Page 1

The b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e Overlapped w o r k | City u r b a n c o d e

The Overlapped City Visions for A Post-fossil City

compact and resilient urban growth with ditributed renewables

energy energy ecology urban elements

wind

solar

towers

podiums

open space

food

[urban agriculture]

biomass

wetlands

[stormwater management]

basement [parking etc]

energy storage [pump storage]

Chen Chen. Dec 11. 2012

Programmatic Density


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Background

Towards a resilient future -Spatial Dimensions of Renewables -Distributed Energy Production -


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Energy production in the post-fossil era will be dominated by renewables, whose low power density requires dramatically larger land to produce enough energy to meet our demand.

Spatial Dimension of Renewables _ Lower Power Density


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Energy production in the post-fossil era will be dominated by renewables, whose low power density requires dramatically larger land produce enough energy to meet our demand.

wood 0.4 w/sqm

coal 400 w/sqm

natural gas 800 w/sqm

nuclear 2000 w/sqm

solar 30 w/sqm

wind 5 w/sqm

biomass 1 w/sqm

Production field area for same amount

Number of households powered by 10,000 sqm production field

4x

1000 x

2000 x

50000 x

75 x

[standard football field]

50 x

Energy Demand [single family house]

Spatial Dimension of Renewables _ Lower Power Density

10 x = 1kw


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

On the other hand, renewable energy production can take place at a range of scales. They are more compatible with urban conditions and more flexible with spatial application than fossil fuel based energy production. Their distributed production Solar Energy generation can take take place at a advantage of microgrid, a more efficient, resilient distribution pattern could range of scales and in different applications

Rooftop PV Commercial: ~1,500m2 Residential: ~35m2 Urban Utility Scale Minimum Area: 18,000m2

Rural Utility Scale Minimum area: 1km2

[Future Opportunity] Efficient / Resilient / Distributed

AC power

Electricity usually travels in AC through long distances

Concentrating Solar Power Minimum Area: 2-4km2

Source: Energy Production Group

Sources; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M. (2008a). “Land-Use Requirements and the Per-Capita Solar Footprint for Photovoltaic Generation in the United States.” Energy Policy, (36:9); pp. 3531-3543. Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. (2008b). “Supply Curves for Rooftop Solar PV-Generated Electricity for the United States.” NREL/TP-6A0-44073. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Goodrich, Alan, et al. “Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic System Prices in the United States.” Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2012. Lopez, Anthony, et al. “U.S. Renewable Energy Technical Potentials: A GIS-Based Analysis.” Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2012.

[Current system] Inefficient / Vulnerable / Centralized

Most of renewables and home appliances are DC based electricity

Micro Wind Turbine

AC - DC Conversion Loss [AC - DC] [LOW - HIGH Voltage]

Everyone could be energy producer!

DC - DC microgrid

Homes

Biomass Fossil-fuel Power Plant

Spatial Dimension of Renewables _ Scale Diversity

Solar PV


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Given the distributed nature of renewables, current cities, which are solely energy consumers, are facing both the challenge and the opportunity of accommodating energy production within their footprints.

ENERGY PRODUCTION RURAL

ENERGY CONSUMPTION URBAN

OIL EXTRACTION FIELD

Urban vs Rural - Energy Production and Consumption of Today

MANHATTAN


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

This challenge will get intensified with the ambition of managing urban growth in more compact models of development.

Production

Consumption

In the middle of nowheare

Fossil Era City

Production

Consumption

Post-Fossil City

Urban vs Rural - Energy Production and Consumption in the Future


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Logic of energy production and distribution will start having a significant impact on the spatial organization on the urban growth. This project, therefore, explores the morphology of resilient post-fossil cities across three scales: redefining urban boundaries and urban clusters, energy infrastructure framework and a new set of urban codes

ESILIENCE THROUGH COLLABORATIONS L - Interconnecting Urban Clusters Cell

M - Urban Framework

S - Urban Code

Clusters? how many cells? what to share?

?

km? Gas

?

Backup? National Grid Gas

Cluster Sharing

Energetic Cell

Instability of Renewables>>> Interconnectivity / diversity of energy sources

Low power density>>> Distributed / Microgrid

Spatical Organization of Post-Fossil Cities

Spatial Articulation of Distributed Energy Production


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e The Overlapped City

The concept of “the overlapped city� tries to generate spatial synergies beProductive [Energy & Food Production] tween energy and other urban parameters in the three scales.

solar

wind

towers

podiums

open space

food

[urban agriculture]

[stormwater management]

podiums

Production

Consumption

food

?

biomass

wetlands

energy storage

basement

[pump storage]

food

towers

basement [parking etc]

solar

open space When density meets renewables ...

biomass

wetlands

Consumptive [Urban Elements]

energy ecology energy urban elements

wind

Post-Fossil City

Programmatic Density

Program Density [Multi-layered / Multi-functional]

?


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Site-Houston

Opportunities and Challenges -Rich Potential for Renewables -Fastest Growing -Urban Sprawl


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Fastest Growing

Renewable Potential

-

- #1 Potential for Renewables - Taxas - Texas now leads the country in wind energy - and is moving along in solar.

#2 US fast growing city biggest US metro Areas in 2025 #1 Destination of U-Haul Migration. 2009-2011 Young People Migration

http://www.uhaul.com

solar potential

Intervention Area - West Houston

Houston_Opportunities

wind potential


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Urban Sprawl Heritage of un-sustainable growth in the oil era - lowest density and highest gasoline consumption per capita - longest street per capita - daily commute driven per capita 36.9 miles - 3.68% of population use public transit

Huge amoung of parking lots in downtown houston is a direct reflection of its suburban sprawl

Parking-scape _ Houston Downtown


> CHENEVER

> FRANKLIN > Old

18

George Bush Monument

19

20

Exchange

Chase Bank Drive Through

Foley Building

< CONGRESS <

35

34

Market Square Garage

GARAGE PARKING

Bank One Drive In

40

Hotel Icon

33

Market Square Park

21

22

23

24

32

31

30

29

45

46

47

48

49

50 103 117 163 172

56

Christ Church Cathedral

55

Christ Church Garage

54

53

52

51 102 118 162 173

69

70

71 Center

72

73

74 101 119 161 174

79

78

77

76

75 100 120 160 175

96

97

98

Congress Plaza Garage

Harris County

Harris Co. Courts

Harris County Building

Harris Co. Civil Courthouse

25

26 105 115 165 170

28

27 104 116 164 171

1414 Congress

Garage

Center

Harris Co. Garage

Hamilton Street Residences

> PRESTON >

41

Wortham Center

Franklin

< HAMILTO

parking occupys more than 50% of houston SURFACE PARKING city center

< JACKSON

b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

42

Lyric Center

Downtown Aquarium

43

44

Minute Made Park

< PRAIRIE < Alley Theatre Garage

62 61

60 Alley Theatre

717 Texas Garage

59

58

57

Houston Chronicle

Lancaster Hotel

Post Rice

Binz Building

Binz Garage

Union

> TEXAS >

63 64

65

Civic Center Garage

Bayou Place

66

Jones Plaza

67

68

Chase Tower

Jones Hall

JP Morgan Morgan JP Chase Center Center Chase Garage

Federal

Saks Garage

Inn At The Ballpark

Catholic Church

< CAPITOL <

86 85

84

Bob Casey Federal Courthouse

Small Tranquility Garage

Bank of America Garage

83

82

Pennzoil Place

Bank of America Plaza

81

80

JP Morgan Chase Building

Houston Club Building

US Customs House

Texaco Building

> RUSK >

87 88

89

90

Lanier Public Works Building

91

92

Esperson Building Garage

Two Shell Plaza Garage

Rusk Garage

93

801 Travis Garage

94

95 Six Houston Center

Melrose Building

Houston Center Garage One

99 121 159 176

< WALKER < Houston Center Garage Two

151 149 146 145 142 141 138 137 134 133 130 129 126 City of Houston City Hall

City of Houston Court House

Hermann Square

Two Houston Center

Texas American Building

> MCKINNEY >

One City Center

Houston Center Garage One

FullBright Tower Garage

The Shops at Houston Center

Houston Center Retail Garage

125

5 Houston Center

Fullbright Tower

One Houston Center

919 Milam

Houston Center Garage Five

Garage

Houston Center Garage Four

> CRAWFORD >

One Park Place

< LA BRANCH <

Four Houston Center

> AUSTIN >

One City Center Garage

< CAROLINE <

< MAIN >

< FANNIN <

Reliant Energy Plaza

< LAMAR < Macy’s Garage

First City Tower

> SAN JACINTO >

Travis Place Garage

> TRAVIS >

Texaco

< SMITH <

< BRAZOS >

< BAGBY >

Library

El Paso

< MILAM <

Wells Fargo Garage

> LOUISIANA >

263 148 147 144 143 140 139 136 135 132 131 128 127 Sam Houston Park

Wells Fargo Plaza

262 261 260 259 258 257 256 255 254 253 252 251 250

parking occupys more 265 902 than 50% of houston downtown area 907 Metropolitan Garage

Texaco Heritage Garage

Plaza

1100 Smith Garage

1100 Louisiana Building

Reliant Energy Plaza

Macy’s

> DALLAS >

First City Tower Garage

Four Seasons Hotel

249

268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 Coutyard by

One Allen Center

Houston

901

711 Polk Garage

Houston Pavilions

HPD Headquarters

Two Allen Center

158 177 157 178 George R. Brown Center

247 246 280 281

Hilton Americas Houston Hotel

< POLK <

Three Allen Center

Travis Tower

299 298 297 296 295 294 293 292 291 290 289 288 287 286 Garage

Main Garage

777 Clay Garage

1301 Fannin Garage

South Texas College of Law

Hilton Americas Hotel Garage

Travis Tower Garage

> CLAY >

Toyota Center

908 321 320 319 318 317 316 315 314 313 312 311 310 309 308 < BELL < 909 922 337 336 335 334 333 332 331 330 329 328 327 326 1401 Smith Garage

Church

Allen Center Garage

124

< JACKSON >

City Hall Annex Garage

Shell Plaza

< HAMILTON >

152

Large Tranquility Park Tranquility Garage

> CHENEVERT >

Hobby Center For The Performing Arts

< AVENIDA DE LAS AMERICAS >

Hobby Center Garage

1400 Louisiana Garage

1415 Fannin Garage

Wedge

Garage Tower

AT&T Building

Root Memorial Square Park

1400 Smith Street

Tundra Garage

Exxon

1600 Smith Garage

> LEELAND >

910 921 353 352 351 350 349 348 347 346 345 344 343 342 Exxon Mobile Garage

< PEASE < Kellogg Tower

914 920 371 370 369 368 367 366 365 364 363 362 361 360 Crowne Plaza Downtown Cullen

915 Parking-scape _ Houston Downtown Garage

Kerr Tower Garage

> JEFFERSON >

There are a total of 100,000 garage and surface lot spaces throughout downtown. St. Joseph Hospital Garage

919 918 388 387 386 385 384 383 382 381 380 379 378 Garage

< ST. JOSEPH PARKWAY <


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

440,000 Houstoners live in “food desert” a neighborhood without enough access to grocery stores.

number of shops

55 20min walk 1600m

source: http://abclocal.go.com/

Houston [citycenter] Average11.3shops

Paris [citycenter] Average55shops

12

6

2

55

75

55

2

5

3

65

72

56

62

8

2

48

20

49

500m

Measuring Houston “Food Desert”

500m


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Manage Growth in the Post-Fossil Era Sprawl cannot continue. We need to explore a more sustainalbe framework for urban growth.

Popultion 4.7 million

7.7 million

NOW

Tomorrow

City of Sprawl

City of Renewable

DOWNTOWN

? Site of Intervention

615,000 jobs by 2025

West houston leading the future growth


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Urban Framework

Energy-Ecology-Mobility Infrastructure - Define limit of growth - Energy Plan - Phasing Strategy


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Legend airport

Ponds

Ponds Ponds

p ro jec ted to hou com sto mut n d er owt lin own e >>>

Agriculture & Forest Existing

Ponds / Streams

Forest Ponds / Streams

Agriculture Forest

Ponds

Forest Agriculture

Existing

Primary Roads Secondary Roads

airport

Agriculture St re am

St re

am

Ponds

Ponds

Agriculture Land

Ponds

Urbanized Areas

Ponds

airport

Projected Rail Extensions to houston dowtown>>>

Existing Ecological Elements

Existing landscape elements on site such as stream, ponds and forest are recognized and preserved.


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Existing Ecological Elements

A potential ecological network could be established generating a linear system connecting all the adjacent ecologic elemetns.


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Existing Ecological Elements

A potential ecological network could be established generating a linear system connecting all the adjacent ecologic elemetns.


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Existing Ecological Elements

The ecological network serve as a buffer zone as a way to define urban growth. Urban clusters would leave a certain distance with each other instead


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Buffer zones between urban clusters

Potential Eco-Energy Corridors


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Mamimum growth capacity [cluster boundaries] [avoid sprawl]

Clusters Definition


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Ecological corridors and energy corridors share spaces

Central Eco-Energy-Corridor


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Distribution of public transit hubs covers all urban area within 10min walk

Public Transit Networks


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Energy City Framework


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e Energy

dc-based microgrid

ac-based long distance transmission

%

Local Energy Production

%

SemiCentralized Energy

Eco-Energy Corridor

%

Centralized Energy

National Grid

urban cluster

[backup connection]

Ecological Infrastructure

futher expansion phase 3

75%

futher expansion

?%

Transportation

Energy Planning

Local Energy Production

phase 2

50%

Local Energy Production

?%

Local Energy Production

Local Energy Production

phase 1

25%

Local Energy Production


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

-

Energy-Based Density Regulation Internal Energy Balancing Eco-system Urban Typologies Multiple Scenarios

Urban Code

Dynamic Framework-Multiple Scenarios


140m

b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

140m

Urban Block M M

Public Transit

Urban Cell

10x10 urban blocks

M

Urban Blocks & Public Transit

Each urban cell will have at least one public transit hub, the distribution of which ensure all blocks are within 10min walk to the public transit.


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Landcovers

Ponds / Streams

Existing Landscape Elements

Recognizing existing landscape elements on site to project the location of open spaces.


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Landcovers

Ponds / Streams M

Park

M

Park

Projected Open Spaces

Recognizing existing landscape elements on site to project the location of open spaces.


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e 6

Public Transit M

F.A.R extra high high

Density

mid

low

mid

high

Park

Density Distribution

Proximity to public transits and open spaces both leads to higher density. Public transits have higher influcence than open spaces.


y

z

x y

z

y z

x=y=z Spherical x y z x=y>z Flat-horizontal

Horizontal

x<y=z Flat-vertical x

- larger roof surfaces for solar PVs

x=y<z Vertical

FAR = 4

- efficient wind harvesting - frees up ground for open space - more biomass

x

Vertical

b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

[source: The Politics of the Envelope A Political Critique of Materialism. Alejandro Zaera Polo]

Envelope Typologies

Proximity to public transits and open spaces both leads to higher density. Public transits have higher influcence than open spaces.


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Envelope Typologies

To increase accessibility to the parks, surounding blocks have lower gound occupation, typologies become more vertical.


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Solar Exposure

Parametric tools help recognize the different energy potentials associated with various massing strategies.


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Solar Exposure - roof


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Solar Exposure - Roof & Ground


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Solar Potential


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

70m

min height for turbines

stepping elevations for MAX wind capture

turbulences

Wind turbines are only installed on buildings taller than 70m. Overall Massing needs to generalte stepping elevations for maximum wind capture.


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Biomass Potential

Lower ground occupation allows more surfaces for biomass production.


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Wind Solar

Biomass

GFA FAR Solar Demand Production Energy Ratio

78,400 sqm 4.0 0 Wind x1 Biomass 16,400 sqm 588 kw 66 kw = 50 + 16

Program

Commercial

GFA FAR Solar Demand Production Energy Ratio

78,400 sqm 4.0 2,800 sqm Wind x1 Biomass 14,000 sqm 588 kw 148 kw = 84 + 50 + 14

[Production / Consumption]

11%

Energy Storage

Office

Residential

x=y<z Vertical

Wind Solar

Biomass

[Production / Consumption]

25%

Energy Storage

Program

Commercial

GFA FAR Solar Demand Production Energy Ratio

78,400 sqm 4.0 4,900 sqm Wind x0 Biomass 14,700 sqm 588 kw 162 kw = 147 + 15

Office

Residential

x<y=z Flat-vertical

Wind Solar

Biomass

[Production / Consumption]

28%

Energy Storage

Program

Commercial

GFA FAR Solar Demand Production Energy Ratio

78,400 sqm 4.0 19,600 sqm Wind x1 Biomass 14,700 sqm 588 kw 588 kw

Office

Residential

x=y=z Spherical

Wind Solar

Biomass

[Production / Consumption]

Program

Overall Energy Potential

100%

Energy Storage

Commercial

Office

Residential

x=y>z Flat-horizontal

the four categories of envelopes determined by their geometric features have embeded patterns that define different productivity level in terms of energy.


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Solar

10x

Wind

4x

Biomass

1x

Overall Energy Potential


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

The Overlapped City Multi-layered multi-functional

Productive [Energy & Food Production]

Consumptive [Urban Elements]

wind

solar

food

biomass

energy storage

?

towers

podiums swimming pool

open space

?

food

biomass

?

wetlands

?

basement

Spatial synergies

? The design of urban typologies is articulated following the concept of â&#x20AC;&#x153;overlapped cityâ&#x20AC;?- maximizing active surfaces and overlapping multiple programs in compact urban areas.


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

The Overlapped City

Maximizing Active Surfaces The Overlapped City Productive [Energy & Food Production]

solar wind

towers

podiums

open space

food

[urban agriculture]

biomass

Consumptive [Urban Elements]

energy ecology energy urban elements

wind

solar

food

towers

podiums

open space

food

biomass

?

basement

wetlands

?

energy storage

basement

wetlands

[stormwater management]

[parking etc]

[pump storage]

Programmaticsynergies Density Spatial

The design of urban typologies is articulated following the concept of â&#x20AC;&#x153;overlapped cityâ&#x20AC;?- maximizing active surfaces and overlapping multiple programs in compact urban areas.


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Urban Typology Matrix

The design of urban typologies is articulated following the concept of â&#x20AC;&#x153;overlapped cityâ&#x20AC;?- maximizing active surfaces and overlapping multiple programs in compact urban areas.


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Urban Typology Matrix

The design of urban typologies is articulated following the concept of â&#x20AC;&#x153;overlapped cityâ&#x20AC;?- maximizing active surfaces and overlapping multiple programs in compact urban areas.


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Urban Typology Matrix

A series of dynamic relationships links the traditional parameters of density and height with the energy productivity of each block, as a way to motivate developers to maximize their local energy production.


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Urban Typology Matrix

A series of dynamic relationships links the traditional parameters of density and height with the energy productivity of each block, as a way to motivate developers to maximize their local energy production.


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Collaborative / Diverse / Resilient

Scenario 2 example if overall local energy =

Energy Offset Policy

50%

A policy of inter-block energy balancing allows different degrees of flexibility in the city in order to adapt to the due to various sizes developments (ownership), developer market economy. New of patterns of energy specialization arise, defining blocks30% thatenergy are more prone the can eitherthe produce on site or to payproduction a tax for aand offsite ones thatproduction are more field prone to consumption. collective within the same cell.Through a system of energy â&#x20AC;&#x153;tradingâ&#x20AC;? a cluster meets its overall energy production target through the compensation among the different blocks and the creation of additional energy sources within the green corridors.

+

Scenario 1 Every block produce exactly X% local energy

+

Selling excessive energy

E Selling excessive energy

-

-

scenario 2 offset production

Energy Balancing Ecosystem

eE f si t Of

Scenario 2 Blocks collaborate to achieve x% local energy within an urban cell scale

ne

rg y

Pr

od

uc

tio

n

scenario 1 fullfill 30% local production

E

[Pattern A] Energy/Eco Corridors Semi-centralized energy production

0

[Pattern B] Independent Energy/Eco Central Park Semi-centralized energy production


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

urban cell scale - Maximum offset distance [extent of DC microgrid]

Energy Balancing Ecosystem


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

urban cell scale - Maximum offset distance [extent of DC microgrid]

Energy Balancing Ecosystem


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

200%

Special Producer Block

Possibilities -Energy open space -Buying from energy corridor -Special architecture [maximized energy production]

- ...... urban cell scale - Maximum offset distance [extent of DC microgrid]

Energy Balancing Ecosystem


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Self-Sufficient Cell - Independent and Resilient - Efficiency Driven - Radical and Revolutionary - Autonomous Urban Blocks - Homogenious

Urban Code Plan

Scenarios


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Self-Sufficient Cell - Independent and Resilient - Large Number of Energy Production Blocks - Rural-like Condition

Urban Code Plan

Scenarios


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

The Vulnerable Cell - Modest improvement - Relies external energy supply

Urban Code Plan

Scenarios


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

The Resilient Cell - Half Local Energy Production - Homogenious

Urban Code Plan

Scenarios


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

The Resilient Cell - Half Local Energy Production - Inter-Block Balancing Ecosystem - Diverse

Urban Code Plan

Scenarios


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

The Resilient Cell - Half Local Energy Production - Inter-Block Balancing Ecosystem - Productive Blocks Emerging - Hyper Specialized Blocks

Urban Code Plan

Scenarios


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

The Resilient Cell - Half Local Energy Production - Inter-Block Balancing Ecosystem - Productive Blocks Emerging - Hyper Specialized Blocks

Urban Code Plan

Scenarios


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

The Resilient Cell - Well Balanced Density and Energy Production - Inter-Block Balancing Ecosystem - Productive Blocks Emerging - Hyper Energy Productive

Urban Code Plan

Scenarios


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

low

Diversity = 1.0

Local Energy Productivity

high


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

low

Block Productivity Diversity Factor

Local Energy Production = 50%

high


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Phasing and Polycentric Growth

The system will develop in phases, in order to adjust and optimize the scheme as more settlements are commodated and technologies of renewables improve.


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Phasing and Polycentric Growth

The system will develop in phases, in order to adjust and optimize the scheme as more settlements are commodated and technologies of renewables improve.


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Phasing and Polycentric Growth

The system will develop in phases, in order to adjust and optimize the scheme as more settlements are commodated and technologies of renewables improve.


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Phasing and Polycentric Growth

The system will develop in phases, in order to adjust and optimize the scheme as more settlements are commodated and technologies of renewables improve.


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

25%

Local Local Energy Energy Production Production

75

Local Energy Production

2015

2025

50%

Local Energy Production

2020

Phasing and Polycentric Growth

Starting from easier goal of local energy coverage, the city gradually achieves more and more energy independence and resilience, reducing its reliance on fossil fuels overtime.


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

25% 2015

Phasing and Polycentric Growth

Local Energy Production


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

25%

Local Energy Production

2015

Spatial Diversity

As a result of the new urban code, some new interesting and highly diverse spatial conditions and relationships arises.


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

25%

Local Energy Production

2015

Spatial Diversity

As a result of the new urban code, some new interesting and highly diverse spatial conditions and relationships arises.


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Vision 2050


b a c k g r o u n d | c o n c e p t | s i t e | u r b a n f r a m e w o r k | u r b a n c o d e

Vision 2050

The Overlapped City  

Compact Urban Growth in the Renewable Era Chen Chen

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you