Summer 1975

Page 1

..

..

$2.95

J


CHICAGO STUDIES EDITORIAL STAFF

Editor George J. Dy er

Associate Editor

Business Manager

John F. Dedek

Frank Potesta

Production Manager

Executive Director

Edmund J. Siedlecki

Marjorie M. Lukas

CHICAGO STUDIES is dedicated to the continuing theological development of priests and other religious educators. The editors weicome articles and letters likely to be of interest to our readers. Ali communications regarding articles and editorial policy should be addressed to tbe editors. Subscriptions should be sent to CHICAGO STUDIES, Box 665, Mundelein, Illinois 60060. Subscription rates: $6.00 a year, $11.00 for two years, $21.00 for four years; Foreign subscribers: add $1.00 per year. ¡ ¡ CHICAGO STUDIES is published three times a year by Civitas Dei Foundation, Box 665, Mundelein, Illinois 60060. Third Class postage paid at St. Meinrad, Ind. Views expressed in tbe articles are those of tbe respective authors and not necessarily those of tbe editors or editorial board. Indexed in The Catholic Periodical Review and New Testament Abstracts. Microfilms of current and backfile volumes of CHICAGO STUDIES are now available from University Microfilms, Inc., 300 N. Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106. Manuscripts will not be retumed unless accompanied by self addressed stamped envelope. Copyright, 1975, by Civitas Dei Foundation.


VOLUME 14

SUMMER, 1975

NUMBER 2

RECONCILIATION: PASTORAL PRIORITIES

Articles A CALL TO ASSEMBLY

115

Reid Mayo

DISPENSED PRIESTS IN ECCLESIAL MINISTRY: A CANONICAL REFLECTION

121

James H. Provost Kenneth E. Lasch Harmon D. Skillin

RESIGNED PRIESTS: SOME PASTORAL CONCERNS

135

P. Francis Murphy

LIBERAL AND CoNSERVATIVE CATHOLICS: AVENUES OF REcONCILIATION

151

ThomaJ3 P. Sweetser, S.J.

RECONCILIATION AND THE DEPRIVED NATIONS OF THE WORLD

169

Leo B. Shea, M.M.

DISTRIBUTION OF WORLD RESOURCES: AN EDUCATIONAL APPROACH

183

Donald M. Allen, M.M.

YOUTH MINISTRY: WAYS OF RECONCILIATION

205

Patrick H. O'Neill, O.S.A.

DIVORCED AND REMARRIED CATHOLICS

218

James H. Provost

OuR COVE&: "Touching the Gannent," walnut, 24" high by Janet De Coux. Pennission of the National Sculpture Society.


Reid Maya

A Gall

lo

Assembly "1 t is necessary that everyone in the Church should take an active share in a common effort for full reconciliation, so that in and between them all there may be reestablished that peace which is the 'nursing mother' " Pope Paul VI

Through a process that has been almost a year in the making the priests' councils of the country have indicated very clearly that reconciliation is both a persona) and a pastoral priority for them in their ministry. ..

Pope Paul VI has stated (Dec. 8, 1974) that "it is necessary that everyone in the Church-bishops, priests, Religions and lay people---should take an active share in a common effort for full reconciliation, so that in and between them ali there may be reestablished that peace which is 'the nursing mother of love and the begetter of unity.' " In reflecting upon the whole reality of reconciliation, we could face the temptation to be general and thus vague. To make certain that this possibility did not become a reality, the NFPC executive board invited councils to be active participants in a process to determine, from the many existing possibilities, five important areas in need of reconciliation. 115


116

CHICAGO STUDIES

The problem is not that we do not know where to be reconciled or how to begin the process. The problem is that it is difficult to be reconciled. We know that reconciliation is of the highest Gospel priority. We know that it is to precede even the public worship of God. We even know it is better to do it badly than not at ali. So, a simple decision forces itself upon us: we will decide to be ministers of reconciliation even though we may fail in many efforts, and even though we may suffer misunderstanding, rejection, and possibly Joss of effectiveness in sorne aspects of our work. We will listen to the truth of the Gospel and the truth within us, and we will respond. There perhaps is a natural human tendency for each of us to fee! that our own way of viewing the world is the best and the only reasonable way. It is possible that we not only hold such a persona! attitude, but that it becomes a characteristic of us as a group. The temptation is that we would insist that our way of thinking and doing should be the mode! for the rest of the world. Gospel response, however, is first of ali a persona! response. How easy it would be for us or anyone else to succumb to the temptation to want to legislate Gospel response and its various expressions ! The cali to reconciliation encourages us to look upon those estranged as better thau we, to esteem their dignity and to be merciful in heartfelt forgiveness toward one another. This means public acknowledgment of one another's value. This means bearing with one another in work together. Reconciliation means bringing the good of alienated youth into the light and promoting it before the established Church. It means giving youth room to express themselves in the center of the Church's !ife, and not demanding conformity in conduct, which would prevent unity in hearts. It means, above ali, listening and being willing to change in whatever does not violate the truth. Reconciliation with resigned priests means, first of ali, looking to their full dignity as men, as Christian, as Catholic. It means recognizing their gifts and abilities which in sorne cases may be greater than those of the clergy assigned to pastor them. It means providing ¡an ambient where they and their


ASSEMBLY

117

families can live their rightful places in the world and in the Church. We stand with our bishops when they say, " ... their talents and education should not be !ost to the human Church and the community. In this regard," continue our bishops, "we commend the efforts of those, especially fellow priests, who are helping these priests to continue their commitment to Christ in the lay state." (NCCB, 1969) Reconciliation with the divorced and remarried means forgiving in our hearts. It means understanding how easily I could be in the same situation. It means loving them, treating them with respect and diguity. It means not judging them as sinners. It means looking at each person involved and each family unit, and seeking to do for them the most loving thing possible. It means doing whatever is possible to bring them into the fullness of the !ife of the Church, while not violating any existing and real right of a spouse. Reconciliation with the poor, the oppressed and the starving means treating our material goods as belonging to them as weil as tous. It means that their greater need gives them a greater right to use these goods than does our present possession with a lesser need. It means committing ourselves to couvert these goods into the wherewithal that will meet their needs. lt means changing a stance that possesses goods and prays for the needy to a style that gives and prays for God's blessings on both their need and our newly acquired need. Finally, it means with ali Christian peoples that we proclaim that "unity which has the Spirit as its origin and peace as its binding force" (Eph. 4 :13), and that we champion this unity as paramount to ali others in Christ. Will this reconciliation in volve risks? lndeed, it will. Sorne clergy and laity will not understand, sorne will threaten, sorne will withdraw. Giving the 'liberal' an equal standing in a conservative congregation, or acknowledging the leadership of a 'conservative' in a liberal community will be disturbing to sorne. Going out to the alienated youth may cause sorne to take scandai. Publicly showing respect and special ministry to the resigued priest will cause many to fear that other priests will be encouraged to leave the active ministry. Reconciliation with the divorced and remarried will require Jess concern and scan-


118

CHICAGO STUDIES

dai and more flexibility in marriage cases and certain changes which will appear to sorne as arbitrary. And the poor can we not give them the privileged place they have in the Gospel? It will hurt to sacrifice for them; and they will not always be grateful. Many will object that this approach will disregard justice, upset the "faithful," undermine good order and seemingly encourage disregard for the law. Sorne will not understand that the dogma and revealed truths of the faith are one thing-for example, with regard to the indissolubility of marriage--while the pastoral practices are oftentimes another. Undoubtedly these are dangers, but dangers that are small in comparison to the danger of being a people of hardened hearts. The truth is that the Church at every leve! needs to have the compassionate heart of Jesus and to love first. The truth is that, if we pray that the happiness and hoUness or' these estranged brethren exceed even our ownas long as we are thus responding to grace--our hearts would change. The truth is that, if we lived out the "unity of the Spirit" the good in these brothers and sisters, they would find a loving place in the Church. The truth is that, if we live out the "unity of the Spirit" urged by St. Paul, the seemingly insurmountable structural barri ers would begin to adj ust. The truth is that the solutions are not seen because most often we have not taken the initial step to be in a position to see them. With my brothers I pray Almighty God that we accept the challenge and responsibility to metanoia, to which we have been called. Together let us search our hearts, in the light of the Gospel, that, wherever we find misunderstanding, distrust, alienation, despair, we personally open wide our arms to the embrace of our loving Father, through whom we are able to forgive and be forgiven. Then let us work together to respond to the pastoral needs of the people whom we serve. The priee of this effort, both individually and collectively, may be costly

•


ASSEMBLY

119

and fraught with risks. But we accept the pursuit of these goals as the "cost of discipleship" and also as its ultimate reward. Let us begin !


r James H. Provost Kenneth E. Lasch Harmon D. Skülin

Dispensed.Priests in Ecclesial Ministry: a Canonical Re(lectwn. How extensively may a dù;pensed priest be involved in the ministry of the Church? H ere an ad hoc Committee of the Canon Law Sodety of America carefully analyses the law of the Church. There is a question as to how extensively a dispensed priest may be involved in the ministry of the Church. An ad hoc committee of the Canon Law Society of America has carefully analyzed the law as it applies to dispensed priests and presents the following response: A dispensed priest is a lay person in good standing in the Church. As such he may and indeed is called upon to exercise those ministries incumbent upon the baptized as lay persans. He may also exercise certain more specifie ministries including liturgical ones, provided the danger of confusing others as to whether he is acting as a cleric or lay person is avoided. He may be hired for any position in the Chm·ch for which a lay person may be employed. If the position involves teaching theological or related sciences at the graduate leve!, administrative positions in education or the exercise of the liturgical ministry in public celebrations where the priest's condition is known, special discretion of the local bishop is required to the extent he has jurisdiction over the institution in question. In effcct, therc are broad possibilities within the present law for the involvement of dispensed priests in the ministry of the 121


122

CHICAGO STUDIES

Church, and for their employment by the Church. Any decision to in volve dispensed priests in this matter would he acting within the general direction indicated by the American Bishops themselves. In the following pages we present the canonical rationale which has led us to these conclusions. This is a technical analysis of the law of the Church as it now stands. We have not attempted to suggest modifications in the law, only to clarify its present reading. SUMMARY OF THE LAW

The basic law applicable to dispensed priests is stated in the standard rescript from the Sacred Congregation "Pro Doctrina Fi dei." lt includes among its provisions the following: 1. The rescript embraces inseparably the return to lay status and dispensation from the "onera" arising from Sacred Orders. Never is the petitioner permitted to separate these two elements, or to accept the latter and refuse the former. The rescript includes with it absolution from any censures which may have been incurred. 2. Per se, a priest who has been returned to the lay state and dispensed from the obligations arising from Sacred Orders, and a fortiori a priest who is married, should absent himself from places in which his priestly status was known. The bishop of the place of residence of the petitioner, by common consent as far as this is needed with the ordinary of his incardination or with the Major Religions Superior, can dispense from this clause of the rescript if the presence of the dispensed petitioner is not foreseen as giving rise to scandai. 3. The bishop should strongly urge the petitioner to take part in the !ife of the People of God in a manner suitable to the new condition of his !ife; he should also give edification, and thus show himself to be a most loving son of the Church. At the same time, however, he should be notified that any priest who has been returned to lay status and dispensed from his obligations is not permitted to: a. Perform any function of Sacred Orders, except what is indicated in Canons 882, and 892, paragraph 2: b. Take any liturgical part in celebrations with the people where his condition is known, nor ever give the homily;

•


DISPENSED PRIESTS

123

c. Exercise any pastoral office; d. Fill the office of rector (or any other directive function), of spiritual direction and professor in seminaries, theological faculties and similar institutes; e. Assume the office of director of a Catholic school or teacher of religion in any school, Catholic or not. However, the local bishop can, in his prudent judgment for particular cases, permit a priest returned to the lay state and dispensed from his obligations arising from Sacred Orders, to teach religion in public schools, and by way of exception even in Catholic schools, provided scandai and wonder are not anticipated. The same Sacred Congregation "Pro Doctrina Fidei" issued a set of Normae on January 13, 1971 to help bishops and religions superiors prepare requests for the rescript. These con-¡ tain the above provisions. They also stipulate the following: If a priest has been returned to lay status but does not keep his promise of not causing scandai, the Ordinary who is concerned may make public the fact that the man has been returned to lay status and dispensed from the "onera" arising from Sacred Orders, because the Church has considered him not fit for the exercise of the priesthood. To clear up sorne further questions on the interpretation of the January 13, 1971 Normae, the Congregation "Pro Doctrina Fidei" published a Circular Letter on June 26, 1972. One section of the letter deals with the phrase "similar institutes" used in the Normae and the standard rescript when referring to restricted positions (cf. 3, d., above). "Similar institutes" are to be understood as including: a. Faculties, Institutes, Schools, etc., of ecclesiastical or religions sciences ( e.g., Faculties of Canon Law, Missiology, Ecclesiastical History, Philosophy or Pastoral Institutes, Religions Education, Catechetics, etc.). In such Institutes no teaching function can be committed to a married priest, and he ought to leave such functions completely before the dispensatian is granted. b. Any other center of Higher Studies, even though not strictly dependant on Church authorities, in which even theological or religions disciplines are taught. In these Institutes disciplines which are properly theological or those which are intimately connected with them ( e.g., religions education and


124

CHICAGO STUDIES

catechetics) are not to be given to married priests. In doubt as to disciplines which are intimately connected with theology, the matter will be decided by the S. Congregation "Pro Doctrina Fidei" in consultation with the S. Congregation for CathoHe Education. SOME PRELIMINARY DISTINCTIONS

To interpret the existing law accurately, severa! distinctions must be kept clearly in mind. 1. Interpretation of Law

Canon 11 of the present Codex luris Canonid provided that "only those laws are to be considered invalidating or inhabilitating which explicitly or equivalently state that an action is null and void, or that a person is incapacitated from acting." Dispensation from the obligations arising from Sacred Orders and return to lay status in the Church includes a restriction which renders acts of Sacred Order illicit or invalid. It constitutes, therefore, an "irritating or inhabilitating law." Canon 19 of the Codex provides the principle with which such laws (and therefore the rescript of dispensation) are to be interpreted: "Laws which decree a penalty, or restrict the free exercise of one's rights, or establish an exception from the law, must be interpreted in a strict sense." This means that any restriction on the employment of dispensed priests or on their involvement in the life of the Church must be interpreted in the "strict sense." That is, in determining whether something is permitted or restricted, it is to be considered permitted unless explicitly ruled out. 2. Clergy-Laity By ordinĂ tion to the diaconate, a man enters the clerical state (cf. motu proprio of September 15, 1972 Ministeria Quaedam, no. IX) . The clerical state is a special status in the Church with its own rights and privileges (cf. Codex, Canons 118-123). For priests in the United States this includes the requirements on the part of the Diocese to see to their hoi:J.est sustenai:J.ce. The extension of this to pernui.nent deacons in the


DISPENSED PRIESTS

125

United States is still under study (cf. nos. 155-159 of Permanent Deacons in the United States-Guidelines on Their Formation and Ministry (1971). In effect, the distinction between "clergy" and "laity" is that the Church assumes a special responsibility for the clergy's living, health, education and weifare, which it does not assume for the laity. Laity are ali Christians who have been baptized, and therefore have an active role in the People of God, but who have not been ordained and are not in the religions state (cf. Lumen Gentiurn, no. 31). In other words, they are those who have not become "clergy" or "religions," or who have been returned to lay status. The status of clergy or laity, therefore, is basically a juridical status within the Church having certain socio-economic implications within the !ife of the community. 3.

Ordained-Non-ordained

This is not primarily a juridical distinction, but a sacramental or theological one. The common priesthood of the faithfui and the ministerial or hierarchical priesthood differ from one another in essence, not only in degree (cf. Lumen Gentium, no. 10). The sacramental character which a man receives upon ordination to Roly Orders is something which he never !oses, no matter what his juridical status may be in or out of the Church. The ontological possibility of performing certain acts, once it has been received in the Sacrament by Ordination, can never be taken away. Its exercise, of course, can be resstricted or forhidden altogether. The non-ordained, however, cannot perform certain actions which the ordained can, since these actions come not in virtue of a juridical designation but fundamentally in virtue of the theological effect of the reception of Roly Orders. 4. Ministry-Employment

Traditionally those who havè exercised "ministry" in the Church have been those employed by the· Church, at !east in the United States. This union of "ministry" and "employment," however, is no longèr so uni versai even in this· country. Sorne are employed by the Church \vithout being seen as min-


126

CHICAGO STUDIES

isters in the Church. For instance, people hired in finance offices, education, for custodial activities, or other fields are seen primarily as employees rather than ministers, even though their activity may be termed "ministry" in a very broad sense. Others exercise a specifie ministry in the name of the Church without thereby being e1nployed by the Church. This is true even of those in Sacred Orders-as, with Permanent Deacons (cf. no. 155 of the Guidelines). Th us a man may exercise a ministry and not be employed; he may be employed and not exercise a ministry; he may be employed and exercise a ministry, related or not to his employment; he may be fired and still be capable of exercising a ministry; he may be retained in employment but forbidden to exercise a ministry. EFFECT OF THE RESCRIPT

1. The first effect of the rescript is that a man is returned

to lay status in the Church and therefore is no longer "clergy." Simultaneously and inseparably he is dispensed from the "onera" of Sacred Orders. Comparing this with the obligations of clerics listed in Canons 124-144 of the Codex, it is apparent that at !east in regard to employment this means a priest is dispensed from fulfilling an assigned task from his Ordinary. On the other hand, he may not lay claim to any of the special care provided by the Church for clergy. He is to be considered a true lay person. The bishop is authorized to publicize whatever seems necessary in order to respect "the rights tlowing from the new la.y and marital state" of a dispensed priest who marries. The man is to be exhorted by the bishop who communicated the dispensation to him "to take part in the life of the People of God in a manner giving edification." 2. He is not permitted "to perform any function of Sacred Orders, except what is indicated in Canons 882, and 892, paragraph 2" (which refer to hearing Confessions of those in danger of death). This does not take away the effects of ordination. In terms of the distinctions made above, it imposes a restriction forbidding the exercise of powers which have been received in virtue of ordination. The man is lay, but he does not become "non-ordained." Applying the required "strict"

i


DISPENSED PRIESTS

127

interpretation of the rescript, for those functions in the Church which do not require specifie faculties but which do in volve an exercise of Sacred Orders, an attempt on a dispensed priest's part to perfot·m these acts would be illicit but valid. On the other hand, for those functions in the Church which do not involve an exercise of Sacred Orders, his ability in this regard is at !east the same as a non-ordained lay person's. 3. The questions of ministry and employment are matters to be determined as for a lay person except in certain restricted cases. With regard to ministry, a dispensed priest may not "exercise any pastoral office" nor may he "take any liturgical part in celebrations with the people where his condition is known, nor ever give the homily." The term "Pastoral Office" is new in Church law. It does not appear in the Codex. According to the Codex, "office is to be taken in the strict sense of a stable position created either by the divine or the ecclesiastical law, conferred according to the rules of the sacred canons, and entailing some participation at !east in ecclesiastical power, whether of orders or jurisdiction (Canon 145). Only clerics may receive an "office" (cf. Canon 118), and only ordained priests may receive an office with the care of souls (Canon 154). This last restl"iction has been relaxed by the June 18, 1969 motu proprio Sacr·um Diac01Utt1tm 01·dinen so that deacons may be entrusted with offices which include a care of souls (cf. no. 22). Deacons, however, are clerics in virtue of ordination to the Diaconate (cf. Minwteria Quaedam, no. IX), so the rule that only clerics may receive an office still stands. The dogmatic constitution Lumen GentiUJm defines "Pastoral Office" as "the habituai and daily care of their flock" which is entrusted to bishops (no. 27) and analogously to their cooperators, the priests (no. 28). Again applying the required "strict" interpretation to the rescript, a dispensed priest may not exercise an ecclesiastical office which has as its identifying characteristic "the habituai and daily care" of souls. However, this does not necessarily preclude his involvement in the ministry of the Church. Especially today, laity are more and more being assimilated into tasks which are of critical importance in assisting those who exercise in their own name a strict.ly pastoral office, without


128

CHICAGO STUDIES

the lay person thereby exercising such an office strictly speaking. Perhaps the best example in the United States are religions education coordinators, or religions women ("lay persons" in the law) as pastoral associates. 4. Conceming the "liturgical part" of ministry, a dispensed priest is "not permitted to take any liturgical part in celebrations with the people where his condition is known, nor ever give the homily." The requisite strict interpretation helps clarify this restriction. "Where his condition is known" is a fundamental criterion. In order to avoid confusion in the minds of the faithful as to whether the man has been dispensed or not, and is functioning as a lay person or as a priest, this practical consideration must be made. But where his condition is not known, there would be no problem of exercising a "liturgical part" in ministry, without exercising Sacred Orders. "Celebration with the people" where his condition is known by them are the occasions when he may not take such a "liturgical part." Where the people are not present, it would appear he could perform such a Iiturgical part (e.g., serve Mass at a celebration without the people) ; or, where his condition is not known, even though there is a large crowd of people present, he may perform a "Jiturgical part." "Any liturgical part" does not exclude him from participation in the liturgy altogether, for that would be "excommunication" and the rescript specifically absolves from any censures which may have been incurred. A dispensed person is a lay person in good standing, entitled to what the laity are called to be in the liturgy. The General lnstructwn to the Roman Missal (1969) diseusses the rights and responsibilities of the laity with regard to liturgical celebrations. These include active participation as a community and a willingness to serve whenever they are called to sorne particular ministry in the celebration. Such "particular ministries" include singing in the choir, serving as cantor or leader of song, acting as lector (even though not formally "instituted" as Lector), leading the responsorial psalm, serving at the altar (even though not foimally "instituted" as Acolyte), acting as commentator, usher or taking up the collection. These "liturgical parts" which the laity may perform do not involve the exercise of Sacred Orders.


DISPENSED PRIESTS

''

129

Thus, where his prior condition is known and the celebration is with the people, a dispensed priest is not permitted to exercise these ministries open to lay persons because his role would not be clear to them. It may be argued, however, that where this confusion is not to be feared, the local Ordinary could declare the restriction not to bi nd due to Jack of sufficient cause, or could dispense from the restriction (see below on the discretion of the local bishop). "Nor ever give the homily" is a restriction which follows from the limitation on the exercise of Sacred Orders. To preach the homily is a function which arises from Sacred Orders. Since a dispensed priest may not exercise the powers coming from Sacred Orders, he may not give the homily. However, this must be interpreted in the Iight of the pastoral practice of the Church. There is a growing practice in the United States to permit lay persons to give an instruction at the usual homily time. Members of parish councils for instance, are called upon to explain the activities of their council, the parish budget or specifie parish programs. Married people are asked to witness to their married !ife. Religious are allowed to use the time to encourage vocations. Lectors, and even those exercising this ministry in an extraordinary manner without being formally "instituted" in¡ it, do more than just read the Lessons. Indeed, by anal ogy with Canon 1342, paragraph 1, and even though this ministry is not a "minor order," the local bishop may permit readers to exercise a ministry of preaching in church "for a reasonable cause and in particular cases." Since a dispensed priest is a lay person in good standing, and as such may be instituted formally in the Iiturgical ministries now open to lay persons, he may also exercise such ministries to the full extent a lay person may. He is not to give the "homily" as a man in Sacred Orders-i.e., in such a manner as people would consider him a priest in active ministry. But he may be permitted by the local Ordinary to exercise the ministry of the Word to the extent lay persons may be so authorized. 5. A dispensed priest is to be treated as any lay person in the Church with regard to employment except in teaching certain theological sciences and related disciplines, and exercising administrative directorships in the educational system. How-


130

CHICAGO STUDIES

ever, a "strict" interpretation of the rescript and the future clarifications of it is necessary to understand this restriction. A dispensed priest is prohibited from teaching or administering in seminaries, theological faculties and similar institutes, or being hired as director of a Catholic school. Otherwise, he may accept employment in the Church in any situation a lay person may be hired, even for teaching, although to teach religion in a parochial school he does need the bishop's permission. The prohibition of teaching in seminaries and other theological institutes does not refer to grade schools or high schools, since these are covered in the following provision of the rescript and the bishop may dispense from this. Because this prohibition was the subject of extended discussion in the June 26, 1972 Circular Letter of the S. Congregation "Pro Doctrina Fidei," it deserves clĂœser exrunination. 1. The rescript and Nonnae of Janua1:y 13, 1971 refer this prohibition to any priest dispensed from the "onera" of Sacred Orders and returned to lay status. The further clarification in the Circular Letter of June 26, 1972, however, restricts this prohibition to dispensed priests who have married, at least as far as "similar institutes." Since this is an irritating and inhabilitating law, it may be strictly interpreted. Strict interpretation is to be rendered in the light of the intention of ilie lawgiver as revealed in the Circular Letter. Therefore, the prohibition at ]east as it applies to the various "similar institutes" (see page 4, above) does not apply to a dispensed priest who has not married. 2. The rescript, No1-mae and Circular Letter refer to faculties, institutes, schools and centers of Higher Studies. Interpreting the documents in the light of the educational organization in Europe (a legitimate strict interpretation in attempting to discern the mind of the lawgiver), such institutions are the equivalent of Graduate Schools in the United States. The prohibition does not affect the teaching by dispensed priests, manied or not, in undergraduate Colleges or undergraduate courses of Universities in the United States. These are more in keeping with the "schools" of the subsequent provision in the rescript. The strict interpretation required of the law in this instance, therefore, makes clear that a dispensed priest who has married

''


DISPENSED PRIESTS

1 31

is not permitted to teach in graduate leve! courses involving thcology or related sciences at Universities, and is not pcrmitted to teach at all in Faculties, Institutes, Schools, etc., of ecclesiastical or religious sciences subject to ecclesiastical jurisdiction. He is also not allowed to fulfill any directive functions in such institutions, or in a Catholic school. Simlar although Jess detailed restrictions affect a dispensed priest who has not married. Is this prohibition absolute? No. Much depends on the discretion of the local bishop, as shaH be detailed in the next section. 6. The effect of the rescript can be summarized: a. The priest is returned to lay status in the Church and may no longer benefit from the privileges and rights of clergy. b. White he does not Jose the powers arising from Sacred Orders, he is forbidden to exercise them. c. He can be em ployed as a lay person, not as a cleric. He may exercise ministry in the Church as a lay person, not as a deric. There are certain restrictions on this, however, as it applies to liturgical ministries in public celebrations where his condition is known, and as it applies to teaching theological scences or administrative positions in certain institutions. DISCRETION OF THE BISHOP

~

The bishop who notifies a priest that his dispensation has been granted is also to notify him that a man so dispensed is not permitted to do various activities--as explained above. These prohibitions come from the Holy See, not the individual bishop. The bishop is but the one who notifies the petitioner of what is actually the general law of the Church. The local bishop, however, may exercise wide discretionary power in regard to general laws of the Church concerning discipline. In the decree Christus Dominus of the Second Vatican Council, the diocesan bishop has new discretion: "Except when it is a question of matters reserved to the supreme authority of the Church, the general law of the Church gives each diocesan bishop the faculty to grant dispensations in particular cases to the faithful over whom he exercises authority according to the norm of law, provided he judges it helpful for their spiritual welfare." (no. 81) The power to dispense, according to Canon 200, is to be


132

CHICAGO STUDIES

interpreted widely when it applies to ordinat-y power and general laws of the Church. This is the case here. The motu proprio of June 15, 1966, De Episcoporum muneribus, does not reserve .to the supreme authority of the Church possible dispensation from the general law prohibiting married dispensed priests, for example, from teaching or administrative posts described above. The matter is therefore within the scope of general law from which the diocesan bishop may dispense. The same motu proprio of June 15, 1966 restricts the bishop to dispensing from laws which prescribe or forbid. Yet the prohibition in question fits that description. The bishop may exercise this power "in particular cases," but dispensing from the general law so that a dispensed priest may, for example, teach in such higher institutes is precisely a "particular case" -as is evident from the rescript and Normae where the bishop may permit "for particular cases" that a dispensed priest teach religion in a school. The diocesan bishop, then, has the discretion to permit a married dispensed priest (or one not married) to be hi red as an administrator at any leve! of education, or to teach theology in seminaries and higher institutes, provided there is "a just and reasonable cause," which may be the "spiritual good of the faithful" according to the June 15, 1966 motu proprio. CHURCH EMPLOYMENT OF DISPENSED PRIESTS

Dispensed priests may be hired for any position in the Church for which a lay person may be employed. If the position involves teaching theological or related sciences at the graduate leve!, administrative positions in education, or the exercise of a liturgical ministl-y in public celebrations where the priest's condition is known, special discretion of the local bishop is required to the extent he has jurisdiction over the institution in question. But it is within his power to permit such employment even if for the spiritual welfare of the man himself, and certainly if for the spiritual welfare of others. Whether dispensed priests should be hired is another question. The American Bishops as a body have answered this in the affirmative. In their "Statement on Celibacy" on November 14, 1969,

''


DISPENSED PRIESTS

;

133

the National Conference of Catholic Bishops stated: "In addition to continuous improvement of juridical procedures, other ways must be sought to help priests during and after the period of their tran.sition to the lay state. Although they are outside the priestly ministry, their talents and education stlOuld not be !ost to the Church and the human community. In this regard we commend the efforts of those, especially fellow priests, who are helping these priests to continue their commitment to Christ in the lay state. We fee! that a maximum of understanding and practical assistance to these brothers in Christ will reduce the temptation to exercise a priestly ministry apart from unity with the Bishop." The "Report of the Bishops" Ad Hoc Committee for Priestly Life and Ministry" which the N.C.C.B. voted to receive in November, 1973, included the following: lt is recommended to Ordinaries and to the permanent Committee on Priestly Life and Ministry that, while avoiding scandai and at the same time exercising charity imd justice, appropriate opportunities for se1¡vice to the Church be made available to legitimately laicized priests. ln reaching a decision in this matter, consideration should be given to current attitudes towards priests who have sought and received Jaicization, to the needs of the Church, and to the education, talents and good will of the laicized priest. The decision to hire a dispensee! priest is within the authority of the diocesan bishop, and should he so choose he would be acting within the general direction indicated by the American hierarchy. The decision to hire an individual for a specifie job, however, will be affected by a variety of other considerations as weil, and falls within the prudential discretion of the local authorities. Finally, unless the decision to hire a dispensed priest requires the special discretion of the local bishop, those who are authorized to hire lay personnel within a local Church may hire a dispensed priest for any position for which they would hire a lay person. Similarly, the decision to involve a dispensed priest in the exercise of ministry may be made even at the local leve! unless the special discretion of the local bishop is required, provided the other restrictions discussed above are respected concerning possible confusion of the people.


P. Francis Murphy

Resigned Priesls: Sorne Pastoral Concerns. How best can the talents of resigned priests be brought to the service of the Church? The author explores some recommrmded solutions and the problems they pose.

THE CHURCH RECONCILES

Until the early '60's it was inconceivable that a Catholic priest, who had made a permanent commitment to a celibate priesthood, could relinquish his commitment without risking the Joss of salvation and creation of grave scandai. Priests who left were considered to be Shepherds in the Mist. Pope Pius XII and Pope John XXIII were the first to make quiet overtm¡es to reconcile them to the Church. In response to the departure of thousands of its priests, a new phenomenon in the Church, Pope Paul established a Special Commission of the Cong1:egation of the Roly Office in 1964. This Sacred Congregation developed a procedure, the spirit of which was to be one of merciful reconciliation, with a set of Norms to evaluate the requests for dispensations from the obligations of priesthood. Through this process of Iaicization, a priest becomes a layman and therefore is denied permission to exercise the powers of his priesthood. In 1967, Pope Paul re-affirmed the discipline of celibacy for priests in his encyclical, Sacerdotalis Caelibatus. However, at 135

•


1)6

CHICAGO STUDIES

the same time, he also publicly stated that a priest could honorably leave the priesthood if there were substantial reasons. In their 1969 "Statement on Celibacy" the American Bishops showed increasing concern for men who had left the priesthood: "In addition to continuons improvement of juridical procedures, over ways must be sought to help priests during and after the period of their transition to the lay state. Although they are outside the priestly ministry, their talents and education should not be !ost to the Church and the human community. In this regard we commend the efforts of those, especially fellow priests, who are helping these priests to continue their commitment to Christ in the lay state." . ¡By 1971 the Sacred Congregation had issued new norms simplifying the process of laicization. They also gave the local bishop the pastoral discretion to dispense from the requirements of secrecy in solemnizing the marriage of a resigned priest and relocating one' s residence. In November, 1973, the NCCB voted to receive a Report of the Bishops' Ad Hoc Committee on Priestly Ministry, which stated: "It is recommended to Ordinaries and to the permanent Committee (on Priest! y Li fe and Ministry) that, wh ile avoiding scandai and at the same time exercising charity and justice, appropriate opportunities for service to the Church be made available to legitimately laicized priests. In reaching a decision in this matter, consideration should be given to current attitudes towards priests who have sought and received laicization, to the needs of the Church, and to the education, talents, and good will of the laicized priest." In 1974 the NCCB urged Pope Paul to ask the Sacred Congregation to process their many petitions for priests' dispensations with more promptness. Their intervention has successfully reduced the long waiting period . .This survey of the official Church's actions towards priests who leave a celibate priesthood shows a change of attitude and a significant development from the time of Pope Pius XI, when • the Holy Office's customary response to a bishop's petition for a priest's dispensation was: "A ut cas tus, a ut pereat." Despite the Church's development of a process of laicization


RESIGNED

and her endorsement of laicized priests in certain lay· mmJstries, the NFPC discovered among its member Councils a serions and critical concem for further reconciliation with resigned priests. [The term "resigned" is used in this paper to designate men who are no longer regarded by the _Church as in active priestly ministry, whether laicized or non-laicized. While the term resigned is obj ectionable to sorne who do not regard themselves as inactive ministers, the NFPC chose this term as more acceptable to these men than "laicized" or "former" priests.] Likewise there was a growing interest among individual resigned priests and varions groups to represent their points of view to the NFPC for its 1975 Convention on "Reconciliation: Its Risks and Possibilities."

~

RESIGNED PRIESTS SPEAK

1

\ f ~t''-,

137

·-

Formai sets of recommendations were submitted to the NFPC by the Association of Chicago Priests (ACP), the Fellowship of Christian Minis tries (FCM), and CORPUS. In addition, an audio-visual presentation entitled "Resigned Priests or Priests Forever," which reflected the feelings and hopes of sorne resigned priests and their wives, was shown to the Delegates in the Focus Session. The ACP, the elected representative body of priests of the Archdiocese of Chicago, has consistently demonstrated an openness to the position of resigned priests and has representation from these men in their Association. The FCM, formerly known as the Society of Priests for a Free Ministry, has been lobbying for the rights of resigned · priests for severa! years. Their President, William Manseau, was an official observer at the Convention and participated in the Focus Session on resigned priests. The change of title of the organization corresponds to a shift in emphasis from political efforts to secure rights or ministerial recognition to encouragement of theological reflection upon the lived experience of resigned priests and their unique professional qualifications and competence. CORPUS, formed in response to the NFPC's Convention theme, is an organization of resigned priests, most of whom are man-ied, who wish to function in sorne "official ministry


138

CHICAGO STUDIES

recognized by, and in union with, their brother priests and bishops in the official Church structure.'' They present themselves as a "reserve corps" of priests, a supplement to the "regular corps" of active priests. They confess an "essential loyalty to the Church and an undiminished cornmitment to the service of the People of God." They point out that they still bear the sacramental character of the priesthood. They intend to press their position in a direct, honest, and open manner, but not by engaging in confrontation tactics such as demonstrations or ultimatums. In fact, they clearly state that reconciliation between resigned priests and the official Church will take place on a one-to-one basis. The thrust of CORPUS' efforts will be to support individuals in the reinstatement process to appropriate priestly ministry. Severa! of the recomrnendations submitted by these groups are similar, so they will be summarized topically : 1) Laicization Pro cess. Though sorne admit a satisfactory persona! experience in leaving the priesthood, there seemed to be universal agreement that the present laicization process needs modification. Its tone is punitive; it pursues matters that belong more fittingly in the internai forum; it is perceived as degrading. This was clearly revealed in the commenta of sorne resigned priests and their wives: "I wanted to stay close to my parents and people I loved, and through my work show them through action that things would be ali right. Eut, that being impossible, I left my diocese." "The hard est thing was that we had to live in secrecy after our marriage; we couldn't be seen together because he needed his job. Unnecessary suffering imposed in the narne of not giving scandai doesn't make much sense to me." The process should be simplified, handled at the local leve!, and above ali, be a pastoral and not a legal exercise. CORPUS and the ACP recommended that the laicization process should be used only for those priests who sincerely wish to function as layrnen. The reasoning behind this position is that many priests who have submitted to the process have done so not because they wish to be laymen but because it is the only way they can remain members of the Church in good standing. Others have accepted the process only because of the sensibilities of their. families and friends. These two or-


RESIGNED

139

ganizations claim, therefore, that hypocrisy, dishonesty, and trauma are occasioned by the requirement of the laicization process and recomrnend its elimination. In place of a process of "reduction to the lay state," severa! groups advocated a simple acknowledgment that a variation in !ife style is not incompatible with the priesthood. Different formulas of acknowledgment or recognition were suggested: the NFPC should recognize that "for sorne it is morally im" possible to reject priesthood" (CORPUS); former priests have sought "resignation not out of a Joss of faith or purpose, for the most part, but out of a sense that the structures of their ministerial office were not adequate to nurture and sustain their faithful lives" (FCM) ; "We ask that, in fraternal charity and the spirit of reconciliation, this assembly of priests formally acknowledge and recognize as valid and good the variety of secular priestly ministries chosen by those who have married and/or who no longer live the traditional rectory jcomrnunity !ife and have chosen a 'tentmaker alternative'" (ACP). 2) TranBitional Services. Individual priests who have experienced the transition from ministry to secular employment alluded to the need for. assistance in this period of transition. They suggested job counseling, termination benefits, carry-over benefits (retirement, medical insurance), and sorne on-going contact through the initial and isolated phase of adjustment to a new life style and secular employment. 3) Attitudes. Two groups of resigned priests (CORPUS and FCM) forcefully asserted that "scandai to the layman" should not be used as a reason for excluding resigned priests from the ministry. The persona! experience of former priests suggests that many laypersons are very willing to accept their persona! choice and are equally willing to sustain relations even though in an adj usted fashion from the role of priest to layman. They state that they fee! most rejected by active priests and often by Church authorities. Formai statements by groups of resigned priests at·e often restrained in discussing prevalent attitudes. In privale consultation, however, many revealed a deep resentment toward the Church for what they perceive as a Jack of appreciation for their many years of faithful service. These persona! factors, such as rejection by former peers and the Jack of acceptance


140

CHICAGO STUDIES

of. their decision, are often more controlling in their attitudes about the Church. and continuing ministry than any other factor. ¡ 4) Utilization. In ail of the recommendations submitted to the NFPC, utilization of the resources of resigned priests emerges as the foundation and primat-y reason urging reconciliation between the Church and resigned priests. "Existing resources should be utilized" (CORPUS) ; the NFPC should "work for the" full utilization and integration (of married priests) in the official presbyterate and diaconate" (FCM) ; "Our concern, quite frankly, is for the people who, because of the shortage of priests, are not being adequately served. This is incomprehensible when an estimated more than two thousand trained and experienced priests are available, eager, and willing to serve" (ACP). While need and utilization are cited as compelling forces in the re-integration of resigned priests into Church service, the FCM cautions that "structures of accountability to determine and protect" ecclesial civil rights should be carefully worked out. The FCM asks for the end of discrimination towards resigned priests "not only in employment but in matters of public worship," and that non-laicized priests "be allowed to bear witness to a dual vocation without impugnment." 5) Re-certification. The mechanism suggested for reinstatement of resigned priests into the active ministry is a process of "re-certification." The FCM indicated that it has already inaugurated a "ministerial certification program," is establishing regional centers for ministry, and asks the assistance of the NFPC in establishing a national center for ministry. The ACP not only advocated re-certification but also the inclusion of resigned priests in continuing education programs, retreats, and days of recollection, so that both professionally and spiritually they would keep prepared to serve the Church. 6) Theological Reflection. The FCM asked the assistance of the NFPC in recruitment for a theological reflection period on the !ife and work of married priests.

•

IMPLEMENTATION NEEDS LIAISONS

The enumerated topics clearly reflect the main concerns of

'


RESIGNED

141

varions groups of resignee! priests. They recognize that if their recornmendations are to be implemented, cooperation is essential among those in leadership positions, particularly the NFPC, the NCCB, Provincials of Religions Communities, the National Association of Vocation Directors, the National Association of Continuing Education, the National Association of Church Personnel Administrators, and local Senates and Conncils. NFPC RESPONDS In their Statement of Action Steps towards reconciliation, the Delegates at the 1975 NFPC Convention showed a wide breadth of concern and compassion for resignee! priests. Many of their proposais were a direct response to recornmendations and proposais already mentioned in this article. This serions concern was motivated by a common bond: "The priest is a person for those others who once exercised their ministry in the same way in which he now does and who do so no longer. He still shares with them a unique bond, the sacramental priesthood." In the opening paragraphs of the Statement, the Delegates give the rationale for the Action Steps toward reconciliation: "We have looked at these men and have looked at our pastoral ministry to them. We have done so at the behest of our Council members, which have urged this House of Delegates to examine our responsibility to them during the Holy Year of Reconciliation." LAICIZATION

From hearing and reading the cornments of sorne who have been laicized, the Delegates were unanimous in their conviction about the need to improve the process of laicization. ln the Focus Session, they agreed that the laidzation process has often been a dehumanizing experience for men of good faith who have left the active ministry. They acknowledged, for example, that certain conditions have greatly contributed to the anguish and pain experienced by the men involved at a tirrie of critical decision in their lives: the secrecy of the proce8s, the limitations of ·one's. freedom to be a· full lay minister in


142

CHICAGO STUDIES

the Church, the necessity of leaving one's city or diocese, and the slowness and uncertainty characterizing the response of the Sacred Congregation in Rome. The Delegates urged that a process of resignation be designed to stress the· pastoral rather than juridical elements. They believed that the request of the individual priest, clarified by appropriate counsel offered to him at the leve! of a diocese or religious community, is suf!icient reason to grant laicization. They maintained, therefore, that thé Bishop or Major Religious Superior, who would have a persona! and pastoral relationship with the individual making the petition, should be empowered to finalize the request and grant the dispensation. Further, the Delegates stated that the Church in this country has experienced the phenomenon of priests' resignations for more than a decade, and therefore they urged that the fear of scandai and the need for secrecy should no longer be factors in the process. Consequently, the rights of resigned priests, as laymen, should not be abridged in any way in granting.laicization. While there was nearly unanimous agreement on the need for modification of the present laicization process, the wording of the recommendation-"lt should be used exclusively for priests who want a definitive return to the lay state"-caused sorne Delegates to voice a serious concern. These Delegates saw the recommendation as one which would seem to encourage priests who leave the active ministry to break the law of the Church, or to force the issue of a married clergy or optional celibacy. If the laicization process is not required for men who wish to marry but still desire to function as priests, would this amount to tacit approval of optional celibacy in ministry? However, there were a majority of others who voted in favor of this recommendation. They urged that sorne form of reconciliation be designed for those who do not want to submit to a Iaicization process but who desire full sacramental ministry. ·nuring the discussion of this recomrnendation, a serious debate began. Two distinct viewpoints emerged. The one urged that reconciliation be offered only to those who accepted the laicization process. The other urged that ·efforts of reconciliation be made toward al! priests who have left.


RESIGNED

143

As a first, immediate step in approaching the whole process of resignation and transition, the Delegates strongly urged that a "Transition Plan," which would include severance benefits, be started in every diocese and religious community. ATTITUDES

The Delegates felt that education was the pivotai point in an effort to bdng about a change in attitude towards resigned priests-a change which will reflect the metanoia, the conversion, referred to in Pope Paul's theme of the Roly Year. Along these lines, the Delegates : 1) Asked the NCCB to discuss the Action Statement on Resigned Priests adopted at this 1975 NFPC Convention, and to publish a statement to reflect the current attitude of the American Bishops; 2) Asked the Senates;Councils to initiate discussions among fellow priests which may promote a Christian attitude toward resigned priests ; 3) Mandated the NFPC to collate ali available research on matters relating to resigned priests and to indicate areas which are in sufficient need to further attention or evaluation. For example, it was clear that, due to the secrecy of the laicization process, there are large gaps of information regarding statistics of priests who have left the active ministry. 4) Voted to pursue with Ordinaries the promotion of educational programs intended to foster a spirit of reconciliation. UTILIZATION

"''

One resigned priest said : "Many priests and sisters who have married want to do religions work. They are talented, trained, and have a lot to offer the Church." Both from the American Bishops' Statements and the recommendations of resigned priests, it was apparent that the need to utilize the talents of resigned priests for ·the pastoral welfare of the Church is the essential reason for reconciliation. Prior to th~·NFPC Convention, a Committee of the Canon Law Society, at the request of the NFPC, prepared a paper entitled "The Involvement of Dispensed Priests in the Ministry of the Church." It was a presentation Of the· canonical ra-


144

CHICAGO STUDIES

tionale, a technical analysis of the law of the Church, concerning Jaicized priests. The Statement addresses the issues: "There is a question as to how extensively a dispensed priest may be involved in the ministry of the Church. "A dispensed priest is a layperson in good standing in the Church. As such, he may and indeed is called upon to exercise those ministries incumbent upon the baptized as laype1·sons. "He may also exercise certain more specifie ministries including Jiturgical ones, provided the danger of confusing others as to whether he is acting as a cleric or layperson is avoided. "He may be hired for any position in the Church for which a layperson may be employed. If the position involves teaching theological or related sciences at the graduate leve!, administrative positions in education, or the exercise of a liturgical ministry in public celebrations where the priest's condition is known, special discretion of the local bishop is required to the extent he has jurisdiction over the institution in question. "In effect, there are broad possibilities within the present law for the involvement of dispensed priests in the ministry of the Church, and for their employment by the Church." The Delegates urged that ali Councils become familiar with the complete text of this NFPC Statement, and that the U.S. Bishops discuss the contents and implications of the Statement at their next meeting. FUTURE APPROPRIATE MINISTRIES

There were two recommendations in the Action Statement which were approved by a close majority vote of the House of Delegates. Both related to the utilization of the talents of resigned priests. Both were motivated by the urgent pastoral needs of our people. The Delegates stated: "We cali to mind the urgent needs of our people for leadership, direction, and strength from their ordained ministers. Therefore, we resolve that the NFPC Executive Board, in liaison with the NCCB Office on.Priestly Life and Ministry, facilitate efforts to reconcile and reinstate. married priests in appropdate ministries." · . This recommendation was deliberately couched in words such as "laison with NCCB Office/' "facilitate efforts," and "appro-

c

r


RESIGNED

0

145

priate ministries." They do not clearly suggest a full recognition of a sacramental ministry for a married priesthood. It was evident that the sense of the pastoral needs of the Church and the ambiguity of the language used for the recommendation allowed its passage by the Delegates. The Delegates went on to state: "We caJI to mind the fact that there are large numbers of resigned priests who desire to exercise fuJI priestly ministry. We support their desire, which we see as based on the very nature of the priesthood of Jesus Christ and the greatest pastoral needs of our time. We, therefore, resolve that the NFPC, in liaison with the Canon Law Society of America, develop a re-certification process (proèess of qualified re-entry) whereby resigned priests who so desire be restored to full active priestly ministry within the Church." The NFPC, in its "Moment of Truth Statement" issued in 1971, called for the reinstatement of married priests into full sacramental ministry. As evidence of this new phenomenon, the NFPC recognized that there are many resigned priests who want m1ion with a bishop and the Church so that they can exercise once again their priestly ministry. They are compeJied by conscience and by a desire to serve the pastoral needs of people. In their actions, the Delegates supporte<! this desire. As noted, however, the recommendation was conditioned by a qualified, re-entry process-·a re-certification process---which the NFPC, in liaison with The Canon Law Society of America, proposes to design. Upon close study of the documentation from groups of resigned priests, and from the majority acceptance of the two proposais just mentioned, sorne observers have concluded that de facto there already exists a married priesthood-a reality not officiaJiy sanctioned by the Church. The nature of the process of Jaicization is clearly juridical, involving "a restriction forbidding the exercise of powers which have beeil received in virtue of ordination," and the surrencler of the rights to sustenance and care from the Church. [NFPC Statemeilt on "The lnvolvement of Dispensecl Priests in the Ministry of thé Church]. · However, a priest is not "unordained" ; he ·c:ioes not iose thé sacramen tai characte1; which he received upon ordination but only the right to exercise his


146

CHICAGO STUDIES

powers. As a result, on the sacramental or theological leve!, a Jaicized individual is still a priest; on the juridical leve!, he is a Jayman and not a cleric. Therefore, priests who resign from the active ministry, whether they are laicized or not, whether they marry or not, are still, theologically and sacramentally, ordained priests. This is the basis of the claim of groups of resigned priests that there exists de facto a married priesthood in the Church. Sorne even content that there has been created a new expression of priesthood. This new form of priesthood is not being expressed in the traditional manner of priests dispensing the sacraments or performing priestly duties. It is not approved by the Western Church. Such non-traditional forms of expression are forhidden by the law. Many of the resigned priests who have refused to undergo the laicization process sense their priesthood in a profoundly persona! way, and they contend that if their !ife work cornes from a faith or gospel conviction, then that work is priestly work. A proposai from the Fellowship of Christian Ministries reflects this position: "We ask that the NFPC membership look at the work and lives of the nation's married priests to discern therein a spirit of apostolate, and if it be present, to acknowledge it before the Church and the World. We ask, in the name of the faith which we share and the respect which we have for one another's consciences, that priests who have decided to marry without seeking reduction to the lay state be allowed to bear their witness to a dual vocation without impugnment." This proposai, distinct from the proposa! passed by the Delegates in support of the desire of resigned priests for full priestly ministry in the Church, was debated at substantial length by the Delegates, but was defeated by a vote of 91 to 71. Another group of resigned priests, CORPUS, stated unequivocally to the NFPC Delegates: "We are priests, not laymen; we seek no return to the lay state." Their conclusion, however, is not so much that their lives and work be recognized as a new expression of priesthood, but rather they are offering their services as a reserve corps of ministers, available upon cali, to perform any and ali of the traditional forms of ministries-teaching, sacramental, and pastoral ministries. In the course of the discussions, a conscious effort was made

l "

L

r

•


RESIGNED

''

147

to restrict the focus of the debate. The issue was not optional celibacy for Roman Catholic priests in active ministry, but rather it was justice (in the case of the laicization process) and utilization (in the case of continued ministry for resigned priests). The concern was pastoral ministry to brothers, ones no longer considered active ministers. The statement from the Association of Chicago Priests began by saying: "We do not wish to get involved in the question of optional celibacy." The language of the CORPUS statement was almost identical: "We respectfully suggest that the battle of optional celibacy not be fought again." It was legiti!rul.te to restrict the Convention to that issue. However, as sorne Delegates stated, it must be seen in the light of the present discipline of the Church on celibacy. ln the midst of the discussion, there developed a strong conviction that there are a number of men, either laicized or non-laicized, who firmly believed that their present lived expet"ience is priesthood and this should be recognized, and many who maintain a sincere desire to exercise their rights and powers of priesthood for their sakes and for the good of the Church. If, however, the suggested proposais concerning the laicization process would be accepted and official recognition of full ministry of resigned priests would be granted by the Church, there are sorne inescapable implications for the discipline of celibacy. The first obvious implication is the effect it could have on priests who are presently Irul.intaining the discipline of celibacy. For the priests who joyfully accept celibacy, the presence of a married priesthood could be a welcome addition. For those men, however, who have accepted a celibate !ife-style only through much struggle and sacrifice, the acceptance of married min istry for other men may present a severe morale problem. Looked at from another point of view, such a change would raise a question of equity. Would this not amount to allowing rights and privileges to married prièsts that are not offered to celibates? Acceptance of the NFPC proposais has still another implication.¡ What will the future process of resignation be Iike? If the laicization process is eased or made applicable only to those who absolutely wish to return to the lay state, and modified for


148

CHICAGO STUDIES

those who wish to marry and retain "appropriate" or "full" ministry, is this not, in effect, introducing optional celibacy, or optional marriage, into the ministry? If married priests become a normal phenomenon, would it not be logical to expect the Church to reasses the value of celibacy to priesthood? These questions are not raised as arguments against the NFPC proposais. They are raised because they will be legitimately asked and cali for a reasoned, pastoral response. How shall the morale or equity problem be addressed? Shall it be by supporting and affirming the unique value and worth of a celibate commitment? The normalizing of resignation or transfer from celibate to married state will demand much more flexibility in placement and utilization of personnel. LIAISONS

During the discussion of ali recommendations, the Delegates remained keenly aware of the need to ensure that actions wou id be the outcome of their deliberations. With this in minci, they repeatedly asked the question, "How wîll this be accomplished ?" when considering various proposais. Liaison efforts by the NFPC and local SenatesjCouncils were considered as vitally important facets in effecting reconciliation. The most significant liaison efforts proposed and accepted by the Delegates include the following: 1) Establishment of liaison between the NFPC and appropriate organizations of resigned priests (also promulgated in the 1972 NFPC Convention) ; 2) Establishment of liaison between the Canon Law Society and the NFPC to design the "Re-certification Process"; 3) Establishment of liaison with the NCCB for the two-fold purpose of having the U .S. Bishops direct the ir attention to the 1975 Action Statement and· also the NFPC Statement on the "[nvolvement of Dispensed Priests in the Ministry of the Church," and most critically, to have the NCCB Office on Priestly Life and Ministry work with the NFPC for: the reinstatement of married priests in appropriate minis tries; 4) Establishment of liaison with the Apostolic Delegate, the representative of the Holy See, by having the Executive Committee· of the NFPC meet with him to discuss the 1975 Con-

'

r


fiESIGNED

149

vention Action Staternent. Since the process of laicization and the limitations on resigned priests' rninistries are governed by the discipline of the Holy See, this was seen as a key to further developrnent and understanding. SIGNS OF HOPE

''

Many resigned priests have offered unsolicited recommendations to the NFPC. They did this in a spirit of openness toward the NFPC's gesture of reconciliation and in a desire to serve the pastoral needs of the Church in unity with the bishop. Although they have asked for a more human process of laicization for sorne and a ·recognition of appropriate or full sacramental ministry for others, they have spoken in charity and in good faith. Both ·the Action Steps and especially the spirit of se1·ious concern manifested by the Delegates for "those brothers who once exercised their ministry in the sarne way we do," show true signs of the metanoia, the conversion of heart, spoken of by Pope Paul VI in his cali for "Reconciliation and Renewal ... in this Holy Year. The Action Statement in sorne of its recommendations for action is pastorally realistic and should rneet with wide acceptance among bishops, religious superiors, and priests, for consideration and implementation. In those action steps which go' beyond the present legislation and practice of the Chui'ch, the foundation for constructive dialogue has been established between _the NFPC, official Church leadership, and resigned p1'iests. From a careful review of the Action Statement and the substantive discussions on which it is based, at !east three logical, positive courses of action could be taken as a response to the Convention's recommendations: 1) The formation of a Committee, cornposed of representation from the NCCB, the NFPC, and resigned priests, to discuss the· design of a new p1·ocess of laicization andjor resignation that would be acceptable both to the NCCB and to the Holy See. 2) The establishment of a National andjor Diocesan Talent Bank to contain the names of ali resigned priests, their status,


150

CHICAGO STUDIES

their curriculum vitae, and the ir cm-rent interest in.serving the Church. This would be" a part of the research projeet fonilally" recommended by the Delegates. 3) The formation of a National Dialogue Group similar to the Lutheran-Catholic Dialogue. This group, composed of bishops, theologians, canon lawyers, sorne laypersons, and a cross-section of resigned_priests and their wives, would discuss the question of reinstatement of resigned priests in appropria te ministries and would consider the re-certification process to be developed by the NFPC in liaison with the Canon Law Society. The topic of resigned priests can be fraught with deep emotion. This was evident from the long debate of the Action Statement for resigned priests. The NFPC, in selecting its Convention theme, "Reconciliation: Risks and Possibilities," sensed a responsibility to caution that "there are serions risks to be encountered in an active pursuit of reconciliation. The Christian hope that beckons one to dream of reconciliation among those long separated by rivalry, or traditions, or phenomena over which no one has control, portrays risk-taking as no longer insurmountable, but now as a challenge to Christian response to a neighbor's need." In concluding this article, the writer recalls the words of the prayer offered at the close of the 1975 NFPC Convention: "We pray, Almighty God, that we accept the challenge and responsibility, the risks and possibilities of reconciliation, to which we have been called. Together let us search our hearts, in the light of the Gospel, that wherever we find misunderstanding, distrust, alienation, despair, we personally open wide our arms to the embrace of our loving Father, through whom we are able to forgive and be forgiven. Let us work together to respond to the pastoral needs of the people whom we serve."

1.

r


Thomas P. Sweetser, S.J.

Liberal and Conservative Catholics; Avenues of Reconciliation Liberal and èonservative Catholics are becoming more polarized than in the past, gathering around favorite styles of worship or communities of beUevers. What common ground can bring them together?

•

'

The proceedings of the 1975 National Federation of Priests' Councils Convention contain this "Note of Explanation": "A Jack of time prevented the House of Delegates from completing this section of its working paper on the polarization between liberal and conservative Catholics. Unlike the other groups, whose assigned topics permitted them to have a more direct focus on their assigned topics, the group dealing with liberal! conservative division worked extensively on the more fundamental issue of reconciliation, the roots of division and the processes of healing." The "Note of Explanation" goes on to say that the delegates decide to set up a task force to deal with this area of reconciliation du ring the year following the convention. lt was agreed that this was the best way to handle so difficult a subject, which required more time than the few days of the convention. Unfortunately, what was !ost in this decision was the results of the long hours the thirty members of the focus group devoted to trying to formulate a document on how liberal and conservative Catholics might be reconciled. This article will attempt to present sorne of the insights of that focus group, 151


1 152

CHICAGO STUDIES

as weil as the contributions of the author, who served as the resom¡ce person for this focus session. We will begin with the observations of the author as presented to the focus session at the beginning of their deliberations. SETTING THE SCENE There has always been a tension in the Church between liberal and conservative approaches to the faith. Peter and Paul were themselves at loggerheads over the circumcision of non-J ewish Christians. But the need to seek avenues of reconciliation between liberal and conservative Catholics is particularly critical today because people fee! freer today than ever before to pick and choose the liturgy or priest or parish that best suits their needs and expectations. The American Catholic Church, in other words, is becoming a voluntary Church. As a result, Catholics of like tastes and sentiments tend to group together around their favorite style of worship or community of believers. This means that liberal and conservative Catholics are becoming even more polarized thau in the past. The solution to this growing polarization is to find sorne cornmon ground or expression of faith that ali can accept and profess together. But we are getting ahead of ourselves. Before arriving at solutions, we first must be sure we understand the problem. 1. DEFINITIONS: The terms "liberal" and "conservative" are, of course, relative to the groups and people to which they refer. A person is often labeled "a conservative" by one group and the same person "a liberal" by another. Sorne people prefer the terms "progressive" and "traditional" when referring to different perspectives in the Church, since the terms liberal and conservative have a strong political basis. Whatever terms are used, it is always difficult to pin down their mearung. Perhaps the first avenue toward reconciliation is the recognition by both parties that these terms are ambiguous and can be used merely to identify one position or group when compared with another, and to indicate the need for reconciliation between divergent groups in the Church. There is a further problem in trying to identify just who

''


LIBERAL

153

are liberal or progressive and who are conservative or traditional Catholics. My studies of Catholic attitudes have shown that very often the same individual may be liberal in one area and conservative in another, so that the process of reconciling liberal and conservative Catholics might involve reconciling opposing positions within the same indivdual. For example, it often happens that a pet"Son might have traditional attitudes toward liturgical practice, even desiring a return of the Latin Mass, and at the same time, have progressive attitudes on persona! moral issues, such as professing lenient views toward divorce and remal'l'hge or even toward abortion. Because of the ambiguity of the terms, and at the same time at the risk of laboring the obvious, we will propose at \east a working definition that will provide a framework for the rest of the article. A viewpoint can be considered liberal/progressive or conservativejtraditional in its reaction toward change. On the progressive side the predominant attitude is to seek to change things in order to "keep up with the times" or to respond to the situation. On the traditional side the predominant opinion is to keep things as they are or as they have always been. These two reactions to change form a continuum in which people, depending on the topic of discussion, find themselves somewhere between these two extremes. These two reactions to change are also the reason that Catholics find themselves at various places along the continuum when such topics as authority in the Church, types of liturgies, persona\ moral issues or the role of the Church in social affairs come up. The progressive stance seeks to change these areas of religion so as to agree with cultural, social or contemporary situations. The traditional stance seeks to preserve the teachings and positions of the Church rather than give in to the pressures of the culture or of the moment. With this as a working definition, we will now consider sorne of the reasons for the split between liberal and conservative Catholics in the Church today. 2. POLARIZING lNFJ,UENCES: Sorne of the influences that keep liberal and conservative Catholics apa~t lie outside the realm of Church and religion. For instance, one's age and background contribute a great deal to that person's reaction to change. Ethnie origins, education, family tensions, family size, childhood environment--all these contribute to the formation

•


154

•

CHICAGO STUDIES

of liberal or conservative attitudes. There is also carry-over from the culturaljpolitical sphere into Church matters. For instance, the strong emphasis on individualism and self-initiative in American culture affects the way American Catholics view the relationship between religion and society and how the two interact. Even such a simple trait as physical mobility, which is at an all-time high for Americans, affects the way people deal with change in their lives and in their religions practices. For example, people can handle only a limited amount of change in their lives. If they are uprooted from their neighborhood and have no other roots to hang onto, they look for a church that is stable and unchanging. They see the Church as the link from one locale to another. These are a few examples of liberal or conservative attitudes that have nothing to do with the Church but show up in their reaction to change in the Church as weil as in other areas of their lives. There are also influences from within the Church that help keep liberal and conset¡vative Catholics apart, influences that are unique to the Church and make this polarization a critical issue today. For instance, Catholics who attend the same l\iass may have very different understandings of what the Church stands for and is seeking to accomplish. The problem for people with diverse understandings of Church is how to accommodate another's approach to Church and religion and share the l\iass with them without giving up one's own ideals and insights about the Church and its mission. Along with a growing diversity in how the Church is perreceived is a growing ignorance of what is happening in the Church today. Since the religions education that people received in their youth has changed so profoundly since Vatican II, and since they have not kept up with the new understandings and approaches to religion and the Church, many Catholics feel threatened and frustrated in practicing their faith today and tend to resist change no matter what the change might entai!. Those who are more involved in Church-related matters, on the other hand, are more in touch with what's going on and therefore are more open to changes in the Church, and, thus, according to our definition, are more liberally inclined. That is why parish staffs and even parish councils are generally

---------


LIBERAL

155

more liberal in their attitudes toward the Church than the majority of the parishioners whose contact with the Church is confined to the weekend Mass and homily. ĂœTHER POLARIZING INFLUENCES There a1¡e many other influences in the Church that contribute to the polarization. Sorne of the more important areas include: 1. religious education, where conflicts arise over what tenets of the faith are important to pass on to the next generation; 2. authority, in that people wonder just who does have the power and who is running the Church today, now that the laity are making many important parish decisions; 3. morality, where people are divided over what is sinful and who determines wrongful acts, the individual or the hierarchy; and 4. li turgy, in which people argue about what is more important in Mass, reverence for the Eucharist or the feeling of community among the people. The list is far from exhausted, but does indicate the depth and extent of the problem. That is why reconciling liberais and conservatives in the Church is so necessary at this time, before the separation between them becornes too wide to bridge. The first step toward creating a structure of reconciliation is to create an atmosphere in which it is all right to differ and yet share the same faith. Creating this atmosphere begins within each individual believer. The next section will consider sorne of the prerequisites necessary for creating this atmosphere of reconciliation. HONEST AND REALISTIC 3. IMPERATIVES FOR RECONCILIATION: The ingredients necessary for reconciliation include these imperatives: be honest, be realistic, be sensitive and be creative. First, be honest. Reconciliation fails because people are not honest, especially about their own attitudes. So often we put people into boxes or categories and deal with them as defined by these predetermined boundaries. No one likes to be labeled or identified as in one camp or holding one stereotyped position. Dealing with people as unique individuals, however, is never neat or efficient, but without it no attempts at reconciling people can be lasting.


156

CHICAGO STUDIES

People must also be honest about their own desires for reconciliation. The situation in the Church today is that many Catholics do not want their own security or religions routine disturbed by other points of view or practices. The only difficulty with this non-reconciling attitude is what to do about the Gospel imperatives that demand of the followers of Christ unity and the overcoming of factions among them. "That they may be one, as we are one ... that they may grow complete into one ... " ( J n 17 :22-23) . Reconciliation is impossible without an honest desire and thirst for it, and anything Jess than this desire is unchristian. People who desire reconciliation must also be honest about their need for it. This means admitting that there are holes even in their own positions and viewpoints and that we are ali in need of widening our vision and understanding of what it means to be a Christian in today's world. And then we must be honest about our own limitations in our prayer and faith lives and our efforts at carrying out the Gospel imperatives for reconciliation and unity. In other words, people who seek to be reconciled must realize the need for conversion and rebirth by the Spirit within their own hearts. The conversion to reconciliation and openness is a gift that we ourselves are powerless to produce but which is given to th ose who seek to follow Jesus. "Ali this is from God, who through Christ reconciled us to Himself and gave us the ministry of reconciliation" (2 Cor 5 :19) Secondly, be realistic. This involves a realization of how difficult a task we have set for ourselves and how long it has been a problem in the Church. Christ himself had to seek reconciliation among his own apostles: "What were you arguing about on the road?" (Mc 9:34). And Peter and Paul were in need of reconciliation over the question of circumcision only a few years after Pentecost. The present efforts at unity, in other words, have a long history. Being realistic about reconciliation in the Church demands not only a sense of history but a great deal of patience as weil. This is because we are dealing with many factors that lie outside the realm of faith and religion, such as personality, education, background, etc. We cannot hope to bridge the gaps which run so deep in such a short time. Although the changes in liturgy, structure and doctrine which have been introduced


LIBERAL

157

into the Church since Vatican II have come swiftly, it takes people much longer to catch up with the changes and to learn to live with diversity and pluralism. It is important also to be realistic about this pluralism in the Church. Diversity and plurality are facts of our culture and of our Church. The days are over in which people ali think and act alike. The goal of reconciliation, then, is not uniformity but integration and unity-in-diversity. The Church is far too rich a reality to be reduced to just one theology or understanding of Iiturgy, structure or doctrine, whether progressive or traditional. People who seek reconciliation must be realistic about their own acceptance of this rich diversity and not look for the day when their own position or approach to religion will predominate. And also we must be realistic in our goals and objectives and not attempt the impossible. Even the Spirit would not attempt what we sometimes seek to accomplish. Any small reduction of division and misunderstanding is a success on the road to reconciliation. SENSITIVE AND CREATIVE

Thirdly, be sensitive. People give off signais that speak Iouder than words. The signais say: don't push, don't rush us, don't underestimate us, don't give up so easily, don't dominate, don't manipulate, etc. Reconcilers must be sensitive to these signais, listen to what the people are trying to tell them and then adjust accordingly. Many possibilities for reconciliation are !ost through insensitiveness to the feelings and expectations of the people involved. Listening is only part of the sensitivity required for reconciliation. Taking an interest in the other person's views is also important. This does not mean agreeing with his or her position, but it does mean seeking out opinions and viewpoints other than our O\VIl. On a parish Ievel, this might also involve inviting the opposition to fill positions of leadership and to share in the decision-making of the parish. This, of course, entails a great risk that their opinions may prevail, or even the greate1¡ risk that they may be right or do a better job than we can. This is indeed a possibility. Another aspect of being sensitive is to look for non-threat-


158

CHICAGO STUDIES

ening and non-tension-producing occasions for liberais and conservatives to meet. These might range from parish socials and festivals to common prayer and liturgies. We can be sensitive to the common elements that both can share: special liturgies, silent prayer, unemployment, ecology or other local issues. Reducing the blocks and reinforcing the bridges between peoples is one way to overcome the division between them. And, lastly, it is important to be sensitive to reconciling actions people perform in their everyday lives. This can be done by using these small acts as avenues toward understanding between people. In other words, give people credit for being Christian and for the many acts of kindness and concern and caring they perform in responding to others in need. These acts are independent of the person's ideology, theology or political position. Such actions of generosity and love should be recognized, encouraged and used as examples of how much Catholics have in common and share with one another. Fourthly, be creative. That is, build on the experience people have of reconciliation in theil¡ daily lives. There is much more emphasis today in schools, businesses, clubs and homes on small-group interaction, on consensus formation, on process and interpersonal communication. These are the same dynamics that help reconcile divergent groups in the Church or parish. This is a reservoir that could be creatively tapped in helping people with diverse viewpoints relate to one another. Being creative also means establishing an atmosphere of trust and respect among people so that they know that it is ali right to have different opinions and yet still fee! part of the group. Even when a conflict arises among people of divergent views these moments of tension, if handled creatively, can be a time of growth and reconciliation. The Church is not the only body trying to unite divergent groups. Being creative in dealing with divisions and factions means looking to other groups and drawing on their experience and successes at reconciliation. Our own American Catholic history contains many such examples of a widely divergent ethnie Church trying to hold together under one creed a cornmon faith and religious experience. Somehow we have survived as a single Church despite the insurmountable obstacles of different languages, customs, cultures and religious practices.


LIBERAL

159

This heritage of unity should give us courage and support in our eff<>rts at reconciliati<>n today. ĂœTHER MODELS OF RECONCILIATION

There are other models of reconciliation that can be creatively used in furthering unity in our Church. Examples from Protestant churches which have wrestled with the problems of diversity and plura\ism in a voluntary church provide another resource that can be helpful. James Gustafson, a Lutheran theologian, gives one example of how a parish, Catholic or Protestant, might be an expression of this unity-in-diversity. "The existence of people representing .different races, economie states of !ife, educational achievement, and political points of view in one congregation calls more vivid attention to the love, the forgiveness, the \ife, and the meanings that church represents on a universal plane. The actual human materials that make up the complexes of races and cultures existing in the worldwide church have to sorne extent a microcosmic ret!ection in a heterogeneous local congregation. Thus the drive towarrl inclusiveness that is present at the hemt of the Christian gospel can be manifest, not to demonstrate a kind of tolerance, nor to show that persons of different !ife-orientations can live together in a given voluntary association, but to testify to the unity that is in Jesus Christ. The acceptance of diversity is then the religious and social implication of the acknowledgment of a common Lord of !ife." (Volunta1'y Associations, P. B. Robertson, ed., Richmond, VA: John Knox Press, 1966. p. 310) These remarks on reconciliation-a working definition, the polarizing influences and the imperatives for reconciliationwere presentee\ to the task force formee\ at the NFPC convention to deal with this area of reconciliation. The group then spent a great deal of time in trying to come to grips with the scope and dimension of the tapie. As a result, little time was left over to refine and clarify the insights of the group. What follows is a summary and refinement of their work. GROUP INSIGHTS

The group came up with general norms for reconciliation that coule\ be applicable to ali situations. The first norm is the


160

CHICAGO STUDIES

creation of an environment of trust in which people fee! free to disagree with one another and still be accepted. Without this environment, any reconciliation that is achieved will be superficial and shortlived. The second norm is that small groups and face-to-face encounters are the most effective means toward reconciling divergent attitudes and opinions. This, of course, means that progress toward large-scale reconciliation will be slow and limited in its scope, but that efforts to create bonds between large groups of liberal and conservative Catholics ali at once have proved to be even Jess successful. The third norm is to realize that certain occasions and events are more conducive to furthering unity and reconciliation thau others. These events are usually moments of crisis or joy or celebration. They present a special opportunity for strengthening human ties. Examples would be births, sicknesses, weddings, funerals or natural disasters such as floods, storms, etc. They are beginnings for future dialogue. The fourth norm is to begin with the real situation, taking people where they are and be satisfied with whatever degree of reconciliation is possible or open to the group at the time. In other words, achieving less than the highest leve] of reconciliation is still beneficiai. Along with norms, the group also came to the realization that the process of reconciling libei"al and conservative Catholics admits of many levels and degrees. The goal or end point that is being sought is the authentic recognition by both sides of the diversity and pluralism of those searching for the true meaning of the Church. This leve! of recognition, of course, is the ideal, and there are many steps leading to this goal. The first step in the process is the awareness by all believers of a persona! responsibility to work for unity and reconciliation. As mentioned earlier, there is the Gospel imperative requiring the followers of Christ to at !east want to live in harmony with ail peoples-and especially with their fellow Christians-and to work and pray that this unity be realized. People who do not want to be reconciled cannot be forced to it. The next step is a basic tolerance of persons who as f ellow human beings hold different viewpoints. Tolerance is not much, and this step does not include tolerance of the other person's


liBERAl

161

view, but just of the person as a creature of God and therefore worthy of acknowledgement of that fact. This, at !east, is a beginning. The step that follows tolerance is an acceptance and respect for others as persons. Once again, we do not include accept.ance of the other persans' ideas or opinions, but acceptance of them as fellow human beings. This is the leve! in which the atmosphere of trust can be created. 1f this step is achieved to .any depth in a group, they are weil on the way towards a lasting reconciliation. The fourth step is dialogue between people of diverse viewpoints. Once they accept one another as persans, they can begin talking to one another. Once they talk to one another, they are in a position to learn why the other persans hold the positions they do. From this dialogue cornes an understanding of the others' views. The final step in the process is the recognition of the others' views as expressing part of the mystery that is the Church. In other words, it is the recognition that no one view or understanding is absolute or ali-inclusive and that the diversity of opinions and positions is the expression of the richness and vitality of the Church. Once this leve! is reached, then neither the liberal nor the conset-vative view is usurped but becomes incorporated into a more complete expression of the Church mystery. This does not mean that ali controversy and tension have ceased. There will still be the need to challenge complacency, correct aberration and maintain the prophetie heritage of the Church which it received from its founder. It may even mean an occasional escalation of the division and let the pieces fall before any rebuilding is possible. But this is always done with the end point in mi nd: that to be Christian is to live in harmony and that no one viewpoint or position is an adequate expression of Christ's Church. \Ve need one another, even those we do not agree with. ACTION STEPS

The focus session at the NFPC convention, once the norms and steps leading toward reconciliation had been settled, tried


162

CHICAGO STUDIES

to formulate suggestions of how reconciliation might be furthered in the Church and local parish. They chose five areas in which the need for reconciliation is most critical. Those areas are: 1. differences in the way the Church itself is perceived; 2. varied understandings of authority in the Church; 3. contiicting approaches to religions education; 4. controversies over the role of the Church in social matters; and 5. different expectations of liturgy and worship. The action steps that the group proposed may be already in operation in a given Church community, and there are, of course, many more action steps that could be suggested. The ones offered here are only examples of what avenues of reconciliation might be possible. 1. Perception of the Church: One area of division among Catholics today is their differences in how they understand the Church. Avery Dulles in Models of the Church (Garden City, NY, Doubleday, 1974) lists five possible approaches to Church, ali valid and each expressing a unique facet of the Church mystery. How is it possible to talk of reconciliation when people use the same word to represent such different realities. Keeping in mind that our goal is the acceptance by Catholics of the diversity in the Church as the expression of its richness and the ability to live with pluralism in the Church, the following steps are proposed as steps to that goal. Begin with the pastors and clergy since they have the greatest potential for creating in their parishes the atmosphere of reconciliation. Local priests' councils, organizations or diocesan programs, therefore, should provide informai and nonthreatening occasions fot¡ priests to meet and work through their different understandings of the Church and its mission. These meetings and get-togethers will then serve as models for the same kind of informa! discussions between diverse groups taking place in the pa1¡ish community. The next step is to invite resource people in to help explain the different perceptions of Church and to help the priests and people work through their diverse, and at times contiicting, notions of Church. Along with these meetings there should be many occasions, such as socials, recreational events, neighborhood and parish get-togethers, etc., in which priests and people can meet and

•


LIBERAL

163

learn about one another and grow in their acceptance and respect for one another. To help maintain this environment of sharing and interaction, continuai explanations about the Church should be provided in newsletters, bulletins or sermons. The abject is to help people realize that a single definition or expression of Church does not contain the whole reality, that neither the progressive nor the traditional approach to Church has a corner on the true means of Christ's Church. 2. Authority Conflicts: These conflicts flow from diverse understandings of Church. For sorne the Church is the hierarchical institution founded by Christ with the Pope as its visible head. For others the emphasis is on a community of believers or People of Gad in which ali share in the decisionmaking process. Bridging this gap is dependent on allowing both approaches to authority a chance to air their voices. For instance, beginning with the priests, it is important that bath liberal and conservative views toward authority be represented in priests' councils and organizations. This experience of shared leadership will act as a mode! for the priests' own parish communities. It will also be helpful that clear job descriptions for ali leadership positions-whether for priests, religious or laitybe d1¡awn up and published for ali ta see and understand. This way there are explicit criteria by which to judge the performance of those in leadership positions, whether they come from liberal or conservative perspectives. Along with the clear job descriptions there should be limits placed on the length of time a persan holds a given office. This assures that one view does not predominate over a long period of time. Ideally, such a limited tenure of office would apply not only to the parish leve! but ta ali levels of Church leadership and authority as weil. Finally, there must be a process by which people in leadership positions are held responsible for their exercise of authority. The abuses of authority-and this applies to ali levels of Church leadership--must be exposed and corrected wherever they occur, whether from the liberal or from the conservative side. How this can best be accomplished depends on the situation; but the Church, in following the lead of its founder, has


164

CHICAGO STUDIES

the responsibility of challenging abuses of power in the same way that Christ challenged the leaders of the Jewish people in his day. 3. Religious Education: With the spreading out of the definition of Church and of authority, it is understandable that conflicts will arise on w~at are the essentials of our faith. People have different articles of belief which they fee! are central to its meaning and must be communicated to the young and to prospective members. lt is in this area that liberais and conservatives can help one another in providing a balanced approach to religious education. But first they must have the chance to share with one another their views and expectations for religious education. Beginning once again with the priests, local priests' councils and organizations should provide meetings and informai gatherings for priests to air their different views about the essentials of their faith. If the priests are open to it, a more stmctured group process might be h¡ied to help them express their different views with the aicl of a facilitator and planned process for sharing their opinions. Similar meetings shoulcl be encouragecl in parish communities for priests, religious education coordinators, teachers and parishioners to let them air their views and frustrations about the essentials of the Catholic faith. Gare must be taken that in these meetings both liberal and conservative input is listened to and 1¡espectecl and even encouragee!. Since such meetings can be counter-productive if an open atmosphere of trust is not created, it would be helpful if an objective, outside observer or facilitator participated in these meetings to help create and maintain an environment of reconciliation. Since ignorance is often the main cause of conflict and dispute, a continuai and regular program of renewal and updating in scripture, theology, morality, etc., should be provided for priests, teachers, coordinators, council members and parishioners. As we mentione<l earlier, such programs of religious updating are critical in the Church today in order to help people cope with the changes in the Church. People can handle only a limited amount of change at a time, and need a great deal of support throughout the process. Involving people in the religious E'ducation process in the


liBERAl

165

Church and parish is the best means toward exposing them to viewpoints other than their own. Therefore, as many people as possible should be invited to participate in child and adult religious education programs in the parish, either as teachers or as participants. Such a simple process as encouraging them to parti ci pate in the preparation of the National Catechetical Directory can provide the occasion for sharing different understandings of religious education. 4. Social Involvement: This is a difficult are a of reconciliation because most social issues are complicated and have many ramifications. Nor is it always clear which side of the issue is in line with the Gospel imperatives. Along with this ambiguity there is also a deep-seated reluctance on the part of the majority of American Catholics to become involved or have the Church become involved in social issues or in criticizing cultural, social or political positions and decisions. On the other hand, in most parish communities there is a smaller but vocal group of Catholics who hold that, unless the Church is involved in social justice and prophetie witness, it cannot be considered a true manifestation of the Church Christ founctect. How is it possible to reconcile such diverse, and at times explosive, approaches to the Church's role in the social realm? TOWARDS A MEETING OF MINDS

The suggestions given here are steps leading toward a meeting of minds. They are suggested with the supposition that the Gospel and the tradition of the Church do not !cave us a choice as to whether the servant and prophetie roles are part of the full understanding of what it means to be a member of the Church and a follower of Christ. Rather, the steps here presented are ways in which liberal and conservative Catholics might come to a better understading of how they can fulfill their role of Christian service. The first step is to recognize the simple acts of kindness and concern exercised by Catholics in small areas which are independent of a liberal or conservative position. Then, using these acts of generosity and kindness as examples expand on these acts as a means toward educating people in the awareness of their Christian responsibility to help


166

CHICAGO STUDIES

others who are in need. In other words, people often are carrying out the role of Christian servant without being conscious of it. They might need help to recognize this and to be supported and encouraged in these acts of kindness and concern. An effort should also be made to find common areas of social awareness that both conservatives and liberais can participate in, such as helping the unemployed in the parish or raising money for the hungry people in the neighborhood and elsewhere. The next step is to look for occasions to discuss the role of the parish in the community or of the Church in the world. One example might be discussions based on the Bicentennial Program Booklet from the National Conference of Catholic Bishops. Depending on the attitudes and theological background of the people, it might be necessary to point out the scriptural basis and papal pronouncements on the social dimension of the Church. But success will come only as a result of a sensitivity of the people and the situation. For instance, sermons might not be as productive as other approaches, such as gripe sessions, discussion groups or a cal! for volunteers when a crisis arises in the community. Building on this discussion and awareness of the social dimension of the Church, the next step might be to set up a volunteer pro gram (or improve and expand an existing program) in which parishioners can contribute their time and talent in helping others in need. These services might include counseling, tutoring, health services, repair work, visiting, driving, etc. The more people who are involved, whether they are of a liberal or of a conservative bent, the easier it is to create a climate of service and Christian witness in the parish or larger community. Only after this climate has been created will people be able to listen and respond to the larger areas of social concern or fee! the need of calling the community, country or world to task for the unjust and inhuman treatment of their fellow human beings. LITURGY

The last, and perhaps most conscious, area of conflict between liberal and conservative Catholics is the different ways


LIBERAL

167

people fee! comfortable in praying and worshipping and participating in the Mass together. The action steps that are given below are a means by which people can become more open to the different forms of liturgical practice and find a common ground in which to praise and worship God together. The first step is to leam what aspects of the parish liturgical program alienate and polarize people. Once this is done, then those who are responsible for the liturgical !ife of the community should seek to reduce the leve! of alienation in the parish through patient and thorough explanation of whatever changes or new approaches to liturgy are introduced. It is also important to recognize this tendency towards polarization as people participate in different forms of liturgical expression, as, for instance, the different people who come to novenas and rosat-y devotions compared with those who attend Guitar or Folk Masses. There certainly should be a wide variety of options provided for the different tastes and expectations of the people, but there should also be provided frequent celebrations of Eucharist, prayer sessions, etc., in which both progressive and traditional Catholics may fee! comfortable participating. Parish liturgical commissions and those in the parish who are responsible for planning the liturgical programs should be representative of the parish community and include in their number both liberal and conservative viewpoints. This is the best way to assure a balanced liturgical program that will meet the needs of the entire worshipping community. 1t might happen, however, that a given parish, because of limitations of staff, facilities, or finances, will not be able to offer ali the forms of liturgical practices the people are asking for. In such a case, it will be necessm-y to help people locate the kind of Mass and worship services they desire in a nearby parish. But along with this assistance should be the invitation and encouragement that these people retum for special liturgical celebrations and share with the parish community their own experiences of worship and prayer elsewhere. Finally, parishioners should be given the chance to participate in and be acquainted with the long-range goals of the parish liturgical program so that both the traditional and progressive people have a share in or at !east understand in what


168

CHICAGO STUDIES

direction the parish is heading. In this way they will be able to comprehend and more easily accept the various changes in liturgical practice that lead to those goals. Throughout this list of action steps in perceptions of Church, authority, religious education, social involvement and liturgy, it is helpful to remember that in weakness there is strength. This is the Christian paradox which assures us success when al! other attempts at unity and reconciliation fail. We ourselves do not have to solve al! the problems that di vide us. We have a Savior who has already done it, and our success depends on our openness to His work within and among us. "It is al! God's work. It was God who reconciled us to himself through Christ and gave us the work of handing on this reconciliation . . . . For our sake God made the sinless one into sin, so that in him we might become the goodness of God. As his fellow workers, we beg you once again not to neglect the grace of God that you have received. For he says: 'At the favorable time, I have listened to you, on the day of salvation. I came to your hel p.' Weil, now is the favorable time; this is the day of salvation." (2 Co 5:18, 21. 6 :1-2)


Leo B. S hea, 111.111.

Reconciliation with the deprived nations of the world. If global injustice is to be re-clressed, professional behavior and persona/ patterns of living must see deep-rooted change. Scr:ipture and the social teachings of the magister:ium are indictments to the present process of development. Economie structures build forces of division and antagonism, which are a paradox to the teachings of ali religious faiths. Economie injustice continuously oppresses mankind from attaining basic human and civic rights. A decade ago false hopes were raisecl. Promises of new development alliances were created with the vision of prosperity fot¡ the poor and hungry. Not only have these international schemes failed; they also have increased dependence, want, and suffering. During the same period, international businesses witnessed their largest gains. (cf. Fortune Magazine, May 1975). More recently, sU<1den change has come upon the control of natural resources. Each shift perpetuates international systems of domination. Each event crushes the hopes of true development. Each situation reflects the face of exploitation. ECONOMIC ALLIANCES

\Vorld resources have fallen into new hands. The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) have achieved the most radical transfer of economie and political power. The power to decide is out of traditional hands. This economie self-determination has witnessed a five-fold climb in priees and a sharp drop in consomption. OPEC members are pumping 25 per cent Jess than before the 1973 Arab boycott 169


170

CHICAGO STUDIES

and nearly 40 per cent below their total capacity. This drop reflects new energy conservation attitudes among the industrial nations: N ationalization, economie cartels and political tensions have touched ali corners of the globe in the form of inflation and recession. In turn, these series of events have effected buying power and consumption habits. However, this present situation destroys false notions that there is a global shortage of energy. Successes of OPEC have inspired new economie strategy particularly by developing countries that depend heavily on exports of raw materials and minerais for their existence. The so-called banana republics and largest coffee exporter-s, who formed Cafe Mondial to keep priees up by withholding production, have failed for the present because of division among the entire group, although J amaica has received 340 per cent increase in taxes and royalties in bauxite. The copper proclucing eountries are together for a bigger eut of the economie pie. Thus new political strategy is effecting global economie growth and the distribution of resources. The economie power of the rich raw material nations gives strength to their political position. The power to decide the use of their goocls is ali important. History has shown that developing nations were exploited first by foreign nations and la ter by foreign investment. N ow nations seize control, which they were deprived of for so long. While these cun-ent economie changes evolve, the poorest nations and resourceless peoples slide farther behind. During the last three years, the shift of economie control to the rich raw-material nations has not established a global strategy to t¡each ali nations fairly. Consequently, these events have perpetuated the material gap between rich and poor. Long before nationalization of raw materials and bilateral organizing, the multinational businesses were roaming the globe. These conglomerates are still using their financial as weil as their political power to increase their profit taking. Their resources of technicians and technology increase corporate growth. The chief concern of corporation executives "is not so much a fair priee over costa for consumers as whatever the market of supply and demand will bear." (Bishop John J. Dougherty, March 1972). Profit is their measuring


DEPRIVED

171

eup. Success is a handsome return to the stockholders. In terms of justice, businesses operating on these principles are "built on sand." The Appalachian Pastoral Letter of 1975 eloquently said, "Without j udging any one, it has become clear to us that the present economie order does not care for its people. In fact, profit and people frequently are contradictory. Profit over people is an idol. And it is not a new idol for Jesus long ago wamed us, ' ... You cannot be the slave both of God and money.'" (Matthew 6 :24). This is not a problem only for mountain people; it is everybody's problem.'' Today's world is spinning in an unnatural direction. The economie order is twisting at the hands of a small power block. This global system continues to strangle too many lives. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

In order that ali peoples develop with dignity and self-respect and have access to adequate goods, it is imperative that international law and goverment begin to emerge. Each nation has a responsibility to create honest development on a global scale. In the past and at the present unilateral decisions frustrate equitable sharing. Pan-lateral organization and planning must be developed to respond to a multi-complex situation. The United Nations has to be strengthened by the member states. The United Nations today is weak because the powerful economie nations refuse to relinquish their independence for the good of ali people. Preventative diplomacy and education for international understanding are the United Nations' strengths. Pope Paul VI said to the representatives of the U.N. in 1965 and repeated in his plea in Prog1¡ess of People, "Who does not see the necessity of thus establishing progressively a world authority, capable of acting effectively in the juridical-political sectors ?" ( #78 p. 33). Apparently many national and industrial leaders cannot see it that way. Despite strong support for United Nations by Paul IV in P1¡ogress of People and the 1971 Synod, no significant response is seen in church circles. The United Nations' "The Law of the Sea" debate, for example, points to the need for ali nations to establish international agreement. Sensible control of the oceans will affect ali of us. Without adequate guidelines exploitation by a few nations will continue, misuse of the resources of the sea will


172

CHICAGO STUDIES

widen (such as over fishing and the slaughter of endangered species) and pollution of the waters will spiral. In the word of the eminent explorer and scientist, Thor Heyerdahl, "To neglect the ocean is to neglect two-thirds of our planet. To destroy the ocean is to kill our planet. A dead planet serves no nation." The "Law of the Sea" program of the United Nations is one clear sign that mankind can possibly work as one people. Endeavors of the United Nations' Officiais to pursue this difficuut economie and political issue are supported by the 1971 Synod's Justice in the W 01'/d. "Let [governments] th en also look for a way whereby most of their endeavors may follow multilateral channels, fully preserving the responsibility of the developing nations ,which must be associated in decision-making concerning priori ti es and investments" ( #6 p. 66). Congress is beginning to take legislative measures to strengthen this program by recognizing a 200 mile economie zone. The United Nations' "Charter of Economie Rights and Duties of States" (1974) calls for an international code to guide economie development. The new economie arder wou id exercise multilateral commodity agreements, equal membership in international decision-making, improvement in the efficiency of international organizations, self-determination by member states on bilateral and multilateral arrangements and to nationalize, expropriate or transfer ownership of foreign property. "Every state has and shall freely exercise fully permanent sovereignty including possession, use and disposai, over ali its wealth, natural resources and economie activities." At present, the United States Government refuses to accept these principles. This independent action delays a more just control and fair distribution of world goods. Historically, war, conquest and violence have determined the flow of wealth. The Colonial conquest laid the foundation of capital flow from the lands of the third world. Gold, silver and human !ife were taken by foreign powers. Neo-colonialism perpetuated the same chaos. In the Twentieth Century, two world wars created the conditions for the super-powers to determine economie development as they saw fit. The world powers built armies and weaponry to protect their security and global interests. Business was encouraged to invest in foreign soi! where unjust profits were available. Gun boat diplomacy followecl behind. Private overseas in-


DEPRIVED

173

vestment funds we1路e established in American foreign aid bills to reimburse companies if nationalization, war damages and national disaster occurred. The irrational flow of resources has been designed by the victors. In 1975 military and political strategy has determined the priorities of the food aid program of the United States. REALIST VS MORALIST

There are two types of internationalists. One is the realist, hard nase men, consumed by power and greed. They are tough, insensitive leaders who see power-diplomacy or war as the only realistic methods for success. "Seizing Arab Oil" by Miles Ignat us is a feature article in H arper's Magazine in March 1975. He analyzes the massive redistribution that hinges on raw material cartels. "The argument that OPEC is merely leading the way is false, mere propaganda." Mr. Ignotus feels nonviolent strategies will fail to break OPEC. The remedy is simple. "There remains only force. The only feasible countervailing power to OPEC's control of ail is power itself-military power." This attitude is not the feeling of a few Americans. :ilfr. Kissinger hinted that similar strategy may have to be reviewed if the strangle hold by the OPEC nations does not !essen. There is also the moralist. He looks at the humanitarian side. He is sympathetic toward the homeless, poor and oppressed people. He speaks in tenns of justice and of sharing. He says "the essentials for !ife are water and bread and clothing and a bouse to cover one's nakedness" (Sirach 29 :21-22). If there is any hope of decency in foreign affairs, the moralist must strive to be heard. When Pope Paul VI issued Progress of People, the Wall St1路eet Jounu没 called it "warmed-over Marxism." The Church has an important moral and humane role. Rer mission to the world is not sim ply charity. For most people charity is understood as sharing one's RUrplus with the needy. Justice must prevail. Structures must be created so that international trade, exploitation of resources and sales be a vailable on a just and fair scale. The Bishops' pastoral, "The World Food Crisis" (November 21, 1974), stated that legislative initiatives merit support to promote more equitable distribution of resources, to modify United States' tt路ade policies,


174

CHICAGO STUDIES

to lower trade barri ers and to provide just priees for imports from poor countries, to increase genuine agricultural development overseas and modify the operation of the free market system, especialiy the impact of the large corporation, when it stands in the way of justice. The voice of accountability for our human actions has been clear since time began. "Cain, where is thy brother?" More than a hundred and fifty. years ago Thomas Paine observed, "It is not charity but a right, not bounty but justice, that I am pleading for." Today the moral leaders plead for a new order that will someday establish "Liberty and Justice for Ali." A new world order must be devised to reconciliate the present course in which development is designed by and for the minority and builds structures of underdevelopment for the majority of human kind. AN AMERICAN RESPONSE

For peace to exist, reconciliation must take place between the rich and the poor, the powerful and weak, the literate and ignorant and between the oppressed and the oppressors. In a word, we must work toward a new economie order whereby ali people will be reconciled with justice. We must affirm the right of people to keep their own identity while they struggle to distribute and to acquire their resources and their wants. Justice will be recognized when the transfer of a percentage of the annual incarne of the richer countries to the developing states, fairer priees for raw materials, the opening of the markets of the richer nations, and preferential treatment for exporta of manufactured goods from the developing nations occurs. Understandably, justice in our world will place accountability and hardship upon us, the American community. The church recognizes both her responsibility and ber need to trust in the power of the Spirit in arder to sanctify herself and to "renew the face of the earth." Simultaneously, the whole church must support and encourage the political, scientific and economie sectors to restore the Day of Peace for ali men and women. The priests of National Federation of Priests' Council (NFPC) acknowledge the broad social doctrine of the church by their vision. Their indorsement of the Appalachian pas-


DEPRIVED

175

tora! This Land is Hmne to Me reaffirms that domestic problems of maldistribution are reflective of a global crisis. Our own government and businesses in many incidents have frustrated the principle of "Libe>ty and Justice for AU." The NFPC 1975 House of Delegates have designed a new direction, namely to act upon a concrete policy for National participation and political action. Furthem10re, the unanimous decision by the House of Delegates to restore the position of Director, Ministry for Justice and Peace, is a clear sign of a Jong-term commitment to work for justice. This objective demonstrates an understanding of the principle if we want peace in our world let us work for justice. Directorship will demand a permanent and difficult commitment. By the nature of injustice, this position will necessitate speaking to and working with Federal and local government. POLITICAL LOBBY

The Church's action for Liberty and Justice cannot be separated from the activity of government (or Church's Sacramental life). We must analyze, question legislative bills and support legislative action. Bishop Don Helda Camara pointed out the false attitude of separation, which is prevalent in the United States. It is foolish to think that Church and State a.¡e separated when both institutions exist for the common good. The church does not desire to form its own poli ti cal party, but the magisterium f01ms consciences of men and women about their rights and the obligations we have toward aJJ men. Furthe>more, the church instructs her faithful to act on behalf of justice. She motivates her membership to respond to the needs of people and often this commitment draws one to government policy or action. The NFPC's directives to the Ministry for Justice and Peace imply direct and concrete steps to accomplish these ends. "That every local priests' council develop a telephone and mailing network of priests, by persons and parish councils which wiJJ be activated on specifie legislative issues relative to hunger and other world resources issues and that these local networks be facilitated by the Director and that this be his highest priority." This political lobby is first and foremost to educate people to be aware of justice issues and secondly to inform govern-


176

CHICAGO STUDIES

ment leaders of attitudes. Too often, business and military lobbyists have influenced legislators for their special interests. Thus, new legislation has been stopped, shelved or reformed to suit the needs of special gJ."OUps, while rights of the cornmon man have not been fully protected. In order to respond as fully and effectively, the Director, Ministry for Justice and Peace, must rely on many religions and secular organizations as weil as congressional leaders for information and direction. In 1975, Congressmen submitted 500 energy bills-nearly one for each Senator and Representative--but no conclusive action has been taken. It is impossible for special Congressional Committees to stay abreast with this deluge. It is imperative then for the Director to "use relevant national organizations. Through these organizations, priests and local councils may be educated to the national legislative issues related to the sharing of the world's resources. Then informed steps must be undertaken and legislators and national leaders urged to act on issues of world hunger and the maldistribution of the world's resources." (NFPC Resolution). The Frienrls' Committee on National Legislation (FCNL), 245 Second Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20002 and Network (224 D Street, SE) Washington, D.C. 20003 are two watchdog organizations of special assistance. NATIONAL STRATEGY

Perhaps the most awesome request rests upon NFPC Executive Board, through its committee for Justice and Peace. The House of Delegates have asked that this committee "work for the creation of a National Catholic Strategy on issues of World Justice and Peace and the distribution of world resources." This decision goes far beyond discussion and general reading of Church documents, which we are ali capable of doing. Unfortunately, too many people stop at the awareness leve!. The committee will have a gigantic task to establish a National Catholic strategy, which will demand concrete planned action. I wonder if the NFPC Committee for Justice and Peace is structured to accomplish this desirable goal? At the Florida Convention, jokingly someone reminded the group that the 1974 Resolution for impeachment of the President was fui-


DEPRIVED

177

filled! Also, the program "World without \Var" can justify their work and ex penses a great deal more! lt is of grave importance th at a National Catholic Strategy be created. We belong to a universal church. She is shedding her western character each day. Therefore, it is important, as the 197,1 Synod demonstrated, that the national church develop not so much a global character but rather an interdependent character which will clarify her presence as the universa! sign of salvation. Not only the American church's liturgy but also her theology and her active !ife must reflect her unique aspirations. The African Church will have different values, but together each cultural church group will be working for justice based on the dignity of ali men. The interaction of national churches must formulate a true apostolic response which these times demand for a just distribution of world goods. The words of one people to another can help us ali; such as, "We don't want your trade, we want your justice." Recent revelations of illegal, improper or at !east questionable use of corporate funds to influence government decisions are not a thing of the past. The $1.25 million bribe from United Brands Company to an Honduran official, payment by Gulf Oil Corporation to South Korean President Park's political party and more payoffs to Latin American Officiais, Exxon's contribution to Canadian and Italian political parties, disclosures of graft and "agents' fees" paid by companies doing business in the Middle East or Africa, the death sentence of a Soviet Official for taking $500,000 in bribes from a Western Company-these add up to a sobering picture of influence buying on an international scale. These current events point up the need to set and enforce ethical standards that extend on a global scale. A National Catholic strategy would move on these issues. At the same time Senators, who began hearings in May on U.S. law that would prohibit unjust practices either by business or government, could be helped. A strategy would give guidelines to American officiais who seem at present to be working in an ethically murky international climate. Pope Paul VI warned the world severa! years ago of these present abuses: "Under the driving force of new systems of production national frontiers are breaking down, and we can


178

CHICAGO STUDIES

see new economie powers emerging, the multi-national enterprises, which by the concentration and flexibility of their means can conduct autonomous strategies which are largely independent of the national powers and therefore not subject to controis from the point of view of the common good. By extending their activities, these private organizations can lead to a new and abusive form of economie domination on the social scale, cultural and even political leve!. The excessive concentration of means and powers that Pope Pius XI already condemned on the fortieth anniversary of Rerum Novar-um is taking on a new and very real image." (#44 p. 27 "A Cali to Action") INTERNATIONAL ACTION

The Director, Ministry for Justice and Peace, should establish contact with various segments of the United Nations. There are hundreds of UN non-government organizations (NGO), such as Mary knoll, which will be willing to share important decisions by United Nations members and conferences. United Nations' proposais and decisions can be studied through publications from office of Public Information, United Nations, New York. Many multilateral proposais at the world body will educate Americans toward global consciousness and international understanding, which are prerequisites for local and national action. To effectively work at the Federal leve!, Americans must understand the attitudes and values of the international community. We must listen to the voices of foreign peoples, different ideologies and economie principles. If we do listen, our actions for justice at the government, church and school levels will be far more balanced and comprehensive. EDUCATION FOR NEW VALUES

The quest for Liberty and Justice supports a new global consciousness and a renewal of social values, based on the Gospel. The delegates of NFPC "believe an educational process should include ali the clergy and bishops, priest and deaconsand then spread to the entire faith community. Workshops f01med by local tearns should be initiated to encourage per-


OEPRIVED

179

sonal sensitivity to liberty and justice, as weil as providing tools for education to Justice." The 1971 Synods' Justice in the Wm¡ld said that education is "christians' specifie contribution to justice." In sorne areas this educational process has begun. A January Workshop in Boston this year was attended by ninety priests, seminarians and religious. Father Peter Henriot, S.J. (Center for Concern), Father Thomas Grannel, SS.CC., and Father Anthony Bellagamba (Mission Cou neil, Washington, D.C.) concerned themselves with "Evangelizing the EvangeiJizers." Seminary courses are offered by Father Bryan Hehir on Justice and Peace to seminarians and to clergy. Father Hehir is Director of U.S.C.C. division of Justice and Peace. His office has produced two fine educational pieces; "Jus ti ce in World" (1973) and "Human Rights, Questions of Conscience" (1974) (Division of Justice and Peace, United States CathoIic Conference, 1312 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005). In St. Louis, Mr. James B. McGinnis has compiled a manual for teachers entitled "Education for Peace and Justice." In Cleveland, Father Gilbert 1. Sheldon has developed a mission awareness packet Ch>~stian Wo.-ld Awareness Kit. Orbis Books, Maryknoll, New York, has just released Education [or Justice, a fine resource manual for clergy, religious and teachers. llianuals of this nature assist one to develop his own thrust to educate for Justice and Peace. These manuals offer listings of many agencies committed to Justice education and to social as weil as political action. Value clarification and attitudinal change are the core of this educational process. Already there are encouraging efforts underway in the field of public education across our nation. Concern with children's moral development is rapidly appearing in American school systems. Schools are emphasizing ways to help students define their own values and choose between competing values. According to Christmn Schience Monitor and the New York Times such approaches are booming. One theory sees a pattern of growth from making decisions simply on what will please parents or other authority through varions stages to a recognition of and adherence to universal


180

CHICAGO STUDIES

principles. Another perceives that even a very young child can see the real point of doing the right things. In my course, "Developing Nations, Their Values and Ours," at Boston College, I begin my curriculum with four two-hour sessions on the students' attitudes as westerners, capitalist, Americans and Christians. People are faithful to their environmental development! Through design exercises and reflections, students clarify their attitudes and values. Awarensss of our ethnocentrism is a healthy start to begin the process of sensitizing ourselves to the political, social and economie values and attitudes of other people. SIGN MAKERS

The three hundred delegates of NFPC pledged ten per cent of their gross income for one year to the hungry of the world. Furthermore, they called upon the senators and board members of councils as well as their constituents, to give 10 per cent of their gross incomes. If the funds are utilized effectively, this financial pledge can have important results. There are three areas of importance: direct aid to developing people, educational materials and help to lobbyist groups, such as Bread for the World (602 East Nin th Street, New York 10009). The latter is an ecumenical lobbyist group urging food aid to be administered under strictly humanitarian terms. As Bread for the World pointed out, the countries being considered for the biggest increase in food aid are South Korea, Egypt and Chile, which would receive a combined increase of $161 million in political food aid. By contrast, India and Bangladesh would receive $171 million in increases, or a total of Jess than 1 million tons of grain-far short of the 5.3 million additional tons which the U.N. Food and Agricultural Organization estimates that they need. Lobbyists of this calibre need our support to confront people who understand our food resources as a "weapon in our diplomacy kit." Our charitable contributions can and should work for just change. The delegates' pledge is a concrete sign that recognizes "the process of liberation must begin with ourselves." Our attitudes, lifestyle and actions demonstrate a persona! commit-


DEPRIVED

181

ment as weil as a sign of solidarity with marginal peoples at home and abroad. Basically, it is a belief that a profound conversion from one set of values to another will be required if global injustice is to be redressed. Professional behavior and persona! patterns of living must see deep-rooted change. As the "Statement of Conscience" by Christi ans and J ews at Aspen, Colorado, stated, "Payment must be made in the coin of one's own person." The urgent cali to persona! reflection and direct action was endorsed by Pope Paul's Apostolic Letter to Cardinal Roy. "Let each examine himself, to see what he has done up to now, and what he ought to do. It is not enough to recall principles, state intentions, point to crying injustices and utter prophetie denonciations; these words will lack real weight unless they are accompanied for each individual by a livelier awarencss of persona! responsibility and effective action." It is then the central mle of church people to understand the questions of global injustice in terms of their persona! !ines. It is a telling aspect of their spirituality. From our religious tradition, we must discover our clarifications, our admonitions and our visions upon which a new social covenant among all men and women may be basee!. The commitment by the Priests' Federation is not only on a short term basis to bring immediate aid to the oppressee! in Bangladesh, etc., but also to labor toward the creation of global structures which will insure basic dignity and human rights for all people. This means standing up to the present structm¡es of society which prevent the kingdom of peace with justice from breaking in. This is at the heart of the challenge "to give of our substance rather than of our surplus." This clear trumpet signal to act must be heard again and again because our society has been hem¡ing far too many bugles playing marching songs for two centuries. In his article, "After 200 years-What is America?" William H. Stringer asked the following questions ( Ch?-istian Science Monitor, p. 31, 4/4/75): "How are we maintaining our foreign policy and its basic mix of military, humanitarian, economie and diplomatie factors? Do we still have a sense of mission to our nations?" Mr. Stl¡inger continues with two final questions, "Again is there such a thing as the 'American


182

CHICAGO STUDIES

Character'? If so, what part have our families, our schools, our churches and our communities played in developing that character?" The National Priests' Federation established a role for themselves in the question of world resources. They will make a small contribution now. In time their persona] witness, education processes and political involvement could be a rather substantial contribution to develop that "American Character" as we begin our third century as a nation. At the same time, what is greatly needed by our foreign policy makers is more candor and openness. The President and his Secretary of State must not hesitate to tell the public the truth. The American people must be constantly inforrriing these leaders of their vision. Sorne years ago, six Aymara children of Peru peered through a restaurant window where I and four Americans ate supper. They gestured with their hands for food. I went to the door and passed out the bread from my table. They tore at the bread as though it was their first meal. My action was charity. On the next day, they were stiJl hungry and standing at the win dow. Wh en will we reconcile ourselves with these people? Prophetically, Ma1¡tin Luther King said in his Nobel Peace acceptance speech-¡"I believe that wounded justice, can be lifted from the dust of shame to reign supreme among the children of men." On the day, wounded justice is healed, the crisis of reconciliation will be history. To fulfill these aspirations, each person has a right and a duty to contribute. At the same time, the American Church must continue to develop her organizational structures to assure that justice issues are properly dealt with. Furthermore, the Church should foster a National Strategy for concrete action. Thirdly, the American Church needs a stronger presence in Washington, D.C. and at tlle United Na ti ons Plaza to adequately counsel proposais and respond to decisions that effect tlle flow of resources and the process of true development. Hopefully the American Bishops' bicentennial program "Liberty and Justice for Ali" will bolster this quest on behalf of ali Americans.


Donald L. Allen, M.M.

Distribution of World Resources: An Educalional Approach The annual income for two-thÚ¡ds of the world's inhabitants is $200 or less. The au thor describes an ingeniou.s method by which each of us can get a feel for these impoverished neighborhoods in our global village.

Recent headlines or media-stories about hunger and starvation, the energy crisis and unsure supplies of basic non-renewable resources have left few of us with any doubt as to the critical straits which we, as a global society, find ourselves attempting to manoeuvre through at present. We fee! a sense of confused urgency about truly discerning the breadth and scope of problems which beset us and an uneasy or unwelcome powerlessness in attempting to fashion an appropriate response as Catholic Christians. There can be no doubt of the fact that a fiscal and resource imbalance exists in our world today that is both frightening and discouraging. If the gap between the "haves" and the "have-nots" continues to accelerate in an adverse manner, how shall there ever exist the justice and peace that sa many cali for so eloquently? We find a growing minority of people in the world, and often in each nation, controlling a larger and growing share of the wealth and resources, the means for a deeent and dignified !ife for us ali. There are elites in each country and corporate executives on interlocking directorates who together preside over an international economie hegemony de183


184

CHICAGO STUDIES

ciding the lives and destinies of millions. Pope Paul VI has condemned the motivation and effects of "the international imperialism of money." Such a system, as it is presently operative, seems by the very structure of its b¡ade procedures and regulations to keep the rich richer and the poor poorer. The mine workers and peasant farmers of the Third World get nowhere near their just earnings from their work as compared with the bigger stockholders of the companies they ultimately work for. We need only research the priee and wage scales meted out to people in sales, distribution and production in relation to their work input for any major imported commodity to see this clearly. Coffee is a good example. The urgency and perversity of our current world situation is weil mirrored and underscored in many recent Church and United Nation's documents with a view to reversing such an order. Popes Jolm and Paul, Vatican Il, the Synod of Bishops and the United States Hierarchy have pointed most emphatically and persuasively at the horrid and debilitating condition of our world and the majority of the human family. They have equally and courageously called for thorough and constant action on the part of ali Catholics and men of good will to offer sound correctives to a truly horrendous situation which envelops ali too many. Our world, even based on a mildly positive assessment, cornes off as radically at odds with the vision of creation and human stewardship which is given us in Genesis. Ali too many people have selectively and conveniently taken to heart the biblical imperative to "subdue and conquer" creation while blocking out the rest of the message of sharing, seeking the common good and social justice which are validly and equally present in Scripture. The present human condition of most persons who are underdeveloped resulta in large part from maltreatment at the hand of their fellows and is truly a perversion of the order intended by God, the Creator. Let us listen to words of an eloquent Catholic African statesman in this regard : "For the present condition of men must be unacceptable to ali who think of an individual person as a unique creation of a living God. We say man was created in the image of God. I refuse to imagine a God who is poor, ignorant, superstitions, fearful, oppressed, wretched-which is the lot of the majority


WORLD

185

of those he created in His own image. Men are creators of themselves and their conditions, but under present conditions we are creatures, not of God, but of our fellow men." (From "Division is the Problem of the Third World," Julius K. Nyerere, President of the United Republic of Tanzania, October 16, 1970). From an address given to the Maryknoll Sisters at their Headquarters at Maryknoll, NY on the above-mentioned date. THE UNITED NATIONS

Severa! important U.N. documents also keenly presuppose such an intolerable situation and have envisioned mechanisms to begin to right the situation. The U.N. people who drafted these documents and programs perceive the need for a new balance of economie power in the world and a superior, more just distribution of world resources if the lot of humanity, malnourished and maldeveloped, would change for the better. They have come up with an ambitions and thorough program or plan of action, including preferential trade agreements in favor of the poor or underdeveloped countries, often victims of one-crop economies. Ali of this has not just come to light, either, as can be seen in the fact that a special U.N. Committee bas recently reviewed the "International Development Strategy for the Second U.N. Development Decade." In the last year, three other significant documents which were passed by wide majorities of the 138 member States in the U.N. were also adopted. They are Declaration and Progmmme of Action on the Establwhment of a Ne1V International Economie Ordm¡,-(6th Special Session-Spring, 1974), Charter of Economie Rights and Duties of States, (29th General Session 1974), and The United Nations' l ndustrial Developrnent Organization' s Declaration and Plan of Action on lndustrial Development and Cooperation, (Lima, Peru-March, 1975). The United States was the only nation to vote against the last document. These ecclesial and U.N. Documents represent a growing awareness of the problematic and the on-going attempts of two parallel world-wide authoi"itative bodies to articulate feasible modes of response. Their combined impact cornes across as rather impressive and a cause of hope.


186

CHICAGO STUDIES

THE CHRISTIAN CONSCIENCE

For us who are truly western white Christians, however, there seems to be an added burden of responsibility to act and incarnate the moral and economie imperatives of these documents and the life-giving vision which they embody. The uncomfortable facts of history and power allow us no other choice. The "white man's bm¡den" has not been abrogated, but rathet: it has ironically been reversed: Whether we like it or not, the chips of power lie uneasily in the Caucasian lap. If the rifts and division of a global society seeking peace are to find mending, a great deal of initiative must be forthcoming from none other than ourselves who dare cali ourselves Christian. Let us again hear the prophetie words of a Christian leader of a truly underdeveloped and exploited country. Mr. Nyerere offers a challenge we must take to heart. "So the world is not one. Its peoples are more divided now and also more conscious of their divisions than they have ever been. They are divided between those with power and those without power. They are divided between those who dominate and those who are dominated; between those who exploit and those who are exploited. And it is the minority which is weil fed, and the minority which has secured control over the world's wealth and over their fellow men. Further, in general, that minority is distinguished by the color of their skins and by their race. And the nations in which most of that minority of the world's people live have a further distinguishing characteristic-their adoption of the Christian religion. "These things cannot continue, and Christians, above ali others, must refuse to accept them. For the deve\opment of man and the development of peoples demand that the world shall become one and that social justice shall replace the present oppressions¡ and inequalities." (President Julius Nyerere, Division is the Problem of the Third World, October 16, 1970). In our theological reflection of late we have come to realize that at the root cause of this situation lies not only persona! greed and sin, but also social sin. Many of the structures and institutions which perpetuate such a system can be implicated and coiltrlbuting to "institutionalized violence" which is more ¡subtle than bloody violence, but none-the-Jess effective in a


WORLD

187

smouldering, pervasive fashion. Our response as clergy, l"eligious and educators must take the shape of a ministry whose fabric is woven with the thread of reconciliation and the eut of justice. To fashion such a ministry effectively is no small task, but weil worth the effort. The fa th ers of the Roman Synod, 1971 really leave us no choice; they offer us a rich, powerful analysis expressing the core of being Church and minister of the Gospel in a way that directly confronts the situation of the world th us far described. "Action on behalf of justice and participation to the transformation of the world fully appear to us as a constitutive dimension of the preaching of the Gospel, or, in other words, of the Church's mission for the redemption of the human race and its liberation from every oppressive situation." (Justice in the World~Synod, 1971). Roman ·documents do not use the word constitutive about the Church in a light or trifling manner. We can, therefore, say that where such action on behalf of justice, etc., is not present i11 the Church, the Cburch to that degree Jacks a basic element. This also means that this concern must pervade the faith lifè of ali Catholics and especially ·th ose who are educators and leaders in the Church. How clearly do we find this concern reflected in our cm·ricula? How much is justice and this social teaching of the Church truly present in our Catholic Schools and classrooms? Such questions should be of growing concern for ali of us who bear responsibility for the growth and formation of the Church in the modern world. Our Catholic heritage of social teaching is one laboriously developed which we can be proud of and ought be fully aware of. From the Gospel and our social teaching, we seek the ci>mmon good, fullness of !ife, dignity and respect for ail. We have a message of justice, peace and development for ali. These documents and values need ever so much more to take on flesh and blood in our struggles arid endeavors to touch the lives of many so that their valid.ity be seen and their credibility be renewed. Our educational ministry must be thoroughly suffused by our social teaching anrl refurbished sa as to do so adequately. The Synod of 1971 calls ror a new world order and the Christian education of a "new man" to construct such.


188

CHICAGO STUDIES

In the light of ali that we have dealt with th us far, how can we best respond to such a challenge? We must obviously, utilize the fine material and methods that have been developed in the Church of the United States and yet move on as weil. We must have a content and methodology which is both adequate, precise and capable of effecting people on a fundamental leve! of values and patterns of action. Such an educational task is of no mean order . A problem ¡we ali encounter is that we are ali, at times, victims of the knowledg'e explosion, inundated with facts and figures about people and the world situation which are ultimately hard to fee! or fathom. We fail to respond, often, because we don't know how. The complexity of our interconnected world tends to overwhelm us as individuals. As Church, we can be many and do much. AN EDUCATIONAL APPROACH

We need an educational approach which is more total and ali encompassing with regard the world or any situation in it. We need to approach the world with our whole person as we try to comprehend it. Fortunately, a new style of educational process which does offer such advantages has been developed and has been used with great success. We do learn best from our own experience in !ife if we reflect on it, and perhaps, gain more insight if our reflection is guided by another pet-son. An educational style called process or experiential learning has been developed to facilitate just such a method. It bases itself on the above-stated premise of human learning anrl involves the learner more totally, intellectually, emotionally and volitionally. Many educational psychologists have found this to be the most effective educational method to cause attitudinal change. It thus effects values and the decisions and actions resulting from them. One of the basic tools of this new approach is the simulation design or game. With such techniques, you can take any construct of reality and the world, take the component parts desired and develop them into a simulation of reality in microcosm. This technique is capable of being used in a great variety of ways and tends to revolutionize educational processes in a very


WORLD

189

positive way. A basic awareness of the rudiments of group dynamics and an educational go.al are ali that are required fm· even sorne of the more complex designs. Sorne are more structured than others, but ali presuppose the same style and dynamics. ~ "We define simulation games as attempts to devise an environment for participants or players that they would' not ordinarily experience--an environment that abstracts from reality those social, economie ·or political phenomena that together make up a complex and sometimes confusing sitùation, but when reduced by simulation, become comprehensible, revealing and educational in the b1·oadest sense." (Philip H. Gillispie, Learning Th?"ough Simulation Games, Paulist Press, NY, 1973, p. 3)

Thus, we seem to have an educational tool which does fit our needs. An instance of this method which has been found 'tried and true in terms of moving people to conscientization with regard to distribution of world resources will be given below. lt may seem quite complex, but if we work at it, it becomes rather easy and enjoyable. Each one becomes a learner at his or her own pace in such a set-up. THE GLOBAL VILLAGE

A tine and effective mode!- of· process-educational style which has met with great success over the past tive years is the' simulation design of the Global Village. This was constructed by a group of Maryknoll Priests involved in mission education with a view to enabling the participants in the game to gain a new global overview and to help them fee! the.facts and figures of economie imbalance by having to deal with them in mic1·ocosm. We have found it to be penètrating in terms of its message, exciting and refreshing for the_ participants, and enjoyable to facilitate.- One added attractive dimension to such a mode of educational process is that it is very creative, allows ever new insights and will never be the same. in two cases. It will be important to.. fully comprehend the methodology and the dynamics of this simulation technique so às to be comfortable with it-.and to utilize it to the full. I will, therefore, attempt a rough sketch of these, hopefully eschewing the tone and: ponderousness of a dry teach(lrs' man ua!.


190

CHICAGO STUDIES

The role of the person (s) conducting the game is mostly one of facilitator who sets up the structure and process of the Global Village, allows it to play itself out in the accorded time, and then steps in for the proper debriefing. He does not involve himself in a controlling way throughout at ali; he is basically facilitating a learning process for ali in a vm¡iety of ways through the duration of the exercise. The structure of the game affords everyone a role and a distinct learning position if everyone works at it to the full together. The facilitator has to have the sensitivity and perceptiveness to orchestrate the simulation itself, and especially the debriefing in order to extract the insights and feeling of each participant so that the .whole group benefits from the unique educational experience of each one and thus learns maximally from such a world in microcosm. There is a very helpful procedure to be aware of and follow in the successive stages of the simulation design which helps order the process and gives the participants a sense of direction. This is best and most simply stated as the acronymn E I A G A, which stands for the following steps : Experience: this is the actual simulation design itself, the role playing. ldentify: this is the first step in debrietlng. What is called for here is an attempt to identify clearly the feelings of the 'participants during their role playing. As we shall see from our next step, rational analysis should be avoided here. When feelings are expressed, it should be determined what it was in the game that surfaced them. Why is an important word at this point, and it should be used as often as necessary. Analyse: here the facilitator moves the group to analysis of what took place and why within the dynamics of the game. The analysis should be done sequentially from beginning, to mid-point, to the end of the game. Replays, however, are not allowed; the game has ended. Generalize: now the ali-important question is addressed of how real the game was and in what ways it corresponded to the real world; the more coricrete the responses given at this point the better. A mosaic of examples can gradually be developed for a total picture. Act: from what they have learned in the game is there


191

WORLD

something the participants want to do, something they can do? Is there sorne action they want to take? THE GLOBAL VILLAGE SIMULATION GAME NEEDED MATERIALS:

Time--2 hours (minimum) Participants-40 (roughly) An adequate room with a table mid sorne chairs Almanacs or information cards ¡ Marker pens in three colors (2 each of red, bl11ck & brown) Name tags of countries or of Regional Areas-(to be gjven out according to role for easy identification.) Food (to be discussed in detaillater.) INTRODUCTION TO A SIMULATION DESIGN

A brief overall sketch of the human landscape and striking features of our Global Village may be helpful. The term GLOBAL VILLAGE seems to have been coined first by Marshall McLuhan to point to the fact and growing condition of being a global human fainily caught up in a village-style of !ife. We are no longer cohabitors of the planet living at great distances whose futures are not connecte<!. Many salient features of the !ife of an extended village community are rapidly becoming common-place characteristics of mankind on Space-Ship EARTH in 1975. We have only to look at the three important areas of travel, trade, and communication that touch our lives so pervasively and compare them consequently with those of our forebears in the world of one hundred ¡years ago to perceive a radical change. There has been a change basically in the mode and patterns of our relating with ourselves and being available to one another in our shared village home whlch becomes even more complex and eludes none alive in the world. We share now a simultaneous history, but the reality of the Global Village is not homo.geneous; indeed there are severa! levels to this reality. It might almost be said that a gjant spider web with ali its intricacies and complexity might pass as a near accu rate sociogram for the human race as we become ineluctably the Global Village. Let us look at travel, trade and communication to find sorne examples of this phenomenon.


192

CHICAGO STUDIES

TRAVEL

Most of the vehicles that have changed the speed and modes of our tt·avel-car, truck, prop-plane, jet, rocket-have been developed in this century. The train and sailing ships have be~n streamlined and modernized and have become faster and more efficient. The number of these and the volume of people they can move which would startle the people of 1875, effect mobility to the point where we cim experience something like futureshock at.times. A.,good example of contact in this regard is fu point out that today we cau not only go around the w·orld in Jess thau 24 hours in an SST, but go to the moon as weil in severa! da ys. Just four centuries ago, it took Magellan and his crew roughly 18 months to go around the world; indeed an amazing rate of acceleration. TRADE

We, as citizens of the Global Village, do still live in nationstates but with a transnational global economy. No nation on earth today is self-sufficient or can afford to be independent with regard to imports or exports. The industrialized nations need raw materials and the developing nations need finished products. We in the United States import a large volume of ali sorts of goods lacking to our own natural resources in arder to keep up our present standard of living. The energy crisis has made us painfully aware that we impm:t a good deal of ail. Sorne other products we Jack and use often are coffee, tea, cocoa, bananas, chrome and tin. The market place of any large village with its sundry ·goods and services available with a variety of kinds of payment seems not too remote an example, mutatis· mutandis, of our present world economy. Our global systems of banking should be a clear sign_ of an international situation in fact. COMMUNICATION

This area is most important and qui te pervasive in its effects. The means and methods of communication developed· in this century have had and do have the most powerful effect on the reality of the Global Village. We now have the radio, telephone,


WORLD

193

telegraph, television, tel-star, movies, and many sophisticated refinements of these as a developing nerve-communications system of the world. None of these existed in 1875. We also have a whole new world of instant electronic lmowledge and analysis in the computer and its adjuncts which have profoundly affected our lives stibtlely but sm路ely. We watch a T.V. program broadcast "live" from China or the Mid-East via TelStar. We talk clearly and directly by phone from New York or Los Angeles to Hong Kong or to Buenos Aires, and we have come to do both in a rather matter-of-fact manner. What has this communications' explosion done to ail of us, our concepts of the world and of one anothei路? lt is profitable to rellect on the consequences of such media. POPULATION AND RESOURCES

Today in our Global Village, we riumber roughly four billion people with expectations for seven or eight billion by the year 2000. Out of this, we in the United States number 215 million people; we are only six percent of the world's population, and yet, we use or consume about forty percent of the world's resources perannum. In the United States in 1974, the average income per person, according to government statistics, was $5,200. For the same year, the average income for roughly two-thirds of mankind was $200 per person or Jess. Such figures are symptomatic of something deeper and quite clearly manifest the contrast and imbalance of which we speak. There are yet other main features of the world today that merit our attention as symptomatic of our condition and our real priorities. While the world has not become smaller in size, we, as a living community, have become ever closer, so that our路 destinies are interconnected in a linked and limited world in terms of its space and resources. As a sign of the questionable priorities of those in power on Planet Earth, we find our nations heavily armed. In 1974, the nations of the world spend roughly three hundred billion路 dollars on armaments and defense. The combined power of ail the world's nuclear and conventional arros is the equivalent of 15 tons of T.N.'f. for every person on earth, according to U.N.


194

CHICAGO STUDIES

statistics..What priee over-kill? And, as a final note of irony with regard to priorities, it seems perverse to realize that our Defense Department outspends the entire U.N. World Food Program's budget every 14 hours. We thus find our world radically full of inequity in terms of power and resources which translate practically into the means and stuff of !ife. In terms of controlling factors in the history behind much of this, it is germane to our overview here to realize that ali of the developing nations, save Thailand and Japan, (rather developed now), were colonies of European powers. What does this mean for these newly-independent countries and ali mankind politically and economically? lt is a point weil worth pondering. With the grayish hue of complexity casting its influence upon ali the world's parts, how could we expect it to avoid coloring our total world-view? And i t has do ne so in su ch an effective way that it is not at ali unseemly to ask, "How many worlds in the one globe have we?" The roots of such analysis harken back to the post-W orld War Il era when the leading political and economie thinkers of the West detected a new order of three worlds-in-one emerging, based precisely on differences of politics and economies. We can now point proudly to roughly six-in-one, thanks to progress or sorne such thing, without knowing when the proliferation might stop. We could cali these six worlds-in-one the six most distinguishable sections or neighborhoods of our Global Village. Let us now move to examine these neighborhoods. SIX NEIGHBORHOODS

The First World is the capitalist, democratie West: The United States, Canada, Western Europe (NATO) and now Japan, Australia and New Zealand. Ali are mostly industrialized and developed. The Second World is the Eastern Bloc (Warsaw Pact) U.S.S.R., and Eastern Europe. These countries are industriallized, developed, and socialist/Communist. The Third World is composed of Africa, Latin America and Asia--underdeveloped or developing nations with a spectrum of political and economie styles. They have elite groups among


195

WORLD

them in each country who are wealthy and usually in power. The Fourth World can be located in each of the three major ones. The unfortunate inhabitants of it are the most helpless, oppressed peoples in their part of the world : these are the migrant workers, Appalachia, deprived minorities, poor-aged: of the first world, Soviet J ews and political dissenters of the second world, the victims of drought or famine (Sahel, Bengaledesh) in the third world, the victims of natural disaster anywhere. In the Fifth World we find the newly oil-rich OPEC nations: the Arabs, Nigeria and Venezuela. They come from the Third World and have much new money, but nationally they have not arrived at a total integrated development program. The Sixth World is the latest development of a distinct grouping. It representa India and China, both Asian, nuclear powers and neighbors, and the two most populous nations in the wol"ld. It is interesting to contrast the wealth and resources of these "neighborhoods" with their populations. In the first two worlds (mostly the northern hemisphere), we have about 20 percent of the world's population (on a downward trend). and yet, this samc sector has control over about 80 percent of the world's wealth and resources. For the Third World, the case is just the opposite. It has 80 percent of the world's people (moving toward 85 percent), and yet controls only about onefifth of the world's resources. This living inverse ratio seems indeed volatile, to say the very least. To grasp what four billion people are like and what such a figure means is weil nigh impossible for most of us; but happily there is a way of making this statistic manageable. If the world population consisted of just 1,000 people, they would be distributed across the continents in the following way: North America South America Africa Asia Europe

68 72 85 565 210

(United States 60)

(lncludes European Russia)

SIMULATING A GLOBAL VILLAGE OF FORTY

Now we must make a critical shift. A simulation game with


196

CHICAGO STUDIES

1,000 participants is impossible; and so we will reduce the number to forty. (The game may be played by adults or even by eighth graders; the present version is intended for adults.) The facilitator now introduces the concept and style of simulation very concretely. ¡ He may almost have to assume the posture of a coach at a chalk-talk. One way of approaching it might be the following: "We are finally going to move now to the actual simulation of the Global Village itself. 1 hope that the introduction thus far will have been helpful. You now, as a group, are going to have to work hard at assuming a new identity in arder for it to work weil for ail. Y ou may be Indian, European, Russian or Arab: this will mean really trying to enter the world and actual mind-set of these people as best yon cau. It should, therefore, be obvious that your role is not that of an American tourist or volunteer at ali. I don't actually expect miracles or gifts of tangues; only a good acting job. And there is one further refinement to this, and that is that we have a penalty clause. If yon use they or them to refer to your people at ali, we'll have a surprise for yon. Clearly, then, we is the arder of the day in ali cases. Another point to remember is that when it cornes to acting, as yon will be doing, a good actor throws his ali into the part, whether or not the part is that attractive or acceptable to him. I will shortly give yon an identity then, and I want you to immediately reflect on what yon think or fee! it would be like to be that persan. Then I want yon who have common identities to get together to do sorne research in a brief way on your area of the world; yon will have ten minutes to do so. (At this point researched cards or World Almanacs should be provided: this research is only pro forma sin ce the game does not importantly depend on this information). "The point of this brainstorming together is to determine, from what yon can discern about your area, the three greatest needs, concerns or priorities of your people. I mean their needs and not an American's view of them. When the members of separate groups have heard one another out, we will meet together as the Global Village for the same purpose. After the simulation we will inove to the debriefing." At this point we must take a step backward to see how we


WORLD

197

arrange a group of forty people to represent the world in miniature. (The group may range from thirty-five to fortyfive persons; beyond those limits it becomes difficult to organ ize it effectively). Though it is not broken clown in perfect proportion the following example is offered as an effective and workable distribution of the forty participants. A GLOBAL VILLAGE OF FORTY PEOPLE

First World: there are world as one (If

Second World: Third World:

Fourth World:

Military

a) North America-U.S.A. and Canada 2 b) Western Europe 2 c) Japan, Australia, New Zeland 1 extra people, Israel may be put here in the first person). d) Third World elite i a) U.S.S.R. 2 b) Eastern Europe 1 a) Chinese People's Republic 9 b) India 6 c) Africa (non-Arab) 3 d) East Asia 3 e) Latin America 2 f) West Asia: (Bengaladesh, Pakistan and Afghanistan) 1 g) Oceania (Pacifie & Caribbean Islands (Territories) 1 h) Marginated Minorities of 1st World 1 i) Marginated Minorities of 2nd World 1 a) A rab Nations 1 (If there are extra people, make the number, 2. A somewhat aggressive ¡ person should play this part.) 3

The three reprsenting the milita1-y should be physically and psychologically apt for the part. They represent the military power of the World Powers and control the armaments of this world. They should be cautioned to use them in a restrained fashion. Each of the three Military get a red, black and brown marking pen. The black is used for arresting, the red for executing and the brown to symbolize death by famine. The


198

CHICAGO STUDIES

appropriate mark on the back of a participant's hand will send him off to jail for a few minutes or to the morgue. (Famine symbolically strikes ¡sorne of those who do not eat, in ln dia and Africa especially.) The Military's main function is to enforce the rules of the game and to maintain order. They should be cautioned to use their power discretely lest they remove too many of the game's participants. However, they may act and look as severe and authoritarian as they please. One of them may be placed in charge of the others. ASSIGNING IDENTITIES

The facilita tor should prepare the game materials (cards, almanacs, name tags, etc.,) and assign identities to the participants. He should then explain their various research projects, clarifying and helping where this is needed; it is important to have enough almanacs on hand for their use. The identity cards can be very helpful for the players as they struggle, sometimes "schizophrenically," with their new roles. The cards may be written in a personalized or more general style. An example of the "persona!" mode! for Latin America would be the following: "1 am Juan Lopez. 1 am married and have five children. My family and 1 live in a cardboard shack in a little mining town in Bolivia. 1 was able to go to school for only two years before my father died of tuberculosis, and 1 had to look for a job in the tin mines. 1 still work in the mines, making about $1 for ten hours of hard work. Usually, a man can work in the mines for only eight to ten years. Forty years of age is "old age" for me and my fellow workers. Two of my children have died, one in childbi rth and one soon after her tirst birthday. I guess 1 am poor because God made me that way. I don't know what to hope for." An example of the more generalized style for India would be: "Y ou represent a good number of people in the village. One out of five children dies in infancy. The average !ife expectancy is 32 to 40 years of age. Anywhere from 76 percent to 83 'percent of your people are unable to write. The average in come is around $90 a year which cornes down to about $.20 a day, which is not much to live on. People live in overcrowded


WORLD. · ·:

199

rooms with no Jess than two in a room. Education is important. However, it is not education as we know it, but rather education that can be used in the country, i.e., the use of the soi!, pesticides, fertilizers, etc. If the soi! will not produce the required crops, then disaster will come. Hunger will come, and people will move to the cities such as Calcutta, in the hope of doing better. "In Calcutta, there is one hospital bed for every 35,000. Two hundred thousand people sleep on the sidewalks at night, never having a home or a place to go. Three million people are out of work in the state. Even the water is bad; it is infected with 45 percent virus. And so, as an Indian, you wonder what can be done to improve your !ife." SET.TING UP A GLOBAL VILLAGE

\Vhen tlie' groups have done 'their ten minutes of research (more or Jess) they should brielly share what they have discovered with the whole group. (State-of-the-Union speeches should be discouraged) When this has been dorie, the facilitator can begin to set up the Global Village. The room represents the world and its limits; the participants cannot get off or out. Two-thirds of the room ought to be reserved for the powerful. If the 1·oom has a lighter or more comfortable section it should be used for this purpose, with two tables for the first two worlds. They are to have chairs and keep their tables relatively close. The Arabs (and Israel) have chairs near the tables but not at them. The people of the third world should be put closely together and be made to sit on the lloor or stand behind a row of chairs in their onethird of the room. They are not allowed to leave their area unless invited to do so by a power. The Milifury are free to go anywhere and should have a clearly designated jail and morgue. The people who have chairs are also allowed to have freedom of movement. It is wise to keep the military, in part, on patrol between the groups so as to be ready to deal with any problems. One important item to be brought in at this point is the food which, were it shared; would :provide something for everyone in the village. The Îacilitator should explain that


200

CHICAGO STUDIES

the food represents the resources and wealth of the world. Those with chairs could be supplied with donuts and coffee, potato chips, and soda, wine, cheese and crackers depending on age and drcumstances. They are allowed to eat after the facilitator has finished explaining the procedure and the game has begun. The Third World people should get a few cups of water and bread or fruit in a small amount. China gets a small amount of its own. Another critical rule is that ali those in the Third W orld, save China, must raise their hands and ask permission from someone seated at the table before they may speak internationally. This should be enforced rather strictly. The two groups should be roughly facing each other, and those seated may choose a chairperson if they so desire. There may still be more factors the facilitator may want to bring into play here. He may put the Amb (s) in control of the electricity in the room as a sign of energy power. It is very important that he exp lain ali of this carefully. The people in the chairs have the ability to move about and visit the other areas. The best dynamic of dialogue develops, however, when they ali stay in their respective places and try to accomplish the task set them. Since the discussion often tskes a while to get underway, the facilitator should be patient and intervene only if absolutely necessary. THE GOAL OF THE GAME

Once the game is ali set up, with rules, materials and setting, the facilitator should clearly explain their goal. Together, within the given structure, they must try to agree on the three basic needs or priorities of their Global Village over the next decade. They are not to look for problems or solutions but rather simply agree upon common needs. The facilitator should suggest that a group form of discussion will probably be most helpful. A time limit for this discussion should be set-half an hour to an hour is a realistic period. If there are no further questions from the participants, the facilitator should withdraw to the role of interested observer. He must not let¡ them depend upon him for anything at this point; they must make or break their own world on their own.


WORlD

201

His job now is to be a good observer and concentrate on the progress of the simulation. It is really best to have another person play this observer role ; when the game is over the person can take charge of the debriefing. One of the Military should keep everyone alerted to the clock and be sure the game ends on time. The facilitator should be prepared for a bit of "creative choas" or a taste of revolution now and again. With patience he will see that things have a way of working out. Any flareups are usually indicative of a mood or dynamic that is quite telling as to progress. If there are a few extra people around, they can be newspersonnel and report from the vantage point of the varions wor Ids. They can observe, but not interview du ring the ga me. They also can go to the jail and have a news conference anytime during the game when they can fit it in briefty. The news-people come to the fore mostly during the debriefing. That is when their insights are most valuable and helpful. If there are severa] more people, a fishbowl effect can be achieved with the whole group rather productively. When this is done, ali of them are to be brought in on the debriefing in an orderly fashion, and the more time it will require. If there is more than one person who will do the debriefing (E I A G A)-and only one should be in charge of it--then each might specialize in watching what is going on in a particular segment. of the world, and th en bring this knowledge to the debriefing. THE ACTUAL DEBRIEFING

When the time is up, the facilitator should cali a hait to the world that has been in motion and ask the participants to take seats. They should stay with their groupings. Jf there is food or drink enough left to share, they should be allowed to have sorne. It is good to have extra food on hand to provide for this. (It is quite effective to ask them not to eat before this exercise, no matter what the time of day. The food imbalance will help to provide a good scenario for dealing with the world hunger situation and can be planned accordingly.) It will take the participants a wh ile to come out of their role


202

CHICAGO STUDIES

playing, and the facilitator should allow for this, keeping any attempt at replay to a minimum. The difficulty they experience disengaging from their roles may indicate how thoroughly they entered into their parts. In case of aggravated or abrasive feelings, it may be helpful to let everyone know that for the most part they were chosen pu rely at random for a gi ven role and that things probably would not have been much different if the roles had been reversed. The facilitator should next exp lain the EIAGA process. N ow that they have been through the experience of the Global Village, they should try to identify their reactions on a feeling Jevel. For a time it is important to keep them on this leve! 1¡ather than allowing them to move on to analysis. The critical issues here are: what caused the ir feelings of reaction and why? The range of response will be extensive and it is helpful to record their impressions on a blackboard or newsprint for reference. This feeling leve] debriefing is actually the key to helping the participants empathize more fully with the people in the real world that they represented. The facilitator should take care in this process not to overlook anyone who participated in the game; he should try to get sorne small reaction from each one. W e next come to the analysis or his tory of the game. The comments of the facilita tors and news-people are of great value here, since they were somewhat removed from the "action." The central point here is to plot the history of the game as it took shape, highlighting the critical or turning points as the participants experience them. Very often the goal of the game--establishing priorities-will be only partially realized if at ali. Most likely the participants will have felt the difficulties that pointed to priorities but may not have been able to articulate them satisfactorily. The very structure of the game, and what it points to in the real world, is really the heart of the problem they have been wrestling with. This fact may be frustrating and untidy but only because it is ali too real. Generalizing is an extremely critical step in the debriefing process; here the players must determine to what extent their exeprience in the game corresponds to their knowledge of the real world. The facilitator must ask then what in their experience of the Global Village can be found in the world around


WORLD

203

them. Who are in power, what actions do they take, with what consequences for the world and for the game? Who controls trade, tariffs, priees, regulates money value and the flow of natural resources? Who in the game had control and what consequences did this have for ali? The facilitator can search out other related incidents or examples to amplify this part. The more examples put into an overview which the participants can come up with, the better. Their experience, thus far, should help a great deal here. The facilitator must be sure to allow enough time for this section. The final point of the debriefing is the question of action. Is there sorne action they wish to take because of something they have learned. The response to this question may be more difficult, but it should be dealt with as pragmatically as possible. They may want to study more, plan or write to politicians. The most important thing is to start to move to realistic planning for effective action for a Global Village of justice and peace in the future. BIBLIOGRAPHY

The two books listed below will be helpful both in terms of content and methodology in the general area of our concern in this article: 1. "Education for Justice" (a resource manual) Edited by Thomas P. Fenton, Orbis Books, Maryknoll, NY 10545 (1975). 2. "Learning Through Simulation Games," Philip H. Gillispie, Paulist Press, 400 Sette Drive, Paramus, NJ 07652 (1973).


Patrick H. O'NeiU, O.S.A.

Youth Ministry: A Work of Reconciliation Wlutt sort of world do our young people dwell in? What sort of rn¡iests and bishops will they listen to? What sort of parish will they belong to? T hese are the future questions the author explo1¡es. Change has become the dominant characteristic of American society during the era following the second world war, and it is a characteristic with which few Americans have yet become comfortable. Books such as Future Shock occasionally produce a short-lived concern for the effects of change. Like ali fads, they pass quickly, leaving most persons largely unconcerned with the future and unprepared to do more than react to changes as they occur. The experience of urban planning documents weld, not only the public's Jack of concern for the dynamics of change, but its insensitivity to the graduai changes which are constantly occurring. Change, however, is real and its impacts are tangible. It affects ali aspects of !ife. While change, in general, is inevitable, particular changes are ne ver inevitable; people can, through a process of anticipation, planning and execution, affect the dynamic of change. Sometimes this process can shape and alter the nature of the changes which occur; other times the process can lead to preparations which permit better adj ustments to th ose changes. The subject of change has a particular meaning for those who have a special concern for the fabric of human and social !ife in any society. Preparation for change and the manage205


CHICAGO STUDIES

ment of change are particularly important for those, such as ministers, who strive incessantly to improve the quality of human !ife. Thus it seems appropriate and important that we take stock of our situation, peer into its future, and prepare plans which will better enable us to meet our human commitments and achieve our goals in the years ahead, if we would effect reconciliation with our young. GENERAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC TRENDS

To round out the general picture, it is instructive to look at sorne of the trends which futurologists foresee affecting American society during the remainder of this century. The most startling single statistic is the increase that is going to come during this period in family income. Average family income in the United States today is just over $10,000 per year. By the turn of the century, the average family income will be approximately $40,000 per year. If cost of living increases at a pace during the next two years roughly equal to that of the last two decades (and that's an assumption that is as realistic as any other, this $40,000 family income will provide a purchasing power equal to a $30,000 income at the present time. In other words, by the tum of the century, average family purchasing power will increase approximately 200% over its current leve! ! Of course, such an increase is not going to happen overnight; it will occur gradual!y over the next 25 years. Just as family purchasing power increased gradually between 1950, when average family income was $3,300 per year, and 1970 when it reached the $10,000 mark. Such graduai change means that there is going to be a constant change in lifestyle in this country, a change marked by a significant increase in affluence, a significant charge in consumptive patterns, and a siguificant resulting change in popular values. One of the changes in lifestyle patterns will be a reduction in the length of the work week. By the turn of the century, sorne predict that the average work week will be eut as low as two days of work per week or perhaps 20 hours per week. That reduction may take severa! forms: a two or three day work week; annual vacations of four or five months; periodic


YOUTH

207

sabbaticals of a year or m01¡e in length; mu ch earlier retirement; or sorne combination of these alternatives. The key point to note is this: in the next 30 years, and for the first time in history, people are going to be relieved from dependence upon economie and materialistic considerations as the primary focal point around which they orient their lives. Sorne new consideration will have to evolve to serve this purpose. To effectively have ministry to and from the young demands a grasp of these emerging changes. Other aspects of lifestyles are also going to change. By the turn of the century, fo1¡ instance, the vast majority of people are going to be living in multi-family dwellings. Most cities are already experiencing years in which more dwelling units are being built in multiple than in single fa.nllly homes. By the turn of the century, the single family home is likely to be in the minority. Another interesting change will be a lengthening of the human life span. Physiologists tell us that by the turn of the century they expeet to solve the mystery of the aging process so that they will be able to retard physical aging for a not yet specified period of time. When this happens, it will have a tremendous impact upon lifestyles. Related to this, too, are the changes in demographie patterns. By the turn of the century, the persans born in the high birth rate, post war years will be turning toward old age and society may weil find itself with a rapidly increasing median age leve!. A time may come when the majority of society's members may weil be in the over 50 category. SOCIO¡PSYCHOLOGICAL TRENDS

In addition to these materialistic lifestyle trends, there are a number of persona!, psychological changes which are taking place. There is, for instance, an increasing tendency toward anonymity and a lessening of individuality and self-esteem. People are, in a very real way, losing their sense of persona! identity and, with it, their sense of persona! worth. Sorne commentators, for examp!e, argue that the present tendency taward public nudity is a reflection of a subconscious urge to destroy the last vestiges of persona! privacy along with the last


208

CHICAGO STUDIES

vestiges of persona! worth. "It does not make any difference what kind of a fool 1 make of myself because 1 am not an individual, but a part of a mob" is an increasingly prevalent attitude. The political systems as weil as the theological systems have to be concerned with this kind of development. Equally disturbing is the unrecognized fact that the leve! of ignorance in American society is rapidly increasing. This is true despite the increasing percentage of persons who are earning high school diplomas and college degrees. Education, after ali, is a relative phenomenon; the key facet of education is the relationship between the kinds of knowledge which an individual has attained and the leve! of knowledge and intellectual development which is required to adjust successfully to the society and environment in which that individual is functioning. While formai educational attainment by the average American is now rising dramatically, it is also becoming evident that the necessary leve! of attainment is increasing even more rapidly, leaving the typical American Jess and Jess capable of succesful adaptation to contemporary society. The widening gap between educational achievement and minimum requirements for education is a product of many forces, including the knowledge explosion, the increasing complexity of the American socio-economic system, and the b,-eakdown in the educational system itself. The educational system has processed more people through college, presumably taught them how to analyze problems in a rational manner and how to develop analytic capability, but it has failed to teach people how to adapt rational, analytic methodologies to everyday problem-solving. No observer of the contemporary American poli tical scene can fail to notice the extent to which political leaders, vote1-s, and commentators respond to problems and formulate their opinions on the basis of emotional rather than rational criteria. Any society which increasingly displaces reason with emotion is functioning on a tenuous basis. Finally, any assessment of future human lifestyles has to be concerned with what may weil be the most significant development of ali : the demise of social structure in American society. Social structure is a system of values, incentives, and sanctions by which individuals are encouraged to structure their behavior in a manner consistent with the welfare and


YOUTH

209

needs of other adjacent individuals and with the society as a whole. ln America, traditional sources of such structure are losing their influence. Gone or rapidly going, for instance, are the economie incentives and sanctions around which people ordered their lives, such as: the need to go to work, the need to engage in certain kinds of productive activities in order to maintain a desired leve! of material well-being. Gone is the role of government as an enforcer of morality-this is no longer considered an appropriate role for government. Further, government regulation is increasingly coming to be viewed as a game in which the payoff goes to the persons who successfully evade the regulations. Gone, too, is the notion of cultural sanctions. lt is no longer appropriate behavior to disapprove of the behavior of others-for the behavior of others is now solely a matter of individual choice. Unfortunately, American society is also losing organized religion in the sense that it, too, is being rejected as a source of guidelines for the structuring and ordering of individual behavior. Organized religion, like everything else, is losingand may already have lost-its ability to assert moral leadership in American society. In part, this is a consequence of the general societal rejection of any source of authority. In part, too, organized religion has yielded its leadership authority in its efforts to retain popular appeal. To sustain the institutional organization, churches must have a certain number of people in the pews on Sunday, and, to do this, the churches must engage in certain kinds of adaptive practices. In the process of adapting, of telling congregations what they want to hear, the churches compromise their ability to function as moral leaders. Thus, human behavior is no longer subject to its former leve! of conditioning by economie, governmental, or cultural forces in American society. B. F. Skinner sees this popular rejection of behavioral modifiers as a product of the struggle for self-government: "Because men govern themselves, they do not accept sanctions." In shott, we in American society have become a ruthless kind of people, believing in the necessity of self-government while pursuing ¡self-aggrandizement, while we rnaintain a decreasing sense ¡of responsibility to the society in which we live.


'21 0

CHICAGO STUDIES

As a result, we may very weil be losing our capacity to live as social beings in a society in which population density is constantly and alarmingly increasing. We must change to this reality. Viewing this situation with sorne concern, B. F. Skinner sees a need for "cultural designers" to develop more positive behavioral reinforcements, "I don't want a world with a behavioral scientist emerging as governor, priest, or educator, but I want to see these people in their positions use their power to do what they now do, but do it in a better way. The question "Are \Ve Free to Have a Future of Change" has two meanings. Are those of us who cali om¡selves free going to have a future; and that is the real problem. The solution cornes from recognizing the second meaning. Are we free to have a future or are we so committed to immediate gratifiers that we will never allow the redesign of our culture in such a way as to bring the future into account and make it effective." CHANGE AND THE RELIGIOUS MINISTRY

These prospective changes have a considerable number of ramifications for the religions ministry. I could not attempt to recount ali of these, but permit me to mention severa! that come readily to mind. First, and perhaps most obvious, is the future need for ministers: p1iests, lay and peer. Given past and future population projections, the seminaries currently serving our Dioceses ought to be experiencing peak enrollments if anything approaching the current ratio of priests to laypersans is to be maintained. Obviously these seminary enrollments are not there and, just as obviously, the priest-layperson ratio is going to change significantly. This fact alone will force, and is forcing, severe changes in relationships within the church and the systems used to deliver religions programs. We need effective lay and peer ministries. New service delivery systems will also have to be tailored for the new, emerging lifestyles. The weekend nomadismthe practice of spending weekends camping and at recreation homes-for instance, requires sorne new mechanism to reach people who are away from home and out of their familiar sur-


YOUTH

211

roundings. Organized religion has been very much a weekend activity; this was appropria te when people spent their weekends at home, but it will not suffice when an increasing number of people are away from home. New formats for religious¡ activity will have to be devised to reach such people. Another facet of the lifestyle that has meaning for organized religion is the increasing emphasis upon individuality and "doing your own thing." The result is an ever-widening scope of popular interests and preferences. Religious ministries must recognize this increasing heterogeneity of interests, and recognize also that persons of different interests cannot ali be reached with equal effectiveness by a standardized religions appeal-or influenced by a standardized format for religious services. To be effective, a religious appeal from any faith is going to have to be presented and practiced in a wide variety of formats. Larger urban centers will have an advantage in adapting to this demand, for different parishes will be able to adapt different formats, giving persans within an entire commuting radius a variety of parish and religious formats from which to choose and with which to identify. This, of course, might mean the end of the neighborhood parish as it has traditionally been known, but the viability of the neighborhood parish demands to be re-examinee! anyway as neighborhoods themselves decline in lifestyle influence. Religious ministries, too, must confront more clirectly icleological changes which are occurring along with lifestyle changes. For example, the continuous rise in affluence has been accompanied by a greater emphasis upon persona! cornfort as being an end in and for itself. Unfortunately, the pursuit of excellence and the pursuit of creature comforts are not compatible ends: the pursuit of excellence requires a degree of self-discipline and self-sacrifice that is not compatible with persona! comfort. The impact of the pm¡suit of comfort, leacling as it often does to an emphasis upon heclonism, presents certain philosophical, value-oriented problems for society, problems which moral, religious leaders must be prepared to confront. Finally, and most importantly, the religious ministries must strive to regain the initiative in the establishment of moral standards for American society. As Skinner has remarked, the


212

CHICAGO STUDIES

future becomes promising only to the extent that society can structure itself to prepare and respond to it. Traditional sources of moral-behavioral influence are being rejected. It is the responsibility of organized religion to reassert itself, to fill the void of playing a leadership role in helping society regain the sense of values and structure which it needs to survive under the stresses of urbanism, population density, and lifstyle changes which will occur du ring the decades just ahead. Democracy in the United States has defied the predictions of the Greek philosophers and survived as a stable form of government, but it has done so only because it has existed in a modified form. Throughout this nation's history, democracy in the United States has operated in concert with lifestyle sanctions. It has been a democracy which operated very much within the Judeo-Christian tradition with the church, government, and society's cultural tradition working together to enforce certain kinds of moral codes and concepts, thereby providing needed sanctions on human behavior and preventing the deterioration of society into the "mob rule" predicted by the Greeks as the ultimate end of democratie political systems. With the decline in the historie cooperation between church, government, and culture behavioral constraints are deteriorating, society is becoming increasingly restless, and it is conceivable--even quite possible--that both our social and political systems are threatened as a consequence. The nation's sociopolitical health demands a new sense of social cohesion in national thinking-and hopefully organized religion will provide the leadership necessary to achieve this end. THE GOSPEL AND THE CHURCH

The following is the address of Archbishop John R. Quinn to the Fourth World Synod which specifically addresses itself to the center of reconciliation ministry : "The chief problem for many young people is not the gospel of Christ. It is the church. They do hot see what the (Second) Vatican Council spoke of, 'The light of Christ shining on the countenance of the church.' "This is not to say that Christ does not indeed shine on the countenance of the church, but met¡ely that often young people


YOUTH

213

do not perceive this. We must distinguish between the fact and the perception of the fact. Following are among the more important causes of this conflict between Christ and the gospel on one hand and the Church on the other: "A. Utilitarianism.--Young people reject instantly any attempt to reach them by soliciting their attendance at mass or the sacraments, and stiJl more do they reject attempts to elicit their financial support of parish or church. "They want to be reached for their own sake, for their own inherent worth and not for sorne ulterior purpose, however good or holy. "B. Desire for a. model---When young people come to know the gospel and the person of Christ, they look for a mode! of Christ and the gospel, above ali in those who are his ministers. It is true that the gospel understood by a mature faith reveals a vast number of supremely important qualities in Jesus. But for young people those qualities which are most important are: joy, love and kindness, patience and tolerance, an open mind and a willingness to listen, a spirit of compassion and concern, a sincere and honest simplicity and directness. "The only time many young people see a priest or bishop is at the Iiturgy. If they do not perceive in him on those occasions the qualities described above and especially joy and a spirit of faith, they do not believe in the church. They frequently find that the Iiturgy is celebrated in an impersonal manner, without joy and without any really obvious faith on the part of the celebrant. This does not seem to them to reflect the gospel as they understand it. They recognize the paradox of the joyless herald of the good news and are repelled by it. "A part from the Iiturgy, they look for these qualities in the ir persona) contacts with priests and bishops. Presence and visibility of bishops and priests in their world is most important to youth. They yearn for contact with the true ministers of Christ who clearly retlect to them the mind and the heart of Christ. "They look for priests and bishops with whom they can identify. Such priests and bishops should have the qualitics mentioned earlier but they must also be like the Christ of the Epistle to the Hebrews "encompassed by weakness." They ¡are attracted to the Christ of the gospels not only because of his openness, kindness and compassion, but also because he cornes


214

CHICAGO STUDJES

across to them as one who had to struggle with challenges from within and from without as they have to struggle. "The problem for youth of the dichotomy between the gospel and the church does not lie principally in structures or in approaches or methodologies. It is chiefly the problem of the minister of the church who, rightly or wrongly, frequently does not reveal to them that Christ whom they find in the gospel." These are attitudes we cannot ignore! Nor can we change attitudes by edict or by asserting that they stem from a lack of understanding of the mission of the church. Because we of the faith have a positive obligation for religions formation, we also unconsciously tend to think we are responsible for, and capable of forming environment and an atmosphere wherein Catholic Christian judgments, practices and attitudes flourish. Such, definitely, is not the case. We live in an existential society which does not judge values in relation to eternity, and consequently, is indifferent to providing a generally accepted moral code. Immediate objectives are considered much more important than ultimate goals. The young people are rejecting a cultural heritage which offers an integrated system of values. As a result, young people of today are continually buffeted by ambivalent tensions over the relationship between themselves. and society. THE HORIZON OF MINISTRY WITH YOUTH

Culturally, the contemporary young person is endowed in. ways his parents and grandparents--or you and I-were not. Through his entire conscious life, electronic media have captured his eyes with scenes, his ears with sounds that effect dif-. ferent ways of perceiving time and distance, and create new expectations. Life's experiences are packaged, mediated and· interpreted far beyond the family, class or national cil·cle. Probably, it is not an exaggeration to state that the genera-· tion coming to maturity between 1965 and 1975 has experienced, in one decade, what former generations experienced· over 25 to 100 years. Since the church no longer controls or forms a society, we· must equip the young with those qualities that will enable them to move through succeeding cultures with values that are tran-·


YOUTH

215

scendental and pemument. Living as we do, at one of the great hinge-points of histOry, it is crucial that a new generation is equipped t0 be faithful t0 the past while open to the future. The essential and immutable values of faith-union with Christ, a persona) vocation within the community of God's people, the power of faith, the vision of hope, and the capacity of love--provides the spiritual security and maturity needed in a changing world. These must be found in the daily affairs of ordinary !ife and not simply by idle abstractions. "Practice the truth in love," St. Paul wrote, "and in this way grow up." St. Paul possibly is telling us that while other societies change not only in style but purposes, those committed to the unchaging gospel message themselves form a community of faith that will endure. Al! this becomes even more evident when we reeognize certain major changes in the nation. In the United States, one-fifth of the population is found in the 14 to 24 age bracket. The median age of the people of the U.S. was measured in 1971 as 27.9 years. Youth is not permanent. The values that form them now will dictate political, religions, social and economie policies in the immediately following generations. Therefore, the previously quoted rep01t to the Secretai-y of State by the Committee on Youth, indicating that the young people of the U.S. have their confidence in the existing order undermined in two important areas is alarming. They question the intellectual honesty of those in power and therefore question the values these leaders proclaim. This question holds tme not only in the politièal sphere but also in the religions. Because of this, many young people hold that the structures and systems are becoming increasingly itTelevant. The implications of this, for ctnTent parish !ife, should be obvions. Without going into detail, one recognizes that other social phenomena has a strong bearing on these conditions, e.g., migration of the middle class to the suburbs and the massing of the poor in the inner city. The analysis of sorne further studies relative to the moral, social and religions attitudes and habits of young people indicates a spontaneous but disorganized interest of young people in religions ideals. These same studies also substantiate the


216

CHICAGO STUDIES

opinion that the present structures of the church are not flexible enough to cope with the trend of attrition that is presently occurring within the church. Many perceptive students of today's youth call attention to the strong appeal of community and service. Young people put their emphasis less on objective tmth and more on meaning derived from actual experience. This surely is different from the experience of the educator twenty years ago. The student of those years demanded documentation and proof. Today's student demands commitment of !ife according to values perceived. Perhaps this teaches us that the ancient mission of didache ( teaching) must not go unaccompanied by the equally ancient witness of diakonia (service) and koenonia (community building). A CALL FOR M!N!STRY

In light of this, may I make a few suggestions. We have all learned to recognize the difference between priesthood and ministry. The sacred or hieratic function of the priest will always be central to his calling and mission. It is by his proclamation of the ward of God (what I call his prophetie function) that the priest exercises a unique power among his people, enabling them bath to be filled with God's gifts and to radiate the Christ-life to others outside the assembly. Nevertheless, at this moment in history, the special charisma that attracts young people to God and the things of God may be better served by the witness of ministry-service to wounded humanity, service to the impoverished and the ignorant, liberation of the oppressed. Apart !ro1n ministry, priesthood makes no sense to many of today' s youth. For this reason, these structures and activities of the church, wherein priesthood and ministry go hand-in-hand, should no longer appear to many young people as beside the point. Nothing is so fatal as being beside the point! It is the spiritual renewal within the church that will be the ferment of society giving men hope wherein they recognizc that Christ will raise mah and woman from his weakness to fullness of !ife. Certainly, there exists a faith crisis. Western society has been dominated by secular values that, from a reli-


YOUTH

217

gious point of view, has concentrated on the Calvinist and Puritan ethic rather than the Sermon on the Mount. Only when the church is recognized as a Community of Charity will the "Youth" give affirmation to the movement of Christ's redemptive love to which we are ali pledged. Young people are uncertain of their ultimate goals. They are often insecure. The church must offer them a sense of security that springs from hope. Therefore, the church must invite them to join a viable community in Christ which enjoys hope and joy because it is a community whose sense of !ife is rooted in Gospel value. Most of us have experienced the sad result when institutions stagnate, proceed on their ,own momentum, and develop according to their own implicit rationales. If this is true in our civil society, it is also true in our religious structures. Original goals and reasons for procedures and purpose seem to become obscure, and sometimes we are even¡ controlled by tables of organization. When these are no longer suitable to meet the apostolic needs of the church and emerging human needs, we must change. These are times which cry out for new initiatives and innovative responses. Surely ours is one of these times.


James Provost

Divorced and Remarried Catholics Perhaps the most -difficult aspect of his ministry of reconciliation is the parish priest's dealings with Catholics whose marriages have broken down. Sorne of these are involved in divorcing, others have divorced and are concerned about their status in the Church, while still others have remarried outside the Church but desire to return to full sacramental !ife.

THE MARRIAGE TRIBUNAL: AN INSTRUMENT OF RECONCILIATION

For many divorced and remarried Catholics, recognition of their present marriage in the Church is an important element in their experience of reconciliation. For them, the services of the Matrimonial Tribunal are important. The traditional image of the Tribunal is changing. It used to be considered a slow-moving and somewhat benign form of the Inquisition. The urging of Pope Pius XII to take the good of souls as its primary concern, the findings of modern behavioral sciences which have been incorporated into various Tribunal decisions, and a renewal of procedure and spirit among Tribunal personnel are gradually transforming the Matrimonial Court into an understanding step in the process of reconciliation. While this is not true of ali Tribunals in the United States today, it is becoming increasingly so. Tribunal personnel have been attending renewal seminars, meetings and workshops conducted by the Canon Law Society of America. Many of the priests who work in Tribunals also serve in pastoral ministry, 218


DIVORCED AND REMARRIED

219

and are faced with the same pressures any priest feels in ministering with divorced and remarried Catholics. In addition, sorne important procedural changes have been made possible by the collective action of the American Bishops. They went to bat for their Tribunals, and obtained a simplification of the processes which must be followed in coming to a decision in a marriage case. These have contributed considerably to speeding up the handling of many cases, and have reinforced the renewal trend among Tribunal personnel. The Church has also adopted a new policy in regard to the official understanding of what constitutes matrimony. This has contributed a great deal to the number of marriage cases which Tribunals can now process affirmatively. In the Code of Canon Law, matrimony is spoken of equivalently as a contract for sexual intercourse. lts primary purpose is the procreation of children. Those things which would keep one from entering a valid contract of any sort, or intentions which exclude fidelity, pel"formance or children from the marriage, constituted grounds for an annulment. The Second Vatican Council took a fresh look at the reality of marriage. lt speaks of marriage as a "community of love," an "intimate partnership of married life and love," and "marriage covenant of conjugal love." The Council does not speak of primary and secondary ends, but sees children, mutual love and support, permanence and fidelity as basic dimensions of this conjugal covenant or community of life and love. Working with this broader and more realistic definition of what people enter when they get married, Tribunals have been able to take a more realistic view of what happens during marital breakdown. The Church retains a sb¡ong teaching in regard to the indissolubility of marriage, but now recognizes that many marriages which were formerly considered to be true marriages actually were not, and that because of a variety of psychiatrie, psychologica\ or even behavioral factors beyond the control of the individuals concerned, and which led to the destruction of the attempt at married life even though that attempt went on for severa! years. ¡ Recent studies by canon lawyers and the bishops themselves have indicated that Church Tribunals are only scratching the


1 220

CHICAGO STUDIES

surface of cases in which people have a right to a decision, and in which as a matter of fact an annulment could be granted. For this reason, sorne Tribunal officiais now refuse to give continuing education courses to priests in parishes, since the influx of cases becomes totally unmanageable. Other officiais are painting at the current crisis as temporary, one which will be overcome once the backlog of cases has been caught up through the improved procedures and expanded jurisprudence. A committee of the Canon Law Society, charged with the responsibility of trying to assist Tribunals improve themselves, came to a different conclusion. After surveying the increased work load among Tribunals which had adopted current jurisprudence and revised procedures, and estimating the potential number of cases which could be handled, the committee came to the realization that the Tribunal system itself is inadequate to solve the problem, whether taken in terms of numbers or taken in terms of the pastoral needs of people. Alternatives to the Tribunal system to supplement its ministry were called for. "PASTORAL SOLUTIONS"

The Diocese of Baton Rouge gained notoriety when procedures were announced for the Diocese to admit Catholics to the Eucharist who were in "good conscience" although they were in a second non-canonicat marriage. The procedures were suspended while the entire subject was submitted to the Roly See for consideration. The matter was apparently involved in a somewhat wider study conducted by a plenary meeting of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in the Vatican during 1972. In a letter dated April 11, 1973, Cardinal Seper reported the results of that discussion. Two major points are made in his letter. The first concerns the Church's teaching on indissolubility, which is to be preserved in practice, teaching in seminaries, and Tribunals. It is basically a reaffirmation of the Church's stand as articulated in the Second Vatican Council. The second part of his letter deals with admission to the sacraments of those who are living "in an irregular union."


DIVORCED AND REMARRIED

221

Bishops are told to stress the observance of cm-rent discipline, but at the same time are told to "take care that the pastors of souls exercise special care to seek out those who are living in an irregular union by applying to the solution of such cases, in addition to other rightful means, the Church's approved practice in the internai forum." Scholars are still analyzing the meaning of this letter, particularly this final paragraph. However, it appears there are at !east two distinct decisions being talked about. The first decision concerns whether to admit people to marriage in the Church-the first time, or subsequent times. The second decision concerns admitting people to the sacraments, particularly penance and the Eucharist. These are different questions, although the two are interrelated. The question has now been raised, how necessary is the interrelationship in each case? Writing in America magazine in December of 1974, Father Charles Whelan proposed four criteria for determining whether a Catholic who has divorced and remarried may be readmitted to full communion in the Church even though the marriage has not been validated: 1. The first marriage is irretrievably !ost.

2. The present methods of official reconciliation (death of the first spouse, annulment, Pauline and "Petrine" Privilcges) are unavailable. 3. The parties to the second marriage have demonstrated by their lives that they have a sincere desire to participate fully in the !ife of the Church. 4. There are solid grounds for hope that the second marriage, even though it cannot be officially celebrated as yet by the Church, will be in ali other respects a Christian marriage. Given the pressure on Tribunals, the impossibility of handling the many legitimate cases which can be presented to them, and the increasingly difficult pastoral situation described earlier in this article, Father Whelan's approach represents one possible solution which should be given careful consideration. Other solutions are in the process of being developed by a team of canon lawyers working as a special committee of the Canon Law Society of America on "Alternatives to Tribunals."


222

CHICAGO STUOIES

The results of their work should be ready for presentation at the Society's national meeting in October. It is important to note that these efforts do not question the indissolubility of marriage, or the Church's teaching in this regard. Rather, they are an attempt to face the fact that many people who entered what would traditionally be considered an "indissoluble" union may not have done so, and yet are unable to vindicate their rights in the Church. Since Cardinal Seper calls for bishops to take care that priests in pastoral ministry "exercise special care to seek out those who are living in an irregular union" and to apply to their situations, among other rightful means, "the Church's approved practice in the internai forum," these studies are really an effort to clarify what is appropriate practice in the internai forum. Before such solutions can be adopted, however, they must be integrated into an over-all pastoral care of marriage and family !ife. To take them in isolation is as serions a violation of good pastoral practice as the previous ignoring of divorced Catholics in the Church. It is not a question of isolating one element of pastoral !ife, but rather of integrating it into the broader perspective of reconciliation within the total community. Existing canon law, the direction in which the law is developing, and the possibilities of truly spiritual renewal at the time of such reconciliation must be given careful attention. THE "BIG PICTURE"

1\iarriage, the breakdown of marriage, and entering into new marriage are ali a process. They should not be isolated one from another, nor should pastoral attention be given to one aspect without corresponding attention to another. A divorce is not something which just happens at the time the document is signed and is over. It has been prepared by a series of very difficult disengagements within the relationship, and is often followed by gnilt or a sense of failure. Even where these are mitigated, a sense of persona! unworthiness is often present, or a Jack of trust in members of the opposite sex in terms of the commitment required for marriage. Severa! stages can be discerned in the divorcing process, and therefore in the pastoral ministry required.


DIVORCED AND REMARRIED

223

A. As a couple approach divorce, they are no longer in need of marriage counseling, but now require divorce counseling. This is a developing field among marriage and family !ife counselors; the clergy must become skilled in what is involved. Basically, they can learn this through the experience they already have in counseling people in a death and dying situation, since many of the same stages are experienced by people going through a divorce as by people who have a loved one who is dying, or who themselves are dying. B. The actual time of the divorce proceedings is often marked by a sense of confusion and isolation. The most effective ministers at this time are often people who themselves have been divorced and can understand what the person is going through. Groups of "Divorced Catholics" can provide like-to-like assistance at this time, particularly for the woman who must adjust to a new financial and legal status, and yet often does not know where to turn. C. Once the immediate crisis of the divorce itself has passed, there is a need to heal the person. The development of a positive self image is a frequent responsibility of those in pastoral care ; it is especially needed at this time. D. A healing of the memories is also required. Much has been learned by the charismatic movement of the practice and effect of this important spiritual event in the !ife of a person. Pastoral ministers can learn much in this regard from charismatics. E. The most difficult question for the pastoral minister is when a person who has been divorced approaches with a request to remarry. This is also when the greatest development is needed in pastoral-canonical action. F. A person who has divorced and remarried and then apapproaches the priest may have already undergone a number of the foregoing stages, but pastoral activity even for such persons must take these prior stages into consideration. Moreover, the need for supports and enrichment of the second marriage are grave, because it suffers not only from the usual tensions of marriage in our society but also because of the prior experience.

'


224

CHICAGO STUDIES

What cau be said of available tools to minister to marriage enrichment also goes, however, for enriching second marriages. The major problem here is probably the attitude of the minister, rather than the process itself. IMPLEMENTATION

Before a coherent pastoral policy can be adopted in a diocese, it must be thoroughly discussed, it must respond to the felt needs of priests and people, and it must be in communion with the discipline of the Church as explained in Cardinal Seper's letter. Intensive education of clergy, and to the extent possible of the en tire Catholic community, in the need for reconciliation of divorce and remarried Catholics and the possible alternatives within the present Chm¡ch structure must be carried out before any widespread changes are introduced in the actual pastoral practice. Such continuing education is necessary for any change. It is ali the more important since we are dealing with one of the basic elements of Christian !ife and society itself, marriage. Any steps in pastoral practice which might be interpreted as weakening the Church's support for marriage and family !ife would be counter-productive to the \\;hole purpose of this effort at reconciliation. Moreover, this could provide the opportunity for more realistic ministry to marriage and family !ife itself, reinforcing the awareness of priests and people alike that deliberate, creative efforts are needed for this whole dimension of pastoral ministry.


AUTHORS IN THIS ISSUE Donald M. Allen, M.M., is the Director of the Maryknoll Development Office, Connecticut. He is one of the representatives of Maryknoll as a non-governmental agency in the United Nations. Kenneth E. Lasch, J.C.D., former vice chancellor of the Paterson, N .J ., Diocese, is defender of the bond for the diocesan matrimonial tribunal. Reid C. Mayo, a Burlington, Vt., diocesan priest, has been president of the National Federation of Priests' Coun cils since 1973. P. Francis Murphy is the Chancellor for Pastoral Concerns and Vicar for Personnel of the Archdiocese of Baltimore. For the past ten years he has served as the liaison of the Archbishop with priests who have left the active ministry. Patrick H. O'Neill, O.S.A., is the national director for Campus and Young Adult Ministry of the United States Catholic Conference. With a doctorate in psychology he is president of the Catholic Campus Ministry Association. James H. Provost, J.C.D., chancellor of the Helena, Mont. Diocese, is Chairman of the Committee on the Selection of Bishops for the Canon Law Society of America. Leo B. Shea, M. M., has taught at Boston Co liege, St. J oseph's College in Kingston, Jamaica, W.I. and severa) other colleges and universities. His research on world resources has been in East Africa, South America, India and Bangladesh. He has j u.st been assigned to mission work in ¡ Venezuela. Harmon D. Skillin, J.C.D., is assistant chancellor of the Stockton, California diocese. Thomas P. Sweetser, S.J., is Director of the Parish Evaluation Project and instructor at Loyola University of Chicago's Institute for Pastoral Studies. He is the author of The Catlwlic Parish: Shi{ting Membership in a Changing Church and co-author of Suburban Religion Church and Synagogues in the American Experience.