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Module TFD1064. Design for Communication Design Graphic design group Project – “New graphics” Charlotte Marrion Student Number 1263723012 Contact details Email:Charlotte.marrion@hotmail. co.uk


Modernism Modern art includes artistic works produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and takes and shows the style and philosophy of the art produced during that era.The term is usually associated with art where the traditions of art in the past have been thrown aside in a spirit of experimentation. Modern artists experimented with new ways of seeing and with fresh ideas about the nature of materials and functions of art. Modernism is a style or cultural movement in the arts, architecture, music, literature and design that aims to break the classical and traditional forms and rebel against it. Modernism emerged in the decades before 1914. Postmodern art in general was the era that followed Modernism, it is art movement’s that sought to contradict some aspects of modernism or to have emerged or developed in its aftermath so almost a rebellion actually against modernisms itself. Modernisn created rapid changes in manufacturing, transportation, and technology profoundly affected the social, economic, and cultural conditions of life in Western Europe, North America, and eventually the world. New forms of transportation, including the railroad, the steam engine, and the subway changed the way people lived, worked, and traveled, both at home and abroad, expanding their worldview and access to new ideas. Many artists started to make art about people, places, or ideas that interested them, and of which they had direct experience. With the publication of psychologist Sigmund Freud’s The Interpretation of Dreams (1899) and the popularization of the idea of a subconscious mind, many artists began exploring dreams, symbolism, and personal iconography. Modernism was not conceived as a style but a loose collection of ideas. It was a term which covered a range of movements and styles that largely rejected history and applied ornament, and which embraced abstraction. Born of great cosmopolitan centres, it flourished in Germany and Holland, as well as in Moscow, Paris, Prague and New York. Modernists had a utopian desire to create a better world. They believed in technology as the key means to achieve social improvement and in the machine as a symbol of that aspiration. All of these principles were frequently combined with social and political beliefs (largely left-leaning) which held that design and art could, and should, transform society.

Modern art begins with the heritage of painters like Vincent van Gogh, Paul CĂŠzanne, Paul Gauguin, Georges Seurat and Henri de Toulouse Lautrec all of whom were essential for the development of modern art.

The pioneers of modern art were Romantics, Realists and Impressionists. By the late 19th century, additional movements which were to be influential in modern art had begun to emerge: post-Impressionism as well as Symbolism.


Roots of modern art

y r u t n e c h t 0 Early 2

Abstract art - Francis Picabia,Wassily Kandinsky, František Kupka, Robert Delaunay, Léopold Survage, Piet Mondrian

19th

Romanticism the Centur y Romantic movem ent - Francisco de Delacroix Goya,

Realism - Gustav e Courbet, Camill

J. M.W.Turner, Eu g

ène

e Corot, Jean-Fra

Art Nouveau Architecture & Design - Antoni Gaudí, Otto Wagner, Wiener Werkstätte, Josef Hoffmann, Adolf Loos, Koloman Moser

nçois Millet

Impressionism - E dgar Degas, Édou ard Manet, Claude Sisley Monet, Camille Pis sarro, Alfred

Cubism - Georges Braque, Pablo Picasso, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Fernand Léger, Robert Delaunay, Henri Le Fauconnier

Post-impressionis m - Georges Seu rat, Paul Cézann Gogh, Henri de T e, Paul Gauguin, oulouse-Lautrec, Vincent van Henri Rousseau Symbolism - Gus tave Moreau, Od ilon Redon, Jam es Ensor Les Nabis - Pierr e Bonnard, Edou ard Vuillard, Félix Vallotton pre-Modernist Sc ulptors - Aristide Maillol, Auguste Rodin

cel Duchamp, Max Ern

st, Francis Picabia, Kur

Synthetic Cubism - Geo

Futurism - Giacomo Balla, Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Gino Severini

igliani, Chaim Soutine

Photography - Pictorialism, Straight photography

Pre-Surrealism - Giorgio de Chirico, Marc Chagall

Beckmann, Otto Dix, G

eorge Grosz

Russian avant-garde - Kasimir Malevich, Natalia Goncharova, Mikhail Larionov

enri Matisse, Pierre B

onnard

- Stuar t Davis, Arthur

Orphism - Robert Delaunay, Sonia Delaunay, Jacques Villon

Post-Impressionism - Emily Carr, Robert Antoine Pinchon

Schiele, Amedeo Mod

Figurative painting - H American Modernism

Expressionism - Egon Schiele, Oskar Kokoschka, Edvard Munch, Emil Nolde, Axel Törneman

Picasso

sburg, Piet Mondrian

New Objectivity - Max

Fauvism - André Derain, Henri Matisse, Maurice de Vlaminck, Georges Braque

t Schwitters

rges Braque, Juan Gris , Fernand Léger, Pablo

De Stijl - Theo van Doe Expressionism - Egon

Divisionism - Jean Metzinger, Robert Delaunay, Paul Signac, Henri-Edmond Cross

World War I to World War II

Dada - Jean Arp, Mar

Art Nouveau & variants - Jugendstil, Modern Style, Modernisme - Aubrey Beardsley, Alphonse Mucha, Gustav Klimt,

G. Dove, Marsden Har

Sculpture - Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Constantin Brâncuşi, Joseph Csaky, Alexander Archipenko

tley, Georgia O’Keeffe Synchromism - Stanton MacDonald-Wright, Morgan Russell

Surrealism - Jean Arp, Salvador Dalí, Max Ern st, René Magritte, And Marc Chagall ré Mas

son, Joan Miró, Vorticism - Wyndham Lewis

Bauhaus - Wassily Kan

dinsky, Paul Klee, Jose

f Albers

Sculpture-AlexanderC alder,AlbertoGiacomet ti,GastonLachaise,Hen Julio Gonzalez ryMoore,Pablo

Picasso,


Late 19th Century Modernism Imp ress ioni sm Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement that originated with a group of Paris-based artists. Their independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s, in spite of harsh opposition from the conventional art community in France. Impressionist painting characteristics include relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), common, ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.

Symbolism Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts. The name “symbolistâ€? itself was first applied by the critic Jean MorĂŠas, who invented the term to distinguish the symbolists from the related decadents of literature and of art. Distinct from, but related to, the style of literature, symbolism of art is related to the gothic component of Romanticism

Symbolists believed that art should represent absolute truths that could only be described indirectly. Thus, they wrote in a very metaphorical and suggestive manner, endowing particular images or objects with symbolic meaning.


Early 20th century Modernism Among the movements which flowered in the first decade of the 20th century were Fauvism, Cubism, Expressionism, and Futurism.

Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde art movement pioneered by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso, and later joined by Juan Gris, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay, Henri Le Fauconnier, and Fernand LÊger, that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music, literature and architecture. Cubism has been considered the most influential art movement of the 20th century. The term is broadly used in association with a wide variety of art produced in Paris (Montmartre, Montparnasse) and Puteaux during the 1910s and extending through the 1920s. In Cubist artwork, objects are analyzed, broken up and reassembled in an abstracted form—instead of depicting objects from one viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context.

Expressionism

Expressionism originated from Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. It was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas. Expressionist artists sought to express meaning or emotional experience rather than physical reality. The Expressionist emphasis on individual perspective has been characterized as a reaction to positivism and other artistic styles such as Naturalism and Impressionism.

Cubism


M od er n

Architecture

Modern architecture is generally characterized by simplification of form and an absence of applied decoration. It is a term applied to an overarching movement, with its exact definition and scope varying widely. In a broader sense, early modern architecture began at the turn of the 20th century with efforts to reconcile the principles underlying architectural design with rapid technological advancement and the modernization of society. It would take the form of numerous movements, schools of design, and architectural styles, some in tension with one another, and often equally defying such classification. The concept of modernism is a central theme in these efforts. Gaining popularity after the Second World War, architectural modernism was adopted by many influential architects and architectural educators, and continues as a dominant architectural style for institutional and corporate buildings into the 21st century. Modernism eventually generated reactions, most notably Postmodernism which sought to preserve pre-modern elements, while Neomodernism emerged as a reaction to Postmodernism.

Notable architects important to the history and development of the modernist movement include Frank Lloyd Wright, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Walter Gropius, Le Corbusier, Louis Sullivan, Oscar Niemeyer and Alvar Aalto.


Modernism: Building At the core of Modernism lay the idea that the world had to be fundametally rethought. The carnage of the First World War led to widespread utopian fervour, a belief that the human condition could be healed by new approaches to art and design – more spiritual, more sensual, or more rational. At the same time, the Russian Revolution offered a model for an entirely new society. The desire to connect art and life led to a spirit of collaboration between artists and designers, with architects playing a leading role. Aesthetic conventions had been overturned before the war by the advent of Cubism and Expressionism, but now designers took the process further. Focusing on the most basic elements of daily life – housing and furniture, domestic goods and clothes – they reinvented these forms for a new century.

Ut opia

In the mid 1920s, as the post-war economy improved, Modernists utopian desire to create a better world began to take shape. Avant-garde, Modernist design moved from little-seen exhibitions or small circulation magazines to a wider audience.

Designers now had official positions as city architects or organisers of large international exhibitions. This gave them a stage on which to promote the ‘New’, and to do so in ways that proclaimed the unity and internationalism of the arts. The New Architecture, the New Dwelling, the New Photography, the New Typography were all terms used during the period. Underpinning this movement towards the New was the idea of the ‘New Spirit’, one that reflected new social and economic relations, as well as new technology. This, so designers hoped, would seize the imagination of everyone and fundamentally transform the way people lived.

Social Agenda At the heart of Modernism in the designed world was a commitment to social reform, if not revolution. Political views varied among Modernists, but they were generally left leaning. Tackling economic inequality was central to their agenda and many architects devoted their energies to housing. Affordable housing was one of the most urgent needs of the inter-war period, and massive changes in investment, land tenure, planning controls and building practices were enlisted to resolve the problem.


bau haus The Bauhaus was arguably the most influential art and design school of the 20th century. Founded in Weimar in 1919 by architect Walter Gropius, it attracted some of the key figures in the evolution of Modernism. The teaching was innovative and the work of both teachers and students had a huge impact, as did the building that Gropius designed when the school moved to Dessau in 1925. These achievements, combined with a talent for self publicity, made the Bauhaus internationally famous. The Nazi authorities closed the school in 1933. Many of its members went abroad, where they were to disseminate Bauhaus ideas through their work and teaching.

1919-33

The Bauhaus began with an utopian definition: “The building of the future” was to combine all the arts in ideal unity. This required a new type of artist beyond academic specialisation, for whom the Bauhaus would offer adequate education. In order to reach this goal, the founder, Walter Gropius, saw the necessity to develop new teaching methods and was convinced that the base for any art was to be found in handcraft: “the school will gradually turn into a workshop”.


Swiss Design Often referred to as the International Typographic Style or the International Style, the style of design that originated in Switzerland in the 1940s and 50s was the basis of much of the development of graphic design during the mid 20th century. Led by designers Josef M端ller-Brockmann at the Zurich School of Arts and Krafts and Armin Hofmann at the Basel School of Design, the style favored simplicity, legibility and objectivity. Of the many contributions to develop from the two schools were the use of, sans-serif typography, grids and asymmetrical layouts. Also stressed was the combination of typography and photography as a means of visual communication. The primary influential works were developed as posters, which were seen to be the most effective means of communication.


Post Modernism

Postmodern art in general was the era that followed Modernism, it is art movement’s that sought to contradict some aspects of modernism or to have emerged or developed in its aftermath so almost a rebellion actually against modernisms itself. The term “Postmodern” was first used around the 1870s. John Watkins Chapman suggested “a Postmodern style of painting” as a way to move beyond French Impressionism. Postmodern art is a body of art movements that sought to contradict some aspects of modernism or to have emerged or developed in its aftermath. In general, movements such as Intermedia, Installation art, Conceptual Art and Multimedia, particularly involving video are described as postmodern. There are several characteristics which lend art to being postmodern; these include bricolage, the use of words prominently as the central artistic element, collage, simplification, appropriation, performance art, the recycling of past styles and themes in a modern-day context, as well as the break-up of the barrier between fine and high arts and low art and popular culture. The movement of Postmodernism began with architecture, as a response to the perceived blandness, hostility, and Utopianism of the Modern movement. Modern Architecture, as established and developed by people such as Walter Gropius, Le Corbusier, and Philip Johnson, was focused on the pursuit of a perceived ideal perfection, and attempted harmony of form and function, and dismissal of “frivolous ornament.

Many critics hold that postmodern art emerges out of modern art. Suggested dates for the shift from modern to postmodern include 1914 in Europe, and 1962 or 1968 in America. The close of the period of postmodern art has been dated to the end of the 1980s, when the word postmodernism lost much of its critical resonance, and art practices began to address the impact of globalization and new media. Postmodernism describes movements which both arise from, and react against or reject, trends in modernism.


a d a D

garde in the early 20th cenntava ean rop Eu the of ent vem mo art an s wa I (1914–18) Dada or Dadaism Dada emerged amid the brutality of World War reaction to the horrors of World War e ativ neg of out n bor s wa da Da . fter rea the rtly eading to Berlin sho da rejected reason and logic, Da h. ric tury. It began in Zurich, Switzerland in 1916, spr Zu in re ltai Vo et bar Ca the h wit d ate oci up of artists and poets ass I. This international movement was begun by a gro art manifestoes, art theory, theatre, and , try poe , ure rat lite s, art ual vis ed olv inv rily ma movement pri i-art cultural works. Dada is the ant prizing nonsense, irrationality and intuition. The h oug thr art in s ard nd sta ling vai pre the of n itics through a rejectio on pop art, a celebration of ce uen infl graphic design, and concentrated its anti-war pol an , sm rni ode tm pos to e lud pre a , art rting point for performance groundwork to abstract art and sound poetry, a sta lay the foundation for Surrealism. t tha ent vem mo the and 0s 196 the in s use l ica antiart to be later embraced for anarcho-polit

Dadaism can be viewed as part of the modernist propensity to challenge established styles and forms, along with Surrealism, Futurism and Abstract Expressionism. From a chronological point of view Dada is located solidly within modernism, however a number of critics have held that it anticipates postmodernism, while others, such as Ihab Hassan and Steven Connor, consider it a possible changeover point between modernism and postmodernism. For Dada artists, the aesthetic of their work was considered secondary to the ideas it conveyed. “For us, art is not an end in itself,” wrote Dada poet Hugo Ball, “but it is an opportunity for the true perception and criticism of the times we live in.” Dadaists both embraced and critiqued modernity, imbuing their works with references to the technologies, newspapers, films, and advertisements that increasingly defined contemporary life.

In the early 20th centu ry Marcel D people loo u k at the uri nal as if it w champ exhibited a u to his work rinal as a s ere a work as “Readym culpture. H o f a rt, because ades”. The shocked th is point wa Fountain, w he said it w e art world s to have as a work o as a urinal in 1917. Th Duchamp signed with f art. He re is and Duc can be seen ferred h t h a e m a p s p Duchamp s a ’s e p u o r d t e h o c e n u r y r w m R. Mutt sor to conc orks are ge can , that eptual art. n e r a since parad be called postmoder l l y labelled as It is questio nist on onl ox is not m Dada. nable, to so y the groun edium-spe m e, whether ds that he e cific, altho ugh it aros s c h e ws any spe e first in M cific mediu anet’s pain m, tings.


Collage

Te c h n i q

ues of D ada Ar t Photomontage

ist movement through the cub the ing dur ped elo dev es iqu hn tec the ed itat The Dadaists im their art to encompass items such as ed end ext but s, item er pap of ces pie cut of g tin pas y aspects of life, rather than tra por to . etc rs, ppe wra stic pla ps, ma , ets tick n transportatio The Dadaists – th representing objects viewed as still life. e “monteurs” (m echanics) – used and paints to exp scissors and glue ress their views o rather than pain f m odern life throug variation on the tbrushes h images presen collage techniqu te e , photomontage d by the media. A photographs prin utilized actual or ted in the press. reproductions of In Cologne, Max illustrate messag real E rnst used images es of the destruc from World War tion of war I to

e g a l b m e s s A

The assemblages were three-dimensional variations of the collage – the assembly of everyday objects to produce meaningful or meaningless (relative to the war) pieces of work including war objects and trash. Objects were nailed, screwed or fastened together in different fashions. Assemblages could be seen in the round or could be hung on a wall.

Readymades

Marcel Duchamp began to view the manufactured objects of his collection as objects of art, which he called “readymades”. He would add signatures and titles to some, converting them into artwork that he called “readymade aided” or “rectified readymades”. Duchamp wrote: “One important characteristic was the short sentence which I occasionally inscribed on the ‘readymade.’


Pop Ar t

Pop art is an art movement that emerged in the mid-1950s in Britain and in the late 1950s in the United States. Pop art presented a challenge to traditions of fine art by including imagery from popular culture such as advertising, news, etc. In Pop art, material is sometimes visually removed from its known context, isolated, and/or combined with unrelated material. The concept of pop art refers not as much to the art itself as to the attitudes that led to it. Pop art is aimed to employ images of popular as opposed to elitist culture in art, emphasizing the banal or kitschy elements of any given culture, most often through the use of irony. Pop art and minimalism are considered to be art movements that precede postmodern art, or are some of the earliest examples of Post-modern Art themselves.

Roy Lichte

nstein

Richar d Ham

ilton

Richar d Septem William Ham b i artist. er 2011) wa lton (24 Feb s a Bri tish pa ruary 1922 – inter a nd col 13 lage

Roy Lichtenstein Oct ober 27, 1923 – Septe mber 29, 1997 was an pop artist. He becam American e a leading figure in th e new art movement. defined the basic pre His work mise of pop art bette r th an any other through par voring the old-fashio ody. Faned comic strip as su bject matter, Lichtenst hard-edged, precise co ein produced mpositions that docu mented while it paro in a tongue-in-cheek died often humorous manner. H is work was heavily in both popular advertis fluenced by ing and the comic bo ok style.


Postmodern Culture.

The statement that we are living in postmodern times is an acknowledgement of postmodernism’s influence on contemporary culture.Postmodernism gained currency in the 1960s with reference to certain tendencies in art and literature, but by the 1980s its meaning was expanded to describe a much more pervasive social and cultural mood within the whole of Western life. Like the modernist sensibility that preceded it, postmodernism celebrates the immediate over the distant, the new over the old, the present over the past. In these respects, at least, it seems to represent an extension–not an overcoming of modernist modes of thinking.

The Postmodern Legacy of Punk Style Th e Post m o dern d o o w t s e W e Legacy o f P u n k Vivienn Style

Vivienne Westwood was born Vivienne Isabel Swire in Glossop, Derbyshire, in 1941 and has come to be known as one of the most influential British fashion designers of the twentieth century. While she is latterly credited with introducing “underwear as outerwear,” reviving the corset, and inventing the “mini-crini,”1 her earliest and most formative association is with the subcultural fashion and youth movement known as punk. Vivienne Westwood is often cited as punk’s creator, but the complex genesis of punk is also found in England’s depressed economic and sociopolitical conditions of the mid-1970s. Punk was as much a youthful reaction against older generations, considered oppressive and outdated, as a product of the newly recognized and influential youth culture. Creative and entrepreneurial people, such as Westwood, often contribute to an aesthetic that brings a subcultural style to the forefront of fashion. However, it would be simplistic to claim, as many have, that Westwood and her one-time partner Malcolm McClaren were uniquely responsible for the visual construction of punk in the mid-1970s, though much of their work captured and commodified the energy and iconoclastic tendencies of the movement.

“Punk was an early m anifestatio deconstruc n of tionist fash ion, which important is an componen t of late twentiethcentury po stmodern and contin style ues to be s een in the contempor work of ary fashion designers.”


Modernist Graphic Designers Walter Dexel Walter Dexel, a German painter, typographer, designer and writer was born in 1890 and studied painting in Munich under the direction of Heinrich Wölfflin and Fritz Burger. He later received his doctorate under the tutelage of Botho Gräf. He was an active participant in the 1920s Constructive movement and organized shows for Jena’s Art Union, which included exhibitions with Campendonk and Bauhaus artist Moholy-Nagy. After studying art in Munich, Walter Dexel soon devoted himself to commercial art and typography, designing advertisements and posters and developing lighted advertising for billboards. He collaborated closely with the Bauhaus (1919–1925), especially with Theo van Doesburg (1921–1923).


Herb er t B aye r

Herbert Bayer (April 5, 1900 – September 30, 1985) was an Austrian and American graphic designer, painter, photographer, sculptor, art director, environmental and interior designer, and architect, who was widely recognized as the last living member of the Bauhaus and was instrumental in the development of the Atlantic Richfield Company’s corporate art collection until his death in 1985. Born in 1900, Bayer apprenticed under the artist Georg Schmidthammer in Linz. Leaving the workshop to study at the Darmstadt Artists’ Colony, he became interested in Walter Gropius’s

Bauhaus manifesto. After Bayer had studied for four years at the Bauhaus under such teachers as Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee and László Moholy-Nagy, Gropius appointed Bayer director of printing and advertising.In the spirit of reductive minimalism, Bayer developed a crisp visual style and adopted use of all-lowercase, sans serif typefaces for most Bauhaus publications. Bayer is one of several typographers of the period including Kurt Schwitters and Jan Tschichold who experimented with the creation of a simplified more phonetic-based alphabet.


Edith Baumann Edith Baumann is a modern artist who takes on a very post-modern approach in her work.

In 1993, I first experienced the magic of the Pantheon in Rome. It was inspiring, awesome. This experience has continued to impact everything I paint. I’m trying to tap into something that is larger than me but includes me: wholeness within wholeness. Pattern gets repeated in nature and creates a connection‌a connection to all things; collective patterning. In my most recent paintings, the Jazz Series, I’ve brought many elements from my earlier work together: repetition of the same mark, randomness and structure, the circle and pattern.


Jan

Tschichold

Jan Tschichold (2 April 1902 Leipzig, Germany – 11 August 1974 Locarno, Switzerland) was a typographer, book designer, teacher and writer. Jan Tschichold was a key German graphic designer in the 20thcentury who also gave a major impetus to the Swiss school. Jan Tschichold attended the “Akademie for Grafische Künste and Buchgewerbe “ in Leipzig from 1919 until 1921. In 1923 Jan Tschichold visited the Bauhaus exhibition in Weimar. Influenced by the new Bauhaus typography, Jan Tschichold began to use serifless typefaces and designed simplified layouts.

Much of Tschichold’s work uses the Swiss School style. This style is focused on order and organization. As a result, Tschichold worked with a lot of squares and circles, which are the fundamental Suprematist elements. He saw this new style of art as a metaphor of a new world, and a model for graphic design. He said, “Painting now strives towards a new and elementary harmony of surface, color, form and their relationships, which are subject to certain laws.”


Josef Müller-Brockmann Josef Müller-Brockmann, (May 9, 1914, in Rapperswil – August 30, 1996), was a Swiss graphic designer and teacher. He studied architecture, design and history of art at both the University and Kunstgewerbeschule in Zurich. In 1936 he opened his Zurich studio specialising in graphic design, exhibition design and photography. As with most graphic designers that can be classified as part of the Swiss International Style, Joseph Müller-Brockmann was influenced by the ideas of several different design and art movements including Constructivism, De Stijl, Suprematism and the Bauhaus. He is perhaps the most well-known Swiss designer and his name is probably the most easily recognized when talking about the period. He was born and raised in Switzerland and by the age of 43 he became a teacher at the Zurich school of arts and crafts. Perhaps his most decisive work was done for the Zurich Town Hall as poster advertisements for its theater productions. He published several books, including The Graphic Artist and His Problems and Grid Systems in Graphic Design. These books provide an in-depth analysis of his work practices and philosophies, and provide an excellent foundation for young graphic designers wishing to learn more about the profession. He spent most of his life working and teaching, even into the early 1990s when he toured the US and Canada speaking about his work. He died in Zurich in 1996.


Armin Hofmann

Armin Hofmann is a Swiss graphic designer. Hofmann followed Emil Ruder as head of the graphic design department at the Schule für Gestaltung Basel (Basel School of Design) and was instrumental in developing the graphic design style known as the Swiss Style. He is well known for his posters, which emphasized economical use of colour and fonts, in reaction to what Hofmann regarded as the “trivialization of colour.” His posters have been widely exhibited as works of art in major galleries, such as the New York Museum of Modern Art.


Emil Ruder (1914–1970) was a Swiss typographer and graphic designer, who with Armin Hofmann joined the faculty of the Schule für Gestaltung Basel (Basel School of Design).

er

Ruder was a contributing writer and editor for Typografische Monatsblätter. Ruder published a basic grammar of typography titled Emil Ruder: Typopgraphy. The text was published in German, English and French, by Swiss publisher Arthur Niggli in 1967. The book helped spread and propagate the Swiss Style, and became a basic text for graphic design and typography programs in Europe and North America.

d Ru

E mil


A lexey

B ro dovi tc h

Alexey Cheslavovich Brodovitch was a Russianborn photographer,designer and instructor who is most famous for his art direction of fashion magazine Harper’s Bazaar from 1938 to 1958. Typically, Brodovitch would begin his layouts by designing the layouts as illustrations by hand. His assistant would receive these sketches to look over, but the photogra -phers and freelance writers were often given little or no direction at all besides to come up with something new and unusual. When the photographs for the issue arrived, he would pick the most visually interesting and have a variety of sizes of reproductions made on a photostat machine. From these, each spread would be made one at a time, then arranged among the others to create a well-paced magazine.His style for the magazine was radically different than any of its contemporaries.Brodovitch wanted his spreads to be innovative and fresh.When other fashion magazines thought it important to show the whole garment, Brodovitch would crop images unexpectedly or off-center to bring a new dynamism to the layout.He used forms in the photographs or illustrations as a cue for how to handle the shape of the text. In his earlier layouts, he would arrange photographs like playing cards, splayed out on the page or in the shape of a fan. Later in his career, however, he abandoned this technique in favor of using only one or two images to a page. Surrealism found its way onto the pages of the magazines in various experimental forms.For example, Brodovitch once used fashion photographs sent via radio from Paris to New York in blurry forms a communicate this new way of sharing information.


Paul Rand


E

lL i s s i t - zk y was a Russian artist, designer, photographer, typographer, polemicist and architect. He was an important figure of the Russian avant garde, helping develop suprematism with his mentor, Kazimir Malevich, and designing numerous exhibition displays and propaganda works for the former Soviet Union. His work greatly influenced the Bauhaus and constructivist movements, and he experimented with production tecniques and stylistic devices that would go on to dominate 20th-century graphic design.

When he took up a job as the Russian cultural ambassador to Weimar Germany, working with and influencing important figures of the Bauhaus and De Stijl movements during his stay. In his remaining years he brought significant innovation and change to typography, exhibition design, photomontage, and book design, producing critically respected works and winning international acclaim for his exhibition design.


I.M MAGAZINE found on Behance.

“The magazine is mainly about indie-music. I made the heading font myself to give the magazine a modern and recognizable look. It´s printed on 120 g/m2 paper and it´s 100% recycled. The paper used on the cover is the same, just ticker 200 g/m2. I also wanted the magazine to be lager than the regular magazines so that the pictures and drawings could stand out on their own, and be something that you could cut out and maybe frame. So I went for the size 29 cm x 35 cm.”


Post Modernist Graphic Designers

o p o p i l i F s a m om

T

a r ine M

tti

Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti (22 December 1876 – 2 December 1944) was an Italian poet and editor, the founder of the Futurist movement. Marinetti is known best as the author of the Futurist Manifesto, which he wrote in 1909. It was published in French on the front page of the most prestigious French daily newspaper, Le Figaro, on 20 February 1909. In The Founding and Manifesto of Futurism, Marinetti declared that “Art [...] can be nothing but violence, cruelty, and injustice.�


N NN e vEVILLE ill

Neville B design rody (born 2 er, 3 alumn typographer April 1957 in us a L Art, an of the Londo nd art direct ondon) is an or. d n E and Ar is known for College of P Neville Brod nglish graph rin ic en h y covers a magazine is work on Th ting and Ho is an (19 rn fo e created r artists such 87–1990), a Face magazi sey College o s well a n f a t s for de e (1981–198 memb he company s Cabaret Vo 6) signing ltaire a er of F Resear ontwo c n r h d ec Studio rks s in 19 Depeche Mo ord 94 and d He wa s one o is a fou e. He ft nding design ed a nu he founding m m respon sible fo ber of notab embers of Fo le nt ri betwee n a ma nstigating th typefaces for Works in Lon g e th d includ es a pu azine, graphi FUSE projec em. He was on and cs bli ta als surrou nding cation with a design and ty n influential o partly su fu r p revolu tionary bjects, four b ticles relating eface design sion . Each rand n to typo in som the typ pack e e g w e ra s 1990 h designer usu hape or form fonts that are phy and all ea u a Spieke lso founded y using little nd four poste nique and rmann m the Fon rs desi . g tFont t ore than the ir inclu ned by ypefac e librar d y toget ed font. In her wit h Erik

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FACE MAGAZINE

ENIZAGAM

THE

T he Face Ma gazine

The Face was a British music, fashion and culture monthly magazine started in May 1980 by Nick Logan. 1980s Logan had previously created the teen pop magazine Smash Hits, and had been an editor at the New Musical Express in the 1970s before launching The Face in 1980. The magazine was influential in showcasing a number of fashion, music, and style trends of youth culture including New Romantic, and the “Hard Times� look of the mid-1980s. From 1981 to 1986, Neville Brody was typographer, graphic designer, and art director of the magazine.


Punk graphics at London’s Hayward Gallery

A show at London’s Hayward Gallery, Someday All the Adults Will Die! presents an overview of punk graphic design from before, during, and after the punk years. Among the artefacts on display will be fanzines, posters, handbills, records and clothing. The exhibition is curated by Johan Kugelberg and Jon Savage


Barbara Krueger

was born in New Jersey in 1945 and studied at a school of visual arts. She worked at Mademoiselle Magazine and was quickly given the position of head designer. Her technique is simple yet effective. She uses source found photographs and layers text over them which is for one reason only: to offend the viewer. She does this in order to show the viewers that she is in control as once the posters are made there is nothing they can do about it except read it and accept it it’s been said. She uses red as a prominent colour in her work as it is red and she knows it will be read.

“Much of her text questions the viewer about feminism, classicism, consumerism, and individual autonomy and desire, although her black-and-white images are culled from the mainstream magazines that sell the very ideas she is disputing.” -http://www.barbarakruger.com/biography.shtml


d i e R e Jami

sh artist i l g n E n a 1947) is n r o b ( d to the i s n o i t c e Jamie Re n rs cut with con e t t t s i e l h c g r n a i r n and a rk, featu o w s i H . yle of a t s t s s i e n h t o i t n i a s u Sit eadline h r e p a p ing the s n fi e d o t e from new ame clos e UK. c h , t e t n i o y n l r a m ranso particul , k c istols o P r x k e n S u e p h t f image o include s k r o w n e’s the r w e o H n , k s t k s c e o His b the Boll d n i M r y in the e h v c e r a N n m A “ u s b al e single h t d n a s l o Sex Pist ueen” Q e Th e v Sa UK”, “God ints in r p n e e r c s series of a d he birth e t c f u o d y o r r a p s r d Rei h annive t e i t n e w t produced o s l a 1997, the s a h band k. Reid n c o o i r s k u f n c u i s p of orld mu w e created h t d i r e o R f e k i r o m artw stem. Ja y S d n u o S the Sex t l h t e i C w o d r f e s A e look u t o n ning g i m s o e s d n s a a r w the hile he w s agazine c i h m l p a a r c i g t i s l l o Pisto radical p a , s s e r P Suburban ears. y e v fi r o f he ran


DA IN

Born and raised in Brook lyn, NY, the elusive DAIN is considered to be one of the more influenti al artists to emerge from the current New York City street art movemen t. DAIN faithfully produ ces works that are both evocative and beautiful in their composition. His lo ve for old hollywood glam is evident in much of his work. This, along w ith his roots in graffiti, create a gritty yet delicat e street art style that is al l his own. DAIN’s art has recently been featured in shows in New York, Lon don and Paris.


Vau g h an O liver Vaughan Oliver (born 1957) is a British graphic designer based in Epsom, South of Lond on. Oliver is most noted for his work with graphic desig n studios 23 Envelope and v23.Both studios maintained a close relationship with record label 4AD between 19 82 and 1998 and were to give distinct visual identities for th e 4AD releases by many bands, including Cocteau Tw ins, Dead Can Dance, The Breeders, This Mortal Coil, Pa le Saints, Lush, Pixies, and Throwing Muses.

23 Envelope consisted of Vaughan Oliver (graphic design and typography) and Nigel Grierson (photography). Together, they created the artwork for almost all 4AD releases until 1987. Nigel Grierson left 23 Envelope in 1988. At that time, Vaughan Oliver continued to work for 4AD under the studio name v23, collaborating with Chris Bigg, Paul McMenamin, Timothy O’Donnell, Tim Vary, Adrian Philpott, Simon Larbalestier, Marc Atkins and others. Most admired for his collaborative energy and imagination, Oliver had thus set the stage for the graphic revolution of the 1980s and 1990s. His impact on the post-punk music industry is still celebrated, as is his influence on a generation of designers exploring the possibilities of type and print.


MALCOLM GARRETT 6 and has 5 9 1 in rn o b s a w Garrett reer from the a c l a ti n e u fl in n a d ha s worked a h e H . g in n in g e b very ranging from with music artists ple Minds. He im S to n ra u D n ra Du design h it w t n e m ri e p x e liked to h I think ic h w y g lo o n h c te and new ccess and su is h f o rt a p o ls a was h as Peter c su ts is rt a d e c n e u has infl Saville.

BARNEY BUBBLES

Barney Bubbles was born in 1942 and died on 1983. he was one of the most influenti al designers of this era and even had designers from the lik es of Peter Saville paying hom age to his work. His work was bo th graphic design and music related. He had a very distinctive contribution to the independent music scen e of the 70’s and 80’s. his work w as filled with riddles and symbols which made his work so iconic .


David Carson

David Carson (born September 8, 1954) is an American graphic designer, art director and surfer. He is best known for his innovative magazine design, and use of experimental typography. He was the art director for the magazine Ray Gun, in which he employed much of the typographic and layout style for which he is known. Carson was perhaps the most influential graphic designer of the 1990s. In particular, his widely imitated aesthetic defined the so-called “grunge typography� era. Carson was hired by publisher Marvin Scott Jarrett to design Ray Gun, an alternative music and lifestyle magazine that debuted in 1992. In one issue, he notoriously used Dingbat, a font containing only symbols, as the font for what he considered a rather dull interview with Bryan Ferry. (However, the whole text was published in a legible font at the back of the same issue of Ray Gun, complete with a repeat of the asterisk motif).Ray Gun made Carson well known and attracted new admirers to his work. In this period, he was featured in publications such as The New York Times (May 1994) and Newsweek (1996).


R AYGUN Magazine


Non-Format

Non-Format is a contemporary London-based Anglo-Scandinavian graphic design team specialising in design projects for the publishing and music industries. The firm was founded by Kjell Ekhorn and Jon Forss in 2000. They have worked for The Leaf Label and also closely with Lo Recordings, whom they have designed a vast majority of well over 60 releases with. They created artwork for Stateless for both their album and singles. They are also responsible for the recently complete redesign and art direction of the monthly British music magazine The Wire.


e n i z a g a M D i -

rt and youth a , ic s u m , n io h s edicated to fa d e in z a g a m h ogue art is V r e m r fo d n i-D is a Brit a r e ed by design d n u fo s shed in the a li w b u D p is . a w e u s culture is 80. The first 9 1 in s e typewriter. n a Jo n y o r r d e e c T u r d to o c r e p dir ine with text z n fa d le but it has p y s ta s s lo d g n e a r h tu a a f o m form volved into a e e in z a g a m e th ry issue. e Over the years v e to l a tr n e c and youth kept street style The magazine is known for its in novative photography and typography, and over the years established a reputation as a training ground for fresh talent. The magazine pioneered the hybrid style of documentary/fashion photography called The Straight Up. At first, these were of punks and New Wave youth found on English streets and who were simply asked to stand against any nearby blank wall. Tipped on its side, the “i-D� typographic logo reveals a winking smiley. Most issues of i-D magazine have featured a winking cover model.

with the hand r e v o c e in z a g a seen in this m is le ty s also features n It r . e y d h o p a m r g ts o o p p ty e Th e style of the g n u r generally g a d g n n a ti a ty e li r a c u , s q r d u e r lo rende and bright co ld o b grid as d d e e r e is y n a la g f r o o ty n a ti n w a o a vast qu does not foll t u o y la e Th . n rs and styles e ig y s e la d y g n a in m k o h lo it w h garis it is is chaotic d a te s ar with the in le , c n o ig s ls e a d is t t is r n a r e p in mod fluence of po in e Th . n ig s e d t of the r e a n p o e g in r d la e a s o s a p w ta x ju h contrast, this ig h d n a r u lo erism. o m c u s n o c in e use of bold is r ere was a large th s a a r e n r e d o post-m


James Dawe

James Dawe is an artist and commercial illustrator based in London, working predominantly in mixed media collage and digital manipulation. Having successfully managed the crossover from his design portfolio into fine art, combining work for high-profile ad and media campaigns for the likes of Nike, GQ, Coke, Bloomberg, Wallpaper and Sky Sports, whilst building an expanding collector base for his gallery works also. James’s speciality is the manipulation of portraits into surreal figurative fantasy, most recently seen when he was invited to rework several classic images for the hugely successful Terry O’Neill Reworked Exhibition. James combines wide ranging and diverse source material seamlessly, to generate his own warped perception of the subject matter. In his carefully thought out compositions, there is a constant desire to intertwine mechanical structures with forms of nature and the every day.


G2 Front Covers by James Dawe


James was asked to take part in a show called Wow Now, an “International exhibition articulating the friction between Outsider, Street & Fine Art via subversive portraiture’ James made use of OPEN’s screen-printing facilities and their chief in-house screen-printer Loren, to layer imagery onto manipulated A1 photocopies in an experimental manner.


IDN Cover Redesign Post Modern Design

Created by Andrew Johnson on Behance I came across these covers on Behance and thought they were quite nice in the way photo manipulation and unusal techniques youdont really see were used. I really like the mix of colours and how the words have been over layed.


Remedy Magazine

student work from Behance.

The magazine has a post modern style that explores alternative design elements while remaining within a defined editorial structure. The use of provocative or dramatic photography, vintage or colour halftone filters, bold colour combinations, and angled or vertically-running text creates a strong contrast within the spreads; and also an overall intensity for the magazine. Similarly to Adbusters, Remedy also features spoof ads, which gives the magazine a unique edge.


Masthead Research


Masthead Developement

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Front C over D e velopment


O pt i ona l Mast he a d


Further Front Cover Development


Colour Development


Cover Designs


Cover Designs


Cover Designs DAIN and Jamie Reid Inspired.

Inspired by Barbara Kruger and El Lissitzky.


Inspired on Vaug han Oliver’s work slig ht ly.


Colour Development and font.


Cover idea inspired by DAINS and Jamie Reid’s art. Also the dada and punk movements of collage.


Font Development


Covers inspired by DAIN and Raygun magazine.


New graphic research  

research for new graphi brief

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