the porject and how fur ther developments can produce a more technically pleasing outcome. Fur ther exploration into the Kangaroo physics component and how inflatable design can work, with pressure points Objective 6, From the develpoment of this stage, I feel that I have a much clearer (although not at all perfect) understanding of computational methods via researching on precedent projects and deconstructing them.

Objective 7, Again, I have a much better understanding but still learning. Objective 8. Through this process relating to my feild it is clear to see the potenials and setbacks of this design.

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Attempted design of the starshell pavilion using grids applied onto a 3D surface

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B9.0 References - Text

1)

Unknown, Geometrical Structures- Pt 3 ( ) page 229

2) J.A Sethian, Minimal Surfaces and soap bubbles (University of California, Dept. of Mathematics Univ of California, 2010) < https://math.berkeley.edu/~sethian/2006/Applications/MinimalSurfaces/minimal.html> [accessed on 4 April] 3) James Stevens Curl, Tensile Architecture (England, Oxford University Press, 2000) < http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O1-Tensilearchitecture.html> [accessed on 4 April] 4) Archdaily, The Serpentine Sackler gallery/ Zaha Hadid Architects (Unknown, Archdaily, Oct 2013) < http://www.archdaily.com/433507/the-serpentine-sackler-gallery-zaha-hadid-architects/> [Accessed 6 April] 5) Arcspace, Serpentine Sackler gallery (Copenhagen, Arcspace.com, 2013) < http://www. arcspace.com/features/zaha-hadid-architects/serpentine-sackler-gallery/> [Accessed 6 April] 6) Perfume Polytech, Ernesto Neto’s Immersive, cross-sensory installations (Unknown place, Perfume Polytech- word press.com, March 2015) < https://perfumepolytechnic.wordpress. com/tag/ernesto-neto-we-stopped-here-just-at-the-time/> [Accessed 30 April] 7) Alex Kittle, Art: Ernesto Neto and the legacy of the Neo-concrete movement (Brazil, Alex Kittle, March 2014) < http://alexkittle.com/2014/03/25/art-ernesto-neto-and-the-legacy-of-the-neo-concrete-movement/> [Accessed on 30 April] 8) Anuradha Chatterjee, Green Void (Sydney, Anuradha Chatterjee- Radar Exhibition, 2009) < http://www. sydneycustomshouse.com.au/news/documents/GreenVoidArchitectureAustraliap25-MayJun09.pdf> [accessed on 7 April] 9) Ibid 10) Archdaily, Green Void/ LAVA (Australia, Archdaily, 2008) http://www. archdaily.com/10233/green-void-lava/ [Accessed on 7 April]

B9.0 References - Images

Fig 1 Ed Reeve, Internal –Stockler gallery, 2013 < http://www.dezeen.com/2013/11/01/the-magazinerestaurant-at-the-serpentine-sackler-gallery-extension-by-zaha-hadid/> [Accessed on 6 April] Fig 2 Luke Hayes, External – Stockler gallery, 2013 < http://www.dezeen.com/2013/11/01/the-magazinerestaurant-at-the-serpentine-sackler-gallery-extension-by-zaha-hadid/> [Accessed on 6 April] Fig 3 - Luke Hayes, The new Serpentine Sackler Gallery: A modern classic takes shape, 2013 < http:// www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/architecture/the-new-serpentine-sackler-gallery-amodern-classic-takes-shape-8837361.html?action=gallery&ino=2> [Accessed on 6 April] Fig 4 - Nicola Anthony, While nothing happens, 2008 < http://alexkittle.com/2014/03/25/arternesto-neto-and-the-legacy-of-the-neo-concrete-movement/> [Accessed on 30 April] Fig 5 - Yann Caradec, We stopped here at the time, 2002 < https://perfumepolytechnic.wordpress. com/tag/ernesto-neto-we-stopped-here-just-at-the-time/> [Accessed on 30 April] Fig 6 - Ali Hilal, Green void – LAVA, 2010 < http://www.architecturelist. com/2010/07/28/green-void-sydney-by-lava/> [Accessed on 7 April] Fig 7 - Wikimedia Commons, Munich Olympic Stadium, 2011 < http://www.archdaily.com/109136/ ad-classics-munich-olympic-stadium-frei-otto-gunther-behnisch/> [Accessed on 6 April] Fig 8 - Wikimedia Commons, Stadium roof, 2011 < http://www.archdaily.com/109136/adclassics-munich-olympic-stadium-frei-otto-gunther-behnisch/> [Accessed on 6 April] Fig 9 - Wikimedia Commons, Stadium roof, 2011 < http://www.archdaily.com/109136/adclassics-munich-olympic-stadium-frei-otto-gunther-behnisch/> [Accessed on 6 April]

11) Tugraz Institute of Architecture, Olympic stadium (Austria, Tugraz, year unknown) < https://iam. tugraz.at/studio/w09/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/OlympicStadium.pdf> [Accessed on 6 April] 12) Merri Creek Management Committee, About Merri Creek (Melbourne –Australia, Management Committee, unknown publish date) < http://www.mcmc.org.au/index.php?option=com_ content&view=article&id=36:about-merri-creek&Itemid=188> [Accessed on 29 April] 13) Simon D’ Alfonso, Friends of Merri Creek (Melbourne – Australia, Friends of Merri Creek, 2014) < http://www.friendsofmerricreek.org.au//pages/news.php> [Accessed on 29 April]

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C1.0 Design Concept Reviewed Feedback - Intruim Presentation

Part C - Detailed Design

Review & Develop

F

rom the feedback give at the interim presentation there were several issues that would need fur ther development and understanding in order to proceed with a successful design using minimal surfaces and tension towards a design. One of the main issues discovered during the presentation was the lack of computational design shown in the initial concept; however this was addressed and redesigned as the current project shown in par t B. Another issue was that the design had to show adaptability towards the site. The design formation needed to be formed from the parameters of the site context and be able to show that it has considered the site typology, which in this case would be the trees that the anchors are attached to and hanging from, which would therefor define the geometr y of the design (as shown in existing projects). To overcome this, measurements will be recorded and developed into the design so that the form can be more precise towards the site and be able to show a complete design rather than a potential design form for the site.

Another issue was the lighting effect that the design would show both in terms of how this would work and the negative effects it could have upon the local wildlife. To tackle this problem I intend to research fur ther into the lighting possibilities related with minimal surfaces, specifically looking at more modern designs than Frie Otto such as Jenny Sabin and Ernesto Neto. The design is also now aimed at producing ample, dimed lighting that outlines the form amongst the trees giving minimal to no light pollution. Finally, in the presentation it was stated that my design possibly needed something more to connect to the target audience (local community, walkers, and riders). To acknowledge this the design will tr y to incorporate more interaction by being able to be touched and possibly climbed on to give people and/or children new views and vistas of the surrounds again fur ther research shall be explored to look for solutions.

Project Brief -

F

rom the developments and given feedback the design for Meri Creek has now been reoriented to create a social gathering and relaxing icon situated over the river. This design incorporates the use of minimal surfaces and tension to create a fun and interactive environment and landscape within the natural surrounding environment. The design acts as an alternative crossing for people to enjoy and take their time exploring within the tree tops of this highlighted area of interested during the day and a lighting display at night.

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C1.1 Precedent Project

C1.2 Precedent Project

Palais de Tokyo

Madness is Part of Life

Numen 2015

Ernesto Neto 2012

Tape

Another

Paris by Numan for use is an interesting design experiment that allows users to explore and relax in a new perspective space surrounding their environment. The design is a quick and light build design made from rolls of tape that is suppor ted enough for multiple people to climb and move around the internal space. The design aims to represent a biomorphic creation that allows more than a visual sense to be achieved by the users and in theor y create a space that people can use as a functional socialising space (1). The designâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tension and biomorphic minimal surface allows the creation to be suited to almost any context or environment whereby it would only need anchors for the limbs of the surface to be suppor ted. This idea would be useful as a concept towards the minimal surface design for the Meri creek site. It shows an example of potential data such as anchors like columns, walls and also open spaces that can be computationally interpreted to create a form of minimal surfaces based of the existing data. This design shows how this can also have a quick and cheap approach in terms of time and materials to create a design that is structurally sound for

project to look towards is the Madness is Par t of Life by Ernesto Neto.

[1]

[2]

PROJECT PROPOSAL

It is also interesting to note how this example shows the given form of the mass provided by the elasticity and set anchors of the netting and constant forces of the plastic balls weighing down upon the surface to create a tunnel like form as the result. This idea is a key feature that needs to be considered for minimal surfaces and one which makes designing with field a challenge in the way that a potential mass or material can be form found to something unique and practical when relaxed, stretched or elasticized.

[4]

[5]

Developing from the preliminar y design this example also shows how these materials can be used to create a suspended design that can be safely walked upon, providing fun and playful interaction and allowing people to obser ve from new perspective points at their surrounding environment.

direct interaction with the target users.

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This ar t work is design by large expanses of elastic netting that is suspended from above and half filled with plastic balls which is described as a tangible expression of madness (2). Although there is an expressional meaning behind this design the features and materials of this design can be useful to study and obser ve the joiner y of the structure as well as the interaction it provides as a tensioned, minimal surface design.

[3]

[6] PROJECT PROPOSAL

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C1.3 Digital Construction Process

C1.4 Physical Construction Process

Site Location Establish the site typology and location of anchors for the instalation of the membrane surfaces. Measure out the overall lengths and widths for the river crossing and distance of the trees.

1

2 For the site location the total length of the chosen area was 18.2 meters. The width of the river from tree to tree at approximately 8 meters wide and the average distance between each tree on

Define Anchor Points Locate the even distribution of the 3 membranes across each of the chosen anchor trees. Fasten the trees with metal struts that attach to the wire lining.

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4

.

Create Structure Frame Attach 8mm galvanised steel wire cabling to form the structure of the membrane sheets lining the wire from tree to tree.

5 1 - Create solid plutonic shape to be used as surface membranes. 2 - Impor t them into prototyping soft wear as a mesh structure to be tested upon with physics simulator for optimal material stiffness and tension proper ties.

Create Membranes Once defined hang mesh membrane sheets along, attaching them to the cabling for suppor t. Interlace the membrane sheets to create undulating landscape.

3 - Define anchor points both around the boundar y of the membranes and within the non naked ver tices of the mesh. 4 - Run simulation of minimal surface to create form, adjust according to data retrieved from site. 5 - Interconnect membranes to create final form. 67

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C2.0 Prototyping - Joint & Structure

Joinery

Materials The

Swage Socket Mesh membrane

The metal strut is used as the connection for the tree and wire, where-by the custom sized strut (red) grips itself firmly around the tree truck whilst being mindful of the tree skin. The metal rod then loops the wire through and down to the swage socket.

Tree anchor

The swage socket acts as a tension suppor t for the protection of both the tree and the material membrane. One length of the wire connects from the tree & strut down to a pulley-like section of the socket that allows ver tical movement in the wire when stresses are applied to the membrane. This will insure the safety of both the design and the tree anchor. The back end of the socket then leads to the membrane mesh where it is fastened through and onto the end of the mesh firmly.

Metal Strut

Simulation Testing Structure

.

main structural and joiner y components of the design are swage sockets and metal struts, both of which connect the wire towards the membrane and the tree trunks or ground.

Galvinised steel

V

Less applied stress More applied stress

arious results were shown from the digital design of the mesh structure. It was noted that the interlacing points where the connections of membrane joined was where the structural stress was being produced.

Swage sockets

Nylon netting 69

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[7]

[8]

[9] PROJECT PROPOSAL

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C2.1 Techtonic Elements & Prototypes

Type 4 Type 1

Type 2

Through

fur ther exploring of materials many prototype tests were performed to find the optimised material that contains enough elasticity and durability for cer tain stresses applied. As well as this many ideas of how to por tray the most accurate effect of the tree anchors was tested with new materials and tools.

Type 3

For achieving this, the materials used in par t B were re-explored as a star ting point for the development of the design. Standard netting materials were used to star t with as seen in type 1, this material added up to be ver y tough and for that reason far to tense not giving the optimised effect of a minimal surface form. The soap bubble film form was the ideal effect to achieve and there-for a elastic nylon netting was used to give far more elasticity to the form with the worr y of not enough strength (type 3 &4) This material proved to be ideal in the effect of minimal surface form and actually managed to withhold an efficient amount of strength. For inter-connecting the membrane surfaces together, sampling sewing proved to work best (type 3). For fastening the fabric as well as the wire cable metal swage clips were used (type 2).

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C2.2 Prototypes

Interconnection

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C3.0 Final Detail Model

The

final detail model represents a 1:50 scale of the design for Merri creek acting as an alternative bridge crossing over the small river as well as a fun, creative and interactive space that is completely climbable. This design gives local community members a new perspective of the natural surrounding environment and gives users a chance to explore as they feel free along the 18 meter tree canopy. The first two levels act as the main spaces that the user can climb through with the third acting as the roofing. At night this display can be lit up to give an impressive yet ample lighting display that create a humble balance of natural environment with the complexity of light, tension and geometr y.

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C3.1 Final Digital Model

18.2 meters

Section

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Plan

Perspective-

Perspective-

Top view over site

Showing lighting effect at night

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C4.0 Learning Objectives & Outcomes

Design Reflection The

design outcome for studio air was to create an engaging design that incorporates the use of geometr y. Specifically for this design it is focused in the subcategories of geometr y with minimal surfaces and tension. For the design response and with relation to the given brief a site was chosen along the Merri creek trail which showed potential for a harmonizing design that gives an impressive effect of natural and manmade contrast. After much analysing and adapting from presentations, the design was oriented to reflect that of a design which creates a space for people to climb and explore their own way through the tree tops. Having looked at many potential ways of achieving this, it was decided to create a system of interconnected mesh membranes that benefit from the concept of a minimal surface and tension suppor ted system that is anchored via the sites pre-existing typography and elements, such as trees to define the final form of the minimal surface. The finished result shows how a design can be determined to create a new landscape based on the defining parameters of its surrounding context. This design can be explored and used as a crossing and social space during the day and a effective lighting display at night. Comments from the finial presentation were both positive and critical towards the design. Generally the model showed an impressive effect of the studied field of geometr y as a sense of the form and space inside the structure. Comments showed that there possibly needs to be more consideration taken into the connections of the design to the trees and the ground as this would not always be stable. Obviously also this design would need to undergo more safety considerations as there was no edge boundar y or safety net. However for this design project it is considered as an obstacle in-which one is not obliged to use but rather as an alternative crossing in which the risk is understood (e.g like climbing a tree is at oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s own risk of fall). Overall the design has been a huge learning progress towards digital computation as well as learning abilities to test and analyse a design to an optimised design within a specific field that has been ver y interesting and pleasing when achieved.

Learning Outcomes This assignment and design has pushed

myself towards a new line of thinking and creating in the world of architecture and design. I have new insight into the understandings of visual programming and the potential of both learning and designing with this tool as means to create a variety of optimised design outcomes towards a specific detail, site, field etc. Through the process under taken in this assignment I have learnt how examples of joiner y and structure can be tested so as to be achieved in both a digital sense and realised in a physical sense. As well as this I have been introduced to researching and analysing related materials towards my design and design field as well as existing examples seen through the first par t of the assignment and later realised and applied though stages B and C of the assignment. I feel inspired to keep structures and various previous knowledge on level of understanding

exploring into the capabilities of types of programming as I have this method of design towards a the functions and outcomes that

Objective 1This assignment task required the development of a personalised brief with the acceptance of the assignments requirements. This I found to be a great challenge and learning objective that needed reviewing throughout all stages of the assignment (pt A,B & C). Learning from this I would have liked to focus on this task earlier on and paid more attention towards it as it would have greatly helped to come to a resolved solution. Objective 2 One of the great benefits quickly discovered from the capabilities of computational design was the freed to dynamically change and explore multiple options within one design. I think this gives great oppor tunity for design and researching. Objective 3From the developments of the design I was able to explore many new media soft wears and trial new plug-in and analyse tools. I would have liked to explore the digital fabrication process however it was advised that it was not relevant for my design.

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computational design, data grown from almost no solid beginner/intermediate can be harnessed.

Objective 4This assignment has also allowed the oppor tunity to think critically and realistically about how a design can be realised from "computer to air"

Objective 5Fur thering, the assignment allowed for exploration of how to 'sell' the idea and posed questions at a realistic approach. Objective 6I found it challenging at first to be able to process all aspects of the design while still learning about the concept of digital designing however over the course this was reduced. Objective 7Overall I feel I have a basic understanding of the world of digital computation and the potential it has. Objective 8From the course I have learnt new tools and their capabilities, I can see both potentials and negatives towards these tools but understand that they can greatly benefit for cer tain aspects.

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References

Text 1) Lana Kavar & Numan, Numan / For use (Croatia: Numan / For use, year unkown) <http://www.numen.eu/installations/tape/paris/#> [Accessed 21 May] & Finn MacLeod, Climb Inside Numen/For Useâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Membrane of Packing Tape at Palais de Tokyo in Paris (Paris, Arch Daily, 2014) <http://www.archdaily.com/567795/climb-inside-numenfor-use-s-membrane-of-packing-tape-at-palais-de-tokyo-in-paris/> [Accessed 21 May] 2) Alex Kittle, Art: Ernesto Neto and the legacy of the Neo-concrete movement (Brazil, Alex Kittle, March 2014) <alexkittle.com/2014/03/25/art-ernesto-neto-and-the-legacy-of-the-neo-concrete-movement/> [Accessed 21 May] & TorusMacroCopula, Ernesto neto: madness is part of life (Tokyo, designboom, 2012) < http:// www.designboom.com/art/ernesto-neto-madness-is-part-of-life/> [Accessed 21 May]

Images 1)

Numan, Palas de Tokyo exhibition, 2015 < http://www.numen.eu/installations/tape/paris/> [Accessed 21 may]

2)

Numan, Internal, 2015 < http://www.numen.eu/installations/tape/paris/> [Accessed 21 may]

3)

Numan,External, 2015 < http://www.numen.eu/installations/tape/paris/> [Accessed 21 may]

4) Jeremie Souteyrat, Madness is part of life 1, 2012 < http://www.designboom. com/art/ernesto-neto-madness-is-part-of-life/> [Accessed 21 may] 5) Jeremie Souteyrat, Madness is part of life 2, 2012 < http://www.designboom. com/art/ernesto-neto-madness-is-part-of-life/> [Accessed 21 may] 6) Jeremie Souteyrat, Madness is part of life 3, 2012 < http://www.designboom. com/art/ernesto-neto-madness-is-part-of-life/> [Accessed 21 may] 7)

Atlantic, Wire rope, 2015 < http://atlantic-group.com/producttype/wire-rope/> [Accessed 22 May]

8) Loos & Co, Cable, 2015 < http://www.loosco.com/products/cableassemblies/commercial-cable-assemblies/> [Accessed 22 May] 9) G&G netting, Nylon netting, 2015 < http://www.supercatchfishing.com/sdp/163331/4/pd1007754/1765624-505176/KNOTLESS_NYLON_NETTING.html> [Accessed 22 May] Design Journal by Christopher Dunkley, 2015 sem 1

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Dunkley Christopher 698731 finaljournal