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NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

AssistiveALDS Listening The Role of

in the Classroom

What are Assistive Listening Devices? Many students who use hearing aids effectively in quiet environments have a difficult time following information presented in large college classrooms. In the classroom, the instructor’s voice is competing with background noise, room echo, and distance. Therefore, the intelligibility of the instructor’s voice is degraded by the poor room acoustics as well as the hearing loss. Most Assistive Listening Device systems (ALDs) use a microphone /transmitter positioned close to the instructor’s mouth to send the instructor’s voice through the air or by cable to the receiver worn by the student. By placing the microphone close to the instructor’s mouth, ALDs can provide clear sound over distances, eliminate echoes, and reduce surrounding noises. Assistive Listening Devices have proven to be an effective teaching tool for students with hearing loss. Providing a good listening environment can have a major impact on an individual’s academic performance. What are the different types of Assistive Listening Devices? ALDs utilize different technologies. Typically, they are wireless or wired. Wireless ALDs make use of radio frequencies, light rays, or magnetic inductive energy to transmit sound. Hardwired ones use direct electrical connection to transmit the auditory signal. Each system has special features, capabilities, advantages, and disadvantages. Three ALD systems–FM, Soundfield Amplification, and Induction Loop Systems–will be discussed. Frequency Modulated (FM) Systems: An FM system is a wireless, portable battery-operated device that uses radio transmission to send auditory signals, i.e. speech, from a transmitter to a receiver. With most FM systems, the instructor wears a lavelier microphone connected to a body-worn transmitter. The student wears the FM receiver unit clipped to his/her clothing. The FM receiver can also be connected to the student’s hearing aid via an induction neckloop system or direct audio input cables. Special FM cables are also available for cochlear implant users. When the instructor speaks, the speech signal is broadcast by radio signals to the FM receiver linked to the student’s hearing aid. The ranges of FM systems extend from 30 ft. to more than 200 ft., depending on the power and antenna. FM systems can transmit through walls and

buildings. Therefore, multiple frequencies are required for adjacent room usage. Recently, the FM receiver units have been significantly miniaturized. In FM/BTEs (behind-the-ear hearing aids), the FM receiver is built into the same casing as the hear-ing aid. Hearing aid manufacturers have also introduced wireless FM boot receivers that attach to the bottom of a hearing aid. An audiologist can assist with the selection and fitting of an appropriate FM system. Soundfield Amplification Systems: Soundfield amplification systems amplify and broadcast the instructor’s voice through wall or ceiling-mounted loudspeakers. The system consists of a microphone/FM transmitter, amplifier, and one or more loudspeakers. A loudspeaker can also be placed next to the student. The soundfield speakers should be strategically placed in order for the student to achieve the most benefit from the system. The system should be installed under the guidance of an audiologist or someone who understands room acoustics. Induction Loop Systems: Induction loop systems use electromagnetic waves for transmission. Sounds are picked up by the instructor’s microphone, amplified, and sent through the wire/loop, creating an invisible electromagnetic field. The telecoil (Tswitch) in the student’s hearing aid serves as a receiver for the signal. The loop can encircle the entire room or be small and hidden under a chair or table. When using large loop systems, care should be taken not to loop adjacent classrooms, as the electromagnetic energy will spill over, causing interference. Reportedly, newer three-dimensional loops have eliminated the problem of spillover. What are the benefits of using Assistive Listening Devices? A distinct acoustic advantage of ALDs compared to personal hearing aids is the position of the input microphone at a location close to the instructor’s mouth. The microphone location allows the level of the instructor’s voice to stay constant to the student regardless of the distance between the instructor and the student. The instructor’s voice is also heard clearly over room noises such as chairs moving, fan motors running, and students talking.


• ALDs can be moved from class to class or permanently installed. • ALDs are helpful when listening in a whole classroom or in small groups. • ALDs can be used alone or in conjunction with personal hearing aids and cochlear implants. • ALDs are used with students who have varying degrees of hearing levels ranging from normal hearing acuity (e.g., students with learning disabilities, atten-tion deficit disorders, central auditory process disor-ders ) to students who have a profound hearing loss. • ALDs can be beneficial when listening to audio and audiovisual equipment, e.g.,VCRs, tape recorders, and stereos. Strategies for Using Assistive Listening Devices Assistive listening devices will provide maximum benefit when used appropriately. Here are helpful tips for using assistive listening devices. 1. Become knowledgeable about the ALD system. Request in-service training from an audiologist and/or manufacturer of the system. Involve the ALD user in the training. 2. Discuss with the student the situations where the ALD will be used. 3. Position the ALD’s microphone in locations that will provide the clearest speech reception. The microphone should not be near a noise source, e.g. overhead projector. The lapel microphone should be between three to five inches from the mouth or sound source. Make sure that the voice intensity or sound source is not too loud. Loud speech signals can distort or over-amplify the ALD user. 4. Determine the best location for the ALD’s receiver(s). a. For soundfield amplification system, the speakers must be strategically placed in the classroom. Consult with your audiologist and/or professionals familiar with room acoustics regarding the best placement of the loudspeakers. b. Head positioning and distance from the room loop are variables that need to be considered for students who use the telecoil in the hearing aid

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

716-475-6433 (V/TTY) 716-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu WWW: http://netac.rit.edu

as the receiver. Different places in the room may be tried with the receiver to determine the best reception. 5. Provide information for the entire class on how the ALD will be incorporated into classroom instruction. Since the ALD user may not have access to questions raised by those not wearing the microphone, be sure to repeat questions and comments from other students. Remind students to speak one at time. When possible, pass the microphone/ transmitter from student to student. Some students will switch on the environmental microphone on the FM receiver in order to hear peers. 6. Continue to use the communication strategies you used with students who wear hearing aids. a. Face the student. Although the student can hear at greater distances with the ALDs, she/he may rely heavily on visual cues to aid understanding. Make sure the microphone does not block the mouth. b. Speak slowly and clearly. c. Favorable seating, close to the instructor and blackboard is still recommended. 7. Allow the student to couple the ALD system to audiovisual equipment when possible. 8. Perform a listening check with the equipment each time it is used. A maintenance routine and schedule should be established. There are a variety of Assistive Listening Devices which can be utilized effectively in the classroom. No single technology is without limitations or can be expected to fulfill all the essential auditory needs of all users. Consult with an audiologist and the student to determine the most appropriate assistive listening device. ALDs can maintain a clear presentation of the speech signal in the presence of poor room acoustics. Therefore, the student with a hearing loss has better access to classroom information. For more information on how to contact professionals in the assistive listening devices field, as well as other topics covered by the NETAC Teacher Tipsheet series, visit NETAC’s Web site at http://netac.rit.edu or http://www.rit.edu/~493www/equipment.html.

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was prepared by Catherine Clark, audiologist, National Technical Institute for the Deaf, a college of Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York.

This publication was developed in 2000 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


NETAC Tipsheet

Grants:

Grants A Primer for Getting Started As a provider of disability services, you know that a gap exists between the needs of students on your campus and your ability to pay for the variety of services they require to attain their educational goals. At a time when resources, especially human resources, are stretched to their limits, a common directive on campus is “get a grant” to pay for interpreters, notetakers, and CART or C-Print® transcriptionists. How do you find funding sources? Will funding agencies support the kinds of activities you need? Aren’t grants difficult to write? Aren’t the odds against you? Do you have the time and internal resources to write a grant proposal or to manage the grant activities and do the final reporting? Read on! What are grants? Grant makers (funding agencies or sponsors) are concerned about specific problems, injustices, or inequities. They see the gaps that exist and are willing to commit their money to close these gaps. “Grants” (as opposed to “gifts” from charitable foundations or individuals) tend to be for specific projects, for a finite period of time, with given deliverables expected at the end of the grant period. Stringent measures of accountability for these funds must be met by you and your institution, and your institution often is required to cost share on the project. What will grants fund? Generally, grants will cover personnel costs, benefits, student workers, travel, equipment, consultants, participant costs at workshops, materials development (books, brochures, handouts), curriculum development, development of Web sites, workshops or conferences, and evaluation and dissemination of materials or information about the project. To find the kinds of activities a given sponsor will support, read the program solicitation (application guidelines) carefully, and call a program officer (see below). What won’t grants fund? Sustained program support is very difficult to obtain from sponsors. They tend not to fund construction, renovation, strictly local programs, operating expenses, and probably not support services such as interpreters, notetakers, or realtime transcriptionists. It may be worth your effort to read through the sponsor’s Web site and then contact a program officer at the Student Support Services Program, U.S. Department of Education, one of the Federal TRIO Programs, to explore their reception to proposals requesting funding for your specific needs. (See their Web site URL under the Resources section.)

How do I find sources of funding? • Contact your office of sponsored research. Each major college or university will have an office (variously called “Sponsored Research,” “Sponsored Programs,” or “Grants and Contracts”) that will help you find sources of funding for your projects and will help you develop and submit proposals to these sponsors. There should also be a development office, where you can obtain information about private sponsors (foundations, corporations, or individuals). At smaller colleges, these offices may be combined. • Browse the WWW. Funding agencies, such as the U.S. Department of Education, the National Science Foundation, and even private sponsors, all have Web sites and information about what they will or will not fund – and how to apply. • Subscribe to listservs, such as EdInfo from the U.S. Department of Education, and the Federal Register. These sources will keep you informed about funding from a number of federal agencies. • Ask for help at your institution’s library. Reference librarians can help you perform a literature search to determine whether other institutions have similar problems, and how they have solved those problems. Reference librarians also can assist you in searching their collections for materials on grants, grant-writing, and funding sources. Minimally, they probably will have a copy of the Foundation Directory and can help you access some of the resources listed below. • Visit your public library. Major public libraries often are repositories for Foundation Center publications, and will have staff to assist you in searching these materials. How do I start? • Planning and writing proposals takes time, as does managing the project and meeting the requirements of the funding agency (e.g., annual reports, final reports, financial reports). Discuss the time commitment with your supervisor to be sure the return is worth the cost of your time on this endeavor. • Talk with individuals in your office of sponsored research to develop a plan for proposal submission and to find out about your institution’s requirements for internal approvals and submission.


• Attend professional meetings and talk to individuals from other institutions who have similar needs – and perhaps solutions.

Resources • Bowman, J.P., & Branchaw, B.P. (1992). How to write proposals that produce. Phoenix: Oryx Press.

• Find a mentor. There should be someone at your institution with grant-writing experience who will help you develop a proposal. It could be a faculty member who has received funding for various projects or pre-award specialists in your office of sponsored research.

• Directory of education grants: A reference directory identifying educational grants available to nonprofit organizations. (1996). Loxahatchee, FL: Research Grant Guides.

• Begin a clipping file. This file should include copies of articles from journals in your field that address your needs, contact information for colleagues at other institutions, information about funding agencies, ideas about your project that can be folded into a proposal, notes about evaluation and dissemination, etc. If everything is in one place, it will be available when you need to meet a proposal deadline. • Become a program reviewer. One of the very best ways to find out how to write a strong grant proposal is to become a reviewer at a funding agency. Federal programs, especially, always are looking for reviewers, and this knowledge of the internal review process will give you a competitive edge when you start to write your own proposal. Again, your office of sponsored research can put you in touch with agencies who are looking for reviewers. • Read program guidelines and announcements. Often when a program competition is announced, there are only a few weeks to develop and submit a full proposal. Reading guidelines from former competitions will help you think through and structure a proposal before the new competition guidelines appear. The agency’s Web site or your office of sponsored research can help you find old guidelines. Are the odds against me? Funding agencies often receive hundreds of proposals for each of their programs and are able to fund only a few. Although not receiving funding is discouraging, you need to remember that grant-writing is an iterative process. You need to learn from your mistakes and keep trying. Ask the program officer for reviewers’ comments on your proposal, take their suggestions to heart, discuss your project with others (including the program officer), and submit again.

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

• Directory of grants for organizations serving people with disabilities. (2000). 10th ed. Loxahatchee, FL: Research Grant Guides. • The Foundation Directory (published annually). New York: The Foundation Center. • Miner, L.E., Miner, J.T., & Griffith. J. (2002). Proposal planning & writing. 3d ed. Westport, CT: Oryx Press. (This is one of the best “how to” books about grants.) • Worth, M.J. (1993). Educational fund raising: Principles and practice. Westport, CT: Oryx Press. (part of the American Council on Education’s Series on Higher Education; sponsored by Council for Advancement and Support of Education).

Online Resources: • EdInfo listserv - For information about programs, activities, and funding at the U.S. Department of Education. To subscribe, send an email to listproc@inet.ed.gov, and type SUBSCRIBE EDINFO YOURFIRSTNAME YOURLASTNAME in the message. • Forecast of Funding Opportunities Under the Department of Education Discretionary Grant Programs for Fiscal Year 2003: http://www.ed.gov/offices/OCFO/grants/forecast.html • National Science Foundation: http://www.nsf.gov/home/ menus/funding.htm • U.S. Department of Education, Federal Trio Programs: (http:/ /www.ed.gov/offices/OPE/HEP/trio/studsupp.html) • U.S. Government Printing Office, Federal Register: FEDREGTOC-L list. To subscribe, go to http:// listserv.access.gpo.gov/, select Online mailing list archives, and follow the instructions.

This NETAC Tipsheet was compiled by Gail Hyde, Senior Research Administrator, Grants, Contracts and Intellectual Property, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY.

This publication was developed in 2002 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H324A010002). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


NETAC Tipsheet

Community Community Rehabilitation RehabilitationPrograms Programs A community rehabilitation program (CRP) that focuses on employment services for people who are deaf or hard of hearing can best provide a full range of customized services by working collaboratively with other local agencies. Pooling resources, whether financial or staffing, is an efficient way for collaborative agencies to assist both employers and employees in eliminating or reducing barriers to successful employment. Changes in the employment / labor market are inevitable, but what remains the same is that there are still many people in need of employment services, not only to secure employment opportunities, but to maintain job security and receive career advancements. People who are deaf/hard of hearing and who are considered to be “low-functioning” often are diagnosed with a secondary disability due to problems in behavior, educational development, mobility, employment, independent living skills, inadequate communication skills, or some other major life function. They also experience communication barriers in preparing for, obtaining, and maintaining employment. For these reasons it is essential that CRPs hire specialized professional staff who are educated and knowledgeable in three areas: hearing loss, communication skills, and their professional discipline. Hearing loss refers to the medical and socio/cultural aspects of deafness. Communication skills refer to the ability to use ASL and knowledge of the communication systems used by people who are deaf/hard of hearing. Finally, the staff must know assistive technology, evaluation, community resources, placement accommodations, and other professional skills, as well as current issues in vocational rehabilitation.

professionals who can communicate through a variety of modalities other than American Sign Language (ASL), including communication methods that are not considered to be a formal language. The use of gestures, drawings, physical objects, or demonstrations to convey meaning are frequently used to facilitate communication. Specialized services essential to successful long-term placement of persons who are deaf/hard of hearing should include the following: • Vocational evaluation • Job coaching • Long-term follow-up. This does not suggest that placement, career planning, counseling, and jobseeking skills training are less important; it’s just that vocational evaluation, job coaching, and long-term follow-up are services not commonly found in CRPs but are critical to the success of this population.

A holistic perspective of the consumer who is deaf/hard of hearing allows for the best chance of achieving financial and personal self-sufficiency. Basically, this group of people need the same array of services as their hearing counterparts. The primary issue is accessibility.

Vocational Evaluation Vocational evaluation is a critical component to the rehabilitation process when serving persons who are deaf or hard of hearing. Counselors, teachers, and other professionals who work with this group need to be informed of the large number of tests and assessment tools available on the market today and how they can be utilized when working with a deaf person. Rehabilitation professionals traditionally have relied on standardized tests and compared the deaf person to a norm group when predicting vocational potential and designing an appropriate vocational rehabilitation plan. Some communication and language preferences of the deaf client must be considered before selecting psychometric instruments or work samples that will be used to measure their aptitude and determine appropriate rehabilitation services. Since communication deficits are the most common characteristic of the underserved deaf population, it is critical that the person’s communication skills be assessed prior to evaluating aptitudes, educational levels, or vocational interests.

Accessibility to services goes beyond the availability of an interpreter; clients who are deaf or hard of hearing and “low functioning” often need to work directly with

The Communication Assessment Model assumes that in order to accurately assess the individual’s communication strengths and weaknesses, one must


also assess their background, experiences, and preferences. This communication model focuses on the individual’s communication skills relative to specific work environments and ties the results to placement, job development, job coaching, and retention. Job Coaching Job coaching has been proven to be an essential service in determining the long-term employment of underserved persons who are deaf or hard of hearing. Job coaches work closely with the employer and employee to ensure a satisfactory work environment. Successful job coaches are careful to consider both the employer’s and the employee’s needs when assessing the workplace environment to determine intervention strategies. Job coaching services may include: • Communication training for managers, supervisors, and co-workers • New employee paperwork (i.e., benefits, in-house policies, orientation) • Disability awareness training and educational materials • Expertise in troubleshooting workplace barriers and suggesting workplace accommodations • Support for establishing positive workplace relationships Long-term Follow-up Services Follow-up services need to be provided on a case-bycase basis with the scope and duration of services determined by the individual’s needs. Follow-up services may vary according to the disability and continue for the duration of employment.

Closing Providing services to persons who are deaf/hard of hearing and considered to be “low functioning” in community-based rehabilitation programs can be a complex process for the inexperienced service provider. Service providers need to be aware of the unique needs of this underserved population and the specialized services needed to be successful with this group of people. Programs need to work toward developing a process that would work in their community based on employment demands and the deaf/hard of hearing population seeking services. For more information on setting up and providing comprehensive services to people who are deaf/hard of hearing, call or write: The Minnesota Employment Center for People who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing c/o Lifetrack Resources Inc. 709 University Ave. St. Paul, MN 55104 651.227.8471 Voice 651.298.0181 TTY 651.227.0621 Fax Web Site: www.mecdeaf.org References 1. Serving Individuals who are Low-Functioning, 25th Institute on Rehabilitation Issues, 1999, Dew, Donald, Ed.D, CRC, editor. 2. Assessing Workplace Communication Skills with Traditionally Underserved Persons who are Deaf, Greg Long. Available from the PEPNet Resource Center.

Follow-up services may include: • On-going assistance regarding communication needs • Additional service needs supporting employee advancement within the company • Assessment and problem solving to eliminate potential barriers so the employee can participate fully in the workplace

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

This NETAC Tipsheet was prepared by David Buchkoski, Training Coordinator for the Midwest Center for Postsecondary Outreach at St. Paul College, St. Paul, Minnesota, and Chris Marble, Statewide Resource Specialist, Minnesota Employment Center.

This publication was developed in 2003 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H324A010002). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


NETAC Tipsheet

Distance Learning Distance Learning Distance Learning’s Impact on Deaf Students in Postsecondary Environments Distance learning is the separation of teacher and student by time and space. Rapid advances in communications technology have allowed distance learning to become one of the fastest-growing trends in higher education. College courses are being delivered across a highway that is global in scope. Today, two thirds of the 4,000 accredited colleges and universities are offering some form of distance learning opportunities to students. By 2003, it is estimated that more than 90% of all higher education institutions will be in the distance learning business. This dramatic increase in distance learning provides an opportunity for students to participate in academic offerings not available in their area. For deaf students, this phenomenon is both a benefit and challenge. Issues of equity remain problematic in many of these new environments. Will deaf/hard-ofhearing students have the same opportunity to compete successfully in these courses as their hearing peers? How accessible will distance learning courses be to deaf students? What does it mean for a distance learning facility to be “accessible”? Do colleges or universities have a responsibility to ensure that the courses they offer at a distance meet the same standard of accessibility as the courses held on their campuses? ADA and Distance Learning Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990, private and public schools must ensure that their programs and services are accessible and usable for individuals with disabilities. This applies to the facilities in which the programs are held and the manner in which they are delivered. For a distance learning program, compliance means that the public facilities at the sending and receiving ends must be accessible. The ADA does not mandate that distance learning programs be provided, but where they are offered, the accessibility requirements are no less stringent than for the standard educational programs. For example, a deaf student who requires an American Sign Language interpreter is entitled to the

same accommodation if he or she is taking the course at a remote location. In a distance learning program, however, the support may originate at either end of the system; the interpreter does not need to be in the same room as the student. If captioning services are required for a deaf student to be successful, then the services of a CART or C-Print® captionist need to be secured, and the technology necessary to deliver that support should be in place. Deaf and hard-of-hearing students who rely on speechreading, sign language interpreters, captioning, or infrared assistive listening devices also must have adequate lines of sight and appropriate lighting. Whether within the classroom or when viewed on screen at a remote location, these students must have an unobstructed view of the lecturer as well as other students who may ask questions. Where computers are to be used at each seat in the classroom, desktop models with full size monitors may present obstacles to lines of sight. Portable infrared computers or laptops may be a better option. Common Distance Learning Technologies Satellite Technology This transmission system is based on a satellite dish connected to a communication system that accesses the world outside state borders using C and Ku band frequencies. Through a satellite “downlink,” courses or events from other locations with satellite equipment can be brought into an area and then retransmitted through another communication system. A satellite “uplink” allows programming to be sent to other locations outside the state. Compressed Video Compressed video allows for two-way video conferencing among multiple points. The system is designated as compressed since the video signal is digitized for transmission at a compressed rate that results in a “near full motion video.” Sign language requires a higher quality video than normally produced by video compression. MPEG-2 is an excellent standard to deliver American Sign Language.


Instructional Television Based on a broadcast model, this method offers twoway interactive audio and video. Depending on the telecommunication infrastructure within the state, there are additional technology possibilities. Signals can be broadcast over the air using ITFS (Instructional Television Fixed Station) frequencies with audio transmitted via telephone lines. Fiber Conferencing Fiber optic circuits that connect campuses are used for two-way video conferences. This allows for interactive courses or meetings among participants at any site with broadcast rooms. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) ATM is a high-band network that carries full motion voice, video, and data. Using MPEG-2 video compression via ATM switches, an architecture is created that allows sufficient speed for digitized video signals to travel through circuits interlaced with data streams. The system offers two-way video that can be compressed at various rates, typically at higher speeds and with greater broadcast quality than compressed video. Computer-Based Instruction Faculty and students using Internet 1 and 2 protocols and the World Wide Web can connect through a network of Internet connections. Using PC-based technology, desktop video sessions can be established point to point with quality that correlates with the sophistication of the computers as well as the network connections speed. Internet2 K20 is an initiative that collaborates with a variety of educational institutions, including K-12 programs. An Access Friendly Distance Learning Model Designing an accessible distance learning model requires the same careful planning that is used for any successful educational program or space. Design

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

professionals, deaf and hard-of-hearing students and administrators, and governing bodies responsible for funding must work together on decisions that impact building a telecommunications infrastructure that is accessible to everyone. As distance learning classrooms grow in number and scope, design professionals, facilities management personnel, and university administrators will continue to refine how they are delivered, while making it easier for everyone to use. Universities need to establish policies that place a high value on universal access and design, assuring that all computers, telephones, fax machines, and messaging systems conform to specific guidelines. Finally, universities should set benchmarks for improving access and monitor progress regularly. While no single plan will meet the needs of all those with disabilities, full access to distance learning programs for all students can be achieved with careful planning and long-range vision. Web Sites to Learn More About Distance Learning and Access in Postsecondary Settings 1. www.mainecite.org 2. www.usdla.org 3. www.washington.edu/doit 4. www.w3.org 5. http:/bobby.watchfire.com/bobby/htm1 6. www.dln.org 7. www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/cguide.htm 8. www.cast.org 9. http://ncam.wgbh.org 10. www.webaim.org 11. www.adaptenv.org/neada/index.php 12. http://barrierfree.ca 13. www.access-board.gov 14. www.acb.org/accessible-formats.html 15. www.polycom.com 16. www.mimio.com

This NETAC Tipsheet was compiled by Barbara Keefe, NETAC Site Coordinator, University of Maine System.

This publication was developed in 2002 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H324A010002). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


NETAC Tipsheet

IdeaTools Idea Tools What is IdeaTools? IdeaTools is a Web-based online course-building tool created at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) to help non-technically inclined faculty members build and manage online courses to support classroom teaching and distance learning. It automates many of the tasks of creating interactive Web sites for instructional purposes, freeing educators to use their time more productively to develop course content. IdeaTools offers pedagogical tools for creating and structuring online lesson materials that engage students actively in the learning process. Courses developed with IdeaTools are comprehensive instructional solutions incorporating Web-based lessons, interactive exercises, online assignments, quizzes, grade books, and discussion forums. Graphics, charts, and diagrams can be added by teachers to create visually rich learning materials. Students can utilize the course materials at any time and from any place if they have access to the Web. IdeaTools provides a low-cost way for academic departments and small colleges with limited financial resources to create Web-based online teaching solutions. How does it work? The hallmark of IdeaTools is its flexibility and relative ease of use. After approximately 10 hours of workshop training, most teachers with Internet access and a Windows-based PC will be able to use IdeaTools to create their own online courses. Interactive online tutorials are a possible training option in the future. The course-building process begins when lesson units, handouts, quizzes, and homework are listed within a course outline. A click on a “Save” button generates a complete Web site in a few seconds. Drop-down menus, tables of contents, and site maps are automatically created, making it easy to access all instructional materials. Clicking an “Edit” icon allows you to begin creating course materials, including computer-graded quizzes

and electronic homework. Special pedagogical tools allow you to incorporate pop-up notes and glossaries, as well as interactive tutorials and exercises to provide students with additional learning guidance. IdeaTools is a Web server application, a type of software that runs on a central computer, allowing any teacher to access its course-building tools through the Internet Explorer Web browser. (IdeaTools does not support Netscape.) Teachers can utilize IdeaTools from home or office to create Web-based readings, handouts, quizzes, homework, essays, and labs. Work can be saved directly online without time-consuming file transfers to remote Web servers. Once saved, course materials are immediately available to students, allowing them to access the lessons on the Web at any time. Being a Web server application, IdeaTools is a scaleable product. A single copy installed on a Web server will serve many teachers and students in widely dispersed locations. This simplifies product support; when a reported software bug is fixed, it is fixed for all current and future users. What special equipment is needed? The IdeaTools software must be installed on a Web server running Windows NT 4 Server or better with Internet Information Server 4 or better and PHP4 or better. In addition, schools must have the necessary network infrastructure to support Internet operations. Instructors and students must have their own desktop computers with Internet Explorer 5 or better in order to access IdeaTools on the Web. Instructors must work with a Windows-based PC when building online courses, but the materials developed can be viewed on both PCs and Macs. Besides the price of IdeaTools, you may need to purchase and install other low-cost software components, depending on features you select. Each of these software components typically costs $40-100. This assumes that a school has the necessary network infrastructure and the capability to provide ongoing


technical support for Internet operations. IdeaTools will work on a low-end Web server with hardware costing less than $3000. Another option schools may consider would be to lease a Web server from a server warehouse facility or share a Web server with another school that has the needed infrastructure and technical support capabilities.

to complete their programming projects. He also makes his online course materials available for use by adjunct instructors.

Ideas for Faculty Working with IdeaTools Over the last three years, several NTID faculty members have been using IdeaTools to teach courses in diverse content areas, including Web design, computer programming, reading and writing, social studies, astronomy, meteorology, and environmental studies.

· Paula Grcevic (pagnda@rit.edu) uses IdeaTools to teach multiple sections of graphics design courses. All her course materials developed over the course of several years have been converted for online use. Her students also submit their art projects and journals online. After grading, Paula returns the projects to the students with her comments. Taking advantage of the ease of the electronic resubmission process, she offers her students the option to revise and resubmit their projects to improve their grades.

IdeaTools was created to allow instructors to convert existing course materials for online use. This allows them to continue working with instructional formats that have served them well in the past while they experiment with new pedagogical approaches made possible by IdeaTools.

IdeaTools might work for you. For more information, contact: Simon Ting 585-475-7461 (TTY) Fax: 585-475-6500 sktnmp@rit.edu

Here are some examples of how NTID faculty members are using IdeaTools: · Rose Marie Toscano (rmtnge@rit.edu) uses IdeaTools to teach Writing and Literature I & II to deaf students. She began by making her self-authored booklets available to students online, and experimented with electronic homework submission and online class forums. She currently employs special writing markup tools to grade student essays online and uses other Web-based tutoring tools to offer remedial assistance to students who need help to improve their reading and writing. · Jim Mallory (jrmnet@rit.edu) uses IdeaTools to teach several computer programming courses, both in NTID classrooms and to distance learning students, including international students. He uses online testing to evaluate his distance learning students and employs interactive video demonstrations to show students step by step how

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

This NETAC Tipsheet was prepared by Simon Ting, Instructional Developer, Department of Instructional Design & Evaluation, National Technical Institute for the Deaf, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY.

This publication was developed in 2002 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H324010002). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

Captioning CAPTIONING Captioning–a visual representation of the audio portion of videotape material–enables deaf learners to have full access to materials used in the classroom. With an everexpanding pool of captioning agencies providing a wider array of options, including modem technology, and because of the greater availability of other low-cost captioning alternatives, including non-video captioning such as CPrint™ and CART, access to classroom materials and lectures has become much easier. The purpose of this tipsheet is to familiarize educators with the variety of captioning formats available, provide information about services addressing the need for captioned material, and identify potential options for promoting access to video programming for deaf learners.

CAPTIONING COMES IN SEVERAL FORMATS TO MEET A VARIETY OF NEEDS. 1. Open/Closed Captioning Closed captions (CC) are typically enclosed in black boxes and displayed on Line 21 of the TV set. These captions are invisible on the TV screen unless a decoding capability (a decoder or TV with decoder chip) is used. Open captions can be “CC” captions recorded as “open” captions for visible display without the need for decoding, or they can appear as subtitles similar to those seen in foreign films and displayed with upper/lower case lettering and a drop shadow effect. 2. Online/Offline (Prescripted) Captioning Online captioning is created using a stenographic keyboard that communicates with special software normally used with a laptop. These captions scroll up to three lines on the screen simultaneously with program presentation or airing, without script preparation. This process is called “real-time” captioning, which can be done, at sometimes very large distances, from program origination through modem technology. For example, some news captioning is prepared live by real-time captioners located hundreds of miles away from the news stations. Offline captioning involves preparation of the captioning script for prerecorded programs, including caption formatting into appropriate lengths for display, language editing, caption placement, speaker identification, use of special fonts, and time coding. Offline captions are “encoded” onto a program master or “live displayed” during broadcast.

3. Verbatim/Edited Captioning Many programs use verbatim, or word-for-word, captioning either because the captions must be prepared live or because of the philosophy of “full access” to the program. Others incorporate caption editing strategies, such as simplifying complex language, to accommodate the reading and language levels of the primary audience, particularly K-12. This is important, because viewers have only one opportunity to view the captions. 4. Computer-Aided Realtime Translation (CART) This process is similar to real-time captioning except that it incorporates a combination of notebook computer and real-time captioning software to provide “video-less” captioning on either a computer monitor or a wall screen. It also is used in meetings and involves some language paraphrasing and two-way communication. For additional information, request a copy of the “CART Teacher Tipsheet.”

HOW TO MAKE VIDEO MATERIALS AVAILABLE FOR CLASSROOM USE. 1. Which is more useful: Interpreting or Captioning?

• Ask your students about their preferences for program access. Determine whether low-cost alternatives such as interpreting or transcripts would be sufficient to meet their needs. As mentioned under Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), publicly funded institutions must give “primary consideration” to the communication preferences of individuals with disabilities. • The determination of the captioning option should also be based on: a. Type of program: some videos are very difficult to interpret in ASL, especially those with quick scene changes, multiple speakers, or foreign accents. b. The frequency and duration of program use: captioning is more cost-effective if programs will have long-term, frequent use. Once a program is captioned, it eliminates the need for using an interpreter every time it is shown in class. • If the school is producing its own videos, i.e., for distance learning, it is recommended that captioning costs be built into the video production budget. 2. Is the captioned material available?

• Check your school media center or library for available existing captioned videotapes. The


Captioned Media Program (CMP), funded through the U.S. Department of Education, has a collection of 4,000+ open captioned videotapes available for free loan, intended for K-13+. Their website address is: www.cfv.org. • When leasing or purchasing instructional video, be sure that you or your media center orders the captioned version, if available.

regarding access to web-based video, digital television, and CD-ROM, at this Web address: www.wgbh.org/ncam. Another affiliate of WGBH, The Caption Center, also provides consumer-related information on captioning implementation and guidelines, and can be contacted at www.wgbh.org/ caption. 5. Is it feasible to do your own captioning?

3. Which captioning format will meet your needs?

Real-time captioning is used for lectures, presentations, or live shows. Offline rollup captioning is appropriate for prerecorded programs that are talk-oriented with little action, including documentaries, where generally one person speaks at a time. Offline pop-up captioning is suitable for programs that consist of continuous, fast-paced dialogue among multiple speakers, requiring caption placement and formatting into one- to four-line captions. Costs between real-time and offline captioning differ considerably. Real-time captioning generally costs $50 to $175 per hour of programming, while charges for offline captioning are given by the length of the program, usually about $15 per minute. Rollup captions are also cheaper to produce than pop-up captions. It is wise to compare costs and quality of captioning among providers. 4. What procedures should you follow to get your videotapes captioned?

• Assess available funding in your school or organization. Check to be sure you get copyright clearance to caption your program. • Explore various captioning vendors to see what types of captioning formats are provided and compare costs per hour/minute of video. Many captioning vendors have websites. Check out www.captions.org/alphalinks2.cfm for links to captioning agencies and hardware/software manufacturers. • Contact Captioned Media Program for a free copy of “Approved Captioning Service Vendors (NADH11).” Also contact the National Center for Accessible Media at WGBH-Boston for information

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

• Costs can vary greatly depending on equipment and process. • Contact Captioned Media Program for a free copy of “Information about Captioning Equipment and its Manufacturers (NADH-23)” regarding necessary captioning hardware/software and price ranges based on the types of features and level of capability desired. • Considerations for acquiring captioning capability: a. Is the need for captioning considerable enough to justify expense? b. Who will be doing the captioning? c. How will the training be given to people who will be doing the captioning? NTID offers captioning internships in the Instructional Television Department upon request. d. What kind of engineering support is available? AVAILABLE FUNDING FOR CAPTIONING Check the Federal Register for grant application notices of the Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services. The captioning grants information can be found under Chart 5, and can be accessed at this web link: http:/ocfo.ed.gov/grntinfo/ forecast/forecast.htm#chart5. Captions are an important aspect of the learning process for deaf and hard-of-hearing students and provide full access to the classroom experience. It is well worth the time and effort for educators to search for and provide quality captioning services to meet the needs of deaf and hard-of-hearing learners.

For more information on how to contact professionals in the captioning field, as well as other topics covered by the NETAC Teacher Tipsheet series, visit NETAC’s website at www.netac.rit.edu.

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was compiled by Peter Schragle, Associate Professor and Senior Captioning Specialist, NTID, Rochester, New York.

This publication was developed in 2000 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

Counseling Services Counseling Services For Students Who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing Current trends A recent Time magazine article noted that college counseling centers are experiencing an increasing number of students seeking services for a range of mental health and developmental needs. For many students, the college experience can be stressful, which may contribute to poor eating habits, irregular sleeping patterns, or experimentation with high risk behaviors such as sex, drugs, and alcohol.

All of these indicators, combined with the academic stress of college life, can precipitate mental health problems. With the modern medical treatment of antidepressants and other drugs, many students who would have been unable to attend college two decades ago now can thrive on campus.

As a result, there is a greater need for services than ever before. Some college counseling centers are either expanding their campus counseling services or referring students off campus for treatment. Deaf and hard-of-hearing students have the same developmental and psychological needs as their hearing counterparts; however, their communication needs are unique.

The unique experience Although confronted with ongoing challenges growing up in families with hearing members, many deaf and hard-of-hearing individuals are well adjusted and lead productive lives. However, due to the low incidence nature of deafness and communication issues, the prevalence of mental health problems is greater among deaf and hard-of-hearing people than the general population. In addition to the known causes of mental health problems found in the general population, it often is the attitudinal or physical barriers surrounding deafness that manifest the “second layer” of mental health problems in deaf and hard-of-hearing individuals. It is important for mental health providers to understand the implications of some of the common phenomena experienced by deaf and hard-of-hearing individuals. Here is a snapshot of some issues:

Ninety percent (90%) of deaf and hard-of-hearing children have parents who are hearing. How families react to deafness has a permanent psychological effect on the child and influences the entire emotional structure of the family. For example, prolonged parental grief will have an impact on the child’s view of self. And although more and more parents are using sign language, a significant number of families still rely on spoken communication. Only 30% of all spoken English words are lipreadable. Deaf and hard-of-hearing individuals have difficulties discriminating words such as pat, bat, and mat even with amplification. Understanding spoken communication often is frustrating and difficult for deaf and hard-ofhearing individuals. As with hearing children, incidental learning within the home and the community is an ongoing activity often taken for granted. Additionally, growing up “isolated or feeling left out” at home or school is a common experience shared by most of the deaf and hard-of-hearing children where communication or information access is limited and restricted. Listening to the radio, informal conversations at meal times and family gatherings, conversations at playgrounds, and public announcements at places such as airports, for example, often are not accessible to deaf or hard-of-hearing individuals. Such barriers affect the deaf or hard-of-hearing child’s understanding of the world. Since more deaf and hard-of-hearing children are being placed in mainstream settings, many of these children do not have the benefit of a “critical mass.” Many of these children are one of the few, if not the only, deaf children in such settings. Some do not have the opportunity to interact with other children like themselves, are not exposed to successful deaf role models, and rely on support services that may barely meet their needs. Social isolation and poor self-esteem are caused by gaps in their developmental stages. Attitudes of hearing people toward deaf people


tend to pervade deaf or hard-of-hearing people’s relationships with their family, with their educational environment, with employers, and with fellow workers. Some examples are accepting lower expectations of themselves based on perceptions of hearing people and lacking confidence as a result of being raised in an overprotective environment or having things done for them. Several studies reported a higher incidence of substance abuse in the deaf community, largely due to lack of access to information or understanding about substance abuse. Another barrier is the lack of quality services in programs with knowledge and expertise in deafness. Studies also report a higher incidence of sexual misconduct against people with disabilities than is found in the general population.

Providing quality services These are some of the issues and experiences deaf and hard-of-hearing students are bringing to college campuses. So what does that mean for those who provide services to such students? Counseling students who are deaf and hard of hearing requires specialized skills. Colleges must be staffed with qualified mental health providers who are knowledgeable about deafness and deaf culture and are fluent in using sign language. For instance, facial expression, like voice fluctuation in spoken language, is a grammatical feature in American Sign Language (ASL) that can be misunderstood by a counselor who is unfamiliar with deafness. Since effective communication is so critical in counseling relationships, direct communication with the counselor is preferred. However, when using an interpreter, the counselor must understand the dynamics involved in using a third party. With an interpreter, one must also be aware that some

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

information becomes “lost” or “filtered” when exchanged through an interpreter, even in the best circumstance. The overriding factor in the success of therapeutic work is not limited to effective communication but the attitude associated with knowledge, sensitivity, willingness to learn about educational and psychosocial implications of deafness, respect for deaf culture, and diversity. Having qualified mental health professionals on the staff who are deaf and hard of hearing would be an asset to college counseling centers. Resources Many books and articles have been written about the psychology of deafness. Literature with balanced views are published by authors such as Drs. Neil Glickman, Jeffrey Lewis, Marc Marschark, Robert Pollard, and McCay Vernon. The American Psychological Association, Division 22, is one of several professional organizations where resources are available. Resources and Web sites pertaining to deafness and mental health services are also available at educational mental health settings: Gallaudet University in Washington, DC, The Lexington Mental Health Center in New York City, and the National Technical Institute for the Deaf/ Rochester Institute of Technology in Rochester, NY. Other mental health resources for deaf people in different parts of the country can be found in Mental Health Services for Deaf People: A Resource Directory, available through the Gallaudet University Department of Counseling.

For more information on how to contact professionals in the counseling services field, as well as other topics covered by the NETAC Teacher Tipsheet series, visit NETAC’s Web site at http://netac.rit.edu.

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was compiled by Dr. J. Matt Searls, National Technical Institute for the Deaf, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York.

This publication was developed in 2001 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


Syndrome or are deaf/blind. To subscribe, contact owner Ralph Klumph at klumphr@wou.edu. Send the message “subscribe DBTeen.” Usher Syndrome List An Internet forum for people with Usher, their parents, friends, spouses, and service providers. To join this list via Yahoo! Groups, go to http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Ushers/join. To subscribe, click on Join. Organizations that provide information or services American Association of the Deaf/Blind 814 Thayer Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20910 301-588-6545 (T) 301-588-5705 (V) aadb@erols.com Center for the Study and Treatment of Usher Syndrome Boys Town National Research Register for Hereditary Hearing Disorders (National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders) 555 North 30th Street Omaha, NE 68131-9909 800-835-1468 (V/T) 402-498-6331 (F) genetics@boystown.org

DB-LINK The National Information Clearinghouse on Children Who Are Deaf-Blind Teaching Research Division Western Oregon University 345 N. Monmouth Avenue Monmouth, OR 97361 800-438-9376 (V) 800-854-7013 (T) 503-838-8150 (F) www.tr.wou.edu/dblink dblink@tr.wou.edu The Foundation Fighting Blindness Executive Plaza I, Suite 800 11350 McCormick Road Hunt Valley, MD 21031-1014 888-394-3937 (V) 410-785-1414 (V) 800-683-5551 (T) 410-785-9687 (T) 410-771-9470 (F) www.blindness.org Helen Keller National Center for Deaf-Blind Youths and Adults (HKNC) 111 Middle Neck Road Sands Point, NY 11050-1299 516-944-8900 (V) 516-944-8637 (T) 516-944-7302 (F) www.helenkeller.org hknctrng@aol.com These are Web site links that will connect you to other resources and various Web sites that have information about Usher Syndrome as well as deafness/blindness in general. www.tr.wou.edu/dblink/links.htm www.tr.wou.edu/dblink/source.htm

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was compiled by Patricia Lago-Avery, retired counselor/professor from the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, a college of Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York.

This publication was developed in 2001 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.

Counseling Students Who Have

NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

Usher Syndrome Usher Syndrome Introduction Usher Syndrome is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by congenital hearing loss and gradually developing retinitis pigmentosa leading to the loss of vision. Approximately 25,000 people in the United States have some form of Usher Syndrome. Most of these individuals have either Type I (10,000) or Type II (15,000). Type I Usher Syndrome is characterized by profound congenital deafness, vision problems starting in early childhood, and severe balance problems. An individual born with a moderate to severe hearing loss and normal balance characterizes Type II Usher Syndrome. Night blindness for Type II begins at childhood, but many individuals might not be aware of it until late adolescence/early adulthood. Historically, most students with Usher Syndrome Type I attended residential schools and colleges for the deaf, while individuals with Type II attended regular public schools and universities. With the mainstreaming of deaf and hard-of-hearing students brought about by Public Law 94-142, students with both Type I and II Usher Syndrome can be found in all types of educational settings. It is critical for support service personnel and counselors in college/ university environments who work with students with Usher Syndrome–regardless of type–to have a good understanding of special issues that arise for these students and to be aware of strategies that will benefit this population. It also is critical that professionals have a good understanding of Usher Syndrome and what it means to be deaf/hard of hearing and to be losing one’s vision. College-age students with Usher Syndrome have many of the same developmental issues as other adolescents (age 18 to 24 years). However, students in this population have additional issues that are not encountered by students who have normal hearing and vision or even their deaf and hard-of-hearing peers who have normal vision. The purpose of this tipsheet is to identify particular issues of concern for

college-age students who have Usher Syndrome, and list some strategies and tips for the reader. The reader will also find a list of resources for both professionals and students. Counseling Issues for Students with Usher Syndrome Educational Issues: Students will want to know: • What major/career is best for them? • Can they continue in this career for several years? How do they know how long they will be able to function in their chosen career if the medical profession cannot predict the progressive deterioration of their vision? • How to educate teachers and others about classroom needs without bringing special attention to themselves? • What can they do to help themselves find their way around the campus at night? • What strategies do they need to learn to adapt to changes in vision and how it affects the educational process? • What adaptive equipment is necessary or helpful, e.g. Closed Circuit TV for computers and reading books, special Corning CPF glasses that will reduce glare, and use of yellow or orange transparencies in the classroom? Personal/Social and Life Issues: • How will the student interact with peers when communication in groups and in dark places is difficult, due to diminishing dark adaptation and shrinking visual field? • How will the student adapt to changes in vision and hearing? • What special concerns will the student have related to dating and relationships? • Can anyone love a person with Usher Syndrome? What is the impact of Usher Syndrome on marriage? • Can the student have children; will he or she need genetic counseling? • Will the student be able to raise children properly?


• •

• •

How can the student talk with his/her parents if the family never discusses Usher Syndrome? What are some of the positive and negative experiences of people who have Usher Syndrome? Where can role models be found? How does the Americans With Disabilities Act apply to the student’s needs in the educational/ work environment? What organizations, services, and professionals can help the student move from being a deaf/ hard-of-hearing person with vision limitations to becoming legally blind? How can the student deal with issues related to anger, guilt, shame, depression, and fear of dependency? What if the student does not want to discuss or even acknowledge his/her Usher Syndrome?

Strategies and Tips for Working with CollegeAge Students Who Have Usher Syndrome The first rule of thumb is never to assume what the student does or does not know about Usher Syndrome. Assess his or her knowledge about the medical aspects as well as what he or she knows about services available to people who have Usher Syndrome. For many students, it often is easier to be more open about their educational needs than their personalsocial needs, so this is a good place to start. As a support service professional or counselor, your first priority should be to do a needs assessment interview with the student. Find out what he/she needs from you. Develop a list of questions related to educational issues such as: • Do you have trouble finding your way around in new places? Can you hear or see the fire alarm in your dorm room? Can you see in dimly lit places? • Do you have trouble reading the blackboard? Is it easier for you to read whiteboards with black markers? • Do you have a problem with glare with overhead projectors or in the classroom? • Do you have difficulty reading regular printed materials? Does it help to have a larger font size such as 18 point or 24 point? (Show the student examples of different font sizes.) • Are you able to follow your interpreter in the classroom? Is his or her use of space outside of your vision range?

Do you have any concerns about your chosen career and your future?

Strategies for Educational Issues 1. The student might need mobility and orientation training on campus and in the surrounding community. Locate these services in your community by contacting the Commission for the Blind and Visually Handicapped (CBVH). If there are no services available in your community, then work with the student and his or her family to see if these services are available in the family’s hometown. Another option is to discuss with the student the possibility of attending a summer program at the Helen Keller National Center for young adults. You should be working with the student’s Vocational Rehabilitation Counselor or the Commission for the Blind and Visually Handicapped to secure these services and payment of services. 2. Some students can read blackboards easier and others prefer the whiteboard with black markers. Red, green, and blue markers are more difficult to read. If your school does not have these options then use of a notetaker would be critical. 3. Use of an interpreter is very important for those students who use sign language. If the student is attending a college where faculty and students all use sign language, then use of a copy interpreter (someone who sits within the visual range of the student and repeats what has been signed or spoken) could be very beneficial. 4. If the student is in a mainstream setting, utilize an interpreter and notetaker. If the student is oral, then a notetaker or C-Print technology would be of great benefit. 5. Use 18- or 24-point font on overhead projectors. 6. Use yellow transparencies to reduce glare. 7. Give the student hard copies of information from transparencies. 8. Good lighting in the classroom is essential. 9. Use good contrast with media, e.g. black on white or black on yellow or dark blue with white fonts. 10. Investigate the possibility of the student getting a CCTV (closed circuit television) for reading books and helping with enlarging prints on the computer. If the student needs this type of equipment for success in the classroom, he/she

will need it for success in life as well. Work with the student’s sponsoring agency for funds. 11. Do research and educate yourself about careers of people who are deaf/blind to assist students with concerns or confusion about career choice. It is hard to predict how each person’s vision might change as they age. Some will become totally blind by the age of 40 and others might keep a good part of their central vision until they are in their 70s. It is not the counselor’s role to tell students what career to choose. The counselor should help the student understand that many people change career paths three or four times in their lifetime. Encourage the student to do research about careers. Also encourage the student to learn as much as possible about Usher Syndrome and how it might influence the future. Currently one can find people with Usher Syndrome working as: Researcher, professor/author, chef/owner of restaurant, lawyer, certified public accountant, information technology specialist, computer programmer, public health manager, counselor/ professor, minister, librarian, veterinarian, health planner, clerk, medical transcriptionist, mental health counselor, high school teacher Strategies for Personal/Social/Life Issues 1. Often a student will not be emotionally ready to deal with having Usher Syndrome. If the student is functioning well academically and personally, leave the denial alone. Denial is an important aspect of how people protect themselves mentally until they are ready emotionally to deal with having Usher Syndrome. Of course this often makes it hard to work with students who are not functioning well academically or emotionally because of their Usher Syndrome. In this case, it is important to gently try to help the student understand how his/her changing vision or lack of vision is having a serious impact on how he/she functions in the classroom or with peers. If a student does not want to talk about these issues, it is best to leave him/her alone. This might lead to classroom failure, but a failure could be the catalyst leading to change. 2. Sometimes acceptance is not possible if the visual problems are not yet apparent. 3. If the student is having problems communicating in group settings or dark places, encourage the student to be more open about having Usher

Syndrome and talking about his or her communication needs with close friends. 4. Encourage the student to meet other people who have Usher Syndrome (role models), especially adults who have learned how to adapt and make modifications in their life to function well and independently. This can be done through the Internet and also by contacting organizations that involve people with Usher Syndrome. (See resources list.) 5. Find out about organizations, e.g. Helen Keller National Center, and websites that will help you as a professional but also help your student. (See resources list.) 6. If possible, try to find a person who has Usher Syndrome who can function as a role model and mentor for your student. We all know how important it is for deaf and hard-of-hearing students to have role models and peer groups. The same is true for students who have Usher Syndrome. 7. If a student is depressed, angry, and afraid, suggest counseling services. If you feel you are not qualified to work with clients on those issues, seek out a qualified therapist to whom you can refer the student. 8. Consider encouraging the student to attend a special summer program at Helen Keller National Center for adolescents and young adults. This program will give the student an opportunity to be with peers who have Usher Syndrome and meet older adults who have Usher Syndrome. It also will give students an overview of career possibilities, orientation and mobility, independent living skills, and computer and communication adaptive technology, and will help them to be more independent and assertive about their needs. 9. Do not assume that all problems the student might have are the result of having Usher Syndrome. 10. Offer hope and be honest. If the student asks, “Will I go blind?” the answer is, “I do not know.” No one knows what will happen for any particular person. 11. Be open, accessible, and approachable to the student. Resources DBTeens is a private email Internet forum for teens and young adults to share information, ideas, opinions, and other issues for people who have Usher


NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

Interpreting Interpreting&&Biomechanics Biomechanics Cumulative Trauma Disorder* Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD involves the following: • The repetitive performance of a physical task • A task repeatedly done with force, speed, or with extremities placed in awkward positions • Insufficient rest at appropriate intervals and inadequate recovery time CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint irritability, swelling, pins and needles sensations, numbness, and skin color/ texture change. Initially, symptoms may begin during or immediately following an interpreting assignment and subside within a few hours. Or, they may first occur at night, disrupting sleep. Unaddressed symptoms may become more pronounced, lasting for a longer time. Eventually symptoms may become incessant, obstructing normal daily activities. One component of a multifaceted prevention and management program of CTD is biomechanics. What is Biomechanics? Biomechanics relates to an interpreter’s workstyle and is affected by their posture, movements, and periods of rest. Good posture maintains the proper alignment of one’s bones and connective tissues (muscles, * Based on research from the Center for Occupational Rehabilitation at the University of Rochester (New York) Medical Center

tendons, ligaments, arteries, and veins) and provides a stable base from which to work. Biomechanical movements of the body (mainly the arms) can be generally classified as low risk or high risk. It is important that interpreters strive to work with a low-risk work style. This requires the modification of the interpreter’s work style movements. Movements fall into the following categories: hand/wrist position, work envelope, force, static loading, and “micro” rest breaks. Maintain a neutral hand/wrist position as much as possible. Frequent deviations (the severe bending of the wrist in any direction from a neutral position) correlate strongly with CTD injuries. The interpreter’s work envelope is the signing space. A normal work envelope usually is composed of a space approximately one inch beyond shoulder width extending from the head to the waist and with a depth of approximately half of the fully extended arm. Although the arms sometimes reach to extend the envelope, this should not be the predominant signing style. More tension results when interpreters extend their arms or upper extremities outside the work envelope. Fatigue increases as the distance of reach increases. You can demonstrate this principle by holding a book at waist height near the body, then at shoulder height with arms extended. Forceful, or “ballistic” signing is thought to be a significant contributor to CTD. Signs should not be consistently hard and abrupt. Static loading means holding a muscle or muscles in a tense position. This can result in muscle


fatigue. Drawing the shoulders up toward the neck is an example of static loading due to stress. There is not sufficient recovery time for healing when muscles are in a constant state of tension. The more rest breaks interpreters take during an interpreting task, the less post-interpreting fatigue they will experience. Interpreters must take adequate rest breaks not only between each assignment, but also during the interpreting task. A “micro” rest break means lowering the hands as often as possible. This can be done by placing the hands in a neutral position on the lap if sitting or to the side if standing. There are many opportunities for rest during an interpreting assignment. For example, a speaker pausing provides an opportunity for interpreters to rest their hands. Prolonged interpreting (over an hour without a break) also contributes to mental fatigue and may increase errors in the interpreter’s work. Why is it a concern? With little or no rest, muscles become fatigued. Fatigued muscles, when contracted, restrict blood flow and contribute to the incidence of microtraumas. Microtraumas are microscopic tears in muscle fibers. Over time, and without proper rest breaks, substantial damage can occur to muscles and tendons.

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

Other possible conditions/problems resulting from inappropriate biomechanics: • •

Tendinitis (inflammation of tendons) Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (pressure exerted on the median nerve that passes into the hand through the narrow carpal tunnel of the wrist) Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (compression of nerves and blood vessels in the neck and shoulder region)

Biomechanical guidelines for working with interpreters: A rest break of 10 minutes for every hour of an assignment is recommended. If an assignment goes longer than a few hours, a team interpreter should be there to share the workload. This should give each interpreter sufficient opportunities to rest their muscles. Proper support while seated or standing is also important.

For more information on how to contact professionals in the interpreting field, as well as other topics covered by the NETAC Teacher Tipsheet series, visit NETAC’s Web site at http:// netac.rit.edu.

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was compiled by the Department of Interpreting Services, National Technical Institute for the Deaf, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York.

This publication was developed in 2001 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

Campus Campus SafetySafety

And the Deaf Community Working Together If your campus has students who are deaf or hard of hearing, your Public Safety department needs to become aware of some basic information about deafness in order to serve those students well. Public Safety officers may interact with deaf students in a variety of situations: Reporting a theft Emergency medical situations Reporting items lost or found Parking violations Requests for services Let’s start with some basic information about deafness and deaf culture. It is important to know that there is a difference in the degrees of deafness that people may have.

takes for granted, such as facial expression and eye contact. It is important not to over-exaggerate your lip movements. Talk slowly (normally) and clearly without over-exaggerating words.

Vocabulary • Deaf is preferred by many students who identify with the deaf community whether they are deaf or hard of hearing. • Hard of Hearing often is used when the person has some hearing or uses hearing aids. Hearing Impaired may be viewed by members of the deaf community as an insult because they feel they are not impaired. Deafness is their way of life, with their own culture and language (ASL – American Sign Language, which is recognized as a language with its own syntax and grammatical structure).

Interpreting is an excellent choice for communication. The interpreter will convey your tone of voice and inflection through facial expression, body language, and intensity of the signs used. It is helpful to brief the interpreter on the nature of the incident/ situation. Sit/stand next to the interpreter and face the deaf person. Speak to the deaf person, not the interpreter. Be aware that interpreters interpret ALL that they hear.

Be aware that there is a Deaf Culture and people who are deaf are proud of it. The deaf culture has similarities and contrasts with other cultures. Communication options Next let’s discuss several successful ways to communicate with a deaf person. Choosing one of the modes below or using a combination of them is acceptable. Remember, the goal is to communicate. Pantomime: We all use pantomime in everyday life. You may use your hands to describe the size, roundness, or placement of an object. Facial expressions sometimes are all that is needed to project a feeling or thought. Speechreading: The ability to read lips varies among deaf people. Eye contact and proper lighting are important for effective communication. Deaf people need to see your face in order to read your lips. They depend heavily on certain factors that the hearing community

Written communication can be used for short conversations when asking direct questions, giving direct answers, and giving directions. It is not well suited for lengthy communication, which can be exhaustive, especially dealing with matter that requires details. Another drawback of written communication is that it is time consuming. Written communication can be difficult, depending on the level of the deaf person’s knowledge of standardized English.

Sign language often is taught through community service organizations, local high schools, or colleges and is an excellent way to communicate with the deaf community. This will show your support and enable you to be more prepared in emergency situations. TDD/TTY (Telecommunication Device for the Deaf) is an essential device needed to allow the deaf community to communicate with you and your department via telephone. It is important to have a TDD or TTY but equally important to be sure your communications personnel properly and promptly answer the TDD/TTY. Use of Interpreters Learning to work with an interpreter is easy and an effective mode of communication. It is a good idea to establish guidelines or procedures to abide by when engaging interpreting services so that there is no confusion. • Have a procedure set up for contacting an “on call” interpreter during the day and at night.


Meet with the interpreting services department or community agency to coordinate logistics. Have an understanding of the geographical boundaries and services the interpreter will be providing for your department and financial obligations. Should an assisting police department need interpreting services off campus to conclude its investigation, it is important to have a policy/ procedure set up for when and where your interpreters will be used. Are the interpreters certified? Do they need to have special certifications to interpret legal proceedings in your state or on your campus? Interpreters will not be called upon as witnesses to testify as to what was said during an interview but may be called upon to testify that communication occurred.

Emergencies During an emergency the ability to communicate not only saves time but may save a life. Training for emergencies is always good management foresight. • Teach officers “emergency signs”: who, what happened, where, hurt/pain, hospital, ambulance, medicine, pills, how much, relax, and interpreter. • Have a response procedure for “no-talk” telephone calls that are identifiable by location (ex: “Blue light” emergency call boxes, residence halls, offices etc.). • During nighttime vehicle stops, position your flashlight between you and the driver, shining the light up or across so you both are illuminated and the light is not in either person’s eyes. • Learn vehicle and traffic signs: license, registration, insurance card, stop sign, speeding, wait, and ticket. • Student Rights/Miranda Warnings: Explain these in other words. For example: You have the right to remain silent = You do not have to answer my questions if you don’t want to. Some deaf students may understand the words but not the concept. A written form with an explanation of the rights helps maintain consistency and clarity. • Handcuffing cuts off important modes of communication. You may consider using Handcuffing belts (which secure the person’s hands

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

in front) after the person has calmed down. They allow communication to resume and maintain officer safety. Consider this... Here are just a few “tips” for you to consider when communicating with a deaf person. • The “deaf nod.” As you ask questions the deaf student nods his/her head “yes” during interviewing. This does not always mean “yes” to your question. The deaf person may only be indicating that he/she understands the words you are using, but may not understand the concept. Be sure your communication is clear. If it is not, use a different mode. • Large, fast gestures/signing indicate the deaf person may be under stress and that emotional levels are high. To someone not knowing this, it may appear that the person is aggressive or out of control. It can be helpful to move the person to an isolated area and/or have the person sit down where communication can be slowed down and improved. • Eye contact is a must for communicating with a deaf person (yelling does not help). Facial and body language also are important. • Deaf students yield to sirens the same as any driver with the stereo on. • You can reduce stress and gain cooperation by first explaining the actions you are going to take or need from the deaf person. • To gain the attention of a deaf person, it is acceptable to flick the lights on/off, stomp your feet, bang on the table and/or wave your hand.

For more information on how to contact professionals in the campus safety field, as well as other topics covered by the NETAC Teacher Tipsheet series, visit NETAC’s Web site at http://netac.rit.edu.

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was compiled by James Pressey, Campus Safety Department, National Technical Institute for the Deaf, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York.

This publication was developed in 2001 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

Hiring a INTERPRETER Qualified Interpreter Finding good help is difficult enough these days, but trying to hire a qualified sign language interpreter can be especially difficult if you don’t know what to look for. Here are some ideas that may help in your search. •

ethical standards and practices. Certification may be in one of at least three different forms: – RID (Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf) national certification – includes CSC, CI, CT, IC, TC, and RSC.

The hiring of interpreters can come in at least two ways – either using an interpreter referral agency or direct hiring. Both have their advantages and disadvantages.

– NAD (National Association of the Deaf) national certification – includes Level 5 (highest level) through Level 3 (generalist).

– Using an independent interpreter referral agency will probably be more expensive; however, the agency will retain the responsibility to make the contact, hire the interpreter, and negotiate billing. They can also vouch to the interpreter’s skill level and ethics if they’ve worked with that interpreter before. – Hiring an interpreter yourself may allow you to negotiate rates for services. However, you may have to contact several interpreters before you find one that is available. Also you may not be familiar with the interpreter’s skills, strengths, and weaknesses. •

The ability to use sign language, even fluently, does not in and of itself make for a good interpreter. While an extensive knowledge of sign language is required to be an interpreter, many other factors are involved in finding an interpreter who will meet your needs, the student’s needs, and the needs of the faculty.

When hiring an interpreter, ask to see her/his certification. Certification shows that the interpreter has passed the appropriate skills test and has knowledge in the languages (English and American Sign Language) and cultures (Hearing and Deaf) along with

– Different states also may have certification/screening systems that are only recognized within the specific state. One example of this is the Mid-South Quality Assurance Screening Test, which goes from Level 5 (highest level) through Level 1 (lowest level). State screening tests are a stepping stone toward full national certification. Other things to look for when hiring an interpreter: • Does the interpreter come to the job interview on time? Dressed appropriately? •

Can the interpreter intelligently explain the role of an interpreter so that you can understand it? This would include information relating to both classroom responsibilities and any outside duties needed to do her/his job well (for example, obtaining a copy of textbooks to read for specialized vocabulary).

Does the interpreter have a degree from an Interpreter Education Program? While this should not be considered an absolute prerequisite to employment, it does permit the prospective employer to make some


assumptions about the interpreter’s background and knowledge in the field. •

What is the education level of the interpreter compared to the education level of the class? This is important, because the interpreter must be able to comprehend and match the appropriate language needed for that course.

Does the interpreter speak in a professional manner? Does she/he have a good command of the English language? Sign language interpreters have to be fluent in English as well as in American Sign Language.

Does the interpreter exhibit paternalistic or condescending behaviors toward the student who is deaf or toward deaf persons in general? (This is a big warning sign!)

• •

Is the interpreter willing to commit to working for the duration of the semester? Is the interpreter a member of her/his professional organizations? If so, she/he should be able to produce a membership card to Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID) and the state chapter of RID (if available), or the NAD Interpreter Section. The RID Code of Ethics states that interpreters: ...shall strive to further knowledge and skills through participation in workshops, professional meetings, interaction with professional colleagues, and reading of current literature in the field.

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

Ask the interpreter to describe or list professional development activities since receiving certification. •

Has the interpreter been active in her/his state organization? This can show a commitment to the field and a desire for professional development.

Does the interpreter have a reputation among the deaf community? Ask around to get others’ opinions on her/his skills and ethics, require references from the deaf community, or screen the interpreter with a panel of evaluators comprised of either students or local deaf community members.

Ask the interpreter to describe a time she/he was faced with an ethical dilemma, sharing how the situation was resolved (without breaking confidentiality).

Interpreters are to accept assignments with discretion according to their skill level. Can the interpreter name areas in which she/he is currently trying to improve?

By investing a little time and thought, you can increase the likelihood that you’re hiring the most qualified person for the job. This will benefit everyone involved! For more information on how to contact professionals in the interpreting field, as well as other topics covered by the NETAC Teacher Tipsheet series, visit NETAC’s website at http://netac.rit.edu.

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was prepared by Sharon Downs, John West, and Shana Kirksey Mile, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, PEC (Postsecondary Education Consortium).

This publication was developed in 2000 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

Transitioning to College TRANSITIONING

From Dependence to Independence

The Situation and the Challenge The transition from high school to the postsecondary educational environment is a challenge for any student. There are new places, new faces, and whole new ways of doing things. Not only that, but transitioning students suddenly find they must advocate for themselves instead of having programs and services planned for them. For students who are deaf or hard of hearing, the challenges are even greater. The reasons for this are complex, but it is enough to say that students may not have had as much exposure to a generalized knowledge of society. Appropriate counseling addressed to specific issues can overcome this knowledge gap to a large degree. Typical Issues Facing Students How do I decide on my career goal? How do I choose the right college? How do I apply to college? What type of accommodations do I need? How do I get accommodation services? Self Assessment and Career Choice 1. The first step in the process is for the student to determine his/her wants and needs. To accomplish this, the student must go through a process of selfanalysis. Numerous methods are available which will help the student focus on specific fields. Interest inventory tests, vocational education, and aptitude tests are available through school counselors, vocational rehabilitation (VR), or from private testing agencies or psychologists. 2.

The second step is to understand the nature of work in possible careers. This information can be found in a variety of ways. Any library has books (such as the Dictionary of Occupational Titles or DOT) which list jobs and describe what each job entails, along with the requirements for entering that field. Career and job fairs are good sources of information. They give the student an opportunity to meet prospective employers, discuss possibilities, and ask questions face to face. With some basic information in hand, the student can then make appointments for on-site visits. Visits to real work sites allow the student to ask workers who do the type of work being considered questions about the various jobs.

3.

Decisions as important as choosing a career should not be made without consultation. Who should the student consult? A good place to begin is with the student’s high school counselors and teachers. Vocational rehabilitation (VR) counselors often have the most up-to-date information, as well as being able to guide a student in the proper direction. And, of course, the student’s own parents and family are good sources of opinion, guidance, and information.

Choosing a College Choosing a college is a job in itself, and it’s not accomplished overnight. Research into colleges needs to begin 2-3 years before high school graduation. If the student has determined a preferred career, college choice must start with finding colleges that offer curriculum tailored to that career. High school and college libraries usually have numerous catalogs from colleges both nearby and far from home. Browsing through these catalogs can give the student a general idea about a particular institution and can quickly identify schools offering the student’s preferred major. College and Career Programs for Deaf Students, a joint publication of Gallaudet University and the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, can be a valuable resource in selecting a college. Does the college have a program and services for students who are deaf and hard of hearing? If so, when was the program established? Do they already have interpreters, free tutors, notetakers, and assistive devices? How are the notetakers and tutors selected? Are they trained? Are interpreters state-screened or nationally certified? How many deaf students are currently enrolled at the college? Does the college have deaf students every year or only once in a while? How many deaf students have attended the college in the past? How did they like the college and the services it provided to them? All of these questions should be asked to the college’s representative or counselor when the student goes to visit the campus. If the college doesn’t have a program for deaf students but the college is nonetheless where the student wants to go, the student may have the additional burden of educating the college about needs and accommodations. The student may need to seek out qualified support services such as interpreters, tutors, and notetakers. Good advocacy skills on the part of the student will ensure that qualified services are sought and obtained.


Distance from home might also be a factor. How far is the college from home? Will the student need a car, either to commute to a nearby school or at a school far away? Is commuting even an option? The need for a car will depend in large part on whether the student will live in a dorm or an apartment. Once the necessary research has been done and a college selected, it would be best if the student actually visited the college campus. This gives the student an opportunity to see the environment for himself, to meet counselors and academic advisors, to talk with other students in the chosen major, and to learn firsthand about what support services are available and their quality. An enjoyable trip to a comfortable environment, to a friendly, accessible place, and a positive experience, provides a feeling of confidence that greatly helps the transition to college life. Applying to College Students must be aware of the requirements for admission to their college of choice. What is the minimum GPA (Grade Point Average) that must be achieved in high school? Are tests such as the SAT required? Does the college require a high school diploma or completed GED? Almost all colleges require a high school transcript, the college’s own application form, and an application fee. What is the deadline for having all application materials to the college? The best way to find out exactly what the college requires is to meet with the college counselor. In any event, the student will want to meet with the counselor when it’s time to register for classes. The counselor also will be able to review the financial aspects of attending college and give advice on where to find money. College Finances Before making the final decision to attend college, the student must know what it’s all going to cost. Tuition isn’t the only expense. The student must figure on books and supplies, living expenses (whether in a dormitory or apartment), and transportation. Apartment living tends to be more expensive because of the additional utility and food bills.

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

Who will pay for school, books, and other expenses? The student’s parents? Can the student help with regular SSI money or savings? Will VR be funding part or all of the student’s education? Most students need help in one form or another. Many apply for financial aid in the form of loans or grants. Sometimes it’s possible to earn a scholarship. And, of course, many students work part-time or full-time jobs. Scholarships, loans, and grants must be applied for as soon as possible. The student who waits until the last minute will have a hard time getting financial aid because the money will already have been distributed to other qualified students who applied early. Financial Aid Forms (FAF) are available from college registrars or from financial institutions. College counselors will know of work-study programs that suit the student’s major. The most important thing to remember is to apply early. Accommodations - What and How? What type of accommodations does the student need to request? Will a sign language interpreter be needed? What about notetakers, tutors, assistive listening devices, TTYs, or other support? Whether a college has these support services already in place or not, the student should first talk with a college counselor. Perhaps there is a student support service or even a deaf services staff. Any of these places would be a good starting point. Remember: It is the student’s responsibility to ask for accommodations. 1. Try to know in advance what will be needed. 2. Research, investigate, and gather information before you arrive at school. 3. Visit the college before the semester begins. 4. Fill out all the necessary forms.

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was compiled by Lucy Howlett, Coordinator, PEC Virginia State Outreach and Technical Assistance Center and Coordinator of the Center for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing at New River Community College, Dublin, Virginia.

This publication was developed in 2000 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

Job Search JOB SEARCH “I am looking for a job.” These words can strike terror in the hearts of the most stalwart people. Like buying a house or a car, getting married, or having a baby, looking for a job is a challenge we experience only a few times in our lives. Nearly every job seeker will experience feelings of frustration, confusion, and the emotional roller coaster of hope and dashed hopes when the inevitable rejection letters appear in the mailbox. Students who are deaf may experience additional frustrations dealing with reluctant employers, who may doubt their abilities, have erroneous stereotypes concerning deafness, and inaccurate information regarding accommodations. However, in spite of the hard work that must go into a successful job search and the accompanying negative emotions, looking for a job can be a rewarding, exciting, and growthproducing experience. Having the right perspective, a positive attitude, and adequate support can make all the difference. Strategies for a successful job search do not vary for students who are deaf and hard of hearing. Therefore, this information will not be repeated here. However, there are some issues that should be considered if the student is going to be successful. These are communication strategies, disclosure as a job seeker who is deaf or hard of hearing, and accommodations. Communication This topic has two areas of concern: How will support staff communicate with the student? How will the student choose to communicate with potential employers? • Communicating with the student: The best way to settle this dilemma is to ask the student which is his or her preferred form of communication. There is a wide range of communication abilities and preferences among people who are deaf and hard of hearing. Once a mode is decided upon, it is important to remember that eye contact is

important. Look at the student while speaking; don’t talk while chewing gum or food, or put your hand over your mouth. Sit where the light is on your face, rather than at your back. Communicating with potential employers during the job search: Questions that can be addressed here are: How will employers contact me? How will I contact them? How will I handle the interview? Will I need an interpreter? There is no one set of correct answers as the student’s ability to communicate will vary with the individual.

Disclosure This issue concerns when and if students disclose their hearing loss to potential employers. The choice will be up to the student. However, there are several options: in the cover letter, in the resume, when the employer calls for an interview, at the interview, when a job offer is made, and after the offer is accepted. There are pros and cons to each option. It is often suggested that the student wait to disclose until there is an offer for an interview. More information about this topic can be found in Job Strategies for People with Disabilities by Melanie Witt. Accommodations The Americans with Disabilities Act has information that applies to all persons with disabilities. However, it is necessary to disclose the need for accommodation before the employer is obligated to provide it. On-Campus Resources • The Career Services Office can help with resume and cover writing skills, interviewing workshops, job postings, and on-campus recruiting. Some centers offer career counseling, testing, and academic planning. The Counseling Center will offer career and personal counseling. If necessary, take the student and introduce him or her to the staff in these offices.


Additional resources (World wide web) Sites for employers: – NTID’s Center on Employment: www.rit.edu/NTID/CO/CE

Print resources – Witt, M.A. (1992). Job Search Strategies for People with Disabilities. Peterson’s Guides: Princeton, NJ. – Ryan, D.J. (2000). Job Search handbook for people with disabilities. JIST: Indianapolis, IN. – Job Search Handbook for People with Disabilities, Ryan, D.J., 2000; – Tips for Communicating with Deaf and Hard of Hearing People (available from NTID) – Let’s Communicate: Basic Signs and Tips for Communicating with Deaf People (available from NTID)

Vocational rehabilitation: many students who are deaf and hard of hearing have vocational rehabilitation counselors who may be able to assist them in their job search. Check your local phone book for the office nearest you. Look under the heading, “State Government.” VR programs may be found under various departments: Education; Labor; Human Services; Rehabilitative Services, etc.

Sites for people with disabilities: – Job Accommodation Network www.jan.wvu.edu – The President’s Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities www50.pcepd.gov/pcepd/ – Vocational Rehabilitation http://trfn.clpgh.org/srac/state-vr.shtml Sites concerning deafness: – NTID’s Center on Employment www.rit.edu/NTID/CO/CE – National Deaf Education Network and Clearinghouse www.gallaudet.edu/~nicd/ index.html – About.com http://deafness.about.com/health/ deafness – Job seeking by deaf and hard-of-hearing people www.zak.co.il/deaf-info/old/job_seeking.html

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was compiled by Debbie Fister, employment advisor, National Technical Institute for the Deaf, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York.

This publication was developed in 2000 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

Serving Deaf Students Who Have

Cochlear Implants Cochlear Implants Overview More and more deaf people, both children and adults, are receiving cochlear implants (CIs) today than ever before. Given this trend, it is fair to assume a greater number of deaf students will be arriving at postsecondary institutions with cochlear implants than at any other time previously. This makes it important for the Disability Support Services staff to have at least a rudimentary understanding of cochlear implants and their impact.

Two different models are shown: A: behind the ear processor B: body processor A – Behind the Ear Processor

4

1

2

Cochlear implants are electronic devices which are implanted in the cochlea and designed to provide

3

2 4

B – Body Processor 3

Cochlea

useful hearing and improved communication ability to individuals who have profound hearing losses and are unable to achieve speech understanding with hearing aids. They do not restore hearing to “normal.” How cochlear implants work Cochlear implants are designed to bypass cochlear hair cells that are non-functional and provide direct stimulation to the auditory nerve. Every CI is comprised of the following: 1. electrode array(s) 2. microphone 3. signal processor 4. signal coupler (transmitter and receiver)

How does a CI produce hearing? • The microphone picks up sounds and sends them to the processor. • The processor then selects and codes sounds that produce useful speech, music, etc. • From the processor, sounds are transmitted through the skin to the receiver/stimulator via the magnetic headset. • The codes are then converted to electric signals that activate the electrode arrays. • The electrodes then stimulate the auditory nerve. The brain recognizes the electric signals as sounds.


Expectations Cochlear implants will not restore hearing to “normal.” When an individual is considered for a cochlear implant, the audiologist and otorhynolaryngologist stress the fact that the implant will not result in hearing that is the same as biologic hearing. Benefits derived vary greatly among individuals. Some CI users only gain knowledge of environmental sound while others gain ability to use telephone and hear music. It is important that recipients and the people surrounding them understand that cochlear implants do not enable a deaf person to function as a hearing person! The cochlear implant controversy Within the Deaf Community, specifically among individuals who are born deaf and use American Sign Language as their preferred mode of communication, there exists a high level of controversy and resistance to cochlear implants. Their concern lies within their cultural pride and the belief that deafness is not something to be cured. It should be understood, however, that the Deaf Community generally understands and supports the choice to receive a cochlear implant when the individual is late-deafened, that is, having become deaf as an adult. What are the impacts in postsecondary education? Postsecondary education students, regardless of the benefit they derive from their cochlear implant, will still require the use of support services. Some students will request either sign language or oral interpreters. Assistive listening devices (ALDs) are frequently requested by these students. Still others

will ask for real-time captioning. It can be assumed that most students with cochlear implants will request notetaking services. Another type of support these students may need is counseling to deal with issues that are a result of either having a cochlear implant or being latedeafened, both of which make the individual stand out from his/her hearing and culturally deaf peers. It may be beneficial to identify other people in the community, either the institution or the locale, who have cochlear implants and/or became deaf beyond the age of 16. These people are valuable resources, who should not be overlooked nor underestimated. Other tips DO face the person when talking. DO keep eye contact when speaking. DO speak clearly. DO repeat a sentence exactly. If still not understood, then choose alternative phrases to express your thoughts. DO monitor environmental noise. DO monitor environmental light. DON’T turn away from the deaf person’s view when speaking. DON’T over-exaggerate your speech. DON’T attempt to talk over loud environmental noise: wait for the noise to stop or move to a quieter location. DON’T shout when speaking. DON’T speak with objects in or in front of your mouth.

* The Postsecondary Education Programs Network, a collaboration including the Northeast Technical Assistance Center and the Midwest Center for Postsecondary Outreach, does not endorse any specific model of cochlear implant.

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was compiled by Sharaine Rawlinson, Associate Director, Midwest Center for Postsecondary Outreach, St. Paul Minnesota.

This publication was developed in 2000 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


Vocational Vocational Rehabilitation Rehabilitation NETAC Tipsheet

for Postsecondary Programs that Serve Students who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

Purpose The purpose of the public Vocational Rehabilitation program is to empower individuals with disabilities to maximize employment, economic self-sufficiency, independence, and inclusion and integration into society. Simply stated,VR provides services to individuals with physical or mental disabilities who need help to qualify for, find, or keep a job that is consistent with their strengths, resources, priorities, concerns, abilities, interests, and informed choice. Will all high school graduates who have a significant hearing loss be eligible for VR? Most will–but not necessarily. VR is not an entitlement program, it is an eligibility program. This means that the student must meet the federally mandated VR eligibility criteria: Criterion 1: The individual must have a disability. Disability is defined in the VR law as a person who– • has a physical or mental impairment that constitutes or results in a substantial impediment to employment, and • can benefit in terms of an employment outcome from VR services. Criterion 2: The individual requires VR services to prepare for, secure, retain, or regain employment. How does the eligibility determination process work? Based on an intake interview and assessment, the assigned VR counselor will decide on an individualized basis whether or not an applicant is eligible for VR services. Will the assigned VR counselor be an expert in the fields of deafness and hearing impairment? Sometimes. Many states have “counselors for the deaf and hard of hearing” who have specialized communication skills as well as in-depth knowledge of the unique psychosocial, educational, and technological needs of persons who are deaf or hard of hearing. However, because of geographic and other reasons, not all persons with hearing loss become assigned to these counselors. How does a student get referred to VR? Referrals can be made by anyone, including self referrals and referral from postsecondary programs. Therefore, if a student in your program is struggling with vocational issues, or you believe they could otherwise benefit from VR services, have them contact their local VR agency to refer themselves if they wish. One note of caution–it is inappropriate–in fact illegal–to require a student to apply for VR services in order to be accepted by a postsecondary education program.

You can make a student aware of VR and its services, but it is considered discrimination to require students with disabilities to go through VR in order to be eligible for an education. How are services determined? After being found eligible for VR services, the student and the VR counselor sit down together to develop an individualized plan for employment, called the IPE. The basic parts of the IPE include: • individual job goal • services needed to be successful in that job goal • process for review of progress toward goal achievement. This IPE is based on the individual student’s abilities, strengths, priorities, concerns, interests, and resources. Students may require physical aids such as a hearing aid, educational assistance such as vocational training or college, or other services that are necessary for them to achieve employment in their chosen vocation. Other services often provided to eligible students include assessment, employment planning, counseling and guidance, transportation, resume writing and other job seeking skills, job placement assistance, job coaching to learn job tasks and expectations, and follow up to support employment success and satisfaction. Remember, VR services are individually determined and employment goal based. Two individuals with the same degree and type of hearing loss might be provided very different services depending on their job goal, education, experience, and other factors, including personal preferences. Does VR sponsor part-time students? States differ in their policies, but generally part-time attendance is permitted only if absolutely necessary and justified. Does VR pay for all services that are needed and agreed to on the IPE? All similar benefits must be considered before VR money kicks in. In other words, VR is considered the “last dollar.” VR may therefore pay all, part of, or none of the tuition and other services. Some state VR agencies have an economic need test. In these states the student (or parent if the student is still at home) will be required to fill out an economic need assessment form. Dependent on their available resources, they may be asked to pay all or part of the cost. (Evaluation, counseling and guidance, and job placement services must be provided regardless of the family’s ability to pay.)


Some state VR agencies have maximum spending limits on some services. However, these limits cannot be set so low that the service is not able to be purchased reasonably for that cost. Who pays for interpreters and CART/C-Print™ services? Since the passage of ADA this has varied from state to state. Some will pay all–some will pay part–some will pay none of the cost. The 1998 Amendments to the Rehabilitation Act mandate that cooperative agreements be developed at the State level between VR and Higher Education. This may help to clarify this long-standing issue, but will continue to vary from one state to another. Will VR pay for any eligible student who is deaf or hard of hearing to attend the college of his/her choice? Choice of an appropriate school is the student’s. However, in most states there is a policy that if equal programs are available at different schools at different costs, the student must attend the less expensive one or make up the difference. The same policy often applies to in-state vs. out-of-state schools. Can VR pick up a student who is already enrolled in a postsecondary program and pay tuition retroactively? No.VR cannot pay for any service retroactively. Payment for needed services, tuition or other, cannot begin until after eligibility is determined and an IPE developed and signed by both the student and the VR counselor. If approved for VR sponsorship, will it automatically continue until graduation is achieved? No. Sponsorship must be reassessed each semester or quarter (depending on the system). The student is required to maintain contact with his/her VR counselor and to keep the counselor up to date on all transcripts, changes in courses or curriculum, financial status, or problems encountered. He/she should not withdraw from a class without the VR counselor’s agreement. With justification, a student can change curriculum or degree goal and not lose VR sponsorship. However, the counselor must develop a written amended plan with the student before any significant changes are made in these or other major service areas. How does VR stay up to date on student information? Because of confidentiality laws (Family Educational Rights & Privacy Act of 1974–or the Buckley Amendment), a postsecondary institution cannot send transcripts, grades, or other such material to a VR counselor without the student’s written consent specific to each document. It is therefore imperative that the school stress to the student that this is the student’s responsibility, and is essential for continuing VR sponsorship.

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

716-475-6433 (V/TTY) 716-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu WWW: www.netac.rit.edu

For more information To locate the VR office nearest you: • Consult the telephone book under State Government.VR programs may be found under various departments: Education; Labor; Human Services; Rehabilitative Services, etc. • If you cannot find the telephone book listing, your Regional PEPNet (Postsecondary Education Programs Network) office can help you: Southern Region Postsecondary Education Consortium (PEC) The University of Tennessee, Knoxville – Dunford Hall Knoxville, TN 37996-4020 (865) 974-0607 (v/t), (865) 974-3522 (Fax) Northeastern Region Northeast Technical Assistance Center (NETAC) Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623 (716) 475-6433 (v/t), (716) 475-7660 (Fax) Midwestern Region Midwest Center for Postsecondary Outreach (MCPO) St. Paul Technical College Marshall Street St. Paul, MN 55102 (651) 221-1337 (v/t), (651) 221-1416 (Fax) Western Region Western Region Outreach Center & Consortia (WROCC) National Center on Deafness California State University, Northridge Nordhoff Street Northridge, CA 91330-8267 (818) 677-2611 (v/t), (818) 677-4899 (Fax) Ask your PEPNet office about the NETAC “Connections” workshop that is available to assist VR and postsecondary education staffs at the local level to develop a cooperative working relationship in regards to mutual students/clients who have a hearing loss.

This NETAC Tipsheet was compiled by Patricia Tomlinson, Rehabilitation Consultant, Brick, New Jersey.

This publication was revised in 2005 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H324A010002-05). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

Retention RETENTION Introduction Deaf and hard-of-hearing students entering postsecondary education often begin their studies with a significant educational handicap that, lacking special support, will result in their dropping out of school without any form of certification. Estimates for deaf and hard-of-hearing postsecondary students show that between two-thirds and three-quarters of those who begin their studies never graduate. From the individual’s perspective, the economic benefit of receiving certification is considerable. Deaf and hard-of-hearing persons with postsecondary certification report earnings that are more equivalent to those of their hearing peers and their earnings are significantly higher than deaf and hard-of-hearing persons with no college degree. Also, deaf students who leave college without any form of certification report earnings that are no higher than individuals who never attended college. When many students share a common problem such as the failure or lack of desire to persist in college, it behooves an institution, both for its own sake and for that of its students, to learn as much as possible about the factors influencing the decision to withdraw from college so that strategies for intervention can be identified. This tipsheet will focus on understanding the factors that research has indicated are important for persistence to graduation and suggest some approaches to reducing attrition among deaf and hard-of-hearing students attending postsecondary institutions. A theoretical model of persistence Much recent attention has been devoted to understanding student withdrawal from college. A theoretical model presented by Tinto (1987), and tested in various environments, including deaf students at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, provides an explanatory theory of the persistence/withdrawal process that can be applied to deaf and hard-of-hearing students. The theory considers persistence to be, primarily, a function of the quality of a student’s interactions with the academic and social systems of an institution. That is, students come to a particular institution with a range of background characteristics (e.g. achievement, communication, socialeconomic status, personality), as well as varying levels of commitment to acquiring a higher education. The background characteristics, along with commitment, influence how students will interact with other people in the institution’s social and academic systems. When experiences are positive, students increase their sense of being integrated into the academic and social systems of

the campus community. When experiences are negative, commitment to the institution and likelihood of persistence decreases. The model also implies that students are continually modifying their sense of academic and social integration and their institutional commitments on the basis of their ongoing college experiences. Deaf and hard-of-hearing students and this model Similar factors are important in the persistence of deaf and hearing students. Students who have academic skills and intellectual interests that match the requirements and orientation of the institution are more likely to experience academic integration than those whose skills and interests do not match. What is different about deaf and hard-of-hearing students is that they most often require special social environments and modifications in the academic environment in order to experience social and academic integration. Many deaf and hard-of-hearing students regard contact with their peers as the best opportunity for friendship, dating, and interaction. In this way, deaf and hard-of-hearing students are similar to other ethnic groups. With respect to academic integration, many deaf students do not possess the mathematics, science, and reading skills to function effectively in traditional classes designed primarily for hearing students, even if sign language interpreting and notetaking services are provided.

Do not assume anything. • Do not assume that good speech means that students possess adequate English skills. Many deaf and hard-of-hearing students can speak intelligibly but lack the fundamental English skills to read and write on a par with their hearing peers. Hearing, speech, reading, and writing, while sharing a mutual dependence, often develop at different levels in deaf and hard-of-hearing students. On the other side, do not assume that poor speech skills automatically equate with poor academic preparation. • Do not assume that an interpreter and notetaker solve the communication difficulties of deaf students. While most programs provide support services of interpreting and notetaking, these services are built upon the notion that deaf students can be ‘made equal’ to hearing students if they are provided access to regular classroom communication through sign language interpreters, notetakers, tutors, or electronic


communication devices. When these services are provided, deaf and hard-of-hearing students are expected to compete successfully with their hearing peers. If students are not successful, failure is often attributed to a lack of preparation or effort rather than to the educational environment or method of instruction. Consideration is rarely made of the fact that the provision of lecture notes or sign language interpretation for classes does not necessarily mean that the “barrier” created by lower achievement and experiential levels has been breached. • Do not assume that students have a support network of other students. Hearing and speech problems of most deaf and hardof-hearing persons make it extremely difficult for them to establish educational and social links with other students. Even though a deaf person has access to college, he/she may remain isolated both socially and educationally from the mainstream. Such isolation, or lack of integration into the educational community, may be an important cause of attrition among deaf persons attending college. Service providers must ask whether the academic and social needs of students are being met within the context of institutional environments where the typical hearing student to deaf student ratio is often 1000 to 1. • Do not assume that students have well-developed career goals. The theory of college persistence suggests that the absence of commitment to the particular institution is an important factor in the decision to leave college. In order for such commitment to happen, it is important that students have a sense of direction in their life, and a reason for going to college. Making such commitments often are especially difficult for young deaf persons because they may have limited knowledge about various career paths. Poor achievement in classes may be as much the result of undefined career goals as a lack of educational preparation.

transfer of information in the classroom as the only area in which support services are needed by deaf and hard-of-hearing students in the college setting. However, when one considers that deaf and hard-ofhearing college students generally have little experience in other matters related to college life, there is a need for additional support. Areas such as financial aid, counseling, academic advising, health services, and extracurricular activities all demand support if deaf and hard-of-hearing students are to become integrated into the college environment. By not receiving support in all these areas, a deaf or hard-of-hearing student is put at risk of becoming isolated in the college environment and thus in danger of dropping out. As a classroom teacher, be sure the student is availing him/herself of these services through the disability support office. For further reading: Dagel, D. and Dowaliby, F. (1989). Third-week prediction of incoming postsecondary deaf student probation/ suspension, Journal of the American Deafness and Rehabilitation Association (JADARA), 22, 53-56. Foster, S. and Walter, G. (1992). Deaf Students in Postsecondary Education, New York, NY.: Routledge. Gardner, J.N., and Jewler, A.J. (1998). Your College Experience, (Concise 3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Pascarella, E. and Terenzini, P. (1991). How College Affects Students, San Francisco, CA.: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Tinto, V. (1987). Leaving College, Chicago, IL.: University of Chicago Press. Upcraft, M.L., and Gardner, J.N. (l989). The Freshman Year Experience: Helping students survive and succeed in college. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

• Do not assume that deaf and hard-of-hearing students are using college-provided support services. Traditionally one thinks of providing for the ready

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was compiled by Gerard Walter, Division of Government and Administrative Services, National Technical Institute for the Deaf, a college of Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York.

This publication was developed in 2000 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

How toTTYs Use a TTY What is a TTY? The teletypewriter, or TTY, is a device that lets deaf and hearing people type back and forth using regular telephone lines. Teletypewriters were used for many years by news organizations and businesses. These organizations used teletypewriters to send and receive news using existing telephone lines. Other machines were directly connected to each other on private lines. In the 1960’s, these teletypewriters were modified for use by deaf people. Robert Weitbrecht, a deaf physicist, designed an acoustic coupler that could convert the electrical signals coming from the TTY to activate the keys of the TTY and print the message. The teletypewriter has been called by several names, including Telecommunication Device for the Deaf (TDD) or Text Telephone (TT). However, a national organization, Telecommunications for the Deaf, Inc. (TDI), has taken a firm stand and endorses the acronym of “TTY” to represent all text telephones. TDI publishes a national directory and guide to resources that are available to enhance telecommunications accessibility for persons who are deaf, hard of hearing, deaf-blind, and speech impaired.

What equipment is needed for a TTY conversation and how much does it cost? TTY equipment weighs two to five pounds and includes a three or four-row keyboard, a display for reading the typed message, a modem or modular connection, AC power, and rechargeable, replaceable batteries. It can also have a printer/auto answering machine. There are many different models and styles of TTYs for sale. Prices range from $200 to $1,000. They can be purchased from the manufacturer, catalogs, and electronics stores. How do you make a TTY call? To make a TTY call: 1. Place the handset in the acoustic coupler (modem) attached to a regular telephone and turn on the power. Two small lights will come on. Only the power light will stay on: the phone light

2.

3.

4. 5.

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waits to respond to any sounds picked up by the acoustic coupler. Dial the number and watch the phone light, which shows the dial tone, busy signal, or ringing by corresponding light patterns. The light remains on for the length of the sound and goes off when there is no sound. For example, the light flashes rapidly and rhythmically with a busy signal. People answering the phone will respond with their names and a short message followed by “GA” which means “go ahead.” You start typing at this point and identify yourself at the beginning of the TTY call. To end a turn in the conversation, type “GA”, and the other person will begin typing again. Each person is expected to take a turn only after receiving a “GA” from the other party. When you are done with your conversation, type “GA to SK”, meaning “go ahead to stop keying” or “good-bye”, to let the person know you are finished with talking on the TTY. A TTY message in process cannot be interrupted, even if one knows what the other person is going to type.

How do you save time when making a TTY call? TTY calls take longer, because typing is slower than talking. To save time, common English abbreviations frequently are used. In addition, some punctuation, articles, or prepositions are omitted when it does not interfere with meaning. Many TTY users type without commas or periods, creating telegraphic but intelligible messages. The result is an efficient exchange of information. Common TTY abbreviations are: GA = go ahead SK = Stop Keying or good-bye GA to SK = completing all messages and getting ready to hang up U = you XXX = mistake HD = hold Q = question mark MSG = message THX = thanks


TMW = tomorrow BEC or CUZ = because Abbreviations being used in a TTY conversation look like this: Hello ga HELLO SAM IS MARK THERE Q GA Yes this is mark how are you q ga I AM FINE WANT TO JOIN FOR A MIOVXXX MOVIE Q GA Sure what time q ga AT 7:00 NIGHT AND M EXXX MEET ME AT MY PLACE GA TO SK Ok I will see you at 7:00 sksk Errors are often corrected in this way: Typing errors are corrected easily on some TTYs by using a backspace key to delete the message. Equally acceptable is typing XXX several times directly after the mistake and then retyping the word. If a misspelled word can be understood within the context of the sentence, it need not be retyped. TTY Etiquette Good TTY etiquette includes: 1. When calling TTY users, let the phone ring at least 7 or more times before hanging up. Many deaf and hard of hearing TTY users rely on flashing lights to alert them to ringing phones. Flashers can take longer than sound to attract attention. 2. Callers should identify themselves at the beginning of calls. Any other people who may be watching the conversation also should be identified.

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu WWW: www.netac.rit.edu

3. Callers should use the standard abbreviations of GA, Q, HD, and SK. 4. Always tell TTY users when calls are going to be put on “hold” or transferred. 5. When TTY users type “Can you read me?” they want to know if the message is clear and without garbled letters and numbers. If the message is garbled, hit the space bar a few times. If this does not clear up the message, both parties should hang up and try the call again. Tips for educators TTYs make it possible for teachers in postsecondary educational settings to notify deaf or hard of hearing students of any class changes or cancellations. These students can also use a TTY to contact instructors when necessary. Both parties, of course, must have a TTY device to use with their regular telephone. For more information, contact: Telecommunications for the Deaf, Inc. (TDI) 8630 Fenton Street, Suite 604 Silver Spring, MD 20910-3803 301-589-3786 (V) 301-589-3006 (TTY) 301-589-3797 (FAX) tdiexdir@aol.com (e-mail) www.tdi-online.org (WWW) Cagle, S.J. & Cagle, Keith M. GA and SK ETIQUETTE: Guidelines for Telecommunications in the Deaf Community. 1991, Bowling Green Press, Bowling Green, Ohio

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was compiled by Barbara Ray Holcomb, associate professor, American Sign Language and Interpreting Education, NTID, Rochester, New York.

This publication was developed in 1999 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

Deaf Culture DEAF CULTURE Deaf Culture It often comes as a surprise to people that many deaf people refer to themselves as being members of Deaf culture. The American Deaf culture is a unique linguistic minority that uses American Sign Language (ASL) as its primary mode of communication. This tipsheet provides a description of Deaf culture and suggestions for effective communication. Common terms used within the Deaf community: The American Deaf culture has labels for identifying its members. These labels reflect both cultural values and beliefs.

Deaf - This term refers to members of the Deaf community who share common values, norms, traditions, language, and behaviors. Deaf people do not perceive themselves as having lost something (i.e., hearing) and do not think of themselves as handicapped, impaired, or disabled. They celebrate and cherish their culture because it gives them the unique privilege of sharing a common history and language. Deaf people are considered a linguistic minority within the American culture. They have their own culture and at the same time live and work within the dominant American culture. Deaf, hard of hearing, and deafened - Within the Deaf culture these words refer to a person’s audiological status. Notice lower case “d’” is used. People who describe themselves as “hard of hearing” or “deafened” do not see themselves as members of the Deaf culture. Some may know sign language but their primary language is English. For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu Web site: www.netac.rit.edu

This NETAC Tipsheet was written by Professor Profes Linda Siple, Assistant Professor Leslie Greer, and Associate Profess Professor Barbra Ray Holcomb, all of the Department of American Sign Language and Interpreting Education, National Technical Institute for the Deaf Deaf, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY. Institu

This publication was developed in 2004 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H324A010002-04). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.

Hearing Impaired - This term often is used by the media and society in general to refer to people with a hearing loss. A more acceptable generic phrase is “deaf and hard of hearing” to refer to all people with a hearing loss. Within the Deaf culture, the

term “hearing impaired” often is seen as offensive. It suggests that Deaf people are “broken” or “inferior” because they do not hear. Hearing - Within the Deaf culture the term “hearing” is used to identify people who are members of the dominant American culture. One might think the ASL sign for “hearing” is related to the group’s ability to hear (e.g., pointing to the ear). However, the sign for “hearing” is related to the ability to “talk.” The act of talking is clearly visible to Deaf people, whereas listening or hearing is not. From the Deaf culture perspective, it is the act of “talking” that clearly separates the two groups. Comparison of Values: The most dominant cultural pattern in the United States is individualism. Most Americans have been raised to consider themselves as separate individuals who are exclusively responsible for their own lives. Common phrases that reflect this cultural pattern are “Do your own thing,” “Look out for number one,” and “I did it my way.” For example, when Americans introduce themselves, they feel it is important to include their name and occupation, which serve to emphasize their uniqueness. Closely associated with individualism is the importance Americans place on privacy. Americans have “personal space” and “personal thoughts.” They find it odd if a person does not value “being alone.” In contrast, one of the most dominant cultural patterns in the Deaf culture is collectivism. Deaf people consider themselves members of a group that includes all Deaf people. They perceive themselves as a close-knit and interconnected group. Deaf people greatly enjoy being in the company of other Deaf people and actively seek ways to do this. When Deaf people first meet, the initial goal is to find out where the other person is from and to identify the Deaf friends they both have in common.


A person’s physical appearance is noted and remembered because it is the landscape for all signed communication. Sometimes a person’s name may not come up until the end of the conversation. Closely associated with collectivism is the importance of open communication. Having secrets or withholding information work against an interconnected collective. The behaviors associated with cultural values are deeply rooted. We do not consciously think about the rules involved when making introductions or how to say goodbye when we leave. As children we saw these behaviors repeated often and have long since fully incorporated them into our cultural repertoire. It is only when we are placed in a culture that uses different rules that we realize there is another possible way to accomplish the same task. For example, when a Deaf person leaves a gathering of other Deaf people, the process is quite lengthy. In Deaf culture one approaches each group to say goodbye, which often results in further conversation. The entire process may take more than an hour to accomplish. This behavior may seem unusual; however, if we remember that Deaf culture highly values being interconnected with all of its members, the behavior makes a great deal of sense. American Sign Language: Another important cultural value for Deaf people is their language - ASL. Most Deaf people spend the majority of their lives with people who do not know ASL. It is only when Deaf people are in the presence of other Deaf people that all communication barriers are removed. It is obvious to most people that ASL is a visual language. What is not so obvious is how the visual nature of the language impacts on the rules for communication. In spoken languages there is no requirement for eye contact between the speaker and listener. In fact, we spend ver very little time looking at each other. We are not used to maintaining eye contact for long periods of time. Also, we often allow environmental noises to take our attention and we divert our eyes. In a signed conversation the “listener” must always look at the “speaker.”

From the Deaf perspective, broken eye contact or the lack of eye contact shows indifference. Most hearing people do not freely and effectively use their face and body to communicate, so Deaf people see their communication as lifeless and lacking emotion. Facial expression and body language are integral parts of ASL. Deaf people have an exceptional ability to use and read nonverbal communication. They pick up on very subtle facial and body movements. An important aspect of body language is the use of “touch.” Touching another person is used in Deaf culture to greet, say goodbye, get attention, and express emotion. Guidelines for Communication: 1) Most peope feel uncomfortable when meeting a Deaf person for the first time. This is very normal. When we communicate with people, we generally don’t have to think about the process. When faced with a Deaf person, we are uncertain which rules apply. We don’t know where to look, or how fast or loud to speak. When the Deaf person gives us a look of confusion, we don’t know how to correct the problem. Accept the fact that your initial communications will feel uncomfor uncomfortable and awkward. As you interact more, you will start to feel more comfortable and know how to make yourself understood. 2) It’s okay to write to a Deaf person. The Deaf person will appreciate your effort even more if you use a combination of gestures, facial expressions, body language, and written communication. Some Deaf people can lip read very well. Iff one approach doesn’t work, try another. If the Deaf person uses her/his voice and you don’t understand, it’s fine to indicate the person should write. 3) Most people engage in very quick and efficient conversations. We often lose patience when someone is having difficulty understanding. We look for ways to speed up the interaction. Deaf people highly value face-to-face communication

and perceive it as an investment, not an imposition. Take the time to communicate and connect. If the Deaf person does not understand, she or he will ask questions. If you do not understand the Deaf person, stop the conversation and ask for clarification. Never fake understanding or say, “Never mind, it’s not important.” No matter how trivial, share the information. 4. Deaf people listen with their eyes. A Deaf person cannot look at an object and at the same time listen to you describe how to use it. Only talk when you have eye contact with the Deaf person. 5. Many Deaf people will use a sign language interpreter. You should speak directly to the Deaf person, not to the interpreter, and maintain eye contact with the Deaf person. This will feel awkward because the Deaf person will be looking at the interpreter, not you, but it will be noticed and appreciated by the Deaf person. 6. Some people are reluctant to attempt to communicate directly with a Deaf person when they use an interpreter. Use the beginning and end of the conversation as an opportunity for direct communication with the Deaf person. When you take the initiative to shake hands, make eye contact, use gestures, touch and/or smile, you are communicating in a visual and tactile manner. Please note these guidelines aren’t meant to be an inclusive list in working with culturally Deaf people, but a starting point for improved conditions.


A person’s physical appearance is noted and remembered because it is the landscape for all signed communication. Sometimes a person’s name may not come up until the end of the conversation. Closely associated with collectivism is the importance of open communication. Having secrets or withholding information work against an interconnected collective. The behaviors associated with cultural values are deeply rooted. We do not consciously think about the rules involved when making introductions or how to say goodbye when we leave. As children we saw these behaviors repeated often and have long since fully incorporated them into our cultural repertoire. It is only when we are placed in a culture that uses different rules that we realize there is another possible way to accomplish the same task. For example, when a Deaf person leaves a gathering of other Deaf people, the process is quite lengthy. In Deaf culture one approaches each group to say goodbye, which often results in further conversation. The entire process may take more than an hour to accomplish. This behavior may seem unusual; however, if we remember that Deaf culture highly values being interconnected with all of its members, the behavior makes a great deal of sense. American Sign Language: Another important cultural value for Deaf people is their language - ASL. Most Deaf people spend the majority of their lives with people who do not know ASL. It is only when Deaf people are in the presence of other Deaf people that all communication barriers are removed. It is obvious to most people that ASL is a visual language. What is not so obvious is how the visual nature of the language impacts on the rules for communication. In spoken languages there is no requirement for eye contact between the speaker and listener. In fact, we spend ver very little time looking at each other. We are not used to maintaining eye contact for long periods of time. Also, we often allow environmental noises to take our attention and we divert our eyes. In a signed conversation the “listener” must always look at the “speaker.”

From the Deaf perspective, broken eye contact or the lack of eye contact shows indifference. Most hearing people do not freely and effectively use their face and body to communicate, so Deaf people see their communication as lifeless and lacking emotion. Facial expression and body language are integral parts of ASL. Deaf people have an exceptional ability to use and read nonverbal communication. They pick up on very subtle facial and body movements. An important aspect of body language is the use of “touch.” Touching another person is used in Deaf culture to greet, say goodbye, get attention, and express emotion. Guidelines for Communication: 1) Most peope feel uncomfortable when meeting a Deaf person for the first time. This is very normal. When we communicate with people, we generally don’t have to think about the process. When faced with a Deaf person, we are uncertain which rules apply. We don’t know where to look, or how fast or loud to speak. When the Deaf person gives us a look of confusion, we don’t know how to correct the problem. Accept the fact that your initial communications will feel uncomfor uncomfortable and awkward. As you interact more, you will start to feel more comfortable and know how to make yourself understood. 2) It’s okay to write to a Deaf person. The Deaf person will appreciate your effort even more if you use a combination of gestures, facial expressions, body language, and written communication. Some Deaf people can lip read very well. Iff one approach doesn’t work, try another. If the Deaf person uses her/his voice and you don’t understand, it’s fine to indicate the person should write. 3) Most people engage in very quick and efficient conversations. We often lose patience when someone is having difficulty understanding. We look for ways to speed up the interaction. Deaf people highly value face-to-face communication

and perceive it as an investment, not an imposition. Take the time to communicate and connect. If the Deaf person does not understand, she or he will ask questions. If you do not understand the Deaf person, stop the conversation and ask for clarification. Never fake understanding or say, “Never mind, it’s not important.” No matter how trivial, share the information. 4. Deaf people listen with their eyes. A Deaf person cannot look at an object and at the same time listen to you describe how to use it. Only talk when you have eye contact with the Deaf person. 5. Many Deaf people will use a sign language interpreter. You should speak directly to the Deaf person, not to the interpreter, and maintain eye contact with the Deaf person. This will feel awkward because the Deaf person will be looking at the interpreter, not you, but it will be noticed and appreciated by the Deaf person. 6. Some people are reluctant to attempt to communicate directly with a Deaf person when they use an interpreter. Use the beginning and end of the conversation as an opportunity for direct communication with the Deaf person. When you take the initiative to shake hands, make eye contact, use gestures, touch and/or smile, you are communicating in a visual and tactile manner. Please note these guidelines aren’t meant to be an inclusive list in working with culturally Deaf people, but a starting point for improved conditions.


NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

Deaf Culture DEAF CULTURE Deaf Culture It often comes as a surprise to people that many deaf people refer to themselves as being members of Deaf culture. The American Deaf culture is a unique linguistic minority that uses American Sign Language (ASL) as its primary mode of communication. This tipsheet provides a description of Deaf culture and suggestions for effective communication. Common terms used within the Deaf community: The American Deaf culture has labels for identifying its members. These labels reflect both cultural values and beliefs.

Deaf - This term refers to members of the Deaf community who share common values, norms, traditions, language, and behaviors. Deaf people do not perceive themselves as having lost something (i.e., hearing) and do not think of themselves as handicapped, impaired, or disabled. They celebrate and cherish their culture because it gives them the unique privilege of sharing a common history and language. Deaf people are considered a linguistic minority within the American culture. They have their own culture and at the same time live and work within the dominant American culture. Deaf, hard of hearing, and deafened - Within the Deaf culture these words refer to a person’s audiological status. Notice lower case “d’” is used. People who describe themselves as “hard of hearing” or “deafened” do not see themselves as members of the Deaf culture. Some may know sign language but their primary language is English. For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu Web site: www.netac.rit.edu

This NETAC Tipsheet was written by Professor Profes Linda Siple, Assistant Professor Leslie Greer, and Associate Profess Professor Barbra Ray Holcomb, all of the Department of American Sign Language and Interpreting Education, National Technical Institute for the Deaf Deaf, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY. Institu

This publication was developed in 2004 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H324A010002-04). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.

Hearing Impaired - This term often is used by the media and society in general to refer to people with a hearing loss. A more acceptable generic phrase is “deaf and hard of hearing” to refer to all people with a hearing loss. Within the Deaf culture, the

term “hearing impaired” often is seen as offensive. It suggests that Deaf people are “broken” or “inferior” because they do not hear. Hearing - Within the Deaf culture the term “hearing” is used to identify people who are members of the dominant American culture. One might think the ASL sign for “hearing” is related to the group’s ability to hear (e.g., pointing to the ear). However, the sign for “hearing” is related to the ability to “talk.” The act of talking is clearly visible to Deaf people, whereas listening or hearing is not. From the Deaf culture perspective, it is the act of “talking” that clearly separates the two groups. Comparison of Values: The most dominant cultural pattern in the United States is individualism. Most Americans have been raised to consider themselves as separate individuals who are exclusively responsible for their own lives. Common phrases that reflect this cultural pattern are “Do your own thing,” “Look out for number one,” and “I did it my way.” For example, when Americans introduce themselves, they feel it is important to include their name and occupation, which serve to emphasize their uniqueness. Closely associated with individualism is the importance Americans place on privacy. Americans have “personal space” and “personal thoughts.” They find it odd if a person does not value “being alone.” In contrast, one of the most dominant cultural patterns in the Deaf culture is collectivism. Deaf people consider themselves members of a group that includes all Deaf people. They perceive themselves as a close-knit and interconnected group. Deaf people greatly enjoy being in the company of other Deaf people and actively seek ways to do this. When Deaf people first meet, the initial goal is to find out where the other person is from and to identify the Deaf friends they both have in common.


NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

Notetaking Notetaking Why provide notetaking? In one form or another, notetaking is the support service most widely used by students who are deaf or hard of hearing, surpassing even interpreting in frequency of use. Students request notetaking because it provides them access to course content in a way no other service can duplicate. However, notetaking is not a substitute for interpreting. In many cases, both services are necessary because of the physical impossibility of watching an interpreter or speechreading while simultaneously taking notes. In addition, for non-signing students, notes may be their only means of access. Service providers Volunteers 1. Most often student peers, usually classmates, who serve without compensation or for a small stipend or campus privilege. 2. May be drawn from student or civic organizations. 3. May be recruited by the deaf or hard-of-hearing student, by the instructor, or by another staff member. 4. May receive minimal training through campus workshops, etc. 5. Often provided with pressure sensitive paper in a special notebook. The volunteer retains the copy and gives the original to the student who is deaf or hard of hearing. 6. When regular paper is used, the notes are photocopied by designated personnel. The copies are then distributed to students being served and the originals returned to the notetaker. Turnaround time should be kept at or below 24 hours. 7. Because of the difficulty of quality control with volunteers, two or more volunteers in a single class may be necessary to achieve complete and accurate notes. High quality notes are necessary to student success. 8. Final notes generally resemble an individual student’s personal notes with special emphasis on legibility, completeness, and accuracy. As a result, side comments, examples, and class discussions are often excluded.

Paid Notetakers 1. May be full or part-time staff members, often with high levels of training. Occasionally, students who did particularly well in the course in a previous semester and who have necessary organizational and keyboarding skills may be employed. 2. May be versed in a number of different technologies, including court reporting and special assistive technologies. 3. May or may not be fluent in sign language. 4. Usually attempt to provide an abbreviated classroom transcript, usually in real time. In other words, side comments, examples, and class discussion are included as the pace of the class, the skill of the notetaker, and availability of technology allow. 5. May require special seating and lighting. 6. May require early access to the classroom to allow time to set up equipment. 7. Require advance notice of field trips, etc., in order to make arrangements for the equipment. 8. Paid notetakers often “clean up” notes after class by rearranging them in outline form, highlighting important items, and checking spelling and facts. Occasionally, a paid notetaker may need to consult with an instructor for clarification. Notetaking technology Computer Assisted Notetaking (CAN) 1. The notetaker uses a laptop computer or desktop computer on a roll-around cart. 2. The notetaker may use any software with which he or she is comfortable. 3. Access to an electrical outlet is important in order to avoid the possibility of battery failure. 4. Often the student sits to the side and slightly behind the notetaker and reads the notes as they are taken. The notetaker and student are able to arrange appropriate seating without instructor’s intervention in most circumstances.


5.

6.

When possible, one of the following set-up modes is preferrable: – laptop to laptop – laptop to monitor An active matrix screen is essential when the notetaker and student must share a single laptop; because of obvious problems with visibility, this arrangement cannot be used with smaller laptop or notebook computers. Requires a high level of word processing skill on the part of the notetaker.

C-Print™ 1. A variety of CAN that uses special condensing software. 2. Because of its greater speed, allows a closer transcription of class proceedings. 3. Requires a high degree of special training on the part of the notetaker. 4. Seating requirements and computer configurations are similar to those necessary for standard CAN. Real-Time Captioning 1. Similar to the real-time captioning seen on TV. 2. May be projected on a screen and made available to the entire class. 3. Requires special equipment and software. 4. Requires a highly trained specialist. The instructor’s role In order to ensure high quality notes, the instructor’s involvement is crucial. Recruitment and quality control 1. Instructors should investigate their institution’s expectations regarding faculty involvement in the recruitment of the student who is deaf or hard of hearing before attempting to recruit volunteer notetakers.

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

2.

Instructors should ask to see the notes from time to time. The notes should be legible, clear, complete, and accurate. If the notes are weak in any of these areas, instructors should attempt to obtain an additional or replacement notetakers. Volunteers are seldom replaced but are often joined by a second and even a third volunteer.

Tips for facilitating better notes (Most of these will benefit all students in the class.) 1. Instructors should be careful to speak clearly, to verbally label digressions and examples, and to use transitions to signal topic changes and relationships. 2. Instructors may choose either to leave important projected or chalkboard text, diagrams, and charts in view long enough for the notetaker to copy them or to provide handouts. 3. Instructors should write numbers and difficult or foreign names and vocabulary on the board or provide a classroom handout with a numbered list (for easier reference) of these items. 4. Instructors should write complete assignment designations on the board, including page and exercise numbers where applicable and due dates, or provide assignment sheets. 5. Instructors should provide a copy of all handouts to the notetaker. Syllabi, agendas, and assignment sheets are especially important. 6. For advanced courses, some instructors may find it convenient to provide a copy of their lecture notes to paid notetakers. These notes should not be copied or distributed without the instructor’s permission. 7. Instructors should check to see if videotapes are closed captioned. If they are, a transcript of the captioning may be available and would be of great assistance to the notetaker.

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was compiled by Kim Brecklein, English Specialist, Tulsa Community College, Tulsa, Oklahoma.

This publication was developed in 1999 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

Classroom Technology:

AV Equipment

How to Use AV Equipment for Visual Learners Deaf and hard-of-hearing students have special needs that must be accommodated before they can fully benefit from various types of classroom presentation technology. An optimal classroom situation for learners who must depend primarily on visual input includes careful consideration of factors such as room set-up, legibility of the media, and appropriate use of available technology. Teachers using media in general purpose classrooms need to be aware of what to use and what to avoid in order to enhance a visual learner’s opportunity to take full advantage of media-assisted presentations. Room set-up • Help find seating near the front if requested by the student. • Orient the presentation end of the space as the long dimension of the room. • Place the desks/seats in a U shape to promote optimum communication between students. • If there are windows, try to have them outfitted with opaque curtains. • If projecting media, use the “5:1” rule when setting up the image size: the farthest viewer should be no further than 5 times the width of the projected image [not the screen]. Legibility of multi-media • Television Play a videotape in advance in the classroom. Go to where the student farthest away may sit. Can you see the image clearly? Read the captions? • Projected computer images Preview what you plan to show in the classroom. Go to where the student farthest away may sit. Can you see the graphics clearly? Read the text? • Overhead transparencies Place the transparency on a white piece of paper on the floor in front of you. Standing straight over it, can you read the text? If not, it will probably be tough to read when projected!

Accommodations for visually impaired students If there are students with visual impairments in the room, offer a hard-copy version of what will be projected.

Teaching methods • One thing at a time Avoid trying to present too many visual stimuli at the same time. Focus the students’ attention in a fairly confined area in the room. Try not to wander around. Avoid talking if you are writing on a board or have to turn your back to the students. • One speaker at a time Try to control discussion. Act as a moderator to assure that only one person is talking at a time. Be sure to recognize the next talker in order to give the students time to realize who is talking...and from where. Repeat or rephrase questions before a response is given. • Slow down the pace If signing, or using an interpreter and/or assistive listening devices, build in a pause between concepts to allow the assisted communication to catch up. • Minimize visual distractions Face the students as much as possible. Avoid presenting in front of windows [even if shaded]; the contrasting light level will impede communication. Don’t drink or chew gum! Keep beards and mustaches trimmed...it improves speechreading. • Ask the student Encourage students to come to you to discuss your teaching style as related to communication. Discuss concerns about a student’s ability to hear you privately, not in front of the class. • Get to know the interpreter Be familiar with oral, sign, and cued-speech interpreters and how to work with them [and when] in class. • Give students information ahead of time Provide lesson outlines and assignments in advance.


Appropriate use of technology • Assistive Listening Devices (ALDs) Be aware of and know how to use ALDs such as group FM, infrared, induction loop, and sound field systems. • Captioning Be sure that all films and videotapes presented in class are captioned, and, if possible, hand out a synopsis in advance. • Live captioning Become familiar with computer-aided real-time services, known as CART, C-Print™, RTC, and RTGD. • Computer-managed instruction If resources allow, consider migrating from traditional course planning and management methods to using tools such as the world wide web [WWW], database and scheduling software, and authoring tools. These tools tend to shift further toward visually-based instruction and provide a template for course design. Student access to your course WWW site will enhance course management, assignment schedules, homework traffic, and communication. • Computer applications If resources allow, consider migrating from traditional tools such as writing surface, overhead projector, flip chart and so on, to tools such as web design, presentation, and word processing software. • Document camera – Print landscape format on 8.5”x11” paper – Use at least 18-point size type – Use Arial or Palatino type if possible – Try to use colors that have high contrast against the paper (try yellow paper)

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

Computer presentation applications Examples include Microsoft PowerPoint, Corel Presentations, Adobe Acrobat – Use at least 18-point size type – Use white text against dark blue background to yield high legibility – Use Arial or Palatino type if possible – Use only one chart or graph per slide – Keep graphics simple – Provide the notes [a feature of the software] to the students – If you have the resources, publish the shows on your WWW site so students can review.

For more information, contact: NTID Educational Resources (ER) department Web site: http://www.rit.edu/ntid/crtl/er

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was compiled by Chas Johnstone, Senior AV Specialist, National Technical Institute for the Deaf, a college of Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY..

This publication was developed in 1999 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

Nondiscrimination in What’s the Law? Higher Education ADA When Congress passed the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, it included Section 504 which forbade discrimination against persons with disabilities by programs and activities receiving federal financial assistance, which included virtually every institution of higher education, except the U.S. military academies and a few small religious schools. This was the first civil rights statute designed to prevent discrimination against persons with disabilities and was patterned after the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) was patterned after Section 504. It, too, requires that students with disabilities may not be excluded from participation in, or be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination by any institution which is subject to the ADA. The ADA does not require that the institution receive federal financial assistance. Who is protected? Any individual who has a physical or mental impairment which substantially limits a major life activity; has a record of having such an impairment; or is regarded as having such an impairment is protected by the law, as discrimination has many faces. Most faculty, however, will find themselves dealing with students who meet the first prong of the definition — an impairment which presents a substantial limitation to a major life activity. How does this affect my college or university? A postsecondary institution must make reasonable accommodations in order to provide students with disabilities an equal opportunity to participate in the institution’s courses, programs and activities. This includes extracurricular activities. Colleges must make “academic adjustments” to ensure that a student has an equal opportunity to participate. Academic adjustments may include extended time for test taking, completion of course work or graduation; tape recording of classes; substitution of specific courses to meet degree requirements; modification of test taking or performance evaluations so as not to discriminate against a person’s sensory, speaking or motor impairments, unless that is what is being tested. A college or university must also provide “auxiliary aids and services,” such as qualified sign language interpreters, notetakers, readers, braille and large print materials, and adaptive equipment. A qualified interpreter is one who can

communicate expressively and receptively, using any specialized vocabulary in a manner that is effective, accurate, and impartial. Institutions are not responsible for providing personal services such as attendants, hearing aids, glasses, etc. Under the applicable regulations, tutoring is a personal service. Therefore, it need not be provided unless the school provides tutoring to other students, in which case it must make that tutoring program accessible to students with disabilities. Institutions may not charge money for reasonable accommodations. Colleges do not have to provide accommodations that would “fundamentally alter” the educational program or academic requirements which are essential to a program of study or to fulfill licensing requirements. The determination of what is a fundamental alteration, however, is one which requires specific steps and a reasoned, determinative process on the part of the campus community. Remember, the ADA is a remedial statute which requires that colleges and universities question their notions of what is truly fundamental and provide for alternate methods of achieving the results intended by the educational program. What is my Role as a Faculty Member? As a faculty member, you are an integral part of your institution’s efforts to comply with these laws. Just as you are not free to discriminate against students on the basis of race, religion, gender or ethnicity, so too, you cannot discriminate against students with disabilities. Part of not discriminating against students with disabilities is the provision of reasonable accommodations or “academic adjustments” and “auxiliary aids and services”. Institutional compliance is a shared responsibility of which faculty are a necessary part. Your employment in that capacity requires that you assist the institution in fulfilling its compliance responsibilities in connection with the ADA as well as other civil rights statutes. Suggested Dos and Don’ts Do: • Ask questions if you don’t understand something or are not sure how to proceed — your Disability Services office can be very helpful in this regard. •

Hold up your end with regard to accommodations which have been determined to be appropriate. This may


include asking class members to volunteer to take notes or providing copies of exams to the disability services office in order for a student to take the examination under alternate circumstances, such as extended time, using a scribe or braille, etc. •

Treat students with disabilities with the same courtesies you would afford to other students. Respect the privacy of students with disabilities. They need not disclose their disability to fellow students. While they must disclose disability to a designated official at your college in order to access accommodations, this does not require disclosure to everyone. Treat disability information which has been disclosed to you as confidential.

Raise appropriate questions. Questions may lead to your college’s addressing certain types of requests more consistently and more thoroughly in the future.

Assist students in following the university’s policies, such as possible requirements that all requests for accommodation be lodged with the Disability Services office and not individual faculty members alone. This protects students, faculty, and the institution by ensuring consistency and takes much of the burden off individual faculty members, who are often ill-equipped to determine whether an accommodation is appropriate or how to provide it. Violations have been found in cases where faculty members have not followed institutional policies.

Don’t: • Engage in philosophical debates about “fairness” to other, nondisabled students, or whether providing accommodations somehow violates your academic freedom. These arguments are unavailing for several reasons. First, philosophical debates about whether and how equal educational opportunities are provided to students with disabilities are legally meaningless. Congress has determined how we as a society should

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

address equal access to education by passing federal civil rights statutes protecting the rights of persons with disabilities, without adversely impacting those without disabilities. Congress has been joined in this effort by most state legislatures as well. Second, academic freedom is not preemptive of federal civil rights statutes. •

Decide not to provide the academic adjustments which have been approved by the institution’s designee. You may subject your institution or yourself to liability.

Leave a student adrift without accommodations. If no volunteers are willing to take notes in a class, make sure the student knows who to see to rectify this in another manner.

Refuse to permit students to tape record lectures as an accommodation. General policies which permit instructors to refuse the use of tape recorders, without providing for their use by students with disabilities, are legally insufficient.

Refuse to provide copies of handouts, or orally describe information written on the chalkboard, or face the class when referring to something written on the chalkboard, etc., if these accommodations have been determined to be appropriate for a student.

Refuse to provide extended time for tests on the mistaken assumption that doing so would require that all students be given additional time.

Refuse to provide accommodations until you have personally evaluated a student’s documentation of disability. Eligibility for services under the ADA is the job of the disability services personnel, not the faculty.

Make assumptions about a student’s ability to work in a particular field. Most often, concerns that students may not be able to “cut it” are based on fears and assumptions, not facts. Remember too, that employers are also required to comply with the ADA.

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was compiled by Jo Anne Simon, Attorney at Law, Brooklyn, New York.

This publication was developed in 1999 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


Providing

NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

Testing Accommodations Accommodations for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students

Overview of Legal Obligations As the number of deaf and hard of hearing (d/hh) students seeking enrollment in postsecondary education programs increases, the accommodations they request to ensure equal access also increases. Most accommodations, such as interpreters, notetakers, and assistive listening devices are obvious and seldom questioned. D/HH students requesting testing accommodations however, have raised many questions and have caused some confusion among service providers around the country. Some service providers feel that d/hh students should not be given any form of testing accommodation at all, while others advocate for such accommodations. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 require that tests be administered in a manner that does not discriminate against a person based on disability, but provides little direction beyond that for service providers, leaving another one of those “gray areas” to deal with. According to the ADA, an individual must have a qualifying disability that limits a major life activity in order to receive accommodations. This brings into focus the question as to whether having a hearing loss qualifies a person to receive testing accommodations. Some higher education service providers say that a hearing loss does and others say a hearing loss alone does not. Members of the Deaf community often disagree on this point, which causes additional confusion and becomes a cultural issue. Opponents to providing testing accommodations for d/hh students argue that students who meet the entrance requirements of the institution should also be qualified to meet academic requirements. This is a good point that should be taken into consideration when addressing requests for accommodations by students pursuing advanced degrees. Proponents of testing accommodations argue that some d/hh students may have difficulty with English as a result of their hearing loss, meeting the definition of a disability, and should be given testing accommodations.

English is considered to be an essential function in most administrative, managerial, and professional specialty occupations and to require a student to demonstrate a certain proficiency in English is appropriate. Education, psychology, counseling, law, and medical fields all require that a person have a certain level of English in order to assimilate information and write clear, accurate reports, making English an essential function of most jobs found in those fields. There are some occupational areas, however, where even though English is important, it may not be an essential function of the job. Production, service, construction, and some technical occupations are industries with jobs where English may not be an essential part of the job. Some of these occupational areas include “high tech” jobs and require average to above average intelligence to be successfully employed. It’s common for some d/hh students to have the intelligence required for such occupations, but lack the English skills to compete with hearing counterparts on tests in occupational and general educationrelated courses such as English Communication classes. This is when the service provider and the instructor need to work together and trust that each has the best interest of the student in mind. It is important that tests are reviewed to determine if the test is designed to measure English skills along with occupational content. The instructor needs to decide which is more important: content knowledge, English competency, or both. If it is determined that content is most important, then testing accommodations may be appropriate. This doesn’t mean that English is not important for these occupational areas, it only means that a person can be successful in these areas without having high-level English skills. Some service providers fear that testing accommodations provide an unfair advantage for d/hh students. Unfortunately, there is a void of data


and a need for research on the whole issue of providing testing accommodations for d/hh students in postsecondary education. Research indicates that “extended time” is an effective technique for students who have processing speed difficulties when reading. When comparing students with speed processing difficulties to those without, nearly every student who was given extended time to complete the standardized test, was able to raise his/her score to a statistically significant higher level. Interestingly, even though the students were given unlimited time, none of them used more than 50 percent of the original time allotted for the test. It is important to approach each request on an individual basis and accept the fact that determining who should be given testing accommodations is not an exact science. There are several factors to consider when trying to decide if testing accommodations should be provided or not. Since the ADA does not require such accommodations be provided carte blanche, the service provider needs to determine the individual need of the student. Did the student benefit from the service in the past? Does the student have a documented secondary disability? A learning disability? What is the reading level? What is the processing rate when reading? What is the primary communication style? These are factors that can help the service provider determine if the accommodation is reasonable. Some examples of testing accommodations provided to d/hh students include: Extended-Time Allowing the student extended time to complete a test. In most cases, 50 percent additional time has been found to be adequate for most students. Test Editing Tests made up of multiple choice and long essay questions may be confusing for some d/hh students. Modifying questions enhances the student’s ability to understand the content. Providing this

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

accommodation should be approached cautiously with an instructor, who may feel the questions are perfectly clear. The instructor may not understand how a multiple-choice question with four answers could be confusing to a d/hh person. Signed Test Question – Signed Response Permitting a sign language interpreter to interpret tests is another testing accommodation that can be provided in collaboration between the instructor and the service provider. The interpreter is available to sign the questions to the student and the student is permitted to respond via sign language. This is different than having an interpreter available so that the student can ask clarifying questions (just like everyone else). The instructor needs to determine if the test is designed to measure content knowledge, English skill, or both. Assuming the test is primarily designed to measure content knowledge, the instructor could identify the terms on the test that the interpreter should only fingerspell. This helps to eliminate the fear that the interpreter is providing additional information to the d/hh student, giving the student an unfair advantage on the test. This accommodation allows the student to respond to written questions in sign language through a sign language interpreter. This could be useful for a student who has a slower processing rate and inferior reading and writing skills. Using Adaptive Equipment Permit a student to use a computer for word processing on essay tests. Distraction-Free Environment Provide a student an environment with minimal distractions. Background noise, such as vibrations within the room or building, may not be a distraction for a hearing person but may be very intrusive for a hard of hearing person.

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was compiled by David Buchkoski, Training Coordinator for the Midwest Center for Postsecondary Outreach, St. Paul Technical College, St. Paul, Minnesota.

This publication was developed in 1999 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

Cued Speech Cued Speech What is Cued Speech? Cued Speech (CS) is a tool to make spoken languages visible. It is a phonemically-based system that uses eight handshapes in four locations near the face to supplement the information available on the lips during speech. Cued Speech removes the guesswork from speechreading and makes any spoken language accessible through vision alone. Simple hand cues in conjunction with the natural lip movements of speech make words that look alike on the lips visually distinctive and understandable. Why was it developed? Literacy is the original and primary goal of Cued Speech. It was developed to enable hearing parents to communicate with their deaf children in their native spoken language. This visual counterpart to spoken language allows deaf children to have access to the phonological code of language that promotes proficiency in reading. The use of this system allows deaf individuals to “see-hear” the language as it is spoken and allows deaf children to acquire spoken language in a natural and efficient manner. Who uses Cued Speech? Families of deaf children have been cueing in the United States and abroad for more than 30 years. Cued Speech has been adapted to more than 50 languages and dialects. CS allows hearing parents to convey their native spoken language with ease. Cued Speech may also be used in educational settings, either by classroom teachers who cue or by cueing interpreters, called Cued Speech Transliterators, who convey all spoken and other auditory information that occurs in the classroom. Students receive a syllable-by-syllable visual rendering of spoken language only a split-second behind the presentation of the original speaker. So, preschool through postsecondary students throughout the country are able to participate fully in mainstream educational settings with access provided by Cued Speech Transliterators. For teachers, working with transliterators is very much like working with interpreters.

While it was not developed for speech training, speech therapists may use Cued Speech as a tool for work on pronunciation, accent, duration, and rhythm. Because Cued Speech incorporates multisensory input, its use supports auditory discrimination, speechreading, articulation, and phonics instruction for children and adults with a variety of hearing, speech, and language needs. Its use is compatible with auditory/oral, bilingual, and total communication philosophies. Results of Cued Speech use • Language Skills/Literacy Receivers of Cued Speech are able to understand spoken language conveyed with cues at extremely high levels of accuracy.1 Consistent exposure to spoken language through cues results in language skills and literacy levels comparable to those of hearing peers.2 Many students who use Cued Speech are enrolled in regular classes, preschool through college. •

Speechreading Due to their knowledge of spoken language, individuals who have had consistent exposure to Cued Speech often have excellent speechreading skills and are able to communicate with people who do not cue.

Audition Cued Speech is a tool used to convey the phonological aspects of language. Therefore, it is totally compatible with the use of hearing and can help to develop auditory awareness, discrimination, and comprehension. The foundation provided by cues integrates well with cochlear implant use.

Foreign Language Cued Speech is not only used for English. Deaf students in the U.S. use Cued Speech to learn foreign spoken languages, such as Spanish, French, and Latin.


CUED SPEECH CONSONANT HANDSHAPES

Some families use Cued Speech as their preferred communication tool. Others use a bilingual approach with their deaf children and use American Sign Language (ASL) at some times and Cued Speech for English at other times. Because of the relationship of Cued Speech to the phonological basis of spoken language, it can work well with approaches that emphasize auditory information. It may also be understood completely through vision for those individuals who rely on visual input for communication. For children whose first language is ASL, Cued Speech can be used to facilitate the acquisition of English.3 How do deaf individuals who use Cued Speech communicate? Most use oral communication when interacting with hearing people. Many use sign language when interacting with people who sign. How can I learn to cue? Cued Speech instruction is available throughout the U.S. from a network of certified instructors. Cue Camps are a popular way for families and professionals to develop their cueing skills. Videotape lessons are available.

2

3

4

p d zh

k z v tH (the)

s h r

n b hw (why)

5

6

7

8

m f t

sh l w

j g (go) th (thumb)

y ng ch

CUED SPEECH VOWEL PLACEMENTS

•

Cued Speech Resources National Cued Speech Association/ Information Center 800-459-3529 CuedSpDisc@aol.com 23970 Hermitage Road Shaker Heights, Ohio 44122 web7.mit.edu/CuedSpeech/NCSA/

MOUTH

CHIN

THROAT

SIDE*

ee (see) ur (her)

ue (blue) aw (saw) e (net)

i (sit) a (cat) oo (book)

oe (home) ah (father) u (but)

/oe/ and /ah/require slight forward motion; /u/ requires slight downward motion

DIPHTHONGS

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

1

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

SIDE-THROAT

CHIN-THROAT

ie (tie) ou (cow)

ae (cake) oi (boy)

1

Cornett & Daisey, 1992; Quenin, 1992; Nicholls & Ling, 1982.

2

Hage, Alegria, & Perier, 1990; Wandel, 1989.

3

LaSasso & Metzger, 1998.

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was compiled by Catherine Quenin, President, National Cued Speech Association, Rochester, New York.

This publication was developed in 1999 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


How to Use

NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

Telecommunications RELAY SERVICE Relay Service What is Telecommunications Relay Service? Telecommunications Relay Service provides full telephone accessibility to people who are deaf, hard of hearing, deaf-blind, or speech-disabled. Specially trained Communication Assistants (CAs) serve as intermediaries, relaying conversations between hearing persons and persons using a text telephone device (TTY). Relay Service is available 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, with no restrictions on the length or number of calls placed. This valuable communications tool gives all individuals the opportunity to make personal and business calls just like any other telephone user. The relay service makes it possible for teachers in postsecondary settings to notify deaf, hard of hearing, deaf-blind, or speech-disabled students of any class changes or cancellations. These students can also use the service to contact instructors when necessary. How do you use Relay Service? What equipment is required for deaf people? The most common device used to make a relay call is a TTY that can be used together with a phone handset. However, the equipment you need may vary depending upon the type of relay service you use. For more information on how to obtain a device in your area for your specific needs, call your state relay service. In some cases, the equipment may be available at little or no cost to you. What equipment is required for hearing people? You only need a telephone. Each state provides a tollfree number to reach a Communication Assistant. The number is listed in local phone books. How much do you pay? There is no charge for using a relay service within your local calling area. Long distance call rates are determined by the carrier of choice. Please notify the Communication Assistant of your preferred billing option: direct; collect; third party; local exchange

carrier (LEC) calling card; other long distance calling card; or prepaid phone card. Basic services offered For TTY users: A person who is deaf, hard of hearing, deaf-blind, or speech-disabled uses a TTY to type his/her conversation to a Communication Assistant who then reads the typed conversation to a hearing person. The Communication Assistant relays the hearing person’s spoken words by typing them back to the TTY user. 1. Dial your state relay number. 2. Relay service will answer with “CA 1234” (for operator ID number), “F” or “M” (for operator gender) and “NUMBER CALLING PLS GA.” (“GA” denotes “go ahead”). 3. Type in the area code and telephone number you wish to call and then type “GA.” 4. The Communication Assistant will dial the number and relay the conversation to and from your TTY. Type in “GA” at the end of each message. For voice users: Standard telephone users can easily initiate calls to TTY users. The Communication Assistant types the hearing person’s spoken words to the TTY user and reads back the typed replies. 1. Dial your state relay number. 2. You will hear, “Relay Service Communication Assistant 1234 (ID number). May I have the number you are calling to, please?” 3. Give the Communication Assistant the area code and telephone number you wish to call and any further instructions. 4. The Communication Assistant will process your call relaying exactly what the TTY user is typing. The Communication Assistant will relay what you say back to the TTY user. (Be sure to talk directly to your caller. Avoid saying “tell him” or “tell her” and say “GA” at the end of your response.)


Expanded services for relay users For Hearing Carryover users: Hearing Carryover (HCO) allows speech-disabled users with hearing to listen to the person they are calling. The HCO user types his/her conversation for the Communication Assistant to read to the standard telephone user. 1. Dial your state relay number. 2. Relay Service Communication Assistant will answer with “CA 1234” (for operator ID number), “F” or “M” (for operator gender) and “NUMBER CALLING PLS GA.” 3. Type in the area code and telephone number you wish to call and then type, “HCO PLEASE GA.” 4. The CA will make the connection and voice your typed conversation to the called party. After you type “GA”, pick up the handset to listen to the spoken reply. For Voice Carryover users: Voice Carryover (VCO) allows users who are hard of hearing or deaf and prefer to use their own voice to speak directly to a hearing person. When the hearing person speaks to you, a Communication Assistant will serve as your “ears” and type everything said to you on a TTY or text display. 1. Dial your state relay number. 2. Relay Service CA will answer with “CA 1234” (for operator ID number), “F” or “M” (for operator gender) and “voice (or type) now GA.” 3. Voice or type the area code and telephone number of the party you want to call. 4. The CA will type the message “Voice Now” to you as your cue to start speaking. You speak directly to the hearing person. The CA will not repeat what you say, but only type to you what the hearing person says. You both need to say “GA” at the end of your response.

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

TTY public payphones The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in November, 1993, issued an order outlining an interim plan for access to public payphone service through relay services. The order states that: • All local calls from TTY payphones are free of charge. • Toll calls can be billed through calling cards, prepaid cards, collect or third party. • TTY users who wish to use a coin TTY payphone can use Relay Service to assist in connecting calls. Emergency calls In case of emergency, TTY users should call the TTYequipped 9-1-1 Center or emergency services center in their community. All customers should verify the emergency phone numbers for TTY calls in their area. Calls placed directly and immediately to the local TTY emergency number can save valuable time in urgent situations. For more information on how to obtain emergency numbers in your area, call your state Relay Service number. How do you get information about the Telecommunication Relay Service in your state? Each state has its own Telecommunications Relay Service provider, and a variety of relay features are available. California is the only state where relay users can choose from multiple providers. To find out who provides relay service in your state, check your local telephone book. You may also call your relay provider’s customer service number and request upto-date information on the special features your relay service has available. Telecommunications Relay Service is for everyone! Reach out and communicate without giving it a second thought!

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was compiled by Mary Beth Mothersell, Sprint Relay Account Manager, Rochester, New York.

This publication was developed in 1999 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


CART

NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

CART

Computer Aided Realtime Translation

What is CART? CART – Computer Aided Realtime Translation – is the instant translation of the spoken word into English text performed by a CART reporter using a stenotype machine, notebook computer and realtime software. The text is then displayed on a computer monitor or other display device for the student who is deaf or hard of hearing to read. This technology is primarily used by people with hearing loss, but it also has been used by people with learning disabilities or those who are learning English as a second language.

machine to the laptop computer. The reporter will also need to purchase a printer that can either be a letter quality dot-matrix printer or a bubble ink-jet printer. The reporter must also purchase a computer-assisted shorthand machine, realtime translation software, and software that enlarges their text for the student that they are assisting. The CART reporter will rely on the college to provide any overhead projectors, screens, video hookups, large format displays, or other equipment that may be requested to meet specific classroom needs.

How does CART work? CART reporters write in a phonetic language, called STENO. Using the stenotype keyboard’s 22 keys and a number bar, they learn unique combinations of letters to represent sounds or phonemes. The keyboard is chordal; therefore, multiple keys are pressed at the same time, much like playing chords on a piano, to represent certain phonemes. When an outline is written on the keyboard, it passes via cable to a computer for processing. This processing can be referred to as “translation” because it takes the phonetic outlines written by the reporter and translates them into English words using a special dictionary created by the reporter. This dictionary contains word parts, whole words, phrases, names, punctuation, and special entries used by the reporter during a realtime session.

How much does the CART service cost? Compensation for CART reporters working with students who are deaf and hard of hearing varies considerably, based on training and experience. The National Court Reporters Foundation suggests $40$75 per class hour, $15-$40 per hour for preparation time (30 minutes for each class hour), and $15-$40 per hour for production time (editing and distribution). Colleges with little or no experience using CART reporters may wish to check with other colleges that have hired CART reporters.

What special equipment is needed ? Most CART reporters already own their own hardware and software for realtime display. Their hardware includes a personal computer which is usually at least a 486-33 megahertz notebook computer with a 120 Mb hard disk drive, 8 Mb RAM, and 2 serial ports. Some CART reporters also purchase an optional external VGA or SVGA color monitor, which enables the student that they are assisting to see the screen better. Other parts of their hardware include a realtime cable that connects the computer-assisted shorthand

Ideas for faculty working with CART Here are some strategies for faculty members using CART reporters: 1. Meet with the CART reporter before the first class and give the reporter a course syllabus, textbook for the class, handouts, outlines, readings, overheads, and vocabulary lists that will be useful for the CART reporter to use to prepare for class. The specialized vocabulary for the class will be entered into the reporter’s dictionary, which will help to maintain a high translation rate. This is advantageous for both the reporter and the student(s). 2. Introduce the CART reporter and the CART service at the beginning of the first class. Show your support of the service. Tell students that the CART reporter has been assigned to one or more students for the term of the class.


3. Allow the CART reporter to explain briefly what realtime translation is, and invite interested students to look at the screen after class. Explain that, through the use of realtime translation, the reporter will write the teacher’s and classroom participants’ spoken words; the text of this lecture will display on a computer monitor or other display device in English for the student who is deaf or hard of hearing to read. Also, remind students that at the conclusion of each class, the reporter will provide the student with a copy of the lecture text from the realtime translation either in the format of an unedited ASCII file on a diskette or a printed copy of the edited text. 4. Permit the CART reporter to sit in a location that makes hearing you and the students in the class as easy as possible. 5. Make sure that the student being assisted is able to watch the screen and the speaker at the same time. Since the translation and text display are usually one to four seconds behind the speaker, it may take the student who is deaf or hard of hearing a few seconds longer to respond. Try to limit the class discussion to one person speaking at a time, so that all students have the opportunity to participate. 6. Restate or summarize students’ comments if they are hard to hear, or somewhat disorganized. The CART reporter knows he or she must follow the intent of the speaker at all times. The reporter will render as near a verbatim translation as possible, always conveying the content and spirit of the speaker. Sometimes, a new term is introduced that will not translate

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

properly. The reporter may then use substitute language which is computer-translatable so that the term can be understood by the student. 7. The CART reporter may begin editing class notes during “down times” in the class. Decide whether hearing students will have access to these notes. Be sure your preference on this matter is well understood by the CART reporter, all the students – both hearing and deaf – and your department head or dean. Other features of the CART service: 8. The text on the screen will reflect everything going on in the environment, including environmental sounds and speaker identifiers. Examples include: INSTRUCTOR: MALE STUDENT: FEMALE STUDENT: (LAUGHTER) (APPLAUSE) (BELL RINGING) 9. The CART reporter will work with the instructor and the student(s) in each class to ensure cooperation and quality of reporting. 10. The CART reporter will always have a back-up reporter to take over the class in case of illness, and will inform the instructor of this change.

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was compiled by Judy Larson, associate professor, Court and Conference Reporting Program, St. Louis Community College, St. Louis, Missouri.

This publication was developed in 1999 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

Improving the

Language and Language and Learning of Learning Students Who are Deaf The saying “Good teaching is good teaching” holds considerable truth when thinking about exemplary practices used in educating students who are deaf. Some adaptations not withstanding, educating deaf or hearing students well should mean engaging in similar pedagogical practices that link language-learning with content-learning. All students, deaf or hearing, must learn both the language and the content of the courses they take, making all teachers teachers of the language, reading, and writing of their specific subject area. Content, of course, is set according to the dictates of each teacher’s specific discipline, but how might language, reading, and writing be embedded into content in ways that will enable all students — and especially deaf students — to learn from the ideas of others and to put new ideas into their own words? Here are some suggestions: Language Across the Curriculum • Before beginning a class, ask students to summarize the ideas discussed in the prior class; then relate the summaries to the goals of the present class. • Increase the amount of time for students to manipulate ideas through discussion, especially before assigning reading and writing tasks. • Make ideas come alive, as much as possible, by capitalizing on drama. If , for example, students are studying the catalyst role of enzymes, acting out how these enzymes “grab” amino acids to assemble proteins would be memorable. • Use blackboard diagrams to illustrate ideas. • Use analogy to compare known with unknown concepts. As an example, if measurement conversions (inches to centimeters, ounces to grams) are being taught, first use monetary conversions (dollars to dimes, quarters to pennies) so that the idea of changes in form but not amount can be more easily understood. • List key concepts and vocabulary on the blackboard and refer to them, by pointing, during class.

Reading Across the Curriculum • Before assigning a reading, give students a brief overview of it. • If the reading is a narrative, mention character names and roles. • Model the “marking-up” of text in the form of side-paraphrases and questions. • Encourage students to engage more with texts by using double-entry journals where quotes or facts from the text are copied in one column of a journal and responses and questions are written on the facing page. • Visually project as much text as possible through the use of a computer and/or overhead projector. Using your index finger, point out new vocabulary and its linguistic context (the surrounding phrases or clauses). Encourage interpreters to stand or sit as close to the text as possible. Read difficult portions of text aloud, modeling the strategies you use as a reader to make meaning out of it. (Show how meaning builds from prior to present text and how readers predict meaning and keep reading to test predictions.) • Require students to re-read and re-write assignments that are not satisfactorily completed after the benefit of class discussion. Writing Across the Curriculum • Increase the amount of writing required. Think about offering the option of many short pieces as opposed to one or two longer ones. • Create writing assignments that engage writers, such as response papers, position papers, interviews, and surveys. • Analyze models of good student writing, showing students exactly what will be expected of their own writing. • Consider the benefits of requiring multiple drafts of written work and responding to each draft according to its need. Here a FLUENCY, CLARITY, CORRECTNESS approach might be


tried in the following way: Response to Draft 1 would include mentioning if the writing assignment topic was addressed, if enough information was provided, if the information was ordered appropriately and if certain parts were relevant. Point out what language was unclear. Response to Draft 2 (if needed) would continue to ask for more information or a different order of presentation or language clarification. After Draft 3 is completed, the teacher might suggest that it be brought to a writing tutor for grammatical revision and instruction based on the grammatical needs of the student as evident from the piece. Progress made from Draft 1 to Draft 4 might be considered in assigning students a grade. Writing tutors need to be fluent in the language of the student and skilled in teaching grammar in a consistent way. An X-Word Grammar approach might be tried. X-Word Grammar is a grammar of written English based on linguistic principles that offers a sequential, cumulative, and rigorous approach to the teaching of English structure. Some thought might be given to instituting this approach program-wide. Think about ending each class five minutes earlier and having students write what they learned during that session and what they still have questions about. These writings might be read from at the beginning of the next class (as discussed in the last point under Language Across the Curriculum)

the connections between new ideas and the understanding and expression of those ideas in language. The more opportunities students are given to “talk,” read, and write about their new learning, the more they will indeed learn.

These suggested practices will enable students to become educated language users by strengthening

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was prepared by Dr. Sue Livingston, Professor in the Program for Deaf Adults, LaGuardia Community College, a college of the City University of New York.

This publication was developed in 1999 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

TutoringTUTORING Tutoring, as defined for this Tipsheet, is a studentdriven interaction in which a tutor is enlisted to explain and clarify academic content and/or instructions to a deaf or hard-of-hearing student. It is assumed that the tutor is not fluent in the use of sign language, the student’s primary mode of communication is signed communication, tutoring interactions do not take place in the classroom, and the tutor is either a teaching faculty member or a special education staff member. There are two considerations for course structure/presentation that will reduce the incidence of tutoring being requested by deaf students. 1. If expectations for courses are clearly explained in a course syllabus, the student will have a clear reference for understanding issues such as grading policies, paper and project requirements, due dates for homework, details regarding exams, etc. 2. Peer notetakers, paid or volunteer, can help deaf students concentrate on what is happening in class, without breaking eye contact with the professor and what is happening in class. It would also be helpful if the professor periodically reviewed the notetaker’s notes to make sure that deaf students are correctly getting all of the information presented in class. Given adequate attention to these two considerations, there will still be situations in which a deaf student will request tutoring. When tutoring occurs, the interaction should be as beneficial as possible for all participants.

Characteristics of an ideal tutoring session An ideal tutoring session, one in which everyone is satisfied with the outcomes, will have most of these characteristics: 1. The student has identified a specific concern. 2. The student has a basic understanding of supporting concepts. 3. The student has independently attempted to understand the concept. 4. The student has realistic time expectations for tutoring. 5. The tutor and the student communicate well with each other. 6. The tutor has a full understanding of the subject/concept in question. 7. The concept is explained, understood, and can be applied to the satisfaction of both the tutor and the student. If you can get to the last outcome listed above, then you have successfully provided tutoring. If you cannot get to the last outcome, you may need to better communicate what you expect from your students. Legitimate expectations for tutors to have of their students are: 1. Students should seek tutoring when they have difficulty understanding a concept; they should not wait until confusion builds upon confusion. 2. Students should have realistic expectations of tutoring. A student who shows up for one hour of tutoring and says, “I don’t understand chapters 1-5 and we have a test tomorrow” does not have realistic expectations of tutoring. 3. Students should try to make a reasonable accommodation to the communication style and capabilities of their tutor.


Students also have expectations of their tutors, such as: 1. Tutors should be familiar with all the requirements for courses they tutor, including classroom lectures, reading assignments, individual and group presentations, and preparation for exams (though not a problem for faculty tutoring deaf students in classes they teach, it does require good liaison between classroom faculty and staff tutors). 2. Tutors need to be available to students on a regular or an as-needed basis, depending on the needs of the student. 3. Place and time availability of tutoring should fit the student’s schedule. 4. Tutors should make a reasonable accommodation to the communication needs of deaf and hard-of-hearing students. Other tips that may be beneficial are: When a deaf student comes in for tutoring, it may be beneficial to sit across from, rather than next to, the student. If you are using a black/ white board during tutoring, do not talk to the board and do not start talking until you have the student’s attention.

Use as many visuals as possible. Writing down important points as you say them will help the student follow you, while presenting information in an appropriate sequence. You may write key words and important points on a pad to be passed backand-forth with the student or you may use a board if one is available. Like many other students, deaf students often have difficulty with technical vocabulary and problem solving. When you explain a concept and use technical vocabulary in the explanation, ask students to explain key words/concepts before you continue. Also, shortly after assigning problems/projects, ask students to outline their problem/project solving approach. Once you feel you have explained a concept and the student has expressed his/her understanding, ask the student to demonstrate that understanding through explanation and/or application of the concept.

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu WWW: http://www.rit.edu/~netac

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was compiled by Richard Orlando, associate professor, Business/ Computer Science Support, National Technical Institute for the Deaf, a college of Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York.

This publication was developed in 1998 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

Teaching Students Who Are Teaching Students Hard of Hearing Demographics More than 20,000 students who self-identified as hard of hearing or deaf enrolled in academic year 1992-1993 in postsecondary education institutions. As the civil rights laws of people with disabilities are implemented further, we can expect greater numbers of students with hearing loss to enroll in mainstream educational institutions. Because there still is a stigma associated with hearing loss, some students in educational settings may be reluctant to make their hearing loss known. Teaching Strategies Make a Difference Administrative policies that encourage and provide for enrollment of students who are hard of hearing have to be in place. Equally vital for the success of students who are hard of hearing are instructors who are sensitive and responsive to their needs so that they can fully participate in the educational experience. Students Function Differently Students who are hard of hearing have residual hearing. To understand speech they use speechreading, which alone only allows about 30% understanding. They therefore use other strategies, including technology, to participate fully. They may sit up close, use hearing aids, use assistive devices, or a combination of all three. Though a hearing aid may help in one-on-one situations, in larger groups with a larger distance from the speaker and poor acoustics, hard-ofhearing students also may need assistive listening devices such as infrared, FM, or audioloops. Interpreters, notetakers, or computer-assisted real-time transcription (CART) may also be needed to follow the lectures as fully as possible. There are also other strategies and services that

enable these students to have equal access to information in the classroom setting. Warning Signs of Hearing Loss Students with hearing loss may be hesitant to self-identify and faculty members may be instrumental in picking up the signs and following up with students to encourage them to do something about their hearing loss. Warning signs of hearing loss are: • Giving inappropriate responses • Speaking in an unusually loud/soft voice • Not hearing when someone speaks from behind • Appearing to pay attention but not actively participating in class discussions • Asking for repeats often • Responding with smiles and nods but no further comments. If you suspect that a student in your class has a hearing loss, meet privately with the student to discuss your concerns and see what follow-up actions need to be taken. TIPS FOR INSTRUCTORS 1. Use Good Communication Techniques • Repeat or rephrase questions/comments from the class before responding. • Face the class and speak naturally at a moderate pace. • Avoid the temptation to pick up the pace when time is short. • Do not speak while writing on the blackboard. • Lecture from the front of the room—not pacing around. • Point out who is speaking in group discussions.


• •

Do not drink or chew gum while lecturing. Do not stand or sit in front of a window where shadows will impede speechreading. Beards and mustaches make speechreading harder. Keep them trimmed. Discuss concerns about the student’s ability to hear privately, not in front of the whole class. Encourage open communication from a student with hearing loss about your teaching style.

• • • • •

• • •

2. Provide Classroom Services • Provide handouts such as syllabus, lesson plans, and assignments. • Write announcements and assignments on the blackboard. • Write proper names, technical vocabulary, formulas, equations, and foreign terms on the blackboard.

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

Always use captioned films/videos or provide a written manuscript. Help find seating near the front if requested by the student. Arrange for a written instead of oral test. Be aware of and know how to use assistive listening devices. Be familiar with oral, sign, and cuedspeech interpreters and how to work with them in class. Provide copies of your class notes if a notetaker is not available. Be familiar with computer-assisted real-time transcription (CART). Support the student in advocating for communication access.

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was prepared by Brenda Battat, Deputy Executive Director, Self Help for Hard of Hearing People, Inc., Bethesda, Maryland.

This publication was developed in 1998 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

Working With Students LATE-DEAFENED Who Are Late-Deafened Late-deafness means deafness that happened postlingually, any time after the development of speech and language in a person who has identified with hearing society through schooling, social connections, etc. Students who are latedeafened are unable to understand speech without visual aids such as speechreading, sign language, and captioning (although amplification of residual hearing may be used to assist with speechreading). Students who are late-deafened may have lost their hearing suddenly or gradually but share the common experience of having been raised in a hearing world and having become deaf rather than being born deaf. Here are some suggestions that will help teachers work more effectively with this population. 1. Allow time for student to introduce himself and discuss possible needs. Ask the student if he or she would like to make a small presentation to the class to educate others on the needs of late-deafened individuals and to let everyone know how they may be able to assist the student or meet the student before or after class to become familiar with possible barriers the student might face. 2. Learn basics of CART (Computer-Aided Realtime Translation) and other communication options. Students who are late-deafened tend to rely on written English as their primary mode of communication. CART can provide the student with instant information and the disk can be saved to help the student review the material at a later time. The student may not know about this service or

other options that may help in the same manner. 3. Learn the basics of using interpreters and those interpreting methods that may be used by the late-deafened student (Sign Language Transliteration, Oral Transliteration, American Sign Language [ASL], and Cued Speech Transliteration). Students who are deaf and hard of hearing use varied modes of communication, depending on the age of onset of hearing loss and cultural background. Some late-deafened students know ASL or use signed English as their preferred mode of communication. Talk with the interpreter before or after class to learn more about interpreting and issues related to the type of communication being used. 4. Learn basics of the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Rehabilitation Act, Section 504. These are laws that affect students with hearing loss in schools. 5. Ask a student to help with notetaking as the text file of CART is not always useful. Because some lectures can be lengthy, it may be helpful to have another student summarize items and take notes, instead of having to read what may be very lengthy pages of text from the CART transcripts later on. 6. Be aware of environmental issues, such as not standing in front of a window and facing the student. Standing in front of a light source makes it difficult to speechread, pick up visual


cues, etc. Be aware of the student and try to face him/her when speaking, without distractions near the face or mouth. 7. Repeat questions and answers if at all possible. 8. Remember that English is the primary language of the student who is late-deafened. Use written English whenever possible. 9. Regulate cross-talk. Ask students to raise their hands so that the student who is latedeafened is always aware of who is speaking. 10. Identify speakers so that the student knows who is speaking and the CART person can also type in that information. 11. Provide access for out-of-classroom activities such as internships, group meetings, etc. If a student who is late-deafened needs to meet with a group, make sure he/she will have some way of knowing what the meeting is about...either through captioning, an interpreter, or other creative options.

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

12. Look directly at the student who is latedeafened when speaking. Try not to speak while writing on the blackboard or with your head down or your back facing the students. 13. Enunciate clearly and try to speak at a normal pace. Lipreading is more difficult when words are greatly exaggerated or mumbled. 14. Provide visual aids whenever possible. Overheads or notes on the board are very helpful to the student who is late-deafened. 15. If possible, allow time after class for the student to ask questions privately. Let the student know that is an option. Sometimes it is easier to ask questions privately, especially if they are not sure of some things and do not want to take up class time in case it is something they have missed. 16. Take advantage of the disability services coordinator of the postsecondary program or other resources, such as the Association of Late-Deafened Adults, Inc. (ALDA).

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was prepared by Mary Clark, President, Association of LateDeafened Adults, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia.

This publication was developed in 1998 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

Interpreting INTERPRETING An interpreter’s role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that both hearing and deaf individuals may fully interact.

The common types of services provided by interpreters are:

1. American Sign Language (ASL) Interpretation – a visual-gestural language with its own linguistic features

2. Sign Language Transliteration – sign language and mouth movements using elements of ASL and English • 3. Oral Transliteration – silent repetition of spoken English 4. Cued Speech Transliteration – speech movements of English supported by handshapes and hand placements. All of these services may also require the interpreter to “voice” for the student who is deaf and does not use his or her own voice. The interpreter will vocally express in English what is signed, mouthed, or cued by the student. Regardless of what type of interpreting is used in the classroom at your educational institution, all interpreters associated with the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID) are bound by a Code of Ethics. The principles guiding the professional behaviors of interpreters are: • •

Interpreters/transliterators shall keep all assignment-related information strictly confidential. Interpreters/transliterators shall render the message faithfully, always conveying the content and spirit of the speaker, using language most readily understood by the person(s) whom they serve.

Interpreters/transliterators shall not counsel, advise, or interject personal opinions. Interpreters/transliterators shall accept assignments using discretion with regard to skill, setting, and the consumers involved. Interpreters/transliterators shall request compensation for services in a professional and judicious manner. Interpreters/transliterators shall function in a manner appropriate to the situation. Interpreters/transliterators shall strive to further knowledge and skills through participation in workshops, professional meetings, interactions with professional colleagues, and reading of current literature in the field. Interpreters/transliterators by virtue of membership or certification by RID shall strive to maintain high professional standards in compliance with the Code of Ethics.

The interpreter’s job is to faithfully transmit the spirit and content of the speaker, allowing the student and instructor to control the communication interaction. The interpreter’s primary responsibility is to facilitate communication. Instructors should refrain from asking the interpreter to perform other tasks as it may interfere with the quality of communication provided and compromise the role of the interpreter. Things to remember when working with an interpreter: The interpreter’s role is to facilitate communication. Please refrain from asking the interpreter to function as a teacher’s aide or a participant in class activities. Familiarity with the subject matter will enhance the quality of the interpreted message. If possible, meet with the interpreter before the first class to share outlines, texts, agenda, technical vocabulary, class syllabus, and any other background information that would be pertinent.


Keep lines of sight free for visual access to information. In class, the interpreter will attempt to stand or sit in direct line with you, the student, and any visual aids. Interpreters normally interpret one or two sentences behind the speaker. Speak naturally at a reasonable, modest pace, keeping in mind that the interpreter must listen and understand a complete thought before signing it. . Allow time during class discussions or question and answer periods for the student to raise his/her hand, be recognized, and ask the question through the interpreter. This will allow the interpreter to finish interpreting for the current speaker and enables the student who is deaf or hard of hearing to ask a question or make a comment. The interpreter will relay your exact words. Use “I” and “you” when you communicate with deaf individuals using an interpreter. Look directly at the person you are communicating with, not the interpreter. Use of third party phrases such as “ask her” or “tell him” can be confusing. For interactive situations, semi-circles or circles work best for deaf and hard-of-hearing students. Try to avoid talking while students are focused on written classwork. The student can’t read and watch the interpreter at the same time. Plan some strategic breaks so that both student and interpreter can enjoy a mental and physical break from the rigors of the situation. Receiving information visually without breaks can be tiring and cause eye fatigue for the deaf individuals. Additionally, simultaneous interpreting requires the processing of new information while the information that was just communicated by the speaker is being delivered. For classes longer than

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

one hour in which only one interpreter is available, a five-minute, mid-class break is essential. Encourage the students to wait until the teacher recognizes them before speaking or signing. The interpreter can only convey one message at a time after indicating the speaker. It is important that only one person speak/sign at a time. Captioned films and videotapes are strongly recommended to allow the student direct visual access to the information. If you are planning to show a movie or use other audiovisual materials, inform the interpreter beforehand so that arrangements can be made for lighting and positioning. If the deaf individual(s) are not present when class begins, the interpreter may wait a few minutes for late arrival . The interpreter may be needed at another assignment and may leave if no deaf individuals are present after 10-15 minutes. If the interpreter will be asked to read and interpret test questions, allow time for the interpreter to prepare for this assignment. Alternative test procedures may be needed by some students. If the test has a written format (essay, multiple choice, or fill in the blank), the student may prefer to have the interpreter read and translate questions into sign language. Arrangements for this kind of testing should be made by the student and instructor with the interpreter BEFORE the test. More information about the role and function of interpreters can be obtained from the national organization of professionals who provide sign language interpreting/transliterating services, the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, in Silver Spring, Maryland.

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was prepared by Kathy Darroch and Liza Marshall, Interpreting Services, National Technical Institute for the Deaf, a college of Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York.

This publication was developed in 1998 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


Considerations When

NETAC Teacher Tipsheet

Teaching Students DEAF-BLIND Who are Deaf-Blind When a student who has both a vision and a hearing loss registers to take a course, each component of the course will need to be reviewed to determine if the student requires accommodations, e.g. syllabus, handouts, overheads or other AV materials, exams, and paper assignments. There is not a formula for addressing these needs because students who are deaf-blind have differing levels of hearing and vision loss. The first step is to talk with the student about the course to determine what modifications are necessary. Who to Contact for Assistance Help is available! The instructor and student should access support from staff who coordinate services for students with disabilities. These staff may be located within the various departments, within the counseling office or with the Disability Support Service (DSS). These staff have the knowledge and experience in providing the necessary accommodations and access to resources in order to provide support services. With permission from the student, talking to previous instructors may also be helpful. Use of Student Aids/ Accommodations There are several types of support

services available to students. Access to these services will help increase the student’s understanding in class and maintain the general pace of the course. These may include: Assistive Listening Devices (ALDs)—a small microphone device worn by the instructor that increases the volume and clarity of the class lecture for the student who wears the device. An auxiliary device may also be used in a small group situation, in order to enhance the understanding of several voices. Interpreters—relay information to and from the student and other people in the classroom. The type of interpreting needed will depend upon the student’s residual hearing and vision. Interpreting may be done orally, visually (use of American Sign Language or other sign system, with modifications including restricted use of signing space or increased/decreased distance between student and interpreter) or tactually (hand over hand). Notetakers—provide a written, Brailled, or taped secondary source of information during a class lecture. Tutors—may also require an interpreter when accessing tutorial services. Readers—for students who have usable hearing and limited vision, this support service provider reads textbooks and other course materials.


Physical Classroom Accommodations There are several possible accommodations that may need to be addressed based upon the location and setting of the course. Does the classroom have adequate lighting? Are there sources of glare such as fluorescent lighting or exposed windows along one wall? Do white walls or white table tops create glare? Is there enough space in the classroom to allow for a guide dog and/or interpreter? Are night classes accessible to students who use public transportation or have night blindness? The student and instructor will need to evaluate seating with regard to classroom participation and at times it may be beneficial/necessary to look at alternate settings if the physical classroom cannot accommodate a student’s needs. This can be done in conjunction with the Office for Students with Disabilities on campus. Use of Handouts/Ad Hoc Materials For students in your class who will need alternate media, it is critical to meet with the student early to allow time to convert materials into the student’s preferred mode. Ensuring a student receives course materials in a timely manner, defined as the same time other students receive the information, is essential to the student’s success (Senge & Dote-Kwan, 1998). At times, some materials should be made available early, e.g. if the student is expected to read material distributed in class and respond either through discussion or written report. This is needed because students who use an interpreter cannot read a document and

participate in class discussion at the same time. Visual impairments can also slow reading comprehension. Some of the alternate formats may include: Large Print/Braille Materials or Taped Textbooks—every required reading and handout may need to be converted into large print, Braille or audiotape. First consult the publishing company. They are required by law (the Americans with Disabilities Act–ADA) to have their textbooks available in alternate format to all readers. If possible, consider computer conversion. Whether materials are converted by computer or manually, resources may include a volunteer, the DSS on campus, or a community service agency that serves blind individuals. Reading Machines—will enlarge the print size and change the polarity to decrease vision strain and problems with glare by displaying white text on a dark screen. Reading machines also known as closed circuit televisions (CCTV) may be available on campus, in community libraries, or owned by the student. Use of Audiovisual Materials The use of videotapes in the class, class lecture using an overhead projector, and slides will all require some type of modification for students who have vision and hearing loss. Some adaptations may include use of an interpreter to be sure a student receives the information being presented. Also large print or Braille copies of overhead materials or a transcript of videotapes/slides may be needed for the student. The use of color overlays might improve contrast for students with low vision (Enos & Jordan, 1996). Lighting is


often critical for students with low vision. Dimming the lights may impair the student’s ability to see the material or the interpreter. It will be important that any visual information presented in class be described for the student who has severe vision loss. Examples of this may include graphs/diagrams on the over-head, the use of objects, e.g. scale model of chromosomes, and demonstrations, e.g. role play of counseling situation. Small Group Discussions/Activities Accommodations used in the classroom at large may also be needed when students have small group discussions or complete group projects. Some of these support services may include use of an interpreter or ALD. Communication rules may need to be established and followed to insure only one student speaks at a time and that students identify themselves before speaking so the student who is deaf-blind can follow and participate in the discussion. Materials produced by the group may need to be converted into alternate format and special meeting times outside of the classroom may require a volunteer or member of the group to guide or transport the student to the meeting place. Oral Presentations If the course requires oral presentations by students, some accommodations may be added to insure clear communication by all. If the student uses an interpreter in class, the interpreter may need to voice to the class what the student signs. Even if the student does not use sign language, an

oral interpreter may be needed if a student’s voice is not clearly understood or loud enough. If the student also has limited use of vision, an interpreter will relay feedback and comments from classmates to the student. Exams Some examples of alternate test giving methods include taking the test orally, having the material interpreted into ASL (either visually or tactually), listening to the test on audiotape, having extended testtaking time, or taking the test in a different location with better lighting and/or with a reading machine. Other modifications may be necessary for the student to record test answers. Options include use of a notetaker, proctor, computer-typed answers, Braille-typed answers (later transcribed into print) and use of low vision aids such as writing guides and templates (American Council on Education, 2000). Field Visits/Labs Any activity that occurs outside of the regular classroom will need to be discussed in advance to insure the student’s full participation. If the class occurs off-campus in a different setting, the student may require a guide or assistance from someone to arrive at the new location. If the student typically walks to class, alternate transportation may be needed. If the student uses a guide dog, insure that the lab does not interfere with the support animal, e.g. use of chemicals/strong fumes. Teaching Style Having a student who is deaf-blind in the classroom may require some adaptations in


an instructor’s teaching style. If the instructor typically paces or walks around the classroom during a lecture, the student may not be able to follow the voice clearly. If the instructor speaks while writing on the blackboard, the student may not be able to hear or speechread the person clearly. If the instructor uses overheads and slides on a regular basis, they may need to be copied or transcribed into Braille for the student who cannot see them. The instructor’s lecture speed should permit an interpreter to keep pace. Use of the communication rules noted earlier help insure full participation. The use of roleplay and class participation should include the student with vision and hearing loss. Instructors who produce last-minute handouts will need to have them available in the alternate format choice of the student. Given the student’s preferred learning style, the instructor can make the necessary accommodations with as little change to teaching style as possible. Conclusion Because of the degree of vision and hearing loss varies from person to person, the possible accommodations needed for

students who are deaf-blind are diverse, distinct and yet often easy to accomplish. Accessing the services through the Disability Support Service will help. Keeping an open line of communica-tion with the student will ultimately create a positive learning and teaching atmosphere for both you and the student. References American Council on Education (2000). Students who are deaf or hard of hearing in postsecondary education (revised). (HEATH Resource Center publication). Washington, DC. Enos, J. & Jordan, B. (1996). A guide for students who are deafblind considering college. Sands Point, NY: Helen Keller National Center-Technical Assistance Center. Senge, J.C. & Dote-Kwan, J. (1998). Responsibilities of colleges and universities to provide print access for students with visual impairments. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 92(5), 269-275.

Thanks to Jamie McNamara and Pat Rachal for their input in the development of this fact sheet. For more information on how to contact professionals in the tutoring field, as well as other topics covered by the NETAC Teacher Tipsheet series, visit NETAC’s Web site at http:// netac.rit.edu.

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was prepared by Beth Jordan, Helen Keller National Center, Shawnee Mission, Kansas.

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu http://netac.rit.edu

This publication was developed in 2001 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


NETAC Teacher Tipsheet TM

TM

C-Print C-Print What is C-Print™? C-Print™ is a computer-aided speech-to-print transcription system developed at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) as a support service option for some deaf and hard-of-hearing students in mainstream educational environments. It was developed by NTID researchers eager to improve the classroom experience for students at both the secondary and college levels, and is being used successfully in many programs around the country. Research supports the idea that some deaf and hard-of-hearing students prefer printed text of lectures – the basis of the C-Print™ system – over sign language interpreters or notetakers as a means of acquiring information. Other students prefer an interpreter. It is an individual choice the Disability Support Service provider must work with. Additionally, C-Print™ is cost effective and can be more readily available than stenographybased services that a university or secondary school may provide. How does it work? A typist called a C-Print™ captionist types a teacher’s lecture (and students’ comments) into a laptop computer. The typed information is displayed simultaneously on a second laptop computer or a television monitor for students to read during class. Because of the rate of speech, it often is necessary for a captionist to use strategies to condense information. The

goal is to provide a meaning-for-meaning translation while using fewer words than the original speaker. Afterward, the printed text is available to students for review purposes. The printed text produces approximately 7-10 pages per hour of class time, a manageable amount for many system users. Currently, the system requires a computer (often a laptop)using word processing software aided by abbreviation software. The captionist receives training in an abbreviation system to reduce keystrokes, and in text condensing strategies. Captionists do not have to memorize all the abbreviations in the system. They learn a set of phonetic rules that are applied to English words in the system’s dictionary. What special equipment is needed? To use C-Print™ in a classroom setting, one needs either two laptops (one for the captionist and one for the student) OR one laptop and one monitor (computer or television) for viewing of typed text by more than one student. When two laptops are used, the captionist and student can conduct twoway communication. How much does it cost? Costs of using C-Print™ vary, depending on what equipment is used; the pay level and hours the captionist works; service arrangements; and funding opportunities.


Typically, the word processing software costs approximately $100; communication software is approximately $100; and word abbreviation software costs approximately $150. Costs for laptop computers, display equipment, and captionists’ salaries will vary. Salaries typically are between those of a professional notetaker and an interpreter. Ideas for Faculty Working with C-Print™ Captioning Here are some strategies for faculty members using C-Print™: 1. Introduce the captionist and the C-Print™ service at the beginning of the first class. Show your support of the service. 2. Allow the captionist to explain briefly what C-Print™ is, and to invite interested students to look at the screen after class. 3. Give the C-Print™ captionist any available materials before the next class. Items such as a course syllabus, handouts, outlines, readings, overheads, and vocabulary lists are useful for the captionist’s class preparation. They are especially helpful for making the specialized dictionary for each class, with abbreviations of often-used vocabulary specific to that class. 4. Speak loudly and clearly during class so that the captionist can hear you easily. 5. Allow the captionist to sit in a location that makes hearing you, and the other students, as easy as possible.

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

716-475-6433 (V/TTY) 716-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu WWW: http://netac.rit.edu

6. Be sensitive and supportive to the captionist’s comfort and needs in the classroom setting (e.g., close blinds to reduce glare on screen, allow use of desk or table of correct height/size). 7. Restate or summarize students’ comments if they are hard to hear, or somewhat disorganized. 8. Be aware that the captionist will use “down times” in the class to edit notes taken earlier. “Down times” include periods of silent reading or writing, pauses during class transitions, etc. 9. Decide whether hearing students will have access to the C-Print™ hardcopy notes. Be sure your preference on this matter is well understood by the captionist, all the students – both hearing and deaf – and your department head or dean. 10. Involve the captionist as part of the educational team when discussing student needs related to C-Print™. For more information on how to contact professionals in the C-Print™ field, as well as other topics covered by the NETAC Teacher Tipsheet series, visit NETAC’s Web site at http://netac.rit.edu.

This NETAC Teacher Tipsheet was prepared by Pam Francis, C-Print™ Training Coordinator, National Technical Institute for the Deaf, a college of Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York.

This publication was developed in 2000 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H078A60004). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


NETAC Tipsheet

Oral Transliterating Oral Transliterating What does an oral transliterator do? An oral transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The oral transliterator, positioned in front of the deaf person, inaudibly repeats the spoken message for the deaf person, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called Expressive Oral Transliterating. An oral transliterator also can audibly voice the spoken message of a deaf person for the hearing audience. This is called Voicing or Voice-Over. When are oral transliterators used? Oral transliterators are used in a variety of situations: educational settings; religious services and ceremonies; job interviews; medical and legal settings; areas of employment; conferences and workshops; town meetings; etc. They are especially helpful when: • there are multiple speakers (such as a discussion) • the speechreader cannot see the speaker clearly (for example, in a large auditorium) • the speaker is not speechreadable (such as a speaker with facial hair covering the lips)

5)

Oral transliterators must be able to concentrate for long periods of time in the midst of all sorts of distractions visual and auditory. This not only involves listening to the speaker/s and concentrating on the message, but always being aware of what is happening in the environment and relaying this information to the consumer.

6)

Oral transliterators must be comfortable with the English language. There are times in the process of transliterating when it is necessary to paraphrase, rephrase, or make appropriate substitutions of original information to aid in the speechreading process. All of this involves manipulating the English language while maintaining the intent of the speaker’s message.

7)

Oral transliterators need to have knowledge of speech production and the speechreading process to enable them to identify speech sounds or words that are not easily visible on the lips.

8)

Oral transliterators must use verbal and nonverbal techniques to support the speechreading process, especially in coping with the potential limitations mentioned above. Sometimes a particular word is not visible on the lips or is homophenous (a word articulated in the same place, thus looking the same on the lips as another word), which can be confusing to the speechreader. The oral transliterator can use the verbal technique of adding a clarifying word before the “difficult” word. For example, in the sentence, “She had a beautiful vase.”, the oral transliterator would transliterate, “She had a beautiful flower vase.” or “She had a beautiful vase for her flowers.” A nonverbal technique would be using palm writing to clarify two numbers that look the same on the lips (such as fifty and fifteen). The oral transliterator would hold up her palm and write the correct number on the palm for the speechreader to “read.”

9)

Oral transliterators must have a thorough understanding of the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID) Code of Ethics and of their role as described in the Code.

What are the characteristics of an effective oral transliterator? 1) Oral transliterators must be speechreadable (lipreadable) to an average speechreader with little or no effort. They must have natural and clear articulation with no exaggerated lip movements or mannerisms. 2)

Effective oral transliterators are naturally expressive when they speak, using facial and body expression to enhance the speechreading process.

3)

Oral transliterators must have the ability to speak inaudibly. It is very distracting to the hearing audience to hear an oral transliterator whispering loudly or making “smacking” noises while transliterating.

4)

Oral transliterators must have excellent short-term memory and must be able to understand easily the speech of a variety of both hearing and deaf speakers. The ability to listen to information and hold it in one’s short-term memory, while simultaneously “mouthing” (for expressive oral transliterating) or voicing (for voice-over transliterating) other information is vital.


What credentials should an oral transliterator have? The transliterator should be trained and certified as an Oral Transliterator by the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID), this country’s premier certifying body. For more information about RID and the certification process, go to RID’s Web site at www.rid.org. If such a person cannot be found in your area, look for a trained Oral Transliterator with state approval or Quality Assurance Approval from the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (www.agbell.org). Some states also may have state-based screening programs similar to those used for sign language interpreters. The Mainstream Center at the Clarke School for the Deaf in Northampton, Massachusetts, offers an annual summer workshop in the fundamentals of oral transliterating. In addition to beginners, many sign language interpreters attend this training to gain the skills necessary for effective oral transliterating. If you would like more information about the Mainstream Center’s oral transliterating workshop, visit: www.clarkeschool.org. Educational oral transliterating Educational oral transliterators can be found on all educational levels: elementary school through college. Often the greatest challenge to mainstreaming for a student with hearing loss is gaining access to information. A typical classroom is primarily an auditory environment, where listening is the key to getting the most information. Hearing loss obviously is a major barrier to receiving information through listening. Oral transliterating is an effective option for many “oral” students, defined here as those who use their own voices, hearing, and speechreading for receptive information. These students use some degree of residual hearing–perhaps through a hearing aid or cochlear implant—and may use an FM system in the classroom. The oral transliterator facilitates all of the information from the teacher and other members of the class in a way that makes it easy for the student with hearing loss to speechread. If the student doesn’t understand the content of the material, the student

For more information, contact: Northeast Technical Assistance Center Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604

585-475-6433 (V/TTY) 585-475-7660 (Fax) Email: netac@rit.edu Web site: www.netac.rit.edu

asks the teacher for clarification. The oral transliterator does not teach or tutor, but facilitates communication. When an Individual Education Program (IEP) specifies oral transliterating services, it is recommended, though not dictated by law, that the student have input into the choice of candidate. Not all people can be easily speechread. Not all people with hearing loss have the same speechreading ability. The student should have an opportunity to communicate with the candidate to judge his/ her speechreadability before the candidate is hired. A knowledgeable person or organization should supervise oral transliterators in educational settings. This should include observations and an evaluation of the transliterator at various intervals during the year, along with feedback from the deaf student about the effectiveness of the service. Oral transliterators should also be required to upgrade their transliterating skill through additional training on a regular basis. Schools should develop job descriptions that clearly outline the responsibilities of the oral transliterator. One job description does not fit all oral transliterating situations, since they may vary according to the educational setting, the age and grade level of the student, and the needs of the school or program. Using an FM System with an oral transliterator Can a student who uses a personal FM system in the classroom also use an oral transliterator? This depends on the individual. Many students use an oral transliterator in conjunction with a trained notetaker. The transliterator provides moment-to-moment access, while the notetaker provides a summary of notes to be used after class. These students may prefer to listen when classroom conditions are optimal, but choose to use the oral transliterator in other situations, such as for a fast-paced class discussion where other students in the class are not using an FM microphone.

This NETAC Tipsheet was written by Claire A. Troiano, OTC, M.E.D., Director of Outreach Training and Oral Transliterating Services, The Mainstream Center, Clarke School for the Deaf, Northampton, Massachusetts.

This publication was developed in 2005 under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) and produced through a cooperative agreement between RIT and OSERS (H324A010002-04). The contents herein do not necessarily represent the Department of Education’s policy nor endorsement by the Federal Government.


Assistive Listening in the Classroom