Heat and Temperature

Primary Science Primary 4

Student Profile   Primary  4,  Mixed  Ability,  Class  size  of  30

Time and  Venue   1  Period  (30  Minutes),  School  Science  Laboratory

Pre-­‐requisite Knowledge   Before  the  lesson,  students  should  be  able  to:   1. State  that  heat  is  a  form  of  energy  that  makes  things  hot   2. List  some  common  sources  of  heat   3. Recognize  that  heat  can  be  felt  by  our  sense  of  touch  and  our  skin   is  not  a  reliable  organ  to  sense  how  hot  or  cold  an  object  is.

Objectives At  the  end  of  the  lesson,  pupils  should  be  able  to:   §

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Knowledge, Understanding&  Application:   –

State that  the  temperature  of  an  object  is  the  measurement  of   its  degree  of  hotness

Identify different  types  of  thermometers  for  different  uses

State that  the  unit  of  temperature  is  degree  Celsius  (°C)

Trace the  four  essential  steps  needed  to  read  the  temperature   on  the  thermometer  correctly

Measure temperature  using  a  thermometer

Skills &  Processes:   –

Pupils give  priority  to  evidence  when  they  are  directed  to   collect  certain  data.

Pupils communicate  and  justify  their  explanations  when  they   are  provided  guidelines  for  communication.

Ethics &  Attitudes:   –

Value individual  work  and  team  effort.

Heat and Temperature

Lee Puay Joo Christine

1

Engage (5  Minutes)   Time

Lesson Development

5 mins   Engage  pupils  in  an  activity.   Have  ready  a  glass  of  luke  warm  water,   approximately  40°C.   Show  pupils  the  glass  of  water.   “  I  need  two  volunteers  to  come  forward  to   describe  as  detailed  as  possible  how  hot  or  cold   the  water  in  this  glass  is,  and  write  your  answers   on  the  whiteboard.”   Inform  pupil  volunteers  not  to  share  or  look  at  what   each  other  have  written  on  the  whiteboard.   Possible  answers:     “Quite  hot”,  “Hot”,  “Very  hot”    “How  can  we  tell  who  has  given  a  more  accurate   answer?..  How  can  we  know  exactly  how  hot  the   water  is?”   Explain  to  pupils  that  they  need  to  know  the   temperature  in  order  to  find  out  who  has  provided  a   more  accurate  answer.   Introduce  to  pupils  the  concept  of  temperature,  and   degree  Celsius  as  the  common  measurement  unit.   (Appendix  A-­‐  Slide  1)   Have  pupils  note  key  concepts  in  their  Science   Journal.   Direct  pupils  to  conclude  that  it  is  not  possible  to  tell   whose  answer  is  more  accurate  without  measuring   the  temperature.

Notes Safety:

Water must  not  be     too  hot  for  pupils  to     be  able  to  touch.

Key concepts:

Temperature is  the   measurement  of   how  hot  or  cold   something  is.

§ Microsoft Powerpoint     (Appendix  A:   Slide  1)   § Science  Journal

Temperature is   measured  in  degree     Celsius  (°C).     Thermometers  are     used  to  measure   temperature.

The skin  is  not  a   reliable  organ  to   sense  hotness  or   Have  pupils  recall  that  the  skin  is  not  a  reliable  organ   coldness.   to  sense  hotness  or  coldness,  so  we  need  to  use  a   special  instrument  known  as  the  thermometer,  to   measure  temperature  accurately.  (Appendix  A-­‐Slide   2)

Heat and Temperature

Resources

§ Microsoft Powerpoint     (Appendix  A:   Slide  2)

Lee Puay Joo Christine

2

Explore (10  Minutes)   Time   13   mins

Lesson Development   Show  pupils  a  laboratory  thermometer,  specifically   an  alcohol-­‐in-­‐glass  thermometer.

Briefly  explain  the  two  different  kinds  of  laboratory   thermometers-­‐  alcohol-­‐in-­‐glass  and  mercury  in  glass   thermometers:  Alcohol-­‐in-­‐glass  thermometers   contain  a  red  liquid,  while  mercury-­‐in-­‐glass   thermometers  contain  a  silvery  liquid.  (Appendix  A:   Slide  3)   Inform  pupils  and  demonstrate  the  four  essential   steps  needed  to  read  the  temperature  on  the   thermometer  correctly.(Appendix  B:Slide  4)   Pupils  will  be  paired  up.   (Appendix  A:  Slide  5)  Task  pupils  to  work  in  pairs  to   measure  and  record  in  their  Science  Journal  :   (1) The  temperature  of  tap  water  in  a  beaker.   (2) The  temperature  of  ice  water.   Remind  pupils  to  follow  the  four  essential  steps   presented  on  the  powerpoint  slide  (Appendix  A:   Slide  4)  in  order  to  measure  and  read  the   temperature  correctly.   Observe  and  address  any  errors  that  pupils   demonstrate  in  measuring  the  temperature.

Notes Key  concepts:   There  are  4   essential  steps  to   follow  in  order  to   read  the   temperature   correctly:   Hold  the   thermometer   upright.

Resources § Alcohol-­‐in-­‐glass   thermometer   § Beakers   § Tap  water   § Ice  cubes   § Microsoft   Powerpoint     (Appendix  A:   Slides  3-­‐5)   § Science  Journal

Look at  the  level  of   liquid  in  the   thermometer.   Position  your  eyes   at  the  same  level  as   the  liquid  in  the   thermometer.   Read  the  marking   nearest  to  the  level   of  the  liquid  in  the   thermometer.     Safety:   Remind  pupils  that   thermometers  are   fragile  and  must  be   handled  with  care.

Heat and Temperature

Lee Puay Joo Christine

3

Explain (5  Minutes)   Time

Lesson Development

5 mins   After  the  activity,  invite  pupil  volunteers  to  share   their  findings.   Teacher  will  take  the  opportunity  to  address  any   errors.   Possible  errors:

Notes

Pupils not  having  to  report  the  unit  of   measurement  (°C).   Pupils  not  writing  the  symbol  (°C)  correctly.   Pupils  giving  inaccurate  measurements.

“Which water  has  a  lower  temperature?  The  tap   water  or  ice  water?”

• • •

Direct pupils  to  conclude  that  the  colder  something   is,  the  lower  its  temperature  would  be,  while  the   hotter  something  is,  the  higher  would  be  its   temperature.  (Appendix  A:  Slide  6)   Allow  time  for  pupils  to  note  in  their  Science  Journal.   Highlight  to  pupils  that  the  temperature  would  be   higher  on  a  hotter  day  and  lower  on  a  colder  day.

Heat and Temperature

Resources

Key concepts:   The  hotter  an   object  is,  the  higher   would  be  its   temperature.

§ Microsoft Powerpoint   (Appendix  A:   Slide  6)   § Science  Journal

The colder  an   object  is,  the  lower   would  be  its   temperature.

Lee Puay Joo Christine

4

Extend (5  Minutes)   Time

Lesson Development

5 mins   “What  kind  of  thermometer  to  you  use  to  measure   your  body  temperature?”   “Is  it  different  from  the  ones  that  we  use  in  the   laboratory?  How  is  it  different?”   Have  pupils  discuss.   Introduce  to  pupils  a  clinical  thermometer.   (Appendix  A:  Slide  7)

Notes Key  concept:

Resources   § Microsoft   powerpoint   (Appendix  A:   Slide  7)   § Science  Journal

§ A clinical   thermometer  is   used  to  measure   body   temperature.

Highlight  to  pupils  that  there  are  different  kinds  of   clinical  thermometers  used  to  measure  body   temperature,-­‐  digital  or    analog  which  are  less   commonly  used  nowadays  (Appendix  A:  Slide  7).   Also,  those  which  can  be  placed  under  the  armpits,   tongue  or  ears  to  measure  body  temperature.     Have  pupils  recall  that  the  clinical  thermometer   which  they  use  for  temperature-­‐taking  exercises  in   school  is  digital,  and  is  placed  under  their  tongue  to   measure  their  temperature.   “How  do  you  know  when  you’re  running  a  fever?”   Explain  to  pupils  the  average  body  temperature   (37°C),  and  if  the  temperature  exceeds  37.5°C,  they   are  likely  to  have  a  fever.  (Appendix  A:  Slide  8)

Heat and Temperature

§ Microsoft   powerpoint   (Appendix  A:   Slide  7)               § Microsoft   powerpoint   (Appendix  A:   Slide  8)

Lee Puay Joo Christine

5

Evaluate (5  Minutes)   Time      5   mins

Lesson Development

Notes

Individual seat  work:

Task pupils  to  complete  a  worksheet  activity.

Homework: Task  pupils  to  explore  the  other  types  of   thermometers  and  their  uses  using  Internet   resources,  and  write  them  down  in  their  Science   Journal.  (Appendix  A:  Slide  9)

Heat and Temperature

Resource § Activity  sheet   (Appendix  B)     § Microsoft   Powepoint   (Appendix  A:   Slide  9)     § Science  Journal     § Internet   resource

Lee Puay Joo Christine

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Appendix A â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Powerpoint Slides

Slide 1

Slide 2

Heat and Temperature

Lee Puay Joo Christine

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Appendix A – Powerpoint Slides Slide 3

Slide  4

Heat and Temperature

Lee Puay Joo Christine

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Appendix A – Powerpoint Slides Slide  5

Slide  6

Heat and Temperature

Lee Puay Joo Christine

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Appendix A – Powerpoint Slides

Slide 7

Slide  8

Heat and Temperature

Lee Puay Joo Christine

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Appendix A – Powerpoint Slides

Slide 9

Heat and Temperature

Lee Puay Joo Christine

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Appendix B- Activity Sheet Name: _____________________________

Date:________________

Class: ______________________________

The following diagram shows how Ali reads the temperature on the thermometer in his science experiment. He records the temperature as 48째C.

70

60

50

40

30

20

i.

Has Ali read the temperature correctly? What should Ali have done in order to read the temperature correctly?

ii.

What should be the correct temperature?

Heat and Temperature

Lee Puay Joo Christine

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Appendix C - Answer Sheet Name: _____________________________

Date: ____________________

Class: ______________________________

The following diagram shows how Ali reads the temperature on the thermometer in his science experiment. He records the temperature as 48째C.

70

60

50

40

30

20

i.

Has Ali read the temperature correctly? What should Ali have done in order to read the temperature correctly? No, he should have positioned his eye at the same level as the liquid in the thermometer.

ii.

What should be the correct temperature? 46째C

Heat and Temperature

Lee Puay Joo Christine

13

Introduction to Heat & Temperature

At the end of the lesson, pupils should be able to:• Knowledge, Understanding& Application:– State that the temperature of an object is the...