Fun Family Educational Resource of Chapel Hill • Carrboro • Durham • Hillsborough • NC Triangle
How Autumn Leaves Change Colors
Thanksgiving Fun in the NC Triangle
November Fun in the NC Triangle!
Doodle 4 Google 2016 Art Contest for Kids! Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade Celebrates 90 Years FREE!
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. . . If You Sailed on the Mayflower in 1620 by Ann McGovern, illustrated by Anna DiVito A different time...a different place... What if you were there? Get ready to go back in time to 1620 to discover what it was like for a Pilgrim girl or Pilgrim boy to set sail across the ocean on the Mayflower, and what life was like later in Plymouth colony. Written in a fun question and answer format, ...If You Sailed on the Mayflower in 1620 is fascinating for children and grown-ups alike. What was life like on the Mayflower? What did they eat? What did children do? What could you bring with you on the voyage? Were they able to bathe on the Mayflower? The book describes what daily life was like for the Pilgrims during those first months, and the hardships that the Pilgrims faced on the Mayflower, as well as the hardships of their first winter in Plymouth colony. (Ages 7 to 10 years). More book selections: A Day in the Life series by Kate Waters
ChillKids is your LOCAL award-winning educational family resource magazine for parents, grandparents, children, and educators K-5th grade in Chapel Hill, Carrboro, Hillsborough/Orange County, Durham and the NC Triangle.
HAVE FUN READING & LEARNING with ChillKids, featuring award-winning educational puzzles and games. Educators can request FREE distribution for your K-5 classroom(s) by calling (919) 951-4410. Read the monthly online edition at www. ChillKids.com/news. The ChillKids family educational resource is supported by sponsors who share our mission to promote literacy and a love of learning in our local community. To learn more about supporting our 501(c)(3) nonprofit literacy mission in partnership with the Newspaper in Education Initiative, call us at (919) 951-4410. ADDITION SUDOKU
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2 www.ChillKids.com/news November 2016
ChillKids Chapel Hill/Carrboro/Hillsborough/ Orange & Durham Counties' Fun Family Educational Resource PUBLISHER/EDITOR Kate Look kate@ChillKids.com
Cover Art: Masha Starus
For Sponsorship Information, or to request (FREE!) K-5 distribution for your school, contact us at: (919) 951-4410 www.ChillKids.com/news ChillKids 1818 Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd, #210 Chapel Hill, NC 27514 Copyright ÂŠ 2016 ChillKids. All rights reserved. No part of this issue may be reproduced in whole or in part in any form without permission of the publisher. Neither participating advertisers nor the publishers will be responsible or liable for misinformation, misprints or typographical errors. The publishers reserve the right to edit any submitted material. ChillKids is not responsible for unsolicited manuscripts, artwork, or other material. Children's art submissions should include name, address, telephone number, and permission to publish signed by a parent or guardian.
Welcome November! This month we'll learn with NASA's Space Place about Earth's Magnetic Shield and Auroras (Northern Lights and Southern Lights) on pages 12 & 13. We'll learn about why leaves change colors in the Fall (page 14), and we''ll also read about the 90th anniversary of Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade (page 11). Thanksgiving is a time for getting together with family and friends and thinking about all the things for which we are grateful. On page 10 write down some of the things for which you are thankful, and learn how to draw your own cartoon turkey! November is a time for lots of fun things to do in the North Carolina Triangle! The Emerson Waldorf School Annual Children's Faire & Artisan Marketplace takes place on Saturday, November 19th (10am - 3pm), with horse carriage rides, puppet shows, silk dyeing, music, games, crafts and more for children of all ages. Read more about it on page 7. Morehead Planetarium's winter schedule begins on November 19th, with live science demonstrations, six different planetarium shows, including the holiday favorite, The Longest Night: A Winter's Tale, a special family-friendly New Year's Eve celebration and lots more. Join in the fun at the Holiday Parade at Northgate Mall, where you can make your own ornament, and meet Santa! (See page 8). Looking ahead to December, get your tickets now for Triangle Youth Ballet's The Nutcracker performances (page 4). Also mark your calendar now for Durham Holiday Events including the Holiday Fun Fest on Saturday, December 3rd, Santa Paws on December 9, and Holiday Parade on December 10 (See page 5). Have a very Happy Thanksgiving!
I want to be dressed up for Thanksgiving.
Be thankful that dentistry has come so far or you could have wooden teeth like s an George Washington! Rom ells, . e t s h s a gg thp eir r too ones, e clean th o f l fu e of b ey to r hank Be t a mixtu and hon Be thankful you are not a snail. used r shells They have 25,000 teeth to take e oyst . h care of! teet
Can you help color me?
Be thankful you are not an elephant. Their teeth weigh 6lbs each and are almost 1 foot across!
Clifton & Mauney Orthodontics & Pediatric Dentistry 77 Vilcom Center Drive Suite 310 Chapel Hill, NC 27514 (919)933-1007
November 2016 www.ChillKids.com/news
Hidden Picture Puzzles by Liz
How many hidden pictures can you find?
JOIN US FOR
Grades 4-8 Info Session 8:30am - 10:30 am 11.9 High School Info Session 8:30 am -10:30 am 11.19 Children’s Faire & Artisan Marketplace 10 am - 3 pm 11.29 Kim John Payne: Loving Limits in a Digital Age 7 pm - 9 pm @ ERUUF 11.3
11.30 Kim John Payne: Being Your Best When Your Kids are at Their Worst
Chapel Hill Pediatrics
Open SEVEN DAYS A WEEK including all holidays Same-day appointments available
6 pm - 9 pm
URGENT CARE HOURS AVAILABLE "Walk-in availability" for established patients: Monday – Friday mornings 7:15 – 7:50am & Sat/Sun 9am - 2pm Care from birth through college Comprehensive sports & camp physicals International adoption care Convenient parking
Inspired Learning. NOW OFFERING NURSERY AND KINDERGARTEN AFTERCARE OPTIONS UNTIL 5:30PM 6211 NEW JERICHO RD, CHAPEL HILL NC • 919.967.1858 EMERSONWALDORF.ORG
TWO locations welcome NEW and established patients
205 Sage Rd., Suite 100 Chapel Hill, NC 27514
249 East NC Hwy 54, Suite 230 Durham, NC 27713
4 www.ChillKids.com/news November 2016
2016 Doodle 4 Google
KIDS' ART CONTESTS
Winning Google Doodle (K-12) Will Earn a $30,000 College Scholarship! Plus $50,000 for the Winner's School!
You have probably seen some of the cool doodles that grace Google's Google logo artwork when the Google search box pops up. Sometimes these Google "doodles" are animated; sometimes they even include a kind of mini video game when you click on the Google doodle.
Theme: "What I see for the future." Use any materials! | Artists K-12
Google doodles are the fun, surprising, and sometimes spontaneous changes that are made to the Google logo to celebrate holidays, anniversaries, and the lives of famous artists, pioneers, and scientists.
2016 contest entry period: September 14 - December 2, 2016
The doodle must incorporate the letters G-o-o-g-l-e, and don't forget that the deadline for entries is December 2, 2016, 12pm Pacific Time (PT).
It's time to put on your creating thinking cap and get out your art supplies, because when you submit your own Google doodle art creation, your own Google doodle could earn you a $30,000 college scholarship, and an additional $50,000 technology grant for your school!
Parents/guardians can submit your entry online at https://doodles.google. com/d4g/ or by mail (see contest website for details).
The winning doodle also will be featured on www. Google.com for a day, and the winner will receive a trip to visit Google headquarters in Mountain View, California. So get to work and let the doodling begin!
The Doodle4Google theme this year is: "What I see for the future." "What does the future look like? Are cities built in the clouds? Is it a place where everyone gets along - even cats and dogs? Or maybe a world where nobody ever gets sick? With the Google homepage as their canvas, young artists are invited to reach into their imagination and share what they see for the future."
The 9th annual Doodle4Google contest is for students in grades K-12, and Google is accepting entries between September 14 and December 2, 2016.
E E H L I A O A L K G L T I H
Balloons Family Macy's Parade Thanksgiving Turkey
K T G L N E T R I R O O H O O
C N I O A H O A D U O R A N L
A O L O Y E S P A T G O N E A
R C N N C R Y S Y Y L P K T R
Autumn Leaves Anthocyanins Chlorophyll Carotenoids Photosynthesis
C T R S O O N Y F V E H S O S
T R E F H M T C U H D Y G R H
U A H A T H H A N C O L I A I
N Y T M N I E M F U O L V C P
B E R I A F S N E R D L I H C
Y V O L K C I H S L L I N J K
T U N Y N X S A T N E F G W O
State and territory winners will be notified by telephone or email on or before March 1, 2017. The national winner will be chosen in March, 2017.
For details, rules, FAQs, and to submit entries, visit https://doodles.google.com/d4g/
Find the words by looking up, down, backwards, forwards, sideways and diagonally. R S T A N D H D O E D H E D C
Fifty-three state winners will be selected, and then the public will vote on their favorite doodle from among the finalists.
November Word Find M T S B S L P E H Y O C O S S
Participants in this year's contest are asked to create a doodle (can be a drawing or a 2D image of your 3D sculpture or collage) around the theme "What I see for the future." Any sort of material is welcomed in creating the doodle,"from crayons, to clay, to graphic design, even food and video games."
FREE EVENTS FOR THE ENTIRE FAMILY A U R O R A B O R E A L I S V
Art Contest Children's Faire Google Doodle Holiday Fun Fest Scholarship Morehead Aurora Borealis Santa at Northgate Northern Lights TYB Nutcracker
Holiday Fun Fest
SATURDAY, DECEMBER 3 (12-4 PM)
DURHAM COUNTY STADIUM PRACTICE FIELD 750 STADIUM DRIVE, DURHAM, NC 27704
SNOW SLEDDING • SANTA MEET & GREET • TRAIN RIDES
FRIDAY, DECEMBER 9 (6-8 PM)
DURHAM ARMORY 212 FOSTER STREET, DURHAM, NC 27701
Demos • Vendors • Santa Meet & Greet
SATURDAY, DECEMBER 10 (10 AM) MAIN STREET - DOWNTOWN DURHAM
Vendors • Floats • Bands
FOR EVENT DETAILS VISIT DPRPLAYMORE.ORG
November 2016 www.ChillKids.com/news
Turn to page 10 and write down some of the things for which you are thankful.
"Sets" Dot-to-Dot Stop your line after completing each set of numbers (as shown in the numbered list above), then skip to the next set, and start your line again.
triangle youth ballet The
Nutcracker with live music by the
Tchaikovsky Virtuosi Saturday December 3 @ 7 pm Sunday December 4 @ 2 pm
Hanes Theatre, Chapel Hill High School
TICKETS ON SALE
Saturday December 10 @ 11 am and 3:30 pm Carolina Theatre, Durham TICKETS ON SALE
Photography by Catharine Carter
919-560-3030 & TICKETMASTER
The Triangle Youth Ballet is a 501(c)3 non-profit and a member of the North Carolina Center for Non-Profits.
THE ANIMAL HOSPITAL Highest quality veterinarian services, using state of the art technology & techniques
* Dog boarding * Cat boarding
* Luxury cat condos
* Dog self-wash service
North Carolinaâ€™s best small animal practice, serving the community since 1974!
Max the Frie
112 West Main St. Carrboro, NC 27510 www.theanimalhospital.biz
6 www.ChillKids.com/news November 2016
Welcome Winter with a Magical Faire Experience! Welcome winter with a magical faire experience at the Emerson Waldorf Childrenâ€™s Faire and Artisan Marketplace on Saturday, November 19, 2016 from 10:00 am until 3:00 pm on the campus of Emerson Waldorf School, 6211 New Jericho Rd., Chapel Hill, NC 27516. Children of all ages will enjoy crafts, gift-making and merriment, food, entertainment and more. Vendors from around the Triangle will share their handmade gifts.
Crafts include candle dipping, fish pond, gnome hat making, gem mining, leather stamping and silk dyeing.
Emerson Waldorf invites you and your family and friends to share this wonderful day at the Children's Faire!
Entertainment includes a puppet show (three performances) and a parent-child eurythmy class. Outdoor activities include jump-rope winding, cake walk, archery, obstacle course, wee folk area, sheep petting and a horse drawn carriage ride.
Children's Faire & Artisan Marketplace November 19, 2016 10am to 3pm Emerson Waldorf School 6211 New Jericho Rd. Chapel Hill, NC 27516 www.emersonwaldorf.org
On the evening before the Children's Faire, adults can also enjoy a special Friday night shopping experience (along with light refreshments) in the Artisan Marketplace at the Emerson Waldorf campus from 6pm-8pm on November 18, 2016.
November 2016 www.ChillKids.com/news
8 www.ChillKids.com/news November 2016
www.emersonwaldorf.org (See page 7)
Daylight Savings Ends Fall Back! Set back your clock by one hour.
Ages 3 – 6 Mondays & Tuesdays 10:30 am – 11:00 am ALSO Tuesdays 3:30 pm - 4 pm Chapel Hill Public Library
Emerson Waldorf School Grades 4 - 8 Info Session 8:30am-10:30am
Ages 3 – 6 Mondays & Tuesdays 10:30 am – 11:00 am and 3:30 pm - 4 pm Chapel Hill Public Library
Emerson Waldorf School High School Info Session 8:30am-10:30am
Good 21Nutrition 22 Month
28 Story Time
Ages 3 – 6 Mondays & Tuesdays 10:30 am – 11:00 am ALSO Tuesdays 3:30 pm - 4 pm Chapel Hill Public Library
at Northgate Mall
Maximus Mars (3rd-8th grade) 12:30pm Free!
Ages 3 – 6 Mondays & Tuesdays 10:30 am – 11:00 am and 3:30 pm - 4 pm
12 Taurid Meteor Shower Peak 11
Nov. 11-12 (North Taurids) also Nov. 5-6 (South Taurids)
The best time to look for Taurids is after midnight, when Taurus is high in the sky, and when the sky is dark and clear, with no moonlight to mask the fainter meteors.
19 18 Emerson
Leonid Meteor Shower Peak
between midnight & dawn Nov. 17 - Nov. 18
Children's Faire & Artisan Marketplace 10am to 3pm (see p. 7)
Santa Arrives at Northgate Mall! (See p. 8)
Learn how to draw this turkey cartoon on page 10.
Chapel Hill Public Library
1st & 3rd Saturdays
(See page 4)
America Recycles Day
Visit www.drfuhrman.com for delicious nutritious recipes the whole family will love yearround!
(See page 4)
Emerson Emerson Waldorf Waldorf School School Kim John Payne Kim John Payne @ERUUF 6pm-9pm 7pm-9pm (See page 4) (See page 4)
November 2016 www.ChillKids.com/news
Emerson Waldorf School
Children's Faire & Artisan Marketplace November 19 Crafts, Archery, Food, Horse-Drawn Carriage Puppet Shows & More www.emersonwaldorf.org
(see p. 7)
CREATIVE KIDS Giving Thanks for Thanksgiving!
Original art ÂŠMia Look.
In the spaces below, for each letter, write down one or more things for which you are thankful! Write a word/words for each letter on the lines below, or even a complete sentence. Examples: T - Teachers, H - Home,
T H A N K S G I V I N G
K - Kindness, N - Neighbors; V - Veggies; I - I am thankful for my family.
10 www.ChillKids.com/news November 2016
Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade Celebrates 90 Years One of those jaw-dropping additions came in 1927. Replacing the live animals who some said scared children along the route, the Parade introduced its first inflatables, debuting four giant balloons filled with air and carried on sticks down the route. That inaugural balloon line-up included the first-ever, character-based balloon featuring the likeness of famed animated film star, Felix the Cat. To make the balloons lighter than air, the following year, helium was added, helping the giants float down the route.
The nation’s biggest and most anticipated Thanksgiving celebration, the Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade, is broadcast nationally on NBC, with millions of families nationwide tuning in to watch the excitement unfold. This year, the parade will be televised in a three-hour broadcast on November 24th from 9 a.m. to noon (in all time zones).
Only one event has ever caused the cancellation of the Parade, and that was World War II. During a three-year period from 1941 until 1943, the event was put on hold due to the rationing of supplies such as rubber and helium and a moratorium on large public gatherings. After its brief hiatus, the Parade returned and grew in worldwide fame becoming even more synonymous with the holiday season after its starring role in the 1947 film classic, “Miracle on 34th Street.”
For ninety years, Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade has been a march like no other! Each year more than 8,000 volunteers participate in the Parade, dressing up in cheerful costumes, strutting their stuff in a marching band, or escorting the Parade’s signature giant inflatables and floats into the hearts of millions across the country. Originally known as the Macy’s Christmas Parade, the tradition was started in 1924 by Macy’s employees who wanted to celebrate the holiday season with a grand pageant similar to the over-the-top carnivals and festivals of Europe. The first Parade featured fanciful floats, employee marching bands, clown groups and real animals from the Central Park Zoo. Stretching along more than five miles to Macy’s Herald Square, the first event was such a success that it was deemed by Macy’s to be an annual event from then on.
While many elements have grown and been adapted over time, the heart of the Parade has always involved Macy’s own employee volunteers, talented marching bands and dazzling floats – elements that have paved the way for imagination and grand spectacle.
90TH ANNIVERSARY MACY’S THANKSGIVING DAY PARADE ROUTE
PARADE STARTS HERE 77th Street
Central Park West
THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 24, 2016 9AM – NOON
Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade Fun Facts * Live animals including lions, tigers, camels, goats, elephants, and donkeys were a part of the original Parade processions.
* In 1927, Macy’s replaced the live animals in the Parade with its now signature giant balloons created by famed puppeteer and Macy’s window designer Tony Sarg. The first balloons included Felix the Cat, The Dragon, The Elephant and Toy Soldier.
* In 1989, the Parade marched through its very first snowstorm.
Times Square 42nd Street
* To date, there have been 174 giant character balloons in the Parade since 1927. The longest balloon in the 2016 Parade is Red Mighty Morphin Power Ranger at 78-feet long. The tallest is The Elf on the Shelf at 64-feet. and tied for the widest is Hello Kitty and DreamWorks’ Trolls at 38-feet. * The 2016 Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade features 16 giant character balloons; 24 novelty, balloonicles, balloonheads, and trycaloons; 26 floats; 12 marching bands, 1,100 cheerleaders/ dancers; and more than 1,000 clowns.
B ro a d wa y
PARADE ENDS HERE
Drum Roll, Please. . . Cary Senior High School (Cary, NC) will be among 12 Performance Ensembles from around the country to march in the Parade this year! Marching bands are a central piece of the Parade, bringing music and national excitement and hometown pride to the streets of the Big Apple (NYC). This year 12 performance ensembles (including Cary Senior High School of Cary, NC) will take up the call of the baton and march down the streets of Manhattan.
No public viewing or press access in the telecast area on 6th Avenue from 34th Street to 38th Street, and on 34th Street between Broadway and 7th Avenue. Limited public viewing on the south side of 34th Street between Broadway and 7th Avenue. Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade & Related Characters: ©2016 Macy’s Inc. All rights reserved. Trolls: DreamWorks Trolls © 2016 DreamWorks Animation LLC. All Rights Reserved; Diary of a Wimpy Kid: DIARY OF A WIMPY KID®, WIMPY KID™, and the Greg Heffley design™ are trademarks of Wimpy Kid, Inc. All rights reserved; Felix: Felix the Cat: © 2016 DreamWorks Animation LLC. All Rights Reserved; Charlie Brown: Peanuts Worldwide, LLC ©PNTS. All rights reserved.
* Three new giant balloons will debut in the 90th Parade. New balloons include Charlie Brown by Peanuts Worldwide, Diary of a Wimpy Kid®, and DreamWorks’ Trolls. The balloon line-up will also feature the return of the Parade’s first balloon star as DreamWorks Animation’s Felix the Cat. Designed and built using the same methods from the late 1920s, Felix will make his way down the route as he first appeared, carried on sticks, mimicking his debut appearance in 1927.
November 2016 www.ChillKids.com/news
Earth’s Magnetic Shield & Auroras - By Linda Hermans-Killam,, National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Thousands of miles beneath our feet, flowing electrons create a powerful force that protects life on Earth. This effect is called a magnetic field. But what creates this magnetic field?
Thankfully, most of these particles bounce off Earth's magnetic field and pass around the Earth. If Earth had no magnetic field, these particles would erode away our atmosphere.
Deep, deep below the ground lies the center of the Earth, also called its core. It is a place of incredibly high temperatures and pressures.
This actually happened on our neighbor planet, Mars. When the magnetic field surrounding Mars was weakened, most of its atmosphere was stripped away by the solar wind.
Earth's core is made up mostly of metals, like iron and nickel. When metals are very hot, their atoms move so fast that they can no longer stay solid and they melt into liquid. Although the inner part of the core is very hot, the metals there cannot melt. This is because the pressure there is too high from the weight of the rest of the Earth above it. The high pressure makes it difficult for these metal atoms to move around.
Artist's depiction of energetic charged particles trapped by Earth's magnetic field. Image credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center/Scientific Visualization Studio.
Sometimes particles from the solar wind get trapped in Earth's magnetic field. When too many particles get trapped, some overflow into our atmosphere near Earth's magnetic poles.
But in the outer part of the core, the pressure is lower and the metals there can melt. The molten metal in the outer core flows in high speed currents as the Earth spins. Within this molten metal are electric charges. These flowing electric charges create a strong magnetic field. In fact, Earth's magnetic field is so powerful that it reaches out into space and surrounds the entire Earth! Earth's magnetic field is very important because it protects us from harmful radiation from space. It also shields us from the solar wind—a stream of high speed particles that flows from the sun. These particles travel at speeds of about one million miles per hour!
Here they collide with atoms and molecules in the atmosphere, creating beautiful displays of lights called auroras. Although our magnetic field can't block every particle from space, the ones that slip through make for an awesome show! An illustration of Earth's magnetic field. Image credit: NASA
Learn more about auroras on page 13, and visit NASA Space Place at http://spaceplace.nasa.gov/aurora/en/
Look for Math-A-Muse Answers on page 2.
By Evelyn B. Christensen, Ed.D.
Find 2 solutions.
12 www.ChillKids.com/news November 2016
Auroras: Northern Lights & Southern Lights What is an aurora? If you’re ever near the North or South Pole, you may be in for a very special treat. Frequently there are beautiful light shows in the sky. These lights are called auroras. If you’re near the North Pole, it is called an aurora
borealis or northern lights. If you’re near the South Pole, it is called an aurora australis or the southern lights.
Do other planets get auroras? They sure do! Auroras are not just something that happen on Earth. If a planet has an atmosphere and magnetic field, they probably have auroras. As shown in the pictures below, we’ve seen amazing auroras on Jupiter and Saturn. - NASA Space Place, http://spaceplace.nasa.gov/aurora/en/
These swirls of red light are an aurora on the south pole of Saturn.
Image courtesy of NASA/ESA/STScI/A. Schaller.
This beautiful view of the aurora was taken from the International Space Station as it crossed over the southern Indian Ocean on September 17, 2011.
The NASA Hubble Space Telescope took this picture of an aurora on Jupiter using ultraviolet (UV) light.
What makes this happen? Even though auroras are best seen at night, they are actually caused by the sun. The sun sends us more than heat and light; it sends lots of other energy and small particles our way. The protective magnetic field around Earth shields us from most of the energy and particles, and we don’t even notice them.
Image courtesy of NASA.
When a solar storm comes toward us, some of the energy and small particles can travel down the magnetic field lines at the north and south poles into Earth’s atmosphere.
There, the particles interact with gases in our atmosphere resulting in beautiful displays of light in the sky. Oxygen gives off green and red light. Nitrogen glows blue and purple.
The green bands of light in the sky in this photo (right) are an aurora australis, an aurora at the south pole.
November 2016 www.ChillKids.com/news
Credit: Keith Vanderlinde, National Science Foundation
But the sun doesn’t send the same amount of energy all the time. There is a constant streaming solar wind and there are also solar storms. During one kind of solar storm called a coronal mass ejection, the sun burps out a huge bubble of electrified gas that can travel through space at high speeds.
Why Do Autumn Leaves Change Colors?
How Leaves Change Color
Leaves create food and sap for trees by using carbon dioxide, sunlight, water and minerals in a process called photosynthesis. Leaves also give off oxygen.
During the Spring and Summer seasons, broadleaf leaves produce the tree's food and sap. A green-colored material called cholorophyll helps the broadleaf leaves continue to produce the tree's food in the Spring and Summer. The same leaves also have other colors such as red, yellow or orange, but they are hidden by the chlorophyll's green color.
Two Types of Leaves
In the United States, the two main types of trees are broadleaf (also called deciduous) and needleleaf (also called coniferous).
As the days get shorter in the Fall, the nights get longer and cooler, causing the broadleaf leaves to stop making food. As the chlorophyll breaks down, the leaves' green color disappears, and the other hidden colors begin to show.
Broadleaf trees shed their leaves in the Fall. Examples of broadleaf trees are apple, maple (shown at left) and oak. Needleleaf trees have green leaves year-round (also called evergreen). Examples of needleleaf trees include pine, spruce, cedars and fir trees.
Then a layer of cells forms at the base of each leaf stem, cutting the tissues that connect the leaf to the tree, so that the leaf falls off the tree.
Here in the North Carolina Triangle, we are lucky to live in one of the parts of the world where Nature gives us spectacular display of Autumn colors before settling down into winter's sleep. As days shorten and temperatures become crisp, the green palette of summer foliage (foliage is another word for leaves) is transformed into the vivid autumn palette of reds, oranges, golds, and browns before the leaves fall off the trees. The colors are truly breathtaking.
Anthocyanins give color to fall leaves (anthocyanins also give color to cranberries, red apples, concord grapes, blueberries, cherries, strawberries, and plums). Anthocyanins are water soluble and appear in the watery liquid of leaf cells.
How does autumn color happen?
During the growing season (in Spring and Summer), chlorophyll is continually being produced and broken down and leaves appear green. As night length increases in the autumn, chlorophyll production slows down and then stops and eventually all the chlorophyll is destroyed. The
Three factors influence autumn leaf color: leaf pigments, length of night, and weather. The timing of color change and leaf fall are primarily regulated by the calendar, that is, the increasing length of night. None of the other environmental influences (temperature, rainfall, food supply, and so on) are as unvarying as the steadily increasing length of night during autumn. As days grow shorter, and nights grow longer and cooler, biochemical processes in the leaf begin to paint the landscape with Nature's autumn palette.
Where do leaves get their colors, and why do they change in Autumn?
A color palette needs pigments, and there are three types that are involved in autumn color: chlorophyll, carotenoids, and anthocyanins.
Chlorophyll gives leaves their basic green color. It is necessary for photosynthesis, the chemical reaction that enables plants to use sunlight to manufacture sugars for their food. Trees in the temperate zones store these sugars for their winter dormant period. Carotenoids produce yellow, orange, and brown colors in such things as corn, carrots, and daffodils, as well as rutabagas, buttercups, and bananas.
Both chlorophyll and carotenoids are present in leaf cells throughout the growing season. Most anthocyanins are produced in the autumn, in response to bright light and excess plant sugars within leaf cells.
carotenoids and anthocyanins that are present in the leaf are then unmasked and show their colors.
Certain colors are characteristic of particular trees. For example, oaks turn red, brown, or russet; hickories turn golden bronze; red maple turns brilliant scarlet; sugar maple turns orange-red; and black maple turns glowing yellow. The timing of the color change also varies by tree species.
How does weather affect autumn color?
The amount and brilliance of the colors that develop in any particular autumn season are related to weather conditions that occur before and during the time the chlorophyll in the leaves is decreasing. Temperature and moisture are the main influences. Lots of warm, sunny days and cool, crisp but not freezing nights seems to bring about the most spectacular color displays. During these days, sugars are produced in the leaf but the cool nights cause the leaves' veins to close, preventing the sugars from moving out. Lots of sugar and lots of light spur production of the brilliant anthocyanin pigments, which tint reds, purples, and crimson.
Because carotenoids are always present in leaves, the yellow and gold colors remain fairly constant from year to year. The amount of moisture in the soil also affects autumn colors. Like the weather, soil moisture varies greatly from year to year. The changes in temperature and moisture from year to year assure that no two autumns are exactly alike. Source: USDA Forest Service, http://www.na.fs.fed.us/fhp/ pubs/leaves/leaves.shtm
Why do leaves fall?
A tree's roots, branches and twigs can endure freezing temperatures, but most leaves are not so tough. On a broadleaf tree. (for example, a maple or a birch tree), the tender thin leaves, made up of cells filled with water sap, will freeze in winter. Any plant tissue unable to live through the winter must be sealed off and shed to ensure the tree's survival. As sunlight decreases in autumn, the veins that carry sap into and out of a leaf gradually close. A layer of cells, called the separation layer, forms at the base of the leaf stem. When this layer is complete, the leaf is separated from the tissue that connected it to the branch, and it falls. (Oak leaves are the exception. The separation layer never fully detaches the dead oak leaves, and they remain on the tree through winter.) Evergreen trees (pines, spruces, cedars and firs) don't lose their leaves, or needles, in winter. The needles are covered with a heavy wax coating and the fluids inside the cells contain substances that resist freezing. Evergreen leaves can live for several years before they fall and are replaced by new growth. On the ground, fallen leaves are broken down by bacteria, fungi, earthworms and other organisms. The decomposed leaves restock the soil with nutrients, and become part of the spongy humus layer on the forest floor that absorbs and holds rainfall. In nature, nothing goes to waste! Source: Environmental Education for Kids, http://dnr. wi.gov/eek/veg/trees/treestruecolor.htm
14 www.ChillKids.com/news November 2016
NOVEMBER 2016 Flick Picks Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them (In Theaters: November 18, 2016)
Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them is an all-new adventure returning us to the wizarding world created by Harry Potter author, J.K. Rowling. The story opens in 1926 as wizarding world "magizoologist" Newt Scamander (Academy Award winner Eddie Redmayne) has just completed a trip around the world to find and document all kinds of extraordinary, magical creatures. Arriving in New York for a brief stopover, his adventures begin when he meets Jacob, a "No-Maj" (that is, "No-Magic," the American term for Muggle), and encounters challenges involving a misplaced magical case, and the escape of some of Newt’s fantastic beasts, which could spell trouble for both the wizarding and No-Maj worlds. The film marks the screenwriting debut of J.K. Rowling, whose beloved Harry Potter books were adapted into the topgrossing film franchise of all time. Her script was inspired by the Hogwarts textbook Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them, written by her character Newt Scamander. The film's all-star cast is directed by David Yates, the director of the last four Harry Potter movies. Rated PG (for peril, action and thematic elements.) 2 hr. 13 min. (Warner Bros).
KID’S MEALS… more than just yummy!
• 12 choices! • Free of: Artificial Trans Fat Processed MSG High Fructose Corn Syrup Artificial Colors & Dyes • Many less than $ .00! • KID’S MEALS INCLUDE choice of Organic Apple Juice or Organic Milk
Moana (In Theaters: November 23, 2016)
Moana (voiced by Newcomer Auli'i Cravalho) is a young woman who sets off on a journey to a mythological island in ancient Oceania to discover her destiny on the open ocean and save her people. On her journey Moana encounters the amazing, shape-shifting hero named Maui (voiced by Dwayne The Rock Johnson) and battles ancient creatures, including an incredible character made out of molten lava.
Moana also has a couple of adorable sidekicks who tag along with Moana on her quest a pig named Pau and a charming, hilarious rooster named Hei-Hei. Rated PG. 1hr. 44 min. Walt Disney Animation Studios.
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November 2016 www.ChillKids.com/news
By Jan Buckner Walker
The Original Crossword Puzzle for Kids and Their Favorite Adults
Kids Across 1. Road trip: It's what a family Kids Across
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Gravy Days Turkey Talk
Solution on page 2. Solution on page 2.
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Our Winter Schedule begins Nov. 19! Bring the family to Morehead for:
Live science demonstrations Six different planetarium shows
INCLUDING HOLIDAY FAVORITE: THE LONGEST NIGHT!
Special family-friendly New Year’s Eve TICKET SALES ON MOREHEAD’S WEBSITE SOON
...and more! Check out our daily schedule on our website: www.moreheadplanetarium.org THE LONGEST NIGHT: A WINTER’S TALE SATURDAYS AT 1:30 P.M. | SUNDAYS AT 2:30 P.M
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Follow a young girl, born into a family of nomadic storytellers, as she embarks on a snowy quest that leads her to a dragon’s nest. The show’s stunning and intricate visuals are the result of a collaboration between Morehead and Paperhand Puppet Intervention.
Published on Nov 1, 2016
ChillKids Educational Family Magazine's literacy mission in the North Carolina Triangle is to encourage parents, grandparents and children t...