The editorial team exhibits strong degree of gusto in introducing you to the maiden issue of â€œELIXI-
ERâ€?, a magazine that showcases Architectural works of students in the Academics as well as Alumni and Architects Program at Andhra University. The Magazine represents and contributes tremendously to the culture and the educational value of Andhra University.
The germinal thoughts of coining the magazine are of Prof. Viswanadh Kumar, Head of the Depart-
ment. The Faculty provided a profound support in the fabrication of the magazine. Recognition to the conveyor for shouldering the responsibility. The coordinators are remarkable appreciated for formulating the student works. Much appreciation to graphical team for their exclusive work on design.
Expressing immense gratitude to the sponsor organizers for their efforts in formulating the sponsors
who funded the magazine publication. Worth fair recognition, are the alumni and students who contributed their works and writings. Special appreciation for the alumni who put forward tremendous support in fashioning the magazine
Hoping this magazine would energize you by going through, right for the basics of Lighting in daily
life to Large scale Architectural Experimentations .
Gowthami Krishna Amuktha Meher Padala
The Department of Architecture was established in 1989 at College of Engineering as a division and
acquired departmental status in 2001, in keeping with the multifarious scope of Architecture as the Art and Science of Designing spaces and adding value to a meaningful, built environment. It is a subject which is a combination of all these streams, yet follows a unique pedagogical methodology that is its hallmark.
It was in the year 1989 the Department of Architecture entrenched itself on the honored platform of
Andhra University. Secured the status of a Department in 2001, enveloping assorted flavors of Architecture and Science of Designing spaces. Exhibiting a consecutive progress since two and half decades. We the students of architecture announce a grand celebration on26th and 27th October as these of 24 years of existence on the departments calendar.
FROM THE DESK OF VICE CHANCELLOR
I am pleased to learn that the Department of Architec-
ture is celebrating its 24thyear of its glory and releasing a Magazine in this context. Enabling every one to have an out look of Deptâ€™s activity and exposure to lend art of Architecture.
I congratulate all the students and all the staff that are or-
ganising this prestigious event ELEXIER 20013-14 . i am, sure that such an event will give an exposure to outside students as well.
We, at Andhra University encourage students for the ctive
participation in events of this nature. I once again appreciate the efforts of all the students and staff for the successful release of the Magazine.
Prof. G.S.N. RAJU B.E (ECE), M.E., Ph.D (IIT-KGP), FIE,FIETE, MIEEE (USA), FSEMCE, LMISTE,FDAAD (Germany) Vice- Chancellor
AU College OF Engineering(Autonomous)
FROM THE DESK OF PRINCIPAL
I am happy to note that the Department of Architecture is
conducting 24th Department Day Celebrations on 26th Oct 2013. Department of Architecture is very active and undertakes various activities frequently.
The Department conducts Architecture Department Day celebra-
tions every year on the foundation day. I am very happy that the department is bringing out souvenir this year. I wish this function a grand success.
Prof. Ch. V. RAMACHANDRA MURTHY M. Tech,.PhD.,(Lon.).D.I.C.,(Lon.) FIIChe., FIE(I) Principal AU College OF Engineering(Autonomous)
MESSAGE FROM HOD’s DESK
It’s an honour for the Department of Architecture intro-
ducing you to its inaugural Magazine, celebrating Department’s 24 years of existence. I am quiet sure, the pages that follow add new perspectives to your architectural thinking. This magazine contains unshared versions on assorted topics of architecture and its contrasting fields.
I specially thank the alumni for their selfless work for the
department. Beholden to my colleagues for they have guided the students in every move. The endeavour exhibited by the students in working for the magazine is worth recognition.
Viswanadha Kumar G
Associate Professor Department of Architecture, AUCE (A)
MESSAGE FROM CHIEF EDITOR Architecture an elixier! I cannot vouch for it. But the essence of architecture is to create living environments that are safe, healthy and rejuvenating. Not long ago buildings were built by people themselves keeping their needs in view. Slowly with industrialization and urbanization the needs have changed and the necessity for specialist to incorporate the modern needs have given rise to different professions among which Architecture is one of them. Now with global warming being one of the hazards for mankind and building industry is contributing in a major way to this phenomenon. Architects have to shoulder a greater responsibility than designing beautiful buildings. We as Architectural fraternity have to design buildings that address not only the function and aesthetics but also the environment and society which would result in healthy built environments.
Elixier as a theme had been worked out so as to show case the
different facets of architecture. The students of Architecture of Andhra university have worked hard at putting together ELIXIER. Hope you Ar. Allu Revathi Devi Associate Professor Deptpatment of Architecture AUCE (A)
would enjoy reading this magazine.
An encounter with the most esteemed challenge. A chal-
lenge for which I desired for.... Initial paces of my journey were taken with perplexed moves. Time was my major hurdle. Formulation of tasks and meeting the deadlines often created a cold atmosphere. My teamâ€™s endeavor shifted the work on fast track. My experiments during the meets are wondrous, as I collided with mosaic of exclusive ideas from my companions in fashioning the event.
I express immense gratitude for believing in me. Special
acknowledgment to Prof. Viswanadha kumar, for supporting me while fabricating my ideas to life. I also thank the alumni for their bountiful support throughout the event. I claim nothing for this triumph is the fruit of the devoted work of my fellow mates along with great backing from faculty.
We together disclose rich levels on ecstatic scale for oc-
cupying a decent space in the maiden magazine of the departEDITOR AMUKTHA MEHER PADALA
ment. Promising that you would experience motley flavours in architecture as you indulge in the folios of the magazine.
Our journey enveloped wondrous experiences formulat-
ing articles from profound architects and inspirational works of alumni. Collision with exclusive works of students refilled our zest.
Everything seemed to be complicated at magazineâ€™s
inception, later pacified by the team who carried out various experiments in adding colours to our words and tremendous efforts by the host batch back screen. This magazine is the reflection of devoted effort of the students entwined with the profound guidance of faculty and alumni.
EDITOR GOWTHAMI KRISHNA
Our itinerary germinated from facebook, in contacting the
alumni. The primary ground work consumed much fuel, that made us eagerly wait for an appropriate kick start. The flowchart of works that started with collection to selection then with formulation, had to dilute many barriers midway. Sleepless nights associated with dispatching bountiful mails. Frequent meets that ended up with vague
Experienced incredible moments, engaging in conversations
with profound personalities. Did justice to the magazine with a team that brimmed with zest. Grateful to the alumni who instantly responded even to our eleventh minute calls along with a helping hand. Special gratitude to our beloved faculty who always responded positively pacifying tension in the air.
Co-ordinator Prasanna Laxmi
Co-ordinator Pallavi Prasad
Every deed done originates in one mind, but needs tremen-
dous effort from various sectors in order to be accomplished. With the coming of such a huge and prestigious event, comes a bigger responsibility especially when based on the quality output. Every single SUDHEER
person involved any effort big or small always has something unique to offer in terms of creativity and knowledge. Faculty, Alumni, renowned Architects and Students from the host college have shared their sensibly thought provoking articles and informative papers to the budding Architects. Constant support from the faculty and host batch “ZESTS” led us to work with a determined schedule to make things reach the circle effectively. Moving forward confidently with a tunnel of hopes for the magazine and Elixier event as its going to be a successful mark in the Department history.
“PRESSURE TURNS TO BE PLEASURE” with an effective
team work from ground stage of work to the final product. “ELIXIER” reaffirms the fact that we are endowed with the power to conceive, create and explore. Cheers to the Elixier Magazine team!! ARCHI ROKZZZ!!
Designer Sudheer Kontheti
Designer Emmanuel Neelgiri
CONTENTS ARTICLES THE WONDERFUL WORLD OF AN ARCHITECT - Ar.Neelkanth Chhaaya WHAT AILLS ARCHITECTURE...??? -Ar. Shabnam Patel
THE SUSTAINABLE - INSPIRATIONS -Ar. Jai Gopal
QUALITY IN CONSTRUCTION -Ar.Subba laxmi
ASSESING THR IMPACT OF LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS IN MITIGATING ADVERSE PEDESTRIAN WING IN THE VICINITY OF TALL BUILDINGS -Prof.Mohan
THE URBAN FUTURE MOBILITY INITIATIVE -Ar.Viswanadha Kumar
ARCHITECTURE AT CROSS ROADS -Prof P.Gurnadh Rao
WATER SENSITIVE URBAN DESIGN -Ar.Allu Revathi Devi
THE NARRATION OF A BUDDHIST RELIC -Ar.Ramesh Babu
SYMBOLS & ITS EXPRESSION IN BUILT FORM -Ar.Rohini Nanda
ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION IN MODERN ERA -Ar.Kiran Kumar
PASSIVE COLING TECHNIQUES -Ar.Gowtham
LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE Vs ARCHITECTURE -Ar.Naveen Panuganti
EITHER/OR THROUGHT EYES OF AN ARCHITECT -Ar.Praveen
SUSTAINABILITY , BUILDING MATERIALS,CRITERIA FOR ASSESSING THEM. -Ar.Raja Rajeswari Reddy
OUR CITY OUR HERITAGE -Mr.Paul(INTACH)
LIGHTING DESIGN -Ar.Sai Krishna
DAY LIT SPACES - PRODUCTIVE SPACES -Ar.Ramana Koti
THE SUSTAINABLE VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE -Ar.Srinivas Girijala
THE EARTH FOR A ROOF -Vani (Alumni)
AMCLIRATING THE DISABLED FACE -Sravani (5/5 B.Arch)
UNIVERSAL DESIGN -Sashank (2/5 B.Arch)
TURNING SCRAP INTO TREASURE -Anuhya (2/5 B.Arch)
NAMASTE TOWERS -Amuktha Meher Padala (5/5B.arch)
BOMBAY CINEMA LOVE -Samhitha polamuri (5/5B.arch)
LIGHT - A STRUCTURAL ELEMENT IN SIMMONS HALL -Prassan (5/5 B.Arch)
REPORTS : BAMBOO WORKSHOP @AUROVILLE. -Gowthami Krishna
COST EFFECTIVE WORKSHOP @ LAURIE BAKER CENTRE. -Samhitha Polamuri.
EARTH QUAKE RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION WORKSHOP @ IIT KANPUR. -Hema Gudla
COMPETETIVE ENTRIES : VISTARA -Swathi Kottali
TRANSPERANCE -K.Viswatej & G.Hema
PRODUCT DESIGN -S.Gowthami, K.Sudheer
ACADEMIC WORKS: INSTITUTIONAL DESIGN -K.Viswa Tej (5/5 B.Arch)
SCIENCE CITY -Harin (4/5 B.Arch)
STAFF HOUSING -Sahithi (4/5 B.Arch)
CAFETERIA -Rajesh 4/5 B.Arch
ARTS AND GRAPHICS
P. T EXPO
MEMORIES TREASURED IN TWO AND HALF DECADE
“The Wonderful World of the Architect.” Why is an architect’s place of work called a studio? This word is also used for the space in which students of architecture try learn their craft. This is an exciting place, open, experimental and full of objects and artifacts such as drawings, models, and the paraphernalia of working in three dimensions. Each person in the space seems to be intensely involved, engrossed in her own world, thinking, imagining, making and testing out some idea. This is the world where “study” does not mean sitting on a chair and reading and perhaps memorizing what someone else found By Ar.Neelkanth Chhaaya, out, but is a joyous, playful, utterly serious pursuit of Dean CEPT University. a way to solve a problem, a more elegant and beautiful Many other places call this fortunate and lively way to make places where human beings can feel se- student. The library, repository of history and culture, cure and happy! place of minds in communion and argument, is visit This is the world that the student of architec- ed and enjoyed. Keen contests of critical thought are ture enters. From that world, many paths lead out and as exciting as sports! in. Finally one goes to the “site”, the place where The workshop is the first destination, or perhaps the our thoughts are built, and we feel some pride, perlaboratory. Here, what one thought out can be made as a full or half-scale model, a mock-up. This is the place haps wonder, perhaps regret. In any case our inner of testing, modifying and improving what was con- world of thought and the outer world of action are ceived, an exciting and absorbing task, surrounded brought together.A full circle has been covered. From by fine tools and good co-workers. These co-workers the world, the student withdrew into the studio of inspecialize in studying the qualities of material, and the tense thought, ways of dealing with environmental conditions. What Le Corbusier called “patient search”, and then brought back into the world the result, fully man Another path goes out into the market and the public square, into the coffee-house and chai-gal- ifested. la. Here the architect forays to keep in touch with the This is the world that called me in. I think I am concerns and aspirations of fellow-citizens, with the social, economic, and poltical questions that confront fortunate! his society. As our populations and settlements grow, more and more people will be required who are ca Still another path may lead into the studios of other seekers - painters, sculptors, musians and danc- pable of thinking through and executing such diverse ers, writers and theatre and film people – in whose and complex tasks. This is the world that the student explorations the architect would find inspirations and of architecture, like me, lives in, and hopes that many more will join. parallels. 01
WHAT AILS ARCHITECTURE??? It has been two years since I quit my teaching assignment at Department of Architecture at Andhra University, to engage in the profession through practice and a self-motivated research to discover what ails the profession in both the academic and practice spheres in India in general and in smaller cities in particular. There are certain issues that have gained some clarity and some still remain ambiguous. The profession is primed by the academic exposure the students of architecture obtain through its Institutions in the country. Based on my 15 years of experience in the teaching of Architectural Design and its Allied subjects, and engaging with my ex students and the faculty I would like to take this opportunity to bring to the fore the lacunaeâ€™s that exist in this system. This is no way an attempt at undermining our Institutions and their work or faculty but an effort at initiating a dialogue in both the student and professional community to improve the flagging standards of Architectural education. The subject of Architectural Design forms the core subject in any undergraduate Architecture curriculum.Unfortunately in most cases this is one subject, which faces the maximum abuse, and the least attention.
Unfortunately in most cases this is one subject, which faces the maximum abuse, and the least attention.â€?
By Ar.Shabnam Patel, Practicing Architect
ronmental build up of design exercise, their link to the Architectural Design studio project is at best tenuous. As a result the Design Studio Exercises happen in absence of the theoretical underpinnings. Starting with the subject of
Climatology - It is taught to the detail of creating a climatically responsive building. But hardly ever is the Design project designed to link up with this aspect of Design nor is it ever taken to this level where the theory learnt is utilized in conceptualizing the Design exercises. Fenestration design and building morphology rarely ever address climatological concerns even at the conceptual stage. Design of Structures - is taught to the level of de-
signing columns and beams of framed structure(steel calculations included) but never is the theory extended to giving the students of architecture qualitative exposure to the formal evolution and behavior of innovative structural systems like shells, tensile structures, space frames etc. It is this lack of basic understanding of the structural behavior of innovative built forms that often limits the vocabulary of the Architectures formal language used by students to generate innovative and creative solutions for their Design projects.
No doubt a student spends huge number of man hours on this subject as facilitated by the time table but in actuality the expert guidance and the required theory and the research to support this extremely difficult A highly motivated student might do a selfsubject is given the least priority. Though all the sub- jects in the Architecture curriculum are subjects that study and utilize his understanding to design an avant garde building adopting an innovative form. He would support the technical, structural, cultural and envi also be spending a lot of valuable time screen
ing structural books to get relevant information that would have been otherwise be better spent on organizational and articulatory tasks of architecture. The engineering subject needs to be adapted to the needs of architecture and its growing formal language and we need expert faculty to guide our students and instill confidence in them when they experiment with the formal language of architecture to create innovative structures. Instead today the limitations of the faculty of both architecture and structures subjects discourage the students at experimentation citing structural stability as a problem. Architectural development gets stunted.
History of Architecture - A subject that
holds a wealth of information for a student in understanding the evolution of spatial form based on the cultural, technological, social and economic triggers of the time can be a great source of understanding the theory of design and preempt a knowledge based and innovative idea for any design project is another subject where the discussion and debate are normally absent in academic institutions. The evolution of the architecture styles over the ages carry within them a phase of deep conflict and new insights into architectural organizational and articulatory capacities linked intricately with the context. They are to be understood as Architectural responses to the changing times. This knowledge when extrapolated into the contemporary time enables the students of architecture to gain great clarity on how to evolve a design methodology that is well grounded in the contemporary situation. Sadly it has become a dry and boring subject that emphasizes the learning of the physical characteristics of the styles of architecture over the philosophy that leads to the development of the style. Architecture doesnâ€™t exist in a vacuum, it needs to communicate and therefore the learning of the language of architecture needs the historical richness of that language to move forward.
Building Construction and Building Materials - are extremely import
ant subjects that need to be integrated with the Design Studio Exercise. In the contemporary times the there has been an exponential progress in the development of new materials and building construction techniques. The present curriculum in most institutions is still antiquated and out of date. There are studentsâ€™ still painstakingly copying construction details of brick bonds, flush and paneled doors, king post truss, curtain walls etc. Emerging construction materials and techniques that facilitate the innovations in formal vocabulary of Architecture are rarely studied. It is the study of the advanced technology of construction that will enable them to explore and utilize the contemporary forms in their quest for an appropriate design solution. This would greatly enrich the Architectural Vocabulary available to our students in making informed design decisions.The same estrangement of the subject of Design from the services subject has made the design exercises poorer in content. The design studio as a standalone entity can never succeed in giving our students a holistic understanding of Architecture and these piecemeal exposures to various allied subject will remain abstractions that do not lend meaning to Design. There is another exposure, which our students have been generally lacking in. This is the learning of the softwareâ€™s that facilitates the communication of design through drawing 3D models and also Data processing for developing design criteria and evaluating the design based on those criteria. Most of the Institutions do not have Design labs that are equipped with the latest software and hardware that the students can have access to. This is detrimental to the development of Architectural design in the contemporary world where there is an information revolution taking place. . To achieve a certain amount of efficiency in handling these complexities, it is important not only to have intelligent and creative mind but also to be able to experiment with new ideas. This is what requires the aid of computing paraphernalia. An Institution that professes to teach the subject of Architecture holds a huge responsibility to society as it is training the fu
ture generation that is going to shape our cities and therefore also impact the nature of human progress in the future. There is confusion and chaos that prevails today in the field of Architecture. This is reflected in the worsening condition of our cities. Buildings and new buildings are adding to the clutter of the ever-burgeoning population. Over the top decorative elevations adorn these buildings as two-dimensional caricatures add to the cacophony of our city streets. There is no spatial planning or interplay that allows for any dialogue between the user and the building, Building and adjacent building, building and the street, building and the city. Architecture just sits there ironically faceless in spite of a heavy cosmetic touch and soulless. Ridiculously simplistic symbolism rules the roost where and a shark mouth defines aquarium design and a beached dolphin becomes a childrenâ€™s theatre while the insides militate with the outside to crudely accommodate the functions. Beautiful hillsides get shorn off their vegetation to carve out gated colonies of monotonously similar villas along a winding road landscaped with decorative non-shading palms. No community spaces except clubhouses added as an afterthought.
The urban slums get re-housed in five storey shanties in the name of urban renewal and the excess space gets a box like mall that gets decorated with colorful aluminum panels and reflecting glass that reflects the squalor around. Beautiful heritage precincts in subdued natural stone facades get planted with ghastly buildings in primary colors of yellow red and blue. Etc.etc.etc. The problem here is that today architecture seems to have been reduced to an adhocism with an â€œeverything goesâ€? attitude. This is posing not only a great danger to the built environment but also to the profession itself where any Tom Dick and Harry or Ann Mary Jane feels qualified enough to profess it, unlike any other profession. Architecture has stopped all meaningful communication and we need to restart the dialogue, this is the challenge facing our students today. There is hope that in this chaos they will find answers because history shows that a negative process has to reach its nadir before it gives rise to a creative and ingenious solution. Hope we live up to this challenge.
INSPIRATIONS... “ “
A simple analysis will show us that for achieving reasonable regional self sufficiency, the most important factor is proper land use planning ; as water self sufficiency, food self sufficiency, raw material self sufficiency, waste assimilation capability within a region, and even energy self sufficiency are all a factors of proper land use planning . This will perhaps mean a complete overhauling of our present ‘green rating’ systems, as its very fundamental assumptions and over emphasis on energy consumption looks misplaced, especially in Indian context.. The present rating systems are dangerous as it misleads people that by installing some gadgets and gizmos, the environmental problems are resolved, and then they can afford to be complacent in the belief that they have done their bit.
Ar.Jai Gopal Managing Partner & Director - Designs INSPIRATION ,Kerala. 05
The first big challenge will be in addressing squarely, the problem of speculation in land prices and holding of ‘land banks’ by the big and the powerful so that sufficient land is available to public good at the required places. But, indiscriminate land grab or ‘land freeze’ by the government can become counter-productive too.
A sensitive, patient, completely digitised, participatory, democratic land use planning, both at panchayath and ward level, and simultaneously at regional level, is perhaps the only way forward. In the regional level, it means comprehensive zoning and FSI / FAR regulations, defining relevant regional modules for self sufficiency in water, energy, resources, food and assimilation of wastes; and well designed rural villages, and self sufficient rural institutional buildings and campuses. All buildings here shall make optimum use of locally available bulk materials, be bio-climatically designed, can attempt a fusion of vernacular and contemporary crafted ambience; and will try and make optimum use of renewable sources of energy
Total water management and decentralised waste management too become very important. Buildings making use of renewable material like bamboo, mud and even thatch and local grass become truly relevant!
A land use cum financial planning model, which has been mooted as an alternative to ‘special economic zones’. In this model, the economic activity in the dense neighbourhood core, cross subsidizes infrastructure for a limited region – to be implemented in a participative public cum private cum peoples’ initiative. A comfortable co-existence and participative, land, water and other resources sharing of urban areas and its rural hinterland has to be defined in a participatory manner from time to time. ‘Inspiration’ and a network of associates are in the process of initiating WISH (World Institute for Sustainable Habitats), with this comprehensive vision on land use planning – in ward panchyath level, at the regional level and in an urban context.
There needs to be a lifestyle change too. Consumption and high spending on locally produced, renewable, small and recycling industry based products has to replace scarce materials based life style and consumption. In urban contexts, it could mean defining networks of small self sufficient neighbourhoods in peri-urban areas. Each such neighbourhood can perhaps have small dense totally pedestrianised centres, which will absorb and prevent migration into city cores, well connected by efficient mass transit systems. One such conceptual possibility can be the ‘Sustainable Development Zones’ (SDZs) -
For us at ‘Inspiration’, research, activism, advocacy all has to happen together, all at the same time, while designs, meeting budgets, project timelines, and meeting all needs of the clients too has to at least be satisfactory, if not excellent. Often, ‘Inspiration’ takes whole fairly large projects on a ‘turnkey’ basis so that we can actually demonstrate that integration of these concepts is possible, as much as the present rules and circumstances allow us to. In other words, in our professional practise, we try to ‘walk the talk ‘ :-).
Quality Control in Construction By Subba Lakshmi A Practicing Architect IIA Visakhapatnam centre. Use of good quality of materials and good construction practice are the two most important aspects of construction of any building, be it small or large. Quality of materials is the parameter of performance versus promise and good construction practice ensures, by way of proper application, the performance of the material is realized to its full potential.
and coordination with respective contractors, site engineers and site supervisors. Proper interpretation of the drawings to respective depts. and related contractors/site supervisors is essential to get quality construction.
Foundations: Proper design shall be done as per soil conditions, number of floors duly verifying earth quake zone and following IS Standards Anti-Termite treatment: An-
Given below are some of the important points to be kept in mind before venturing into construction of a building. Evaluation of the site for its suitability, short listing physical requirements and fixing of overall budget limit. Appointing a qualified consultants and a experienced contractors for construction along with employment of efficient and experienced site supervisors to ensure unhindered progress of construction along with quality.... .09
ti-termite treatment has to be done at foundation stage, before laying floor concrete inside the building and before laying external paving Survey of the site: to employ a concrete as per IS standards. surveyor /company.(total station method)to ascertain the measureConcrete: The R.C.C shall be of minments of the site ,levels, approach imum M20 grade (1:11/2:3) or as specroad verses site level, nearest conified by the consultant for foundations, necting drainage level ,any filled up columns, slabs beams and all other conwells ponds etc at the site . crete works..Water has to be pre tested before using in concrete and other conSoil Testing: Soil has to be tested struction. Uniform mix of concrete has for its bearing capacity. This shall to be ensured and proper vibration has be done before starting the con- to be done by deploying pin and pan struction for proper structural de- vibrators. Water cement ratio has to be sign. maintained as per the recommendation of the consultant. Preparation of drawings: The drawings shall be prepared for Ar- Steel: Quality steel , diameter ,spacing , chitectural, structural, electrical,
weight shall be used and the laying of steel shall be according to structural engineerâ€™s specifications. It is also advisable to use corrosion resistant steel in coastal areas. Proper cover blocks shall be used as per structural engineer s direction and IS Standards as cover plays a major role in durability of concrete structure.
ramic or vitrified tiles it is advisable to provide grooves in between tiles 3 to 5 mm and fill the gap with standard grout material. The base mortar should be properly compacted to avoid air gap below the tile surface.
that the rain water do not stagnate. The out lets shall be of minimum 100mm diameter. For safety reasons the height of parapet wall has to be minimum of 900mm from the finished floor.
Electrical: Distribution plan has to Painting: For internal walls the
be finalized as per the individual re- painting shall be applied on two
Curing: This is the most important as- quirements. Based on the expected load coats of primer which can be either
pect for achieving specified strength to factor, proper wire coil to suit the carconcrete. Inadequate curing can lead to rying capacity and diameter has to be used. The insulation of wire coils are of substantial loss of strength of concrete. equal importance for safety MCBs and Brick work: Quality bricks shall be RCCBs of required rating only have to used. Proper soaking of brick is import- be used. Switches to be used are to be ant and brickwork shall be in such a of heat resistant. Earthing is of greatest way that vertical joint are not provided.. importance in electrical wiring which if . Curing has to be done for at least five neglected can cause loss of human life. days. Brick work shall not be done for Usage of ELCB (earth leakage circuit more than 1m ht everyday.50mm thick breaker) is mandatory for safety stanRCC band is recommended every 1m ht dards. so as to avoid wall cracks. Plumbing: This is one of the most Plastering: Electrical and plumbing important but most neglected asconduits have to be kept in place before pect in a building. If the plumbing commencing the plastering. It is advis- is not done properly with the help able to embed the conduits and switch of a consultant and a good plumbboards properly . Curing has to be done er, we have to suffer life long with for minimum five days. Electrical and leakages in a building which later plumbing grooves shall be filled in ad- will cost us a lot and also mental vance before starting the plastering. Two agony. Positioning of water closcoats of plastering is recommended to ets and its height is very important minimize the wall cracks and the thick- which needs proper attention. Also ness of 1st coat is 15mm and second maintaining the required slope for coat 5mm.The gap between first coat for free flow of water is a must. and second coat shall be min five days.. Only experienced plumber can Usage of proper admixtures in mortar achieve this. can minimize water content and better Water proofing: water proofing for workability. This procedure has proven toilets and Terrace shall be done by better quality with less plastering cracks experienced workman with adequate admixtures and maintaining Flooring: The base floor shall be sufficient slope to avoid leakages.
white cement or cement primer. The function of primer is to provide a base for the decorative paints which cannot have good bond with cement surface. External walls, which are exposed to weather, require special paints which can retain the sheen even when exposed to weather. These paints too require a primer. Now a days there are exterior grade putties available in the market, which give additional protection to wall and they also act as barriers to water seepage.
Conclusion To get the best out
of the money spent in a building, it is essential that we make proper decisions as regards our choice of material. A qualified consultant can give the required technical inputs and also can give proper guidance in regard to budgeting to get the best within the limits of the budget.
cleaned thoroughly so as to reach the virgin RCC slab and should be free of Terrace: The terrace flooring shall be done with proper gradient so any loose dust particles. In case of ce
ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS IN MITIGATING ADVERSE PEDESTRIAN LEVEL WINDS IN THE VICINITY OF TALL BUILDINGS
By Prof. Mohan Kotamrazu School of Architecture Gitam University
ABSTRACT : Tall buildings deflect strong winds high up in the boundary layer to ground level. Such accelerated winds cause unpleasant and at times dangerous conditions for pedestrians and reduce the appeal of plazas, outdoor cafes, parks and pedestrian access-ways. Strong winds at ground level could make walking strenuous and even compromise the safety of people. This paper reports results of wind tunnel investigations that have been carried out in a boundary layer wind tunnel in the University of Auckland on a representative model of a tall building suburb in Delhi using the erosion technique enhanced with an image processing system. The investigations have been carried out with the objective of assessing the impact of landscape elements in mitigating adverse pedestrian level winds. The results of the tests have brought out the effectiveness of landscapie elements such as trees and porous fences in mitigating adverse horizontal winds in the vicinity of tall buildings.
Key words: Tall buildings, erosion technique, discomfort parameter, vegetation, porous fences 11
that are scoured later as the wind speed increases repIntroduction : The wind environment in the vicinity of tall resent progressively less windy areas.
buildings is a matter of concern for urban designers and architects as tall buildings deflect higher level winds to ground level creating unpleasant and at times dangerous conditions at ground level. Penwarden (1973) reports cases of two elderly women in the U.K. who died as a result of injuries sustained from skull and head injuries after being blown off their feet by high winds at the base of tall apartment buildings.
For the erosion tests a scaled model is placed in the wind tunnel and the wind tunnel speeds are gradually increased in increments starting from zero. U ref denotes the wind speed measured at reference height when first signs of erosion are recorded. Since the threshold speed of the erodible material for erosion to occur is known through earlier calibration, the ratio between the threshold speed of bran and the wind Landscaping is an inexpensive and attractive speed measured at the reference height in the tunnel option for mitigating adverse ground level winds in the when erosion occurs gives the amplification factor or vicinity of buildings as trees possess a small foot print discomfort parameter and is denoted by Î¨. but provide a large canopy that can obstruct, deflect or filter winds without obstructing traffic and pedestrian Experimental Setup : Pedestrian wind investigations for the present movement. Urban trees prevent solar radiation from heating the surrounding buildings and surfaces, cool- study have been conducted in the low speed section of ing the air by transpiration and reducing wind speed the de Bray wind tunnel located in the Aerodynamics (Akbari et al., 2001). Strategic placement of trees and Lab of the Mechanical Engineering Department at the landscape elements such as porous fences apart from University of Auckland. It is a closed circuit wind tunmitigating the impact of adverse winds can also help in nel consisting of high speed and low speed sections. augmenting wind speeds in stagnant zones. However Wind engineering studies are usually conducted in the there is little available knowledge of the absolute or rel- low speed section. This section has a length of approxiative effects of trees and buildings on wind at or below mately 9m and a width of 1.83m. The roof height is adbuilding height in residential neighborhoods (Heisler, justable and it is always contoured to give zero pressure 1990). The aim of this research is to carry out an assess- gradient over the wind tunnel model. Wind speeds ment of the impact of soft and hard landscape elements of up to 15m/s are possible in the low speed section. in ameliorating adverse pedestrian level winds in the There is a removable flow conditioning section at the vicinity of tall buildings through wind tunnel investi- beginning of the test section for trip barriers etc. Views of the high speed section and the slow speed section gations. are also shown in Figures 5.6 and 5.7 respectively.
The Erosion Technique :
Wind tunnel techniques commonly used for investigating pedestrian level winds are normally classified as Point Methods and Area Methods. Point methods include such techniques as hot-wire or hot film anemometry, pressure measurement using Irwin probes, and thermistors and measure wind conditions at discrete points around the model. The Scour or Erosion Technique is an area method for determining the windiness of a project site (Beranek and Van Koten, 1979; Livesey et al, 1990). In this technique a non-cohesive granular material is spread uniformly over the area of interest. The wind speed is then slowly increased in increments. The areas where the granular material is scoured away first are the windiest areas, while areas
Figure 1 :
(a) Figure 1 Sketch of the de Bray wind tunnel (1.a) and view of the low speed section (1.b)
Figure 2 (a) Upstream view of the wind tunnel (b) Velocity and turbulence intensity profiles (a)
the image processing program to yield probability of exceedance maps of different wind speeds at the test site. The assignment of pedestrian criteria requires the proportion of time that certain wind speeds are exceeded for all directions and this value is calculated by summing up the proportion of time that wind speeds exceed a certain speed for each point for all directions. (Mohan et al, 2010). In the present study the results of the wind tunnel study have been compared with the comfort criteria for Auckland City which specifies the limiting wind speeds that are specified under different categories for different pedestrian activities. This process has resulted in the identification of excessively windy zones. The layout of tall buildings used for the present investigations is shown in Figure 3a and Figure 3b shows a view of the layout with the landscaping elements in place.
Velocity and Turbulent Intensity Profiles :
The velocity and turbulent intensity profiles necessary to validate the boundary layer set up were measured using a Cobra probe by Turbulent Flow Instrumentation which was attached to the traversing rig installed in the de Bray wind tunnel. The turbulent intensity and velocity profiles were plotted along with the ideal profiles from AS/NZS1170:20022. As the majority of terrain fits a category 3 condition in regions where medium to high rise buildings are built, this profile was simulated.
Wind speeds measured in the wind tunnel are non-dimensionalized and expressed as a percentage of a reference wind speed. These measured velocity ratios are combined with the wind statistics of the site. In the present study wind climate data from Delhi (Palam) for a period of 13 years (1989-2003) has been analyzed by fitting Weibull distributions (by obtaining appropriate values of the coefficients k, A and c) for all the eight predominant directions tested. These values, in combination with the velocity ratios between pedestrian and reference locations obtained from the wind tunnel have been incorporated into 13
Analysis and Presentation of Results :
Erosion patterns with landscaping for U ref = 5.75m for Î¸=00 are seen in Figure 3. Erosion patterns without and with landscaping for Î¸=00 and U ref = 5.75m/s are shown in Figure 4. The erosion that occurs in the sides of the tall building 106m high in the central cluster combines with the erosion in the wake and thereafter with the erosion patterns caused by downwash in front of the building in the rear of the tall building (Figure 4a).The fences in wake of the tall building effectively reduce the erosion in the wake of the tall building (Figure4.b). The erosion patterns for ten wind speeds for Î¸=300 without and with landscaping are shown in Figures 5a and 5b. Discomfort parameter of 1.42 occurs at the top edge of the podium of the tall building 106m high due to the corner effect and in the wake of the tall building the discomfort parameter is 1.02. The trees located adjacent to the podium (Figure 5b) help in bringing down the discomfort factor from 1.42 to 0.46 and the trees and the fences in the wake of the tall building minimize the effect of the
turbulent eddies as can be seen from the erosion patterns in the wake of the tall building.(Figure 5b). Erosion patterns without and with landscaping for 10 wind speeds for θ=600 are shown in Figures 6a and 6b. The erosion patterns of Figure 6a show a discomfort factor of 1.75 in corner and in front of the 70m high tall building. Figure 6b shows a reduction in the discomfort factor from 1.75to .75 in front of the tall building 70m high and from 1.02 to0.43 adjacent to the podium with the addition of trees. The fence adjacent to the 51m high building also reduces the discomfort factor from 0.88 to less than 0.43 (Figure 6b).
Figure 3 Erosion patterns with landscaping for U ref = 5.75m for θ=00
(a)Without Landscaping (b) With Landscaping Figure 5 Erosion patterns without and with landscaping for ten wind speeds for θ=300
Erosion patterns without landscaping for ten wind speeds for θ=2400 are shown in Figure 7a and Figure 7b respectively. A comparison of these two figures shows a reduction of erosion in the central cluster with the 106m high building due to the addition of trees. Although a reduction in wind speeds is noticed in the wake of the tall building in the central cluster, increase in discomfort factor in front of the 41m building (Figure 8.29) indicates that the fences more or less divert strong winds from one area to another. Erosion patterns without landscaping for ten wind speeds for θ=3000 are shown in Figures 8.33. Figure 8.33b shows the erosion patterns for ten wind speeds for θ=3000. The discomfort factor ranging from 1.02 to 0.88 in the space between the tall building 106m high and 20m high building is brought down to less than 0.43m/s . The fence adjacent to the 26m high building (Figure 8.33b) also helps in reducing the erosion in the central cluster.
Figure 4 Erosion patterns adjacent to fences for U ref = 5.75m for θ=00 Figure 6 Erosion patterns without and with landscaping for ten wind speeds for θ=600
(a)Without Landscaping (b) With Landscaping Figure 4 Erosion patterns without and with landscaping for
U ref = 5.75m for θ=00
Figure 7 Erosion patterns without and with landscaping for ten wind speeds for θ=2400
Comfort category maps without landscaping and with landscaping are given in Figure 8.35a and Figure 8.35b. According to the Auckland City Council wind comfort criteria (Figure Chapter 6) pedestrian activities in areas such as parks, outdoor cafes and plazas where people sit for long periods fall under Category A and the mean wind speed in such areas should be less than 4.3m/s for 99% of the time. Areas where pedestrians sit for short periods fall under Category B and in such areas the mean wind speed should be less than 6.4m/s for 99% of the time. For Category C areas which include general footpaths and areas around buildings the threshold mean speed is 8.3m/s which should not be exceed 1% of the time, or in other words the mean speed in such areas should be less than 8.3m/s for 99% of the time. Car parks and carriageways come under Category D areas where the mean speed should be less than 10.3m/s for 99% of the time. Areas where the wind speed exceeds 10.3m/s for more than 1% of the time are considered dangerous for pedestrians and permission is not accorded for category E areas in any proposed development.
Figure 8 Erosion patterns without and with landscap ing for ten wind speeds for θ=3000
Figure 9 Comfort category maps without landscaping
Figure 10 Comfort category map with landscaping
The category map in Figure 8.36b shows that the addition of trees significantly reduces the wind speeds in these areas. The fences adjacent to the 70m high building the 51m high building and the 42m high building are also effective in dissipating strong winds as can be seen from the map with landscaping in Figure 8.36b. From Figure 8.37b it can be seen that the wind speed in the vicinity of the 32m high building is reduced with the addition of a tree next to this building. Further a fence placed adjacent to the streamlined building also helps in reducing the wind speeds in the cluster space abutting the streamlined building. The fence adjacent to the 38m high building also helps in reducing the wind speeds in its vicinity (Figure 8.37 b) A comparison of the ‘before’ and ‘after’ maps shows that the blue patch which indicates a category D area (where wind speeds are permitted to be more than 10m/s 99% of the time) is totally eliminated with the addition of mitigation features in the form of plantings and converted into a category B area which is suitable for short periods of sitting. The conversion of red patches to green indicates that areas that were earlier suitable only for walking with permitted wind speeds in excess of 8m/s for 99 percent of the time are converted to category B areas which are suitable for sitting for short periods of time. Further the conversion of the green patches to white ( with the help of the porous fences) in the rear of the tall building and elsewhere indicates that these areas could now be used for sitting, eating and reading i.e. one could sit and read a newspaper in these areas without it being blown away.
This study has shown the effectiveness of soft and hard landscape elements for mitigating adverse pedestrian winds in the vicinity of tall buildings. Significant reduction in the discomfort parameter is seen in the corners, near wake and in the cluster spaces of tall buildings with the addition of trees and fences for all the wind directions tested for. Trees planted in the corners of tall buildings can be effectively used for dissipating horizontal winds and also for guiding pedestrian movement away from windy zones.
Porous fences can be used with advantage for diverting strong winds away from areas of significant pedestrian use such as building entrances and passages between buildings. Further porous fences are preferable to solid barriers as increased turbulence is created in the wake of solid barriers. Fences with a porosity of 30 to 50% are effective as windbreaks. However fences deflect wind from one area to another. Substantial reduction in the comfort parameter Ďˆ from 1.02 to less than 0.43 can be achieved with the placement of trees and fences in the wake of the tall buildings.
Ferdinand Cheval (born 1836 in Charmes-sur-l’Herbasse, Drôme, France; died 19 August 1924) was a French postman who spent thirty-three years of his life building Le Palais idéal (the “Ideal Palace”) in Hauterives. The Palace is regarded as an extraordinary example of naïve art architecture.
The Eden Project is a visitor attraction in Cornwall in the United Kingdom. Inside the artificial biomes are plants that are collected from all around the world. The project is located in a reclaimed Kaolinite pit, located 1.25 mi (2 kilometres) from the town of St Blazey and 5 kilometres (3 mi) from the larger town of St Austell, Cornwall
Hallgrímskirkja is a Lutheran (Church of Iceland) parish church in Reykjavík, Iceland. At 73 metres (244 ft), it is the largest church in Iceland and the sixth tallest architectural structure in Iceland after Longwave radio mast Hellissandur, the radio masts of US Navy at Grindavík, Eiðar longwave transmitter and Smáratorg tower. The church is named after the Icelandic poet and clergyman Hallgrímur Pétursson (1614 to 1674), author of the Passion Hymns.
Kubuswoningen, or cube houses, are a set of innovative houses built in Rotterdam and Helmond in The Netherlands, designed by architect Piet Blom and based on the concept of “living as an urban roof ”: high density housing with sufficient space on the ground level. Blom tilted the cube of a conventional house 45 degrees, and rested it upon a hexagon-shaped pylon. His design represents a village within a city, where each house represents a tree, and all the houses together, a forest.
The National Museum of Play, formerly Strong National Museum of Play, is part of The Strong in Rochester, New York, USA. Established in 1969 and based initially on the personal collection of Rochester, NY native Margaret Woodbury Strong, the museum opened to the public in 1982. Since then it has refined and increased its collections, and expanded
Atlantis, The Palm is a resort located on Dubaiâ€™s reclaimed artificial island The Palm. It was the first resort to be built on the island and is based on the myth of Atlantis includes distinct Arabian elements. The resort opened on September 24, 2008 as a joint venture between Kerzner International Holdings Limited andIstithmar.
twice, in 1997 and 2006.
The Bibliotheca Alexandrina : Maktabat al-IskandarÄŤyah, Egyptian is a major library and cultural center located on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea in the Egyptian city of Alexandria. It is both a commemoration of the Library of Alexandria that was lost in antiquity, and an attempt to rekindle something of the brilliance that this earlier center of study and erudition represented
According to the Mesoamerican Long Count Calendar, made famous by the ancient Mayan people, December 2012 marks the ending of the current baktun cycle. This little bit of information has many archeologists spooked. Some believe the Mayans were warning of a coming apocalypse, while others insist it's simply a mathematical misconception
ARCHITECTURE AT CROSS ROADS ……INDIAN CONTEXT
By Prof.P.Gurunadha Rao Faculty in Architecture A.U.C.E.(A)
The present scenario is being dictated by globalization, consumerism leading to loss of bottom level
values. Changing lifestyles, human responses are transforming into various kinds of paradigms
which are changing and bringing new expressions whose credibility are towards... Questionable meaning.
The scenario is unconsciously leading the fraternity concerned with Architecture and its allied areas into superficial expressions pushing further into a domain of design workers creating more and more vacuum into intellectual space. There has to be an outreach of committed values in developing today’s built spaces which gives genuine output and addresses the truth of reality. Today we see the nature of customs related from food habits to clothing pattern, music to dance forms etc. are all transforming from indigenous style to styles being imported and similarly the patterns of buildings which are the images of Architecture. This is happening on a land of diversity and unity. The Architect who is a creator must be wise enough to what extent and how to utilize the “easy going approaches” from the ongoing tech –savvy digital world towards achieving a meaningful outcome in their attempts.
It is time that all right thinking species who are concerned with architecture to carry forward their
thoughts to relook and redefine the present trends and take a “U-turn sponses in the form of architecture are natural ,pure and everlasting. 25
if necessary by which the re-
Water sensitive Urban Design(WSUD) - an approach Ar.Allu Revathi Devi, Professor Dept Of Architecture, Andhra UniversityCollege Of Enginering. Water sensitive Urban Design(WSUD) - an approach to Water Sensitive Urban Design – a way forward By built environments Louise Clarke and Paul Shaffer, CIRIA Planning and design approach adopted in WSUD Growing Urbanization and increasing built en- that integrates the following potential vironments at rapid pace is causing a lot of environmen- opportunities into the built form of cities and towns: tal damage as well as crunch in the resources. Water being one of them there is a need to orient our designs • The use of water efficient appliances and rainwater, stormwater, wastewater, groundwater and towards Water sensitive Design. Water sensitive Urban Design is a design ap- greywater reuse as alternative sources of water to proach which integrates the waste water, storm water conserve potable supplies; and ground water .Even if it rains a little, and the cities get flooded. The reason being the pervious surfaces • Detention, rather than rapid conveyance, of are getting converted into impervious surfaces which stormwater; results in the storm water runoff. This results in huge • Reuse, storage and infiltration of stormwater, disruption in urban systems causing traffic jams and instead of drainage system augmentation; overflow of drainage which is a health hazard. One • . Use of vegetation for stormwater filtering should realize that these huge quantities of rainwater in purposes; a resource than a problem. • Water-efficient landscaping to reduce pota We have to look at the way we plan and design ble water consumption our built environments so as to integrate water and its • Protection of water-related environmental, systems in the design process. recreational and cultural values by minimising the • ecological footprint of a project associated with providing supply, wastewater and stormwater services; • Localised wastewater treatment and reuse systems to reduce potable water consumption and • minimise environmentally harmful wastewater discharges; • Provision of stormwater or other recycled urban waters (in all cases subject to appropriate • controls) to provide environmental water requirements for modified watercourses2;
A number of planning and design tools based on best planning practices principles have been developed which relate to the following :
` A number of planning and design tools based on best planning practices principles have been developed which relate to the following :
â€˘ Public open space networks.
â€˘ Housing layout:
Abive are few planning practices that were followed in the built environments. Management practices like water efficient appliances also help in the conservation and preservation of water infrastructure. Design elements like green roofs, landscape elements like retention ponds, porous parking places and pavements. These approaches not only help the environment but also improve the visual and aesthetic quality.
Vizag’s Religious Heritage - Bojjonakonda By Ar. Ramesh Babu
narration of a Buddhist relic that witnessed the city for over twenty centuries.”
The 1800 year old city started its odyssey from the footsteps of Thotlakonda, a great religious and educational center of Brahmanism and Buddhism. The excavations envelope exclusive sculptures of great heritage value dating backing to 2nd century BC to 7th century BC. A teacher, S Venkataramayya discovered the ruins of the ancient city. This Buddhist monastic complex was exposed to light when Indian Navy has conducted an aerial survey in the region inorder to dining halls, cisterns, satavahan and roman coins setup its Naval Base. along with brahmi lable inscriptionsdatable to 3rd C.B.C. to 4th C.A.D. From the paleographic studies, it is believed that the hills might have been known as “Syenagiri”. The archeological excavations reveals antiqui“Syena in Sanskrit refers to eagle and thus the name ties like Mahastupa, Viharas, Votive stupas, Chaitya “The Hill of Eagles”.The name thotlakonda has been Gruhas, Pillared hall, Congregation hall, tiles, finals derived from the presence of rock cut trough hewn in Buddapadas,Eppatra pieces, engraved withBrahmelipi the bed rock of various shapes and sizes. recovered from the site of Mangamar ipeta hilland re flects the Kalinga and Andhaka Schools of Buddism. Excavations in 1988 to1992 brought to light a These structures include the Stupa, Chaityagrihas, mahastupa, apsidal and circular chsity gruhas, viha- pillared Congregation halls, Bhandagaras, refectory ras, pathways, (Bhojanasala), drainage and stone pathways. 29
A hill on the sea coast with salubrious climate was an ideal attraction for the Buddist monks to build a monastery complex here. The placid sea sheltered the deeply incurved coastline here, provided a safe haven for anchoring ships. The excavations established the existence of Hinayana Buddist Complex which floyrished 2000 years ago. The site has a 14th century fort, medieval temples and a museum constructed like a Buddhist vihara. The museum houses a collection of relics of Buddhist culture and art. The main stupa constructed on square platform shows Takshashila influence on this hill. It is estimated that the monastery accommodated more than a hundered Buddhist monks. Viharas, apsidal and circular chaitya-grihas, stupas, votive stupa made of bricks. A rock cut trough was exposed. The antiquities recovered includefull brown lotuses with petals in stucco, fragmentary iron nails from cellar of vihara, a Satvahana coin and aRoman coin of Tiberius and pot sheds of various shapes were recovered.Excavations have reveald three kinds of structural remains: religious, secular and civil. The square base represents earth. The hemi spherical dome/ vase represent water. The conical spire represents the fire. The upper lotus parasol and the crescent moon represent air. The sun and the dissolving point represent the element of space. Viharas initially were temporary shelters used by monks during the rainy season, but later developed to accommodate the growing Buddhist monasticism. They are walled quadrangular court with flanked by a row of small cells and pillared veranda in front of a hall for congregation with a running veranda on 3 sides.
SYMBOL AND ITS EXPRESSION IN BUILT FORM By Ar.Rohini Nanda
At Ukhahlamba-Drakensberg, South Africa, 3,000 years old, the paintings by the San people who settled in the area some 8,000 years ago depict animals and humans, and are thought to represent religious beliefs. (Source: UNESCO ©Scott Ramsay)
A Symbol is a sign, which refers to the object that it denotes, usually through associations, whichoperates to cause that symbol to be interpreted as referring to the object.’ Symbols’ are supposedto have ehvolved from the advantageous use of ‘signs’. They are ‘representative signs’, that helpretain things for later reference for comparing, planning and generally for purposive thinking.’[Sussane K. Langer – ‘philosophy in a new key’] Also symbols can be defined as objects, act, character, figure used to represent concept and ideas with meaning pound to it by man. It is a simplified image that communicates Symbols are part of the process rather a cre- a system based on associations. For instance, difative process whereby an individual shapes his physi- ferent symbols associated with different religions cal reality transforming it into its world of perception. like ‘Swastika’ and ‘Om’ associated with Hinduism, It is an inheritance of living pattern of a Culture.Ear- ‘Moon and Star’ with Islam, ‘Cross’ with Christianity. liest ever symbol one infer to are the symbols in the primitive times. 31 Since age’s man has been trying to interact, express his ideas and thoughts, focusing on his concerns, his feelings and beliefs. He tried to express it through various modes of communication. Pictorial representation of his thoughts and ideas was one of the modes. Such representations create images, which are either perceptual i.e. are real and exist in memory or are conceptual i.e. are abstract and representation of emotions. Former are images from past experiences or concerned with previous associations dealing with physical realities and later outcome of imagination, subjected to individual’s interpretation of idea.
Our lives have been influenced or rather infused by these symbols. And they have their essence in distinct Culture and Religions. Symbols have developed and its connotations cogent till today. A symbol in a given environment would generate the right response or bring forth the response it attributes. They act as intermediary to hidden meanings that are interpreted. For e.g. the stone memorial in Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India, marks the location where several women committed sati. Leaving home for their funeral pyre, women dipped their hands in red pigment and left a symbolic mark of devotion and loyalty to their deceased husbands. So symbols is full meaning conferred upon it, by totality of man’s experience. It has various aspects to it. Mythical thinking has its own place here as symbols can reinforce ‘myths’ and ‘beliefs’. In religion, all rituals are symbolic transformation of experiences. Language is very basic and primary form of symbolic expressions. From science ‘Semiotics’ is the visual or verbal form of representations
Fig-2: These hand prints are “sati hands” placed on theside of the fort’s palace and inside walls by royalwomen before committing sati.
Since a community shares a set of beliefs and a cultural background, its built form reflects the meanings, which the people associate with it; and this helps establishing an identity for the community, wherein each community has its own set of symbols.
Rapoport states that the human mind works by trying to impose meaning on the world through the use of cognitive classifications, categories, schemata and built forms. He states that physical elements can be decoded if and when they match people’s hschemata, and people’s schemata differ. Thus their reactions to the environment would be different. [Rapoport, Amos. House Form and Culture. Milwaukee: Prince Hall Inc., 1969] Spatial forms, like other aspects of culture are physical expressions of these schemas. Symbols become an added overlay to spatial construct. Association and values thus evoked by them convert the up till now everyday objects to meaningful connotation. Further reinforcing communication and conjuring notions. So the built form is a non-verbal communication of symbols and images. For e.g. Jharokhas and jalli walls symbolized the position of women in the society. Women were restricted to the interior domain of the house and they, to establish communication with the outside world used these elements. The jharokhas though an extension of interior space formed an important element of the façade. The façade in a Rajasthani haveli is articulated by extensive carvings to break the plane to reduce heat and light, thus solving dual purpose. They are not only the element that control light and heat but a symbol of culture prevailing in the society. [Jain, Kulbhushan, and Jain, Minakshi, Architecture of the Indian Desert] 33
Another example, windows in a built form act as a visual connector. It suggests continuity from one space to another and signifies the change in motion. The position and form of openings give characterization to the element. The window opening in the Kutch house, establishes a communication between spaces. The richly decorated mud and mirror work, typical of Kutch houses, emphasizes the opening as well as gives ambience to the space. The visually rich mud-mirror murals, through the time have become a symbol of craftsmanship of Kutch community. Furthermore, if a window was thought as a visual connector, the door acted as physical one, signifying transition and movement from one space to another. The door marks the transition point of the space and in all cultures has symbolic connotations. It is the first interactive elemnt of the built form and hence marks the identity of the built form. It suggests the ownerâ€™s identity, his religion, social status, values, etc. Likewise, within Gujarat, ther is another pratcise of a highly ritualistic painting done on the walls called Pithora by several tribes like Rathwas, Bhilals, and Naykas, who live in the central Gujarat, ninety kilometers from Vadodara, in a village. called Tejgadh. In several other villages around Tejgadh and Chhota Udaipur taluka of Vadodara district, lives a large population of these tribes where we find Pithora paintings on three inner walls of the house.[ NFSC Public Programme, August 2001]
These paintings have significance in their lives and executing the Pithora paintings in their homes brings peace, prosperity and happiness. What is even more interesting is that there is never an attempt to imitate nature. A horse or a bull, which might be a vision of a God, impresses him with only one central quality. This central quality is worked upon and given a form. It might be crude but it is this crudity that adds to the beauty of this painting. Pithora paintings are more of a ritual than an art form. These rituals are performed either to thank God or for a wish or a boon to be granted
Correlative connotations can be found out in rather modern built forms too. The images on the door of the Assembly Building, Chandigarh, ensues different rendition of cosmological connotations found in Indian scriptures, religious images of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, etc., hence symbolizes India in its own way In the end, I would sum up that Symbols give concrete expression to socio-cultural phenomena.
The symbolic allusions are result of the prevailing socio-cultural conduct of a certain community. Sometime later the cosmological and philosophical interpretations were abstracted and represented in an ionic way.
The Conch Shell is said to be the most mot outstanding and original house in the island of Isal Mujeres. A private house designed by Octivio Ocampo. Surrounded by Carribbean Sea with 180 degree view of the sea from the windows. It is built using traditional foundation. Concrete and recycled materials are used in its fabrication.
The National Library of Belarus founded on 15 September 1922, is a copyright library of the Republic of Belarus. It houses the largest collection of Belarusian printed materials and the third largest collection of books in Russian behind the Russian State Library (Moscow) and the Russian National Library (St Petersburg).
Erwin Wurm, a renowned Austrian artist and Museum Moderner Kunst (MUMOK) combined to create some architectural buzz in 2006, and the result was the "House Attack" artistic installation on the external side of the building of MUMOK. The Installation was realized with the help of Strabag, Felbermayr and Knauf. MUMOK is the largest art museum in Austria with the collection of modern art from the 20th and 21st centuries. The museum has a collection of 7,000 modern and contemporary art works, the most expansive show of the artist's work to date.
The National Centre for the Performing Arts (NCPA) (simpli, and colloquially described as The Giant Egg , is an opera house in Beijing, People's Republic of China. The Centre, an ellipsoid dome oftitanium and glass surrounded by an artificial lake, seats 5,452 people in three halls and is almost 12,000 mÂ˛ in size. It was designed by French architect Paul Andreu. Construction started in December 2001 and the inaugural concert was held in December 2007.
The Nautilus house located near Mexico City is a unique shell shaped house designed by Mexican architectJavier Senosiain of Arquitectura Organica. The house design is very innovative, unusual and audacious. Javier Senosiain decided to bring the life aquatic into architecture. Inspired by the work of Gaudí and Frank Lloyd Wright, Javier Senosiain has brought to Mexico City another sparkling example of what he calls “Bio-Architecture” — the idea that buildings based on the natural principles of organic forms bring us back to local history, tradition and cultural roots, in turn creating harmony with nature.
Casa da Música (English: House of Music) is a major concert hall space in Porto, Portugal which houses the cultural institution of the same name with its three orchestras Orquestra Nacional do Porto, Orquestra Barroca and Remix Ensemble. It was designed by the Dutch architect Rem Koolhaas with Office for Metropolitan Architecture and Arup-AFA, and was built as part of Porto's project for European Culture Capital in 2001 but was only finished in the first half of 2005 and immediately became an icon in the city.
The Olympic Stadium (French: Stade Olympique de Montréal) is a multi-purpose stadium in the Hochelaga-Maisonneuve district of Montreal, Quebec, Canada built as the main venue for the 1976 Summer Olympics. The stadium is nicknamed "The Big O", a reference to both its name and to the doughnut-shape of the permanent component of the stadium's roof; "The Big Owe" name has also been used to reference the astronomical cost of the stadium and the 1976 Olympics as a whole.
Habitat 67, or simply Habitat, is a model community and housing complex in Montreal, Canada, designed by Israeli–Canadian architect Moshe Safdie. It was originally conceived as his master's thesis in architecture at McGill University and then built as a pavilion for Expo 67, the World's Fairheld from April to October 1967. It is located at 2600 Avenue Pierre-Dupuy on the Marc-Drouin Quay next to the Saint Lawrence River. Habitat 67 is widely considered an architectural landmark and one of the most recognizable and significant buildings in both Montreal and Canada.
ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION IN MODERN ERA
By Kiran Kumar Vathada
“The future is already here. It’s just not very evenly distributed yet”… -William Gibson
Architecture, an art, science and business. It has been described as a social art and also an artful science. Architecture must be of the highest quality of design. Architecture provides, in the words of Marcus Vitruvius, the great Roman architect and historian, “firmness, commodity and delight.”
Architecture provides a sense of place and support of all types of human activity.
The primary concern of architects is to desgine three dimensional space and form to accommodate related human activities. Like other education, architectural education conveys, conservers and transmits the values of the profession and society at large. Education involves the study and transformation of the constructed environment, from the scale of furniture to the scale of the city.
Ancient design education, started with practical training in the apprenticeship systems and then as knowledge of abstract Architecture helps the principles become more importman-made fit in harmony with ant to the design process offered the environment while promoting additional training in theory. health and well being, enriching A holistic university edlives aesthetically and spiritually, providing economic opportunities, ucation aims at addressing the a and creating a hlegacy that reflects person as a whole, developing the and symbolizes culture and tradi- personalities of students in different dimensions, making them tions know how to acquire knowledge Architectural education, as to communicate to be aware of his one of the distinctive branches of own values and those of the others education, requires the develop- as well. ment of creative capabilities. 37
A Complete and systematic theory of architecture must embrace all communications together as a network or cross-reference and institutionalize architecture as system of communications. (Patrick Schumacher, 2011)….’
“Multi-dimensional education is necessary for an architect” The objective of an archi
tectural education is to develop a synthetic thought process of critical thinking and creative problem solving and to accommodate the desire, attitude, behavior, practices, knowledge and understanding. Creative thinkers must address all aspects of the built environment in its cultural, social, and ethical context. Architecture and its education have always suffered from being the odd-one-out in disciplinary and university contexts.
Some see this as its strength and some as its shortcoming but there is always a shift with changing world.
“Education should be the teaching of values, not just Donald Norman describes teaching for jobs.”
the key issues in a recent article on the changes required for design education today.
In the early days of industrial design, the work was primarily focused upon physical products. Today, however, designers work on organizational structure and social problems, on interaction, service, and experience design. Many problems involve complex social and political issues. As a applied behavioral scientists. They are woefully undereducated for the task. Designers often fail to understand the complexity of the issues and the depth of knowledge already known. They claim that fresh eyes can produce novel solutions, but then they wonder why these solutions are seldom implemented, or if implemented, why they fail. Fresh eyes can indeed produce insightful results, but the eyes must also be educated and knowledgeable. Designers often lack the requisite understanding . Design schools do not train students about these complex issues, about the interlocking complexities of human and social behavior, about the behavioral sciences, technology, and business. There is little or no training in science, the scientific method, and experimental design.
With many architecture students graduating into the booming economy of modern India, architectural educators have to rethink the education value propositions, looking to enable aspiring young architects to define and even design the profession of tomorrow. Today, existing models of architectural education are in the process of adjustment to new cultural and technological conditions of the digital area. The situation can be seen as analogous to be illustration of Modernism as a pedagogical model.
You could argue that architectural education is pretty good the way it is. In fact, it is most likely the best that it has ever been. But it’s not good enough. Just as architects and designers need to deliver more value in the future, the education that supports and gives birth to the future of the profession needs to prove it relevance. Today, professional design practice involves advanced multidisciplinary knowledge that presupposes interdisciplinary collaboration and a fundamental change in design education.
This knowledge isn’t simply a higher level of professional education and practice. It is a qualitatively different form of professional practice. It is emerging in response to the demands of the information society and the knowledge econo In a world where the tra- my to which it gives rise. ditional roles of the architect & We already face the chaldesigner are becoming increasing- lenges of future design education. ly diverse, it is essential to make sure we’re providing the creative If, on the one hand these challenges industries with graduates who are are not evenly distributed, neither equipped to contribute to an evolv- are the skills or capacities that deing paradigm. The education of the sign schools need to meet them. contemporary architects/designers The design education we need torequires reassessment in light of day is increasingly similar to the the reality that design education is requirements of professional edua life-long journey that cannot be cation in engineering or medical. granted in a formal, five or seven ` Design education must years education (Bachelors or Mas- ters). foster such skills and knowl-
“Designers are not made in college, they are made in the workplace.”
By KIRAN KUMAR VATHADA DESIGN MANAGER L’Oreal Luxury Division Middle East. 38
TECHNIQUES By Ar.Gowtham
In some regions of the world, “Indian summer” is colloquially used to describe the hottest times of the year.
With summers becoming hotter and longer in many parts of the country beyond all recorded precedents and expectations, most of us are faced with an unenviable situation of overheated environs, whether at homes, work places or public buildings. This will only get worse with the depleting green cover coupled with erratic power supplies, especially in smaller towns and coastal areas. In some regions of the world, ‘Indian summer’ is colloquially used to describe the hottest times of the year. Thermal behavior of buildings is dependent on several factors like Seasons, Weather, Sun etc which are out of human control. During summer, buildings are exposed to high intensities of Solar Radiation, leading to in hospitable indoor environment. Whether we like it or not, summer leaves us at the mercy of refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment. But much before air-conditioning technology was developed, people kept cool using natural methods - breeze flowing through windows, water evaporating from springs and fountains as well as Thermal comfort in summer means more than keeping the indoor air temperature below 24° C. High temperatures, or high humidity or both can lead to excessive discomfort. Fortunately, the regions of high summer temperatures are usually arid where relative humidity is generally low. Other regions of fairly high humidity, like the coastal regions, are also among the hottest parts in summer.
There are three major sources of unwanted summer heat large amounts of stone and earthen structures absorbing the sun’s heat. These ideas were developed over thousands of years as integral part of building design. Today they are called “passive cooling.” Ironically, passive cooling is considered as an “alternative” to mechanical cooling that requires complicated refrigeration systems which in-turn consume huge amounts of energy and result in avoidable pollution . Passive cooling techniques, if suitably incorporated in a building during the design stages, can effectively reduce, and in some cases eliminate, mechanical air conditioning requirements especially in areas where cooling is a dominant problem.Thermal comfort in summer means more than keeping the indoor air temperature below 24° C. High temperatures, or high humidity or both can lead to excessive discomfort.
Studies indicate that for a typical stand-alone building in a climate where the temperatures averages 40° C on a typical May day, the approximate heat-gain from each of the sources mentioned above are 50%, 30% and 20% respectively.Even assuming that sunlight could be excluded from the interior in summer, these buildings would experience excess heat loads of 30% or above during the months. MayJune, compared to any other season of the year.Worse yet, these buildings would require 3 to 4 times capacity of air conditioning to handle peak heat gains and keep the indoors comfortable in the afternoon. There are four basic passive cooling strategies traditionally employed in many parts of the world.
These include, 1. Heat-Gain Control Techniques There are three major sourc- 2. Convective Cooling Techniques es of unwanted summer heat: 3. Radiative Cooling Techniques a. direct solar incidence on a build- & ing and through windows and oth- 4. Evaporative Cooling Techniques er glazing b. heat transfer through the build- ing structure and “ c. the internal heat produced by appliances, equipment, and occupants Of the three, the first is potentially the greatest problem but it is usually the easiest to control.
All these passive cooling strategies rely on daily changes in temperature and local relatively humidity. ” 40
All these shading methods work equally well with Trombe walls, water walls, greenhouses, and other passive solar-collector strategies.However, roof and the east and west walls require a different approach to reduce solar incidence. Since the sun is low in the horizon during sunrise and sunset, overhangs are not effective for solar mitigation in such situations and vertical shading could be the only way out.
HEAT GAIN CONTROL
Many of the principles and techniques of passive heating are adaptable to passive cooling requirements as well. Insulation and weather-stripping that prevent heat loss in the winter will also retard heat gain during summer. Inside any building, thermal mass such as masonry walls and floors, act as “heat sponges”, absorbing heat and slowing internal temperature rise on hot days. Suitably placed near a window, skylight, or vent, the same thermal mass can be exposed to cool night air to release the heat absorbed earlier in the day. For optimum summer cooling, a building’s surroundings should be designed in such a way to minimize sunlight striking external surfaces and to prevent surrounding areas from heat re-radiation and reflection. Cutting off undesirabledirect sun and thermal impact is achieved through intelligent use of vegetation like tall, well-grown path 41
Vegetation is perhaps the most effective way of keeping the trees that interrupt the sun’s direct intense morning and afternoon and low ground covers that prevent sun off the east and west walls and reflection as well as re-radiation. windows,but care must be taken to Further, it is common sense to also avoid blockage of nighttime summinimize Glazing on the roof and mer breezes that can be part of the the east and west walls where sun- cooling strategy. light is most intense. If vegetation is impracti Interestingly, intensity of cal, a combination of tinted or reheat from the rising-sun in the flecting glass and exterior shades east is equal to that of the setting or shade screens that roll down west sun. The reason why we feel over east and west windows can be the setting sun is harsher is due an efficient strategy. Additionally, to the added heat gain from the light-colored paints and materials earth’s re-radiation of heat that it on the roof and the walls are effechas gained through the day. Ver- tive in reflecting away most of the tical south facing windows with sunlight that makes it past your overhangs or shades may present shading, cooling will be necessary. fewer problems of solar heat gain. The next step in natural cooling is So a horizontal overhang or an aw- to take advantage of “convective” ning above a south or west window cooling methods - those which use could be an inexpensive and effec- the prevailing winds and natural, tive solution. A carefully weaved gravity-induced convection to ventrellis panel made from bamboo tilate a building at the appropriate / cane can also be a good idea to times of the day. dodge direct sun. Another simple and proven strategy is the use of treesthat shade the south face and probably the roof .
CONVECTIVE COOLING MODELS
has water features. Cool air intake vents are best located as low as possible on the north side. Further, the greater the height difference between the low and high vents, the faster the flow of natural convection and the more heat mitigation.There are two basic ways to enhance the convective cooling rate 1) Increase the volume of air escaping per minute, or 2) Bring in cooler air. To a point, increasing the vent area will increase the airflow rate by natural convection. Turbine vents at the roof top are one way to enhance airflow and improve the cooling rate. Even gentle breezes flowing up and over the roof create an upward suction that draws out warm interior air. Another convective cooling strategy is the drawing of outdoor air through tubes buried in the ground.
All the heat gain control methods discussed above should suffice to keep room temperatures comfortable in buildings situated in areas where summer temperatures are moderate to high. But there are many other regions, particularly the hot-dry areas, where additional cooling will be necessary. The next step in natural cooling is to take advantage of â€œconvectiveâ€? cooling methods - those which use the prevailing winds and natural, gravity-induced convection to ventilate a building at the appropriate times of the day.The oldest, straightforward convective method admits cool night air to drive out the warm air. If breezes are predominant, high vents or open windows away from prevailing breeze will let the hottest air, located near the ceiling, escape. The cooler night air sweeping in through low open vents or Made of materials that alwindows on the breeze side will replace this hot air and bring the low easy thermal transfer, these tubes are buried several feet deep much needed relief. to avoid heat gain from the warmer
daytime surface temperatures. In this system, warm outdoor air entering the tube gives up its heat to the cooler earth around the tube, and cools substantially before entering the building.
RADIATIVE COOLING METHODS Radiative features like an exterior water wall or a roof pond are also very effective summer cooling strategies .Roof pond systems are particularly effective in regions of low humidity and clear summer nights. The conditions exist in most of the southern Indian states, where the cooling demand is greatest. If conditions are less than ideal, augmented heat dissipation by evaporation can be integrated .For best cooling results, ponds can range from 6-12 inches deep, depending on location and local conditions, and should cover as much of the roof as possible.
To get the best cooling effect, openings opposite the breezy side should have substantially larger surface area than those on the breeze side of the building. If there are only light breezes at the location, natural convection can still be used to ventilate as long as the outdoor air is cooler than the indoor air. The coolest air around a building is usually found on the north side, especially if this area is well shaded by trees or shrubs and 42
E VA P O R A T I V E COOLING METHODS : When water evaporates it absorbs a large amount of heat from its surroundings. The most familiar example of this is the cooling effect of evaporating perspiration on the human skin. In arid, hot climates body temperature is partially controlled by the rapid evaporation of perspiration from the surface of the skin. In hot climates with high atmospheric moisture, the cooling effect is less because of the high moisture content of the surrounding air. In both situations, however, the evaporation rate increases as air movement is increased. Both of these principles can be applied to natural cooling of structures.Evaporative methods can be used to enhance the cooling rates in convective cooling systems. One way of doing this is to bring the outdoor air into a building through a moist filter or pad. The familiar ‘Water ( evaporative) Cooler’, precursor to the air conditioner, is a mechanical system which uses these principles with a motor to force air movement and distribution. Passive cooling strategies with earth tubes and/or cool towers use the same principles but utilize natural systems for air drivers and distribution. Cool towers utilize wet cooling pads, and the force of gravity. Heavier, cooled air “falls”, via gravity, into the building and its momentum floods the habitable 43
area. This cool tower action can be enhanced and distribution extended, by placing thermal chimney “drivers” which can pull the cooled air through the building with an increase in both air quantity and velocity. In some areas, there may be times of higher humidity, like in monsoon season. Here, while sensible heat continues to be mitigated by passive cooling techniques, the latent heat contained in the humid air is more difficult to dissipate, which renders evaporative cooling less effective. The integration of an air dehumidification system easily corrects this short term tricky condition.In the most
severe climates where nighttime air temperatures often remain above 35°C in summer,water sprays can be used to achieve maximum natural cooling. With all evaporative cooling methods, it is important to maximize airflow across the exposed water. Fresh air must be continually available to replace the humid air being built up near or over the water. Failing this, air will be quickly saturated with water vapor and the evaporation and cooling rates will decline abruptly.
In many areas of the south, periods of higher humidity renders mechanical evaporative cooling unsatisfactory even when optimized techniques are used. A solution to this is the two-stage evaporative cooling system, which has been proved to be an effective alternative to direct evaporative cooling or refrigerated air-conditioning. Even with direct, active evaporative cooler systems, provision of interior thermal mass combined with direct evaporative cooling is a combination that works effectively. As a rule of thumb, pre-cooling the air ten degrees will cause a three degree
decrease in the output temperatures of an evaporative air cooling system.
IN CONCLUSION : Passive cooling has been shown to be an effective alternative to refrigerated air-conditioning in many locations. The selection of the particular passive cooling techniques must be made carefully through analyzing the local climatic conditions. By integrating the systems described above during the design stage of a building, greater effciencies and attractive savings can be obtained.
Vs ARCHITECTURE By Ar. Naveen
Landscape architecture is a multi-disciplinary field. It is a comprehensive whole since it is based on the functioning of the society, conforming to the natural law and ecological principles. It connects and merges the built space with the outside surroundings, acts as a mediator between nature and humans. It provides the humans not only a comfortable environment but also mental pleasures. Landscape architecture when traced back to agricultural society was designed as gardens for the appreciation and entertainment of people. Industrial revolution separated people and natural landscape, which lead to change from appreciation to modern landscape theme of â€œsustainable human orientedâ€? design. Over the years it has evolved from being a complimentary aspect to an integral part of architectural design. With Architectural world embarking on sustainable green architecture to address the evolving global challenges landscape had taken a very significant role from the traditional approach of only providing visual and aesthetic appeal. The approach in design towards Energy efficiency, use of natural materials, reuse of water systems, reduced carbon footprint and impact has lead to a broader merger of architecture and landscape. Ever growing cities resulting in limited buildable land, tight environment and resources make it imperative that architecture and landscape overlap. This can be seen in the living walls where plants are grown vertically and also green roofs which are not only being used as rooftop gardens but are intent designed for outdoor activities, reduce solar heat gain, collection and reduction of storm water run-off. The difference between Landscape Architecture and Architecture is almost impossible to distinguish and is difficult to tell landscape and structure apart. These aspects have resulted in collaboration and in some cases reversal of roles. At micro level Landscape architecture adds value to any commercial development by taking into consideration the aesthetic, environmental and practical aspects. The collaboration of architecture and landscape at the planning stage results in profitability and the reduction in the lead time of a project. In the years to come, the role of a Landscape Architect will become critical in achieving sustainable and green construction practices for any urban developments. The future lies in Sustainable development and making developments with minimum carbon foot print. 45
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION In this contemporary world of Indian towns and cities , we hardly find any dwelling unit devoid of interior designing. The construction process is rather incomplete without some effort on the interior works. And most of these were executed without the help of a professional designer/architect, thanks to advancement in communication technology and internet. Many a time, it is their carpenter or friend or some enthusiast who happens to be the clientâ€™s guide how to go about his interior work. What happens in not more than recreation of their recent past experiences and convincing the client irrespective of what that particular house presents them to be solved. The end result would be a unsatisfied client or a poor house owner who is made to stretch beyond his spending capabilities. This type of approach indefinitely postpones the projects leading to loss of faith in the system of interior designing. Therefore, it is necessary for the designer to know and understand various materials used in interiors, their properties and the process by which the material can be successfully applied to the situation in question. It is also important to understand the chain of events or processes that had to take place so as to plan in advance in terms of material procurement and budgeting. A regular coordination between workers of different trades has to be maintained to avoid unnecessary breakage and rework; thus saving man hours, time and money. Lack of visualization also causes unwanted results forcing additional expenditure. Interior designing always advocates function and user friendliness ahead of aesthetics and visual richness. Spatial organization and scale of furniture that one selects plays an important role in achieving functional interiors. Usage of colours with colour themes that follow scientific reasons appeal more quickly to the senses of inmates adding harmony to interior spaces. Considering the clientâ€™s anthropometrics adds comfort and meaning to the furniture designed rather than adhering to certain standards which may not suit a specific user group. Concepts of natural ventilation and airy design helps to cut down the power bills and achieve greener and healthier environment rather than gloomy indoor spaces. And for all these good things to happen, it is worth spending a little on a professional than wasting a fortune on experimentation and unwanted results. It would not be exaggerating to say that you pay less than what you save on professional consultation. Having said that, it is the customer satisfaction that matters at the end of the day Ar S.Suresh Khanna B.Arch. M Plan.(Env) Chief Architect & Interior Designer, SPACE Craft. 46
EITHER/OR THROUGH EYES OF AN ARCHITECT The past, the present, the future. Taken together, they tell a story – of where we’ve been, yes, but, more importantly, where we’re going. Continual advances in building technology, shifting demographics and increasing levels of global communications are all having an impact on architectural ideology. Rapid urbanization and technological advances have resulted in more and more standardization of built environments, depriving human habitats of cultural and regional identity, in which the trend of standardization is becoming an international malaise as the same building methods, materials, and styles are applied.
for the spectaclz in the form of stadiums and sporting venues shortly become little more than ghostly reminders of once glorious days. But there are underlying urban and social consequences that often go unnoticed.
As our world becomes increasingly urbanized, in this recession-slow economy a new crisis arises that of the contemporary city and the practitioner as well (of scale and speed) — from its growing superficiality to its deadening sterility without flinching.
By Ar. Praveen Asst Prof . @ SVCA
Third It’s also timely to ask if awards tell us much about good architecture is or if On one hand “It has what they’re just about appearances. become extremely clear that we have to “negotiate” with nature.” We must not be “overly confident” Fourth “How architecwith our modern systems and un- ture’s civic responsibility has been derstand their limitations in order eroded in “an age of greed”. The to create a more disaster resilient idea is that we have a responsibilisociety, not only within our built ty to society. That gives us a role as environment but within the social, architects not just to the client but political and economical systems also to the passer-by and society as that govern our societies. a whole. On other hand “Fake Prosperity” is suffusing cities chosen to host mega-events that benefit tremendously from the global attention, tourism, infrastructure and economy. Civic pride aroused from such an endeavour is fleeting and the monuments built 47
Fifth “Bigness is no lon ger a part of the urban tissue. It exists; at most it coexists. Its subtext is fuck context.” Rem Koolhaas. The new urban space is just a plane on which either big objects or lite tissues coexists according to the rules of politics, of money, of
infrastructure, but no longer, ever, according to the rules of the eye or perception. Anything can be anywhere. The result of this is often an extrusion of the site, as high as allowed, identical floor slabs, wrapped in a tinted glass façade, an object in space.
Sixth In 2013 alone some
1 million people have poured out of Syria to escape a civil conflict that has been raging for over two years. The total number of Syrian refugees is well over 2 million, an unprecedented number and a disturbing reality that has put the host countries under immense infrastructural strain.
settlement design is not a typology so off-the-wall that it requires a new way of thinking – it simply calls for the aggregation of established knowledge. Indeed, if there’s anyone qualified to consider the longterm when rebuilding in post-disaster situations, it’s architects. And if there’s anyone with a moral obligation to provide safe, affordable, and sustainable shelter, it’s most definitely architects.
‘I am coming from where you are going,’ and it’s not worth going there’. That’s the one cent of advice of world architecture would pass on to its Indian counterpart. Our conception of what Architecture is too far away from the fundamentals. Architects are creating buildings that are pretentious, standing apart from the others. Insular within their own compound walls, they are indifferent to the neighbours adjoining or the society adjunct. Variety has been misinterpreted as nonconformity or as looking different.
Today. Thousands of thousands are leaving the schools only to enter a professional “minefield.” Classroom based theories and drawing board based designs have further alienated the architect from the subtleties of culture and the realities of society.
‘I will leave this city more beautiful than I entered it’. An oath that, all professionals are required to make.” What India requires on an emergency mode is the Rural Studio philosophy that suggests that everyone, both rich and poor, deserves the benefit of good design. Collective conformity has To fulfill this ethic, the Studios been sacrificed in the wake of in- should be fine-tuned towards more dividual identity or so to say the community-oriented projects. personal egos. The resultant architecture naturally therefore fails to evoke any sense of harmony or unity in the streetscape. Islanded within their own compounds such architecture collectively fail to give city an image or an identity imperative to generate in local citizens the sense of belonging and pride for the place. Equally true is of our development controls they remain prescriptive rather than performance related.
“ PHASE IN FLUX, BEING OPTIMISTIC IN THE INEVITABLE.
SUSTAINABILITY, BUILDING MATERIALS, CRITERIA FOR ASSESSING THEM. By Raja Rajeswari Reddy Construction sector plays a vital role in economic development in every country, but owing to its vast size and effect, construction sector negatively impacts the environment in many ways in the form of CO2 emissions, high use of non renewable sources, energy consumption, land and water degradation and various pollutions (Baris, D. & Erik, J.,(2000)). So, there is an increasing concern in the international agendas to improve construction practices to minimize its detrimental effects on the environment (Cole, R.J., 1999). The concern for environment, which needs be practised along with the advancement and well being, appeared in the form of “sustainability.” What is sustainability? Sustainability is referred in many contrasting ways by authors in professional journals. While very commonly accepted version observed, defined by the World Commission on Environment and Development is that sustainability is “the development that meets the present needs without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs” [WCED, (1987), Hull, Z., (2007)].
Fig.1 Elements of sustainable development, Source: (Munasinghe,1993)
(Munasinghe, 1993) explains 3 dimensions on 3 vertices of a triangle, conveying that sustainability involves balancing all three dimensions. This means that, if a society is committed to sustainable living, then human requirements can be sufficiently met only if ecologically secure and healthy.
(Munasinghe, 1993) explains 3 dimensions on 3 vertices of a triangle, conveying that sustainability Sustainability in terms of construction is “that involves balancing all three dimensions. This means which brings about the required performance with that, if a society is committed to sustainable living, least unfavourable environment impact at the same then human requirements can be sufficiently met only time encourages social, economical and cultural im- if ecologically secure and healthy environment are provided by giving equal importance to social and culprovement at a local, regional and global level” tural requirements as well. So a sustainable material is To reduce the complexity felt, and to under- which, is: stand sustainability in a simple way, it is generally clas- Environmentally Sustainable sified into three main categories or three pillars, and Inputs: Use of local raw material act as guidelines for sustainable development. Diminishes the use of harmful products Environmental Minimal use of resources and energy Economic Use of renewable sources Social/political 49
Operational: • Low energy consumption • Provide healthy environment (indoor and outdoor) Outputs: • Negligible generation of waste • Recyclable, reusable or repairable Economically Sustainable • Low cost • Durable • Profitable to promoters • Improve employment opportunities Socially Sustainable • Indoor comfort • Provide local employment • Preserve the cultural/ heritage As a part of action of Kyoto protocol agreement, UK government has been promoting the use of sustainable buildings through mandatory Building Regulations that “all new buildings need to have an Energy Performance Certificate, and that all new homes must be zero carbon by 2016.” While in India, the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), as a part of Environmental (Protection) Act 1986, has implemented Environmental Clearance certificate mandatory for large projects (i.e. more than 20,000 sq m built up area) such as airports, ports, thermal power plants, etc. Another initiative towards environmental protection was Energy Conservation Act 2001, an Energy Conservation Building Code has been designed and promoted, though its use is still voluntary and in a testing stage. Indian government has been promoting the use of BEE certified building materials to promote energy saving and green building concepts through GRIHA, however no strict regulations are put forward on the usage of sustainable materials in particular. There are also no hard and fast energy consumption limitations on residential buildings.
This way, sustainability considerations differ from place to place and with government policies and regulation which are abide to be followed by the public. In India focus in on “green buildings” concepts (related to energy and water saving and better indoor comfort level) than “sustainability of material”. Assessing sustainability, differ with the climatic conditions, geography and requirements differ from place to place. In BREEM (UK), 11-14% is allotted to materials, as UK is bound to reducing carbon emissions and using sustainable materials is felt important. While for ESTIDAMA, Abu Dubai rating system, materials are given only 5%, water 30% as water saving is the main priority, due to water shortage. For example rammed earth is a sustainable building technique (Easton 2007). But, in a place where timber is available in abundance and has a tradition of timber constructions and ground soils are clayey, opting rammed earth in such a place might not be a sustainable option. When assessing sustainability, which building materials are of most significant? Berge, B., (2000), represents building materials in three categories as structural, climatic and surface materials. While, Asif et al., classified materials in six categories as cement, concrete, metal, wood, stone and plastics. Whereas, Calkins characterized materials according to three sustainability criteria such as materials which minimize environmental impacts, materials which reduce energy consumption, materials which pose no health risks and materials from companies which run on sustainable development policies. In an article, materials are categorized under sustainable non metallic building materials (Paul, J., et al., 2010) and in another as low carbon and low embodied energy materials(Luisa F., et al., 2012). Though categorized under different headings, significant materials used across the world are almost similar, some of them are steel, cement, concretes, earth, stone, glass, plastics and waste materials (by products from industries) such as fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag, plant based materials such as wood, hemp, bamboo and animal based materials such as wool. Few of them mentioned below: 50
Manmade Materials Steel and cement are extensively used in modern constructions. These manmade materials associate with high energy and resource consumption during their production process and also generate huge amount wastes (Berge, B., 2000). Even though concrete is considered highly durable (Meyer, C., 2009), it does decompose and poses another threat to environment by adding huge quantities of demolition wastes. To reduce these negative impacts supplementary cementitious materials (SCM), industry by products such as fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag could be used. These materials not only provide improved durability (Paul, J., 2010), but also help in minimising waste fills. While, during the production process of steel for 1ton of iron ore, 440-600 tons of coal is used, huge amounts of GHGâ€™s gases CO2, sulphur dioxide and fluorine are released, and 5 to 6 tons of waste material are produced (Berge, B., 2000). Whereas, recycling of steel saves up to 32% of carbon emissions and up to 80% energy in production process (Berge, B., 2000).
Rammed earth and straw bale also act as sustainable options. But these construction techniques have height limitations (not more than 2 stories can be building using them),along with water seepage and erosion problems. Use of manufacturing wastes such as fly ash and granulated blast furnace slag if available can be used to stabilize them and improve their structural ability. In what format could the criteria be most readily applied? Some of the criteria which can be readily applied to assess a materialâ€™s sustainability are embodied energy and life cycle assessment.
Embodied energy (EE) and Embodied carbon (EC) of a material could be helpful in readily assessing its sustainability. Embodied energy is the energy consumed right from the process of extraction of raw material, for processing, manufacturing, transportation to the site and during construction. EC is the amount of green house gas emitted all through these process. The EE and EC of various materials are available on Natural materials the internet. They are calculated according to the local information and made available for public through Stone, earth, timber are most commonly used various research institutions in different countries. EE natural materials in construction which are time honand EC a material differ with the location of the site oured. It is said that use of organic materials in conand constantly change with the market prices from struction may significantly reduce the overall footprint time to time so cannot be standardised globally. of production and operation of buildings (Goverse, T. et al., 2001). Materials travel many places through hands of product distributors from national to local level after Natural materials have low impact in terms of manufacturing and before reaching the site. All this energy consumption, carbon emissions and can get counts as embodied energy but it becomes impossible back to earth without causing any harm, but there to calculate all the transport emissions, etc. EE does is danger that if over used there is possibility of denot give information on how and what kind resources pleting natural resources and also negatively affecting were used in manufacturing process, the negative imnatural ecosystem severely. Use of toxic chemicals in pacts caused by them on the environment and wasttreating and harmful glues in binding the plywood ages. As mentioned before, an environmentally sushas pernicious effect on the earth during demolition tainable material need to fulfil certain aspects, if these if done with negligence. Some methods such as burnt aspects (inputs, operational and output) are assessed earth bricks relate to high energy consumption and for their energy consumption, carbon emissions and emissions, these can be replaced by use of compressed waste, it helps in totally analysing a material for its earth block methods, which can lower energy usage to sustainability. vast extent. 51
Life cycle assessment
detailed records for credible whole study (Hammond, G.P., & Jones, C., 2008). Though this method nearly gives the whole life assessment of a material, it needs to be assessed by experts who are trained, they are available through Building Assessment Organisations. So an easy format which is handy for individuals to handle may increase its use.
Life cycle assessment can be readily available in the form of eco labelling. It provides the consum er with clear simple compact evidence of a productâ€™s environmental quality. But its use is highly controversial in many countries. As for instance material may be eco label for its sustainability in China and if it is transported and marketed in India, how sustainable Also known as â€œcradle to cradleâ€? assessment, would the product be is questionable? With all the exit is the assessment of a building materials whole life, tra transportation can it be considered a sustainable starting from the extraction of raw material for its pro- option? This way eco labels are sometimes misguidduction, manufacturing process involved, transporta- ing. Another drawback in eco-labelling systems is tion, distribution to the construction site, construc- they focus on characteristics like recycled content and tion process, installation process, till it is dismantled disposal-phase concerns than environmental impacts or demolished, disposed till recycled and reused, for (OECD, 1998). its environmental impact (inputs and outputs) such as: resource consumption, non renewable resources Methods mentioned above may help us, in depletion, CO2 emissions, global warming, and air, comparing sustainability of different building material land and water pollutions. options available for a certain building. But assessing materials exactly for their sustainability with respect LCA one of the most commonly used meth- to a context or individually could be an impossible ods in Building Certificate Schemes like BREEM (UK) task, due to the vast number of aspects that need to and LEED (US) and CASBEE. But these building be considered and complexities involved in assessing schemes are not user friendly. These schemes are not them. available for public and need participation of company or licensed assessors (Maria., S.,2006). Assessing a material individually by LCA is a time consuming and expensive process. Sometimes extraction of approximate data for calculation of carbon emission Review and energy consumption is difficult as many materi As the article is about sustainability of material manufacturing companies do not share such data. als and their assessment, first the term sustainability They either view those data as confidential or do not is defined and explained with the help of 3 main prinhave detailed records for credible whole study (Hamciples(environmental, economic and social), secondmond, G.P., & Jones, C., 2008). Though this method ly, different aspects (ethics, political and geographinearly gives the whole life assessment of a material, it cal considerations) which play an important role are needs to be assessed by experts who are trained, they spoken, thirdly, significant building materials and difare available through Building Assessment Organisaferent criteria for selecting building materials are distions. So an easy format which is handy for individuals cussed. to handle may increase its use. 52
Vishakapatnam- Prior to the arrival of the British
By Mr. Paul â€œVisakhapatnam was a small fishing village. With the arrival of British, the village grew into a cityâ€?. These are the statements frequently made in the recent writings in print media about Visakhapatnam. It is believed to be a fact by many.It is a little known fact that Visakhapatnam has a history of more than a thousand years. Legends are aplenty claiming that there was a mention about Visakhapatnam in some epic or some person in epics visited this place in course of his wonderings. This normally is the case for almost any place in India. Leaving the legends, if we go by the recorded history, the earliest mention of the name of Visakhapatnam is found in a stone inscription in Bhimeswara Temple in Draksharamam, located in the present East Godavary District. In history we find some places at different geographical locations having the same name. In some cases it created confusion among the historians. Fortunately for Visakhapatnam, 53
there is no other place with the same name.So historians have no doubt to identify that Visakhapatnam mentioned in the inscription with Our City. The inscription states that in the year Saka 990 (corresponding to 1068 CE) a merchant by name Papaiah son of Mediasetty from Visakhapatnam visited the temple and offered a lamp stand for lighting a perpetual lamp before the deity. For purpose of supplying Ghee as oil for the lamp he presented 50 cows also.This inscription brings out certain facts. It confirms that Visakhapatnam was in existence by 1068 CE We do not know for how many years it was in existence before that time. We can, however, confidently say that our city has a history of more than a thousand years. It also gives out the facts that the merchant who took journey
to that place in those days where transport facilities and road conditions makes the travel very difficult and very expensive. Further to that the gift he made to the presiding deity brings out the fact that the merchant was a wealthy person. Obviously he must have had a very lucrative trade. This brings out the fact that the city had a flourishing trade. This confirms that our city was a vibrant trading centre with rich merchants some thousand years back. A few more stone inscriptions throw some more light about Our City. As per the published records of Inscriptions in South India, three stone inscriptions were found in the Our City. The first was of the year 1090 in Telugu script, the second was of the year 1199 also in Telugu script and the third of the year 1250 in Tamil script.
. From all these three inscrip tions it appears that “Visakhapa tnam” the name of our city was changed as “Kulottunga Cholapattana”. It appears that Eastern Ganga king Anantavarma Cholaganga Deva who ruled (1170-1150) this part of the area has changed the name of Visakhapatnam in honour of his Grandfather Kulottunga-I, as Kulottunga Cholapattana. King Anantavarma was ruling from Kalinganagara as a vassal to his maternal uncle Kulottunga-I who was ruling from Kanchipuram during that time. His rule brought some Tamil influence over these areas. That is how we find many Tamil inscriptions in Simhachalam. The very fact that the King Ananthavarma considering Visakhapatnam as the worthy place, in his territory, to be named after his ruler shows how important the Our City was at that time. It is evident that city was called as “Kulottunga Cholapattna” by the rulers for about 200 years. Later this name was not found in any of the inscriptions. It may perhaps; the people of the city did not accept the change of name. So it got back its name when the power of Eastern Ganga kings ceased over these areas. Apart from the stone inscriptions of rulers or private individuals, the Tomb stones also provide some historic facts. One such information is available on a Tomb stone on a grave on Dargha Hill, in the old city on Dargha Hill, in the old city.
As per the Epigraphic records published by the Govt. of India the writing on the stone reads as it was a grave of a person by name Ali who died on his way and that his body was brought to this holy mosque and buried in the year 1257 CE. From this it is evident that the Mosque was there on the Dargha Hill prior to 1257. From this it is evident that the Mosque was there on the Dargha Hill prior to 1257. It also clearly indicates that Islam has come to this city much before to Muslim rule came over these parts of country
All through, our City had its importance, only as a trading port, it never seems to have gained any political importance. No ruler, either Hindu or Muslim ever set his foot in our city. Before the East India Company opened their trading establishment in Visakhapatnam, British private merchants (other than East India co. Merchants) and also the Dutch had trade through Visakhapatnam port. Records show that their merchants’ ships were calling at Visakhapatnam. British did not choose a fishing village to There is a legend that when establish their trading post. In fact, the Sepoys of Aurangzeb arrived it was the amount of trade that was these parts to conquer the Gol- being carried out by Dutch and conda kingdom they saw an old British Private merchants at ViMosque on the Dargha hill in a di- sakhapatnam that attracted them lapidated state and they renovated to open their factory in 1682. it and named it as Alamgir Mosque in the honour of their Monarch. The above facts of history Sometime during the Muslim rule may appear strange to the present the nearby villages namely Yarada generation, as no built heritage of and Devada were given as Mokha- the past is left in the city. Even the sa villages to a Muslim family for built heritage of British period also proper maintenance of Dargha is being erased in the name of deand Mosque. There is no informa- velopment. Let us all strive to protion about when the Dargha and tect, at least, what is left for future the Masque were constructed.Syed generations. Ishak Madina on whose grave the Dargha was built is believed to have come from Madina in Arabia. As of now these two structures namely the Dargha and Mosque are oldest structures that are standing and still in use. In the medieval period this part of our area particularly north of Godavary was ruled by many kings, of different dynasties, very frequently changing from one to another.
LIGHTING DESIGN By Sai Krishna
Architectural lighting design is a combination of art and science which applies to illuminating the interior and outdoor spaces of a built environment. It is specialization within architecture which primarily focuses on illumination of buildings. Lighting design is a specialization which inter-relates architecture, interiors, landscape and electrical engineering.
Lighting being a key component of building design supports and enhances the architectural and interior elements of a building.
A lighting designer therefore helps achieve the perfect balance between aesthetics and functionality, between efficiency and innovation. He plays with light and shadow to create a perfect balance in terms of visual perception along with creating focus to keys architectural elements. As a profession it is more “Design” than “Lighting”. However, it requires a detailed understanding of visual perception along with knowledge on the behav- ior of light when it interacts with different architectural Design Development – An approved conor interior materials. cept is further developed into drawings by incorporating the intent. Supporting this would be a control Dwelling further into the profession one should strat egy on how to control the lighting in each space note that a lighting designer’s works involves providing and basic light fixtures information for coordination highly creative and technical inputs to a project. He with the project team. works in collaboration with Architect, Interior Design- Documentation – Further, the developed er and Landscape architect at various stages of a project and provides lighting solutions for the same. To give design is documented as a complete tender package a brief introduction to a lighting designer’s scope we which includes drawings, light fixture specifi cation, can simple say it involves four phases of work similar control schedules and BOQ’s to architecture or other design professions. Below is an outline of the scope of works, Construction - When required a lighting designer attends site meetings with the others memConcept design – As the first stage into bers of the design team and construction team. He a project, lighting design intent is presented using carries out final review of the lighting installation on sketching or Photoshop renderings over architectur- site to compare with design intent. Finally, directs al/interior/landscape 3D’s to explain the design. Many the aiming focusing of the installed lighting scheme designers show the lighting effect in a space at various where applicable on site and ensures that it is as per the design intent. times of the day which are called light scenes. 56
Over the last two decades, lighting design as a separate, specialist field of expertise has grown substantially and is now well established throughout the world. There are many colleges and universities providing courses at under graduate or post graduate level and its practicing professionals come from various backgrounds, including fine arts, design and engineering. To find more inspiration, below is a list of few well known Architectural lighting design firms, Magazines and Lighting Artists around the world for
Spiers & Major Lighting design, UK lluminate Lighting design, Singapore Point of View Lighting design, Sydney Into Lighting, UK Studio Lumen Lighting, USA Mindseye, UK Lighting Design International, UK
Lighting Design Magazines: Mondo arc Architectural Lighting Enlighter Architectural SSL Luminous
Lighting Artists: James Turrell Ingo Maurer Dan Flavin olafur eliasson
Daylit Spaces By Ramana Koti
beyond energy â€œ Far savings, daylighting
in buildings benefits the bottom line with productivity and health gains.
The entrance lobby of the Lewis and Clark State Office Building in Jefferson City, Mo., allows abundant north light for employees and visitors alike. Studies show that employees in daylit buildings like this one are more productive than employees working in artificially lit environments.
Productive Places Our reverence for the sun as the source of life is as old as human civilization. Even today, many practitioners of yoga still practice the Sun Salutation (Surya Namaskara in Sanskrit), an act of physical exercise and meditation performed at sunrise. In ancient Hindu literature, the Sun Salutation is recognized as a means to physical and mental well-being.
— architectural, building energy consumption, cost, lighting energy savings, and load management — they most closely associated with daylighting. The architectural category included “health and productivity concerns and the interplay of natural light and building form.”
Based on the responses of the 120 profession Most people associate daylight with positive als who participated, the architectural and building feelings. The news media regularly report scientific energy-consumption-benefit categories were the most studies that acknowledge the link between the day and relevant. This trend is further supported by the fact night cycle and the human circadian rhythms. These that architects and engineering consultants are rhythms generally promote activity during the day turning to building information modeling (BIM) that and sleep during the night. integrates daylighting design and energy performance to lay the foundation for a good design during the ear Daylighting as a natural, controlled and pas- ly stages of a project. sive strategy of illuminating building interiors predates the profession of building design. In the recent past, however, daylighting has become an inseparable part of integrated design, and different building profesionals value daylighting for different reasons. Early daylighting studies focused exclusively on the energy savings. For U.S. office buildings until In a recent survey on the role of daylighting in the late 1970s, daylighting was generally believed to sutainable design by National Research Council Can- result in a 15 percent to 20 percent savings in energy ada and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, re- consumption over a non-daylit building. With increassearchers asked designers and engineers which of five ingly efficient light fixtures, daylighting no longer has benefit categories as much impact on energy savings. However, during the past 15 years, studies have identified significant psychological and physiological benefits of daylighting that translate into tangible benefits for building occupants and owners.
While productivity benefits are hard to quantify, there are some encouraging studies that make a strong case for daylighting. Romm and Browning’s studies in the 1990s documented eight buildings with various energy-efficiency measures, some of which involved incorporating daylighting through roof skyA recent survey indicates that designers and engineers lights, sloped ceiling for indirect lighting, lightshelves consider architectural and building energy-consump- and atria, among other strategies. Companies occupytion issues to be the most relevant benefits of daylight- ing daylit buildings reported an increase in productivity of 5 percent to 15 percent and a reduction in ing in sustainable design. 60
The authors concluded that the increased productivity resulting from improved daylighting measures would pay for those measures in 1 to 4.5 years. In another study done in 1998, Professor Harvey Bryan, a daylighting expert at Arizona State University,demonstrated a case in which a 0.5 percent increase in productivity could pay for the building’s energy costs, while a 6.6 percent increase could pay for the entire building!
It argues that thecharacter of architecture in a region emerges from the way designers work with building shapes and the arrangement of windows to deal with light and climate control. It advocates the use of controlled daylight that, for example, causes the exhibition volume in an art gallery to change with time, season and humidity, as opposed to the exclusive use of artificial light.
When BNIM Architects began work on the design of the Lewis and Clark State Office Building for the Missouri Department of Natural Resources in Jefferson City, the expression of the design evolved from similar objectives. From conception, optimal depth of the available floorspace, orientation, solar control and access to daylighting were integral to the sustainable strategies under consideration. BNIM conducted solar studies on site, did solar test ing on scale models and performed daylight-illuminance analysis using the computer simulation program called Lumen Micro to determine the configuration of external shades and internal light shelves. The resulting design integrates external shades on the south façade into the Not surprisingly, glare affected performance precast structure of the building. The design is visually adversely. The study also found a uniformly positive pleasing and maximizes the use of daylighting. and statistically significant correlation between the presence of daylighting and student test scores in In an online survey conducted after they three school districts. The “daylighting effect” was at- moved in, the building occupants were asked to chartributed to quantitative and qualitative aspects such as acterize their overall level of comfort. Categories in improved visibility, better distribution of light, better the survey included overall building, lighting, acouscolor rendition, absence of flicker and highlights on tics, air quality and temperature. Eighty percent of the three-dimensional objects. respondents indicated they were comfortable or neutral with overall lighting in the building, while 89 percent of the respondents were comfortable or neutral with the amount of daylight in the building. However, 43 percent noted discomfort caused by glare, especial Creating visually stimulating spaces through ly from the low winter sun. The building owners and the interplay of natural light and building form has BNIM are conducting further tests to determine how historically been an important objective in architec- to mitigate the glare. tural design. An architectural design for Phoenix’s climate, for example, would be inherently different from a design for Chicago’s climate. The concept of “critical regionalism,” a response to “placelessness” in architecture, offers an interesting insight into the relationship Daylight Factor: The ratio of the internal illuminance between space and light.(Placenessness refers to archi- at a point in a building to the unshaded, external hortecture that seems to have no relationship to its loca- izontal illuminance under a CIE overcast sky. (CIE is tion — it could be anywhere.) the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, 61 Recent research by the Heschong Mahone Group for the California Energy Commission also indicates that daylighting boosts productivity in a variety of settings. In one test of mental function and attention for office and call center workers, a 20 foot-candle increase in daylight levels resulted in a 13 percent performance improvement. Call center workers with the best views processed calls 7 percent to 13 percent faster than those with no views. Office workers with the best possible view performed 10 percent to 25 percent better on mental function and memory recall tests than workers with no views.
which has developed a series of mathematical mod- The LEED Reference Guide, in the credit EQ els of ideal luminous distributions under different sky 8.1, illustrates various daylighting strategies and cauconditions.) tions against unwanted glare. The guide suggests ways in which designers can avoid glare. Despite its usefulDaylight Autonomy: For a sensor point, it is the per- ness, the intent of the LEED credit is to quantitativecentage of occupied times of the year when the min- ly assess daylight availability at an instant in the year, imum illuminance requirement at the sensor is met for a building in which daylighting design intent may by daylight alone. Useful Daylight Illuminances: Aims or may not be based on robust scientific principles. to determine when daylight levels are useful for the Because such a framework for assessing a building’s occupant, in terms of being neither too dark nor too performance is often interpreted by design teams as a bright (between 100 lux and 2000 lux). design guide, the metrics used by it assume critical imContinuous Daylight Autonomy: Similar to Daylight portance. The Lewis and Clark building achieved both Autonomy except partial credit is attributed to time the EQ credits pertaining to daylight and views. In the steps when daylight illuminance lies below the mini- credit EQ 8.1, the metric for demonstrating daylight mum illuminance le el. availability, the building achieved a 2 percent daylight Daylight Saturation Percentage: The daylight satura- factor in 75 percent of the regularly occupied spaces, tion percentage for 40 foot-candles (DSP40 ) to 400 which exceeds the LEED requirements. The building foot-candles (DSP400) is the percent of hours and the was awarded a LEED Platinum certification last year, percent of classroom floor area between 8 a.m. and 3 making it only one of 21 facilities that have earned p.m., Monday through Friday, from Aug. 15 through USGBC’s highest level of recognition for new conJune 15 when daylight provides at least 40 foot-can- struction to date. dles or more of illumination at a work plane located 30 inches (76 centimeters) above the floor. Achieving a DSP of 400 is an indicator of over-lighting and glare, Daylight factor, one of the metrics used by and is therefore penalized. LEED, is the most widely used metric for daylighting-performance analysis and prediction. Daylight factor originated as a minimum legal lighting requirement and is based on the worst-case scenario — a uniformly overcast sky. It did away with the compli Daylighting has always been an important part cations of having to deal with dynamically changing of the U.S. Green Building Council’s (USGBC’s) Lead- sky conditions. Daylight-factor calculation for a space ership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) does not take orientation into consideration and disrating system. Up to 2 points may be earned for regards shading and glare-control strategies, which daylighting and views. The USGBC has made some are not concerns in an overcast-sky condition. The changes to the metrics to qualify for points. While premise was that if the design is good for the worstLEED version 2.1 and 2.2 relied on the same daylight case scenario, it must be good for all other conditions. factor calcution to demonstrate compliance for the Daylight factors for different design conditions, such credit Indoor Environmental Quality (EQ) 8.1, the as geometry and surface properties, vary and can help term “daylight factor” was renamed “glazing factor” in narrowing down the best design solution. The calin 2.2. A couple of additional options are available in culation is simple, intuitive and easy to communicate version 2.2, including demonstrating the availability among design teams. Not all experts agree that dayof 25 foot-ca dles of daylight in 75 percent of regularly light factor is the best way to measure daylighting peroccupied areas at the workplane level (30 inches, or 76 formance. Christoph Reinhart, John Mardaljevic and centimeters, above the floor) at noon on the equinox Zack Rogers, daylighting specialists at the National using computer simulation or demonstration of the Research Council Canada, De Montfort University same through measurements on site (on a 10-foot, or and Architectural Energy Corp., respectively, argue 3-meter, grid). that the daylight factor 62
Other Metrics and Tools
LEED and Daylighting
The design of the Lewis and Clark State Office Building for the Missouri Department of Natural Resources in Jefferson City integrates
Two views of the south faรงade of the Lewis and Clark State Office Building, which uses the precast structure of the building to control solar gain and allow daylight penetration.
approach does not result in realistic performance expectations. They suggest metrics that account for varying climate conditions throughout the year. Such metrics also consider the occupancy profiles of a building. Annual daylight prediction through computer simulation has become more accurate, down to the time step of an hour or less. Higher accuracy of such daylight prediction has ceased to mean longer simulation duration. Computer simulation also accommodates complex but critical concepts such as user behavior in controlling blinds. The ability to predict daylight accurately on an hourly basis with stress on climate-based design has given rise to metrics such as daylight autonomy, useful daylight illuminances and continuous daylight autonomy (see â€œDaylighting Glossary,â€? facing page). Californiaâ€™s Collaborative for High Performance Schools, which offers guidance for designing high-performance schools, suggests another metric called daylight saturation percentage. A designer can optimize a particular design based on these metrics or compare different design alternatives to arrive at the most suitable one. Radiance, a UNIX-based daylighting- and lighting-simulationsoftware, is another highly regarded tool that facilitates accurate modeling. The use of climate-based daylighting metrics is evident in one case study by Matt Franks, a lighting consultant with Arup Lighting in New York. The case study illustrates the use of Radiance-based DAYSIM software to optimize the predicted illuminance levels on a typical art hanging point in a museum gallery on an annual hourly basis. One other tool worthy of note is The Green Guide for Health Care, a joint project of the Center for Maximum Potential Building Systems and Health Care Without Harm. This self-certifying sustainable design toolkit for the healthcare sector draws upon research and resources in the sector to maximize the benefits of increased daylighting, connectivity with the outside world and lighting design that reinforces circadian rhythms for caregivers, patients and families. It deals with operations both in existing facilities and in new construction and is structured to work alongside the LEED rating system .As designers and engineers continue to develop creative designs, reliable metrics and user-friendly computer simulation tools, good daylighting design has become more
accessible than ever. The shift toward increased use of clean, sustainable, inexhaustible solar energy indicates our willingness to come full circle and tap a resource that has been there all along.
THE SUSTAINABLE VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE CLIMATE RESPONSIVE ARCHITECTURE
In the context of the worldwide c ncern for global warming and a need for reduced carbon emissions, increased energy efficiency, reduced waste and need for alternative sources of energy it is essential to review passive design strategies that were used in the traditional buildings of India and assess their potential in modern design. Traditional passive techniques provide a high degree of comfort for a longer part of the day while potentially minimizing energy use. The combination of the age-old methods used in vernacular architecture with the modern techniques would result in an ideal technique to meet the cooling needs of today with the environmental issue in mind. In India, vernacular architecture has evolved organically from generations of craftsmanship of local 65
By Ar.Srinivas Girijala
people. Due to the diverse geographical and climate conditions, India experiences a vast regional variation in traditional architecture. Modern passive design technology has learned to build upon the climate responsive methodology that is found in traditional vernacular typology and regional directions in architectural form. Active strategies have been incorporated into Sustainable developments as a means to reduce dependence on non-renewable energy sources. Considering climate as parameter for building design As said by Dr. Vyas the future of human lives is in living and working with the nature rather than against it. It would be therefore useful to consider climate as a parameter of design and to inculcate passive
cooling methods in the construction and operation stages of every aspect of the building. The key strategy for passive cooling is twofold and is composed of: (i) reducing overall cooling load of the building; and (ii) by supplying additional cooling. Traditional Vernacular dwellings, which perfectly show the principle of Climate oriented Architecture, have become very popular study projects by more and more researchers. An overview of vernacular architecture helps to understand the climatic or technological limitations of the past in order to formulate design guidelines
Research in Vernacular Architecture
Studying traditional techniques to understand the sustainable strategies used in vernacular dwellings should make a valuable contribution to the field. Extending this subject further to assess how the application of traditional passive techniques to new and existing buildings could improve their performance, cut their energy consumption and running costs and adapt them to climate change.
In this regard, this study has to focus on vernacular passive-cooling strategies (VPCSs) used in residential vernacular buildings. The overall aim of the research has to be evaluated, the extent to which VPCSs can be successfully incorporated into existing modern buildings to improve their energy performance, carbon reduction, cultural acceptance and thermal comfort of occupants.
Pictures showing how the villag ers are construction the spaces
Vernacular Architecture is based on knowledge of traditional practices and techniques, it is usually self built (perhaps with help from family, clan or builders in the tribe) and reveals a high regard for craftsmanship and quality.Vernacular houses are born out of local building materials and technologies and architecture that is climate responsive and a reflection of the customs and lifestyles of a community. Vernacular buildings make good models for sustainable design lessons and are used as laboratories by the architects during the module. They are comprehensive due to their often simple forms and resourceful use of materials and technology, meaning that lessons can be easily demonstrated and then adopted by architects in their design work.
Passive solar design
A passive solar design involves the use of natural processes for heating or cooling to achieve balanced interior conditions. The flow of energy in passive design is by natural means: radiation, conduction, or convection without using any electrical device. To prevent heat from entering into the building or to remove once it has entered is the underlying principle for accomplishing cooling in passive cooling concepts . This depends on two conditions: the availability of a heat sink which is at a lower temperature than indoor air, and the promotion of heat transfer towards the sink. 1)Environmental heat sinks are: Outdoor air (heat transfer mainly by convection through openings) 2) Water (heat transfer by evaporation inside and / or outside the building envelope) 3) The (night) sky (heat transfer by long wave radiation through the roof and/or other surface adjacent to a building 4) Ground (heat transfer by conduction through the building envelope) To achieve satisfactory level of thermal comfort in the modern day scenario, it is important to make people feel as comfortable as when they were using air conditioning. Various strategies have been developed to cater to passive cooling and all are inspired from tradi tional methods only . 67
Some of the important ones are: 1)Night ventilation 2)Night sky radiation 3)Ground Cooling 4)Evaporation The domestic sector of India has an untapped potential of using modern as well as vernacular cooling trategies in its at both micro as well as macro level. Various prototype models can be created to be tested for workability and efficiency. The inclusion of passive design techniques into the wider context does not restrict the architects from evolving diverse design solutions. As site conditions and programming requirements for each project are distinct, each strategy which addresses a particular thermal comfort problem will respond differently to the needs of each project, and can be translated into diverse design solutions and architectural expressions. The specific nature of the character of the “type” is consistent in its response to what may be concluded are the 5 characteristics which define the new Sustainable Vernacular type: ecologically sensitive development of the site according to bioclimatic considerations the use of “green” materials, including renewable, recycled, recyclable; the further use of local or indigenous materials the use of Passive Design principles to attain energy efficiency in heating and cooling the building. the use of Active Solar and Wind systems to complete the energy requirements of the facility a high level of occupant involvement in caring for the building and ensuring the efficient functioning of its passive and site systems .
GREEN SKY SCRAPPERS
World Trade Center Towers (Manama, Bahrain) The World Trade Center Towers in Bahrain are an exquisite architectural and technological wonder designed by South African architect Shaun Killa. Featuring three behemoth 96-foot wide wind turbine blades between the towers, over 1100 megawatts of electricity will be generated per year for the structure. The triangular design of the towers themselves is suppose to optimize the airflow between the towers, thus really giving the turbines an opportunity to generate the most power. This skyscraper was the first one built with wind turbines integrated into the design of the building itself.
The Pearl River Tower (Guangzhou, China) Designed by American architect Gordon Gill, this nearly 1000-foot tall structure is designed with a few zealous environmental goals in mind. Not only is the structure planned to be the world’s first “zero-energy skyscraper”, but it’s also slated to generate excess electricity that it would then insert back into local power grids. The Pearl River Tower will have internal tunnels built into two of the building’s 71 stories. The structure itself is going to be shaped like one giant wing that will serve to funnel wind into the tunnels. Along with utilizing wind power, the tower will also 68
THE EARTH FOR A ROOF “Because it’s familiar, a thing remains unknown – Hegel”
As students of architecture, we never learnt much about vernacular or alternative architectural forms, themain emphasis being on contemporary architecture; here’s an attempt to strike a balance between the two.
The Wardha Roof:
Earth architecture caught my interest when I heard about the ‘Wardha Roof ’, developed by the Center of Science for Villages (CSV). They devise economic & innovative housing strategies/designs. The Wardha roof is made using a series of Wardha tumblers (ordinary terracotta tumblers without the base), socketted into each other, to form an arch.The tumblers in each arch run in opposite directions to minimize the gaps between the rows of arches. Such a series of arches form the Wardha roof (basically a vault).This roof rests on a ring beam of concrete.
By eliminating timber from the design of the roof, CSV has considerably reduced the the cost of construction of a Wardha roof. Apart from alleviating the fears of theft and annual maintenance, the Wardha roof also boasts of good insulation & waterproofing properties. The shape of a catenary is incorporated in the Wardha roof to offer maximum stability, as opposed to a semi-circular arch (their initial trial & failure).This design developed by the CSV, uses very little concrete and allows involvement of local craftsmen, thus taking sustainability to its ultimate meaning – self-sufficiency.
Wardha Tumbler 69
Alternating rows of tumblers
Mortar is worked into the valleys & voids
The Nubian Vault:
The Nubian vault, only vaulted my interest even further. Apart from being pleasing to the eye, they require lesser material to enclose a given volume, and provide better climatic control due to their smaller surface area and high thermal mass; all this without formwork (except for the arch). The earliest Nubian vaults were made using adobes of the size15cm x 25cm x 6cm, thereby reducing the possibility of bricks sliding during construction. The degree of inclination was kept around 65o to 70o. The vaults either leaned against walls or arches. It generally has the shape of the catenary, to accommodate compressive stresses and achieve maximum stability. The inner edge of the blocks touch each other (and transmit the force through arch action) with no mortar between them. Only in the upper/exterior portion, mortar is applied and a stone chip inserted to initiate arch action even before the mortar has dried.
Nubian Vault under construction
The Nubian dome is constructed by turning blocks on edge and by inserting wedges at regular intervals As this method only allows for a spherical dome with its disadvantages of tensile forces and its requirement of a ring beam to balance them, the BRI or the Building Research Institute, Germany, has made optimized domes which can also incorporate openings in the domes or vaults. They use an eccentric guide, a modification of the rotating one
The roof is plastered & cladded with China
Initiation and Termination
Construction of a Nubian Dome 70
The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is a museum of modern and contemporary art, designed by Canadian-American architect Frank Gehry, and located inBilbao, Basque Country, Spain. The museum was inaugurated on 18 October 1997 by King Juan Carlos I of Spain. It is built alongside the Nervion River, which runs through the city of Bilbao to the Cantabrian Sea. The Guggenheim is one of several museums belonging to the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation. The museum features permanent and visiting exhibits of works by Spanish and international artists. The Kansas City Public Library is a public system headquartered in the Central Library in Kansas City, Missouri.The system operates its Central Branch and neighborhood branches located in Kansas City, Independence, and Sugar Creek. Founded in 1873, it is the oldest and third largest public library system in the metropolitan Kansas City area.
Low impact woodland house (Wales, UK) A private house designed by Simon Dale.The house was built with maximum regard for the environment and by reciprocation gives us a unique opportunity to live close to nature. The Niterói Contemporary Art Museum (Museu de Arte Contemporânea de Niterói — MAC) is situated in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and is one of the city’s main landmarks. It was completed in 1996. Designed by Oscar Niemeyer with the assistance of structural engineer Bruno Contarini, who had worked with Niemeyer on earlier projects, the MAC-Niterói is 16 meters high; its cupola has a diameter of 50 metres with three floors. The museum projects itself over Boa Viagem (“Bon Voyage,” “Good Journey”), the 817 square metres (8,790 sq ft) reflecting pool that surrounds the cylindrical base “like a flower,” in the words of Niemeyer
The Atomium is an iconic building in Brussels originally constructed for Expo '58, the 1958 Brussels World's Fair. Designed by the engineer André Waterkeyn and architects André and Jean Polak, it stands 102 m (335 ft) tall. Its nine 18 m (59 ft) diameter stainless steel clad spheres are connected so that the whole forms the shape of a unit cell of an iron crystal magnified 165 billion times.
The Cathedral of Brasília (Catedral Metropolitana Nossa Senhora Aparecida- "Metropolitan Cathedral of Our Lady Aparecida" ) is the Roman Catholic cathedralserving Brasília, Brazil, and serves as the seat of the Archdiocese of Brasília. It was designed by Oscar Niemeyer, and was completed and dedicated on May 31, 1970. The cathedral is a hyperboloid structure constructed from 16 concrete columns, weighing 90 tons each.
Casa Milà , is a building designed by the Catalanarchitect Antoni Gaudí and built during the years 1906–1912. It is located at 92, Passeig de Gràcia (passeig is Catalan for promenade) in the Eixample district ofBarcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
The Lotus Temple, located in New Delhi, India, is a Bahá'í House of Worship completed in 1986. Notable for its flowerlike shape, it serves as the Mother Temple of the Indian subcontinent and has become a prominent attraction in the city. The Lotus Temple has won numerous architectural awards and been featured in hundreds of newspaper and magazine articlesAll Bahá'í Houses of Worship, including the Lotus Temple, share certain architectural elements, some of which are specified by Bahá'í scripture. `Abdu'l-Bahá, the son of the founder of the religion, stipulated that an essential architectural character of a House of Worship is a nine-sided circular shape.
AMELIORATING A DISABLED FACE -SRAVANI ANDHAVARAPU
The basic philosophy involves in accepting the fact that disabled people are immobilized to an extent. They are forced to be dependent on certain works. Dependence has its own value, the doctrine that architects, who design for disabled people must concentrate on the needs of independent disables people has never been challenged. Barrier Free Environment is one which enables people with disabilities to move about safely and freely and use the facilities. The goal of the barrier free design is to provide an environment that supports the independent functioning of individuals so that they can participate without any assistance, in daily activities such as procurement of goods and services, community living, employment along with leisure. Barrier free design standards should satisfy people hampered in mobility or functioning (as compared with a non- disabled person). The design of a building should be accurate in the choice of hardware and equipment along with the arrangement of outside space. For the independence, convenience and safety of people who are physically challenged ie: Wheelchair users, People with limited walking abilities, sightless, partially sighted, hearing impaired. Disabled are tending to use public buildings very much less than the former,usually only with an escort, because of the architectural barriers that include high kerbs, poor car-parking facilities, unsuitable lavatories, and the belief that special facilities for the disabled should not be sign posted, as this draws attention to the disability. As an architect our responsibility is to integrate disable people into society in order for them to take in active part in society and lead a normal life. To be active, a disabled person should be able to commute between home, work, and other destinations.The technical considerations and design provisions or measures to be taken into account in the planning of the built-up environment. 73
This includes issues related like open spaces and recreational areas, local roads and pathways, the immediate vicinity of buildings, building entrances and the interiors of buildings which are to be considered at different levels like urban design considerations, architectural design considerations, building types, implementation checklists, appendices. Urban design considerations deals with design requirements of open spaces, recreational areas and pedestrian routes which includes obstructions, signage, street furniture, pathways, curb ramps, pedestrian crossings and parking where in architectural design considerations deals with the design requirements of vertical and horizontal access in both new and existing constructions which includes ramps, elevators, platform lifts, stairs, railing and handrails, entrances, vestibules, doors, corridors, restrooms.Building types to which the recommendations may be applied for are residential buildings other than domestic buildings, commercial buildings, industrial buildings, health care institutions, educational establishments, community and religious centres agricultural and transport facilities. architects are ultimately the users of this standard to ensure the specific environment created by them are suitable for all categories of people.
DIGITAL ARCHITECTURE -K.SUDHEER 5/5 B.Arch
Digital fabrication in the architectural design It is not surprising that architects became interested in these systemic models of nature due to related new process :
methods of organisation and form-generation provid In recent decades, new methodologies have ed by computers and appropriate software .As a result, emerged in architectural design that exploit the com- over the past decade, systemic notions and concepts puter as a design tool.This has generated a varied set from science have diffused into architectural discourse of digital skills and a new type of architectural knowl- and are currently being explored for design purposes . edge. However, up to now, a theoretical framework is The computer itself as the main bearer of this missing that would allow for a comprehensive peda- gogical agenda for the teaching of digital design in ar- “intellectual revolution”, however, is not part of the ongoing discourse on the digital in architecture. It is chitecture. overlooked constantly; the machine and its function In 1963, Ivan Sutherland’s Sketchpad program ality is the blind spot of change. Computers, howevdemonstrated that computerscould be used for draft- er, are actively shaping the way we as users approach ing and modelling . By the mid-1990s, architectural design questions. It was Merleau-Ponty who pointed practice without graphics software had become un- out that we as humans have to see our bodies not only imaginable, and today, digital design technologies as the physical context or milieu of cognitive mechahave been adopted almost universally as the predom- nisms, but also as a living, experiential structure that inant means of production in architectural practice. is both biological and phenomenological . Human unFurthermore, digital technologies have enabled new derstanding of the world, therefore, depends in large methods of design, which has led to a re-examination part on the interaction of the body with its environof current design theories and educational concepts . ment. Every tool mediates this interaction because of That is, architecture is taking part in an “intellectual its specific usage, thereby influencing the perception revolution that is happening all around us, but few of the user and his way of thinking .The paradigmatpeople are remarking on it. Computational thinking is ic changes in many scientific disciplines demonstrate influencing research in nearly all disciplines, both in that this is true in particular for the computer despite the sciences and the humanities. . . . It is changing the theseemingly unspecific neutrality of the machine that enables its versatile application. way we think.” A good example of such reshaping of discipline-immanent thinking by means of computation is the paradigmatic shift in sciences like physics or biology caused by the introduction of the computer as the primary tool for simulating and modelling natural processes . Since the 1950s, this has resulted in a successive modification or even replacement of reductionism as the predominant paradigm of research. That is, the mechanistic understanding of nature and the continuous top-down reduction of the whole into parts has been exchanged from patterns of local interaction to the overall global arrangement of the parts as an emergent bottom-up property of the overall system .
Foster + partners have teamed up with the european space agency to 3D print structures on the moon using local materials.
UNIVERSAL DESIGN UNIVERSAL DESIGN
An abstract of a seminar by Dr.GauraRaheja, IIT ROORKE, Sashank 2/5 b.arch.
niversal Design is the creation of products and environs meant to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialization benefetting people of all ages and abilities.
Below are few principles of Universal design,
True Universal Design is invisible and we barely notice it. If you’ve ever been through an automatic door, you’ve experienced a version of Universal Design. A ramp is just as welcome to someone with a baby stroller as it is to someone in a wheelchair. In addition to those whose mobility is limited, the design is intuitive to those who cannot read or hear or those who read or speak a foreign language.
Principle 2 - Flexibility in Use. The design accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities.
When building or remodelling, it’s more cost effective to add many Universal Design features during the planning stage. 75
Principle 1 - Equitable Use. The design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities.
Principle 3 - Simple and Intuitive Use. Use of the design is easy to understand, regardless of the user’s experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level.
Principle 4 - Perceptible Information. The design communicates necessary information effectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the user’s sensory abilities.
What’s the point of building a million dollar space and have stairs in the entrance without any sort of ramp?
Principle 5 - Tolerance for Error The design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions. Principle 6 - Low Physical Effort The design can be used efficiently and comfortably and with a minimum of fatigue.
Principle 7 - Size and Space for Approach Use Appropriate size and space is provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless of user’s body size, posture, or mobility.100 million+ people are disabled out of which 30 million people are profoundly disabled and annually 0.1 million people are added to this category.
The heights of counters, switches, handles etc. should be 900mm average. from the floor.
Don’t they deserve a smooth and regular life? Transportation, Information, Communication, Technology, Assistive & Mobility Aid and Support staff for the disabled are some of the areas to look into.One can provide adequate contrast in spaces and adequate lighting for the visually disabled, like say, contrasting the nosing on the stair case.Ramps give more access. Tactile plates can be laid as a means of direction for the blind.The heights of counters, switches, handles etc. should be 900mm average from the floor. The new Technology can be used to its fullest potential; the future will not bear more equipment and more intelligent features, but will have products that make life easier. I conclude by saying that by following the principles of universal design, one can fulfil the element of ‘accessibility’ in their design. Adding a ramp, brail plate, a tile or a contrasting sign board won’t affect a healthy person, but in fact will help a disabled person. What’s our loss in it? “Almost anything you do will be insignificant, but it is very important that you DO. 76
SCRAP INTO TREASURE
Construction happens to be among the top three polluting industries of our era, because concrete, cement, glass, aluminium composite panels (ACP) and ceramic tiles —which have become the ‘material’ language of architecture today, consume huge amounts of raw material, generate pollution and require huge amounts of energy to make and maintain. So, does it make sense to persist with these materials.
Every year, millions of tons of materials are being exploited from the earth’s crust, and processed into consumer and capital goods. After decades to centuries, most of these materials are “lost”. With the exception of some pieces of art or religious relics, they are no longer engaged in the consumption process.
hy suffer when you have an alternative ? from this thought the idea of utilizing the scrap has been generated Scrap consists of recyclable materials left over from product manufacturing and consumption, such as parts of vehicles, building supplies, and surplus materials. Unlike waste, scrap can have significant monetary value. Scrap includes Where are they? Recycling metal cans, glass bottles, discarded is only an intermediate solution for tyres, broken tiles and mirrors, cd, such materials. number plates, wood etc. In construction, discarded tyres, glass bottles, waste CD’s, number What iff we use this recycle materi- plates, broken tiles, etc. can be used al in construction ?? as alternatives.Several technologies Recycling is a process to change established for tire utilization were materials (waste) into new prod- reviewed in order to determine the ucts to prevent waste of poten- best use of discarded tires. Based tially useful materials, reduce the on the information collected, it consumption of fresh raw mate- was concluded that the use of disrials, reduce energy usage, reduce carded tires in construction of air pollution and water pollution houses ,pavements, erosion control .Recyclable materials include many structures, reefs, impact absorbing kinds of glass, paper, metal, plastic, products, etc. were viable alternatextiles, and electronics. tives to dumping of discarded tires 77
Beer bottles can make excellent building materials as they are a plentiful resource, keep their color over time, provide great indoor lighting and are generally easy to clean. The bottles are combined with a binding material such as cement, adobe or stucco for stability. Buddhist Monks in Thailand collected more than 1 million beer bottles and built the recently completed Wat Pa Maha Chedi Kaew temple, definitely the most elaborate glass bottle effort to date. Fifty years ago, Alfred Heineken designed the Heineken World Bottle (wobo), which he called “a brick that holds beer.” The bottles interlocking design was to encourage its use as a building block after consumption. Unfortunately, only a few thousand were made. The collection of bottles began in 1984 and now, 25 years later,
a complex of 20 buildings that make up the temple is complete. The monks even used the beer bottle caps to create mosaics of Buddha around the temple. Love them or hate them ,interiors made of scrap â€“ metal cans, glass bottles, broken tiles and mirrors, cd, number plates, wood ,rusty rods, damaged ducts, greasy gears, even redundant rags can be a fun, inexpensive way to enliven and create a piece of art which lends itself to use in landscapes and interiors-an industrial chic language for contemporary spaces and so much more. Hub caps, mirrors, broken tiles, leftover bits of plywood can all be part of your canvas. The challenge of using mundane items and discarded scraps-everyday nuts and bolts and elevate them to being, say a surrealistic rooster would indeed awaken your imagination. Old doors can be used as book shelves, tyres can be used in the place of wooden planks in swings, and Broken tiles can be used to create collages on walls. We can use old vases and bulbs for growing small plants. Pipes can be used as a storage unit. wood scrap can be used for interiors and for furniture design. Old skate boards can be used to make benches. Next time when you have a coke, do not throw the tin away. we can create shade with tins. Since the tins are hollow, it doesnâ€™t allow the heat to penetrate through the tins there by acting as an insulating material . 78
Archie’s friendz Talk
B.Tech Cemical Andhra University
You know how it feels when you are on a roller coaster ride that is the world’s tallest, largest and craziest? Exciting and breath taking!! Isn’t it? Yes! That is the feeling I get when I’m with my archies friends. They are such a typical bunch of people whose presence never gets me bored off. I will be so happy and gay when they are around.
I should say, Archies are really insane, weird yet totally unique from other engineers. If you look at them from far they might appear as Chaos but they are always united as a batch, I find them vivacious and enthusiastic and love the way they are, whatever it is ,the way they enjoy and party like it is the end of the world...!!
Extremely supportive, the smart ones of the campus. Used to regret for not being Archi... made me to feel so... you the laziest.…. That last hours shows your working capacity …I think Smart work is the word that suits you people the best…Because you do your work very smartly in a single day .I thank all of u for being in my life and gave me many best moments to remember . Love you guyz till my blood is Blue…
B.Tech Gitam University
B.Tech Chaitanya Engineering College
B.Tech Instrumental Andhra University
di- friendly that they mingle verging attitudes in up with everyone so easily. I every class, but coming to am a live example for it. Archies everyone’s mindThey go for parties, outset is unique in exhibings, long drives tour
iting nuttiness, challenging the other, talented with
as topping, but always united. Bitter at quarrels, but never miss a moment to show their
affection. I like the way they handle people, especially friends...
ist places and enjoy the
fullest. But when it comes to studies they show the best in them. My experience is cherish able. The best part is the ease with which they one of the most
Chemical Engineering A.U.C.E
I still wonder and can’t predict anything how you people deal with works/ creations which you come out with. When rest of the world is sleeping, you people work! When rest of the world is hanging around , u people stick busy with some schedule!at the first goits hard to get you’ll with your unknown stuff. Finally realized that you people Neverstop exploring into all creativity around you.
make me one among them
Namasthe Towers Say Namaste to the Namaste tower!
By Amuktha Meher 5/5 b.arch.
Designed by the Atkins design studio, work is currently underway on this 300m-62 storied mixed use tower that will encompass a hotel, office and retail space. The location is Ambika mills, Mumbai. The developer of the project is unknown.
The Building Skin The tower has been designed to cater for large scale Indian weddings. The occasion of a Mehndi ceremony (where the hands and feet of the bride and groom are decorated with henna) is often one of the most important pre-wedding rituals in India.
It is proposed that the large scale canopies over the drop-off points area support an array of solar thermal collectors. Given the available surface area and annual sunlight conditions these have the potential to provide 12% of the energy required to heat the hot water for the hotel.
The tower is made up of two separate wings (or hands) which together form the architectural expression of â€œNamasteâ€?. The space between the wings forms the corridor spaces. At either end of the corridor space a pair of open atria will offer hotel guests dramatic framed views out over the city.
Internal Atrium Gardens
These atria also serve to bring natural light deep into the plan. At the plant floor levels these atria are broken with internal gardens that serve to bring greenery into the corridor and atrium spaces. It was a central design aim to ensure that the circulation areas of the hotel, (including corridors) are just as impressive as the rooms themselves.
The geometry of the podium is designed to integrate fully with the design of the tower. Thus it is a highly symmetrical form that responds to the wing like canopies above the drop off. Containing mostly retail, the facade of the podium is activated with water features and fountains that cascade down to street level.
At the summit of the building a generous quadruple height atrium space encloses a Sky Restaurant and Bar which will provide a unique vantage point for patrons to gain panoramic views out over the city.
BOMBAY CINEMA LOVE - Samitha 5/5 b.arch. The architecture of Mumbai blends Gothic, Victorian, Art Deco, Indo-Saracenic and contemporary architectural styles. Many buildings, structures and historical monuments remain from the colonial era. Mumbai, after Miami, has the second largest number of Art Deco buildings in the world. The Deco period began in 1910 when Art Nouveau slid out of fashion. Art deco’s linear symmetry was a distinct departure from the flowing asymmetrical organic curves of its predecessor style art nouveau. Art Deco is an eclectic style and designers drew inspiration from many sources, Artifacts from Ancient Egypt and Greece, Meso-America, Africa, Japan and China that had all been influential. Cubism, Orphism, Futurism and Constructivism provided an abstract, geometric language that was quickly assimilated into the Deco style and the high styles of European tradition continued to provide inspiration. Art Deco had a unique impact in America, especially in Manhattan. 83
Skyscrapers, such as the Chrysler Building in New York, became icons of the new style, while jazz became the music of the city. The popularity of Hollywood films did much to promote Art Deco to an international audience worldwide.Art Deco emerged in India in the 1930s, and Bombay served as the crucible for its birth. Interestingly, while its appearance paralleled the waves of nationalism and the aspirations of swarajya or self-rule, the style was really a spontaneous burst of exuberant westernization before Independence. And while Modernism was embraced later by independent India, Art Deco differed in that it was focused on styling and more aristocratic in form and patronage. In many ways, the opulence of ‘princely India’ that Art Deco perpetuated was an interesting contrast to the parallel sensibility introduced by Gandhi- the austere and the elegant that attempted to woke the spiritual. Art Deco arrived in India, literally, on the shores of Bombay spurred by the great reclamations
and frantic building activity that were taking place in the city in the 1930s. This inten sification of urban development was also facilitated by the use of the newly introduced construction material Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) which signaled the dawn of the modern era in Bombay. Art Deco is one of Mumbai’s least noticed architectural styles, though Mumbai and its suburbs possibly have the largest number of Art Deco buildings in the world. Art Deco in India (and especially in Mumbai) evolved into a unique style that came to be called Deco-Saracenic. Essentially, it was a combination of the Islamic and the Hindu architectural styles. The main features of the Indo Saracenic Style were the construction of domes, arches, spires, stained glasses and minarets. The interiors have Victorian influences while the exterior was Indian. Deco details touch every architectural aspect – lamps, flooring, wood panelling, lifts, railings and grills, muntins, chajjias or weather shades, plinth copings and mould
ings, cornices, verandahs and balconies, bronze and stainless steel fittings, brackets, etched glass, ornamental sculptures that extended to names carved out in giant letters, facades that are very airy and built in stepped back style, etc. Mumbai’s Art Deco stands out not only because it uses the easy blend of Deco Saracenic but also because architects have used a variety of materials to express design freely. For instance, many buildings have been constructed entirely out of reinforced cement concrete but have a facing of Malad stone. Bharat Tiles, India’s oldest tile manufacturers, also played an integral part in the shaping of Art Deco interiors. A unique combination of factors led to the popular adaptation of the style in Bombay. Tourismand travel had made rapid strides in the period between the two world wars, resulting in a continuing stream of visitors to Bombay. Many touring European ballet, opera, theatrical, musical and cabaret troupes were presented at the new theatres and Hotels- and especially The Taj Mahal Hotel- and brought a touch of glamour and new forms of
entertainment to the city. The upper classes and the business community of entrepreneurs and managers happily imbibed contemporary trends in western culture to create a lifestyle that symbolized gaiety and colour and encompassed new household. gadgets, western cuisine, dress, ballroom dancing, jazz, cabarets, horse-racing and the cinema. horse-racing and the cinema The acceptance of new and alien delineations and configurations of living space in the new ‘flat’ or apartment system was an evolving phenomenon of the time. Thus, Indians who had been unaccustomed to the specific delineation of spaces or to the idea of dining at tables in special rooms, entertaining in living rooms, sleeping in bedrooms with attached bathrooms or cooking in kitchens located in close proximity to the living area, ery quickly adapted to these new forms of living arrangements. Bombay became a trendsetter and took a national lead in social change. The social and cultural ambience in Bombay was thus suitably conduc
tive to the introduction of Art Deco interiors and architecture very quickly adapted to these new forms of living arrangements. Bombay became a trendsetter and took a national lead in social change. The social and cultural ambience in Bombay was thus suitably conductive to the introduction of Art Deco interiors and architecture Around the same time, rulers of the Indian states began to visit Bombay at regular intervals for shopping and sports, en route to foreign lands and most importantly, for informal meetings of the Chamber of Princes, the of-
Many maharajas and nawabs began building mansions and apartment blocks in the Art Deco style, or buying flats in the city, in preference to renting villas or living in hotels. This created the appropriate patronage for the introduction of the new style. In addition, several Bombay architects including those who had graduated from foreign schools of architecture were returning to India and emulating contemporary European and American styles in their own de signers in pre-war Bombaymany of whom had sought refuge in the city from Nazi oppressionalso gave tremendous thrust to the movement. The Art Deco style is extremely popular amongst various Cinema halls that sprung up in the early to mid-20th Century including Metro Cinema, Eros Cinema, Liberty Cinema and even Regal Cinema. By 1933, the city had more than 60 cinemas, and nearly 300 by 1939. These theatres were the trailblazers of the Art Deco movementThe most vibrant and glamorous new lifestyle that had enveloped the city.The cinemas offered an escape to a world few Indians could afford and movie-goers experienced uniquely modern perceptions as they were introduced to the lives socially and culturally removed from their own. Like in other places in the world, this experience fired the imagination of the city! On 3 September 1937, the Western India Theatres Limited inaugurated the remodeled and renovated interiors of the New Empire theatre in what was the Hornby 85
Eros Cinema is a typical art deco building, designed by architect Sohrabji Bhedwar. The foundation of Eros Cinema was laid in 1935. The cinema opened in 1938 and construction of this building on the then newly reclaimed Back Bay plot housing shops and other businesses, apart from the cinema, took about two and a half years to complete. Partially faced with red Agra sandstone, this building is painted cream. The two wings of this Art Deco building meet up in a central block. The foyer is in white and black marble with touches of gold. Marble staircases with chromium handrails lead up to the upper floor. The murals are in muted colours depicting Indian architectures. The Metro Adlabs Cinema, located on Mahatma Gandhi Road, at Dhobitalao Junction is also a good example of the Art Deco style of architecture that appeared in the 1930s in the city. The Metro Cinema opened on 8 June 1938 and was designed by noted American theatre architect Thomas W. Lamb. It was built for Metro Goldwyn Mayer and seating was provided for 1,491 people in orchestra and balcony levels. The auditorium reopened in 2006 and was sub-divided into six large luxury screens. The cinema features mainly Bollywood and Hollywood films.
Though over the last 6 decades, there has been a lot of pressure between the conservationists and development authorities over the demolition/conversion/remodeling of the Art Deco structures in the city which include residences, mansions, Hotels etc., theatres are still in place. The love of cinema in Bombay, or to say in India, has held the theatres, though few had been remodeled to multiplexes, to be in place and running. And as they say, IT HAPPENS ONLY IN INDIA!
“LIGHT- A STRUCTURAL ELEMENT” IN SIMMONS HALL
Completed in 2002, the Simmons Hall at MIT is an undergraduate residence envisioned with the concept of “porosity.” The “sponge” concept transforms the building through a series of programmatic and bio-technical functions. Large, dynamic openings are the lungs, bringing natural light down and moving air up. An 18” wall depth shades out the summer sun while allowing the low angled winter sun to help heat the building.
Sponge painted plans generating horizontal porosity:
Architect: Steven Holl Location: Cambridge, Massachusetts Local Architect: Perry Dean Rogers & Partners Project Year: 1999-2002 POROSITY AS A CONCEPT
LIGHT ACTING AS A STRUCTURAL ELEMENT IN SIMMONS HALL
Based on the haptic sensibility in form and space making, Steven Holl concentrates on light as an architectural element, or a structuring material. He experiments with the ever-changing qualities of natural light and their spatial effects. It can be stated that Holl uses light poetically. In his buildings, natural light is transmitted into interior spaces, usually not directly, but through uniquely designed architectural elements, in order to control and structure light reflections. His use of light creates plastic and artistic effects. In Hollâ€™s experimentation of its phenomenal qualities, light becomes a space-defining factor through which a sense of spatial depth is brought into presence.
Crooked House is a work of detective fiction by Agatha Christie first published in the US by Dodd, Mead and Company in March 1949 and in the UK by the Collins Crime Club on 23 May of the same year. The US edition retailed at $2.50 and the UK edition at eight shillings and sixpence (8/6).
Mind h0use is one of Antonì Gaudi’ masterpiece. It is situated in the Parc Güell on the hill of el Carmel (Barcellona, Catalonia, Spain) . The park was idea of Count Eusebi Güell ,and the park took his name of he.the project forecast the building of 60 hauses and a park, but only two houses Antonì Gaudi built. It is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site and it was built in the years 1900 to 1914. In this project Gaudì created a original work of art that reproduce the natural forms for example the colonnade have the forms of tree.
The mighty Incan Empire of South America flourished between 1200 and 1535 AD. They developed drainage systems and canals to expand their crops, and built stone cities atop steep mountains such as Machu Picchu (above) without ever inventing the wheel. Despite their vast achievements, the Incan Empire with its 40,000 manned army was no match for 180 Spanish conquistadors armed with advanced weapons and smallpox.
This amazing stone house, that looks like Wilma and Fred's Flintstones house, is located in Nas Montanhas de Fafe
Another Egyptian wonder, the Sphinx of Giza has the body of a lion and the head of a Pharaoh, believed by most to be that of king Khafre. It was carved from soft limestone, and has been slowly falling apart over the years. A popular theory of the missing nose claims Napoleon's soldiers shot it off with a cannon in 1798, but early sketches discovered of the Sphinx without a nose predate Napoleon's rampage.
The Iron Pillar of Delhi is a 1,600-year-old, 22 feet high pillar located in the Qutb complex in India. The pillar, made from 98% wrought iron, has been astounding scientists by its ability to resist corrosion after all these years.
Khafre and Khufu are two of the three ancient Pyramids in Giza, Egypt. Khufu is the biggest, consisting of more than 2 million stones with some weighing 9 tons. The Pyramids, built as elaborate tombs for divine kings, date back to 2,550 BC. Modern Egyptologists believe that the Pyramids are made from stones dragged from quarries and, despite ancient Greek testimony, were built predominantly by skilled craftsmen rather than slave labor.
Easter Island, also known as Rapa Nui, is remotely located 2,000 miles off the coast of Tahiti. The original settlers of the island were Polynesians who migrated to the far-off land between 400 and 600 BC. They built many shrines and statues, called moai, from stones quarried throughout the island including a volcano site. Researchers still question exactly how the large stones were moved.
The Stonehenge landscape of Salisbury Plain, England, has become a tourist hotspot. But before foreigners with windbreakers and cameras showed up, the area may have been a burial ground and ceremonial den dating back 5,000 years
BAMBOO WORKSHOP @AUROVILLE
land few decades back…. Now clad in green, not an act of magician. Fabricated from vision of Aurobindo Ghosh and Mira Alfassa (The Mother), designed by Roger Anger. AUROVILLE envelopes artists round the globe, who preferred thefootprints of Mother.
Mantrimandir or the Golden globe occupies the core, around which AUROVILLE has been carefully designed. This meditation temple wraps up a tranquil atmosphere. AUROVILLE constitute four zones namely Industrial Zone (for green industries), Cultural Zone (for applied research in artistic expression), International Zone (for hosting cultural pavilions of multiple countries) and Residential Zone (the largest zone, for collective living). It was very curious though the pages from internet gave us handsome information regarding the place. Glued our eyes to the amazing aerial pics of AUROVILLE, before our visit. We enlisted ourselves in bamboo research center, for a study regarding bamboo construction. The program was scheduled for five days. Our accommodation was given at village apartments in Vellipuram. Provided a cozy atmosphere for journey fatigued bodies.
The first day at AUROVILLE was a physical introduction to the place. The constructions are so entwined with nature; every detail is exclusive and boosted its skillful treatment. Apart from architecture, we even had occasions at different small scale industries of people who made essential oils, perfumed sticks, herbal soaps, jams, candles, pottery, footwear etc, in their unique ways. We also met artists from contrasting fields, who exhibited their art on unique scales. People here grow their own crops, vegetables, prepare their own spices, oils, garments etc. Food served recalled the true flavors of Indian traditions.
The solar kitchen hosted a dinner for us. A kitchen which harvests
energy from the solar power, enough for its consumption. We
even had stopover at few boutiques which exhibited AUROVILLE products. The dinner with drums encircling a campfire, was a thrilling experience. On the last day we engaged ourselves at earth institute, AUROVILLE school, architect firms etc. at the departure each of carried a huge basket of serene memories along……… - Gowthami
On the second day, started our workshop at bamboo research center. We were practically educated on the basic connections of bamboo construction. From the third day the schedule was on fast track. We were provided a helping hand from few skilled AUROVILLE carpenters along with efficient machinery. The schedule continued with the same outline that of the third day, on the next consecutive days.
@LAURIE BAKER CENTRE
Hundreds of community buildings are being constructed every year both in urban and rural areas. Conventional systems are followed for the construction activities. The time has come to critically examine the total costs involved and to explore the possibilities of adopting alternative systems for construction of community buildings so as to optimize the resources
The people from the COSTFORD have been trying for the past twenty five years to convince the administrators, officials and public that cost and energy effective materials and techniques need only be used for the construction of community buildings. They have also demonstrated how the environment friendly materials and methods could be used for the construction of Anganwadis, Village offices, Agro service centers and other community buildings. The book entitled â€œCommunity Buildingsâ€? written by Dr. Laurie Baker was released on his 80th birthday which serves as a practical guide to all stake holders on the field.
Three days of the COSTFORD workshop was the most memorable work experience in our academic period. Experi
encing the structures built by the famous Brit who indianised his personality so much that his designs reflected the tradition of a rich culture and a passion in adopting it to the modern needs. While visiting the buildings or listening to the method of construction adopted, you could feel the man walking on an open site with a thin stick in the hand, drawing freaking curves on the earth with it and asking the workers to build a brick wall along the line. To the orthodox student of architecture, this might be the weirdest thing imaginable- To build without a proper-to scale-with line weights- working drawings. But to an enthusiast, he is a magician with a magic wand, taking up the dirt, brick, broken shards of glass and other useless materials and turning them into beautiful structures.
Hands-on workshop is the most fun part to our college. Nothing gave us more happiness than getting ourselves dirty. The mudball fight we had while building the cob walls went into the album of happy times. Apart from the working experience, the accommodation provided to us was one of a kind. It’s like being a part of the nature with the same modern facilities we have at home. It may have been the first time to experience sunrise- which never happens at home unless the power goes off at that time.
“We woke up early just to
explore the building surroundings.“ The ups and downs of the contours, the staircases the unexpected open spaces- it’s like going on an camping trip to the treasure island, Every structure humbling itself in front of the majestic green backdrop. All the creatures that would freak your mother if she finds them around you can be seen in their natural habitat in quite moods (which is not “I’m going to freak the hell out of you” mood) moving around without coming into harm’s way for you or for them.
Visiting the COSTFORD houses and the residences of its members is a memorable experience. We’ve learned the efficient use of space, material and construction techniques. The ultimate prize was the visit to Dr. Laurie Baker’s residence, The Hamlet. Everything was as it used to be when he lived (including the Bournvita which turned to stone and the sugar which turned into carbon dust) so as to keep the place sacred. The house was humble as it was magnificent. On the top floor was the master’s bedroom which had a bed, a working table, a chair, a huge collection of books and numerous music cassette collections with all the classics in order.
A quite room with his books, music, with a view over-looking the road- just as the purist he was. This was a training to create not just buildings but built environments where his ideas find expression in ways that continue t resonate in one’s mind. They are not just monuments of stone and steel, or brick and wood, but ideas about how we could live and should live if we were given that kind of choice.Laurie Baker created his tactile dwellings of mud-bricks and stone with materials taken, as he was wont to do, from within five kilometers of the site. To that extent, he was part of a larger quest than merely creating buildings, for specific clients.
He had what may be described as a spiritual engagement with nature and materials that he chose to work with, belonging as he did to a generation that believed in an “organic architecture”. He was inspired from elemental forms that the architects, sculptors, writers and artists belonging to the Bauhaus movement of the early 20th century had tried to explore, using new industrial materials of steel, concrete and glass and the latest advances in technology, the use of light and air-conditioning for instance in modern interiors in ways that would be both simple and beautiful. - Samhitha.P
EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE WORKSHOP
@ IIT KANPUR
The Workshop is based on earthquake resistant building design which was held at IIT Kanpur Three of my class mates have accompanied me to the workshop. Food was the good booster pacifying the bad climate.A fast track summary of the earth quack resistant building was done on the first day. We were grouped in twos. Had good interaction among us. A total of three teachers guided us for the design, we were allowed in the studio till twelve in the midnight and it is good, working so pleasantly in the studio till that time. A tour in the leather city was entertained on the third day. IIT Kanpur claimed itself as the best structure in the city. The city was spotted with many good constructions like Birla Mandir etc. The buildings are beautifully designed with harmony and every building design appeared as if it is in coherence with the nature. The play with the materials, skylights in the buildings and the live example of earth quake resistant building design is the campus itself. The infrastructure was good and fully equipped. Live experimenting of a building strength is done in the laboratories. The campus was adored by beautiful flora and fauna, the cool drizzles added more energy. I seriously suggest the students of architecture to attend these kind of workshops, as I opine there is no safe place in the world free from disaster, it is our responsibility to design buildings that sustain disasters. - Hema 95
VISTRA – MI CASA MI CASTILLO I recently read about mad architects , says “ emotion is fundamentally important in architecture, That is how you touch people”. When i saw this brief , the brief is completely of feelings and emotions like my house is castle, my house is prision. So i started with a feeling to create a beautiful prision,
-a prision which separates him from people outside and keeping him still engaged. -a prision which cuts of the polluted air and gives fresh air, -a prision where all his feelings growing old in the courtyard. -a prision is something that binds you forever and it is the safest place for me.
1. 2. 99
So i came out with a spiral concept. A spiral which binds him and the courtyard protecting from the outside world. To make the spiral much more simpler i introduced a funnel with sliding glasses on all sides and fixed glass on corners.
3. I tilted the funnel to led the air pass through,tilted along the N.E direction (corner) so that the first rays of the sun directly enters into the court yard. 4. The funnel is not rested on the earth it is lifted to 5â€™ , so that the fresh air enters and the hot air comes out. 5. To create a privacy , a leaf pattern jail is layed on the glass to create a feeling they are under the canopy of trees. And in night it looks like a lantern in complete urban scenario.
PRODUCT DESIGN A toolkit for 19th century Architect. The time when Autocad, 3DS Max and Revit could not space in Architectsâ€™s schedule. The Toolkit should envelope set of pencils, ink bottles, colours, scales, pens etc. along with providing space for charts. The Architect should be able to carry this on his bicycle. The present design satisfies all the conditions listed. In addition to this the toolkit when unfolded transforms into a drafting table. Fashioned with a hexagonal cross-section with hinged joints. Each segment measures 1m in length, 10 cms in width and 4 cms in depth. The segments act as shelves that can be drawn on either side. The entire fabrication is executed with timber for it is the prevailing material of that age.
Rotate & Lock
ACADEMIC DESIGN VISWA TEJ .K - INSTITUTION DESIGN 5/5 B.ARCH
he estimated weight of he largest movie theater lthough construction of the Notre Dame Cathedral in Strasthe Great Pyramid of in the world, Radio City bourg started in 1015, it was not un- Music Hall in New York City, Egypt is 6,648,000 tons. til 1439 that the spire was completed. opened in December, 1932. It originally had 5,945 seats.
ngland’s Stonehenge is 1500 he Hoover Dam was built he great Gothic cathedral years older than Rome’s Colto last 2,000 years. The conof Milan was started in osseum. crete in it will not even be ful- 1386, and wasn’t completed ly cured for another 500 years. until 1805.
here are 403 steps from the foundation to the top of the torch in the Statue of Liberty.
he Eiffel Tower is 984 feet uring a severe windhigh. There are 1,792 steps storm or rainstorm the to the top of the Eiffel Tower, Empire State Building may sway several feet to either side. 107
HARIN 4/5 B.ARCH
SAHITHI - STAFF HOUSING 4/5 B.ARCH
G.RAJESH - SEA GREEN CAFETERIA 4/5 B.ARCH
SESHU 3/5 B.ARCH
SHASHANK 2/5 B.ARCH
KRISHNA 3/5 B.ARCH
ARTS AND GRAPHICS
WORKING WITH MODEL
TRAINING EXPERIENCES... Amuktha: Clutching into Kruthika was so unintended that left me no trace of my 20 weeks of practice but getting trained under Ar.Sudhir Reddy decisively relocated me with a perfect picture of so called “The Architect’s Life.” Praneeth: My practical training in KAKANI associates is a blend of all architectural emotions that included presentations, dealing with clients, detailing, site visits, case studies along with criticisms and appreciations. Research work and methods of implementation inspired me a lot which also improved my confidence in architecture. Vandana: It was a very good learning experience , working on diversified projects from the conceptual stage to their execution …. getting trained in an ECO – friendly office improved my perception and opened me to sensible architecture . Thank you Inspirations. Divya: I’ve done my practical training in Ameya design pvt.ltd in Hyderabad, a leading firms that deals with designing of hospitals. Initially practical training to me seemed to be convoluted. The training enveloped site visits, case studies, client meets along with work on software’s, which I relished. Pushed me to the higher level, on the professional scale. This has been the kind of experience that I know I will cherish for life. Prajwala : Recalling the first day at Bhasker Design I was perplexed, though that was not my fresh introduction to this firm. Sir Mr. Bhasker and colleagues provided a very comfortable zone and stood as a backbone throughout the training period. Exposed me to practical awareness apart from theoretical lessons that helped me to mould “me” into a “better me”! Sai Teja: Placed me on superior levels of professionalism and exercised on dealing with clients. Working under the shade a of TSR sir I acquired practical knowledge, that is vital before stepping into corporate world. Shyla : I have undergone practical training in Aakirna associates from ahmedabad. It is established in 1987 and led by architect duo Jayshil patel and Samir desai. I was involved in many residential,commercial and recreational projects and gained lot of knowledge. My overall experience was good and memorable.
Samhitha: I did my training in Banglore @Shoba being in professional world gave a whole new attitude towards life. It was a different learning experience from what we had in the classroom. The credit goes to my head Geeta.K Nair and my trainers Rajshwar Pandiyan and Arun Billa for motivating me. Being in group of professionals helped me in assessing my place. I have learnt to work under pressure and still to stuff a party in a tight schedule. Bangalore has changed my tag line to “chill maadi boss, why chumma tension?” Hema: My practical training is a frame up of work at critical hours, protracted client meets, site visits in hot sun, lessons from senior architects, even a silent spectator to management’s anger along with the occasions when you bag good appreciations. My practical training in the historic city of Hyderabad didn’t just make me learn about architecture, it made me understood what will the life of architect be like and I simply loved it. Sravani: My 5 months internship was one of the best experiences i could ask for...this program attracted me from the very beginning; having the chance to gain professional experience during degree not only improves your technical formation, but gives you a global perspective of the profession. Mastered skills like conduct in office organizations, dealing with manufacturers and constructors, communication with clients, and team-work, all of which I believe are vital for today’s architect to have. Viswa: I’ve perused my training in HCPDPM Ahmedabad. It was a real privilege in working such well established firm. practicing since 1960 (more than 50 years).It was a whole some training session provided by the office just like an academic schedule which involves both fun and learning. The organization has added a practical touch to my knowledge. I strongly recommend this office for training, as it is occupies my life’s most wonderful experiences.
Raju: My training taught many things that are imperative for an architect apart from work like punctuality, time management, conduct with higher officials, dealing with clients etc. before undergoing training my thinking was restricted to my own knowledge but after my P.T. I realized that there is a lot more to learn. I thank Ar.Srinivas Murthy sir and SMG design inc. for building my confidence . I also thank A.U.C.E. for giving me this opportunity. Prasanna: PRACTICAL TRAINING under the guidance of Ar.Neelkanthchhaya at Ahmedabad made me more entwined to architecture .Both office and Ahmedabad city relished by pioneers of architecture like le corbusier ,louiskahnand especially school of architecture ie ., CEPT all played a major role in turning my perception towards architecture. Emmanuel: Bangalore “The Garden city”. RSP( my office)- perfect strategy. Training-talent tuning .People at hostel-super caring. Weekends-Pecos pubbing. Life at Bangalore-mindblowing. Enna Guru Chennagidira-the autowala’s special. Sakka Chennagida Appa! Yo Bangalore! Yo RSP!!! I was one at my arrival and one among them at my departure. Sudheer: A place where I came to visualize my imaginations practically. The way to work under pressure, dealing eleventh minute presentations, organizing tasks, fixing targets along with team work. Helped me explore myself and test my capability. Felt warm and relished working with Pradeep Sachdeva. Walking on his guidelines, I unlocked many ways to my architectural destiny.
Vinay: when it comes to my P.T. experiences, I had the most wonderful experiences, trips with friends and colleagues. Of course travelled through hardships but learnt vital lessons from my senior architects. I thank my firm Arcop associates specially Pankaj Sir and Sanjay Sree sir for guiding me. Babitha: Office experience is quite different from the experiments at college. During the internship I was well schooled in being punctual, responsible and respectable at my project. I would like to thank Ar. P.M.K. Varma for giving me this incredible experience. Swathi: Working with mathroo is really a great experience, it completely changed my orientation towards design . My office works on exposed concrete buildings ,where I was exposed to a new style of architecture. Rajesh: Under the guidance of Ankith sir, I realized the gravity of design along with the process of achieving a good design. Entered into a world of sleepless nights and made love with drawings and models. Working in a team generated euphoric flavors, that helped me in meeting my targets. To me PBB is a perfect place to learn with blessing of “BADA SIR” Pallavi: Arcop associates introduced me to an unexplored world of architecture. It enhanced technical skills and theoretical knowledge. I experienced leading my life with individuality on a whole it is short, tough and interesting phase in my educational journey. Sheela: I’ve learnt the importance of time and timely submissions, dealing with clients. They have taught me good communication skills and lot of patience. My colleagues gave me good support and shared a lot of knowledge with me. I thank Ar. P.M.K. Varma for believing in me.
Chakravarthy: What is Modernism when it gets pragmatic? I was always encountered with abstract reasoning, for I perceived modernism an alien in my journey so far. Archohm disclosed impeccable answers to all my curiosities. They have given me a chance to share my ideas. The principles they have followed, the process of evolution of designs made me develop a new perspective. Gowthami: Practical training added life to my prolific ideation. Walk in their guidelines initially was hard but later every work of mine adored the reflections of their lessons. I had mosaic experiments on arena learning along with keyboard exercising. Thank you Arcop Associates for shaping my skills.
An arduous journey that witnessed devoted endeavor…… A dream of many cherished footprints fabricated from this prolific lap to honor its existence. The destiny was shaped in a phenomenal two day event marking the department’s opal anniversary i.e., 24th anniversary. Day 1 begun with words of the event’s venerate, the president our beloved Head of the Department Prof. G. Viswanath Kumar who narrated the experiments he had with the department. Followed by the message of the guest of honor G.S.N.Raju. The assemble was addressed by the Vice chancellor ………………..which was proceeded by………………………………………………….. The hall then observed the most awaited event the magazine inauguration ELIXIER which is an epitome of 24 year’s memories. The consecutive event was the workshop by the director Auroville Earth Institute, Ar. Satprem Maini. He is a French architect, born in Algeria in the year 1959. Honored with architecture masters from school of architecture Lyon, France. Entwined with Auroville since 1989. Satprem has a post graduate master of Earthen Architecture from the School of Architecture of Grenoble, France. Satprem was granted 13 awards: “1992 Hassan Fathy Award for architecture for the poor” – “2010 Prince Sultan Bin Salman Award for Urban Heritage” for Al Medy Mosque built at Riyadh and 11 Indian awards. He spoke about Tradition and Modernity of Earthen architecture in the World, Sustainability, Environmental friendliness and Resource management, CSEB and the Renaissance of Earthen Architecture, Building with Arches, Vaults and Domes (AVD) and Disaster Resistance with Earthen Architecture,
The second day was supported by platinum jubilee guest house. The event started with a small video tape featuring the growth of Dubai. The proceeding event was the seminar by Ar. Kathi Srinivas on health care design. …………………………………………… ………………………………………………he spoke about design of hospitals, design considerations in hospital design, importance of services along a brief description on hospital designs round the globe. He proved the students to ponder in taking health care design in masters and also as a thesis topic. His words enlightened on the upcoming designs in health design along with the future needs that are to enveloped in the design. The post lunch had much of delegate participation. The students of Varaha, Gitam and Andhra University participated in a group discussion on the topic “Globalization in Architecture”. The students were given two extreme poles Localization and Homogenization to position themselves between the poles with four alumni in shoes of the jury.The group discussion was followed by Architectural quiz with four teams. The consecutive events were body painting, origami along with logo design which were conducted simultaniouly. the jury was conducted by the alumni. A rock band was arranged by R.J. group as a refreshing adornment to the event. It was a wondrous feast to the crowd as it enveloped cheers and hailsThe imperative position in the event was occupied by the fenestration of the Head of the department Prof. Viswanath Kumar by the Honorable IIA Chairman…Madhava Rao for illustrious work at the department. The faculty members Ar. Allu Revathi Devi, Ar.P. Gurunath, Dr. Sudheer Kumar, Ar.Ramesh Babu and Mr. Ravindra were bestowed with Elixier trophies for their boundless support.Ms. Vani was awarded Best Thesis-2011-12 for her work on Shelter for mentally ill. Next in line was the prize distribution for the informal events body painting, origami and logo design. The host batch “Zests” was recognized for their efforts in sculpting the event by trophies.
REFERENCES ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION IN MODERN ERA -Ar.Kiran Kumar
a. Dutton, T.A (1984). “Design and Studio Pedagogy” – Journal of Architectural Education 41(1) 16-25 b. Ellsworth E.A.(2005). “Places of learning, media, architecture, pedagogy.” The Materiality of Pedagogy:15-36. c. Harriss, H.(2011). “Learning Architecture though live projects”. Design and Environment Oxford Brookes University (Education Category) d. Molon, M.(2007). “Boundaries of tradition and challenges in the Modernization of Architecture Pedagogy”.ProcessdingsDesigntrain Congress Trailer Amsterdam, The Netherlands : 243-251. e. Oxman, R. (2007). “Digital Architecture as a challenge for design pedagogy theory, knowledge, models and medium”. Ront matter Design Studies, 99-120 f. Norman, Don. (2004). Emotional design: Why we love (or hate) everyday things. New York: Basic Books.page 87.
THE WONDERFUL WORLD OF AN ARCHITECT - Ar.Neelkanth Chhaaya It was published earlier in the COA’s magazine “Space, Time and People”.
THE EARTH FOR A ROOF -Vani (Alumni) Building with Earth – GernotMinke Building with mud - CSV The Earth Institute at Auroville, has developed its own expertise and offers AVD courses.
NAMASTE TOWER By Amuktha Meher (5/5 BArch) www.evolo.us/architecture/namaste-tower-in-mumbai-is-a-contemporary-interpretation-of-indian-architecture/
Digital Architecture By K.Sudheer (5/5 BArch)
ASSESING THR IMPACT OF LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS IN MITIGATING ADVERSE PEDESTRIAN WING IN THE VICINITY OF TALL BUILDINGS -Prof.Mohan Paper Published in: Proceedings: International Conference on Advances in Architecture and Civil Engineering, 21st and 23rd June, 2012, at MSRIET, Bangalore- Paper ID ARO5LA-Vol.2 References: 1. Akbari, H., Pomerantz, M., Taha, H. (2001), “Cool surface and shade trees to reduce energy and improve air quality in urban areas”, Solar Energy, Vol. 70, pp. 259-310. 2. Beranek, W.J. and Koten Van. (1979), “Visual Techniques for the Determination of Wind Environment, Journal of Industrial Aerodynamics, Vol. 4, pp. 295-306. 3. Eaddy, M. ( 1990), “ Pedestrian level wind measurement using computer image processing”, ME Thesis, Mechanical Engineering Department, The University of Auckland. 4. Eaddy, M.and Flay, R.G.J. (1998), “Image Processing applied to pedestrian level wind investigations”, IPENZ Transactions, Vol.25, No.1/ EMCH. 5. Flay, R.G.J. (1989), “Wind Environment Measurements and Acceptance Criteria developed at the University of Auckland”, In: Proceedings of the Tenth Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia, 11-15 Dec. 1989. 6. Heisler, G.M., (1990), “Mean wind speed below building height in residential neighborhoods with different tree density,” ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 96, pp. 1389-2006. 7. Livesey, F., Inculet, D., Isyumov, N. and Davenport, A.G. (1990), “A Scour Technique for the Evaluation of Pedestrian Winds”, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Vol. 36, pp. 779-789. 8. Mohan,K., Flay, R.G.J., Gairola, A., Mukherjee, M. and Guha, T. ( 2010), “ Erosion Tests for Assessing Wind Speed Amplification in the Vicinity of Tall Buildings”, Proceedings: National Research Conference on Disaster Mitigation in Housing in India: an Agenda for Future, Indian Institute of Roorkee, March 19-20, Vol. 2, pp. 185-190. 9. Penwarden, A.D., (1973) Acceptable Wind Speed in Towns, Building Science, Vol.8, 259-267. 10. Raine, J.K. and Stevenson D.C. (1977), “Wind protection by model fences in a simulated boundary layer”, Journal of Industrial Aerodynamics, Vol.2, pp. 159 180.
BOMBAY CINEMA LOVE -Samhitha polamuri (5/5B.arch) Bombay’s Art Deco Architecture/Navin Ramani
THE URBAN FUTURE MOBILITY INITIATIVE -Ar.Viswanadha Kumar 1) CMHC, 1996. Habitat II –Canadian National report, United Nations Conference on Human Settlements Ottawa, Istanbul, Turkey. 2) Government of India, 2005. Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM): Overview. New Delhi, Ministry of Urban Development, Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation. 3) Toutain, O and Gopiprasad, S. 2006. “Planning for urban infrastructure” India infrastructure report- 2006. 59-81pp. 4) Hohne, N., J. Burck, et al. 2009. Scorecards on best and worst policies for green new deal, WWF and E3G. 5) Anonymous, 2011. “Planning and Investing for Sustainable Urban Mobility in Developing Countries and Emerging Economies - the Role of the Bicycle” conference “Velocity Question Workshop “at Santa Clara, San Francisco, 23 Sep, 2011. 6) Bührmann .S, Wefering. F, Rupprecht. S., 2011. “Sustainable urban mobility plans for people” Rupprecht Consult, GmbH Project no: EACI/ IEE/2009/05/ S12.558822 50668 Cologne, Germany. 12pp. 7) HPEC, 2011. Report on Indian Urban Infrastructure and Services. National Institute of Urban Affairs, New Delhi. 8) Musoga, G. K., 2011. “Strategic Urban Development Planning in Lake Victoria Region: Lessons of Experience”. United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), December 2011, Sri Lanka. 66pp. 9) Lohia. S.K., 2011.“Sustainable urban transport; Initiatives by govt. of India”. Third Biennial IHCN Conference, Mysore, India, 15, May, 2011, 10)Suri. S. N., 2011. “Making Indian Cities Liveable: the Challenges of India’s Urban Transformation” Presented in conference on Liveable Cities: Urbanising World an Introduction to the Review, ISOCARP, Wuhan, China. REVIEW 07.20-41. 11)Newman, P. 2013.” The future lies in rail”. Hindu Daily” Habitat P4, Sunday, 13 Oct, 2013. 12)Sukumaran. K., 2013. “Cities need a conceptual lead”. Hindu Daily” Habitat P4, Sunday, 13 Oct, 2013. 13)UN-Habitat, 2013. Draft quick guide to “developing an urban mobility plan” UNHABITAT | EMBARQ
DAY LIT SPACES - PRODUCTIVE SPACES -Ar.Ramana Koti Ramana Koti is a Building Performance Analyst with Lord, Aeck & Sargent Architects and a LEED accredited professional. Contact him at email@example.com “This article was originally published in the September/October 2007 issue of Solar Today, a magazine of the American Solar Solar Energy Society. It is being republished with the author’s consent.”
UNIVERSAL DESIGN -Sashank (2/5 B.Arch) An abstract of a seminar by Dr.GauraRaheja, IIT ROORKE, Sashank 2/5 b.arch.
SUSTAINABILITY , BUILDING MATERIALS,CRITERIA FOR ASSESSING THEM. -Ar.Raja Reddy Andrew, J. N., (2012), Building Labels vs. Environmental Performance Metrics: Measuring What’s Important about Building Sustainability, Available at: http://www.josre.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Sustainability-Metrics-in-the-Real-EstateSector-Oct-2012-3.pdf Baris, D.P. & J. Erik, (2000), Construction and environment-improving energy efficiency. Journal of Building Issues 10, pp 3-21. Berge, B. (2009) The Ecology of Building Materials, Oxford, Architectural Press. Calkins, M. (2009), Materials for sustainable sites: a complete guide to the evaluation, selection, and use of sustainable construction materials. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. pp 457. Cole, R. J., (2005) Building Environmental Assessment methods: redefining intentions and roles, Building Research and Information, 35(5), pp 455-467. Goverse, T. et al. (2001) Wood Innovation in the Residential Sector: Opportunities and Constraints, Resources, Conservation and Recycling 34. Hammond. G.P., & Jones, C.I.,(2008), Embodied Energy and carbon in construction materials, Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers, Energy 161, May 2008, Issue EN2, pp. 87-98. Milani, B., (2005), Building Materials in a Green Economy: Community-based Strategies for Dematerialization, Thesis, OISE-UT AECDCP / U. of T. Institute for Environmental Studies. Milica J., P., & Saja , K.,(2009), Selection of building materials based upon Ecological characteristics : Priorities In Function Of Environmental Protection, Spatium International Review, No.20, September 2009, pp. 23-27. Minke, G. (2006), Building with Earth: Design and Technology of Sustainable Architecture, Birkhauser publishers for Architecture, Basel, Berlin, Boston. Munasinghe, M.,(1993), Development, Equity And Sustainability (Des) In The Context Of Climate Change, Available at http://arec.oregonstate. edu/jaeger/climate/IPCC%20Munasinghe.pdf Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), (1998), Eco-Labelling: Actual effects of selected programmes, Available at http://www.cepis.org.pe/muwww/fulltext/repind63/eco/eco.html Peter, G., Rebeka, L., Review of sustainability terms and their definitions, University of Maribor, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Available at http://www.scribd.com/ doc/54447256/GLAVIC-Peter-LUKMAN-Rebeka-Review-of-Sustainability-Terms-and-Their-Definitions-Journal-of-Cleaner-Production-15-2007 World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED),(1987) Our common future. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987 p. 43.Available at http://www.iisd.org/sd/ Rafat, S. & Rachid, B.,(2012), Use of iron and steel industry by-product (GGBS) in cement paste and mortar, Resources, Conservation and Recycling 69, 2012,pp 29– 34. USAID ECO-III Project,(2009) Energy Conservation Building Code User Guide. ISBN Number: 978-81-909025-3-3, Bureau of Energy Efficiency. New Delhi, India.