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Chao Wei


Curriculum Vitae

About

Chao Wei D.O.B.

1988.11.19

Contact:

chaowei.usc@gmail.com +1 (646) 725-9859 www.polytopian.com I am a graduate student of GSAPP at Columbia University, who has strong interests in architectural design, and all forms of implementation of design. I received my Bachelor of Architecture degree from University of Southern California, honored with the Raymond S. Kenedy Design Award. I am willing to dedicate my professional design and fabrication skills to all areas of design and architectural work.

MS. AAD 1-year

Columbia University, GSAPP

2014 - 2015

University of Southern California

2009 - 2013

Studio works published in academic publications.

Post-professional Degree

B. Arch 5-year

Studio works selected for yearly school exhibition “Expo”.

Professional Degree

Honor

Raymond S. Kenedy Award

Recognized for an outstanding fifth year degree project that represents creative innovations in the presentation of architectural problems.

Dean’s Honor

May 2013

2007-2009

Obtained for three semesters in East Los Angeles College.

Exhibition

Never built: Los Angeles

Digital fabrication models exhibited at A+D Museum in Los Angeles.

New Spaceship - Gunpowder Drawing Collaborated with Cai GuoQiang Studio at Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles.

Activity

Jul 2013

Mar 2012

Associate AIA

2010-Present

LEED Green Associate Candidate

2010-Present

East Coast League Committee Board

2014-Present

Active member since 2010, who is working towards architectural licensure.

General member of United States Green Building Council.

Organize symposiums, lectures, and exhibitions at top architectural schools in East Coast. Compile thesis papers for publication Exposition.


About

UNStudio Shanghai

1-year Traineeship

Curriculum Vitae

Raffles City Hangzhou

2013 - 2014

Facade Design Development

Prepared facade design development documents. Coordinated with client, engineers, and suppliers. Investigated facade system and materials. Reviewed facade construction drawings.

Interior Design Development

Managed interior material selection, documentation, and coordination. Reviewed and certified contractor’s tender reports.

Other Traineeship Work Presented design proposal to client (Wilmar Shanghai). Built physical model by digital tools and handcraft.

HHD_FUN Beijing Summer Internship

Tianshui Center, Qingdao Expo

May-Aug 2012

Construction Document Phase

Prepared constructional documentations related to landscape and facade system.

UP Light Pavilion Conducted the entire installation design and fabrication process. Project published on Designboom and Dezeen.

Finsler Table and Fashion Show Designed JNBY fashion show and reception desk.

Workbase Design

Rhinoceros and Grasshopper Revit and Dynamo

Graphics

AutoCAD VRay and MentalRay Adobe Illustrator / Photoshop / InDesign / Premier

Fabrication

Digital Fabrication (CNC/3DPrint)

Language

English

Maya physical simulation Python and Processing

Interactive Prototyping

Mandarin Chinese visit personal website at polytopian.com


Chao Wei Work collection from 2010-2015 within 4 categories: • • • •

Design Research Professional work Fabrication work

Ms.AAD, GSAPP 2015 B.Arch, USC 2013


ACADEMIC WORK IN COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY


Design

In路Flux

Dumbo Aquatic Center

In路Flux 2014 June - August Instructor: Phu Hoang (M O D U) Studio T.A: Sean Kim Design Team: Chao Wei Dongjoo Kim

Air, the void organized by the architectural boundaries, is a continuous medium that defines the quality of space and our experience in it through our senses. Relative humidity reacting with the various scents from both organic and inorganic materials and matters within the space result in distinctive air qualities which are indicative of program, connectivity to the street (neighborhood), level of privacy and comfort level. Our aquatic center, Influx, is an architectural landscape which investigates the role of boundary, beyond its conventional use for spatial and programmatic organization, and redefines its form and function through systematic explorations of the tectonic and material composition. The continuity inherent in the form and organization of the building allows the users to fluidly experience the space through its landscape of influx between urban and local, interior and exterior, private and public, and definitive and generative.

1


In·Flux

2

Design

Surface Temperature Fluctuation

temperature differentiation

68.2

77.6

72.2

79.5

80.2

79.4

79.7

72.4

80.3

81.3

81.5

72.4

80.2

81.7

70.3

70.7

71.7

72.6

77.6

76.1

80.2

80.2

80.2

79.6

82

80.2

79.6

80.3

79.4

80.9

81.4

82.1

70.6

71.4

73.7

74.5

72.5

68.7

77.7

76.4

81.2

82.5

82.2

77.5

79.4

78.5

79.4

74.8

81.4

82.5

79.3

78.2

78.5

78.9

72.2 72.2

69.3 69.1

77.8 77.8

78.4 78.2

81.4 81.3

81 81

81.2 80.3

77.7 81.2

79.4 81.7

78.5 78.5

79.4 80.1

81.5 81.3

83.6 84.1

82.3 82.5

79.3 79.6

78.2 78.5

78.7 79.2

78.8 78.6

73.6

76.2

72.3

77.2

78.1

77.2

76.9

72.3

77.2

78.4

79.2

72.6

76.4

76.2

72.5

73.1

72.3

73.5

74.1

74.4

76.4

76.7

76.5

77.2

79.6

78.7

77.9

76.6

77.4

78.5

76.5

77.4

73

73.2

73.2

73.1

73.7

71.5

76.3

76

78.2

77.5

78.4

76.2

76.8

76.5

76.2

73

77.4

78.2

76.8

77.5

76.4

75.7

72.1 72.3

71.5 71.5

76.2 76.3

77.2 76.8

78.6 77.4

78.5 76

78.2 77.5

76 78.2

77.2 78.9

76 76

77.3 77.5

79.9 80.2

83.3 83.8

78.8 80.5

77.3 77.5

75.8 76.2

75.2 76.5

75.3 76.1

83.3

81.3

84.7

82.1

85.1

81.5

78.5

81.3

81.9

82.6

83.2

82.5

77.8

80.8

79.2

Surface Temperature at 4pm (79.3°F)

Surface Temperature at 8pm (76.2°F)

82.5

78.9

82.1

78.5

82.2

85

82.4

85.2

73.6

85.6

82

82

82

80.8

83.4

80.5

82.5

80.3

83.7

83.5

83.2

83.5

82.8

81.1

82.7

86.4

82.4

86.2

82.1

86.3

82

80.4

80.8

80.8

84.2

80.5

84.2

80.3

84.7

80.4

84.6

83

85.1

81.1

83.9

86.2 86.2

85 85

84.3 84.3

86 84.2

86.3 87.5

86 86

80.4 80.4

84.4 82.8

83.5 82.8

82.3 82.5

83.5 83.1

83.8 83.2

83.2 83.8

84.5 83.2

80.4 84.5

82.9 84.8

83 83

86.1 85.5

81.1 81.1

85.2 86.4

78.4

77.3

78.9

75.8

78.7

76.5

78

78.6

77.5

77.6

77.9

78

77.4

77.8

77.1

78.3

77.3

77.9

77.2

78.3

76.8

75.3

80

73.2

78.5

77.9

78

79.3

77.4

78.8

77.6

77.8

78.1

78

76.5

78.3

76.2

77.8

77.2

78

78.5

75.3

80.3

79.8

81

78.4

77.9

77.7

77.7

78.1

77.5

78.2

78.4

78

79

78.1

76.2

78.8

77.3

77.9

76.4 76.4

80.4 80

79.9 79.8

81.2 80.1

80.3 81.2

79.8 80

78.5 78.3

79.4 78.9

78.8 78.9

78.2 78.5

77.8 79

77.6 79.1

78.8 79.5

78.1 78.9

78.9 79

78.1 79

77.9 76.2

78.8 78

76.8 76.8

76.5 77.3 77.8


Design

185 ft

In路Flux

205 ft

higher tendency to exchange heat

3


4

In路Flux

Design

Relative Humidity Fluctuation One Main Street Condo

Jacque Torres Ice Cream

Program: Private residential Storefront Condition: Closed entry door with vestibule Air Quality Control: Air-conditioner Scents: Subtle air freshener

Program: Commercial, Confectionery Storefront Condition: Open storefront Air Quality Control: Air-conditioner, natural ventilation Scents: Fruits, sugar, chocolate

Outdoor

Indoor

Outdoor

Indoor

Temperature: 74F Relative Humidity: 79%

Temperature: 72F Relative Humidity: 64%

Temperature: 74F Relative Humidity: 79%

Temperature: 75F Relative Humidity: 80%

Outdoor

Indoor

Outdoor

Indoor

Temperature: 78F Relative Humidity: 56%

Temperature: 73F Relative Humidity: 43%

Temperature: 78F Relative Humidity: 56%

Temperature: 75F Relative Humidity: 64%

Absolute Pianos

Brooklyn Heights Promenade

Outdoor

Indoor

Outdoor

Indoor

Temperature: 74F Relative Humidity: 79%

Temperature: 74F Relative Humidity: 57%

Temperature: 74F

Temperature: 74F

Relative Humidity: 79%

Relative Humidity: 57%

Outdoor

Indoor

Outdoor

Indoor

Temperature: 78F

Temperature: 74F

Temperature: 78F

Temperature: 76F

Relative Humidity: 56%

Relative Humidity: 43%

Relative Humidity: 56%

Relative Humidity: 59%

Crossfit Dumbo

P.S. Bookshop

Outdoor

Indoor

Outdoor

Indoor

Temperature: 74F

Temperature: 74F

Temperature: 74F

Temperature: 74F

Relative Humidity: 79%

Relative Humidity: 57%

Relative Humidity: 79%

Relative Humidity: 57%

Outdoor

Indoor

Outdoor

Indoor

Temperature: 78F

Temperature: 76F

Temperature: 78F

Temperature: 76F

Relative Humidity: 56%

Relative Humidity: 50%

Relative Humidity: 56%

Relative Humidity: 61%


In·Flux

Design

5

Human Body Thermoregulation Thermoregulation

CORE TEMPERATURE 36-38°C

EVAPORATION evaporation rate is reversely proportional to relative humidity (RH), thus physically feel hotter in humid environment.

90% Evaporation

80% Radiation 60%

67%

41%

40%

RADIATION normally, only 4% of blood flows to the skin, under heat stress, 48% of blood flows to the skin.

33%

Evaporation

20%

Convection

CONVECTION

26%

23% 10%

6% 4%

25°C

30°C

1300 1.1°C

1.8°C

2.2°C

1.6°C

4.3°C

2.4°C

0.8°C

0.4°C

0.7°C

Convection Radiation

35°C

2.7°C

Air Temperature

∆T of 1m3 air

26°C

26°C 10.0 25°C 817 8.0

24°C 654 23°C

735

5.5

327

21°C

24°C

5.5

490

MET

236

204

2.3

20°C

110

Weight Lifting

Running Jogging

Vigorous Excercise

Showering

Resting

Calories consumed during specified excercise (in Cal) // 1kCal energy is approximately the amound of energy needed to raise 1kg of water by 1°C Metabolic equivalent, a physiological measure expressing the energy cost of physical activities and is defined as the ratio of metabolic rate (in MET, kCal/kg*h) 1.1°C

22°C

20°C

1.8

0.9

Moderate Bicycling Excercise in Place

23°C

21°C

3.5

2.9

Walking

25°C

7.0

531

22°C

Calories

Approxiamate temperature raise of 1m3 air per person according to the Calories consumption, asumming radiation is the major way of heat exchange

Material Study Exploring Continuous Surface Inversion

Swimming


In路Flux

6

Design

Program Atomization

Program Atomization

locat: 1.0 dist: 0.0 subdiv: 0.0 subdiv': 0.0 iterat: 12.0

locat: 2.0 dist: 13.0 subdiv: 0.353 subdiv': 0.647 iterat: 12.0

locat: 3.0 dist: 17.0 subdiv: 0.248 subdiv': 0.752 iterat: 12.0

locat: 4.0 dist: 25.0 subdiv: 0.15 subdiv': 0.85 iterat: 12.0

locat: 5.0 dist: 32.5 subdiv: 0.258 subdiv': 0.742 iterat: 12.0

locat: 6.0 dist: 38.0 subdiv: 0.04 subdiv': 0.96 iterat: 12.0

locat: 6.0 dist: 13.0 subdiv: 0.353 subdiv': 0.447 iterat: 6.0

locat: 5.0 dist: 17.0 subdiv: 0.248 subdiv': 0.602 iterat: 12.0

locat: 4.0 dist: 32.5 subdiv: 0.2 subdiv': 0.42 iterat: 12.0

locat: 3.0 dist: 32.5 subdiv: 0.2 subdiv': 0.65 iterat: 12.0

locat: 2.0 dist: 32.5 subdiv: 0.04 subdiv': 0.71 iterat: 12.0

locat: 1.0 dist: 38.0 subdiv: 0.04 subdiv': 0.81 iterat: 12.0

Structural Proposal


In路Flux

Design

Warm Cool Dry Humid

Warm Cool Dry Humid

Warm Cool Dry Humid

Warm Cool Dry Humid

Warm Cool Dry Humid

Warm Cool Dry Humid

Warm Cool Dry Humid

7


8

In路Flux Ground Floor Plan at 4m

Design


Design

In路Flux

9


10

In路Flux Second Floor Plan at 12m

Design


Design

In路Flux

11


In路Flux

12

Design

Boundary Condition Dictionary

A

Programmed Poles In between programs

A

A

Closed

Changing room

B

Changing room + shower

C

Changing room + Shower + toilet

Curtain Changing rooms

B

Open

closed

Poles + Sliding Glass Panels Outdoor/Indoor entry

Stairs + Seating Throughout building

Blinds Administration offices + Spinning room/Fitness Studios

Railing Poles Throughout building

Trees Ground floor Outdoor landscape

Grass + Bushes Ground floor Outdoor landscape + Roof terrace


In路Flux

Design

13

Programmed Pipe Dictionary

Metal as Conductor Metal as Conductor Ceramic as Resistor Ceramic as Resistor

Hot Water Cold Water

Hot Water Cold Water

Metal as Conductor Ceramic as Resistor

Hot Water Cold Water

Metal as Conductor Ceramic as Resistor

Hot Water Hot Water Cold Water Cold Water

Metal as Conductor Ceramic as Resistor

Heat Conductor /Resistor Cardio + Weights Hot Water Cold Water

Hot Water Cold Water Hot Water Cold Water

Metal as Conductor Ceramic as Resistor

Metal as Conductor Ceramic as Resistor

Hot Water Hot Water Cold Water Cold Water

Hot Water Hot Water Cold Water Cold Water

Metal as Conductor Ceramic as Resistor

Metal as Conductor Ceramic as Resistor

Steamer Pool + Changing room Hot Water Cold Water Hot Water Cold Water

Hot Water Hot Water Cold Water Cold Water

Shower Changing room

Electrical Bike Rack Throughout building Ground floor park

Hot Water Cold Water Hot Water Cold Water

Light Throughout building

Hot Water Cold Water

Metal as Conductor Ceramic as Resistor

Hot Water Cold Water

Divider Pole Railing In between programs Throughout building

Water Nozzle Water playground

Light Meeting rooms + Spinning room


14

In路Flux

Design


Design

Organization and Circulation

In路Flux

15


16

In路Flux

Design

Boundary Condition Dictionary

Aquatic Center Interior View


Design

Commune LINK

Speculating Models for Collective Urbanism

Commune LINK

2015 January - May Instructor: Laurie Hawkinson (SMH+U) Vishaan Chakrabarti (SHoP) Studio T.A: Leigha Dennis Dana Getman Architectural Design Team: Chao Wei Mengxing Wang Development Team: Pablo Ladron de Guevara Felipe Velasquez

Joint Studio in Architecture + Urbanism Transposition from New York to Barcelona.

Commune LINK is an Live/Work community providing vibrant environment for a good variation of tenants including entrepreneur, short-term and long-term residents, as well as hotel users. Living units are floating on top of a tripleheight story plinth. The plinth connected a convention market, a couple of incubator spaces, recreation program bar and service program bar. One program is supporting one another, which conveys the idea of commune-living. Flexible incubator spaces can fit from technology companies to artists. Art pieces and design products are directly exhibited into hotels rooms as showrooms, which encourage hotel users to experience the new products. Periodical designer’s conferences will be hold in the open-plan market place. Continuous circulation binds recreational programs, service programs together through 5 courtyards as node points. The internal circulation provides porosity from neighborhood scale to building scale. Extended sidewalk and forecourts provide joyful place to meet friends. Besides, formal and informal meetings can be held in the courtyards based on tenant needs. Buyers

Visitors

LIVING

MARKET gallery info center event space

hotel residences ext. stay

Residents Investors

Innovators

INCUBATOR

accelerator training investment

17


18

Commune LINK

Design

NYC

305

Area

39

8.4

Population

1.6

ML2

MILLION

16.5

HH/ACRE

24 Fabrication

New York City Block Enclosed Courtyard

New York City Block Enclosed Courtyard

BCN

Density Fabrication Spaces Program

Barcelona Manzana Enclosed Courtyard

Barcelona Manzana Enclosed Courtyard

ML2

MILLION

29.2

HH/ACRE

26 Incubator

Residential Zones on Plinth Semi-enclosed Fourecourt

Residential ZonesCourtyard on Plinth and Enclosed Semi-enclosed Forecourt and Enclosed Courtyard


Design 1000m

1000m

19 1000m

1000m

1000m

1000m

Commune LINK

1000m

N

Green open space Incubators with co-working space

Fabrication labs Existing hotels near the site

Metro path and Station Bike Lane

Financial Proposal for Site Development

BONDS (40%) € 83 MM

BANK (50%) € 104 MM PROJECT COST € 207 MM LAND LEASE 1% PROFIT+ € 300 K /Yr

DEVELOPER (10%) € 20MM

€16 M NET OPERATING INCOME

8.0%

CAP RATE


20

Commune LINK

Design

New York City - Midtown Manhattan

FAR = 18 69.8

33.6

140.7

29.9 23.0

244.1

35.1

45.9

16.7

25.3

24.5

22.2

20.8

22.4

22.6

30.2

61.7

31.5

22.8

18.2 61.4

22.7 7.715.2 15.1

18.6

61.3

61.3

17.9

17.9

61.3

18.3

29.8

61.3

39.5

139.7

30.9

73.3

243.8

30.1

243.8

N

Barcelona - Example

FAR = 4.6 113.9

14.0 19.8 14.2

13.9 19.8 14.2

14.0

24.2 12.0 24.3 8.27.97.912.2 24.2 37.0 23.2 12.713.5 14.6 13.6

113.6

30.8

20.1

42.8

113.7

40.1

24.5

19.9

15.0

29.6

113.6

44.6

20.2 12.412.2

19.9

31.5

13.3 24.4

114.1 unit: meter

19.9 114.6

17.5 19.9

31.0

113.5

23.6

14.4 19.8 14.2

114.0

20.0 17.7 18.0 11.7 18.4 10.48.67.47.1

35.8

N

113.4

17.1 9.49.3 14.9 9.1 20.4 11.9 21.9

117.1

20.0

113.5

14.2

113.8


Commune LINK

Design

21

Existing Site Situation - Preso Modelo

16.0m

38.0m

22.0m

Brooklyn Heights, New York

16.0m 33.0m

30.0m

30.0m

10.0m

30.0m 25.0m

Eixample, Barcelona

28.0m 25.0m

40.0m 20.0m

42.0m 20.0m

12.0m


22

Commune LINK

Brooklyn Bridge park Redhook Labor force South Brooklyn Industry City Prospect Park

Cultural Loop

Midterm Model for Brooklyn Site

Design

Brooklyn Navy Yard Barclays Center Brooklyn Museum Botanic Garden


Design

Commune LINK

23

Brooklyn, New York

N

Sectional Scheme and Scenarios

Short Section cut through the atrium


24

Commune LINK

Final Model for Barcelona Site

Design


Design

Commune LINK

25

Exiample, Barcelona

Bird’s Eye View Looking South


26

Commune LINK

N

Ground Floor Plan and Programs

Design


Design

Commune LINK

27


28

Commune LINK

Design

HOTEL

EXTENDED STAY

N

Typical Upper Floor Plan and Partnership


Design

Commune LINK

AFFORDABLE HOUSING

Master Lease BCN Housing Agency

75% of AMI 60% of Total Units 100% Occupancy

MARKET RATE APARTMENTS

29


30

Commune LINK

Design

Typical Unit Plan, Corridor as Common Area and Exhibition Space


Design

Commune LINK

31

Chelsea Hotel, “Burning up again“ - Julia Calfee

“If the manager somehow felt – he had this great sixth sense – that this person could do something, or if he liked them, then you were in that hotel. So that incredible pressure from the outside world, or judgment like, this guy is worthless because he’s not making any money, didn’t exist in the Chelsea Hotel.” - Julia Calfee


32

Commune LINK

Design

Rendering of a Typical Design Hotel Unit and its Corridor


Design

Commune LINK

33


34

Commune LINK

Design


Design

Commune LINK

35


36

Commune LINK

Design

Xavier â‚Ź30 membership

Partner up with furniture designers to start a brand.

Sam â‚Ź180

hotel

Tech student from Singapore. Tourism and networking.

Hotel guests, Creators, and Entrepreneurs


Design

Commune LINK

Thomas €300 hotel Partner at a tech venture capital from NYC.

o

Ramon & Ximena €90 extended stay €200 membership Live 2 hours away from BCN. Part of incubator program.

37


38

Commune LINK

Design

Lucia â‚Ź30 membership Find a 3D printer available for tomorrow.

Carmen â‚Ź30 membership Owns a fabrication shop. Looking to attract more clients.

Long-term Residents, Short-term Hotel Users


Design

Commune LINK

39

Jose & Ana â‚Ź1170 two-bedroom Young couple starting to teach at local high school, with 2-year old child.

Alberto â‚Ź750 one-bedroom Student at University of Bercelona, admitted to rent affordable house unit.


40

Commune LINK

Design

Street view from the North, looking at the expanded sidewalk, entrance of incubator, outdoor open space on the foreground, and affordable housing, daycare center on the background.


Design

Commune LINK

41


42

Commune LINK

Design

Interior view at the hotel lobby, looking at the market and exhibition information panels,partially the incubator, outdoor courtyard, and a few conference rooms above.


Design

Commune LINK

43


44

Commune LINK

Design

Brooklyn Site Living/ Working/ Fabricating Proposal

Barcelona Living/ Incubating /Marketing Proposal


Design

2015 January - April Instructor: Nanako Umemoto (Reiser + Umemoto)

Yokohama Redux

Yokohama Port Redux Yokohama Port came at a threshold moment when design concepts submitted to the jury: from typology to historicist post modernism, to neo–modernism, to deconstruction came up against proponents of fluent geometry, topology, single surface projects, and a host of emerging design models inspired by philosophical concepts of becoming (Deleuze), complexity theory, non-linear dynamics, etc. A wire structure model is developed through the study of casting vessels (voids). Then building tectonics start to emerge from the wire behavior. Programs are distributed in the vessels that is structurally supported by spatial truss systems.

29


Yokohama Redux

Design

Girder Section Morphology

7.5 8.0

7.5

7.0

15.0

[R/4]=0 R<2 L < 10

10.5

10.5

7.0

2.5

5.0

2.5 2.5

5.0

2.5 5.0 2.5

2.5

5.0

2.5

x = 0.2 x = 0.5

2.5

x = 0.2 x = 0.5

x = 0.5

10.0

7.5

7.5

15.0

35.0

10.0

50.0

[R/4]=2 6 < R < 10 30 < L < 50

[R/4]=3 10 < R < 14 50 < L < 70

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.

0

5.0

5. 0

[R/4]=1 2<R<6 10 < L < 30

5.0

4.9

5.0

0

5.

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0 5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0 0

5.

0

5.

5.

0

0

5. 5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0 5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

30

West Wing (Domestic)


Design

Yokohama Redux

Exploded Structure Axon

Skylight

Facade

Osanbashi Hall

C.I.Q

Elevator Core East Wing (International) Entrance

31


32

Yokohama Redux

Design

Program Organization and Circulation

Employee Circualtion Osanbashi Hall

Domestic Departure

Osanbashi Hall

C.I.Q Dropoff and Entry

Residents Circualtion International Departure

Section and Elevations

+40.50 +35.00 +30.00 +25.00 +20.00 +15.00 +10.00 +5.00 +0.00 -6.50

Longitudinal Section

SE Elevation

NW Elevation


Design

International Departure Employee Circualtion

Restaurants

Yokohama Redux

Dropoff and Entry

Residents Circualtion

Domestic Departure

Floor Plans

+22.00

+8.00

+3.00

-2.50

33


34

Yokohama Redux

Design

Techtonic Exploration Wire Model


Design

Yokohama Redux

35


36

Yokohama Redux

Design

Vessel Casting Study Plaster and Balloon Model_03

Techtonic Exploration Wire Model


Design

Yokohama Redux

37


38

Yokohama Redux

Design

Section of vessel also introduce a arm as port deck. Wires are stapled with joints.

The elasticity of piano wire resulted compression and tension.

All wires are fed into an ending piece.


PROFESSIONAL WORK AT UNSTUDIO


Professional Work

UNStudio

Mixed-Use Development

Raffles City Hangzhou 2013 - 2014 June UNStudio Traineeship Work Ben van Berkel, Astrid Piber, Hannes Pfau Facade design development Shuyan Chan, Markus van Aalderen, Shuojiong Zhang, and Anna von Roeder. Interior design development Garret Hwang, and Cristina Gimenez.

UNStudioâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mixed-use Raffles City development is located near the Qiantang River in Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang province, located 180 kilometres southwest of Shanghai. Raffles City Hangzhou will be CapitaLandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sixth Raffles City, following those in Singapore, Shanghai, Beijing, Chengdu and Bahrain. The project incorporates retail, offices, housing and hotel facilities and marks the site of a cultural landscape within the Quianjiang New Town Area.

39


40

UNStudio

Professional Work

Raffles City Hangzhou reaches a height of 60 stories, present views both to and from the Qiantang River and West Lake areas, with a total floor area of almost 400,000 square metres.

Podium Plan


UNStudio

41

28087

O1 W 04

21975

19775

Professional Work

T1L13 01 program office 270.5

T1L13 03 program office 103.5

T1L13 02 program office 109.0

200 150

14186

1100

1100

FR

O1 W 03

6150

6050

28940

568

200

6150

6050

1100

1840

fire shutter

150

O1 W 02

14186

hydrant box

O1 W 03

riser= 161.5mm, run=260mm total= 26 risers, 4200mm FF

O1 W 06

O1 W 03

3.8

03

1840

SL

T1L13 11 circ office 100.0

FR

O1 W 02

riser= 161.5mm, run=260mm total= 26 risers, 4200mm FF

T1L13 05 program office 304.4

5017

7220

200

O1 W 03

200

6150

7150

2275

200 6150

O1 W 05

06

03

O1 W 03

facade fire wall

T1L13 13 core office circ 20.8

O

O

7150

05

02

SH 01

+58.750 +58.600

T1L13 15 core office circ 57.6

accessible 4.4

fire staircase

1.1

O

O

01 women's 17.2

3.0

riser= 155.6mm, run=260mm total= 27 risers, 4200mm FF

04

01

SL airlock 10.6

hydrant box

1100

O

O

0.9

shaft size: 2800x2600

Fire Staircase

4701A

car size: 2150x1800 shaft size: 2800x2600

O1 W 08

hydrant car size: box 2150x1800

0.9

airlock 16.0

1.2

O1 W 07

SH 02

fire shutter

O1 W 06

O1 W 05

door position uneven floors

Office Lifts L1, L5, L7-16

O1 W 07

0.7

0.8

pantry 7.0

T1L13 12 program office 12.0

9.1

201

4.6

0.6

SA 01

0.8

0.7

160

4.6

O1 W 08

02

58446

0.9

SL

facade fire wall

car size: 2000x1700 shaft size: 2700x2600

Fire Staircase

AHU Room Size: 12300x5000 56.5

SA 02

T1L13 09 program office 246.3

T1L13 04 program office 316.2

O1 W 02

men's 19.9

airlock 10.5

O1 W 03

150

1100

T1L13 10 circ office 83.8

hydrant boxes

O1 W 03

1850

4701C O1 W 03

1830

O1 W 03

hydrant box

1100

200

7220

5020

O1 W 05

core

divison walls

O1 W 04

28085

334

core

divison walls

outline

4701B

19773

21973

outline

T1L13 06 program office 103.5

T1L13 07 program office 108.6

O1 W 05

T1L13 08 program office 270.9

334

12911

200

9113

13061

200

6350

8185

200

2800

7150

9660

200

4042

3100

150

11250

4100

334

1850

1601

16334

6901

7643

division walls

8691

core

68279

outline

T1 L13 Plan

T2L28 05 program hotel tower 47.4 T2L28 06 program hotel tower 45.4

8622

11222 1.6

1.6

05

5310

SL SL

5210 1100

T2L28 10 program hotel tower 44.8

1500

04

0.4

5210

1.7

car size: 2000x1500 shaft size: 2700x2300

1.2

3.8

1.6

airlock 12.2

Fire Staircase

900 4200

hydrant boxes

car size: 2150x1800 shaft size: 2800x2600

T2L28 16 program hotel tower 52.0

divison walls

T2L28 11 program hotel tower 52.3 15472

1.6

1.6

1.3

1.6

T2L28 13 program hotel tower 45.4

T2L28 15 program hotel tower 48.1

11222

T2L28 17 program hotel tower 47.8

200

fire retaining wall

T2L28 12 program hotel tower 47.3

8622

9388

FR

600

13766

6437

19435

4751

5852

6100

200

4800

3870

3350

50155

4800

200

7250

4800

200

3100

6300

200

7151

4349

16149

outline

divison walls

T2L28 14 program hotel tower 47.4

core

5420

1850 150

900

1.1

200

SL

er

1.6

2820 core

outline

6410

1.9

0.9

03

02 ST

car size: 2000x1500 shaft size: 2650x2600

2700

37063

01

laundry chute 1.3

0.8

200

0.2

6120

01

1700

T2L28 09 program hotel tower 44.8

0.3

0.5

ST

07 08 H

fire shutter

6410

3968

0.9

2800

Apartment Lifts L1 L52-57

fire shutt

T2L28 18 program hotel tower 67.1

BOH Hotel 12.6

0.3

0.8

Hotel Guest Lifts L26-50 car size: app1850x1300 shaft size: 5500x2800

FR

1.6

car size: 2000x1700 shaft size: 2800x2600

1.2

SL

riser= 156.5mm, run=280mm total= 23 risers, 3600mm FF

5.2

H

Liftoverrun and Machineroom 12820x2300x14650

06

1.9

Hotel Guest Lifts L27-50 car size: app1850x1300 shaft size: 5500x2800

H

6685

T2L28 19 voids 97.1

202

airlock 11.3

Fire Staircase

5.1

1.9

2300

H

05

fire shutter

3968 6410

+127.150 +127.100

2600

T2L28 21 core hotel tower circ 56.9

er

fire shutt

200

900

T2L28 01 program hotel tower 67.1

FR

6685

T2L28 08 program hotel tower 52.3

car size: 2000x1500 shaft size: 2700x2600

hydrant boxes

4200

T2L28 20 circ hotel tower 221.5

riser= 156.5mm, run=280mm total= 23 risers, 3600mm FF

1850

600

200

1.6

FR

1.1

25461

T2L28 07 program hotel tower 47.3

T2L28 04 program hotel tower 48.1

15472

1.3

1.6

150

900

9388

5420

2820

T2L28 03 program hotel tower 52.0

T2L28 02 program hotel tower 47.8

division walls

core

4349

outline

T2 L30 Plan


42

UNStudio

Elevation

Professional Work


UNStudio

Professional Work

technical floor

lmr + overrun 10900

43

technical floor

strata soho high apartments

ELV shaft

SE &PD shaft

strata soho high apartments

strata soho high

strata soho high apartments

strata soho high apartments

technical/refugee

CTL office

refuge area

strata soho low apartments

strata soho low apartments

ELV shaft

strata soho low

SE &PD shaft

lmr + overrun 14750

soho lobby

strata soho low apartments

strata soho low apartments

liftpit -2500fl

technical/refugee

technical floor/ shaft refuge area

service apartments

lmr

tech floor

overrun +7600

service apartments

corridor

serviced apartment

shaftcorridor

SVC aprt Lift 1 L18-L31

service apartments

dining

skylobby technical/refugee

liftpit 2200-fl

mep transfer floor technical floor/ refuge area

service apartments

shaft

gym

toilet

lmr+ overrun 10470

mep transfer floor technical floor/ refuge area

storage lmr + overrun 8350

office

unused

office

office corridor

office high

office corridor

unused office corridor

office corridor

unused office corridor

office corridor

office low

office corridor

unused

office corridor

office

toilet office corridor

office

refuge area

gas shaft

unused

chinese restaurant

apartment lift

main circulation

f&b

toilet

f&b

gas shaft

airlock

airlock

f&b

airlock

f&b

airlock

circulation

circulation

circulation gas shaft

gas shaft

Office Lift 1,2 L1, L5, L7-16

gas shaft

7.60m=

10KV switch room

service area

corridor

bike garage fan room

infrastructure

infrastructure

parking garage

1000

carparking

ramp

infrastructure

chiller room

airlock

circulation

airlock

circulation

show window main circulation

main circulation

high end shop circulation

Firefighter/ Service lift 2

P +0.00m

boilerroom fan room 200 -FF

circulation

airlock

main circulation

shop

shop

road

road

cooling water tank

road

7.6m= P 0.0m SOHO Aptm Shuttle 1 B3,B2,L1, L5, L33

road

f&b open kiosk

f&b

shop

airlock

Office Lift 3,4 L1, L5, L7-16

retail podium

liftpit -6250fl

liftpit -6250fl

f&b open kiosk

corridor

bike ramp

theatre garden

corridor

storage

service area

bike garage

cooling water make up room

parking garage

storage

liftpit liftpit -4350 fl -4350 fl

Section


24°

2000

logo/signage back wall: R-9.05 - gypsum; painted white

UNStudio

prefabricated gypsum panels; R-9.01 - 20mm gypsum; putty/paint gray

Professional Work

1200

44

10mm steel profile to separate materials

specialists

China Un

R-9.02 - 12mm artificial stone; gray

revision ----

dashed line of structural column behind cladding

ARUP Sh

24°

revision

partition walls between stalls

a gLichtR5 50

650

R2

Interior Design Development:

1200

---revision ----

66°

00

90°

---revision ----

400

baseboard: R-1.05 - gray ceramic tile

---revision ----

150

Basement Kiosk Design and Documentation

revision ----

---revision ----

04 elevation - column cladding 4804

1:20

disclaimer Do not scale document co dissemination result in liabil

see 4803

Ra

803

50

70

100

1350

detail (similar)

30mm steel tube substructure as required

01 5802 275

70

310

100

30mm steel tube substructure as required

baffled directional recessed potlight

baffled directional recessed potlight

edge gray paint (R-9.01)

edge gray paint (R-9.01)

edge gray paint (R-9.01)

950

baffled directional recessed potlight

800

800

950

310

150

30mm steel tube substructure as required

150

275

100

800

310

01 5802

950

70

150

275

detail

1350

0

1350

01 5802

detail

R550

R5

R55

detail

03 5801

1300

1850

column cladding: R-9.07 - 6mm white artificial stone

1850

detail

1500

3350

1300

3350 1850

3350

1300

client

seating inside kiosk

partition walls in between stalls

02 5801

detail

cash counter: R-9.03 - 12mm artificial stone; white

268 Xizang M 200001 Shan  

partition walls between stalls

01 5801

architect

cash counter: R-9.03 - 12mm artificial stone; white

12mm Glass

Stadhouders P.O.Box 753 1070 AJ Ams The Netherla

space for show cases, etc. to be designed by tenant optional bench along kiosk front

625

100

625

100

project name

R-9.02 - 12mm artificial stone; gray

2008-14

30mm steel tube substructure as required

status

final file name

R4

LED rope light, baseboard: R-1.05 - gray ceramic tile

0

project numb

R-9.02 - 12mm artificial stone; gray

30mm steel tube substructure as required

R4

LED rope light, baseboard: R-1.05 - gray ceramic tile

550

30mm steel tube substructure as required

550

550

R-9.02 - 12mm artificial stone; gray

R40

Raffles Ci

1100

1100

gypsum back wall

1100

1100

100

4801-480

LED rope light, baseboard: R-1.05 - gray ceramic tile

0

drawing num

4804

title/descripti

03 section - seating area 4804

1:20

02 section - standard front

see 4803

4804

Retai

01 section - cash counter

see 4803

1:20

4804

see 4803

1:20

O:\2008-14 Raffles City

Facade Design Development:

Facade System 09 - Storefront Documentation 7101C

7101B

7101A notes

REVISION NR DATE

DESCRIPTION

001. 110731. Tower lobby cable system 002. 110731. Natural ventilation system 003. 110731. Showcases 004. 110731. Firerated fin

003

003

004

003

003

001

001

legend

+/-00 = P(+/-00) EXTERIOR FLOOR LEV B.O.C.+0.00 T.O.C.+0.00

CEILING HEIGHT TAG

F.F.L.+0.00 T.O.S.+0.00

INTERIOR FLOOR FINI WALL TYPE

00

FIRE SHUTTER FR

FIRE RATED WALL

F 00

FINISH TYPE

STRUCTURAL CONCR

CONCRETE BLOCK PA

UTILITY AREA FLOOR

GLASS PARTITION WA

TENANT DIVISION WA

STRUCTURAL SLABE ST-FLR -00

STAIR NUMBER

ST-CFLR -00

CINEMA STAIR NUMB

L - FLR -00

LIFT NUMBER

ESC- FLR -00

ESCALATOR NUMBER

R - FLR -00

BASEMENT VEHICULA

B - FLR -00

BRIDGE NUMBER

AC Room AHU Room AE AI SE KE TE ELE ELV PD CWP TE

AIR CONDITIONING EQ AIR HANDLING UNIT R AIR EXHAUST DUCT AIR INTAKE DUCT SMOKE EXHAUST DU KITCHEN EXHAUST D TOILET EXHAUST DUC ELECTRICAL SHAFT EXTRA LOW VOLTAGE PLUMBING & DRAINA CHILLED WATER PIPE TOILET EXHAUST DUC CLEAR GLASS PANEL INSULATED VISION G INSULATED ALUMINIU INSULATED GLASS PA INTEGRATED FIRE RA INSULATED ALUMINIU

G S F.G. I

4901L

typical shopfront type D

4901K

1:50

typical shopfront type C2 1:50

7100C

4901J

typical shopfront type C1 1:50

4901I

typical shopfront type B3 1:50

7100B

4901H

typical shopfront type B2 1:50

7100A

4901G

typical shopfront type B1 1:50

specialists

China United Engineering revision ----

date 07-03-11

podium a

ARUP Structure (Shangh revision ----

date 29-01-10

digital dra

ARUP MEP (Shanghai) revision ----

date 11-11-09

pd and b

ARUP Fire (Shanghai) revision ----

date 27-10-10

revised fi

Meinhardt Facade Techn revision ----

date 16-02-11

facade de

Davis Langdon & Seah C revision ----

date ----

----

MVA Hong Kong Limited revision ----

date ----

----

disclaimer Do not scale from drawing. All dime document contains copyrighted ma dissemination or duplication of any result in liability under applicable law

Raffles Cit 003

003

003

T1

client

268 Xizang Middle Road 200001 Shanghai   architect

Stadhouderskade 113 P.O.Box 75381 1070 AJ Amsterdam The Netherlands

T +31 (0 F +31 (0 info@un www.uns

project name

Raffles City Hangzhou project number

2008-14 status

revision

final

G - 12/08/1

file name

4901.dwg drawing number

4901 title/description

Showcase ty 4901F

typical shopfront type A6 1:50

4901E

typical shopfront type A5 1:50

4901D

typical shopfront type A4 1:50

4901C

typical shopfront type A3 1:50

4901B

typical shopfront type A2 1:50

4901A

typical shopfront type A1 1:50

O:\2008-14 Raffles City Hangzhou\Design Develo


UNStudio

Professional Work Central Void

350

430

1700

1470 150

5250

3550

002

001

main circulation

f&b

1450

5250

FOR CENTRAL VOID PANELING SEE DWG 4515-4517

1 5540 central void railing

main circulation

main circulation

shop

5250

1450

5250

1700

L06

1470

150 80

1400

001

1400

shop

+34850 = P(+27250)

002

FOR CENTRAL VOID COLUMN SCHEDULES SEE DWG 4811-4824

3550

3550

5250

1700

L07

1470

150 80

+40100 = P(+32500)

1400

main circulation

cinema

1400

3550

5600

350 80

+45700 = P(+38100)

L08

3550

3550

002

5550 central void escalator

main circulation 001

1450

1700

central void railing

shop

1400

main circulation

main circulation

shop

main circulation

shop

main circulation

shop

3550

1700 5250

3550

5250

1470

L04

1450

150 80

+24350 = P(+16750)

1400

5250

FOR CENTRAL VOID ESCALATOR SCHEDULES SEE DWG 4550-4552

5541

3550

3550

5250

1470

150 80

L05

shop

1400

main circulation

shop

+29600 = P(+22000)

main circulation shop

3550

5250

1700 3550

5250

1470

150 80

+19100 = P(+11500)

L03

main circulation shop

45


UNStudio

46

Professional Work

5736C

28 mm insulated vision glass unit (8mm low E+12 mm air gap+8mm)

3mm coloured & anodized folded aluminum fin supported by SHS 100 x 100 x 5 (see finish schedule for color details & see facade consultants dwgs for details)

Finished floor

L27

800

DATUM POINT (FF-80) TO SET CURTAIN WALL UNITS

2mm spray painted steel sheet shadow box with 100mm insulation fire rated assembly

4850

28 mm insulated vision glass unit (8mm low E+12 mm air gap+8mm) 3mm coloured & anodized folded aluminum fin supported by SHS 100 x 100 x 5 (see finish schedule for color details & see facade consultants dwgs for details) Push out operable glass panel (see facade consultants dwg for details)

5650

5620

Clear ceiling height (FF -800)

5736A

Finished floor

L26

clear height / ceiling package structural floor to floor finished floor to finished floor

DATUM POINT (FF-80) TO SET CURTAIN WALL UNITS

hotel f&b

+113.65

steel encased concrete column with fire resistent intumescent paint

524 80

432

1003 105

882

1000 105

914

502

80

410

1009 105

898

1000

105

909

481 80

393

908

14mm laminated safety glass railing with stainless steel side clips fixed to mullions 3mm coloured & anodized folded aluminum fin supported by SHS 100 x 100 x 5 (see finish schedule for color details & see facade consultants dwgs for details) 28 mm insulated vision glass unit (8mm low E+12 mm air gap+8mm) floor slab edge offset 300mm behind outside facade of curtainwall unit

5736D

5736C

473

1000

1015 105

105

907

80

381

105


UNStudio

Professional Work

896

hotel skylobby

96

14mm laminated safety glass railing with stainless steel side clips fixed to mullions 220 mm deep colored & anodized aluminum transom (see facade consultants dwgs for details)

L27

150

80

Finished floor

800

250

top mounted structural steel anchor plates welded to auxiliary steel anchor bolts embedded in structural slab (see facade consultants dwgs for details) 2mm spray painted steel sheet shadow box with 100mm insulation fire rated assembly 220 mm deep colored & anodized aluminum transom (see facade consultants dwgs for details) 2 layers of gypsum board with 100/150mm insulation for fire rated assembly suspended ceiling system (see finish schedule typ.)

5650

4850

5620

10

Clear ceiling height (FF -800)

5736B

hotel f&b

Finished floor

L26

150 50

20

14mm laminated safety glass railing with stainless steel side clips fixed to mullions 220 mm deep colored & anodized aluminum transom (see facade consultants dwgs for details)

900

coloured & anodized aluminum curtain wall system (see finish schedule for color details & see facade consultants dwgs for details)

DATUM POINT (FF-80) TO SET CURTAIN WALL UNITS

28 mm insulated vision glass unit (8mm low E+12 mm air gap+8mm)

technical floor

coloured & anodized aluminum curtain wall system

5736C

laundry chute

clear height / ceiling package structural floor to floor finished floor to finished floor

top mounted structural steel anchor plates welded to auxiliary steel anchor bolts embedded in structural slab (see facade consultants dwgs for details) 60 x 120 mm colored anodized aluminum transom (see facade consultants dwgs for details)

47


48

UNStudio

Professional Work

Unfolded T1 LF South Face A - middle


Professional Work North

UNStudio

T02 face "B"

(LANDSCAPE FACADE NORTH FACE) 01 28

Tower 02 T02

T01 face "B"

(LANDSCAPE FACADE NORTH FACE) 28

01

01

28

West

Tower 01 T01

T02 face "A"

(LANDSCAPE FACADE SOUTH FACE)

28 01

T01 face "A"

(LANDSCAPE FACADE SOUTH FACE)

LANDSCAPE FACADE GLAZING 1 - L - A - 24 - 05

TOWER Tower 01 =1 Tower 02=2

FACADE TYPE Landscape=L

TOWER FACE South =face A North =face B

FLOOR LEVEL

South

PANEL NUMBER Depending on Direction

SOHO APARTMENT

MEP/TECH

MEP/TECH

SERVICE APARTMENT

MEP/TECH REFUGEE

OFFICE

RETAIL PODIUM

Axo Overview T1LF South Face A - middle

East

49


UNStudio

Professional Work STAGE 1

STAGE 2

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN / FEASIBILITY STUDY

SCHEMATIC DESIGN CD 50%

ANALYSE

CD 100%

STAGE 3

DESIGN DEVELO

SD 50%

VISION

SD 100%

DD 30%

CONCEPT AND PRINCIPLE

DESIGN PROGRESS /

visualization studies

layout setup

information collecting

scenarios analysis

high level conceptual responses

layout studies

presentation booklet

refinement of spatial concept

contractual setup memorandum of understanding setup

architectural concept development testing alternatives program definition

material studies visualization studies

FINAL REVIEW WORKSHOP

information mapping

INTERIM REVIEW WORKSHOP

developing of spatial concept

FINAL REVIEW WORKSHOP

definition of massing

PREVIEW MEETING

definition of vision STAGE KICK OFF WORKSHOP

brief review

testing aesthetic approaches material studies full visualization

INTERIM REVIEW WORKSHOP

PROJECT MOBILIZATION

INTERIM REVIEW WORKSHOP

50

DESIGN / CONSTRUCTION SCHEDULE

PERMISSION DWG SUBMISSION 方案报批

OFFICIAL MILESTONE

MASTER PLAN APPROVAL

MASTER PLAN REVIEW AND PERMISSION

2 WK

40% CD FEE

CONTRACT / PAYMENT

40% SD FEE

40% DD FEE

40% CD FEE

40% SD FEE

40% DD FEE

20% CD FEE

20% SD FEE

STAGE 3

STAGE 4

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTATION

STAGE 5

0%

DD 30%

DD 60%

STAGE 6

CONSTRUCTION ADMINISTRATION

POST SERVICE

DD 100%

DESIGN PROGRESS / AESTHETICS

DETAIL / SPECIFICATION

AESTHETIC SUPERVISION

MAINTANENCE / ADAPTATION

technical coordination

- Review for design intent

- Review for design intent

- Review for design intent

sample / material review

technical advice (Maintenance)

refinement of spatial concept

technical incorporation

- Quality check

- Quality check

- Quality check

aesthetic supervision

adaptation for operation

- Technical advice

- Technical advice

- Technical advice

facade / ID / architecture major mock-up review

defects inspection / adaptation

testing aesthetic approaches material studies full visualization

INTERIM REVIEW WORKSHOP

layout setup

review CD issue 1

review CD issue 2

review CD issue 3

TENDER tender preparation

tender issue

tender query ( multiple time )

- Superstructure, Facade,etc.

CONSTRUCTION COMPLETED

CONSTRUCTION ADMINISTRATION (OPTIONAL) tender awarded

review shop drawing from contractors (Facade / ID) review geometry / massing (Structure)

- Feedbacks on tender query

- Site coordination / Assistence

- Attending tender interview.

- Clarification of RFI for design intent

- Advise on tenderers

- Value engineering / Optimization

(for design intents)

- Resident architect provision - Site supervision

TENDER (OPTIONAL) - Material / aesthetics advice

40% DD FEE

AMENDMENTS (MULTIPLE TIME)

EXPERT BOARD MEETING

DD SUBMISSION (FIRE / FACADE)

BUILDING PERMIT ISSUED

- Tender mock-up / sample review

100% CA FEE

40% CD FEE 40% DD FEE

40% CD FEE 20% DD FEE

20% CD FEE

UNStudio Workflow Hotel Atrium _ Original Design

R: 600 LOFT R: 600

135 mm

R: 600 R: 600

Facade Design Development:

Geometry optimization, aesthetic supervision. interlocking situation: Lofting two fillet curves to form a tilted surface


CONJUNCTIVE RESEARCH STUDIES


Research

Swarm Intelligence

Architecture As Societal Function System: An Approach of Swarm Intelligence Research Project 2013 Instructor: Kristine Mun

A research topic goes along my studies from University of Southern California and Columbia University. Research topic was developed prior to and in conjunctive with visual and technical studies.

Abstract Architecture’s societal role is an everlasting topic that has been studied over time. With the evolution of science and engineer, architecture’s societal role is effected and adapting to the new age. This research paper will discuss architecture should fit into current and future society as a communicative system, from an approach of the application of evolutionary intelligent agent within adaptive design processes. The discussion includes two parts, theoretical exploration and research. Architecture’s societal function is the encouragement of communication, where Niklas Luhman’s social system theory provides a fundamental understanding for society and system. The research part starts with the observation of the intelligent agents’ social behavior models. Then it further investigates their influence on the relationship between generative design and human being’s social behaviors. With the above study and discussion as basis, this research paper offers one possible alternative utilizing the self-organizing potential of swarm intelligence, in terms of the negotiation between a complex set of desires and parameters in the emergence of architecture. Specifically, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Ant Colony

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Optimization (ACO) will be introduced and compared as examples. The goal is to explore the method of synthesizing localized interactive agents to the fulfillment of the role of architecture as a societal functional system during the design process.

Annotated Outline 1. Hypothesis - Modernism architectural design can be read as a linear process, which could be predetermined by the users, due to its rationality and rigidity. Architecture in the age of network should utilize the communication function.

1.1 Le Corbusier’s Radiant City and the applied zoning theory is rational, top-down, and predetermined design strategy. Jane Jacob critiques the orthodox city planning theory of being lack of intricate mutual support. 1.2 Sheltering is the last societal function of architecture, and yet great architecture should encourage communication for and with the context. “Contexting” is a way of complexity reduction through pre-programming and focusing the attention of the participants in a communicative interaction. 2. Theoretical Research - The relationship between system and subsystem determines the function, whereas the relationship between each respective subsystem determines the service that a system performs. 2.1 The shift of the modes of societal differentiation. German sociologist Niklas Luhmann analyzed three primary mode of societal differentiation during the development of societies. The archaic society was based on segmentation, a central-peripheral mode of differentiation. Then stratification becomes the primary manner of the societal differentiation for the majority societal periods before modernization. Functional differentiation marks the transition toward modernity. 2.2 Patrik Schumacher’s comparative matrix of Societal Function Systems. (Architecture, science, economy, morality) 3. Analytical Solution - Complexity theory suggests adaptive and generative system to serve the communicative situation. Architecture design methodology must involve an indeterminate, open-ended, bottom-up design process to fulfill architecture as a communication system.


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Swarm Intelligence

3.1 Indetermination and uncertainty should be part of the design product, because communicative situation is indeterminable. Indetermination allows the emergent of function systems in temporal dimension. 3.2 Volatile interaction between one service and the encompassing system is a responsive, bottom-up design process, i.e. performance based architecture design is generative and adaptive, which is now being studied by architects for the analysis optimization of structure. 4. Swarm and Social Behavior Modeling Research 4.1 Social psychology explains human behavior as result of the interaction of mental states and immediate social situations. Interestingly, social comparison takes place very frequently in our social life when we make decisions, or want to evaluate something, even self-evaluate. The theory explains how individuals evaluate their own opinions and abilities by comparing themselves to others in order to reduce uncertainty in these domains, and learn how to define the self. (Daily live, Internet) 4.2 Cognitive anthropology is concerned with what people from different groups know, and how that implicit knowledge changes the way people perceive and relate to the world around them. Herd mentality is defined as the way people are influenced by their peers to adopt certain behaviors, follow trends, and/or purchase items. (Stock market) 4.3 Swarm Intelligence is a well-established artificial intelligence study simulating the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized system. Agent – “ intelligent agent (IA) is an autonomous entity which observes through sensors and acts upon an environment using actuators and directs its activity towards achieving goals. Intelligent agents may also learn or use knowledge to achieve their goals.” 4.4 Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) 5. Summary - The societal function of new architecture is to encourage communication with and within its context. Through the study of social behaviors, Swarm Intelligence proves a great potential for adaptive design approach to the fulfillment of architecture as a societal function system.

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Hypothesis Born in the late 80s, I always keep my childhood memory in Hutong as a drive to find adventurous and intricate spaces, where many unknown things would take place. I remember climbing the telegraph poles that slanted by the brick walls to get up to the roof and catapult the streetlights. I also remember the parapet which I rode a bike and flew over. Many years later, I will never climb the poles again, nor take risk to fly over a meaningless pedestrian parapet. And yet, I can feel deeply about what these random things in my experience has left to me. Beijing has now transformed completely into an “international” mega city, where high-rise office buildings crowds in central business district. With the modernistic developments, Hutong is broadened out and become avenue; family houses are demolished and replaced by 6-floor apartments. Life condition has Indeed improved, but the occupants are less tied to the building. In Jane Jacobs’ words, “middle-income housing projects which are truly marvels of dullness and regimentation sealed against any buoyancy or vitality of city life” (Jacobs 1961). In Le Corbusier’s Zoning theory, he marked out the center of a city should be for commerce, and that residential areas should surrounds it. Contrarily, Jane Jacobs critiques the orthodox city planning theory of being lack of intricate mutual support. Although New York City is planed rigidly with grid, each district involves great diversity of societal function systems. The New York City planning didn’t limit any territory with specific service, or zoning. And yet every region in New York has the possibility to admit every societal function system. It is because of the reduction of zoning, the grid of Manhattan created a complex societal status: residence, commerce, cultural, leisure, and many other systems share mutual support in the same community. In the domain of a city, the advantage of the complexity is the convenience of city life. One can easily find a supermarket, restaurant, library, cinema, and the subway within a ten-minute walking distance. In fact, the complexity of various societal function systems promotes the relationships of various human behaviors. I guess this is the secret of Manhattan to keep its vitality. Alike the zoning theory, in the domain of architecture, modernism design is a linear process, which could be predetermined by the users due to the rationality and rigidity. Architecture design is not to solve problems. Therefore, I daringly take a skeptical attitude to the modernism architecture design process, with regard to the fulfillment of architecture as societal function system. And sheltering is certainly the last function for


Research

Swarm Intelligence

architecture, because otherwise engineers are capable enough to take place. Then what is architecture’s societal function, or how should architecture fit into the society? With the evolution of science and engineer, architecture’s societal function is also effected and adapting to the new age. In my opinion, today’s world is a world of network, thus Architecture should encourage the communication for the context. Anthropologist Edward Hall recognizes contextualization as a way of complexity reduction via pre-programming and focusing the attention of participants in a communicative interaction (Hall 1976). Here, context for architecture design doesn’t only refer to geographic condition, whereas the communicative situation of users’ is even more relevant with respect to today’s architectural societal function. In fact, site contextualization design requires man-made manufacture process to be function as a meaningful communication system, whereas those architectures, who take its users as the context, deserve a second alternatives. In other words, the new architectures deserves a whole new design process that is not linear, in order to fit into the modern society as a communicative system.

Theoretical Research To understand architecture as societal function system, German sociologist Niklas Luhmann’s theory of society acts as the theoretical background. During the time of Aristotle, the encompassing social system was called the political society. The industrial development has dramatically changed that conception, which replaced political with economy and culture as the definitive character of society. Luhmann pointed out that every epoch has different mode of societal differentiation. And he analyzed three primary modes of societal differentiation during the development of societies (Luhmann 1982). The archaic society was based on segmentation, a central-peripheral mode of differentiation. Then stratification became the primary manner of the societal differentiation for the majority societal periods before modernization. It is functional differentiation that marks the transition toward modernity. He suggests using systems analysis to “disclose the structure and processes which characterize the social system”. Comparatively, architecture may be understood as a social system in the theoretical way. Therefore, in the post-industrial age, architecture is a societal function system. Importantly, all social systems are craving for meaningful communications. Luhmann stated, “Social systems use communication to constitute and interconnect the events

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(actions) which build up the systems…they exist only by reproducing the events which serve as components of the system” (Luhmann 1982). The relationship between system and subsystem determines function, whereas the relationship between each respective subsystem determines the services. Extrapolated from Luhmann’s theory, Patrik Schumacher analyzed a comparative matrix of Societal Function Systems (Schumacher 2011). According to him, “the autopoietic system of science within modern functionally differentiated society has taken up this societal function: to order and adapt society via the continuous provision of new knowledge; education system is to order and adapt society via the continuous, innovative organization of universal socialization; economic system is to order and adapt society via the continuous, innovative provision of normatively stabilized expectations, etc.” Similarly, the social role of architecture as a societal function system is to provide innovative communicative functions and services to the users.

Analytical Solution To maintain architecture’s role as a communication system, the architecture itself needs to be adaptive and organized in a decentralized way in order to serve the individuality of indeterminable communication situations. Embryological house is a conceptual work by Gregg Lynn, in 1997-2001. One of the most important concepts of Embryological house is to “extend the interplay of “generic” and ”variation” implied in this rethinking to notions of product “branding” and the satisfaction of individual desire through consumer-specific, unique versions of the product” (Lynn 2001). Complexity theory suggests adaptive and generative system to serve the communicative situation, because communicative situation is indeterminable. And thus the design method should involve an indeterminate, openended, bottom-up design process. Indetermination and uncertainty need to perform as a

Figure 1 - theoretical model for architecture as a societal function system.


Research

Swarm Intelligence

character of the design product, which allows the design product to justify in the temporal dimension. In the field of artificial intelligence, complexity is defined by Melanie Mitchell as “large network of components with no central control and simple rules of operation give rise to complex collective behavior, sophisticated information processing, and adaption via learning or evolution” (Mitchell 2009). In order to fulfill the architecture’s societal function as communication system, the new architecture design process should be a non-linear, open-ended process with the goal of synthesizing the system with human behaviors. Rivka Oxman states, “architecture design shifts from pure modeling to the understanding of organizational principles and systems with a specific behavior” (Oxman 2007). Volatile interaction between one service and the encompassing system is a responsive, bottomup design process, i.e. the analysis and optimization of structure is a known generative and adaptive design process that has been studied by architect like Sawapan. In fact, performance-based design is generative and adaptive design process. It provides parametrical simulation, which can directly modify designs. Oxman explains, “in such approaches the desired performance can be activated as a performative mechanism to generate and modify designs digitally” (Oxman 2007). The intelligent agents, which accord with the above discussion, need the self-organization growth character. And the solution derived from this process do not necessarily match conventional structural systems but gain performance by self-organization of its members. In all, architecture as a communication system acquires the self-organization and self-referential capabilities through the reflection of specific human being’s social behaviors.

Swarm Behavior Model Research The kernel of architecture as communication system is to answer the question, how people respond to the environment and associate to each other. Social psychology explains human behavior as result of the interaction of mental states and immediate social situations. The bottom-up design process should establish a tie relationship with social psychology. Interestingly, social comparison takes place very frequently in our social life when we make decisions, or want to evaluate something, even selfevaluate. The theory explains how individuals evaluate their own opinions and abilities by comparing themselves to others in order to reduce uncertainty in these domains, and learn how to define the self (Wikipedia). For example, we refer to other people’s

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Research Figure 2 – Greg Lynn’s Embryological house provides an early concept aiming at the satisfaction of each individuals. Figure 3 - Millipede is a Grasshopper™ component developed by Sawapan Architects, focusing on the analysis and optimization of structures. This performancebased design is a bottom-up process.

opinions when we decide which restaurant to go for dinner. This basic human social behavior involves swarm theory, and comparative to the ant colony intelligence. Ants leave pheromone when searching for food and optimize the walking path. View the ant and people who search for food as elementary agents of the whole system, the iteration occurs when massive quantity of agents repetitively perform the specific behavior, which in this case, searching for food. The very close similarity opens up the potential to use Swarm Intelligence as the bottom-up, nonlinear solution to encourage the architecture’s societal function as communication system. As in today, it is the intricate city life and network that results complex correlation in between people and other people. Cognitive anthropology is concerned with what people from different groups know, and how that implicit knowledge changes the way people perceive and relate to Figure 4 – Stock Market, image courtesy from National Geography, July 2007

the world around them. Herd mentality is defined as the way people are influenced by their peers to adopt certain

behaviors, follow trends, and/or purchase items (Wikipedia). Take the stock market as an example, traders swarm in the exchange floor, practices the same every day - fact-finding, independent study, and voting. Although each individual’s behavioral result is different due to their own information gathered, the whole stock market as the encompassing system usually fuses the fragments and follows the cohesive trend. Swarm Intelligence has been a well-established artificial intelligence study simulating the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized system. Swarm Intelligence is first studied for many topics of natural phenomena, like global climate and neuro-science. The self-organizing potential serves as the basis logic for the emergent architecture, and allows the possibility of communicative situations. Through the iteration of multiple agents, the Swarm Intelligence performs a non-linear and bottom-up design process.


Research

Swarm Intelligence

Swarm Intelligence for architecture, as a societal function system doesn’t aims to solve problems, but to create indeterminable scenarios to fulfill the responsive communication function. In 2011, Nike+ established their interactive collective footmarks database installation for their users to visualize where they have run. This database is promising because it represented communicative interactions between the product and its users. It also helps us articulate the city

Figure 5 – Swarm simulation project by GSAPP students, advised by Roland Snooks, utilized multiple attractors and steering behavior, 2011

life and planning. This installation involved the Nike+ sensor underneath the running shoes, and involved their user as part of the communication system. This communication model showed a great paradigm for the utilization of Swarm Intelligence in the scope of Architecture. The Emergent Field is a conceptual design project done by Roland Snooks (Kokkugia) in 2003. The project utilized multiple Particle Swarm Optimization agents as the tool of the emergent of public space, who also advised successful public spaces are emerged, rather than prescribed. New design process understand emergence as the generation of spaces, through the iteration of multiple agents. Intelligent Agent is defined as “an autonomous entity, which observes through sensors and acts upon an environment using actuators and directs its activity towards achieving goals. Intelligent agents may also learn or use knowledge to achieve their goals” (Wikipedia). The action between individual agents serves as subsystem, where the achieved goal is the functional system. As mention before, Ant Colony Optimization and Particle Swarming Optimization both serves for the system of swarm behaviors, yet the action that take place between individual agents are different. And each action serves as the simple rule for the agent to operate. In Particle Swarm Optimization, the initial movement status as one sub-system decides its future behavior. Collision Avoidance or Attractors serves as another sub-system, which distribute simple rules to each agent. Comparatively, agents in Ant colony Optimization wander randomly, and keep giving feedbacks to each other, just like pheromone attractions. Through a population of agents and iteration, a pheromone path appears. The more agents participate, the stronger attraction it performs. On the contrary, the reduction of participants results the fading away of pheromone. As discussed, the relationship between system and subsystem determines the function, whereas the relationship between each respective subsystem

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Figure 6 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Emergent Field, Roland Snooks, 2003.

Figure 7 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Nike+ running interactive database developed by YYN. Image courtesy of http://yesyesno.com/nike-city-runs

determines the service. Specifically, the difference between Particle Swarm Intelligence and Ant Colony Intelligence is the relationship between each agents, or service. However, the function of the encompassing system remains the encouragement of communication between system and sub-system.

Summary In the future, the society will become an epoch of autonomous. The societal function of new architecture is to encourage responsive communication for people. Through the study of swarm behaviors, Swarm Intelligence sufficiently proves a great potential for adaptive design approach to fulfill the communicative role of architecture as a societal function system. The process of proving architecture as communication system is abstract, and involved many theoretical studies from exterior disciplines other than Architecture itself. The key concept that architecture as communication system includes the system theory, which explained the relationship between system and sub-system. Besides, the process also includes the theory of complexity, which almost performs as the methodology for the management of information. And the theory of complexity analytically indicates that new architecture design process should be bottom-up, indeterminable, and open-ended process.


Research

Swarm Intelligence

Annotated Bibliography Scholar References Jacobs, Jane, Introduction in “The Death and Life of Great American Cities,” 1961 Hall, Edward, chapter 6 context and environment in “Beyond Culture,” 1976 Luhmann, Niklas, “the World Society as a Social system,” in International Journal of General Systems Vol. 8, No. 1, 1982 Schumacher, Patrik, “The Autopoiesis of Architecture, Volume 1, A New Framework for Architecture,” Published by John Wiley & Sons, 2010

Lynn, Greg, description in his Personal Blog, 2002, < http://archives.docam.ca/ en/wp-content/GL/GL3ArchSig.html > Oxman, Rivka, 3.1.4 Performance Model in “Digital Architecture as a Challenge for Design Pedagogy: Theory, Knowledge, Models, and Medium”, 2007 Internet References Visual Complexity, Blog < http://www.visualcomplexity.com/vc/ > Roland Snooks, Kokkugia Wiki, < http://www.kokkugia.com/wiki/index.php5?title=ScriptLibrary > < http://www.kokkugia.com/wiki/index.php5?title=Swarm_intelligence_links > < www.kokkugia.com/wiki/index.php5?title=Swarm_intelligence_reading > Shiffman Daniel, Autonomous Steering Behaviors, Blog, < http://www.shiffman.net/teaching/nature/steering/ > Provost, Wallace, The World as a Social System < http://n4bz.org/gst/gst12.htm > National Geographic Swarm Theory, Peter Miller, July 2007, < http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2007/07/swarms/swarms-photography > Herd Mentality, Wikipedia < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herd_mentality > Intelligent Agent, Wikipedia < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intelligent_agent#Structure_of_ agents >

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Ossification

Research

Simulation of Bone Growth

Ossification 2014 Fall EnCoded Matter Instructor: Ezio Blasetti Research Team: Chao Wei Nicole Mater Casey Worrell Wei Wen

Spongy bone remodels itself based on the changing external forces it is subjected to. The thin columns of bone are called tubercular, and bone marrow and blood vessels move through the porous cavities. The structure of this bone growth along its long axis is drawn using three separate script behaviors. Major bone columns are drawn from a start point using a simple agent script. The agent trails are then attracted to one another with a cohesion script. Secondary bone columns connect the agent trails to the perimeter and the other trails with a venation script.


Ossification

Research

0.0 Behavior Research Spongy bone remodels itself based on the changing external forces it is subjected to. The thin columns of bones are called trabeculae, and bone marrow and blood vessels move through porous cavities. The structure of the bone growth along its axis are drawn using three separate script behaviors. Major bone columns are drawn to the start point using agent script. The agent trails are then attracted to one another with a cohesion script. Secondary bone columns connect the agent trails to the perimeter and the other trails with a venation script. Soft-bone porosity

Bone cross-section

Varying bone densities Bone behaviors

Venation

Circle packing

Agent growth

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0.1. Base Scripts

Research

- Agent Class

import rhinoscriptsyntax as rs class Attractor(): def __init__(self, POS, MAG): self.pos = POS self.mag = MAG print "made an attractor" class Agent(): def __init__(self, POS, VEC): #here we initiate the class by matching the inputs to variables in the class self.pos = POS self.vec = VEC self.id = rs.AddPoint(self.pos) self.trailPts = [] self.trailPts.append(POS) self.trailID = "" print "made an agent" def move(self): rs.MoveObject(self.id,self.vec) self.pos = rs.PointAdd(self.pos,self.vec) self.trailPts.append(self.pos) if self.trailID: rs.DeleteObject(self.trailID) self.trailID = rs.AddCurve(self.trailPts) def updateVec(self, attractors): #update the vec of the agent according to the s attractor sumVec = [0,0,0] #get the vector of attraction or repulsion from each attractor for attractor in attractors: attractionVec = rs.VectorCreate(attractor.pos,self. pos) #distance = rs.VectorLength(attractionVec) distance = rs.Distance(attractor.pos,self.pos) attractionVec = rs.VectorUnitize(attractionVec) attractionVec = rs.VectorScale(attractionVec, attractor.mag/distance) #add them together sumVec = rs.VectorAdd(sumVec,attractionVec) sumVec = rs.VectorScale(sumVec, 3/len(attractors)) #add the sum to your current vec self.vec = rs.VectorAdd(self.vec,sumVec)

def Main(): lines = rs.GetObjects("select a few linesâ&#x20AC;?, rs.filter.curve) myAgents = [] for line in lines: startPt = rs.CurveStartPoint(line) endPt = rs.CurveEndPoint(line) vec = rs.VectorCreate(endPt,startPt) myAgents.append( Agent(startPt,vec) ) #ask the user to select a bunch of points and make them attractors ptObjects = rs.GetObjects("select a few points to make attractors", rs.filter.point) myAttractors = [] for ptObj in ptObjects: coord = rs.PointCoordinates(ptObj) name = rs.ObjectName(ptObj)

if name : myAttractors.append( Attractor(coord, float(name))) else : myAttractors.append( Attractor(coord, 1) ) for i in range(100): rs.EnableRedraw(False) for myAgent in myAgents: myAgent.updateVec(myAttractors) myAgent.move() rs.EnableRedraw(True) Main()


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0.1. Base Scripts - Cohesion import rhinoscriptsyntax as rs import random def buildCrvs():

crvs = rs.GetObjects("pick curves to attract to each ", o rs.filter.curve) thres = rs.GetReal("type threhold for attaction", 8) scale = rs.GetReal("type the scale for attraction", 0.2 gens = rs.GetInteger("type how many iterations", 10) for i in range(gens): for j in range(len(crvs)): crv = crvs[j] rs.RebuildCurve(crv, 3, 30) copyofcrvslist = crvs[:] copyofcrvslist.pop(j) allotherpts = [] for othercrv in copyofcrvslist: othercrvpts = rs.CurvePoints(othercrv) allotherpts.extend(othercrvpts) rs.EnableObjectGrips(crv) locations = rs.ObjectGripLocations(crv) newlocations = [] for coord in locations: index = rs.PointArrayClosestPoint(allotherpts, coord) closestpt = allotherpts[index] dist = rs.Distance(coord, closestpt) if dist<thres: newlocations.append(coord) else: vec = rs.VectorCreate(closestpt, coord) vec = rs.VectorScale(vec, scale) newcoord = rs.PointAdd(coord, vec) newlocations.append(newcoord) rs.ObjectGripLocations(crv, newlocations) buildCrvs()


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0.1. Base Scripts - Venation import rhinoscriptsyntax as rs import scriptcontext as sc class food(): def __init__(self, MESH): self.id = MESH self.vtxs = rs.MeshVertices(self.id) def attract(self, myLeafPts): for vtx in self.vtxs: index = rs.PointArrayClosestPoint(allLeafPos, tx) v closestLeafPt = myLeafPts[index] dist = rs.Distance(vtx, closestLeafPt.pos) if dist>closestLeafPt.step: vec = rs.VectorCreate(vtx, closestLeafPt.po s) closestLeafPt.vec = rs.VectorAdd(closestLea fPt.vec, vec) else: if closestLeafPt.arrivedAt =="notyet": rs.AddLine(closestLeafPt.pos, vtx) closestLeafPt.arrivedAt = "yes" def avoid(self, myLeafPts): rs.EnableObjectGrips(self.id) newLocations = [] for vtx in self.vtxs: index = rs.PointArrayClosestPoint(allLeafPos, vtx) closestLeaftPt = myLeafPt[index] vec = rs.VectorCreate(vtx, closestLeafPt.pos) dist = rs.Distance(vtx, closestLeafPt.pos) if vec != [0,0,0]: vec = rs.VectorUnitize(vec) if dist > closestLeaftPt.step/3: #### vec = rs.VectorScale(vec, closestLeafPt.step/di st) vec = rs.VectorScale(vec, closestLeafPt.step/2 ### newLocation = rs.PointAdd(vtx, vec) newLocations.append(newLocation) rs.ObjectGripLocation(self.id, newLocations) allLeafPos = [] class LeafPt(): def __init__(self, POS, STEP): self.pos = POS allLeafPos.append(self.pos) self.step = STEP self.vec = [0,0,0] self.arrivedAt = "notyet" self.count = 0

def grow(self): if self.vec != [0,0,0]: self.vec = rs.VectorUnitize(self.vec) self.vec = rs.VectorScale(self.vec, self.step) newPos = rs.PointAdd(self.pos, self.vec) rs.AddLine(self.pos, newPos) newLeafPt = LeafPt(newPos, self.step) return newLeafPt def Main(): mesh = rs.GetObject("select mesh for venation diagram", rs.filter.mesh) ptObjs = rs.GetObjects("select points to start", point) rs.filter. step = rs.GetReal("type the step size for each point", 0.5) myFood = food(mesh) myLeafPts = []

for ptObj in ptObjs: coord = rs.PointCoordinates(ptObj) myLeafPt = LeafPt(coord, step) myLeafPts.append(myLeafPt) for i in range(50): myFood.attract(myLeafPts) newLeafPts = [] for myLeafPt in myLeafPts: newLeafPt = myLeafPt.grow() if newLeafPt != None: newLeafPts.append(newLeafPt) myLeafPt.vec = [0,0,0] myLeafPts.extend(newLeafPts) myLeafPts = myLeafPts + newLeafPts myFood.avoid(myLeafPts) Main()


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0.2 Computation Catalog

Bifurcation

Research


Research

iteration = 500 al 1.2 sep 0.8 coh 0.6 att 0.2 rad 2

al 1.6 sep 0.8 coh 0.6 att 0.2 rad 2

al 1.2 sep 1.0 coh 0.6 att 0.2 rad 2

al 1.2 sep 1.2 coh 0.6 att 0.2 rad 2

al 1.2 sep 0.8 coh 1.0 att 0.2 rad 2

iteration = 400

iteration = 300

Ossification

iteration = 200

iteration = 100

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Intersection

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Research

iteration = 500 al 1.2 sep 1.0 coh 0.6 att 0.4 rad 2

al 1.4 sep 1.0 coh 0.6 att 0.4 rad 2

al 1.6 sep 1.0 coh 0.6 att 0.4 rad 2

al 1.4 sep 1.2 coh 0.8 att 0.4 rad 2

al 1.4 sep 1.4 coh 0.8 att 0.4 rad 2

iteration = 400

iteration = 300

Ossification

iteration = 200

67

iteration = 100


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Symphonic Particles

Research

Symphonic Particles

TSoF GSAPP 2014Fall

This short animation is made in Maya nDynamics. The topological form is a trace of dancing figure. Particles are emitted from the skeleton of dancers. And the particles decay in 5s in amount and color. And the animation is finished with HDR rendering.


Research

music

Foals - Stepson Ruff special thanks to

Professor Jose Sanchez

SoFT GSAPP 2014Fall

access animation

Symphonic Particles

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Resonant Strings

Research

Resonant Strings

SoFT GSAPP 2014Fall

This short animation is made with Maya Audiowave plugin. The topological form is responding to the amplitude and frequency of the music. Surface follows simple sin-curve movement. HDR Rendering with gradient material from red-black-blue visualize the movement of strings.


Research

music

the Gazette - Infuse Intro special thanks to

Professor Jose Sanchez

SoFT GSAPP 2014Fall

access animation

Resonant Strings

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72 Performative Structure

Research

Generative Pipeline:

Performative Structure 2015 Spring Approaching Convergence Instructor: Maider Llaguno Biayna Bogosian

The workflow is a pipeline that allows non-expert users to choose the most efficient structure and panelization solution to fabricate a shell pavilion. We analyze the deformation of the shell geometry under certain load by using karamba and kangaroo in order to understand its force distribution. We use Grasshopper and WeaverBird to finish the draft panelization by applying 3 types of grid systems to the shell. After that, we use a Bi-Directional Evolutionary Structure Optimization method to reduce the material from 30% to 70% to generate a solution pool. The most efficient solution could be chosen by comparing the shell force distribution and reduced panelization solutions. The most efficient solution of panelization will be materialized by using Weaverbird.


Research

Workflow Diagram

Performative Structure

73

Question: How to optimize a shell pavilion with the most efficient way of structure and panelization?

Description: The workflow is a pipeline that allows non-expert users to choose the most efficient structure and panelization solution to fabricate a shell pavilion. We analyze the deformation of the shell geometry under certain load by using karamba and kangaroo in order to understand its force distribution. We use Grasshopper and WeaverBird to finish the draft panelization by applying 3 types of grid systems to the shell. After that, we use a Bi-directional Evolutionary Structure Optimization method to reduce the material from 30% to 70% to generate a solution pool. The most efficient solution could be chosen by comparing the shell force distribution and reduced panelization solutions. The most efficient solution of panelization will be materialized by using Weaverbird.

How to optimize a shell pavilion with the most efficient structure and panelization? Kangroo vs Karamba

Karamba

Weavebird + Grasshopper

Kangaroo vs. Karamba

Karamba

Weaverbird + Lunchbox

Form Finding

Structure Analysis

Subdivision

Form Finding

Structure Anlysis

Subdivision

Form Finding

Bi-Directional Bi-Directional Evolutionary Structure Optimization Evolunationary Structure Optimization

Material Reduction Material Reduce

Weavebird

Weaverbird

Materialization Materialzation


74 Performative Structure

Structure Analysis and Deformation

Research


Research

30% Reduction

Material Reduction

50% Reduction

Performative Structure

70% Reduction

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76 Performative Structure

Research

access animation


UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

ACADEMIC WORK IN


Design

May(C)loud

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Interactive Soundscape 2013 January - May Instructor: Kristine Mun Studio T.A: Myles F. Siotto Sam Keville Physics Lab: Angella Johnson Special Thanks: Nicole Larkin Manuel Kretzer & Materiability Research Network

Received Best Graduate Project Award in 2013. Project published in eVolo 6: Digital And Parametric Architecture.

May(C)Loud May(C)Loud is an interactive soundscape, initiated by the sound of environment, interacts with the visitors, and learns from their response to generate the iterating process of interaction. Inspired by William Hogarthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s principles of beauty, the design took three aspects into consideration, Variety, Symmetry and Intricacy. All human senses delight in the beauty of variety, the composed dynamics. Drafted from the behavior of sound, a rhythmic series of geometry is presented to visualize the invisible sound. And in return the change of environment entertains the eye and ear with the pleasure of variety. Driven by the study of Electro-active Polymer (EAP), a new kind of intelligent material, the shape of leaf units follows the rule of symmetry. Meanwhile, a great sense of intricacy emerges from the integration of triangulation patterns and circle packing. In sum, its mobility and interactivity vitalizes a dynamic beauty.


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May(C)loud

Design

Full Scale Installation on Graduate Show


May(C)loud

Design

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Geometry Composition 90 120 60%

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68%

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62%

68% 68% 60

120

A single piano wire forms a petal shape.

Growth pattern of the radial geometries.

The petal rotates around its midpoint at 72°.

Applied packing logic to the current pattern.

Duplicates itself, and rotates along its fixed point.

Geometric relation between circle and triangles becomes the structure baseline.

For 3 points, rotate 120°; For 4 points, rotate 90°; For 5 points, rotate 72°; For 6 points, rotate 60°.

Layered different radial components into the framework in relate to different radius.


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May(C)loud

Design

Environmental Loop

Triggers microphones to pick up noise from the environment again

Equipments: 9x Micro-Servos (170 degree rotation) 5x Servos (continuous rotation) 1x Arduino Mega 2x Arduino Kits 2x USB Power Cords 6x Piezo Buzzers 6x Female Mono Jacks 4x Speakers 1x External Power

Microphones detect volume and frequency of noise from various locations

Learns from the reaction of the occupants: becomes louder or quieter in response to the change in volume of the environment

Internal Action Loop

Servos respond to noise and pull the Spinning Unit: Volume defines the amount of actuated servos; Frequency defines the speed

Spinning Units pull the strings that actuate the piano wire

Piano Wire Units vibrate and creat


Design

May(C)loud

Loud Burst shocks the occupants into silence

A certain decibel level and frequency is reached, Silence for 3 seconds

e

nge

Input Output

Piezo Sensors collect sound from the subtle vibration of the piano wires

nd create a new layer of sound

Cone Units actuate in response to the new layer of sound

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May(C)loud

Design

About Adaptability and Generitivity [Adaptability – the procedure of making (something) suitable for a new use or purpose; modify; Biology, a change by which an organism or species becomes better suited to its environment.] In the year of 1961, Peter Cook was 25 year old. In that year, with David Greene, Mike Webb, he created an independent architectural magazine, Archigram. Then Ron Herron, Warren Chalk, and Dennis Crompton joined their magazine from the second publication. Among them, many taught at the Architecture Associate, and always gathered to discussed their rebel ideas. They believed that the age of Bauhaus had ended, and they dedicated to invent new languages to create new architecture and city. The year of 1961 is the monumental year of human exploring the space. April 12th, Yuri Gagarin set himself into the 4.75-ton spaceship, the Vostok I, with the 90-kilogram spacesuit, and flied into the space for the first time in human history. He saw in his eyes, and marveled the earth “is surrounded by a light blue aureole”. Then on May 25th, president Kennedy announced the Apollo Moon Landing Program. This giant leap directly inspired a lot more ambitious imaginations about our future. Among those imaginative pioneers, few members of Archigram had started their fiction-like designs for new architecture and city. One of the most important philosophies of Archigram is to mobilize and adapt. “The Plug-in City” of Peter Cook in 1962 reflected their ambitions, and emphasized the idea of mobilization of architectures. Their philosophy discarded the traditional understanding that architectures are eternal and staple, whereas architectures can be freed from the detention of geology as well as the idea of “Ucalized”. Meanwhile, their philosophies faced the fact that architectures can be consuming products, and adapt themselves to the very different conditions and environments.


Design

May(C)loud

Full Scale Installation on Graduate Show

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May(C)loud

Design

[Generitivity - characteristic of or relating to a class or group of things; a class of things that have common characteristics and that can be divided into subordinate kinds.]

Full Scale Installation on Graduate Show

If saying adaptability is somehow related to form-finding strategy and physical functions, then Generitivity is the most internal and basic principles. If one says adaptability is about physics and mechanics, then Generitivity is about algorithm, chemistry and biology. And yet the regrettable fact is that architecture is the least subject that applies new technologies into its research and practice, despite its long and noble history. In addition, it is always a challenge to make artificial nature, or analyze natural forms before the initial CAD developments were carried out in the 1960s. Today, the noble architecture as a subject is

certainly facing a seriousrevolution due to the thriving digital techniques. The Hylozoic Series by Philip Beesley and Rachel Armstrong is a series of geotextile installations containing hybrid researches from chemistry, biology, topology and mechanics. Among many interesting topics around the projects, the living succession is definitely the most fascinating part. As Rachel introduced, one of the initial ideas was â&#x20AC;&#x153;to explore how selfassembling chemical technologies such as programmable protocells could be used creatively â&#x20AC;Ś in order to tackle apparently the intractable environmental challengesâ&#x20AC;?(Beesley, 125). The subtlety of this idea is that protocells are able to move around at the interface between oil and water, sense their environment, and undergo complex behaviors that are observable to the viewers. Chells are artificial chemistry cells, which have inorganic membranes to operate the hygroscopic effect. Chells exhibit the characteristics of both container and metabolism during their self-assemblies. They become the vehicle through which a desired internal milieu interacts with the environment imbuing the whole system with additional living properties.


Design

Max/MSP Real-time Interactive Control

May(C)loud

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May(C)loud

Design


Design

May(C)loud

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Expandable Material as Actuator Electroactive Polymers, or EAPs, are polymers that exhibit a change in size or shape when stimulated by an electric field. The most common applications of this type of material are in actuators and sensors. A typical characteristic property of an EAP is that they will undergo a large amount of deformation while sustaining large forces. [Source: Wikipedia] Among the electronic EAPs especially the dielectric elastomer are functional materials that have promising potential as muscle-like actuators due to their inherent compliance and good overall performance. The combination of large active deformations, high energy densities and fast response is unique to dielectric elastomer. The basic unit of dielectric elastomer actuators consists of a dielectric elastomer film (e.g. silicone or acrylic elastomer) sandwiched between two compliant electrodes. In this arrangement, the polymer acts as a dielectric in a compliant capacitor. When an electrical voltage is applied between the electrodes, an electrostatic field occurs and the electrostatic forces from the charges on the electrodes squeeze uniformly the (incompressible) elastomer film. As a result, the polymer material is enlarged elastically in the plane (Maxwell stress). As soon as the voltage is switched off and the electrodes are short-circuited the capacitor contracts back to its original shape. The observed response of the polymer film is caused primarily by 0.04â&#x20AC;? PETG Plastic Sheet the interaction between the electrostatic charges on the electrodes. Based on the 3x Stretched 3M VHB 4910 principle of operation of soft DE EAP, mainly two directions to perform work against external loads are possible: Thin Layer of Graphite Powder

â&#x20AC;˘ Work in planar directions (expanding actuator) â&#x20AC;˘ Work in thickness direction (contractive actuator)

Copper Tape on Opposite Side

Power Supply 1k-3k V DC With a Step-up Converter Electro-Active Polymer

El ex an ty ch un la EA m ac ov de is


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May(C)loud

Elastistic Behaviors

Design


May(C)loud

Design

Fabrication Components

89

5"

4 7/8”

3 5/8”

4 7/8”

4 7/8”

R 3/16"

1/16” 1/8”

R 5/16" 3 3/4"

1/4”

R 1/8"

7/8”

R 1/4"

1/8” 1/16”

2 1/8”

1” 3 1/2”

3/16”

1”

1/4”

1 1/4”

1”

3/4”

1 1/8”

x4

5/8”

x 27

x5

6"

1/2”

4 1/2"

1/4”

x7

2 3/8”

1/4” 3/32” 1/32” 1/8”

5/32”

1/8”

3"

6 1/4"

1/16”

1"

1/8"

1/4”

1/8”

varies in length, corresponding to the circle’s radius

1/8"

5/8”1/8”

R 1/2" R 5/16"

x 119 x 43

R 1/4"

varies in size, corresponding to the circles’ circumference 1 3/4”

R 1 1/2"

R 1/4" R 1/4"

1/8”

x4

x9

x7

x6

7/8” 1/16”

1/8”

1/4”

x 21

1/8”

5/8”

1/16” 1 7/8” 2 7/8” 3 7/8” 4 7/8” 5 7/8” 6”

x 35

varies in diameter, varies in number of divisions (0, 3-6)

5”

4”

3”

1/8”

x3

1/4"

2”

x6 x6 x4 x2 R 1/4" R 1/4"

x 43

varies in size, corresponding to the intersection


90

May(C)loud

Design

Elevation: Willow Leaf Unit Actuation Butterfly Unit Actuation Cloud Flower Unit Actuation

Butterfly Unit

Cloud Flower Unit

Leaf Unit

Unit actuation

Willow Leaf Unit Actuation Butterfly Unit Actuation Cloud Flower Unit Actuation 2

3

1

4


Design

May(C)loud

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Plan: 3/16” Thick Acrylic Frame Thin Acrylic Sheet Buttery Unit Tentacle-like Leaf Unit Piano Wire Flower Servo Arm and Platform

3/16” Thick Acrylic F Servo Arm and Plat Thin Acrylic Sheet Butterfly Piano Wire Fl Tentacle-like Leaf


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May(C)loud

Design


Design

FDHQ

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Los Angeles Fire Department Lifeguard Division Headquarter 2012 September - December Instructor: Doris Sung (D.O.S.U)

FDHQ Sitting on Dockweller beach, adjacent to the west of LAX, the FDHQ includes a major beach watch station, a beach vehicles and utility storage, as well as a meteorological record center. Noise, wind, solar radiance and temperature are the environmental issues that need to be taken into design consideration. Therefore, FDHQ utilized the following two passive sustainability design strategy: - Natural breeze from the ocean (west) are moderate and comfortable. Building mass is split up into a central courtyard, increased natural ventilation (Fluid Shape) - The solar radiation, cloud coverage, and temperature change dramatically on the beach. High heat mass building material is used on the south-east side (Material Integration)

stretch with constraints

bend and fillet

rotate and slide

shear according to local wind pattern

taper corners


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FDHQ

Design

Based on site analysis, design intent is to integrate aerodynamics with the building mass. Wind become an importation factor for meteorology center, and general ventilation purpose. A possible hang-gliding center will take advantage of western wind with a highest speed at 40-50km/h.


FDHQ

Design

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NEED OF WIND (VENTILATION) ACTIVE PASSIVE

Equipment Storage 400 ft2

Storage Room Facility Room 300 ft2 300 ft2

Beach Vehicle Storage 2000 ft 2

Bathroom/Locker room 1000 ft 2

Staff Restroom 450 ft2 Conference Room 800 ft2

Lobby 400 ft2

Record Centre 800 ft2

Watch Tower 300 ft2

Training Pool 1000 ft 2

0.5

0.8

Fitness Centre 700 ft2

0.4 0.5

0.5 0.6

0.8

0.8 0.9

0.9 1.0

Bonfire Place 2000 ft 2

0.7

0.7

1.0

LIFEGUARD TRAINING CENTRE PROGRAM/WIND 6500 ft2 / INDOOR TRAININGS

Hang Gliding Path 4000 ft 2

0.6

Clinic Room 400 ft2

0.9

Bath 500 ft2

Public Pool 2000 ft 2

0.3

0.4

Conference Room 300 ft2

0.6

Rest Area 2000 ft 2

Public Restroom 1000 ft 2

Wind Tunnel 300 ft2

METEOROLOGY CENTRE PROGRAM/WIND 2950 ft2 / INDOOR ACTIVITIES

1.0

ADDITIONAL POSSIBLE PROGRAM/WIND 11500 ft2 / OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES

Clinic and Lifeguard Watch Station

Car Design

- Design inspiration for Structure and Aesthetics

Relax Area and Storage Vehical maintenance and Storage

Meteorological Research Center

Training Pool

Fitness Center Facility Room


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FDHQ

Design

Major structural form follows wind information. Topological change allows for public activities and institutional programs. Membrane-thin roof divides between interior and exterior, wraps the still structure.


Design

FDHQ

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FDHQ

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Design

Parametric-varied Facade System as Exhaust Component

elongated shape maximize air intake

Shark Fin

- Design inspiration for Exhaust Component


Design

FDHQ

A longer fin will allow more air intake. The fin component can be unfolded into a flat piece, to allow digital fabrication.

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FDHQ

Design


Design

FDHQ

AXONOMETRICAL WALL SECTION

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scale 1” = 4’ - 0


Design

A A

B B

FDHQ

B B

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A A

Longitudinal Section

LONGITUDINAL SECTION SECTION A A scale scale 1” 1” == 24’ 24’ -- 0” 0” LONGITUDINAL

Latitudinal Section

LATITUDINAL SECTION SECTION BB scale scale 1” 1” == 18’ 18’ -- 0” 0” LATITUDINAL


Design

FDHQ

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FDHQ

Design

1. Interior View to pool 2. Backyard and Amphitheater 3. Bird’s eye view west 4. Bird’s eye view east


Design

FDHQ

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FDHQ

1. Bird’s eye view west 2. Bird’s eye view east

Design


Design

Echo School

Musical Performance School 2010 September - December Instructor: Edward Woll

The Echo School The Echo School is a musical performance school, located on Glendale Blvd, close to Sunset blvd. It is programmed with a sculpture park and indoor gallery. Concerts and performance shows will be held every week. In order to attract more commercial attentions from the Sunset Blvd, the main entrance is set on the corner of the two major high ways. Material-wise, the performance hall is popularized with stone panels. The L-shape private practice rooms are warped with perforated metal panels to bring more energetic emotions into the space. Perforated skin can efficiently provide shading and ventilation, which will ensure the occupants with comfort. Truss system and braced frames are used behind the metal facade to provide structural support. The performance hall interior is finished with wood panels. The color of materials are corresponding to the surrounding site.

A - Public Corridor and Exhibition Area B - Musical and Dancing School C - Concert Hall C

d at gra

l e leve

e rad at g

A B

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l leve

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Echo School

SITE PLAN

Site Plan

Design


Design

Exploded Structural Systems

FLAT ROOF

INTERIOR PLASTER WALL PERFORATED STEEL PANEL STEEL TRUSS SYSTEM (3 SUPPORTING AREA)

CONCRETE FLOOR AND WOOD FINISH

DOUBLE GLAZING

GREEN ROOF

INTERIOR PLASTER WALLS

STREET LEVEL CONCRETE FINISH GROUND

Echo School

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Echo School

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Design

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OPEN TO BELOW

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3rd FLOOR PLAN

1. Small practice room 2. Medium practice room 3. Large practice room 4. Extra large practice room 5. Skylight 6. Storage 7. Elevator

2nd FLOOR PLAN

1. Entrance lobby to performance hall, and sculpture park 2. Sculpture park 3. Interior gallery 4. Green roof gather area 5. Main performance hall 6. Courtyard cafe 7. Main entrance lobby 8. Drop-off and loading zone 9. Elevator

EAST ELEVATION

SECTION B-B

NORTH ELEVATION

SECTION C-C


Echo School

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F

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Design

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11. Backstage 12. Escalator 13. Elevator 14. Main performance hall 15. Courtyard cafe 16. Entrance lobby 17. Drop-off and loading zone 18. Parking entrance

1. Basement entrance to main performance hall 2. Restrooms 3. Escalator 4. Main performance hall 5. Backstage area 6. Storage 7. Mechanical room / HVAC 8. Parking 9. Elevator

WEST ELEVATION

SOUTH ELEVATION

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A A

A A

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SECTION D-D

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BASEMENT FLOOR PLAN

GROUND FLOOR PLAN

1. Small practice room 2. Storage room 3. Mechanical room / HVAC 4. Reception 5. Office 6. Registration 7. Restroom 8. Green room 9. Skylight 10. Secondary performance hall

5

SECTION E-E


Echo School

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Design

STONE PANEL 2’ STEEL BEAM CONCRETE SLAB CORAGATED METAL STUD INSOLLATION FIREPROOF PANEL CEMENT FINISH WOODEN BATTENS FOR SUBSTRUCTURE

CONCRETE PANEL

PLASTER BOARD

WOODEN FINISH

PERFORATED ALUMINIUM PANEL ACOUSTIC STUD 2’ STEEL BRACE FRAME

DOUBLE GLAZING

STEEL TRUSS

ELEVATED WOODEN FLOOR FLOOR STUDS

F - CORNER DETAIL / PRACTICE ROOM

G - CORNER DETAIL / PERFORMANCE HALL

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SECTION A-A THROUGH MAIN AND SECONDARY PERFORMANCE HALL


Design

Echo School

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View From Glendale Blvd 1: 50 Detail Section Model


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Echo School

Design 1:100 Final Model


EXHIBITION AND FRABRICATIONS


Fabrication

Skylots

A+D Museum Never Build: Los Angeles Exhibition

Skylots

Haralamb H. Georgesco, 1965 Haralamb H. Georgescu (1908â&#x20AC;&#x201C;1977), also known as Harlan Georgesco, was a twentieth century Romanian-American modernist architect. He had a 44-year career spanning time in both Romania and the United States before dying in California in 1977.

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Skylots

Fabrication

My task for this volunteer work was to carry out the original design of the Skylots, by Georgesco in 1965. The whole project was reviewed and re-designed through my interpretation. My task also included the preparation of fabrication files and parts. The whole model building process took more than 50 hours to complete.


Fabrication

Skylots

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HHD_FUN

Fabrication

Lighting installation 2012 May - August HHD_FUN Internship Work Zhenfei Wang, Luming Wang, Sisi Lv

UP Designed for the 2012 Beijing Di Tan lighting festival, Chinese studio HHD_FUN‘s ‘up’ installation provides a place of rest in our fast-paced active lives. Pairs of slender bamboo rods are anchored in a metal base, curving to meet adjacent posts at a single point from which a solitary light is hung. This creates a network of spatial vaults illuminated to offer a comfortable environment in which to sit and look around. 100 random points in a 20x20 m square. Distance to neibor point >1.2m

2.1m< Distance <3m

Other Points

Vortex for Convex Hull

Area * Parameter B Cantanery Chain


Fabrication

HHD_FUN

Project was published on web-media.

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HHD_FUN

Fabrication

Parameteric Control and Variation

: 89 : 25 : 47

: 78 : 20 : 39

: 69 : 21 : 43

: 69 : 21 : 44

: 77 : 21 : 34

: 92 : 27 : 45

: 61 : 17 : 33

: 65 : 18 : 39

: 65 : 18 : 38

:100 : 29 : 47

: 71 : 21 : 42

: 85 : 21 : 41


Fabrication

HHD_FUN

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Full scale installtion exhibited at Di Tan Park in Beijing.


HHD_FUN

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Fabrication

1119mm 1466mm 1747mm

5mm

5mm 50mm

1119mm

300mm

300mm

4691mm

5176mm 1119mm

700mm

1119mm

5mm

65mm

300mm

300mm

700mm

621mm

621mm

621mm

623mm 1820mm

2796mm

底盘 细节

Dimension DETAIL Layout OF BOTTOM PLATE

竹 细节 DETAIL OF BAMBOO


Fabrication

HHD_FUN

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Full scale installtion exhibited at Di Tan Park in Beijing.


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HHD_FUN

Fabrication

Reception desk for JNBY fashion show 2012 May - August HHD_FUN Internship Work Zhenfei Wang, Luming Wang

The Finsler Table In mathematics, particularly differential geometry, a Finsler manifold is a differentiable manifold together with the structure of an intrinsic quasi-metric space in which the length of any rectifiable curve. The generic set up of Finsler table involved two table tops and one stand. Other versions of Finsler table was developed by introducing more table tops but applying the same geometric rule.

Finsler Table 1.0

Finsler Table 2.0


Fabrication

HHD_FUN

123

Physically fabricated Finsler table on JNBY show as reception table.


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15 Grad Portfolio