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Carlos Eduardo Esturban 11/11/2011


This book is also drawing is building as plans leeer The word "graph" means "Concerning the expression of Ideas by Means of lines or marks on a surface." Then a drawing (plan) is a graphical representation of something real. The drawing, Therefore, it is a graphic language I use figures to Communicate Thoughts and ideas. As a drawing is a set of instructions Comply With The That must operator, Should Be clear, correct, accurate and complete. The fields are as diverse as Specialized branches of industry. Some of the main areas of the drawing are: mechanical, architectural, structural and electrical. The term "technical drawing" Applies to Any Design That Is Used to express technical ideas.










CONTENIDO ……………………………………………………

4 - 29

CONCLUCION …………………………………………………..


BIBLIOGRAFIA …………………………………………………….



Concept Plan The word "graph" means "concerning the expression of ideas by means of lines or marks on a surface." Then a drawing (plan) is a graphical representation of something real. The drawing, therefore, is a graphic language he uses figures to communicate thoughts and ideas. As a drawing is a set of instructions that must comply with the operator, should be clear, correct, accurate and complete. The fields are as diverse as specialized branches of industry. Some of the main areas of the drawing are: mechanical, architectural, structural and electrical. The term "technical drawing" applies to any design that is used to express technical ideas.

Implementation of Plans As in the beginning of time man has used drawings to communicate ideas to peers and to record them, so they do not fall into oblivion. Man has developed the drawing along two distinct branches, using each form for a different purpose. Artistic drawing is concerned primarily the expression of ideas, real or imagined cultural. Instead, the technician drawing the expression of ideas concerns technical or practical nature, and is the method used in all branches of industry. In the daily activity is very useful knowledge to understand drawing house plans, instructions for assembly, maintenance and operation of many manufactured goods plans and specifications of many hobbies and other leisure activities. Classification Plans Drawings can be classified into: General Plan or Set. • Manufacturing and Exploded Drawing. • Mounting plane.


• Explosive Perspective Plan.

General Plan or the Joint The Site Plan provides an overview of the device to build, so you can see the status of the various component parts, with the relationship and the commonalities between them. The main function of the overall plan is to enable the assembly. This implies that the vision should prevail in the situation of the various parties, on the representation of detail. The whole figure, we observe the following features, generally applicable to any overall plan • When performing the assembly drawing, you must take into account all the issues of standardization, drawing format, line weights, scales, layout views, cuts and sections, etc.. • In the assembly drawing should draw the necessary views. In the figure of example, it is necessary to draw the left profile view, as they already are and reference all the pieces in the elevation. We've included to give a better idea of how the whole. • To see the inner parts must be made the necessary cuts. Because what matters is to see the distribution of the pieces, you can combine different cuts in the same view. The elevation of the example, we have represented a cut in the plane of symmetry of the parts 4, 5, 6 and 7 combined with a cutting plate 10 by the screw axis and a partial cut parts 1, 2 and 3 . • In the assembly drawing must identify all the parts that compose it. So you have to assign a mark to each piece, linking them through a reference line. These marks are essential for the identification of parts over the documentation and manufacturing process. To have fully identified the pieces to be included in the overall drawing a list of items. This list should add information that you can see in the picture. For example, overall dimensions, the nominal size, standard designation, or commercial standard references, materials, etc.. Because of the importance of marking parts and the list of elements, widely discussed 5

in the following points. • Since they are clearly identified parts of the whole, we can simplify the representation, especially in the case of standard and commercial items. The following figure represents a set of four pieces, clearly showing the status of each. In the figure below, hay simplified representation of the screw and washer. Since they are clearly identified, and who will go horseback riding knowledgeable enough to correctly both the screw and the washer, the end result is the same. Thus we have simplified the design, facilitating their understanding and reducing time to fulfillment. When assembling, have all the parts produced on the table, so who do the installation only needs to know how to identify them properly and where to put them. • All technical drawings should include dimensions necessary. Since the pieces are finished, at the only set of dimensions necessary to provide the performance or testing of the assembly. Overall in the figure is essential to draw the dimension of 35 mm, since it indicates the separation welder must weld the two brackets on the motherboard. Note that there has been a partial cut on the right support (part # 3) to establish its orientation. Manufacturing and Exploded Drawing Refers to size each of the elements to build or manufacture according to process (machining, casting, stamping, etc..), In accordance with dimensions shown on the map. • Machining: get the piece according to the plan either through processes of turning, milling, or planing. • Cast: The dimensions of the castings are larger than real because they are subject to other processes. • Pattern: This is done through the use or application of matrices. 6

Mounting Plane These plans are often made to fully represent simple objects such as pieces of furniture, where the pieces are small and do not have complicated shapes. All dimensions and information necessary for the construction of this piece and for assembling all the pieces are given directly in terms of assembly..

Design floor plans: When designing a machine, first of all is a plan or design to clearly visualize assembly operation, the shape and the different game pieces. From the assembly drawings are detailed drawings and each piece is assigned a number. To facilitate assembly of the machine, the assembly plan placed the numbers of the different parts or details. This is done by attaching small circles (from 3 / 8 inch. To ½ inch. In diameter) that contains the number of the piece, with pieces by lines for signs. It is important that detailed drawings are not identical numbering schemes when using multiple BOMs.

Mounting Installation Drawings: This type of assembly plan is used when employing many inexperienced people to assemble the different pieces. How are you people generally are not trained in reading engineering drawings, pictorial drawings using simplified assembly.

Catalogs Mounting Drawings: Assembly drawings are specially trained to catalog companies. These assembly drawings show only the details and dimensions that may interest the potential buyer. Often the plane has dimensions expressed in letters and is accompanied by a table that is used to encompass a range of 7


Unarmed floor plans: When a machine needs service, repairs usually are made locally and does not return the machine to the construction company. This type of shot is often used in the appliance repair industry, which uses the assembly drawings for the repair work and for the period of replacement parts. It is also often used this type of assembly plans by companies that make DIY equipment, such as model making equipment, where the plans must be easily understood.

Explosive Perspective Plan The perspective plan is intended to indicate explosive in an orderly and accurate sequence location of the pieces that form a whole, thereby allowing any operator to make disarmament and later, made the repair, assemble the whole plane following information .

How to Make a Site Plan The overall plan explains the different pieces that make up the object and the relative placement of each. To do this we will view the set (may serve an equally drawn to the general level) and identified by markings (consecutive numbers enclosed in a circle and point to each and every one of the pieces of the machine) each one of the pieces that make up the object. Beside drawing up a schedule in which each brand is associated with the name of the part to which it corresponds (always singular). The list is built starting with the mark "1", which will go on the bottom and continuing up sequentially. If more columns are needed to be written one on the right of the previous and so on. When the object or planned technical system has some degree of complexity can be used to divide the whole into its functional parts, and then perform the assembly drawing of each of these parts. 8

If we do well this section we will find many errors that we would have gone unnoticed: pieces that we had not taken into account dimensions that do not match, the possibility of repeating the same parts and initially had considered different.

architectural project In the field of architecture, an architectural project is the set of plans, drawings, diagrams and explanatory texts used to translate (paper, digital, model or other means of representation) the design of a building before it was built . In a broader concept, the entire architectural project design includes the development of a building, the distribution of uses and spaces, how to use materials and technologies and the development of all plans, details and perspectives.


Design stages of a project 1. Definition of scope, needs or objectives: To develop an architectural project, carried out a preliminary investigation process that guides the architect in their task throughout the project. The interpretation by the Architect of the results of this stage is largely defines the personality of the project. Identified in this process start three basic activities: Program approach. It refers to the initial stage where a client seeks a specialist (in this case, architect) to design a building that meets your specific needs and uses of space. The client also describes the designer's resources which should be based (land or existing building, budget, execution time, etc.). Interpretation of the program. The architect studies the needs of the customer and according to their interpretation and their professional capacity, establishes the objectives to investigate before making a proposal. The interpretations that the architect makes the 10

customer's needs will guide the next stage, but are always subject to change as you progress further the design process. Research. Taking the results of the two previous stages, it is also analysis and synthesis of information. First, it requires field research and literature to enable the details of the building, according to their type. 2. Program Design: The results of research synthesis, the designer makes a list identifying the components of the system and its particular requirements. This list is called the Architectural Program. For example, the draft of a house, or room-family (apartment), the program would include more of the following elements: Access Porch Driveway or garage Foyer or hall Room or living room Dining room Kitchen Room service Guest bathroom Dormitories Toilets Terrace Garden Patio 3. : From the architectural program, the designer makes a graphic scheme, similar to a flowchart, which represents every element of the program and associated with lines or arrows according to the relations between the spaces. For example, the kitchen should be related to the dining room, but not the bedrooms. By the presence (or absence) of arrows indicates this relationship. In this graph the relationships between the spaces is called architectural diagram. 4. Design of the basic scheme: Studied as a stage of realization of an architectural project, the design is the process of translating the results into useful forms of all previous stages, which are represented 11

graphically in the later stages. It is considered a creative process that involves elements such as: Scenario Design: A conceptual approach to design object, which will then be subject to change. Are considered simultaneously, with equal or variable importance (according to the design philosophy of each architect) aspects of architectural context, structural criteria, form, function, budget and even fashion. Zoning: The arrangement of the components of the design established in the architectural program based on logical and functional relations between them. Outline: Three-dimensional structure is the architectural diagram, applied in a specific area with emphasis on the qualities of systems, subsystems, components and subcomponents. Party: The realization of the solution architecture, shaping spaces designed to fulfill its function. Sometimes, the designer produces two or three games (preliminary design options) before settling on one that will become a draft. 5. Draft: It consists of a set of drawings, models or other means of representation that explain for the first time in a graphic way, but at the outset, how it is designed the building. It represents the building on the ground (horizontal section, top view), elevation or elevations (front view of the facades), cuts or sections and perspectives. Generally, although the drawing is scaled only include general dimensions. Its purpose is purely preliminary, so the customer decide if the design is pleasing and meets your requirements. In the event that the Bill is approved, then performed the final draft. 6. Basic or Architectural Project: Used to describe the overall building design: form, function, distribution, construction system, represented in drawings, models or computer models, with a specification and a general budget. It includes the urban characteristics of the building and is often used to check its feasibility in official and sometimes processing the request "building permit" subject to the submission of the relevant Project Implementation (in Spain). 7. Project Execution: The purpose of the whole design process is the Executive Project is defined as the set of plans, drawings, diagrams and explanatory texts (Report and Budget) used to properly define the building. It represents the building floors, elevations or elevations, 12

sections or sections, perspectives, models, three-dimensional model (using computer techniques or CAD) or others, for consideration by the client and designer. All plans must be to scale and properly dimensioned along the lines of technical drawing, marking the dimensions of the building and its location in the field, its orientation with respect to magnetic north, the configuration of all spaces, quality and materials and design details that deserve special mention.

Project Components (Basic) The elements constituting the Basic Architectural or Project are: Ground plane. Location maps and location. Plant whole. Architectural floor plans. Architectural elevation drawings or elevations. Architectural plane cuts or sections. Architectural drawings. budget In complementary fashion, usually include some or all of the following means of representation: Perspectives. Storyboard. Visit or virtual three-dimensional animation, using CAD software.

Executive Project, Project Implementation (construction plans) It is a further step to the architectural project itself, and is prepared when the design has been approved by the client and its construction is imminent. The main difference with the Architectural and Basic Project is that the earlier graphically describes "what to do" while the Executive Project specifies "how it will do." Working on the basis of the plans that integrate the architectural project, the same architect or a civil engineer working as a team, adds information and technical specifications for the builder and the various contractors to explain in detail what materials and what techniques be used. In addition to the planes that make up the package of architectural plans, must include at least the following drawings and documents: Plane Surveying earthworks, or topographical. 13

Structure plans of foundation. Plans rudeness of walls, or reframing of walls. Plans porches with columns and beams. Drawings of floor slabs and roofs or floors. Sanitation facilities Plano buried. Plans installations: electrical, plumbing, sanitary, fire, mechanical, special voice, data, and so on. Enclosure and partitioning plan defines the enclosure and partitioning elements: walls, partitions, doors, windows, fences, deck, and so on. Plans Finishes finishes: flooring, paint, plaster, acoustic and thermal insulation, waterproofing, and so on. Construction Drawings of the elements that make outdoor areas: sidewalks, landscaping, fencing, facilities, and so on. Plans Construction details of construction details (for trades). Constructive specification and applicable regulations. Regulatory compliance sheets. Justification of the solutions adopted Programming of the work. Structural calculation report. Catalog of concepts or specifications. Quantification of work or Budget Budget (with detailed measurements and unit prices).

Design Process Before even starting with the architectural design of a building, many issues must be considered preliminary. First, the situation of the property, or land, its size and topography, along with guidance on factors affecting the place as light, sunlight, views can be admired, and the conditions for the supply electricity and water and sewer, during and after construction. Once solved the above, should be assessed the space needs of the building such as floor area, height of mezzanine or plants, the relationships between spaces, uses, etc.. The set of architectural requirements is also known as architectural program. As important as the previous point is to consider the budget available for construction, as before drafting the plans should be clear how much money they can invest, to avoid designing a project so expensive that it can not be paid by the owner or developer.


technical Drawing The technical drawing is a graphical representation of various types of objects, in order to provide sufficient information to facilitate analysis, design to help develop and enable the future construction and maintenance. Usually performed with the aid of computerized or directly on the paper or other media plans. Is a graphical representation of an object or a practical idea. This representation is guided by fixed and predetermined rules to describe accurately and clearly, dimensions, shapes, features and build what you want to play. Objects, parts, machines, buildings, urban plans, and so on., Are usually represented in the plan (top view, top view, ground floor, deck, etc..), Elevation (front or front and side, at least one ) and sections (or short break), clearly indicating its dimensions through dimensions, are needed at least two projections (views of the object) to provide useful information about the object.

Forms of expression Technical drawing includes work such as sketches and / or diagrams, schematics, diagrams, blueprints, electrical and electronic representations of any kind of mechanical, architectural plans, town planning, etc.., Determined by the help of geometric concepts, which are applied the mathematics, Euclidean geometry, different types of perspectives, scales, etc.. 15

Media and media The drawing can be expressed in a variety of materials such as various types of paper, linen or acetate (mylar), also can be projected on screen, displayed on monitor, graphic animations recreate the volumes, and so on.

Tools and instruments For technical drawing using various tools or instruments: rules of various kinds, compasses, pencils, set squares, bevel, chalk, markers, etc. Currently, the computer is preferably used in its watershed through programs aided design (CAD, 3D, vector, etc.) with optimum results and continuous improvement process.

Architectural Drafting The architectural design encompasses a range of graphical representations with which we carry out the plans for the construction of buildings, houses, villas, roads, churches, factories and bridges among others. Draw the project with accurate instruments, with their respective details, adjustments and corrections, which shows floor plans, facades, sections, perspectives, foundations, columns, and other details.

Mechanical Drawing The mechanical design is used in the representation of objects or machinery parts, machinery, vehicles such as cranes, motorcycles, planes, helicopters and industrial machines. The plans represent a simple mechanism or a machine consisting of a set of parts, assembly drawings are called, and it represents a single element, flat piece. They represent a set of pieces with graphic indications for placement, and assemble a whole, are called assembly drawings.

Electrical Drawing This type of drawing refers to the graphical representation of electrical installations in industrial, office or house or any architectural structure that requires electricity. By corresponding symbols represent connections, meter box, main board, line circuits, switches, sockets, lamps and other outlets. in any 16

case the fundamentals of mechanical drawing is shown in the drawing power

Electronic drawing It represents the circuits that provide precise performance to various devices that currently constitute a technological breakthrough as computers, amplifiers, transmitters, watches, televisions, radios and others.

Drawing geological The geological picture is used in geography and geology, he was representing the various layers of the earth using a symbolic and conveys the minerals in each layer. It is widely used in mining and oil field exploration.

Topographic drawing The picture we plotted topographic features of a certain tract of land, by conventionally established signs. It shows natural and man-made accidents, dimensions or measures, horizontal curves or contours.

Drawing urban This type of drawing used in the organization of cities: the location of urban centers, industrial areas, boulevards, streets, avenues, gardens, roads, playgrounds and more. Are drawn blueprints, plans, assembly drawings and detail.

Technical design of sanitary facilities It aims to represent the position of each piece sanitary ware: shower, sink, toilet, etc. Including the location of internal and external pipes.

Paper To translate the drawings into a physical medium of paper formats used with standardized dimensions. The most commonly used are the series A of ISO, the main sizes are (measured in millimeters): 17

A0 - 841 * 1189 A1 - 594 * 841 A2 - 420 * 594 A3 - 297 * 420 A4 - 210 * 297 A5 - 148 * 210 A6 - 105 * 148 A7 - 74 * 105 A8 - 52 * 74 A9 - 37 * 52 A10 - 26 * 37

Axonometric The axonometric is a graphical representation system, consisting of geometric elements or volumes represented on a plane by parallel projection or cylindrical, referred to three orthogonal axes, so that they retain their proportions in each of the three spatial directions: height, width and length. Axonometric perspective has two important properties that distinguish it from the perspective conic: The scale of the represented object does not depend on its distance from the observer (equivalent to the observer was at infinity). Two parallel lines are also parallel reality in axonometric representation. Axonometric: proportion of the measures. The three projecting plane axes are drawn as follows: the reference to the height is usually vertical, and those relating to length and width can be arranged at any angle. The projecting plane axes to one another 120 째 in isometric perspective, a particular case of axonometric. The cavalier perspective is a type of oblique axonometric which represent the object is positioned with one side parallel to the picture plane (face of true magnitudes) and projections of its points follow an oblique direction to it. In the military perspective (particular kind of cavalier) the face of real magnitudes is the plant. To make the picture look more like


reality, is sometimes applied a reduction factor in measures that are not in the face of real magnitudes or parallel to it.

To use for manual drafting The axes must be made with straight, bevel, rubber, pencil, ruler, protractor. Will mark a vertical line, called the vertical axis and then the other two axes, width and length, with the angle you want. Once the axes will be drawing only the part with the measurements given by applying the reduction coefficients. The drawing must preserve the condition of parallelism and proportionality as regards the three principal axes. It is also used for previous designs called "freehand" to see if you can really develop the piece, space, place or object to be projected. This mode is used for pictures with proportional measures.

History of technical drawing The history of technical drawing is initiated by the need for graphics or pictures. The first performances we know are the cave paintings in them not only sought to represent the reality around him, animals, stars, the man himself, and so on., But also feelings, like joy of the dance, or tension the hunts. Throughout history, this need to communicate through pictures, has evolved, leading on one side to the other artistic design and technical drawing. While the former attempts to communicate ideas and feelings, based on the suggestions and stimulating the viewer's imagination, technical drawing, is aimed at the representation of objects as accurately as possible, in the form and dimensions. Today, we are seeing a convergence between the objectives of artistic and technical drawing. This results from the use of computers in technical drawing, they yield 3D virtual recreations that although objects represent the true size and shape, they also carry a heavy load of suggestions for the viewer. 19

First manifestations The first known demonstration of technical drawing is a construction drawing that appears carved on the statue of Gudea Sumerian king who ruled from 2.144 to 2.124 or 2.122 BC, called the architect, and that is in the Louvre Museum in Paris. In this sculpture, in schematic form. The year 1650 a. C. Ahmes papyrus dating. The Egyptian scribe, wrote in a papyrus of 33 548 cm, an exhibition of geometric content divided into five parts covering: arithmetic, sternotomy, geometry and calculus of pyramids. In this papyrus it comes to giving an approximate value of the number π. In the year 600 BC C., we find Thales, the Greek philosopher born in Miletus. He was the founder of Greek philosophy, and is considered one of the Seven Sages of Greece. He had knowledge in all sciences, but became famous for his knowledge of astronomy, after predicting the solar eclipse which occurred on May 28, 585 a. C. He is said to introduce geometry into Greece, science learned in Egypt. Their knowledge, helped him to discover important geometric properties. These left no writings, the knowledge we have of him comes from what is told in Aristotle's metaphysics. Born on the island of Samos, Pythagoras was instructed in the teachings of the early Ionian philosophers, Thales of Miletus, Anaximander and Anaximenes. He founded a movement for religious, political and philosophical, known as Pythagoreanism. A school that is attributed to the study and design of the first three regular polyhedra: tetrahedron, hexahedron, and octahedron. But perhaps his best-known contribution in the field of geometry is the hypotenuse theorem, known as the Pythagorean theorem, which states that "in a triangle, the square of the hypotenuse equals the sum of the squares of the Hicks ". In the year 300 BC C., we find Euclid, Greek mathematician. His 20

principal work Elements of Geometry, is a comprehensive treatise on mathematics in 13 volumes on subjects such as plane geometry, incommensurable magnitudes and geometry of space (see Euclidean geometry. Probably studied in Athens with Plato's disciples. He taught geometry in Alexandria, and he founded a school of mathematics. Archimedes (287-212 BC), noted Greek mathematician and inventor, who wrote important works on plane and space geometry, arithmetic and mechanics. Born in Syracuse, Sicily, and educated in Alexandria (Egypt). He invented ways to measure the area of curved figures and the surface area and volume of solids bounded by curved surfaces. Showed that the volume of a sphere is two thirds the volume of the circumscribed cylinder. It also developed a method to calculate an approximation of the value of pi (p), the ratio between the diameter and circumference of a circle, and stated that this issue was on March 10/70 and March 10/71. Apollonius of Perga, Greek mathematician, called "the Great Geometer ', who lived during the last years of the third and early second century C. He was born in Perga, Pamphylia (Turkey). His greatest contribution to geometry was the study of conic curves, which reflected in his Treatise on conic sections, which originally consisted of eight books.

dihedral system The dihedral system is a method of geometrical representation of the elements of three-dimensional space on a plane, ie, reducing the three-dimensional space to two dimensions of the plane, using an orthogonal projection onto two perpendicular intersecting planes. To generate the dihedral view, one of the folds flat on the second. Is a graphical method of representation is to obtain the image of an object (in plan and elevation) through the projection beam two planes perpendicular to major projects, horizontal (PH) and vertical (PV). The object is represented by the frontal view (projection in the vertical plane) and top view (projection in the horizontal plane), or you can 21

represent your side view and auxiliary view. If we disregard land line, is called direct dihedral system.

Projecting flat major The two planes are the main projecting Horizontal and Vertical. Their intersection is called a land line. Horizontal Plane (PH) contains the horizontal projection or plant. It is divided by the land line (TL) in the horizontal plane posterior (back) and Horizontal Plane Previous (front). Vertical Plane (VP) contains the vertical projection or elevation. It is divided by the Earth Line: Superior Vertical Plane (above) and lower vertical plane (bottom). The three main orthogonal projections: front, top and side (elevation, plan and profile). Usually only used planes PH and PV, which cut at the soil line (LT) giving rise to a subdivision of space into four dihedral angles or quadrants. It is also used as auxiliary plane, called: Plano Profile (PP) contains the lateral left (or right). plane bisecting The two planes bisectors are those that divide the quadrants into two octants of 45 째 each. The first bisector is the first and third quadrant and the second bisector in the second and fourth quadrant. To represent in two dimensions (on paper) the major sights in the dihedral system, it makes a depression, which is rotated, bat, or abate a main plane so that the horizontal plane (PH) overlaps the Vertical Plane (PV).


graphic projection The projection graph is a drawing technique used to represent an object on a surface. The figure is obtained using auxiliary lines projecting that, starting from a point called the focus, reflect that object in a plane, like a shadow. The main elements of the projection are, as shown in the figures, the point of view or focus projection (V), the point to be projected (A), the projected point (A ') projecting line (VAA') and the plane that is projected, which has different names like projection plane, picture plane or image plane ().

central projection When all the projecting lines pass through one point, he speaks of central projection or conical projection, this is the case, for example, in the shadow of an object on a surface when illuminated by a lamp (point source). Is adopted in conical representation system, or simply conical perspective. A variant of this system of representation is the stereographic projection used for the flat representation of the surface of a sphere, which is obtained by projecting all points of the sphere from one of them on the plane tangent at the point diametrically opposite, or on a plane parallel to this, drawn through the center of the sphere. central projection When all the projecting lines pass through one point, he speaks of central projection or conical projection, this is the case, for example, in the shadow of an object on a surface when illuminated by a lamp (point source). Is adopted in conical representation system, or simply conical 23

perspective. A variant of this system of representation is the stereographic projection used for the flat representation of the surface of a sphere, which is obtained by projecting all points of the sphere from one of them on the plane tangent at the point diametrically opposite, or on a plane parallel to this, drawn through the center of the sphere.

parallel projection When projecting lines are parallel, as the previous object illuminated by sunlight-he speaks of parallel projection or cylindrical projection. A special case of central projection, where the projecting beam focus distance would be infinite. The dihedral system Is the case of dihedral system, which also marks the projecting lines are perpendicular (orthogonal) to the plane of projection. In this system, unlike others, do not get a volumetric representation of the object in perspective, but its elevation, plan and profile. From these views, you can get a three dimensional representation of the object in axonometric system, whose lines can be either orthogonal projecting and oblique, with the [[cavalier perspective]. The outline drawing A variant of the dihedral, is that, in practice, can not be described adequately with the systems mentioned above. They are widely used in architecture, engineering, surveying, etc..

Plans The drawings are drawings that represent the views of an object from different positions. We have floor plans (as viewed from above), elevation plans (ESP) or front (arg) (front view), flat profile (ESP) or Views (arg) (side view), it's actually like having a cube, desplegรกramos and all there on that side is represented in a plane. We detail drawings 24

(they are on a larger scale to better appreciate the details), section planes (esp or Court (arg) (that face is how we would give him a break if imaginary) In addition to construction site plans have (esp) implantation (arg) (simply a street where anger indicates where the work)

Plant Stake (arg) Distribution (esp) This type of plan shows the building as seen from above if it is cut at 1 meter from the floor level generally (this level can vary depending on the need to show details of the project that are above this level). They are close-ups of a play and quickly as possible to understand the work in broad strokes. Show the position of walls, foundations, setting out axes, levels, others. First example Here's an example. We will model a very simple house and make your plant (a plant is not complete but will stake out a first approximation) File: Sequence corte.jpg 1 - shows the house 2 - identify the elements that appear on the ground 3 - are shown in red in line (imaginary) where the court and cut each element (wall, door, windows) 4 - shows the house is cut 5 - shows the resulting plane

Here we report the same plane, the larger 25

File: First planta.jpg In terms of rethinking not use colors, red only used in the image above to show the cut. On a stakeout what is cut and the remaining "background" differs with the thickness of line, which is above (closer to the observer is) and was drawn with thicker lines, what this below or is less important it drawn with thinner lines.

Things to take into account this close: -The design of the windows: In the cut glass windows and the frame (which are drawn with a thick line), while further away you can see the chest (the piece of wall that is below). The door: The door is always open draw. And it also draws an imaginary line that shows the path of the door opening. This line is imaginary and unimportant, so the draw is finite. The importance of this part of the picture is telling us to side to open the door: Inside or outside, left or right and if during its course affects elements located on the premises such as a toilet.

Scale On one level all the measures are proportional, ie if the house is going to build two walls and one is twice larger than the other, the plane will be a twice as long than the other. If they are both equal, measured at the same.

We can say that all elements maintain a ratio to each other, and this proportion will have a real home. This ratio between the drawing and scale we call reality. The plans for construction staking commonly used scales of 1:50 or 1:100. 26

1:50 we pronounce "one in fifty" and means that any measure of the plane is 50 times smaller than reality. 1:100 (one hundred) means that everything is 100 times smaller, as measured at the 1 cm (centimeter) in reality measured 1m (meter) Many people do not feel comfortable when dealing with numbers and have difficulty understanding the meaning of the scale, but interpreting a scale does not necessarily require translation to understand metric units, is simpler: if a plane indicates that the scale is 1: 50 placed on it, for example, a shoe, and the distance that the shoe cover on the plane means that to cover that distance in real need shoes threading 50 as used.

Dimensions As we have seen could take all of the work by measuring with a ruler or a scaler drawing. However the staking plan has a graphic element (the dimension), which marks a measure summarizing the construction work and avoiding possible confusion when you need a measurement. There are three types of dimensions, the three have the same end point measurements of objects in the plane.

Dimensions partial = They measure a distance in the plane: the distance between walls to know the extent of local column wheelbase, the distance between the edge of a carpenter and the closer, and so on. Are drawn as a line crossed by smaller ones on the ends that indicate where to where you are taking the measure.


File: Cota parcial.png

Then add all partial dimensions to our example. (Attention, we have turned the plane to let better on the screen of your monitor.) File: Plant Stake heights parciales.jpg This plan gives us the following information. -The location inside the building measuring 4.57 m long and 2.88 m wide. The local-width is bounded in the front and rear so that work is confirmed that both walls are kept parallel. -The thickness of the walls completed is 17 cm (including plaster) -The door width is 90cm. This width includes the door frame. -The distance of the door is bounded on both sides to verify on site that is well located. It is also one of the inner side bounded by what is most important to its location on the inside than the outside. The door is at 1.69 m from the inside edge of the wall of the left (left to whoever enters the house) and 29 cm from the inside edge of the right wall. -The small window (the bottom) measures 65cm wide, 68cm is at the outer edge of the wall. The window size, 1.60 m wide and is 43cm from the edge of the small window. Here, unlike the door he said no to both sides because the windows are interested in a little closer or a little farther from the front. Are bounded on the outside because it matters most as you'll see from the outside than going to be located inside (in this case).


-In a plant does not indicate the height of windows and doors and their level of placement. accumulated levels These levels indicate more cumbersome measures to verify at work but of great importance. The accumulated levels indicate the position of each element to build into the ground. The first thing that indicated for this are the axes of staking. The axes are staking two imaginary lines that are located on the ground. all dimensions are accumulated literature are distances between a point and mark the elevation axis.

The axes were staking a line drawn with very thick and with a stroke of "dash dot". In addition it is recognized because it is indicated with two crossed flags at each end.

In our example we place the axis of rethinking this. One parallel to the longer wall through the door. Another pass through the window. The two axes are always perpendicular to rethink itself, when the walls of the house form a right angle. Then mark the axes of stake in our example. The accumulated levels are drawn as arrows with the number indicating the distance (magnitude) is always expressed in meters as follows 2.53 (2 meters, 53 centimeters). are also accompanied by a letter indicating from which axis is to be taken away. Then mark the accumulated levels


CONCLUCION THIS WORK IS PRIMARILY FOR PRACTICAL METHODS OF DRAWING METHOD TECHNICAL DRAWING PRACTICAL INTERPRETATION The drawings are drawings That Represent the views of an object from Different positions. We have floor plans (as viewed from above), elevation plans (ESP) or front (arg) (front view), flat profile (ESP) or Views (arg) (side view), it's Actually like Having a cube, desplegรกramos and All There on That side is a plane represented there. We detail drawings (they are on a larger scale to better Appreciate the details), section plans (or esp Court (arg) (that face is how we give him a break Would if imaginary) In Addition to construction site Plans have (esp) implantation (arg) (Simply a street Indicates anger WHERE Where the work)






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