Page 1

[LAB]_00

A LAYERED CONFLUENCE The design of a hydrological research and conservation platform, Fountains Valley, Pretoria


Figure 1:Panoramic of site, photo by Author


HYDROLOGICAL RESEARCH AND CONSERVATION FACILITY AT FOUNTAINS VALLEY by Chironne Moller Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree MAGISTER TEHNOLOGIAE: ARCHITECTURE: PROFESSIONAL in the Department of Architecture FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT TSHWANE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Supervisor: P. Crafford October 2014

The opinions expressed and conclusions arrived at are those of the author and cannot necessarily be attributed to Tshwane University of Technology

i


Declaration

ii


Figure 2: On site sketch, by author

Declaration

This document is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Magister Tehnologiae: Architecture (Professional) in the Department of architecture, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, Tshwane University of Technology. I hereby declare that this is my own original work and has not previously been submitted to any other Institution. I further declare that all sources cited or quoted are indicated and acknowledged by means of a comprehensive list of references.

DECLARATION

CHIRONNE MOLLER

14th October 2014

iii


Figure 3: On-site sketch, by author

Abstract

iv


Figure 4: Layers of fountains, by author

The origins of the Apies River within Fountains Valley, established the foundation of the city of Pretoria as well as the inspiration for this design. The significance of Fountains resides not only in its natural features but also its historical and cultural layers, forming a complex matrix of time and influence. A thorough investigation into the structure of some of the major cities in the world and their formation around water sources is conducted in order to compare them to the current conditions of the Apies River and the displacement of contaminated water and natural spaces within Pretoria. Analyzing similar environments around Pretoria and the physical factors that influence these landscapes justifies the importance of well-designed cultural parks and natural landscapes within urban environments. The proposal explores the potential role that architecture plays in the conservation of Pretoria’s cultural waterscapes, through the process of fabric renewal and public engagement. The study identifies the need for a hydrological research and conservation facility

within Fountains Valley, unifying the significance of the site which stems from natural features as well as historical and cultural layers. Fountains Valley currently forms a place with cultural value, leisure and recreation opportunities, and an escape from the busy city.

Abstract

To understand the layers of Pretoria’s urban fabric, it is necessary to reflect and study its roots to comprehend the relationship between the built environment and nature. The project focuses on architecture’s ability to adapt and coexist alongside a natural ecosystem. Therefore, this study is founded with the aim to re-establish the confluence between the two.

The complex layers of Fountains Valley are investigated in order to create an appropriate landscape which can accommodate the recreational user, while providing a research platform and represent the history of the developing urban landscape. Multiple time periods in the history of Fountains are explored as well as current conditions will be experienced by general public and tourists in order to improve the cultural experience of the Fountains landscape. The proposed intervention consists of a cultural waterscape that creates a new relationship between people and nature. The future built landscape will be a platform and catalyst which researches, informs, and preserves Pretoria’s natural spaces and aims to facilitate the integration of a hydrological research facility within a cultural recreational park.

ABSTRACT

V


0.1

INTRODUCTION

Contents

Outline brief Research Methodology Introduction Background Argument

0.2

ISSUES OF CONCERN

0.3

PRECEDENT STUDIES

1. Water in Architecture 2. Rehabilitating sensitive cultural landscapes 3. Restoring the relationship between man and nature in urban environments

Willamette river water treatment plant Delta shelter Freedom park Comparative matrix Case study

0.4

CONTENTS

ANALYSIS AND APPRAISAL OF CONTEXT Greater context: Pretoria Precinct appraisal: Fountains as a continuation of the monumental landscape Study area: Fountains Valley Proposed urban framework Proposed Fountains framework Site: Confluence of springs

0.5

BRIEF, PROGRAMME & ACCOMMODATION Client Brief Programme

4 22 44 54 86


DESIGN DEVELOPMENT Design inception Primary conceptual gain: A layered confluence Material pallet Spatial development Model exploration Design development Development of existing infrastructure Development of public realm

0.7

DESIGN RESOLUTION Plans Sections Elevations Perspectives

0.8

TECHNICAL REVIEW Sustainable design systems Drawings

0.9

SELF ASSESSMENT AND CONCLUSION

1.0

REFERENCES AND APPENDICES

98 132 162 194 198

Contents

0.6


MINIATURE STEAM TRAIN PLATFORM RIVER CONFLUENCE, ORIGINS OF THE APIES RIVER LAB_00 OLD PUMP HOUSE MIXING SHED LOWER FOUNTAINS SPRING

1

BUILDING CONTENTS


Figure 5: Perspective, by author

2


Figure 6: On-site photo, by author

Introduction

3


Introduction

0.1

INTRODUCTION 1

Outline Brief

2

Research Methodology

3

Introduction

4

Background

5

Argument

Fountains in relation to the establishment of Pretoria Fountains in relation to the history of hydrology Pretoria in its natural context Proposed context: Fountains as a layered confluence

4


Environmental

Introduction

NATURE

Urban Landscape

MAN

Recreation Education

[LAB]_00

ARCHITECTURE Programme Research

5

Figure 7: Outline brief diagram, by author

COMPLEX INTEGRATION


After analyzing the conditions of contaminated South African rivers and the displacement of natural spaces within urban environments, the proposal will focus on the design of a hydrological research and conservation facility at the Fountains Valley resort area in Pretoria. The origin of the Apies River and its natural environment forms the inspiration for this dissertation. The design therefore responds to an urgent need to implement a strategy to raise the awareness of Pretoria’s dependence on natural ground water. The aim is to design a hydrological research laboratory which will allow for the monitoring and research of water conditions along the Apies River in Pretoria. The proposed facility will assist in field monitoring, laboratory analysis, quality control, data management, and scientific reporting and repairment on the river conditions within and beyond Fountains Valley. A conservation platform will also be introduced as an extension of the recreational landscape and will educate and inform the public on the quality of the urban waterscapes.

Consequently the envisaged development acts as a catalyst for quality control and repairment of South African water sources and natural urban environments and explores three specific issues:

Introduction

Water is a precious and vital resource with regards to sustaining life. However the importance and scope of water consumption is dismissed in our daily lives. People use large amounts of water in cooking, cleaning, drinking, as well as for producing house hold, industrial, and agricultural commodities. The extent of water wastage is therefore through contamination and pollution. The proposed design will address these issues and therefore monitor the changes within our environment due to water contamination.

• Phenomenon of water in architecture: The relationship between aquatics and terrestrial environments will be explored as well as the marginal territory between land, water and people. • Reintroducing nature back into Pretoria: Connecting the population to their immediate Natural environment, an opportunity which has long been lost in Pretoria. • Rehabilitating sensitive cultural landscapes: Identifying landscapes through Pretoria which have been lost and therefore became a lost heritage.

It is therefore necessary to understand the surrounding landscape to generate a responsive and sustainable design solution. Contextual issues and natural and cultural features of the landscape form generators for the design of the hydrology research and conservation platform.

OUTLINE BRIEF

6


Figure 8: Conceptual sketch, by author

Introduction

7


The site was visited regularly in order to become familiar with the physical and historical aspects of the context and the needs of the user. The regional and local context, in which the proposed facility will be placed was analyzed by reviewing the changing developing landscape. An evaluation of available literature was conducted focusing on the descriptive analysis of journal articles, surveys and interview data gathered from the nature conservation offices on site as well as water research commission. Further analysis was based on records of published books in the field of water in architecture (hydrological heritage overview, 2013), introducing nature back into urban environments (Biophillic architecture, 2008) and addressing sensitive cultural landscapes (National heritage resources act, no.25 of 1999).

Introduction

The research methodology combines quantitative and qualitative data and analysis, consisting mainly of the review of relevant literature, interviews and discussions with multiple parties involved in the process, as well as appropriate precedents.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The literature review provided valuable insight into aspects and functions which can be incorporated in the unique spatial waterscape.

8


Figure 9: Historical development of cities around rivers, by author

Introduction

9

INTRODUCTION

That the first location of cities has taken has taken place in river valleys is no accident. Everything relies on the nutritive flow of water. Like veins and arteries, rivers and canals are basics of connection and communication, linking place and time. Although their positions remain essentially the same, rivers are kinetic elements, therefore the flowing water constantly renews itself. Edgar Allan Poe’s “The domain of Arnhem� evokes a rivers journey through space and time. Poe describes a vast ideal landscape, carefully designed in all its parts, with water as the central artery that focuses the composition. (Whelchel and Donovan, 1994:21)

Figure 10: Nile River, Egypt. http://nbviewer.ipython.org

The Tigris, Euphrates, and Nile are among a few rivers that have earned legendary status, not only by their size and power, but because their waters link our present with the ancient cities and cultures that originated on their banks. Egyptian tradition shows that all creation arises from the principles of water. Like a giant water ribbon, the Nile connected all Egyptian cities, pyramids, villages, temples, and towns into one entity, a civilization. (Whelchel and Donovan, 1994:21)

Ever since people have built cities along rivers, the configuration and flow of the streams have generated the layouts of streets, avenues, and parks. A major design factor of river cities is how they develop along the banks of rivers and streams. River walks have the amazing ability to isolate people from the hustle and bustle of the rest of the city. The sound of flowing rivers blocks out the city noise, the water cools the air, and large trees cantilever over the river banks providing shaded parks and space to rest. These river walks are then punctuated by monuments, squares, parks and landmarks along their courses. (Whelchel and Donovan, 1994:21)

Figure 11: Nile River. http:// worldhistorynewpoint. weebly.com


Figure 13: Falling waters. http://www.fallingwater.org/

Introduction

Figure 12: Portland city park as wetland and storm water catchment. http://www.gardenvisit.com

Canals, man made rivers and catchments are also important connectors and communicators. Canals can physically connect cities to bodies of water, lace together neighborhoods, districts, or link several cities in one line. (Whelchel and Donovan, 1994:21)

Not only have cities developed around the presence and pathways of water, architecture has also been influenced by the sensual and physical properties that water possesses. The house that Frank Lloyd Wright built for the Kaufmanns at Bear Run is a masterpiece of a coexistence between nature and the built environment and therefore also the human environment. Falling waters engages our senses of sight, sound, and touch, and compels us to see, hear, and feel not only the architecture but also the Nature beyond. Fusion, counterpoints, and tensions lead us to the meaning of the place, its connection to Nature, inhabitants and the water. (Whelchel and Donovan, 1994:21)

Water is therefore a rare and vital resource which has shaped our cities and our way of living. However many of us have grown accustomed to taking fresh water for granted. Therefore, design involving architecture and water must remind people of the impact that water has on their lives.

10


1820-1832 2000BC 1840

MZILIKAZI STONEBROTHERS AGE BRONKHURST

Tools have beenbrothers discovered mainly along the banks of the The Bronkhurst abondoned the trek in ohrigstad apies river as well as in caves within the groenkloof nature kop, with two military kraals on the apies river. Women who had to fetch water from teh river named it Enzwabuhlungu, area. meaning something that hurts, refering to sharp dolomite rock that they had to walk across. The sotho name for the river was Entsabohloko, refering to the circumsicion rites IRON whereAGE the young men of th tribe used to stand n the water during the ceremony. One of the caves in the Groenkloof nature reserve have been linked to the iron age. Both pot shards and tools have been BOER SETTLEMENT discovered.

550BC-700AD

INTRODUCTION

The historic cultural heritage found in the Fountains Valley area is diverse, significant and extensive, with some elements dating back to the Stone Age (van Tonder, 2008:11). This section therefore unfolds the layers and context of the Fountains Valley area to inform an architectural response which will represent a cultural past and the development of Pretoria city. The timeline forms a logical representation of Fountains Valley in relation to the establishment of Pretoria and the history of hydrology. This framework aids in the understanding of Pretoria’s cultural landscape and layers of influence over time. The layers form evidence of its environmental, cultural and architecture significance and the importance of Fountains Valley as a catalyst for the establishment and growth of Pretoria.

VOORTREKKER

1836

of a new capital, due to its abundant water supply and NDEBELE PEOPLE natural landscape. Pretoria was named in honor of his Bronkhurst registered the farms Groenkloof and Elandfather, and registered a town on the 16th novemeber 1855. spoort.

2000BC MZILIKAZI1820-1832 BRONKHURST BROTHERS 1840 IRON AGE 550BC-700AD STONE AGE

Tools have been discovered mainly along the banks of the apies river as well as in caves within the groenkloof nature area. The Bronkhurst brothers abondoned the trek in ohrigstad

kop, with two military kraals on the apies river. Women who One caves in the natureitreserve have been had of tothe fetch water fromGroenkloof teh river named Enzwabuhlungu, linked to the iron age.that Both pot shards tools have been meaning something hurts, referingand to sharp dolomite discovered. rock that they had to walk across. The sotho name for the river was Entsabohloko, refering to the circumsicion rites where the young men of thBOER tribe usedSETTLEMENT to stand n the water during the ceremony.

of a new capital, due to its abundant water supply and natural landscape. Pretoria was named in honor of his VOORTREKKER father, and registered a town on the 16th novemeber 1855.

1836 STONE AGE 2000BC NDEBELE PEOPLE

Tools have been discovered mainly along the banks of the apies river as well as in caves withinGroenkloof the groenkloof Bronkhurst registered the farms and nature Elandspoort. area.

1840 MZILIKAZI1820-1832 IRON AGE 550BC-700AD BRONKHURST BROTHERS

11 BACKGROUND

The Bronkhurst brothers abondoned the trek in ohrigstad

kop, of with military on thenature apies river. Women One thetwo caves in thekraals Groenkloof reserve have who been had to fetch fromBoth teh river namedand it Enzwabuhlungu, linked to thewater iron age. pot shards tools have been BOER SETTLEMENT meaning something that hurts, refering to sharpdiscovered. dolomite rock that they had to walk across. The sotho name for the river was Entsabohloko, refering to the circumsicion rites of the a new capital, totribe its abundant waternsupply and where young mendue of th used to stand the water natural landscape. Pretoria was named of his during in thehonor ceremony. VOORTREKKER father, and registered a town on the 16th novemeber 1855.

1836

2000BC

Bronkhurst registered the farms Groenkloof and ElandSTONE AGE spoort.

TAINS SETTLEMENT IN RELATION O PRET TO ORIA THEOUNT SETTLEMENT AINS IN RELATION O PRETORIA TO THE OUNT SETTLEMENT AINS IN RELATION O PRETOUNT ORIA TO T

NDEBELE PEOPLE

FOUNTAINS IN RELATION TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF PRETORIA Several time periods are characterized throughout the Groenkloof nature reserve with evidence of settlement along the banks of the Apies River. These sites are representative of the oldest occupation ever recorded in Pretoria and thus are of great value for education and research. Road Networks [1959-1973] From 1959 to 1973, road networks were built alongside and across the Fountains Valley reserve. The first expressway, Maria van Riebeeck Road (Presently Nelson Mandela Road) was built across the north east area of the reserve and connected Fountains Circle with the Pretoria central business district. Two additional expressways were built through fountains Valley nature reserve: Christina de Wit Avenue and Ben Schoeman freeway connected the Pretoria central area with centurion and Lyttleton manner towards the south. The intention of these two routes was to avoid the traffic bottle neck at Fountains Circle and allow for easier access to the City Centre from the south. These transport interventions had a detrimental effect on Fountains Valley, by isolating it from its surroundings and cutting fountains off from the city to the north and also by fragmenting the once contiguous valley. The freeways turned fountains into an island, separating it from the city and dividing it into fragments. In addition to its isolation, the freeways partly caused the erection of a perimeter fence on prevent uncontrolled crossing of the roads, therefore limiting the number of entry points into Fountains. (Pretoria News 1953, p3).

1855 Establishment of Pretoria

1855 ESTEBLISHMENT O

1855 ESTEBLISHMENT O

1855 ESTEBLISHMENT O


olding am

ort lapperkop

1 02STEAM PUMP ESTABLISHED Pipe line to the forts

pper pring ower pring

olding am

GROENKLOO NATURE RESERVE ESTABLISHED IN 18 5 pper pring ower pring

Introduction

OUNTAINS IN RELA

OUNTAINS IN RELATION TO T

1855 Establishment of Pretoria

APIES RIVER

pper pring ower pring

APIES RIVER

ort chanskop

late lined Open Water furrows APIES RIVER

OUNT IN RELATION TO H DROLOG OUNTAINS INAINS RELATION TO H DROLOG

APIES RIVER

late lined Open Water furrows

1870

A TER PIPED TO CHURCH S UARE nde rground Pipeline from lower spring

1870

terkfontein prings pipeline

A TER PIPED TO CHURCH S UARE nde rground Pipeline from lower spring

pper pring ower pring

2014 CURRENT P

pper pring ower pring

A TER SUPPL S STEM R

H

esorvoir

THABO SEHUME

APIES RIVER

ort lapperkop

i ing shed

pper pring ower pring

STREET

ET PAUL KRUGER STRE BOSMAN STREET

ort chanskop

12

APIES RIVER APIES RIVER

ort lapperkop

1 02STEAM PUMP ESTABLISHED

GROENKLOO NATURE RESERVE ESTABLISHED IN 18 5

oberts eight s

Pipe line to the forts

ort lapperkop

1 02STEAM PUMP ESTABLISHED

pper pring GROENKLOO NATURE ower pring RESERVE ESTABLISHED IN 18 5

Pipe line to the forts

pper pring ower pring

Figure 2: Timeline indicating the development of Pretoria in relation to Fountains Valley


FOUNTAINS IN RELATION TO THE HISTORY OF HYDROLOGY [1850’s-1900]

Introduction

13

The initial municipal works in Fountains Valley during 1855 were to build a holding dam at the springs, as well as digging a water furrow from Fountains Valley to Church Square. The furrows were specified as 450mm deep and 900mm wide (Haarhof et al., 2013:1). The water was originally fed to the Square in these open furrows, but due to repeated typhoid epidemics the Volksraad decided that water should rather be piped to the town. Remnants of the slate lined channels are still present under the cement pavement tiles of Church, Du Toit, Thabo Sehume (formerly Andries), Paul Kruger and Bosman Street (Panagos, 2003).

Therefore there is a need for restoration and rehabilitation of Pretoria’s remaining hydrology systems to acknowledge and celebrate the significance it had on the establishment of Pretoria.

Background

After the Jameson raid in 1898, the Volksraad built 4 forts to defend Pretoria. Two of which- Fort Klapperkop and Fort Schanskop were positioned on either side of Fountains Valley (Panagos, 2003). In 1902, during the British occupation, a pumping station was erected just west of the lower fountain to supply water to the military. A steam engine pumped 900 000 litres of water per day to Roberts Heights (Voortrekkerhoogte). Unfortunately, when the stream engine was replaced with an electric one the boiler room was demolished. In 1953 its tall chimney was also demolished (Pretoria News, 1953:2). The brick structure of the ZAR pump station has architectural significance: the station is an example of early 19th century industrial architecture and of great cultural significance. (Van Tonder, 2008:27)

Figure 15: Current conditions of the Apies river, by author

Figure 16: Apies river lost edges, by author


The Apies River is an underutilized resource both within Fountains Valley and the city of Pretoria. The river has a rich history in its name, physical history and its core role in the establishment of the city which is under-appreciated and acknowledge by the citizens. The lost heritage and the social and ecological role that it plays are issues that needs to be addressed. The river is addressed through focusing on the current state of the environment as well as its physical attributes.

Unfortunately, the urban development within Pretoria city has ignored the health of the river. The concreted canals now serve as a sewage and general rubbish conduit. Building dykes and fortified river walls only intensifies the impression of an open sewer canal on whose shores someone would not willingly walk or relax. The steep edges along the Apies River channel and seasonal floods also pose serious physical danger to pedestrians. People are unaware of the volumes of water flowing along the Apies, since the river has been downgraded to being a canal, polluted with industrial waste and hidden behind the back house of urban development.

Groundwater pollution has accustomed people to the fact that large cities can draw only a tiny proportion of their water from their own territory, and so use supplies from further away. Gauteng is supplied with potable water from the Vaal Dam catchment area, which includes the Vaal River, Wilge River and all their tributaries. “Tshwane’s scarce water resources are under tremendous pressure, with water quality of streams deteriorating during their course through the Tshwane area, especially with relation to bacteriological quality. The monitoring network needs to be expanded and specific measures implemented to improve water quality� (City of Tshwane Metropolitan municipality, 2005)

Water quality monitoring is the effort to obtain information on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of water via statistical sampling, all in effort of understanding, protecting and re-mediating the natural riverine environments and ecosystems. [South African UNEP-GEM Water Monitoring Programme, 2004]

14 Background

The effects of polluted water on human health, the aquatic ecosystem (aquatic biota, and in-stream and riparian habitats) and on various sectors of the economy and recreation is disastrous. Deteriorating water quality leads to increased treatment costs as well as lost and rejected waterscapes through urban environments.

River monitoring In order to benefit from the natural riverine environments through and around Pretoria, it is necessary to monitor and protect the Apies River and its ability to provide recreational, conservational and economical services.

Introduction

PRETORIA IN ITS NATURAL CONTEXT

Figure 17: Timeline indicating the development of Pretoria in relation to Fountains Valley, by author


Figure 18: Fountains valley, Pretoria national archive

15


Figure 19: Fountains valley, Pretoria national archive

Theodore Tromp aptly described fountains as “a babbling brook, winding through the Kloofs and shaping its course to touch their slopes covered with flowers and shrubs, lends its banks to numerous picnic parties, more particularly at a spot where the river broadens slightly to pass underneath far stretching branches of shady trees. This is called the fountains� (Coetzee et al., 1992:15 see also tromp, 1879:56)

16


PROPOSED CONTEXT - FOUNTAINS VALLEY AS A LAYERED CONFLUENCE Introduction

The chosen site lies within the Fountains Valley resort area, the northern portion of the greater Groenkloof Nature Reserve. This area is known as the place where the Bronkhorst brothers established their farm around the existence of two natural springs.

Fountains has long been associated with recreation and events of cultural activity which can be traced back to Pretoria’s establishment in 1855. Until the mid-1970s, Fountains Valley proved to be a cherished and popular destination amongst the citizens of Pretoria. For children and adults alike, Fountains was a fairy-tale setting where couples could wander through the romantic forest. In summer months, the swimming pool proved to be the most frequent attraction in the reserve. A miniature steam powered train and track system was introduced in 1948 by the Kimble family. (Coetzee et al., 1992:24)

GROENKLOOF NATURE RESERVE

[ ]_LAB 001 PRETORIA

17 Background Figure 20: Old miniature steam train, Pretoria national archive

Figure 21: Fountains Valley, a tranquil setting, Pretoria national archive


Figure 22: Isolated lower spring, by author

With ground water usually being a hidden resource, Pretoria’s springs offer a rare visual glimpse of this important water resource in South Africa. An unusually strong and consistent source, Pretoria’s fountains are a clear example of groundwater’s abil-

The grounded water in fountains is more protected from contamination, evaporation losses, and droughts than surface water, therefore making it a viable yet under-appreciated natural resource.

Due to mis-perception, the general public often forget the importance of groundwater as a resource. This is evident in the lack of knowledge regarding the upper and lower fountains within Fountains Valley being the main reason for historical events in and around Pretoria, leading to it eventually becoming the capital city of South Africa. With proper monitoring and protection, these water sources can provide sustainable, reliable water supply for generations and as such need to be restored and established as culturally significant sites.

Introduction

ity towards offering a consistent supply of quality fresh water. It is important to know that ground water often requires little or no treatment, eliminating the need for large and expensive water treatment facilities.

18 Background

The upper and lower springs The Fountains Valley springs are approximately 4800 meters from Church Square with an elevation difference of around 50 meters, providing a sufficient gradient of roughly 1 degree to supply water from the fountains to Pretoria’s first inhabitants and around Church Square. (Haarhof et al., 2013:1)

Figure 23.: Spring over flow out door, by author

Figure 24: Inside lower spring shelter, Pretoria national archive


Introduction

LAB_005 LAB_006

LAB_00

LAB_003 LAB_001 LAB_014

LAB_002

LAB_004

LAB_015 LAB_012

LAB_013 LAB_011

LAB_007

LAB_016

19

LAB_009

LAB_008

LAB_010

Figure 25: Distribution of LAB across South Africa, by author


Fountains Valley was once a primary site for relaxation and recreation for Pretoria, but due to the development of infrastructure, more specifically the surrounding road network, Fountains Valley has become disconnected from its surrounding context as well as the city itself. Fountains Valley is therefore only accessible by car and access is limited for cyclists along the Apies River. The channelization of the Apies River, as well as the hidden springs within Fountains has diminished the manifestation of the river and its source to the public. The public have therefore become disconnected to this important cultural landscape due to a lack of awareness and forgot the importance the landscape played in the establishment and settlement patterns of Pretoria. Unfortunately unlike surrounding context such as Freedom Park, the Voortrek-

ker Monument, forts Klapperkop and Schanskop, Fountains Valley is not yet recognized or protected as a heritage site. (Panagos, 2003) Therefore the main intention of this proposal is to re-establish a connection with Fountains Valley and its surrounding urban and cultural context. These will be achieved through connections with the Apies River, emphasizing the site as the foundation point and roots of Pretoria and reviving this waterscape through the city. Fountains Valley itself will be re-activated by developing a design which is informed by the river and its water as a medium and generator for an architectural form acknowledging the history of the site. Besides, the insufficient infrastructure that exists for river monitoring and remediation of the river health program (RHP), including the main authority for the Gauteng’s RHP division, requires to assess the situation dealing with the present as well as moving into the future. It is clear that South Africa needs to adopt an advanced and smart wa-

ter management approach. The traditional approach of mainly focusing on new water resource development must be extended to also address and priorities sustainable management including the protection of our precious water resources.

Introduction

Through the research and contextual analysis, the need for an intervention within Fountains Valley resort was identified, specifically within the Groenkloof nature reserve in the southern peripheral of Pretoria city.

The proposal therefore addresses these issues within the current RHP, and provides solutions to smart water management decisions and infrastructure. PRETORIA WATER SUPPLY [MILLION LITRES/d]

9.75

GROUND WATER/SURFACE WATER

56.89

741.63

33.75

24

35.49

GROUND WATER SUPPLY TOTAL SURFACE WATER RELEASE INTO APIES RIVER

OWN AND IMPORTED WATER SOURCES

91.49.

FINDLY RESERVOIR

6.31

6.31 9.69

707.03 LOWER SPRING RIETVLEI PURIFICATION PLANT RIETVLEI SPRINGS

GROUND WATER SUPPLY TOTAL SURFACE WATER

STERKFONTEIN SPRINGS BOREHOLES 2P13, 2P16, VALHALLA, ERASMAN, RIETVLEI

ARGUMENT

Figure 26: Data analysis indicating distribution of water to Pretoria and from the Fountains Springs

20


Figure 27: Conceptual sketch by author

Issues of concern

21


Issues of concern

0.2

ISSUES OF CONCERN 1

Water and Architecture

2

Rehabilitating sensitive cultural landscapes

Water in Nature Water for Mankind Water in Architecture A Continuing Landscape Treating Cultural Landscapes Tangible and Intangible Events

3

Restoring the relationship between man and nature in urban environments

22


Issues of concern

23 Water in Architecture Figure 28: Salk Institute, http://www.architecturaldigest.com


WATER IN ARCHITECTURE

1.

Low stress [<20%] High stress [40-80%] Extremely high stress [>80%] Figure 29: South Africa among the top 30 driest countries in the world, by author

According to Kuhn (2007:05) architects and designers need to rethink the possibilities presented by water beyond the typical sense, and rather look at how it can accommodate a building to improve the userâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s experience. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the different forms of water- solid, liquids, and gas- as well as exploring a multitude of characteristics associated with water: recreation, senses culture and interaction. With this in mind, water in architecture can once again help users to appreciate the cultural, social, and spiritual aspects of water and value its diverse physical and emotive characteristics. South Africa is among the 30 driest countries in the world (South Africa, a water scarce country, 2011). The principal problem in Pretoria is not a general shortage in volume, but a shortage of water of potable quality and pollution of waterways, which goes far beyond the point which rivers can clean themselves. Groundwater pollution has accustomed people to the fact that large cities can draw only a tiny proportion of their water from their own territory, and so must use supplies from further away.

Presently, rain water runs underground in sewers reservoirs are covered, swimming pools are soaked with chlorine and fenced off, and ponds and natural streams are so polluted no one wants to go near them. The design of a hydrological research and conservation facility will provide the opportunity for the integration of water as a design, sensual, climatic and cultural element which will be incorporated into the natural springs of Fountains as well as an urban development plan for the Apies River through the city. The development forms a marginal territory and initiates the transition between land, people and water, connecting lost urban space.

24 Water in Architecture

The aim of this thesis is to understand and recognize the role which water can play in architecture and everyday life, its design and tectonics and the emotive qualities which water can evoke. Water can be described as a fluid and vibrant element, whereas architecture can be perceived as a static and fixed part of our surroundings. The seeming contradictories can provide imaginative design opportunities. Regarding the tension between water and architecture, it is important to rethink the endless opportunities water can offer in architecture such as sensual and physical experience, light effects, reflection, sustainable cooling methods as well as sense of place.

Issues of concern

RELEVANCE AND IMPORTANCE


STATE OF KNOWLEDGE AND PRIOR RESEARCH Issues of concern

It is common cause that people have always been attracted to water. Whether it is a flowing river, the gurgling of a stream, the waves of the ocean, or water flowing over the rim of a fountain, we are drawn to interact, stare and touch it. Ultimately, to understand the water in architecture, we need to understand the architecture of water (Whelchel and Donovan, 1994: 15). The following section will discuss the qualities of water in nature, mankind and architecture. Water in nature Since architecture and nature are symbiotic when common ground is shared, the vast range of qualities into which water is shaped sets the stage for a poetic interpretation and inspiration.

25

Experiencing water in nature, is a universal landscape element and is a vital element which can bring life to any landscape. It is a sculptural medium unsurpassed in its potential to make the most of its form, transparency, reflectivity, refractivity, color, movement and sound.

1. Water in Architecture

Figure 30: properties of water, http://www.physicalgeography.net


Figure 32: Natural spring http://naturalspringspools.com

33: frog, http://www.northrup.org

Issues of concern

Figure 31: Spider web, http://scottfillmer.com

The natural water source Springs, often informally called fountains, commonly form the origins of rivers and therefore are very important in sustaining downstream ecosystems. Runoff surface water then flows into these streams, forming larger rivers. (Dippenaar, 2013.)

Fauna and flora All riverine environments are homes to a variety of fauna and flora, which form part of the cycle in structuring and maintaining a sustainable and healthy ecosystem. Rivers and streams provide crucial pathways for aquatic and terrestrial organisms to move and migrate to find food, breed, and avoid predators. Urban green space provides a unique landscape that supports a diversity of fauna and flora and provides an ever expanding human population with direct access to nature. The presence of high quality biodiversity in urban areas provides additional environmental and economic benefits including cleaner air and water, and urban recreational areas. (Wampler, 2012)

26 1. Water in Architecture

Physical aspects of water The properties of water as it appears in nature are always restricted by a code of natural limits. Water is found in various natural forms such as oceans, lakes, rivers, underground waters, ice caps and rain. There is a fixed amount of water in the world, with water forming the basis of the liquids found in and used by living things (Whelchel & Donovan, 1994: 15).


Figure 34: recreational swim, http://www. masterfile.comage

Issues of concern

27

Figure 35: Tourism, http://english.cntv.

Figure 36: Rice fields, http://commons.wikimedia.org

Tourism The tourism and travel industry is dependent on water, whether it is the infinite horizon of ocean which attracts the visitor, or the dense brush veld with the natural river which runs through it. Water features or natural water sources almost always form the platform of a travel destination spot.

Cultural Water is an integral part of life: the fact that water is necessary for survival makes it a key part of culture. Water is embraced by cultures and is cherished for its ability to purify and nourish. Water is often used as a metaphor in cultures and religions as a source of life. It is believed that physical purification leads to spiritual rejuvenation and that water is the means of passage, connection or bridge. Water has always been a driving force behind health, society, economic prosperity, cultural significance, and development throughout human history (Stewart, 2008).

Water for humankind Not only is water the most important nutrient for human consumption, it is also an element which sensually attracts people towards it. Rivers weave through the landscape, carving edges which form national boundaries. In a way, water has molded the modern world and society, connecting and disconnecting suburbs and neighbors and people.

Recreation The yearning to touch, feel and even become totally immersed in water as part of recreation, comes almost naturally and instinctively to humans. Children especially exhibit a strong aspiration to interact with water as they are lured to water features or spouts, the ocean waves or flowing streams: although not always conscious of the dangers (Booth 1990: 255). Water provides the setting for many recreational activities as well as exercise and sports activities. Some of these including swimming, water skiing, boating and diving. For that reason recreational uses of water need to be treated with care and sensitive management.

A persons awareness can be carried away to a more tranquil and peaceful state of mind when watching and listening to the rhythmic and sensual movements of water (Booth 1990: 25).

1. Water in Architecture

The flow of water has been an important tool for developing society; it helped trade to expand and prosper, sustained agriculture through irrigation, and supplied hydro-power for factories and mills. The source and motion of rivers, streams and canals have established and connected cities and empires. (Whelchel and Donovan, 1994:21)


Water in architecture The necessity of water as the universal liquid for sustaining life sets the stage for social development, with many villages and towns settling on the banks of rivers and oceans. The potential of water in architecture for meaningful and practical expressions is limitless.

Issues of concern

Figure 37: water cooled house, http://design-milk.com

Water is a highly flexible and variable design element, possessing no constant and exact character at any one time; varying beyond the control of the designer. Understanding the influences that cause water to achieve the desired visual effects represent a major challenge for designers. Through a careful arrangement of water and architecture, we can create for ourselves a place in the nature surrounding us, connected to the cycle and all the worldsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; water. (Whelchel and Donovan, 1994:204)

1. Water in Architecture

28


RELEVANT PRINCIPLES APPLIED Issues of concern

It is envisaged to incorporate the natural river, springs and confluence of springs within Fountains Valley into the design not only through research and repairment strategies, but also through creating sensual experiences as well as contributing to climate control: cleansing and filtration: narrative/guides: motion: sound: interaction: reflectivity and connecting of lost urban spaces. The following properties influence the purpose and method by which water can be used as a design element.

29

Climate control Water is often used as climate control in indoor and outdoor environments by modifying air and ground surface temperatures. Large bodies of water on a regional scale have the capability to modify air temperatures in the surrounding land area. This is based on the principal that water cools off and warms up slowly, so that it is cooler in summer and warmer in winter than the adjacent areas of land. When air moves over a body of water, into a public space, the cooling effect can be enhanced (Booth, 1990: 259)

1. Water in Architecture

Cleansing and filtration Water can cleanse the environment in the form of a flash flood or by way of natural/ constructed wetlands, amongst others. Wetlands are ecosystems which are saturated with water creating a habitat for a wide range of fauna and flora. The presence or absence of water in this ecosystem determines their formation, processes and characteristic. Wetlands are an important and vital ecosystem which is beneficial for water purification, acting as natural and passive systems which trap pollutants in the water, transforming them to harmless substances (Constanza, 2006)

Narrative and guide Complicated architectural arrangements can be unified and connected by introducing channels of water. These strategic waterways link a series of incidents and provide an element of continuity through a building or city. The waterway can be seen as a narrative which continues to link monuments, parks, bridges and similar typologies, guiding one through a coherent city and absorbs the reflections of the buildings lined up around its edges. (Whelchel and Donovan, 1994:201)


Issues of concern

Like the purely visual aspects of water, the sounds of water are variable and can be manipulated to produce satisfying results. However architectural designs can borrow from natural cycles and sounds already present. Designers can use water to stimulate sounds that allow people to connect with nature, refresh spent minds, or block out less desirable noises. (Whelchel and Donovan, 1994:202)

Interaction To invite contact, water must seem fresh, clear, sparkling and clean, evoking a sense of beauty and health. Interacting with water can also take place on an emotional level. (Whelchel and Donovan, 1994:203)

Reflectivity Reflecting prominent features of a building or context can aid in enhancing a prominent point of reference or orientation by giving order to a space. Water can act as a medium to reflect light and sound, providing alternative applications in the design of outdoor and indoor environments and the perception of space (Booth, 1990: 257)

Connecting urban spaces Water and water courses possesses the ability to connect urban spaces into a network of green spaces. It can be used as an alternative to reactivating ‘dead’ or unused spaces. Therefore celebrating the water sources rather than turning our backs on them would be the way to enjoy the nature of Pretoria. “Preserve natural pools and streams and let them run through the city: make paths for people to walk along them and footbridges to cross them. Let the streams form natural barriers in the city, with traffic only crossing them infrequently on bridges” (Alexander 1977: 326)

30 1. Water in Architecture

Motion and sound Dynamic water is energetic and emotionally stimulating, capturing ones attention through movement and sound. The movement of water is determined by its balance with gravity; with greater imbalance comes greater movement and dynamics. On the other hand static water results more into a soothing effect on human emotions. Static water expresses a state which is balanced with the force of gravity.


Figure 38: Intensive subsistence cultural landscape, http://marygstewart.com

Issues of concern 2. Sensitive cultural landscapes

31


REHABILITATING SENSITIVE CULTURAL LANDSCAPES

2.

The cultural heritage within Fountains Valley is significant, diverse, extensive, and most importantly basically non-renewable. It forms an integral part of South Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s history and therefore cannot be over stated (van Tonder, 2008:11). Due to its value as a unique water source, it is the birth place of the city and was protected as a conservation area in the late 19th century. It is one of the oldest Nature conservation areas in South Africa and may contribute greatly to the cultural and tourism industry in and around Pretoria. Therefore it is important to bring the cultural significance of Fountains Valley as well as its dynamic hydrological history to the attention of the public by means of a Hydrology research and conservation platform. Greater public interest and participation would benefit the long term wellbeing of the various sites located in the reserve.

32 2. Sensitive cultural landscapes

The aim is to evaluate the potential benefits and principles when dealing with cultural landscapes of significant value. A landscape perspective also recognizes the continuity between the past and with people utilizing the land today. Exploring how sense of place, cultural identity, and connection to the past can become touchstones for deepening and broadening the impact and relevance of conservation and rehabilitation. (Mitchell, N. 2000)

Issues of concern

RELEVANCE AND IMPORTANCE


STATE OF KNOWLEDGE AND PRIOR RESEARCH Issues of concern

A cultural landscape can be described as places that are illustrative of the evolution of human society and settlement over time, under the influence of the physical constraints and/or opportunities presented by their natural environment and of successive social economic and cultural forces both external and internal. (Jirasek, P. 2004) According to the National Heritage Resources Act, any place or object is to be considered part of the national estate if it has cultural significance or other special value. These points are all relevant to the cultural landscape of Fountains Valley and should therefore be taken into consideration. (No. 25 of 1999)

2. Sensitive cultural landscapes

33

• Its importance in the community, or pattern of South Africa’s history • Its procession of uncommon, rare or endangered aspects of South Africa’s natural or cultural heritage • Its potential to yield information that will contribute to an understanding of South Africa’s natural or cultural heritage • Its importance in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a particular class of South Africa’s natural or cultural places and objects • It importance in exhibiting particular aesthetic characteristics valued by a community or cultural group • Its importance in demonstrating a high degree of creative or technical achievements of a particular period • Its strong or special association with a particular community or cultural group for social, cultural or spiritual reasons • Its special association with the life or work of a person, group or organization of importance in the history of South Africa.

The protection of cultural heritage constitutes a significant part of the material and spiritual wealth of the world. Movable and immovable cultural heritage, together with natural environmental and intangible cultural heritage, represent values which contribute to the education and to the social culture of society. It also has significant economic impact because, together with the natural environment, it represents a basic prerequisite for a prosperous tourist industry. Therefore these landscapes provide scenic, economic, ecological, social, recreational and educational opportunities that helps one understand ourselves as individuals and as a nation. A well preserved cultural landscape can yield an improved quality of life for all as well as a sense of place or identity for future generations. This section explores the value of cultural landscapes through a theoretical approach.


Figure 40: https://waterjournalistsafrica.wordpress.com

Issues of concern

Figure 39: Continuing landscapes

Treating cultural landscapes Treating cultural landscapes can occur on different levels of intervention, mainly preservation, rehabilitation, restoration and reconstruction. The degree to which cultural sites are intervened with depends on its historical significance within its time and context. For the purpose of this design, the focus will be on rehabilitation of cultural landscapes.

Rehabilitation Act of making possible compatible use for a property through repair, alterations, and additions while preserving those portions or features which convey its historical or cultural values. (Birnbaum, C. 1994)

Tangible and intangible events A living heritage or intangible aspects of inherited culture, and may include cultural tradition, oral history, performance, ritual, popular memory, skills and techniques, Indigenous knowledge systems and holistic approach to nature, society and social relationships (National heritage resources act, no. 25 of 1999)

34 2. Sensitive cultural landscapes

A continuing landscape It may be said that landscapes have evolved. The essence of the organically evolved cultural landscape is that itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most significant values lie in the context of a natural environment that influenced and shaped it. These continuing cultural landscapes are traditional settlements that represent cultural adaptations to specific natural environments through which community have shaped both a livelihood sustained over time and a distinctive sense of place. (Mitchell, N. 2000)


Issues of concern

RELEVANT PRINCIPLES APPLIED Intangible events Fountains valley is a sanctuary to past civilization rituals, events and cultural tradition, and should therefore be included in the process of the design proposal through views and movement routes

2. Sensitive cultural landscapes

35

Figure 41: Fountains cultural landscape, by author

Visual and spatial relationships By reviewing and connecting information from historic research, individual features can be understood in a systematic fashion that show the continuum that exists within the site today. By classifying these features and relationships, the landscape can be understood as an artifact, possessing evidence of evolving natural systems and human interventions over time.


Issues of concern

The displacement of people and resisting displacement The reserve represents one of the only untouched areas in Pretoria where traces of the occupation and displacement of the different groups of people may still be found and studied. (Van Tonder, 2008)

Water production Up to 1930 all Pretoriaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water was obtained from Fountains Valley. Today the springs in Fountains had become from one of the most strongest and consistent springs in the country to deliver only 8% of high quality unpolluted water to the area. The remnants of the old water system are still found here. (Van Tonder, 2008)

Eco-cultural tourism Fountains Valley was the second protected area to be proclaimed on the African continent and having both natural and cultural values of great significance. It is an important part of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tourism industry and a major attraction for local visitors. (Van Tonder, 2008)

36 2. Sensitive cultural landscapes

South Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s earliest inhabitants Significant features of cultural, historical, and archaeological interest are present within fountains. The Stone Age is represented and distributed throughout the area and one site with definite Iron Age occupation has been identified. These sites may be representative of the oldest, undisturbed evidence of occupation in the Pretoria area. (Van Tonder, 2008)


RESTORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MAN AND NATURE IN URBAN ENVIRONMENTS

3. STATE OF KNOWLEDGE AND PRIOR RESEARCH

Issues of concern

People depend on their natural surroundings for both natural resources and for enabling the establishment of communities. Too often, a distinction has been made between architecture and environment, cutting people off from a psychologically developed need to commune with nature.

This study will investigate the integration of nature with the built environment and the potential synergies in exchanging energy and nutrients across the human-nature interface

In our current built environment, the connection between man and nature have been obstructed. Urban dwellers are so accustomed to the built habitat that one no longer notices there destructive effects. Eliminating some of the distinctions between built and natural spaces allows Biophillic design to communicate the benefits of both types of environments. (Kellert, S.R. 2008)

3. Relationship between man and nature

The aim is to design a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;living systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, establishing a coexistence between nature and the built environment. This symbiotic relationship will be beneficial for both nature and humans and will be the platform for sustainable development in urban environments.

Therefore maintaining access to nature is a fundamental need and has significant implications for the quality of life in urban environments. The presence of high quality biodiversity in urban areas provides us with additional environmental and economic benefits including clean air and water, more attractive public spaces and recreational areas. The following section discusses the

37

principles of Biophillic design and the connection between nature and man, as well as nature and the built environment.

Figure 44: Relationship between man and a untouched nature, http://www.allposters.com


Biophillia As we associate more with something and develop a relationship with it, we take it on as part of ourselves and develop a connection or affinity for it. This affiliation consists primarily of emotional connections which cause humans to attach value to some item. (Dillon, R.B, 2008, 3) Biophillic affinity can be classified into 4 differently levels namely: Contact, association, views and proxy. Although each of these levels promotes biophillic affiliation, a greater personnel and immediate affiliation with the natural environment will build stronger psychological and emotional connections. Studies have shown that a connection based on contact has proven to be the most conscious and immediate form of affiliation. This occurs when the association takes place on a physical level and elements start to enter our personal

space connecting to our sense of touch and smell. Consequently making this level affiliation the strongest with more intensity and sensation experienced than in other levels. (Dillion, R.B, 2008, 3) Affiliation therefore leads to positive responses in terms of human performance and health even emotional states.

Nature and architecture Biophillic design focuses on establishing natural based habitats for humans to live and work in. Biophillic design incorporates elements derived from nature in order to maximize human functioning and health. It seeks both to avoid and minimize harmful impacts on the natural environment, as well as to provide and restore beneficial contacts people have with nature in a built environment. (Kellert, S.R. 2008) Because biophillic is associated with positive feelings, architects relying on Biophillic design have the advantage of universal appeal. They also retain a high degree of flexibility and freedom, as Biophillic design is not defined by one aesthetic. (Kellert, S.R. 2008) Many existing buildings contain Biophillic elements, however only a few have been built with the specific idea of Biophillic design principles. An example of this type of building is the Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental Studies at Oberlin College. Director of the college, David Orr, explained the building’s goals were “to cre-

Figure 45: Lady walking dog

ate not just a place for classes but rather a building that could help to redefine the relationship between humankind and the built environment- one that would expand our senses of ecological possibilities”. The facility minimizes energy use in harnessing solar power, utilizes both active and passive air systems, and monitors the weather to adapt to conditions. The center can be classified as a “living machine”, combining traditional w wastewater technologies with constructed wetlands ecosystems. (Kellert, S.R. 2008)

Issues of concern

Nature and man When we are in touch with our natural elements we are strongly reinforcing the connection between ourselves and the natural ecosystem around us.

Figure 43: Constructed walkway through landscape, by author

3. Relationship between man and nature

Figure 42: Person feeding ducks, by author

38


Issues of concern

RELEVANT PRINCIPLES APPLIED

3. Relationship between man and nature

39

Connecting urban space Connecting people, places and spaces with green corridors not only assures that the ecological value of urban parks do not become too small or isolated, but also to ensure pathways, routes, and urban circulation within an Eco-systemic environment. (Kellert, S.R. 2008)

Natural light People are evolutionarily programmed to respond positively to well lighted or sunny areas compared to dark and overcast settings. Rhythmical living light, patterns of brightness and shadows, sparkle. Natural ventilation, Movement of air, changes in temperature, airborne scents (Kellert, S.R. 2008)

Materiality Use of natural elements as interior and exterior finishes, will create the sense of a natural oasis. Local natural materials: connecting site to the building and interior spaces (Kellert, S.R. 2008)

Energy effectiveness Passive Biophillic architecture uses less energy to operate because they feature efficient designs, materials and systems. In addition, these Biophillic structures have highly competent heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting materials and appliances. (Kellert, S.R. 2008)


Issues of concern

Human comfort Views: natural views holds the viewerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s concentration, diverts their awareness away from themselves and from worrying thoughts thereby improving health. Activities in natural surroundings such as gardens and parks are important as relief spaces from the busy urban environment. People tend to feel better when looking down onto green spaces from their apartments compared to cold hard surfaces. (Kellert, S.R. 2008)

Indoor Outdoor connection Frequent opportunities for spontaneous interaction with nature: Free flowing movement between exterior and interior spaces, visual and physical access to nature at all times. Sensory connection to nature: Physical, visual, material connections between interiors and nature. (Kellert, S.R. 2008)

Complexity and order Relationship of variety and intricacy within underlying natural patterns or order (Kellert, S.R. 2008)

3. Relationship between man and nature

Architectural composition and human attitude The role of architectural composition, through its complex activities, is to create the frame work material, of the organized space, with a view to satisfaction and the spiritual need for the person and society. (Kellert, S.R. 2008)

40


Issues of concern 3. Relationship between man and nature

41

Mystery Enhancing the desire to explore, discover, and learn from the complexities of nature. Views from position of safety and security (Kellert, S.R. 2008)

Fundamental natural forms Natural progressions of scale, rhythm, proportion, repetition symmetry, gradients (Kellert, S.R. 2008)


Issues of concern Conclusion

After this investigation the conclusion can be drawn that Biophillic architecture can successfully reconnect the inhabitants of our city to the natural environment. The re-establishment of this relationship will reinforce our affiliation for nature and would consequently result in the preservation of our natural environment. This symbiotic relationship will be beneficial for both nature and humans and will be the platform for sustainable development that aims to re-establish a state of homeostasis in our natural ecological system.

CONCLUSION

42


Precedents

43


Precedents

0.3

PRECEDENTS 1

Willamette River Water Treatment Plant

2

Delta Shelter

3

Freedom Park

4

Comparative Matrix

5

Case Study

44


Figure 46: Willamette outdoor spaces and walkways, http://www.architravel.com

Precedents

45

The following precedent studies informed major design decision in functionality, materiality and program. These projects are analyzed in a comparative matrix which highlights elements investigated being, contextual integration, outdoor Spaces, security management, circulation, accessibility, tectonics and materiality, and climatic response. This investigation underlined certain design principles which will be applied, forming vital generators in the development process and assist in the design of a hydrological heritage and research facility.


WILLAMETTE RIVER WATER TREATMENT PLANT

1.

DESCRIPTION

RELEVANCE

Water from the Willamette River has been the subject of considerable analysis in the past. A pilot-scale water treatment facility was set up to demonstrate how â&#x20AC;&#x153;raw waterâ&#x20AC;? could be treated to meet all federal and state drinking water standards. The site is divided along a 243.84m cast in place concrete wall that runs perpendicular to the Willamette River. Water is diverted behind the wall where it goes through a series of filters and purification tanks. At the end of its process it is stored in an underground tank, where it is pressurized and sent to the homes of Wilsonville. The west side of the site is open to the public as a park. As the public move down the wall along the river, a series of small windows allow the public to look into the treatment facility, and along the route, display boards which informs the public on the processes used to purify the water. (Miller/Hull. 2004)

The programmatic precedents pertain to the investigation of engaging the public with the formal processes of water treatment using views, guides, and thresholds suggests similar principles which are relevant to the design of a hydrological and conservation platform.

Perceptions and appreciation of the water quality in the town have risen now that the public can see where its water comes from. More evident is that the facility is allowing residents to become more aware and acknowledgeable of the relationship between natural processes and the built environment. (Miller/Hull. 2004)

Precedents

MILLER HULL ARCHITECTS, MURASE LANDSCAPE ASSOCIATES/WILSONVILLE, OREGAN/2002

46

Figure 47: Willamette treatment plant perspective, http://www.architravel.com


DELTA SHELTER

2.

Figure 48: Delta shelter, http://www.archdaily.com

OLSON KUNDIG ARCHITECTS/MAZAMA, WASHINGTON/2005

DESCRIPTION Precedents

47

Tom Kundig is widely recognized for his poetic, elemental and intuitive designs, including Houses 2, Hong Kong Villa, Rolling Huts and Sol Duc Cabin. His projects revere the beauty of the American west. He uses art, craft, and materials to connect the building to the landscape, and he creates serene places for contemplation and repose. The built forms seemingly integrate architecture and landscape, and pay attention to detail and the materials, which are often left in the natural raw state. The experimental nature of his work lies in the use of kinetic architectural features and the reinvention of structural elements that are often overlooked, such as doors, windows and stairs. (Kundig, O. 2014)

dig’s description of the shelter. A space connected to the natural landscape, allowing full advantage of the climate, scenic views and the proximity to wildlife: at the same time the shelter can be easily secured when not in use. (Kundig, O. 2014)

Delta shelter is an economically-sized weekend retreat house which is set in a large tract of land prone to regular flooding. The compact 93 sq meter, three- leveled steelwalled hideaway with a footprint of only 18.6 sq meter rests on four steel beams and is covered with heavy-duty 16-gauge hotrolled sheet steel over plywood walls. ‘Little house, big landscape’ is architect Tom Kun-

RELEVANCE

Shutters protect the building during the week, and protect against the high-desert weather conditions – very hot in the summer and very cold in the winter – experienced in the Cascade Mountains, a northern outcrop of the Rockies. The cabin is a jumping-off point for the client’s love of outdoor activities. (Kundig, O. 2014)


FREEDOM PARK

3.

GAPP ARCHITECTS AND URBAN DESIGNERS, MASHABANE ROSE ASSOCIATES, MMA ARCHITECTS, NBGM LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS/GAUTENG, PRETORIA/2008

â&#x20AC;&#x153;The ultimate design by a consortium of appointed architects and landscape architects is a delicate interaction between African inspired architecture and landscape. The complex three part brief is realized in a ritualistic language of procession. Its simplicity overruling parochial connotations. By respecting the subtlety of African symbolism and tactfully realizing it on a monumental scale, he project was able to convincingly capture a shared history and a sensitive subject. Perhaps the veneration of landscape- the common bond operative of all South Africans- is the ultimate vehicle for an African architectural language in the reverse, freedom park inaugurates the African monumentâ&#x20AC;? (Joubert, O. 2009)

Precedents

DESCRIPTION

RELEVANCE Using the natural landscape to define routes which can guide the public along a path of remembrance, therefore experiencing an intimate connection to the cultural landscape and unfolding the complex layers of time and influence.

Figure 49: Freedom Park on salvokop, http://liberationheritage.co.za

48


COMPARATIVE MATRIX

//

CONTEXTUAL INTEGRATION

/

OUTDOOR SPACES

/

SECURITY MANAGEMENT

Bold form in a public park which will proclaim the plants importance as a source of community pride.

The public green space hosts several picnic pavilions which also form educational platforms, framing views onto the levee.

Close proximity and views onto natural and artificial filtration processes.

2. DELTA SHELTER

A secluded architectural form subsists to blend with its natural environment, an indestructible living space.

Untouched and left to adapt to seasonal changes, the building therefore also coexists and adapts to it immediate environment.

When not in use, sliding walls and panels secure the shelter.

3. FREEDOM PARK

A natural quartzite ridge of significant ecological value and forms an important visual, natural and strategic gateway into the city.

Natural indigenous garden, constitutes the garden of remembrance.

Salvokop is a protected heritage site and nature reserve.

[ ] LAB_001

Fountains Valley will form an integral part of the monumental landscape on the Southern edge of Pretoria.

Untouched and left to adapt to seasonal changes, observing the natural changes of nature.

When not in use, sliding walls and panels secure the shelter.

Precedents

1. WILLAMETTE RIVER WATER TREATMENT PLANT

49 Comparative Matrix

HYDROLOGICAL RESEARCH AND CONSERVATION PLATFORM

/


CIRCULATION

/

ACCESSIBILITY

/

TECTONICS

/

MATERIALITY

/

Concrete, brick, timber and glass.

Natural filtration ponds filter storm water runoff as well as create riparian zones and a wildlife corridor.

Pre-weathered steel frame and plywood cladding, aluminum windows and tongue-and-groove car decking.

Prefabricated structural members, minimize impact to size, adding to sustainability of project.

The wall forms a guide along the building, trails connect the water treatment plant to other community spaces along the river and into the city.

River becomes threshold between public and private space.

With a minimal footprint, a vertical route connects several stories and spaces.

Single entrance on ground floor, controlled access.

Prefabricated modular panels with kinetic architectural features and the reinvention of structural elements.

Commemorative route through the landscape. Sensory experience.

Located on Salvokop, a major gateway into the city from the south.

An extension of the landscape. Connection to nature and tranquility.

Variety of locally sources materials and plants are used to rehabilitate the site, defining routes and resting spaces.

A constructed levee forms a threshold between public and private space.

Prefabricated movable modular panels with kinetic features, and elements well integrated into existing context.

Corten steel: durability. Weathered into context. Glass: Reflections of water and light, windows frame views in landscape. Mild steel frame construction

Precedents

Linear and didactic layout tells a story of the function of the building, with pockets of natural environment between the boxes.

CLIMATIC RESPONSE AND SUSTAINABILITY

The circulation core is grounded. Other functions of the building form pockets attached to core â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;floatingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; over landscape.

Low maintenance materials and vegetation are used.

[ ]LAB_001 is designed to last a life time. Prefabricated panels delivered to sight. Passive heating and cooling. Natural water purification landscapes.

50 Comparative Matrix

/


CASE STUDY RIETVLEI WETLANDS AND WATER TREATMENT PLANT DESCRIPTION Figure 50: Rietvlei water treatment plant 1975 Precedents

51

Situated 18km from the center of Pretoria, the 3 800-hectare Rietvlei Nature Reserve surrounds the magnificent Rietvlei Dam which supplies Pretoria with 15% of its water. The reserve comprises endangered grassland and is home to approximately 2 000 animals. The bird watching is remarkable with two dams on the reserve with bird hides which provide open water and wetland habitats. Educational programs presented by qualified guides allow you to learn more about the reserves environment. Three distinct habitats – grassland, open-water and wetland – make Rietvlei excellent for bird watching and both dams feature bird hides.

The Rietvlei wetlands cleans river water upstream of the catchment, proving the value of free Eco systemic services provided by nature and wetlands. This environment purifies the river water upstream before entering the catchment for recreational purposes as well as making the large mechanical purification process a lot easier and cheaper. A low flow river increases the time that peat, microorganism and aquatic plants have to trap and absorb pollutants in the water before entering into the dam. Gabions, concrete and earth structures control the erosion, re wet peat soil, increase retention time, and ensure even distribution of water across the wetland.

The dam has become seriously heterotrophic (group of microorganisms that use organic carbon sources to grow (Wynland laboratories. 2014), therefore “solar bees” were introduced, circulating the water and therefore disturbing the habitat of the growing algae. Since this introduction, fish spawning, biodiversity, and water quality have all increased.

RELEVANCE The purpose of this case study was to identify the real benefits wetlands have on an ecosystem as well as the construction and maintenance thereof. 51: Rietvlei wetlands, by author

Case Study


Precedents

PRINCIPLES APPLIED

Integration into cultural landscape The surrounding development within Fountains Valley can be utilized and become beneficial for the current improvements, as well as acknowledging its past.

Filtration and Purification benefits These natural filtration methods require little or no maintenance, and also form natural riparian environments. This will form an essential contribution in the design proposal.

Water sampling collection and processing Water sampling methods and processes are Designed by the department of water affairs and forestry and would therefore be a beneficial method used within the river health program and [ ]LAB_001.

PRECEDENT CONCLUSION It can be concluded that the built environment forms testimony as an integrated threshold between humans and the natural environment and the interaction thereof. The built environment therefore forms a meeting point between humans and the natural, enhancing the connection between two opposing forces, and forming new relationships and connections between these forces.

52 Case Study

Passive filtration systems Peat soil can be used to absorb pollutants from the water, reducing the chances of algae growth. This method is self sustaining and needs little maintenance.


Context appraisal

53


LAB_00

Context appraisal

[ ]

0.4

ANALYSIS & APPRAISAL OF CONTEXT 1

Greater Context: Pretoria

2

Precinct Appraisal: Fountains as a continuation of the monumental landscape

3

Study Area: Fountains Valley

4

Proposed Urban Framework

5

Proposed Fountains Framework

6

Site: Confluence of springs

54


OUNTAIN

Pipe line to the forts

PLE

pper pring ower pring

ort chanskop APIES RIVER

C-700AD

E

Context appraisal

f nature reserve have been shards and tools have been discovered.

The proposed area resides geographically between city and the surrounding natural environment.

2000BC

inly along the banks of the thin the groenkloof nature area.

The research area lies within the Republic of South Africa, Gauteng Province. Norberg Schultz describes the classic type of landscape of Pretoria as one which grows out of a defined place, with valleys and mountain ranges that exist and result in a rich individual form. Water can be understood as the structuring element of Pretoria City, illustrated by the offset of the city grid at Nelson Mandela Street to allow for exploitation of the natural downward sloping landscape to carry water by gravity to the city (V.D Waal, 1994:3 and Engelbrecht et al. 1955:361).

terkfontein prings pipeline

2014 CURRENT P

A TER SUPPL S STEM R

H

esorvoir

THABO SEHUME

ort lapperkop

i ing shed

pper pring ower pring

STREET

ET PAUL KRUGER STRE BOSMAN STREET

ort chanskop

Historically, the town depended on furrows for its main water supply. These furrows became part of the urban planning (Andrews, 1985: 19-20). The water source originated at Fountains Valley and was channeled to Church Square where it was distributed to the rest of Pretoria. However, as the city developed and piped water system was introduced, they lost their function, forgotten by the citizens and therefore diminishing the importance of the river.

55 GREATER CONTEXT: PRETORIA

APIES RIVER

oberts eight s

CURRENT HYDROLOGY SYSTEM AND SURROUNDING RIVER SYSTEMS


Context appraisal

LANDMARKS ACROSS THE CITY

56 Greater context appraisal

GREEN SPACES THROUGH THE CITY

0

500

1000

2000


Context appraisal

The Groenkloof Nature Reserve forms part of a series of historical sites nestled in the surrounding landscapes, protected as sites of historical and cultural significance (Voortrekker Monument, Freedom Park, and Air Force Memorial, Fort Klapperkop, and Fort Schanskop). However Fountains Valley is the only unpromulgated Heritage Park within the cultural landscape and requires special attention and therefore demonstrates the potential to establish a connection with its surrounding landscape as a commemorative site of Pretoriaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first settlers and along with their hydrology systems. The Groenkloof Nature Reserve can be expressed as an enclave that in essence is surrounded by the city. It is surrounded by the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s primary railway lines as well as two highways [R21 and M18] which are all major entrances into Pretoria central. The suburbs Kloofsig, Monument Park and the Waterkloof Air Force to the south of the reserve also form the edges of the Nature reserve.

The Apies River is a significant geographical and natural feature which originates from the springs of Fountains Valley and flows north by gravity into the city. A connection may be made along this corridor, connecting Fountains Valley as an extension of the urban waterscape, allowing alternative access for people to Fountains from the city as a green recreational link. The Greater Fountains area remains active as a place of recreation at present, however its separation from the city and natural surroundings confines these activities to holidays and weekends only. It can therefore be stated that the everyday experience of the site is inactive.

ZONING AROUND

Precinct appraisal

57 PRECINCT APPRAISAL: FOUNTAINS AS A CONTINUATION OF THE MONUMENTAL LANDSCAPE


Context appraisal

CIRCULATION AND ACCESS

MONUMENTAL LANDMARKS

Precinct appraisal

58

0

400

800

1600


A

B

Context appraisal

Fountains Valley falls within the northern portion of the Groenkloof Nature Reserve and is administrated separately. This area is described as the site where the Bronkhorst brothers established their farm due to the existence of the two natural springs (Panagos, 2003). The two fountains are independent of each other and produce an

abundance of pure water from the dolomitic formation between Pretoria and Irene (Dippenaar, 2013). The topography and water flow direction influenced and supported the formation of Pretoria and its grid layout. According to the National Heritage Resources act, no. 25 of 1999, Fountains Val-

ley has Grade II elements of historical and cultural value. Grade II heritage resources are those forming part of the national estate, and can be considered to have special qualities which make them significant within the context of a province or region. The layers of historical influence and resources within Fountains Valley are diverse and are

59 STUDY AREA: FOUNTAINS VALLEY A

B

0

100

200

400

therefore analyzed to establish a sound and responsive architectural solution which commemorates the history of the site. The protection of such a site is necessary to ensure the protection and enjoyment of the area and to protect the view of and from such site.

1 Main entrance 2 Parking 3 Public ablution facility 4 Camp site 5 Swimming Pool 6 Moyo始s restuarant 7 Old wier house 8 Private lapa 9 Old pump house 10 Mixing shed 11 Refuse diposal


Fort Klapperkop

R21

Groenkloof primary road

Study area

Context appraisal

Vodacom tower

UNISA

Nelson Mandela drive M18 Elandspoort Apies River M18 Metro rail

Apies River

Metro Rail

Voortrekker monument

Fort Schanskop

Gautrain railline

N14

Freedom park

Findly reservoir

B-B

Gautrein Rail Line

A-A

60


PHOTOGRAPHIC SITE STUDY OF FOUNTAINS VALLEY

Context appraisal

This study is undertaken in order to establish a visual understanding of both the architectural and natural characteristics of Fountains Valley. It is evident that Fountains has been shaped by the layers of environmental and architectural influences over time, and the study establishes the existing tensions between man and nature.

4

3

H START/FINISH

2 1

5

ENTRANCE NC

1.

2. 61 Study area


Study area

Context appraisal

3.

4.

5. 62


GENERAL FOUNTAINS VALLEY ANALYSIS

Site hydrology

River edge analysis

It is necessary to understand the surface water run off from surrounding hills and slopes to comprehend the different forces which water plays in and around Fountains Valley.

The river edge plays an important role in the development of LAB_00 and therefore needs to be evaluated to understand the changing conditions. Context appraisal

FLOOD CONDITIONS THROUGH VALLEY

FLOOD PLAIN FLAYS Erosion edges Flood plains

Site circulation and access EXISTING RIVERINE ENVIRONMENT Shallow soil hill slopes Riverine habitat

EXISTING RIVER STATE

63 Study area EXISTING CONTEXT AND CONTOURS

The current access and circulation plays no role in protecting and celebrating its cultural and environmental context, and therefore needs to be addressed in the precinct proposal.


Context appraisal

Primary circulation ring road Old steam train tracks

m 200

Private residents

Refuse

Pool services and delivery Moyos staff parking

64 Study area

service and delivery Play park parking Moyos parking

Existing entrance

0

100

200

400


RIVERINE HABITAT OF FOUNTAINS VALLEY Context appraisal

The biodiversity within the study area is assessed to determine its value and characteristics. The area has been classified according to the South African national biodiversity institute (SANBI). This classification highlights the environmental layers of Fountains Valley which will be addressed with accordingly. (Ollis, D. 2009) The riverine habitat includes the physical structure and linked vegetation of the areas associated with watercourses which are commonly characterized by alluvial soils, and are inundated or flooded to an extent. The frequency of flooding would be sufficient to support vegetation of several species with a composition and physical structure district from those of adjacent land areas. Identifying the characteristics of Fountains Valley riparian habitat will help establish an architectural solution which responds directly to its surrounding context and keeping in mind the need to adapt and coexist with seasonal changes and the existing ecosystem.

65

BARBEL

BUSH DUIKER

GROUND SQUIRREL

ENDANGERED RIVERINE RABBIT

GUINEA FOWL

LEVEL 1

LEVEL 0 ENDEMIC LOWER SPRING SHRIMP

FRESH WATER CRAB

FROG

FRESH WATER TURTLE

Study area


LEVEL 2

FOREST: Willow trees White Stink wood trees

HOOPOE

DIKKOP

LEVEL 1

HERBACEOUS: Foxtail sedge Blue Vervian

AQUATIC VEGETATION: Submerged plants: Leafy pond weed Rooted floating plants: Water lilies King tut papyrus

LEVEL 0

Emergent plants: Pragmites Cattail Bullrush plants SALINITY: Fresh water

LEVEL -1

GEOLOGY: Quarzite SUBSTRATUM: Silt/mud, cobbles, pebbles and gravel

66 Study area

AFRICAN DUCK

Context appraisal

NATURAL VS. ARTIFICIAL: Artificial river banks in sections


Time based development

NZASM BRIDGE

STEAM TRAIN

THE WEIR

This feature, though incomplete, is an important heritage site since it forms part of the history of railway de-

A miniature steam train was introduced for cultural and recreational proposes. Both children and adults enjoyed this service.

Viewed as a good example of 19th century industrial architecture, the weir still remains under scrutiny and should be preserved.

1980’s

1920’s

velopment in South Africa.

BRONKHORST RUINS MIXING SHED

1860’s

1840’s

Context appraisal

Remains of a house of Lucas Bronkhurst who settled in 1840. This house represents the first arrival of white pioneers in Pretoria and with them early 19th century architecture.

1920’s

The mixing shed forms the meeting point of 3 separate springs which is channels by gravity to the Findly Reservoir outside Pretoria. It also plays an important role in the development of Pretoria water supply.

67 Study area

The portion of the water -furrow that are left of great cultural and architectural value since they form part of the old water system. 0

100

200

400

FURROWS

1855

MOYO’S RESTAURANT

1880’s

This building used to be a kiosk and was converted into a 2 story victorian hotel in 1880. It is an integral part of the history of Pretoria even though it has undergone many changes and is no longer architecturally representative of its time and culture.

The pump house is evidence of early industrial architecture and plays an important role in the early water supplies to Pretoria.

These buildings are currently utilized as residence for the staff and appears to be in good condition.

ZAR PUMP HOUSE RESIDENTS

1900

20th century


Fountains Valley holds layers of mysterious relics of times that have passed. It is therefore important that these architectural influences are identified and incorporated into a combined cultural framework. The remains of a complex water system that played a key role in the first 75 years of Pretoria’s existence are situated in the Fountains Valley recreational area. It still produces high quality water from its natural fountains that constitutes 8% of the city’s water supply.

Context appraisal

68 Study area

“The emotional force of ruins, of an abandoned building or rejected objects stems from the fact that they make us imagine and share the fate of their owners. They seduce our imagination to wander from the world of every day realities” (Pallasmaa, 1996:25)


PROPOSED WETLANDS THROUGH CITY

Context appraisal

Natural spaces in cities are being consumed and displaced. These living spaces of plants and animals are being destroyed. The recycling and re-use of underutilized urban land around the city needs to be used more effectively and ecologically. Wetlands are an important and vital ecosystem which is beneficial for several reasons: _Water purification _Acting as natural and passive systems trapping pollutants _Reducing the risk of flooding _Access to urban green parks Wetlands function as sponges, releasing water throughout the year and recharging ground water supplies.

69 PROPOSED URBAN FRAMEWORK

1. PLACEMENT OF WETLANDS Bringing wetlands into a previously neglected open space gives orientation to new cultural and industrial movements where the Apies River is the central focus. The goal is to get every drop of rainwater fed into the Apies River. Wetlands are ecosystems which are saturated with water creating a habitat of a wide range of fauna and flora. The presence or absence of water in this ecosystem determines their formation, processes and characteristic. The type of wetlands present depend on the soils, rainfall, climate and the topography.

The wetlands in the city will act as treatment plains (retention ponds), where water can be collected of the streets, cleansed, detained and from there slowly released into the river again. The route of this process is made visible to the public. It becomes an environmental theme, which in addition to water awareness, characterizes the river edges. The Apies River becomes an integrated quality in the urban character.


Context appraisal

2. STORM WATER RUN OFF

4. URBAN FOLLIES The establishment of water awareness follies at each of the urban wetlands represents the sample results of each wetland, visually indicating the processes and quality of urban water cleansing to the general public. These follies are museums of Pretoriaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water systems, celebrating the qualities and importance of our hydrological history and urban water sources.

3. FILTRATION AND OUTLET INTO WATER CHANNELS 0

500

1000

2000

Proposed urban framework

70


Context appraisal

Surface water runoff into retention ponds

Section through urban wetland

71

Natural water filtration and aeration before being released

Water outlet into channel which releases water into apies river

Proposed urban framework


Context appraisal

Perspective of a folly in the urban wetland

Delivery of filtered water through channels towards the Apies river

Proposed urban framework

72


The river remains a constant guide through the landscape which connects elements, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the thread stitching everything together.

CIRCULATION AND ACCESS REDEFINED The proposed circulation framework aims to re-structure access across the site which best responds to the cultural significance and protection of Fountains Valley. The access and circulation has been re-structured as follows:

Miniature steam train rail line and station Commemorative walking route Private circulation public circulation and parking

Context appraisal Re-introducing Groenkloof drive in.

200 m

Private residents

Refuse

Pool services and delivery Moyos staff parking

service and delivery

New proposed north entrance along apies river New proposed north entrance along apies river.

1. Introducing a new entrance at the northern edge for easier and safer access by bicycle and foot along the Apies River from the city.

2. Reintroduce the old miniature steam train and extension thereof to provide alternative circulation and access across the site, and also making use of the existing cultural opportunities and routes.

73 PROPOSED FOUNTAINS FRAMEWORK

0

100

200

3. The primary circulation for public by cars is limited across the site, providing pockets of parking areas close to the entrance and encouraging the movement across site by foot, bicycle or the miniature steam train.

400

4. The secondary circulation by vehicle remains for services and access for staff members and special events


1

ROUTE THROUGH FOUNTAINS VALLEY

5

1.NEW ENTRANCE AT NORTHERN BORDER

8

The route across Fountains Valley connects TRAIN STATION PLATFORMS nodes of interest such as historical, cultural and environmental.

BIRD OBSERVATORIES

200

13

15 UPPER SPRING

Context appraisal

m

BRONKHURST RUINS

14

OBSERVATORY

CONSTRUCTED WIER

2

3

BIRD OBSERVATORY

4 PROPOSED SITE FOR INTERVENTION

The chosen site within Fountains Valley is situated between the old pump house, lower spring and 9 the river confluence, where aCONSTRUCTED platform WEIR can be established to connect the historical hydrological influence of Pretoria city. These elements are proposed within the final design proposal.

5

PROPOSED SITE FOR INTERVENTION

6

7

PROPOSED SITE FOR INTERVENTION

9

8 TRAIN STATION

HISTORY AND CULTURE MUSEUM

13 BRONKHORST RUINS

WATER FURROW WALLS

10

12

11

ORIGINS OF THE APIES

15 UPPER SPRING

74 Proposed Fountains framework

1

NEW ENTRANCE

PROPOSED SITE FOR INTERVENTION PROPOSED SITE FOR INTERVENTION


Context appraisal Proposed Fountains framework

75

Bird Observatory

The Wier

Several observatories are including along the route, acting as resting points where one can enjoy the surroundings and reflect on ones connection with nature.

This structure forms an integral part of the water supply system and therefore the feature will be restored, protected, and celebrated along this route.


76 Proposed Fountains framework

The train platform will be reopened as a major node for access and circulation around the site.

Context appraisal

Train Station


Bronkhurst ruins Context appraisal Proposed Fountains framework

77

This ruin is of great cultural significance in terms of research and education. The site can therefore be incorporated along the commemorative route as an open-air museum, celebrating its significance.


78 Proposed Fountains framework

The upper spring is important because of its abundant supply of fresh water to the city of Pretoria. It is currently overgrown and inaccessible, therefore needs to be opened up, addressed and recognized as the beginning of Pretoriaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water sources.

Context appraisal

Upper Spring


Context appraisal

The chosen site falls within the Fountains Valley recreational area just south of the existing gate, next to the old pump house. Currently a thatch lapa exists on site along the banks of the river, however it does not form an integral part of the conserved landscape of Fountains. The context appraisal and research were not the only criteria in the identification of the site, since the existing infrastructure forming the history of hydrology also formed the inspiration. The site is surrounded with historical, cultural and natural phenomena which played a vital role in the development of Pretoria and its water supply systems.

SITE: CONFLUENCE OF SPRINGS

[ ]

LAB_00

79

THE MIXING SHED The mixing shed stands east of the lower spring and currently forms the meeting point of three separate springs which is channeled together. It also forms evidence of early industrial architecture.

LOWER SPRING This natural phenomena remains a constant source which is faithful in the supply of fine water quality. Because it is currently enclosed to the public, very few people are aware of its existence and is therefore seen as an unappreciated natural resource.

Site appraisal


Context appraisal

OLD CANAL WALLS The old canal walls are overgrown with invasive plant species, hardly noticed and appreciated for its aesthetic quality and structure.

[ ]

LAB_00

RIVER CONFLUENCE The confluence of the two springs within fountains forms the origins of the Apies River and is not celebrated for its significance and importance.

MINIATURE STEAM TRAIN RAIL LINE The old steam train is unfortunately no longer in use and the rails have become overgrown, disappearing and lost in time. As proposed on the master plan, the rail line will be re activated and used as an alternative circulation route around fountains, enhancing cultural and recreational experience.

80 These phenomenonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s form the generators and inspiration for the placement of the hydrology research and conservation platform and will be addressed with in the design of [ ] LAB_001, therefore exposing their fundamental role in the establishment of Pretoria.

Site appraisal

THE OLD PUMP HOUSE The pump house currently supplies Pretoria with 30 million mega litres of fresh spring water (Ref: Hydrological heritage overview: Pretoriaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fountains- Arteries of life). The pump house played a vital role in the history and establishment of Pretoria and is associated with the already declared heritage sites, Schanskop and Klapperkop, where it was originally built to supply water to these military camps during the war. Over time, the steam pump was replaced with an electronic one. When this took place the boiler room and its tall chimney was demolished. The pump house is an example of industrial architecture and is of great cultural and architectural significance.


1.

View towards the lower spring from park.

GENERAL SITE ANALYSIS Context appraisal

Views around site

1

4 5

6 3

2

Pump house from the south side road access.

2.

Pump house from the north side road access.

3.

Site appraisal

81


5.

Existing condition of the origin of the apies river, the confluence of springs.

6.

Existing riparian environment with limited access.

Context appraisal

4.

Existing lapa from park side.

Site appraisal

82


Roads, access, and circulation Currently the ring road forms the only access to site by vehicle, with the miniature steam train currently out of order. The ring road allows for fast moving vehicular access which is not ideal for the safety of pedestrians and animals. Context appraisal

Primary circulation ring road Miniature steam train railline

Climatic analysis E

The building aims to be predominantly north facing, keeping in mind slight wind through the valley as well as the long shadows cast from the existing forests.

< < < <

[ ]

N

83

LAB_00

Site appraisal 0

100

200

400

W

<<<< S


Hydrology systems around site Supply to Salvokop

Context appraisal

Upper Fountains spring Mixing shed

Sterkfontein spring Lower fountains spring

Supply to Findly reservoir

Site appraisal

84


Brief, programme and accommodation

85


0.5

BRIEF, PROGRAMME & ACCOMMODATION 1 2 3

Client Brief Programme

Cultural remediation Infrastructure for environmental remediation River monitoring research and repairment

86


A REMEDIATION PROGRAM Brief, programme and accommodation

87

Through the theoretical discourse of the urban, precinct and site analysis, a comprehensive understanding of the hydrological research and conservation platform has been established. This chapter will now state the projects specific design criteria by means of the following: Client, Brief, Programme The accommodation list was determined from the programme and is explained in conjunction with the site programme.


1. RHP of DWAF, South Africa

2. CHRMP for Groenkloof Nature Reserve

The department of water affairs and forestry is the leading organization in South Africa which is responsible for protecting the natural river ecosystems. As a result, DWAF initiated the River Health Programme (RHP) which focuses on measuring, assessing and reporting on the ecological state of riverine environments in South Africa. The Water Act requires that the health of aquatic ecosystems is monitored and the RHP monitoring results can in turn, be used to support evidence of environmental degradation and remediation strategies for the Apies River.

Cultural heritage resource management plan (CHRMP) for the Groenkloof nature reserve forms the framework for national conservation targets through protecting the Groenkloof area as a heritage reserve.

The capacity of the RHP programme can therefore be extended with the establishment of water management institutions, such as establishing catchment and river source management areas. Therefore the hydrological research and conservation platform forms part of this river health monitoring programme and the role it plays as an institutional landmark for the remediation of natural rivers within the Gauteng province and as water management institution for the Apies River

Brief, programme and accommodation

There are 2 possible clients for this project:

The vision of the reserve is to: o Preserve and conserve the ecological and cultural integrity of the area, o Safeguard the historical and living cultural heritage areas, o Promote awareness of the natural beauty and outstanding aesthetic value of the area, o Provide access for the public to the area and its resources, including the spiritual values provided by the wilderness area, o Contribute to local, regional, and national economies through sustaining water production and other life support systems, eco-cultural tourism, and the sustainable use of natural resources. These clients form potential investors in the development of the Hydrological research and conservation facility at the origins of the Apies River within Fountains Valley.

CLIENT

88


Brief, programme and accommodation

89

Through the theoretical discourse and layers of analysis done on Fountains Valley, the complex layers of time and influence become evident and form generators to the design of [ ]LAB_00. The clients as well as the theoretical studies are used to generate a brief. The brief will be a response to the previous chapters in 3 layers of intervention: Urban brief, precinct brief, and an architectural brief.

BRIEF

URBAN BRIEF

PRECINCT BRIEF

The urban brief concentrates on connecting and rehabilitating underutilized urban spaces into a systematic urban ecology through the implementation of constructed wetlands.

The precinct brief intervenes in the immediate context of the Groenkloof Nature Reserve. Focusing on Fountains Valley becoming part of the commemorative landscape as well as its connection to the city.

Urban framework: _Increase natural ecology by providing infrastructure for natural ecological regeneration _Creating a systematic urban integration _Sustainable urban regeneration _Promote new and improved public green spaces and open networks through the city. _Introduce sustainable water management and cleansing ecosystems. _Water purification systems which are visible and communicated to the public. _Sustainable infrastructure with the intention of educating and creating an awareness of Pretoriaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water quality and what is being implemented to clean it. _Aims to reactivate the Apies River canal and therefore utilized as a recreational corridor connecting the origins of the river, Fountains Valley, to the urban environment.

Precinct framework: _Creating a green link into Fountains Valley as an extension of the Nelson Mandela Corridor. _Upgrading and implementing pedestrian links along the green corridor. _Create a sustainable waterscape. _Aim to introduce fountains into the monumental landscape as a protected cultural and heritage site, established as a commemorative park for Pretoriaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s roots in cultural, environmental and hydrological influence.

[ ] FORMULATION OF BRIEF


THEORY

The architectural brief calls for a design solution where man, nature and the built environment meet which acts as an experimental platform focusing on land remediation, ecology and the environment.

CHRMP

[ ]

RHP

DISSERTATION

URBAN

PRECINCT

ARCHITECTURAL RESPONSE

The architectural intervention: _Provide a facility which will aid in the monitoring and repairment of natural environments throughout the city as well as the Apies River. The hydrology research laboratory division which collects samples, processes, analyses and reports on remediation application for the urban waterscapes of Pretoria. _The use of sustainable technologies and green architectural design services that make the building self-sufficient. These technologies must be visible to the public and users, becoming part of the experience and interaction of the landscape. _Promote public participation and interaction. _Building must be an extension of the landscape, an extension of nature. _The architecture should be an instrument which visually and tectonically traces and records the effects on our environment.

_A facility providing the understanding of environmental awareness and sustainability. _Aims to act as a catalyst for an urban environmental remediation strategy. _The design must respond to its sensitive environmental and cultural context. _Reintroduce the connections between man and nature through this environmental platform. _Express and celebrate the qualities of water and the history of hydrology through the placement and architecture.

Brief, programme, and accommodation

ARCHITECTURAL BRIEF

90


The following architectural programme was concluded from the brief. The programme for this design forms three main co-existing programmes: 1. Cultural remediation 2. Infrastructure for environmental remediation 3.River Monitoring research and repairment

Brief, programme and accommodation

CULTURAL REMEDIATION [Communication and information]

1.

A route within the landscape guides people through the building and around the site, connecting elements in the landscape. The walk aims to increase experimental and sensory quality of the facility, including environmental awareness, history and cultural influences of hydrology within fountains valley. This route forms an extension of the master plan of fountains valley and ties in with the urban pedestrian links, creating an interconnected pedestrian link along the Apies River between the site and the city.

History of hydrology 1. Spring garden: The natural spring will be opened up to the public and liberated into the open air to celebrate its qualities. 2. Old pump house: The old pump house will remain a pump store as well as act as an exhibition and gallery space for public interaction and participation. Therefore people can experience and discover the history of hydrology within the architecture. The restoration of the old steam pump will form a contemporary commemoration of what once was. 3. Mixing shed: The mixing shed will be visibly accessible to the public, celebrating the functions and delivery of clean water to the city. 4. Old channel walls: The channel walls will be cleared from overgrown alien plants, making them visible to the public, revealing the history of the canals.

91

PROGRAMME

5. Weir construct: the weir will be restored, resembling past hydrology technology and systems 6. Confluence: The origin of the Apies river will be celebrated as a place of reflection at the end of the route, a place for people to think about their history and the importance of conserving our waterscapes


Brief, programme, and accommodation

Re-establish rail line 1. Miniature steam train Platform: a platform for the steam train will be introduced in close proximity to the site, allowing alternative access to the building, and celebrating its function and history of a recreational element in the park.

Monitoring and observation platforms The platforms will form and extension of the laboratories into the landscape, where people can look and take part in demonstrations with the water sample processing. 1. Chemical and physical analysis of samples 2. Organic and inorganic analysis of samples 3. Miscellaneous analysis of samples

92


2.

INFRASTRUCTURE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL [Instruction] REMEDIATION Brief, programme and accommodation

93

The RHP states that river protection measures should take into account the characteristics of in-stream and riparian vegetation as well as the characteristics and distribution of aquatic plants and animals. Therefore in order to avoid changes to the existing riverine environment, a constructed levee and wetlands are introduced as educational and demonstration platforms around the facility, informing public on passive filtration systems and aquatic fauna and flora which occur in natural river environments.


Brief, programme, and accommodation

Water purification and wetland remediation A constructed levee and diverted water channel demonstrates passive systems for filtering polluted water. This forms and interactive river environment, where people can learn of the methods as well as take part in constructing the river beds. • Storm water runoff • Storm water river filtration o Peculation o Filtration o Aeration

Ecological observatory This observatory forms an extension of the landscape where groups can gather and gain knowledge and learn how to analyze and identify aquatic fauna and flora present within the riverine terrain. • Botany • Entomology • Hydrology

Grey water treatment and composting basins • Irrigation

94


PUBLIC

3.

RIVER MONITORING RESEARCH AND [Application] REPAIRMEN T Brief, programme and accommodation

The following program is explained from more public to private functions and forms the primary program of this thesis.

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND INFORMATION CENTRE General Reception and Information Centre Waiting area Storage Public Bathrooms Kitchenette Conference room Storage Kitchenette

Program break

Laboratory management office space Conservation management office space Cleaning staff area Change room Storage Lunch area Bathroom Program break

95

HYDROLOGY RSEARCH LABORATORY Sample collection and removal area Sample storage 1 month freezing storage 1 year freezing storage 2 year room temperature storage Sample preparation Elutriate testing area Equipment storage Internal chemical storage External chemical storage Data collection area Sample processing laboratories 1. Physical and chemical analysis 2. Organic and inorganic analysis 3. Miscellaneous analysis Temporary sample disposal area Laboratory consultation room Kitchenette Bathrooms Lunch lounge PRIVATE

External chemical storage Internal chemical storage Equipment distillation areas Equipment storage Weighing and measuring room Heat extraction working area Hard and soft copy data storage Laboratory management working space


Brief, programme, and accommodation

PRIVATE

PUBL

IC

Environmental research and information center All these facilities open to the exterior and are framed by views into the landscape.

Hydrology research laboratory The river monitoring and impairment program consists of a hydrology research laboratory division which collects samples, processes, analyses and reports on remediation application for the urban waterscapes of Pretoria. The laboratory will house all the needs for a small scale research hub, which can mechanically open up as an observation box extending into the natural landscape, and can completely close up when not in use.

96


Design development

97


0.6

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 1 2 3 4 5 6

Design Inception Primary conceptual gain: A layered confluence Material Pallet Spatial development Model exploration Design Development

7

Development of existing infrastructure

8

Commemorative route development Circulation core development Main entrance and access exploration Laboratory development ZAR pump house Mixing shed River confluence Lower spring

Development of public realm Ecological observatory Constructed levee Train Platform

98


Design development

This chapter communicates in a graphical way how [ ]LAB_00 is derived through the means of analysis. The development comprises various compilations of diagrammatic sketches, graphic planning and sections, architectural modeling which all explore issues of context, the site and its history. A study of new technologies, materials, and methods of structure allows the schematic design to be converted into detailed plans and specifications for the building construction

99


PRIMARY CONCEPTUAL GAIN: A LAYERED CONFLUENCE

The design of the hydrology research and conservation platform was informed and influenced by design concepts, generators and principles. These influences are grouped into specific parameters, creating a holistic poetics of place.

As primary conceptual gain the architectural intervention will respond to a layered confluence between nature and the built environment. Geographically, confluence refers to the meeting point of 2 or more streams or rivers to form the beginning of a new water course. The building will address and respond to the marginal territory between the environment and built form.

Design development

DESIGN INCEPTION

The layers at which these opposing forces meet are analyzed and will develop a specific language formed through the development of the design.

CONCEPT 100


Design development

The material pallet of LAB_00 is inspired by the existing material aesthetic around the site. For the purpose of the dissertation it was not only important to make reference but also to understand the composition of the existing material aesthetic and combination of LAB_00. It is important that the new contemporary materials express aging and a degree of weather to form a connection between the new and the old. By implementing this technical concept, the new ecological observatory does not only aid in remediation of Pretoriaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s waterscapes, but inherits physical qualities of the present, allowing nature to entwine with the architecture.

101 MATERIAL PALLET GENERATORS FOR USE OF MATERIALS


TIMBER

ROCK

CORTEN STEEL

MENTIS GRATING Design development

GLASS

102 LAB_00 MATERIAL PALLET


1. EXISTING SITE Design development

Identifying the existing infrastructure which influences the placement of LAB_00.

2. PROPOSED CONTEXTUAL DEVELOPMENT

The existing context around the site will be rehabilitated to celebrate its cultural history. Further infrastructure is proposed around the site as part of the LAB_00 program.

103 SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT These diagrams depict initial spacial articulation. The placement and articulation of the design are influenced by environmental, historical, and cultural elements around the site, as well as functions and program for the design of LAB_00.


Fountains Valley influences the way the public and staff approach the site, therefore influencing the orientation and placement of LAB_00.

Design development

SITE CIRCULATION 3. PROPOSED The route proposed in the master plan of

4. POINTS OF ARRIVAL

The building will form a threshold between public and private spaces within the site.

104


Design development

5. ARTICULATION ALONG RIVER

Special focus was given to the natural stream, defining the perimeter of the site, and articulating the form to view over the natural environment.

6. CONSTRUCTED LEVEE

A constructed levee forms the platform for experimentation and demonstration of wetland construction, therefore avoiding changes or disturbances on the natural river ecosystem.

105 SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT


Fragmenting the building in the landscape provides for more north/south facing facades and less east/west facades.

Design development

7. ORIENTATION

8. CIRCULATION CORE

A grounded circulation core connects the boxes through the landscape and forms a guide through the building program.

106


Design development

9. ROUTE INTEGRATION

The commemorative route runs through the building, connecting the new and existing infrastructure.

10.EXISTING CONTEXT INTEGRATION

The existing infrastructure forms collective nodes around LAB_001 and is presented to the public along the route thought the landscape.

107 SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT


Introducing new vegetation into the landscape which complements the existing ecosystem, and preserving vegetation which already naturally occurs around site.

Design development

11.ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATION

12.PUBLIC INTEGRATION

Several elements in and around the building forms part of the public interface. These elements are introduced to the public along the commemorative route and are vital generators in educating and introducing people back to their natural environment.

108


Design development

Conceptual model sketches exploring spatial dimension.

109 MODEL EXPLORATION

Exploration through model building gives a better perspective on the placement of the proposed functions, materiality, structural integrity and the building impact on its context. The specific approach is used as an analysis tool that allows for evaluation of alternative approaches and the prediction of good initial designs/concepts.


Design development

Conceptual model sketches exploring spatial dimension.

Conceptual model sketches exploring spatial dimension.

110


DEVELOPMENT OF ROUTE ACROSS SITE Design development

Important nodes along the route around the building. 1. Initial approach from river confluence 2. Filtration ponds 3. Filtration ponds 4. Filtration ponds 5. Public entrance from park 6.Constructed Weir 7.Old Pump house 8.Lower Spring 9.Mixing Shed

111 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT


Design development

Public Public

Exploring how different parties will circulate across the site

Public

Private

Private

Public

112

Conceptual sketches exploring the edges of the route to the landscape


Design development

Exploration of boxes attached to circulation core, as well as the bend in the building.

113 DEVELOPMENT OF CIRCULATION CORE ALONG ROUTE

Exploring the placement and articulation of the circulation core withing the landscape.


Design development

Materiality, tectonics and sustainable systems exploration. The circulation core will act as the cooling spine for the building.

Water can be used as a guide in the circulation core floor, just as the apies river forms a guide through Fountains valley.

114


Floor plan development of the main entrance and its functions. Exploring the threshold between outside and inside. Design development

115

DEVELOPMENT OF MAIN ACCESS INTO BUILDING


Design development

Sectional development of main access and public circulation into building.

Exploring the hierarchy of the building as a whole within the landscape. Introducing strong elements within the form and tectonics to define an entrance.

116


Conceptual perspectives The exploration of lab forms and structure illustrates a overall massing and size of a single lab.

Design development

117

DEVELOPMENT OF LABORATORIES

Laboratory studio development The lab studios forms a wing which hosts functions which do not include the lab processes, however forms a space holds all the secondary functions for lab staff.


The form of the laboratories were followed by their individual functions. It was therefore necessary to understand the processes and equipment used in each lab to design an appropriate space. Laboratory 2: Organic/Inorganic analysis

Laboratory 3: Miscellaneous analysis

Design development

Laboratory 2: Chemical/physical analysis

118


119


Sectional development of laboratories exploring articulation and proximity to the existing landscape.

120


1. ZAR pump house

2. Mixing shed

Design development

Exploration of museum space within the existing pump house. Redeveloping the demolished wing.

Information shed and museum development.

121 DEVELOPMENT OF EXISTING CONTEXT 2 3

4 1


Viewing deck and reflection platform over confluence.

4. Lower spring Establishing a sacred garden around the spring.

Design development

3. Confluence of springs, origins of the Apies River

122


1. Ecological observatory Structural and material exploration of the outdoor observatory.

Design development

123 DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC REALM AROUND BUILDING 3

1 2


Exploration in the natural system which forms a vital element in the remediation project. A educational and experimental water system.

3. Proposed train platform Structural and material exploration of new proposed platform. Design development

2. Constructed levee

124


Design development

125

CONCEPTUAL PERSPECTIVES Conceptual perspective from west access to public entrance.


Design development

126 Conceptual perspectives

Perspective exploring placement of laboratories within the landscape.


Design development

127 Conceptual perspectives

Perspective of walkways around south edge of building, over the levee and natural river.


Design development

128 Conceptual perspectives

Conceptual view of building in landscape from the lower spring.


Design development

129 Conceptual perspectives

View from ecological observatory, south east corner of site.


Design development

130 Conceptual perspectives

Perspective onto natural river from the first point of reference of building along the route.


Design resolution

131


0.7

1 2 3 4

DESIGN RESOLUTION Plans Sections Elevations Perspectives

132


1. Miniature steam train platform 2. Confluence 3. Private parking 4. Chemical storage 5. Pump house 6. Spring 7. Mixing shed 8. Ecological Observatory

133

SITE PLAN

0

10

20

40


1.

7. 8.

2. 6. 3.

4.

5.

134


1. Lobby 2. Waiting room 3. Reception 4. Coffee bar 5.Staff Facility 6. Toilets 7. Conference room 8. Conservation offices 9. Laboratory offices 10. Sample delivery counter 11.Exchange Room 12. Primary sample processing 13. Internal chemical store 14. External chemical store 15. Equipment distillation 16. Chemical and physical analysis 17. Organic and inorganic analysis 18. Miscellaneous analysis 19. Observation deck 20 Laboratory boardroom 21. Lounge 22. Storeroom 23. Kitchenette 24. Private access 25. View point 26. Observation deck 27. Ecological observatory 28. Public access route

135

PLAN

0

10

20

40


28

B 27

A 19

A

17

16

15

15

15

13

13

13

14

14

18

21

20

23 22

6

14

12

9

8

6

1 3

10

11

2

1

26

5 23 4

7 2

1 25

B

136

24


137 SECTION A-A The circulation core is grounded with a gabion rock bed, and forms a cooling channel which has a cool air intake from the ground, and is then circulated through the rest of the modules.


SECTION B-B The western laboratory wing is the only dominant west facing facade which is nestled along the natural riverine environment. It is therefore important that the western sunlight intake is managed. The timber louvered panels can either slide open to form views over the river, or automatically tilt like leaves, constantly facing the suns angles during the course of the day.

138


CONSTRUCTED RIVERINE ENVIRONMENT

OBSERVATION DECK

139 SECTION C-C

0

1

2

4

LABORATORY

EQUIPMENT DISTILLATION


INTERNAL CHEMICAL STORAGE

CIRCULATION CORE

BOARDROOM

NATURAL RIVERINE ENVIRONMENT

140


SECTION D-D The laboratories form steel frame structures, cladded with modular corten steel panels. This system allows for easy delivery of prefabricated parts as well as minimal impact on the existing environment. The use of corten steel not only increases the life span of the building and reduces maintenance, but also creates an aging effect, blending the building into the existing natural environment.

141


SECTION E-E

142


143


SECTION F-F The reception and conference room is divided by grey water treatment basins, also introducing natural spaces in-between the buildings. A light well is introduced across the deep spaces of the building.

144


NORTH ELEVATION

145 EAST ELEVATION


146

0

10

20

40


SOUTH ELEVATION

147 WEST ELEVATION


148

0

10

20

40


149

PUBLIC/PRIVATE ENTRANCE TO BUILDING


150


151

The ecological observatory forms an extension of the levee, and creates an environment for the analysis and research of aquatic fauna and flora. Stepped terraces into the wetlands encourage the growth of various species, which can then be examined by environmental specialists, locals, tourists and even large school groups.

ECOLOGICAL OBSERVATORY


152

SUBMERGED PLANTS

ROOTED FLOATING PLANTS

EMERGENT PLANTS


153

LEVEE EXIT INTO LOWER SPRING RIVER


154


4 1

3

2

1. TRAIN PLATFORM 2. UPPER SPRING RIVER 3. WALKWAY 4.RAILWAY LINE The old steam train will be reintroduced, providing alternative access across site, and therefore a platform is proposed walking distances from LAB_00.

155

MINIATURE STEAM TRAIN PLATFORM 0

5

10

20

4

1

3


156


6

2

1

4 3 5

1. PRIMARY VIEWING PLATFORM 2. SECONDARY VIEWING PLATFORM 3. WALKWAY 4.APIES RIVER 5.LOWER SPRING RIVER 6. UPPER SPRING RIVER The confluence of both springs forms the origins of the Apies river. This node in the landscape forms an important site for reflecting on the importance of our water sources.

157

RIVER CONFLUENCE

0

5

10

20

1

2

4


158


1

2

6

3 4

5

1. VIEWING PLATFORM 2. COFFEE BAR AND BISTRO 3. KITCHEN 4. SERVICES 5.LIFT 6. EXHIBITION AND GALLERY SPACE The northern wing and steam tower of the old pump house will be reconstructed in commemoration of the steam pump which once stood in the building. The tower features a cloud of steam over the site, commemorating the old and first water systems in Pretoria.

159 PUMP HOUSE 0

5

10

20

6

5

2

1


160


1

2

1

1. ACCESS 2. LOWER FOUNTAINS SPRING The spring offers a rare glimpse of the power of ground water sources, and is therefore commemorated and opened to the public.

161 LOWER SPRING 0

5

10

20

2

1


162


1 2 3

4

1. PRIMARY PARK CIRCULATION 2. INFORMATION BOARD 3. MIXING PITS 4. ACCESS The mixing shed forms the point where three under ground channels meet, before delivered by gravity to the Findly reservoir outside Pretoria. The process is made visible to the public.

163

MIXING SHED

0

5

10

20

3

1


164


165


0.8

TECHNICAL REVIEW 1 2

Sustainable design systems Drawings

166


Perculation

The constructed levee forms an artificial and experimental riverine environment where the public can engage and learn from natural filtration processes and ecosystems, and therefore reduces changes to the existing riverine environment. Three natural filtration processes are explored and visible to the public.

167

CONSTRUCTED LEVEE

Filtration

Aeration


168


WINTER

SPRING

The floral walls cover most of the eastern facade of the building, creating a living environment for the growth of various fauna and flora. These walls offer a series of aesthetic quality as they change and adapt according to seasonal changes and climatic influences.

169

FLORAL WALLS

SUMMER

AUTUMN


170


GREY WATER COMPOSTING BASINS

INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR CHEMICAL STORAGE

All grey water is released into composting basins and further used for the irrigation of formal gardens in and around LAB_00.

Chemicals used in the processing of water samples are stored according to the building regulations, with designated indoor and outdoor storage areas.

171 SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS

PRIVATE ACCESS AND CIRCULATION


RAIN WATER HARVESTING

SOLAR HARVESTING

Rain water is collected form roof surfaces and harvested into storage tanks for use within the building.

Both entrances have canopies which are covered with solar panels, enough the run the full facility during working hours.

172

PUBLIC ACCESS AND CIRCULATION

SAMPLE PROCESSING AND REPORTING


The circulation core throughout the building is grounded with a gabion rock bed structure. Water is allowed to run through the rock bed and the cool air is extracted from the bed into the building. Hot air in the building is extracted out the louvers above. This system is ideal during the summer months COOLING CHANNEL CIRCULATION CORE

173


To ensure max view onto the exterior landscape, the facades are glazed with high performance glass, and in addition reducing the glare. These windows also have top hung opening sections for natural ventilation. HIGH PERFORMANCE GLASS FACADES

Purpose made corten sandwich panels are manufactured in the factory and delivered to site. These panels have opening sections and can therefore be open during the day and completely closed at night. The use of corten requires little or no maintenance, increasing the life span of the building. MODULAR CORTEN STEEL SANDWICH PANELS

174


The technical aspect of this dissertation will focus on the structural system and basic use of materials employed in the research and development building as well as the principles incorporated in order to achieve a sustainable design solution. The detailed application and connection of the laboratory spaces and modular panel systems will be illustrated by means of a detail drawing. The materials and construction methods utilized within the facility aim to reduce maintenance costs on building and increase the life span of the structure. The materials applied to the facility aim to reinterpret the contextual application of materials as well as mimic the changes in nature, as and extension of the landscape.

175 TECHNICAL DRAWINGS


Church street

Pretoria central

t Pretorious stree Church street t Schoeman stree t Pretorious stree t stree eman Scho

Pretoria central

Apies river Apies river

SITE SITE

Locality Plan Locality Plan Scale 1:2000

GROENKLOOF NATURE RESERVE

Scale 1:2000 1290

1289

1288

1287

1286

1285

1284

1283

GROENKLOOF NATURE RESERVE

1282 1281

INA DE CHRIST

1290

INA CHRIST

1290

1290

IVE WIT DR

1289

1288

1287

1286

1285

1284

1283

1282 1281

IVE IT DR DE W

1289

Preserve existing forest

1288 1289

1280

Preserve existing forest

1287 1288 1286

1280 1279

1287 1285 1286 1284

1279

1285 1284 1283

1278

Proposed staff parking area

1283 1282

Existing pump house

Restore existing structure Demolish existing road and restore to landscape

1281

1277 1276

Service area with gate

Stormwater Stormwater run-of run-off f

Existing pump house

1281

1277 1278

Proposed staff parking area

Restore existing structure 1282

Service area with gate

Demolish existing road and restore to landscape

1276

1276 1277 1276 1278

APIES RIVER

100.000 DATUMN

APIES RIVER

100.000 DATUMN

1279 1277 1278 1279

staff access and entrance Existing willow trees to be preserved Preserve existing wetland

1280

1280

Demolish existing fence

LOWER FOUNTAINS SPRING LOWER FOUNTAINS SPRING

1280

Proposed view point staff access and entrance

Existing willow trees to be preserved

1280

Proposed view point

Preserve existing wetland

STUDY AREA

CE

Demolish existing fence

STUDY AREA

CE

nd terraces Proposed wetla nd terraces Proposed wetla Proposed ecological observatory Proposed ecological observatory

Demolish existing fence

Storm water runoff Storm water runoff

PROPOSED BUILDING PROPOSED BUILDING

176

Demolish existing structure Pedestrian entrance

Proposed raised walkways Demolish existing structure Line of constructed levee

Pedestrian entrance

Demolish existing fence

Proposed raised walkways

CE Line of constructed levee

IE CE

CE

IE

CE Proposed train platform

Te c

Proposed train platform 1280

soft landscaping

y line n railwa steamtrai miniature Existing y line n railwa steamtrai miniature Existing

B.

T

Municipal connection 1.5m deep

soft landscaping

B.

Municipal connection 1.5m deep

1280 1281

1281

AD

EXISTING

RING RO

1282

Name

Project descript

AD

EXISTING

Name

RING RO

1282

Project descr

Site Plan Site 1:500 Plan Scale Scale 1:500 GSPublisherEngine 0.0.100.100

GSPublisherEngine 0.0.100.100

UPPER FOUNTAINS SPRING 1274 1276 1278 1280 1273 1279 1275 1277 UPPER FOUNTAINS SPRING 1274 1276 1278 1280 1273 1275

1277

1279

1281

1281

Th res T re

1282

1282 Date OUT

Date OUT Scale:

Scale:

1:5 1:


B

G

J

H 4.050

K

12.000

4050

N

M

L

4200 4200

1900

4200 4200

29000

4200

2200

1100

16600

140

4200

Patio

8400

Balau uffl = 100 675

120

150x200mm MILD STEEL square tubing beam above

2000 890 4200

30

4200

30 30

Laboratory

1200

2075

4

60

W1

BIC

Epoxy uffl = 100 700

W1

1.171

1700

3

60

60

D1

GALVANISED MILD STEEL handrail on BALAU timber decking and mentis grtaing board walk

4200

2075 30

4.200

60

2

Balau uffl = 100 675 GALVANISED MILD STEEL handrail on BALAU timber decking and mentis grtaing board walk

30 250

Patio

Balau uffl = 100 675 250

1750

2075

1750

4200

2075

W1

2125

1050

2075

Patio

1200

1200

D2

1500

D2

250

2075

2125

250

Patio

W1

2075

D3

Balau uffl = 100 675

2075

8000

60 2075

W1

Balau uffl = 100 675

1

1200

30

4.200

W1

4.200

Epoxy uffl = 100 700

uffl = 100 700

W1 BIC

Patio

W1

Laboratory

Balau uffl = 100 675

A

W1

2075

2075

BIC

60 2075

Epoxy

4.200

D1

2075

D2

Patio

Laboratory

D2

100 560

30

2075

A W1

W1

Patio

100

2340

2800

2075

30

Line of chimney above

30

4.200

4.200

W1

Balau uffl = 100 675

1480

W1

BIC

B

2075 60

uffl = 100 700

uffl = 100 700

D6

W1

5

2075

Equipment store Epoxy

W1

D1

60

C

GALVANISED MILD STEEL handrail on BALAU timber decking and mentis grtaing board walk

uffl = 100 700

Epoxy

W1

4.200

W1

1.860

Epoxy

100

7 6

Work station

4200

2075

BIC

350

100 900

Distillation D3

30

D1

W1 BIC

D1

177

Epoxy

D3

D4 D1

A

430 250

uffl = 100 700

7600

W1

150

2075

60

D

W1

1200

2075

uffl = 100 700

W1

100

2150

Store

2380

3100

Epoxy

W1

900

100x150mm MILD STEEL square tubing as structural columns

BIC

Work station W1

100

1200

2075

370 150

2075

150

1700 500 100 900100

120mm POLYURETHANE sandwich panel with a flat profile 0.5mm STAINLESS STEEL interior and exterior finish

60 2075 4.200

D5

2085x631x1.2mm CORTEN STEEL modular rainscreen panels fixed to structure with M8 nut and bolt sets

8

350

1850

15mm tensioned STAINLESS STEEL cables

Storm water storage tank

1680

150

100 520

1850

1100

Epoxy

uffl = 100 700

uffl = 100 700 BIC

uffl = 100 700

GALVANISED MILD STEEL handrail on BALAU timber decking and mentis grtaing board walk

150

900 500 100 300

Distillation

Equipment store Epoxy

W1

2075

W1

1850

2075

2075 30

Epoxy D3 uffl = 100 700 BIC

W1

2075

Patio timber uffl = 100 675

Epoxy

4.200

Patio

150x200mm MILD STEEL square tubing beam above

BIC

Work station

130x100x4mm MILD STEEL TBeam welded to square tubing

timber uffl = 100 675

D3

BIC

100x150mm MILD STEEL square tubing as structural columns

Epoxy uffl = 100 700 BIC

4.200

15mm tensioned STAINLESS STEEL cables

150

D1

uffl = 100 700

Weighing room

30

BIC

Equipment store W1

1850

Epoxy

W1

2075

Epoxy

120mm POLYURETHANE sandwich panel with a flat profile 0.5mm STAINLESS STEEL interior and exterior finish

4200

200

Distillation

Epoxy

D3 uffl = 100 700 uffl = 100 700 BIC BIC

E 200x200mm MILD STEEL square tubing frame

150

Store

4200

4.200

4400 4000

D3

Office Epoxy uffl = 100 700

1850

30

0.889

Epoxy uffl = 100 700

Weighing room

150

4770

250 430

BIC

2085x631x1.2mm CORTEN STEEL modular rainscreen panels fixed to structure with M8 nut and bolt sets

Store

W1

350

11200

BIC

BIC

W1

120 2010

Epoxy uffl = 100 700

4770

1000

11200

1350

Epoxy uffl = 100 700

Concrete uffl = 100 700

Circulation

Circulation

4770

Outdoor storage

1860

1700 150

Concrete uffl = 100 700

BIC

200

G F

1700

Outdoor storage

200x200mm MILD STEEL square tubing frame

120

5810

120 4.150

120mm CONCRETE wall as outdoor storage area

130x100x4mm MILD STEEL TBeam welded to square tubing 6100

120

150

120

4200

3750

5810

Epoxy uffl = 100 700

120

1465

Epoxy uffl = 100 700

Double glazing GLASS windows in GALVANISED MILD STEEL madular frame

Passage

30

BIC

Fr

120

Epoxy

Store

N

2075

uffl = 100 700

Fr

M

S

R

Q

P

60

Auto clave

H

6300

3500

6100 120

150

120

120

2075

uffl = 100 700

2800

1850

900

30

uffl = 100 700

BIC

430

120

900

4.200

Epoxy

Concrete uffl = 100 700

40x40x40mm depth GALVANISED MILD STEEL fusion welded bearing bar grating helded in place with hold down clips

9

D3

D3

120

1860

Concrete uffl = 100 700 whb

2075

Change room

Epoxy

2.010

3200

Concrete uffl = 100 700

60

Change room

120

Walk-in freezer

100

3020

Bathroom whb

L Outdoor storage

2010 1860

Epoxy uffl = 100 700

BIC

Epoxy uffl = 100 700

3400

Sample preparation

BIC

Store

9

150

Walk-in freezer

BIC BIC

120

200

uffl = 100 700

820

2000

150

Walk in freezer installed by specialist

BIC 2100

150

Board room

2500

Epoxy S

8300 2800

150

Lounge Concrete uffl = 100 700

1700

200 4400 4000

Exchange room

2800

2600

Chemical tank storage

150

150

BIC

140

150

2700

2000

150 3000

Concrete uffl = 100 700

1375

6000

2700

Kitchenette

Concrete uffl = 100 700

1880

150

Store

190

150

D3

WC

150 4200

130x100x4mm MILD STEEL TBeam welded to square tubing

1200

2754

120

140

15mm tensioned STAINLESS STEEL cables

230 900

200

D3

WC

1700

4000

120

2500

120

815

900

10

200x200mm MILD STEEL square tubing frame

150

8600 200

Balau uffl = 100 675

6900

120

4000

10

Patio

4010

200

9330 1450 120

D4

D4

D4

D4

D4

D4

D4

D4

4200

3800

4.200

D

C

S

R

Q

P

4.200

12.000

4.200

F 4.050

4.200

E Lower Spring River

30

2075

4200

250

GALVANISED MILD STEEL handrail on BALAU timber decking and mentis grtaing board walk

Raised walkway

4050

12000

4050

12000

C

B.

Te ch .A r

timber uffl = 100 675

4050

3800

E

6000

C

D

B

F

G

H

J

B

K

Name

C

Project description

The resea

Ground Floor Plan Scale 1:100

Date OUT

Scale:


B

E

G

F 4050

J

4050

D

C

H

12000

4050

S

R

Q

P

N

M

L

K

12000

4200 4200 4200

4200 50x50x3mm MILD STEEL chanels as purlins spaced at 400c.c

4200 4200

3800

150x100mm MILD STEEL square tubing beam spaced at 2400c.c

200x200mm MILD STEEL square tubing frame 15mm tensioned STAINLESS STEEL cables

Screed to fall in direction of arrows at 1:70 to drainage outlet

10

1mm CORTEN STEEL edge coping over modular panel

150mm reinforced CONCRETE upstand

Screed to fall in direction of arrows at 1:70 to drainage outlet

1mm CORTEN STEEL edge coping over modular panel Reinforced concrete roof

Screed to fall in direction of arrows at 1:70 to drainage outlet

M

L

Reinforced concrete roof

Reinforced concrete roof

8 4200

8

200x200mm MILD STEEL square tubing frame 15mm tensioned STAINLESS STEEL cables

100mm dia ductile iron balcony outlet with dome grating with 76mm dia uPVC rain water discharge pipe

Reinforced concrete roof

130x100x4mm MILD STEEL TBeam welded to square tubing

100mm dia ductile iron balcony outlet with dome grating with 76mm dia uPVC rain water discharge pipe

150mm reinforced CONCRETE upstand

100mm dia ductile iron balcony outlet with dome grating with 76mm dia uPVC rain water discharge pipe

S

R

Q

P

N

9

100mm dia ductile iron balcony outlet with dome grating with 76mm dia uPVC rain water discharge pipe

rete roof Reinforced conc

9

150mm reinforced CONCRETE upstand

10 2600

200x150x2mm rolled CORTEN STEEL gutter 130x100x4mm MILD STEEL TBeam welded to square tubing

7 6

Screed to fall in direction of arrows at 1:70 to drainage outlet

150x100mm MILD STEEL square tubing beam spaced at 2400c.c

100mm dia. rolled CORTEN STEEL downpipe installed by specialist

4200

200x150x2mm rolled CORTEN STEEL gutter

7 6

100mm dia ductile iron balcony outlet with dome grating with 76mm dia uPVC rain water discharge pipe

150mm reinforced CONCRETE upstand

50x50x3mm MILD STEEL chanels as purlins spaced at 400c.c

100x150x2mm rolled CORTEN STEEL gutter

5

5 70x50x50x3mm STEEL flange as purlins spaced at 400c.c

70x50x50x3mm STEEL flange as purlins spaced at 400c.c

100mm dia. rolled CORTEN STEEL downpipe installed by specialist

100mm dia. rolled CORTEN STEEL downpipe installed by specialist

100mm dia. rolled CORTEN STEEL downpipe installed by specialist

150x200mm MILD STEEL square tubing truss spaced at 4200c.c

150x200mm MILD STEEL square tubing truss spaced at 4200c.c

1.2mm CORTEN STEEL clip lock roof panels at 24째 slope

1.2mm CORTEN STEEL clip lock roof panels at 24째 slope

17.689

4200

Line of 1mm CORTEN STEEL eaves flashing fixed with galvanised nails

4200

4

Line of 1mm CORTEN STEEL eaves flashing fixed with galvanised nails

4

3

3 A 12.654

A

2 4200

8450

2

1

100mm dia. rolled CORTEN STEEL downpipe installed by specialist

4050

3800

E

6000

C B

Roof Plan Scale 1:100

D

100

2415

12000

F

1435

2210

4050

G

100

1mm CORTEN STEEL edge coping over modular panel

6.060

100

12000

H

100

4050

J

B

K

100mm dia. rolled CORTEN STEEL downpipe installed by specialist

1

178


Scale 1:100

C

D

E

3500

F

13600

G

4050

H

12000

J

4050

K

12000

4050

Rolled CORTEN STEEL chimney chemical storage tanks

MILD STEEL mentis grating as green wall mesh

RUUKKI CORTEN STEEL rainscreen cladding panels as per detail

RUUKKI CORTEN STEEL rainscreen cladding panels

BALAU timber louvres GALVANISED MILD STEEL square tubing frame

Storm water storage tanks

Double glazing GLASS windows in GALVANISED MILD STEEL madular frame

RUUKKI CORTEN STEEL rainscreen cladding panels as per detail

RUUKKI CORTEN STEEL rainscreen cladding panels as per detail

BALAU timber louvres GALVANISED MILD STEEL square tubing frame

BALAU timber louvres GALVANISED MILD STEEL square tubing frame

RUUKKI CORTEN STEEL clip lock roof sheeting

CHIMNEY HEIGHT

Storm water storage tanks

ROOF PITCH

CEILING HEIGHT GALVANISED MILD STEEL handrail on BALAU timber decking and mentis grtaing board walk

D2

D2

GALVANISED MILD STEEL handrail on BALAU timber decking and mentis grtaing board walk

D2

LEVEL 1 GROUNDFLOOR NGL

East Elevation

B.

T

C ech. A D ON rchitect O

Scale 1:100

1

3

2 4200

4200

5

4 4200

4200

6 4200

7 890

8

9

2000

9000

10

Name

Chir 2

2600

Project description

Rolled CORTEN STEEL chimney

The des researc

RUUKKI CORTEN STEEL rainscreen cladding panels

CHIMNEY HEIGHT

RUUKKI CORTEN STEEL rainscreen cladding panels as per detail

ROOF PITCH

RUUKKI CORTEN STEEL clip lock roof sheeting

CORTEN STEEL gutter in gutter bracket

STAINLESS STEEL louvre system installed as per manufacturer

Double glazing GLASS windows in GALVANISED MILD STEEL madular frame

GSPublisherEngine 0.0.100.100

CORTEN STEEL gutter in gutter bracket

CEILING HEIGHT

CHIMNEY HEIGHT

Chemical storage tanks

Storm water storage tanks

ROOF PITCH

RUUKKI CORTEN STEEL clip lock roof sheeting

Date OUT

Scale:

1:

RUUKKI CORTEN STEEL rainscreen cladding panels as per detail

CEILING HEIGHT

GALVANISED MILD STEEL square tubing frame GALVANISED MILD STEEL handrail on BALAU timber decking and mentis grtaing board walk

Concrete finish GALVANISED MILD STEEL handrail on BALAU timber decking and mentis grtaing board walk

LEVEL 1 GROUNDFLOOR

LEVEL 1 GROUNDFLOOR

Constructed levee Lower spring river

North Elevation Scale 1:100

179

C

D 3500

E 13600

F 4050

G 12000

H 4050

J 12000

K 4050

Rolled CORTEN STEEL chimney chemical storage tanks

MILD STEEL mentis grating as green wall mesh

RUUKKI CORTEN STEEL rainscreen cladding panels

Storm water storage tanks

RUUKKI CORTEN STEEL rainscreen cladding panels as per detail BALAU timber louvres GALVANISED MILD STEEL square tubing frame

Double glazing GLASS windows in GALVANISED MILD STEEL madular frame

RUUKKI CORTEN STEEL rainscreen cladding panels as per detail

RUUKKI CORTEN STEEL rainscreen cladding panels as per detail

BALAU timber louvres GALVANISED MILD STEEL square tubing frame

BALAU timber louvres GALVANISED MILD STEEL square tubing frame

RUUKKI CORTEN STEEL clip lock roof sheeting

Storm water storage tanks

CHIMNEY HEIGHT ROOF PITCH

CEILING HEIGHT GALVANISED MILD


180


100x150 MILD STEEL square tubing columns with 200x150x4mm rectangular tubing beams as primary structure 130x100x4mm MILD STEEL T-column as secondary structure welded to primary structure

4200 30

2075

30

2075

30

30

120x87x4mm MILD STEEL angle as structure

A

631

120x87x4mm MILD STEEL angle as modular structural frame welded on ends and fixed to secondary structure with M8 nut and bolt set

30x30x2mm MILD STEEL cchannel

A

30x30x3mm MILD STEEL profiles 631X2100X1.2mm CORTEN STEEL profiled rainscreen panels

30

30x30x2mm MILD STEEL cchannel fixed to modular fram with M 5nut and bolt set

120x40x2mm MILD STEEL cchannel

631

30x30x3mm MILD STEEL profiles fixed to c-channel with M3 nut and bolt set

A

A

A

A

A

A

B

B

3215

30

500

30

631

30

631

30

631X2100X1.2mm CORTEN STEEL perferated profiled rainscreen panels fixed to profiles with self drilling screws

Prefabricated panel 1

Section of panel 1

Scale 1:20

Scale 1:20

130x100x4mm MILD STEEL T-column as secondary structure welded to rectangular tubing 120x87x4mm MILD STEEL angle as structure

120x40x2mm MILD STEEL cchannel

l layers

30x30x3mm MILD STEEL profiles

Plan of panel 1 Scale 1:20

15mm ventilation holes 631X2100X1.2mm CORTEN STEEL perferated profiled rainscreen panels

181 238

238 30

30

30

28

238 120

30

30

30

28

120

3

30

631X2100X1.2mm CORTEN STEEL profiled rainscreen panels

30

120mm thick sandwich panel with a POLYURETHANE core with a 0.5mm STAINLESS STEEL interior flat profile finish 15mm oval ventilation and drainage holes

Silkaflex 221 type permantly elastic sealing compound

0.5mm STAINLESS STEEL flashing

Butyl sealing compound RUUKI clip joint between sandwich panels

30x30x3mm MILD STEEL profiles fixed to c channels

631X2100X1.2mm CORTEN STEEL profiled rainscreen panels

1200

120

1000

28

45

30

30

30

45

30


4200

30 700

A

631 30

2075

30

A

30x30x2mm MILD STEEL cchannel

A

30x30x3mm MILD STEEL profiles 631X2100X1.2mm CORTEN STEEL perferated profiled rainscreen panels A500 STAINLESS STEEL heavy duty barrel continuous hinges full mortise

C

C

C

C

C

C

Gas cylinder as per manufacturer

C

30 235

30

30

270

235

E

Scale 1:20

Scale Scale1:20 1:20

130x100x4mm MILD STEEL T-column as secondary structure welded to rectangular tubing 120x87x4mm MILD STEEL angle as structure

Sc

120x87x4mm MILD STEEL angle as structure 120x87x4mm MILD STEEL angle as structure

STAINLESS STEEL drip flashing

3030

38

38

30

30

3030

38 3030 30

Section Sectionof ofpanel panel22 S

Scale 1:20 130x100x4mm MILD STEEL T-column as secondary structure welded to rectangular tubing 120x87x4mm MILD STEEL angle as structure STAINLESS STEEL drip flashing

120x40x2mm MILD STEEL cchannel

120x40x2mm MILD STEEL cchannel

30x30x3mm MILD STEEL profiles

30x30x3mm MILD STEEL profiles

15mm ventilation holes

15mm ventilation holes

15mm ventilation holes

631X2100X1.2mm CORTEN STEEL perferated profiled rainscreen panels

631X2100X1.2mm CORTEN STEEL perferated profiled rainscreen panels

631X2100X1.2mm CORTEN STEEL perferated profiled rainscreen panels

2284

1323

30x30x3mm MILD STEEL profiles

1323

E

Prefabricated panel Prefabricated 2 panel 3

130x100x4mm MILD STEEL T-column as secondary structure welded to rectangular tubing 120x87x4mm MILD STEEL angle as structure STAINLESS STEEL drip flashing

120x40x2mm MILD STEEL cchannel

D

B

30

30

Scale Scale1:20 1:20

Scale 1:20

631X2100X1.2mm CORTEN STEEL profiled rainscreen panels

C

A

D

B

500

30 500 30

Section Sectionof ofpanel panel22

Prefabricated panel 2

C

631

B

631

B

120x40x2mm MILD STEEL cchannel

A

1197

A

631X2100X1.2mm CORTEN STEEL profiled rainscreen panels

1197

631

120x40x2mm MILD STEEL cchannel

A

30

30

30

2284

631

3210

30

30

C

2075 30

120x87x4mm MILD STEEL angle as structure

C

3215

C

2075

631

C

631

C

1323

631

30

A500 STAINLESS STEEL heavy duty barrel continuous hinges full mortise Gas cylinder as per manufacturer

30

631X2100X1.2mm CORTEN STEEL perferated profiled rainscreen panels

A

30

631

30x30x3mm MILD STEEL profiles

30 670

30x30x2mm MILD STEEL cchannel

631

30

A

30

670

631

A

2075 30

30

30

1323 3210

30

30

2075

120x87x4mm MILD STEEL angle as structure

631

4200

4200

30

30

2075

30

30

Plan of panel 2

Plan of panel 2

Scale 1:20

Scale 1:20

182 Plan of panel 3 Scale 1:20

238 30

30

30

28

238 120

30

30

30

28

238 120

30

30

30

28

238 120

30

30

30

28

631X2100X1.2mm CORTEN STEEL profiled rainscreen panels 631X2100X1.2mm CORTEN STEEL profiled rainscreen panels

631X2100X1.2mm CORTEN STEEL profiled rainscreen panels

631X2100X1.2mm CORTEN STEEL profiled rainscreen panels

120mm thick sandwich panel with a POLYURETHANE core with a 0.5mm STAINLESS

ALIMINIUM sliding frame glass window sealed with MASTICK structural sealant and opened

120mm thick sandwich panel with a POLYURETHANE core with a 0.5mm STAINLESS

120mm thick sandwich panel with a POLYURETHANE core with a 0.5mm STAINLESS STEEL interior flat profile finish 15mm oval ventilation and drainage holes

631X2100X1.2mm CORTEN STEEL profiled rainscreen panels ALIMINIUM sliding frame glass window sealed with MASTICK structural sealant and opened

120


183


PLAN DETAIL 1 1:5

PLAN DETAIL 2 1:5

184


185 PLAN DETAIL 3 1:5

PLAN DETAIL 4 1:5


186 PLAN DETAIL 5 1:5

PLAN DETAIL 6 1:5


187

EDGE DETAIL 1 1:10


188


189

EDGE DETAIL 2 1:10


190


1200 1133

1200 70

1133

70

100 100 100

100

100

1000

100

100

100

100

70

90 5 120

345

30

115

40x40x2mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL finishing angle welded to secondary structure

75x90x4mm MILD STEEL beam as secondary structure 230x50x5mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL flat bar footing fixed to primary structure with M8 domenut and bolt set 120x100x4mm MILD STEEL I-beam as primary structure 100x250x4mm MILD STEEL base plate fixed to primary structure with M8 nut and bolt set

900

70x140x4mm T-columns welded to base plate

5mm MILD STEEL base plate fixed to stanchion with M8 chemical anchor bolts

NGL 60

65

Walkway Elevation Scale 1:10

95

1200 1133

70

1133

70

100x50x4mm purpose made GALVANISED MILD STEEL cap 8mm dia. GALVAINSED MILD STEEL cold rolled bent round bar bracket

100

5mm dia. tensioned STAINLESS STEEL cables fixed on ends and spaced at 100mm c.c

1000

230x50x5mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL flat bar footing fixed to primary structure with M8 domenut and bolt set 40x40x2mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL finishing angle welded to secondary structure

100

100

100

100

5mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL flat plates as post fixed with M5 nut and bolt set

100

60

58

70

375 50mm dia. GALVANISED MILD STEEL cold rolled hollow tube as hand rail

1200

115 100 120

191

40x40x2mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL bracket fixed to primary structure with M2 nut and bolt set

345

16

19x90mm uncoated BALAU smooth face finish decking spaced at 4mm and fixed to timber supports with STAINLESS STEEL screws @ 360mm c.c

100

100

25x100mm BALAU batten spaced at 325mm c.c and fixed in bracket wiht M2 nut and bolt set

75x90x4mm MILD STEEL beam as secondary structure 120x100x4mm MILD STEEL I-beam as primary structure 900

100x250x4mm MILD STEEL base plate fixed to primary structure with M8 nut and bolt set

550

900

50 5 50

70x140x4mm T-columns welded to base plate

NGL 200

5mm MILD STEEL base plate fixed to stanchion with M8 chemical anchor bolts

300

Scale 1:10

500

NGL

Walkway Elevation


900

3920

NGL 60

65

1232 95

375

375

1232 375

65 60

1232

53

50mm dia. GALVANISED MILD STEEL cold rolled hollow tube as hand rail 100 100 100 40x40x40mm depth GALVANISED MILD STEEL fusion welded bearing bar grating helded in place with hold down clips

40x40x2mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL bracket fixed to primary structure with M2 nut and bolt set

75x90x4mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL beam as secondary structure

100

120x100x4mm MILD STEEL I-beam as primary structure

120

100

345

16

120

115

110

100

100

25x100mm BALAU batten spaced at 325mm c.c and fixed in bracket wiht M2 nut and bolt set

60mm A2 STAINLESS STEEL threaded counter sunk decking screws with predrilled holes

1000

100

40x40x2mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL finishing angle welded to secondary structure

316 STAINLESS STEEL Mtype hold down clips installed every 1000mm c.c four clips per grating panel

100

1000

100

19x90mm uncoated BALAU smooth face finish decking spaced at 4mm and fixed to timber supports with STAINLESS STEEL screws @ 360mm c.c

230x50x5mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL flat bar footing fixed to primary structure with M8 domenut and bolt set

100

100

D9

100

100

5mm dia. tensioned STAINLESS STEEL cables fixed on ends and spaced at 100mm c.c

100

5mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL flat plates as post fixed with M5 nut and bolt set

100

60

58

100x50x4mm purpose made GALVANISED MILD STEEL cap 8mm dia. GALVAINSED MILD STEEL cold rolled bent round bar bracket

100

70

100x250x4mm MILD STEEL base plate fixed to primary structure with M8 nut and bolt set

D11

D10

550

2800

550 5 50 50

5mm MILD STEEL base plate fixed to stanchion with M8 chemical anchor bolts 300x300 CONCRETE stanchion

50mm STONE to depth of 300mm

NGL

200

19mm CRUSHER RUN to 200mm thickness to come to original soil level

C ech. Ar D ON chitect O T ural C R Tec U A hno M C logy EN T TA TI O

900

50 5 50

NGL

D ep ar BT tm AT en E1 to fA rc hi te

900

T of shw Te a ch ne no Un lo iv g er

70x140x4mm T-columns welded to base plate

192

T

500

NGL

5

B. 300

Name

Chironne Moller 209127610

Project description

300x300x150 CONCRETE footing

The design of a hydrolo research and conservati platform

300x300x150 CONCRETE footing

Detail 7 Scale 1:10

Date OUT

Date IN

Scale:

1:10

Sheet N

1


38

5 40

80

40

40

40

40

40

50

38

60

900

30

4

70 170

900

30

4

1000

900

50mm dia. GALVANISED MILD STEEL cold rolled hollow tube as hand rail 8mm dia. GALVAINSED MILD STEEL cold rolled bent round bar bracket 100x50x4mm purpose made GALVANISED MILD STEEL cap 5mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL flat plates as post fixed with M5 nut and bolt set 40x40x40mm depth GALVANISED STEEL fusion welded bearing bar grating helded in place with hold down clips 316 STAINLESS STEEL Mtype hold down clips installed every 1000mm c.c four clips per grating panel

25x100mm BALAU batten fixed to primary support with Stainless brackets

4

60mm A2 STAINLESS STEEL threaded counter sunk decking screws with predrilled holes

4

19x90mm uncoated BALAU smooth face finish decking spaced at 4mm and fixed to timber supports with STAINLESS STEEL screws @ 360mm c.c

900

70 30

130

30

50mm dia. GALVANISED MILD STEEL cold rolled hollow tube as hand rail 8mm dia. GALVAINSED MILD STEEL cold rolled bent round bar bracket 100x50x4mm purpose made GALVANISED MILD STEEL cap 5mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL flat plates as post fixed with M5 nut and bolt set

4

90

4

90

4

90

4

60

900

60mm A2 STAINLESS STEEL threaded counter sunk decking screws with predrilled holes

4

316 STAINLESS STEEL Mtype hold down clips installed every 1000mm c.c four clips per grating panel

4

900

4

900

40x40x40mm depth GALVANISED MILD STEEL fusion welded bearing bar grating helded in place with hold down clips

193 Plan detail 10

Plan detail 11

Scale 1:5

Scale 1:5

Scale 1:5

150

25

Plan detail 9

5

50

38 5

50 50mm dia. GALVANISED MILD STEEL cold rolled hollow

0

60 5


Scale 1:5

Scale 1:5

150

25

Scale 1:5

50

1175 500 60mm A2 STAINLESS STEEL threaded counter sunk decking screws with predrilled holes

40

40

40

40

40

40

40

19

120x100x4mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL I-beam as primary structure

4

4

120

120

120

40x40x40mm depth GALVANISED STEEL fusion welded bearing bar grating helded in place with hold down clips 75x90x4mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL beam as secondary structure

375

112

200

100 40

120x100x4mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL I-beam as primary structure

239

100

90

45

40

40

316 STAINLESS STEEL Mtype hold down clips installed every 1000mm c.c four clips per grating panel

300

40

75x90x4mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL beam as secondary structure

100

40

130

40x40x2mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL bracket fixed to primary structure with M2 nut and bolt set

75 120

40

230x50x5mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL flat bar footing fixed to primary structure with M8 domenut and bolt set

235

40

90

25x100mm BALAU batten spaced at 325mm c.c and fixed in bracket wiht M2 nut and bolt set

85 235

40x40x40mm depth GALVANISED MILD STEEL fusion welded bearing bar grating helded in place with hold down clips

60mm A2 STAINLESS STEEL threaded counter sunk decking screws with predrilled holes

85

100

50

5mm dia. tensioned STAINLESS STEEL cables fixed on ends and spaced at 100mm c.c

316 STAINLESS STEEL Mtype hold down clips installed every 1000mm c.c four clips per grating panel

75x90x4mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL beam as secondary structure

5mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL flat plates as post fixed with M5 nut and bolt set

100

25x100mm BALAU batten fixed to primary support with Stainless brackets

130

100

19x90mm uncoated BALAU smooth face finish decking spaced at 4mm and fixed to timber supports with STAINLESS STEEL screws @ 360mm c.c

4 5

90

85 100

40x40x2mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL finishing angle welded to secondary structure

250

19x90mm uncoated BALAU smooth face finish decking spaced at 4mm and fixed to timber supports with STAINLESS STEEL screws @ 360mm c.c

230x50x5mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL flat bar footing fixed to primary structure with M8 domenut and bolt set

540

100

250

50mm dia. GALVANISED MILD STEEL cold rolled hollow tube as hand rail 8mm dia. GALVAINSED MILD STEEL cold rolled bent round bar bracket 100x50x4mm purpose made GALVANISED MILD STEEL cap 5mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL flat plates as post fixed with M5 nut and bolt set 5mm dia. tensioned STAINLESS STEEL cables fixed on ends and spaced at 100mm c.c

112

38 5

15

50

90

60 5

194

120x100x4mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL I-beam as primary structure

Detail 9 Scale 1:5

100x250x4mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL base plate fixed to primary structure with M8 nut and bolt set 100x50x5mm GALVANISED MLD STEEL T-column as structural footing 50

Detail 10

Detail 11

Scale 1:5

Scale 1:5

5 50 105

De

Sca GSPublisherEngine 0.0.100.100


195


50

38

60

150

25

40

25mm screed floor with powerfloated finish

Flooring system

250

170mm Q-deck flooring system on structural members 250x100x5mm MILD STEEL Ibeam 180x60x3mm MILD STEEL angles fixed to I-beam with M8nut and bolt set 250x100x5mm MILD STEEL Ibeam

30

70 170

30

500

1175

3mm MILD STEEL flat plate 50mm dia. GALVANISED fixed to I-beam with M8 nut MILD STEEL cold rolled hollowand bolt set tube as hand rail 8mm dia. GALVAINSED MILD 70x140x4mm T-columns STEEL cold rolled bent round welded to base plate bar bracket 100x50x4mm purpose made 5mm MILD STEEL base plate GALVANISED MILD STEEL fixed to stanchion with M8 chemical anchor bolts cap 5mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL flat plates as post fixed 300x300 CONCRETE stanchion with M5 nut and bolt set

T of shw Te a ch ne no Un lo iv gy er si ty

200

D ep ar BT tm AT en E1 to fA rc hi te ct ur e

130

40x40x40mm depth GALVANISED STEEL fusion welded bearing bar grating helded in place with hold down clips

C ech. Ar D ON chitect O T ural C R Tec U A hno M C logy EN T TA TI O N

85

316 STAINLESS STEEL Mtype hold down clips installed every 1000mm c.c four clips per grating panel

NGL

300

230x50x5mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL flat bar footing fixed to primary structure with M8 domenut and bolt set

235

90

100

100

250

19mm crusher run to depth of 40x40x40mm depth GALVANISED STEEL fusion 200mm thickness 5mm GALVANISED MILD welded bearing bar grating STEEL flat plates as post fixed helded in place with hold down 50mm stone to depth of with M5 nut and bolt set 300mm thickness clips 5mm dia. tensioned 316 STAINLESS STEEL MSTAINLESS STEEL cables type hold down clips installed fixed on ends and spaced at every 1000mm c.c four clips 100mm c.c per grating panel

120x100x4mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL I-beam as primary structure

T

120

112

4 5

75x90x4mm GALVANISED MILD STEEL beam as secondary structure

5

B.

4

detail 11

1:5 Name

Chironne Moller 209127610

150

25

Project description

25mm screed floor with powerfloated finish

600X600x300 CONCRETE foundation

The design of a hydrology research and conservation platform

Flooring system

Detail 8

250

170mm Q-deck flooring system on structural members

Scale 1:10

250x100x5mm MILD STEEL Ibeam

Date OUT

180x60x3mm MILD STEEL angles fixed to I-beam with M8nut and bolt set

Scale:

250x100x5mm MILD STEEL Ibeam

00

1175

3mm MILD STEEL flat plate fixed to I-beam with M8 nut and bolt set 70x140x4mm T-columns

Date IN

1:5 and 1:10

Sheet No./No.

12

196


197


0.9

SELF ASSESSMENT AND CONCLUSION

198


199


This dissertation has afforded me to realize the importance of environmental conservation through architecture- to have a holistic design approach that responds physically, sensually and visually to the occupant. LAB_00 is an intervention expressing a response to create environmental awareness by involving the public to participate directly in research in a social and recreational manner.

future proposal of the Apies river. Detail design regarding the landscape aspects of the proposal would also have been enjoyed. Ultimately, the research and conclusions which unfolded through the process of this thesis are far from final. There is still much to be discovered and explored regarding architecture and nature.

Fountains Valley proved to be a complex area to work in with its historical, cultural and environmental layers, influencing the design response. The intentions of the proposed facility is not only to generate awareness around Pretoriaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hydrology history and the Fountains Springs, but to establish the facility as a catalyst to initiate other hydrology research and repairment hubs. A challenging aspect of the design was to create a holistic solution to commemorate the complex layers of Fountains Valley and therefore fit in with its influential context. The author was unable to actualize a detail exploration of existing water bodies and green spaces through the city as well as the

SELF ASSESSMENT 200


201


202


203


204


205


1.0

REFERENCE & APPENDICES

206


207


208

EXHIBITION KEY


Alexander, Christopher. Ishikawa, Sara. And Silverton, Murray. 1977. A pattern language. Oxford Andrews, T.E., 1985. A walking tour through Pretoria’s historical past: Church St. East from Church Square. Unknown publisher, Pretoria. Birnbaum, C. 1994. Protecting cultural landscapes: Planning, treatment and management of historic landscapes. Clemson University Libraries. Booth, N.K. 1990. Basic elements of landscape architectural design. Waveland Press. USA City of Tshwane Metropolitan municipality, 2005. Tshwane Environmental Education and Awareness Strategy. The Tshwane state of the environment report and environmental education, Appendix B. p.51. Coetzee, N.A., van der Waal, G., Laubscher, H.P., 1992. Fountains Valley, Pretoria’s Spring of Life. Pretoria City Council, Pretoria. Constanza, R.R., 2006. Economic benefits of wetlands. United States environmental protection agency. Christian Norberg-schultz. 1979. Genius Loci: Towards a phenomenology of architecture. Rizzoli Dillon, R.B. 2008. Rebuilding Biophilia: Reconnecting man with nature through architect Dippenaar, M., 2014. Interview by author: Professor Mattys Dippenaar: Head of the Hydrological heritage overview Project. Conducted 20 February 2014, unpublished. Dippenaar, M., 2013. Hydrological heritage overview: Pretoria’s Fountains – Arteries of life. Water research Commission of South Africa, Pretoria, p.3-15 Haarhoff, J., Juuti, P., Maki, H., 2013. Pretoria’s Fountains – a Hydrological heritage. Borehole Water Journal, Vol. 89, p.2-7. Jirasek, P., Jurgen H.H. 2004. Protecting our cultural heritage. ICOM NEWS, No.4 Joubert, O. 2009. 10 years, 100 buildings: Architecture in a democratic South Africa. Cape Town, Bell Roberts. Kellert, S.R., Heerwagen, J. Mador, M. 2008. Biophillic Design: The theory, Science and practice of bringing buildings to life. Wiley Kuhn, M. Holly. 2007 Water and architecture: fixed dynamic fluid stable. M. Arch. Thesis, University of Cincinnati. Kundig, O. 2014. Olson Kundig Architects: Delta Shelter. April 15. [Online]. Available from: http://www.olsonkundigarchitects.com/Projects/38/Delta-Shelter [Accessed: 15/06/2014]

209 Miller/Hull. 2004. Willamette river water treatment plant- Wilsonville, Oregon. March 22 [Online]. Available from: http://places.designobserver.com/media/pdf/Willamette_ Riv_657.pdf [Accessed: 15/06/2014]

Mitchell, N., Buggey, S. 2000. Protected landscapes and cultural landscapes: Taking advantage of diverse approaches. The George Wright FORUM National heritage resources act, no. 25 of 1999. UNESCO Ollis, D., Macfarlane, D., Job, N., Sieben, E., Snaddon, K. 2009. Further development of a proposed national wetland classification system for South Africa. The freshwater consulting group.


Panagos, D.C., 2003. The ZAR Pumping Station at Groenkloof, Pretoria, 1898. SA Military History Journal, Vol. 12. Stewart, M. 2008. Water in culture and religion. Tranâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s boundary water resources. April 10 [online]. Available from: http://www.ce.utexas.edu/prof/mckinney/ce397/Topics/Religion/ Water_in_C&R.pdf [Accessed: 15/06/2014] UNEP Global environmental monitoring system/water programme, 2004. South African monitoring programme design. DWAF Unknown, 1953. Last of a prominent Pretoria. Pretoria News Van Tonder, L. 2008. A cultural heritage management plan for the Groenkloof Nature Reserve, City of Tshwane. (No. AE837). Archeatnos culture and cultural resource consultants Van der Waal. G. M., 1994. Furrows (1860) Discovered in church street. Mumi Cultural History Museum, Pretoria. Wampler, P.J. 2012. Rivers and Streams- Water and sediment in motion. Nature education Knowledge 3(10):18. Whelchel, h. and Donovan, m. 1994. Water and architecture. Thames and Hudson Wynland laboratories. 2014. Heterotrophic bacteria. June 4 [Online]. Available from: http://www.wynlandlab.co.za/info/microorganisms/heterotrophic-bacteria [Accessed: 15/06/2014]

REFERENCES

210

CHIRONNE MOLLER// THESIS DOCUMENT// LAB_00 a layered confluence  

The design of a Hydrological Research and conservation platform in Fountains Valley, Pretoria.

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you