CeReNeM Journal Issue 1

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Page 1

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1

Robert Dahm and Ray Evanoff

A note from the editors

2"-3(4"&5(&56"&7+,)8)*,-&"9757(+&(:&56"&!"#"$"%&'()*+,-; !*",5"9&7+&<==>.&5670&?()*+,-&,350&,0&,&:(*)4&:(*&9703()*0"&0)**()+97+8&56"&*"0",*36&@*(?"350&,+9&,357A7B –‹‡•‘ˆ–Š‡‹˜‡”•‹–›‘ˆ —††‡”•Ƥ‡Ž†ǯ•‡–”‡ˆ‘”‡•‡ƒ”…Š‹‡™—•‹…ǤŠ‹•Ƥ”•–‹••—‡ˆ‘…—•‡•‘ ‹–‡”•‡…–‹‘•„‡–™‡‡‡‡‡’‘•–‰”ƒ†—ƒ–‡…‘’‘•‡”•ƒ†–Š‡ͥ͜͜͞ —††‡”•Ƥ‡Ž†‘–‡’‘”ƒ”› —•‹… ‡•–‹˜ƒŽǤ Š‡‹••—‡ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡•ƒ—„‡”‘ˆ‹’‘”–ƒ–‹–‡”˜‹‡™•™‹–Šƒ”–‹•–•ˆ‡ƒ–—”‡†‹–Š‡ ‡•–‹˜ƒŽǤ‹‘–Š›…B ‘”ƒ…ǯ•‹–‡”˜‹‡™™‹–Š‹…Šƒ”†ƒ””‡––ƒ„‘—––Š‡•–—‹‰!"#$%$&'()'*+#',(-*+&70&,+&74@(*5,+5& …‘–”‹„—–‹‘–‘–Š‡•…Š‘Žƒ”•Š‹’‘‘‡‘ˆ–Š‡‘•–‹’‘”–ƒ–ǡƒ†—†‡”Ǧ”‡’”‡•‡–‡†ǡ™‘”•‘ˆ–Š‡ •‡…‘†ŠƒŽˆ‘ˆ–Š‡–™‡–‹‡–Š…‡–—”›Ǥƒ›˜ƒ‘ơǯ••—„•–ƒ–‹ƒŽ‹–‡”˜‹‡™™‹–Š‡‡‡’‘•–‰”ƒ†—ƒ–‡ …‘’‘•‡”‡Œƒ‹ •ƒƒ…•ˆ”ƒ‡•ƒ‹ŽŽ—‹ƒ–‹‰†‹•…—••‹‘‘–Š‡–ƒ…–‹Ž‹–›‘ˆ•‘—†Ǥ‹…Šƒ”† Ž‘˜B ‡”ǯ•…‘‰‹–‹˜‡Ž›Ǧƒ†’•›…Š‘ƒ…‘—•–‹…ƒŽŽ›Ǧˆ‘…—•‡†Š‡ƒ”‹‰‘ˆ‹…Šƒ‡Ž‹•ƒ”‘ǯ• "%&C),-75,57A"-D&"E@-(*"0& –Š‡‹’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘•‘ˆ–Š‹•—‹“—‡—•‹…Ǥ ‹ƒŽŽ›ǡŠ‹ƒ‘‘”‹•Š‹–ƒ‡š’Ž‘”‡•–Š‡‹’Ž‹…ƒ–‹‘•‘ˆ ƒ’ƒB ‡•‡…‘…‡’–‹‘•‘ˆ–Š‡’‡”ˆ‘”‡”ǯ•–‡’‘”ƒŽƒ•’‡…–ˆ‘”‡•–‡”Ǧ’”ƒ…–‹…‡Ǧ„ƒ•‡†—•‹…ǡ…‘–‡š–—ƒŽ‹•‡† –Š”‘—‰Š‹–‡”˜‹‡™•™‹–Š.(*(ƒ•–‡”ƒ–•—‹†ƒ—”ƒƒ†…‘’‘•‡”‹œƒ‹Ǥ

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—‡•–‡†‹–‘”•

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1

Timothy McCormack

“...written asunder...” !"#$"%&'($&)#)$%*#+$,*!'-#.!''&%%#/"#!"#$%$&'()'*+#',(-*+ 0$1/%*2#3,4/'1!,56&!"#$%$&'()'*+#',(-*+&2,0& (*343+,--5& 6-,++"7& ,0& ,+& (6"*,& *,89"*& 89,+& ,0& ,+& ‹•–ƒŽŽƒ–‹‘Ǥ ‘™‹‰Š––Š‹•’‹‡…‡Šƒ˜‡†‹ơ‡”‡†‹ˆ ‹–™‡”‡ƒ•–ƒ‰‡†’”‘†—…–‹‘‘ˆ—•‹…–Š‡ƒ–”‡ǫ +$,*!'-#.!''&%%6&1*343+,--5&38&2()-7&9,:"&9,7&,& ;-3<*"88(=&,-(+4&2389&89"&!"-,+&6(">0.&<)8&":"+8)? ,--5&8930&@,>"&8(&0"">&)++"@"00,*5A& /&@,+=8&*",--5& 3>,43+"&9(2&38&@()-7&9,:"&8)*+"7&()8&(89"*230".& ‹–Š‡‡†Ǥˆ–‡›…‘’‘•‹–‹‘ƒŽ’”‘…‡••…‘? •‹•–• ƒ• —…Š ‘ˆ ’ƒ”‹‰ †‘™ ƒ• ‘ˆ „—‹Ž†‹‰ —’Ǥ B9"&6*(7)@83(+&3+&C,0"-&<5&D+0"><-"&E9("+3F&2,0& ‹ˆƒ…–•–ƒ‰‡†–‘•‘‡‡š–‡–ǡƒ†™‹–Š‘”‡–‹‡ ,+7& *"0()*@"0& 89,8& @()-7& 9,:"& <""+& 8,G"+& ,& -(8& ˆ—”–Š‡”Ǥ ‘’‡‡†—’–™‘ˆ‡”ƒ–ƒ•‹–Š‡—•‹…–‘ ƒ‡”‘‘ˆ‘”•‘‡‘ˆ–Š‡Ǯƒ…–‹‘ǯǡ„—–‘–Š‡”™‹•‡ 89"&0@(*"&*">,3+"7&,0&38&2,0A& 036&!"#$%$&'()'*+#',(-*+&">6-(50&,+&"F8*">"-5& †‹•’ƒ”ƒ–‡…‘ŽŽ‡…–‹‘‘ˆ‹•–”—‡–•ǡƒ‹‰—•‡‘ˆ 89"& .(*(.& /-0+%1+%&#$ǡ Šƒ”†ƒ‰‡” Ƥ††Ž‡ǡƒ† „ƒ•• *"@(*7"*& ,>(+4& >(*"& 08,+7,*7& H"08"*+& >)03@& ‹•–”—‡–•Ǥ‘›‘—•‡‡›‘—”—•‡‘ˆ–Š‡•‡‹•–”—? ‡–• ƒ• „‡‹‰ …‘‡…–‡† –‘ ‘” †‹˜‘”…‡† ˆ”‘ 89"3*&7306,*,8"&9308(*3@,-&(*&@)-8)*,-&9308(*3"0&,+7& ’”ƒ…–‹…‡•ǫ +.6&/+&,&2,5.&<(89A&B9"&37",&2,0&8(&8,G"&89"&0()+7& ‘ˆ –Š‡ ‡•‡„Ž‡ ˆ—”–Š‡” ƒ™ƒ› ˆ”‘ –Š‡ ‹•–”—? ‡–ƒ–‹‘ƒŽ ‘”• ‘ˆ ‡•–‡” …Šƒ„‡” —•‹… *,89"*& 89,+& 8(& <*3+4& 38&@-(0"*& 8(&(89"*& 8*,7383(+0.& ,+7&89()49&89"0"&3+08*)>"+80&>3498&0"">&;7306,? *,8"=& 3+& 0(>"& 2,50.& 89"& @(>6(0383(+& 8*",80& 89">& ƒŽŽƒ•‹–‡‰”ƒ–‡†‡„‡”•‘ˆƒ…‘Š‡”‡–‡•‡„Ž‡ǡ ƒ …‘•‹•–‡– •‡– ‘ˆ –‹„”ƒŽ ‹–‡””‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’•Ǥ ‘ ,& 956(89"83@,-& 0(>"(+"& G+(23+4& +(893+4& ,<()8& ƒ› ‘ˆ –Š‡ †‹˜‡”•‡ —•‹…ƒŽ …—Ž–—”‡• ˆ”‘ ™Š‹…Š 89"&3+08*)>"+80&@(>".&89"&;7306,*385=&<"82""+&D)? ”‘’‡ƒ ƒ† ƒ’ƒ‡•‡ ‹•–”—‡–•ǡ ˆ‘” ‡šƒ’Ž‡ǡ 2()-7& 6*(<,<-5& +(8& 0"">& ,+5& 4*",8"*& 89,+& 89,8& <"82""+&@-,*3+"8&,+7&@"--(A&1+"&2,5&3+&293@9&89"&

ƒˆ‘”‡‡–‹‘‡†‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‘–ƒ‡•’Žƒ…‡ǡ–Š‘—‰Šǡ‹• ‹–Š‡‹ƪ—‡…‡‘ˆ—•‹…ƒŽ–”ƒ†‹–‹‘‘–Š‡’‡”ˆ‘”? ƒ–‹˜‡’‘••‹„‹Ž‹–‹‡•‘ˆ‡ƒ…Š‹•–”—‡–„‡‹‰ƒŽ•‘ ƒ…‘™Ž‡†‰‡†ǡƒ†‹…‘”’‘”ƒ–‡†‹–‘–Š‡ˆƒ„”‹…‘ˆ 89"&>)03@A 036&I":"*,-&0(-(&(*&0>,--&"+0"><-"&2(*G0&,*"&+"0? –Ž‡†™‹–Š‹–Š‡Žƒ”‰‡”•–”—…–—”‡‘ˆ!"#$%$&'()'*+#' ,(-*+A& H9,8& 30& 89"& *"-,83(+0936& <"82""+& 89"0"& ’‹‡…‡•ƒ†–Š‡Žƒ”‰‡”™‘”ǫ +.6 –Š‡Ƥ”•–ŠƒŽˆ‘ˆ!"#$%$&'()'*+#',(-*+.&89"& •‘Ž‘’‹‡…‡•ƒ”‡’Žƒ›‡†ƒ•‡–‹”‡—‹–•ǡ™‹–Š–Š‡Ƥ”•– ŠƒŽˆ‘ˆ2345!6ˆ‘”„ƒ••…Žƒ”‹‡–…‘’‘•‡†•‘ƒ• –‘ˆ—…–‹‘‹’ƒ”ƒŽŽ‡Ž–‘–Š‡•‡…‘†ŠƒŽˆ‘ˆ–Š‡’‡”? @)003(+&0(-(&78&97$:8#97;#$<7-0#%$7$;#=&#01+=%#> 8#$Ǥ‘•–‘ˆ–Š‡•‘Ž‘’‹‡…‡•ǡŽ‹‡!"#$%$&???‹–•‡Žˆǡ ˆƒŽŽ ‹–‘–™‘†‹•–‹…– ŠƒŽ˜‡•ǤŠ‡–Š”‡‡•‡’ƒ”ƒ–‡ 63"@"0.&@7=&(.&A1+$##8#**&,+7&B-$&#$#$*CD=:#9$.& ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‡ƒ…Š‘–Š‡”™‹–ŠŽ‹––Ž‡‘”‘‘˜‡”Žƒ’ǤŠ‡ǡ ˆ‘” –Š‡ ”‡•– ‘ˆ !"#$%$&???.& 89"& @(+0838)"+8& 63"@"0& ƒ”‡ˆ”ƒ‰‡–‡†ƒ†‹–‡”…—–ǡƒ†‡ƒ…Š‹•‰‹˜‡ƒ ’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”‹†‘ˆǮƒ……‘’ƒ‹‡–ǯǡ—–‹Ž–Š‡ƤƒŽ •‡…–‹‘™Š‡”‡ –Š‡•‡…‘† ŠƒŽˆ‘ˆ E($' +%$*#=' ;#F' A1+F#=:ˆ‘”…‡ŽŽ‘•‘Ž‘’Žƒ›•‹–•‡Žˆ‘—–ƒ‰ƒ‹•–™Š‹•? 6"*"7&:(3@"0.&:3<*,69(+"&,+7&@(+8*,<,00&@-,*3+"8.& ,+7& 6*"*"@(*7"7.& 8*,+06(0"7& ,+7& 0)6"*3>6(0"7& ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽˆ”‘2345!6A&B9"&0(-(&63"@"0&8,G"+&8(? ‰‡–Š‡”‘—–Ž‹‡ƒ‡–™‘”‘ˆǮ…‡–”ƒŽ’‹–…Š‡•ǯ™Š‹…Š ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ–‡•–Š‡‘˜‡”ƒŽŽˆ‘”‘ˆ–Š‡…‘’Ž‡–‡™‘”ǡ ƒ’ƒ”–ˆ”‘„‡‹‰•–”—…–—”ƒŽŽ›”‡Žƒ–‡†–‘‹–ƒ†–‘ ‡ƒ…Š‘–Š‡”ǡƒ†ƒ’ƒ”–ˆ”‘‡ƒ…Š‡š’Ž‘”‹‰–Š‡ˆ—? •‹‘‘ˆƒ ’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ” ’‘‡–‹…Ȁ•–”—…–—”ƒŽ ‹†‡ƒ ™‹–Š ƒ ’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”Ǯ‹†‡ƒǯ‘ˆ–Š‡‹•–”—‡–Ǥ†‘ˆ…‘—”•‡ ":"*5&"-">"+8&9,0&380&(*343+&3+&>5&3+8"*6*"8,83(+& ‘ˆ‘‡‘”‘–Š‡”‡Žƒ’‘‡Ǥ 036 ™Šƒ–™ƒ›†‘›‘—‹†‡–‹ˆ›•–”—…–—”‡ƒ•„‡? ‹‰Ǯ’‘‡–‹…ǯǫŽ•‘ǡ•–”—…–—”ƒŽŽ›ǡ–Š‡•‘Ž‘’‹‡…‡•.$(> 0"#$;>&#0"79*#$#=&,+7&E($'+%$*#=';#F'A1+F#=:&,*"& …‘’Ž‡–‡Ž› ˆ”ƒ…–—”‡† ƒ† ‹–‡””—’–‡† ™‹–Š‹ –Š‡

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4 !"#$%&"''(#&,+2&34"&5+67*(8*"00&)*+,'#-). '/*+9&:,*;-&<)=>-";&,+2&/&4,?"&@(34&=(AA"+3"2& ‡Ž•‡™Š‡”‡ ‘ –Š‡ ‘”‹‰‹ ‘ˆ –Š‹• ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ ƒ† 34"&04,*"2&,3353)2"0.&2"05*"0&,+2&(@0"005(+0&B45=4& A(35?,3"& 530& 2"?"-(7A"+3.& ,0& B"--& ,0& 34"& =-(0"& 7"*0(+,-& =(++"=35(+0& B45=4& )+2"*-5"& 539& 1)*& 0(6 …‹‡–› ‡ˆ‘”…‡• ƒ †‹•–‹…–‹‘ „‡–™‡‡ ƒ”– ƒ† Ž‹ˆ‡ǡ (*.& 3(& 7)3& 53& ,+(34"*& B,;.& @"3B""+& 34"& C7"*0(+,-D& ƒ†–Š‡Ǯ’”‘ˆ‡••‹‘ƒŽǯǡ™Š‹…Š †‘ǯ––Š‹‹•ˆ”—‹–6 ˆ—Žˆ‘”‡‹–Š‡”Ǥ‘•–‘ˆ›™‘”Šƒ•–ƒ‡’Žƒ…‡‹ –Š‡ …‘–‡š– ‘ˆ …Ž‘•‡ Ž‘‰Ǧ–‡” ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’• ƒ† –Š‹•‹•‘‡™ƒ›‘ˆƒ††”‡••‹‰–Šƒ–‹••—‡ǤŽ•‘ǡ–Š‡ ™ƒ›  ƒ† ™‘”–‘‰‡–Š‡”Šƒ•‰‹˜‡„‘–Š ‘ˆ—•–Š‡‘’’‘”–—‹–›–‘™‘”‘ƒ‘”‡‡š–‡†6 "2.& A(*"& 52",-5035=&0=,-".& *"-,35?"& 3(& 34"& A,E(*53;& ‘ˆǮ…Šƒ„‡”—•‹…ǯ–Šƒ–ǯ•™”‹––‡–Š‡•‡†ƒ›•ǡ™‹–Š ‹–•’”ƒ‰ƒ–‹…”‡•–”‹…–‹‘•‘ˆ‹•–”—‡–ƒ–‹‘ƒ† 2)*,35(+9& /3& A,;& +(3& @"& 7*,=35=,-& ,3& 3450& 35A"& 5+& A)05=,-& 4503(*;& 3(&B*53"&=(+="*36-"+834& 0;A74(6 +5"0&-5>"&%,4-"*&252.&@)3&A)05=,-&345+>5+8&5+&34(0"& ‹†• ‘ˆ †‹‡•‹‘• …ƒ •–‹ŽŽǡ ‹ •—…Š …‹”…—6 03,+="0&,0&3450&=(--,@(*,35(+.&@"&,&7(005@-"&,2?"+6 –—”‡ˆ‘”…‘’‘•‡”ǡ’‡”ˆ‘”‡”ƒ†Ž‹•–‡‡”ǡƒ†™‡ 2(+D3&*",--;&+""2&(*=4"03*,0&,+;&A(*"&B4"+&34"*"D0& ,+&"+0"A@-"&B534&34"&7(3"+35,-&3(&=(A@5+"&A)-356 -,;"*"2&0(-(5035=&5+03*)A"+3,-50A&B534&"-"=3*(+5=& 3"=4+(-(8;9

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1

Ray Evanoff

Mostly what I think about !"#$"%&'($&)#)$%*#+&"#,-!!.-

‘’‘•‡”‡ •ƒƒ…•ǯ™‘”‹•ƒ…‘’‡ŽŽ‹‰‡š’Ž‘”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ—‹“—‡Ž›‹–‹ƒ–‡ǡ…‘•–”ƒ‹‡†ǡƒ†Ž‘…ƒ2 Ž‹•‡†•‘—†™‘”Ž†ǤŠ‡ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™‹‰…‘˜‡”•ƒ–‹‘‘Š‹•”‡…‡–‘—–’—–…‡–”‡•ƒ”‘—†Š‹•™‘”ˆ”‘–Š‡ Žƒ•–›‡ƒ”ƒ†ƒŠƒŽˆǡƒ†‹…Ž—†‡•ƒ‡š–‡•‹˜‡†‹•…—••‹‘‘ˆŠ‹•‘•–”‡…‡–’‹‡…‡ǡ!"#$#!%&"'(($()''*($ +"$,+&'$!$-!"#ǡ™Š‹…Š™ƒ•™”‹––‡ˆ‘”–Š‡‹‡—™•‡„Ž‡ƒ•’ƒ”–‘ˆ–Š‡Š…ˆƒ†‹‡—™•‡„Ž‡ ‘’‘•‡”•ǯ”‘ˆ‡••‹‘ƒŽ‡˜‡Ž‘’‡–”‘‰”ƒ‡ǡƒ†’”‡‹‡”‡†ƒ––Š‡ͥ͜͜͞ —††‡”•Ƥ‡Ž†‘–‡2 ’‘”ƒ”›—•‹… ‡•–‹˜ƒŽǤ •ƒƒ…•‹•…—””‡–Ž›•–—†›‹‰ƒ––Š‡‹˜‡”•‹–›‘ˆ —††‡”•Ƥ‡Ž†™‹–Šƒ”‘ƒ••‹†›Ǥ

ƒ›˜ƒ‘ơǣŠ‡Ƥ”•––Š‹‰ ™ƒ–‡†–‘ƒ•›‘— ƒ„‘—– ‹• –Š‡ •‡•‡ ‘ˆ –‘—…Š ‹ ›‘—” ™‘” Ȃ Š‘™ –Š‡–ƒ…–‹Ž‹–›‘ˆ•‘—†’”‘†—…–‹‘ƒ†’‡”…‡’–‹‘ ”‡Žƒ–‡•–‘›‘—”…Š‘‹…‡‘ˆƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ•ǡƒ†™Šƒ–‹–‹• ƒ„‘—–•—…Š’‡”ˆ‘”ƒ…‡•–”ƒ–‡‰‹‡•ƒ†–Š‡‹”ƒ—”ƒŽ ”‡•—Ž–•–Šƒ–ƒ’’‡ƒŽ•–‘›‘—Ǥ‡Žƒ–‡†Ž›ǡ ™ƒ–‡†–‘ ƒ•›‘—ƒ„‘—––Š‡ƒ…–‘ˆ–”ƒ•ˆ‡””‹‰™Šƒ–•‡‡• –‘„‡ƒ•‹‹Žƒ”•‡•‹„‹Ž‹–›–‘™ƒ”†•–‘—…Š„‡–™‡‡ ‹•–”—‡–• ‘ˆ ƒ”‡†Ž› †‹ơ‡”‡– …‘•–‹–—–‹‘•ǡ ™Š‹…Š ‹• •‘‡–Š‹‰ –Šƒ– ‹‡†‹ƒ–‡Ž› •–”‹‡• ‡ ƒ„‘—– !"#$ #!%&"'(($ ()''*($ +"$ ,+&'$ !$ -!"#ǡ ›‘—” ’‹‡…‡ ˆ‘” –Š‡ ‹‡—™ •‡„Ž‡ ™Š‹…Š ™ƒ• ’”‡2 ‹‡”‡†ƒ––Š‹•›‡ƒ”ǯ•ˆ‡•–‹˜ƒŽǤ

”ƒ‹•‘†ǯ²–”‡ˆ‘”›™‘”Ǥ

‡™•–”ƒ‹‰Š–ƒ™ƒ›–Šƒ– ™ƒ–‡†–‘—•‡–Š‡‹† ‘ˆƒ–‡”‹ƒŽˆ”‘–Š‡Žƒ•–’ƒ‰‡‘ˆ–Š‡˜‹‘Žƒ’‹‡…‡ȋ‹ ™Š‹…Š–Š‡•–‘’’‡†ƒ†–‘—…Š‡†‡Ž‡‡–•‘ˆƒ”–‹Ƥ2 …‹ƒŽŠƒ”‘‹…Ƥ‰‡”‹‰•ƒ”‡‹†‡’‡†‡–Ž›‘–ƒ–2 ‡†Ȍȑ ‹‰Ǥ͝ƒƒ†͝„ǡ„‡Ž‘™Ȓ‹–Š‡ˆ‘—”„‘™‡†•–”‹‰• ‹–Š‡‹‡—™•‡„Ž‡’‹‡…‡Ǥ –ƒŽ•‘„‡…ƒ‡…Ž‡ƒ” ˜‡”›“—‹…Ž›–Šƒ–’Žƒ…‹‰–Š‡•‡‹–‹ƒ–‡ǡ•‹‰—Žƒ” ‹•–”—‡–ƒŽ‰‡•–—”‡•™‹–Š‹ƒˆ—…–‹‘‹‰™Š‘Ž‡ ™‘—Ž†„‡ƒƒ‹–Š‡‡‘ˆ–Š‡’‹‡…‡ǤŠ‡”‡‹•‘„2 ˜‹‘—•Ž›‰‘‹‰–‘ „‡•‘‡•‘”–‘ˆ‰ƒ’ „‡–™‡‡ƒ —†‡”•–ƒ†‹‰‘”’‡”…‡’–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡‰‡•–—”‡•‹†‹2 ˜‹†—ƒŽŽ›ƒ†…‘ŽŽ‡…–‹˜‡Ž›Ǥ †‡…‹†‡†–Šƒ––Š‹•™ƒ•ƒ ’‘•‹–‹˜‡–Š‹‰ǡƒ†•‘‡–Š‹‰–‘„—‹Ž†–Š‡•–”—…2 –—”‡‘ˆ–Š‡’‹‡…‡ƒ”‘—†Ǥƒ…Š‹•–”—‡–„ƒ•‹2 …ƒŽŽ› Šƒ• ƒ •‹‰Ž‡ ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ –›’‡ –Š”‘—‰Š‘—–ǡ ƒ†

 ƒ””ƒ‰‡† –Š‡ ‘˜‡‡– –Š”‘—‰Š –Š‡ ’‹‡…‡ ‹ –‡”•‘ˆ™Š‹…Š‹•–”—‡–•™‘—Ž†„‡’”‘†—…‹‰ …Ž‡ƒ”Ž›Ǧ’‹–…Š‡† ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ ƒ– ƒ› ‰‹˜‡ –‹‡Ǥ Š‹• Šƒ’’‡• ™Š‡ –Š‡ „‘™‡† •–”‹‰• ƒ””‹˜‡ ƒ– ƒ”–‹Ƥ2 …‹ƒŽŠƒ”‘‹…Ƥ‰‡”‹‰•‘”–Š‡ƒ†‘Ž‹ƒ†‰—‹2 –ƒ” —•‡ ”‡‰—Žƒ” ”ƒ–Š‡” –Šƒ Šƒ”‘‹… Ƥ‰‡”‹‰•ǡ ™Š‹…Š‘Ž›”‡“—‹”‡•ƒ•Ž‹‰Š–†‡˜‹ƒ–‹‘ ˆ”‘–Š‡‹” ‘•–Ž›—’‹–…Š‡†ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽȋ–Š‡”‡‹••‘‡—’”‡2 †‹…–ƒ„‹Ž‹–›Ȍǡ•‘–Šƒ––Š‹•–”ƒ…‡ƒ„Ž‡’ƒ–Š™‹–Š‹–Š‡ ’‹‡…‡‡š‹•–•„ƒ•‹…ƒŽŽ›ƒ•ƒ„›’”‘†—…–‘ˆ–Š‡ȋ˜‡”›Ȍ •ƒŽŽǦ•…ƒŽ‡ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽǤ

‡ •ƒƒ…•ǣ Ǯƒ…–‹Ž‡ǯ ‹•ƒ”‡ƒŽŽ›‰‘‘†™‘”†Ǥ  Ž‹‡ –Š‡ ‹†‡ƒ –Šƒ– ›‘— …ƒ •‘‡Š‘™ Ǯˆ‡‡Žǯ –Š‡ •‘—† ‹ ’”‘†—…–‹‘ ‹ › ’‹‡…‡•Ǥ   Ƥ”•– „‡‰ƒ —•‹‰ ˆ”ƒ‰‹Ž‡ǡ —’”‡†‹…–ƒ„Ž‡ǡ “—‹‡– •‘—†• ƒ• ƒ ™ƒ› ‘ˆ Š‡‹‰Š–‡‹‰ –Š‡ ǮŽ‹˜‡‡••ǯ ‘ˆ ƒ ’‡”ˆ‘”ƒ…‡ Ȃ  ™ƒ•ǯ––Š‹‹‰•‘—…Š‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ–”‹…ƒŽ‹–›ȋ–Š‘—‰Š

ǯ•—”‡–Šƒ–…‘‡•‹–‘‹–Ȍǡ„—–”ƒ–Š‡”‘ˆƒ—•‹… –Šƒ– ‡š‹•–• ’”‹ƒ”‹Ž› ‹ ƒ Ž‹•–‡‡”ǯ• ’‡”…‡’–‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ—•‹…‹ƒ’Š›•‹…ƒŽŽ›…”‡ƒ–‹‰‹–Ǥ›˜‹‘Žƒ’‹‡…‡ǡ ./01%'$2/(3,4$)-!3$5$3-+"&$!6/03ǡ™ƒ•ƒ”‡ƒŽŽ›„‹‰ •–‡’ ‹ –Šƒ– ”‡•’‡…–Ǥ  –™ƒ• –Š‡ Ƥ”•– ’‹‡…‡ –Šƒ–  „—‹Ž– ‡–‹”‡Ž› ‘—– ‘ˆ –Š‡•‡ …‘…‡”•Ǥ   –Š‹ › Ž‘˜‡‘ˆ–Š‡•‡–›’‡•‘ˆ•‘—†• „‡…ƒ‡™ƒ›•–”‘2 ‰‡”ƒˆ–‡”–Š‹•’‹‡…‡–‘‘ȋ ǯ†—•‡†Ž‘–•‘ˆ…Ž‡ƒ”ǡ•–ƒ„Ž‡ •‘—†•‹‡˜‡”›’‹‡…‡’”‡˜‹‘—•Ž›ȌǢ „‡‰ƒ–‘‘2 –‹…‡–Š‡‘”‡‹‘–Š‡”—•‹…ǡƒ†ˆ‡Ž–”‡ƒŽŽ›‡š2 Š‡™‹†•™‡”‡ƒ‘–Š‡”…ŠƒŽŽ‡‰‡‹–Š‹•”‡•’‡…–ǣ …‹–‡†ƒ„‘—–„‡‰‹‹‰–‘‡š’Ž‘”‡–Š‡ƒ•ƒ‹†‘ˆ –Š‡”‡‹•ǯ–”‡ƒŽŽ›ƒ’‹–…ŠŽ‡••„ƒ•‡ˆ”‘™Š‹…Š…Ž‡ƒ”

!"#"$"%&'()*+,-.&/00)"&1+"


2 ‹‰Ǥ͝ƒȂ!"#$%&'(")*+,'-./*'0'*.123'/4"#*ȋͤ͜͜͞Ȍˆ‘”•‘Ž‘˜‹‘ŽƒǡǤͤ͞Ȃͤ͟Ǥ

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 –‘‡•‡‡”‰‡ ‹–Š‡•ƒ‡™ƒ›ƒ•–Š‡ „‘™‡†ƒ† ’Ž—…‡†•–”‹‰•ǡ•‘–Š‡›ƒ”‡ƒŽ•‘—•‡†–‘Š‡‹‰Š–‡ –Š‹••‡•‡‘ˆƒ‰ƒ’ǤŠ‡–Š‡›‡˜‡–—ƒŽŽ›‡–‡”‹–ǯ• ƒ‘„˜‹‘—•‹–”—•‹‘ǡƒˆƒ‹Ž‡†ƒ––‡’–ƒ–‹–‡‰”ƒ2 –‹‘ǡ ƒ† „› Šƒ˜‹‰ ‘Ž› –Š‡ ˆ‘” –Š‡ Žƒ•– –Š”‡‡ ‹—–‡•ȋƒŠ—‰‡’ƒ”–‘ˆ–Š‡’‹‡…‡’”‘’‘”–‹‘ƒ–‡Ž›Ȍǡ –Š‡ ‹‹–‹ƒŽǡ •–”‹‰Ǧ„ƒ•‡† ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ …‘‡• –‘ •‡‡ ‘”‡ƒ†‘”‡”‡‘–‡ǣ†‹•–ƒ…‡‡‡”‰‡•™‹–Š‹ƒ …‘•–ƒ–Ž›…‘•–”ƒ‹‡†‡˜‹”‘‡–Ǥ ǣŠ‡›‘—–ƒŽƒ„‘—–‹–‡‰”ƒ–‹‰•—…Š‹–‹ƒ–‡ ‰‡•–—”‡• ‹–‘ ƒ ˆ—…–‹‘‹‰ ™Š‘Ž‡ǡ ™Šƒ– ‡šƒ…–Ž› †‘‡•–Š‡Žƒ––‡”–‡”•‹‰‹ˆ›ǫ”‡›‘—”‡ˆ‡””‹‰–‘ ƒƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ™Š‘Ž‡ǡƒ†–Š‡–‡•‹‘–Šƒ–‡š‹•–•„‡2 –™‡‡Ž‘…ƒŽ‰‡•–—”‡ƒ†–Š‡˜ƒ”‹‡–›‘ˆ•—…Šƒ–‡”‹2 ƒŽ•‘–Š‡ƒ…”‘•…ƒŽ‡ǫ”ƒ”‡›‘—–ƒŽ‹‰ƒ„‘—– –Š‡ ƒ…‘—•–‹… ”‡Žƒ–‹‘•Š‹’ „‡–™‡‡ ‹…”‘•…‘’‹… •‘—†•ƒ†ƒ›•—…Š—Ž–‹’Ž‹…‹–›–Š‡›ƒ›ˆ‘”ǫ

!"#"$"%&'()*+,-.&/00)"&1+"

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3 ‡˜‹”‘‡–ƒ†‘–Š‹‰‘”‡Ǥ ǯ—…Š‘”‡ ‹–‡”‡•–‡† ‹ †‹•”—’–‹‰ ‘” ‡‰ƒ–‹‰ –Š‹• •‡•‡ ‘ˆ ‡…Ž‘•—”‡ „› …‘•–”—…–‹‰ ˆ‘”• –Šƒ– •‡‡ –‘ ’‘‹–‘—–™ƒ”†•ƒ•™‡ŽŽƒ•‹™ƒ”†•ǤŠ‹•‹‰Š–„‡ –Š”‘—‰Šƒ–‡Ž‡‘Ž‘‰‹…ƒŽ‘” ‹‘”‰ƒ‹…•–”—…–—”‡•ǡ‘”ǡ ƒ•™ƒ•‡š–”‡‡Ž›‹’‘”–ƒ––‘‡‹ƒ††ƒ”‡•• •™‡‡’•‹Ž‹‡ƒŠƒ†ǡ–Š”‘—‰Š•—‰‰‡•–‹‰ƪ—…–—2 ƒ–‹‰†‹•–ƒ…‡•„‡–™‡‡‹†‹˜‹†—ƒŽ‹•–”—‡–•‘” –‡š–—”‡•Ǥ–ƒ„ƒ•‹…Ž‡˜‡Žǡ–Š‡”‡‹•ƒŽ™ƒ›•‰‘‹‰–‘ „‡–Š‡“—‡•–‹‘‘ˆ™Š‡”‡–‘ˆ‘…—•›‘—”ƒ––‡–‹‘ ™‹–Š‹ ƒ ‡•‡„Ž‡ ‘ˆ –™‡Ž˜‡ —•‹…‹ƒ• ’Žƒ›‹‰ •‘ ‹–”‹…ƒ–‡Ž›ǡ ƒ† ǯ˜‡ ƒŽ”‡ƒ†› •’‘‡ ƒ„‘—– –Š‡ „›Ǧ’”‘†—…– ˆ‡‡Ž ‘ˆ –Š‡ ’‹–…Š‡† ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽ •Š‹ˆ–‹‰ ƒ”‘—†–Š‡‡•‡„Ž‡ƒ†–Š‡•‡•‡‘ˆ”‡‘–‡‡•• –Šƒ––Š‡™‹†•ƒơ‡…–Ǥ †‘ˆ‡‡Ž–Šƒ–•‘‡Š‘™–Š‡•‡ •ƒŽŽ‰‡•–—”‡•‹Š‡”‡–Ž›Šƒ˜‡–Š‡ƒ„‹Ž‹–›–‘•—‰2 ‰‡•–ƒ™‹†‡”…‘–‡š––Šƒ‹•‹‡†‹ƒ–‡Ž›‘„˜‹‘—•Ǥ ‡”Šƒ’• –Š‹• …‘‡• ˆ”‘ –Š‡ ƒ––—‹‰ ‡…‡••ƒ”› ˆ‘” –Š‡ Ž‹•–‡‡” –‘ ƒ’’”‘ƒ…Š •—…Š ’ƒ”ƒ‡–”‹…ƒŽŽ› …‘•‹•–‡–ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽǤ ™ƒ•–Š”‹ŽŽ‡†–‘Š‡ƒ”ƒˆ”‹‡† •ƒ›ƒˆ–‡”–Š‡…‘…‡”––Šƒ–Š‡Šƒ†‡˜‡”Ž‹•–‡‡†–‘ •—…ŠŽ‹‹–‡†’‹–…Š…‘–‡–•‘…ƒ”‡ˆ—ŽŽ›ǡƒ†ƒ›„‡ ™‹–Š –Š‹• ‹† ‘ˆ ƒ†Œ—•–‡–…‘‡• ƒ •‡•‡‘ˆ ƒ •’ƒ…‡„‡‹‰‘’‡‡†—’ǡƒ™‹†‡”ƒ™ƒ”‡‡••‘ˆ’‘•2 •‹„‹Ž‹–‹‡•Ǥ ǣ –Š‹–Š‹•‹••—‡‘ˆ…”‡ƒ–‹‰ƒ”‡•–”‹…–‡†•’ƒ…‡ǡ ƒ† ™Šƒ– –Šƒ– †‘‡• –‘ ‘—” ’‡”…‡’–—ƒŽȀ…‘‰‹–‹˜‡ ‡š’‡”‹‡…‡‘ˆ –Š‡‡˜‡–•™Š‹…Š –ƒ‡ ’Žƒ…‡ ‹ –Š‡ ’‹‡…‡ǡ‹•ƒ˜‡”›‹–‡”‡•–‹‰‹••—‡Ǥ ‘™ˆ‘”‡ǡ –Š‡‘‡–™Š‡–Š‡™‹†•‡–‡”ǡƒˆ–‡”–ƒ…‡–‹‰ ˆ‘”•‡˜‡”ƒŽ‹—–‡•™Š‹Ž‡–Š‡”‡•–‘ˆ–Š‡‡•‡„Ž‡ ’Žƒ›•ǡ„‘”†‡”•‘–Š‡…ƒ–ƒ•–”‘’Š‹…Ȃ–Š‡‹–”‘†—…2 –‹‘ ‘ˆ ƒ –‹„”‡ •‘ ”‡Žƒ–‹˜‡Ž› †‹˜‡”‰‡– ˆ”‘ –Š‡ ’ƒŽ‡––‡™Š‹…Š–Š‡’‹‡…‡Šƒ•’”‡•‡–‡†—’—–‘–Šƒ– ’‘‹–”‡ƒŽŽ›…”‡ƒ–‡•ƒ•‡•‡‘ˆ—’Š‡ƒ˜ƒŽȑ ‹‰Ǥ͞ǡ„‡2 Ž‘™ȒǤŠ‡‹”‘‹…–Š‹‰‹•–Šƒ–•—…Šƒ–‹„”ƒŽ•Š‹ˆ– …ƒ‡ƒ•‹Ž›‘……—”–‡–‹‡•ƒ‹—–‡‹‘•–—2 •‹…ˆ‘”ƒ…‘’ƒ”ƒ„Ž‡‡•‡„Ž‡ǡ™Š‹Ž‡Šƒ˜‹‰‘Ž› ‘‡Ǧ–‡–Š –Š‡ ‹’ƒ…– ȋ’‡”Šƒ’• †—‡ –‘ ƒ ‰‡‡”ƒŽ ‘˜‡”Ǧ•ƒ–—”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–‹„”‡ȌǤ ƒ•‡•‡ǡ#$,/,#'?; $)33@‹•ˆ‘”‡†ˆ”‘‘‡‡š–”‡‡Ž›†”ƒ™‘—–‹2 •–ƒ…‡‘ˆ !"#$%&#'()$*)"+,-)Ǥ    –Š‡‡†ǡƒˆ–‡” –Š‡•Š‘”–’‡”‹‘†‘ˆ‘˜‡”Žƒ’ǡ™Š‡‘Ž›–Š‡™‹†• ƒ”‡ Ž‡ˆ–ǡ ‘‡ ‹• ”‡ƒŽŽ› Ž‡ˆ– ™‹–Š –Š‹• •‡•‡ ‘ˆ †‹•2 –ƒ…‡„‡–™‡‡–Š‡–™‘‰”‘—’‹‰•ǡƒŽ‘•–ƒ•‹ˆƒ ‹’Ž‹…‹–…Šƒ•„‡–™‡‡–Š‡™‹†•ƒ†–Š‡”‡•–‘ˆ –Š‡‡•‡„Ž‡ȋƒ†‡—’‘ˆ˜ƒ”‹‘—•ˆ‘”•‘ˆ•–”‹‰• ƒ†’‡”…—••‹‘ȌŠƒ•„‡‡”‡˜‡ƒŽ‡†„›˜‹”–—‡‘ˆ–Š‡ …Š‘•‡ƒ–‡”‹ƒŽǤ

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6 ǣ ‰—‡••™Šƒ– ǯ•—‰‰‡•–‹‰‹•–Šƒ–ǡ„›—•‹‰ ƒ‹†‘ˆ‘–ƒ–‹‘™Š‹…Š•Š‘™•ƒ‰‹˜‡’‹–…Šƒ–ƒ ‰‹˜‡†›ƒ‹…™‹–Šƒ‰‹˜‡ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ–‹‘ǡ–Š‡™‘” ”‹•• „‡‹‰ ‹•…‘•–”—‡† ƒ• •—‰‰‡•–‹‰ –Š‡ ‡š‹•2 –‡…‡‘ˆƒƤƒŽ”‡•—Ž–ǡ™Š‹…Š–Š‡’‡”ˆ‘”‡”—•– •‡‡–‘…‘˜‡›™‹–Š–Š‡‰”‡ƒ–‡•–’‘••‹„Ž‡Ƥ†‡ŽǦ ‹–›ǡ ”ƒ–Š‡” –Šƒ ‘ơ‡”‹‰ ƒ •‡– ‘ˆ ƒ…–‹‘• ™Š‹…Šǡ ™Š‡ …‘„‹‡† ˆƒ‹–Šˆ—ŽŽ›ǡ Ž‡ƒ† –‘ ƒ ‘—–…‘‡ ™Š‹…Š ‹• ƒ– Ž‡ƒ•– ’ƒ”–‹ƒŽŽ› ‹†‡–‡”‹ƒ–‡ ȋ™Š‹…Š ‹•Š‘™ ‹–‡”’”‡––Š‡‹–‡–‘ˆ›‘—”‘–ƒ–‹‘ȌǤ • –Š‹•ƒ‘„•‡”˜ƒ–‹‘–Šƒ–›‘—†‹•ƒ‰”‡‡™‹–Šǫ  ǣ ™‘—Ž†ƒ‰”‡‡–Šƒ––Š‹• ‹•ƒ ‹••—‡ ‹ !"#$%&' ()*+"!"*,,ȋˆ‘”•‘Ž‘…Žƒ”‹‡–Ȍǡ„‡…ƒ—•‡‘ˆ–Š‡•‡‡2 ‹‰Ž› ‡Ž‘†‹…Ȁ’‘‹–‹ŽŽ‹•–‹… ƒ…–‹˜‹–› Ȃ ‹– Ž‘‘• Ž‹‡ ‹–ǯ•ƒ„‘—––Š‡’‹–…Š‡•ȑ ‹‰Ǥ͟ǡ„‡Ž‘™ȒǤ ƒ˜‹‰–Š‹• ˜‡”›†‡Ƥ‡†•…ƒŽ‡‘ˆ†›ƒ‹…•ƒŽ•‘•—‰‰‡•–••‘‡ †‡‰”‡‡‘ˆ’”‡†‹…–ƒ„‹Ž‹–› ‹’‡”ˆ‘”ƒ…‡Ǥ  –ǯ•†‹ˆ2 Ƥ…—Ž––‘‹ƒ‰‹‡ƒ‘”‡•—‹–ƒ„Ž‡‘–ƒ–‹‘–Š‘—‰ŠǤ ‰ƒ‹ǡ ˆ‡‡Ž–Šƒ–Šƒ˜‹‰ƒ•‡•‡‘ˆƒ‰‘ƒŽ‹–Š‡ƒ…– ‘ˆ•‘—†’”‘†—…–‹‘ ‹•…”—…‹ƒŽ ˆ‘” ›™‘”ǡ•‘ƒ ’—”‡Ž› ’”‡•…”‹’–‹˜‡ ‘–ƒ–‹‘ ™‘—Ž† „‡ —ƒ’’‡ƒŽ2 ‹‰–‘‡ǡ„—–•‘‡•‘”–‘ˆ…Ž‡ƒ”’”‡•…”‹’–‹‘ȋƒ• ™‡ŽŽƒ•†‡•…”‹’–‹‘Ȍ•‡‡•‹†‡ƒŽǤ ‘”–Š‹•”‡ƒ•‘ǡ  †‘ǯ––Š‹–Š‡”‡ǯ•–Š‡•ƒ‡’”‘„Ž‡‹-./"/-,0' .*##111ǣ™‹–ŠƒŽŽ–Š‡‘Ǧ™‹†•–Š‡”‡ǯ•ƒ‘„˜‹‘—• ”‡Žƒ–‹‘–‘–Š‡’Žƒ›‹‰–‡…Š‹“—‡•™‹–Š‹–Š‡‘2 –ƒ–‹‘ǡ ‹ –Šƒ– –Š‡› ƒ’“—‹–‡…Ž‡ƒ”Ž›‘–‘ƒ Ƥ2 ‰‡”„‘ƒ”†Ȁ‡›„‘ƒ”†ǡƒ† •—’’‘•‡ –Š‡™‹†•ƒ”‡ ‹’‡ŽŽ‡†–‘ƒ–…Š–Š‡‡•–ƒ„Ž‹•Š‡†•‘—†™‘”Ž†„› ”‡ƒŽŽ›”‹•‹‰–Š‡‹”‘–‡•‘–•‘—†‹‰‹‘”†‡”–‘ ’Žƒ›•—ƥ…‹‡–Ž›“—‹‡–Ž›Ǥ

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1

Richard Glover

Michael Pisaro’s pi and numerical representation

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1

Chikako Morishita

‘Ma’ - heart of silence !"""#$%&'($)$*%&+%(,'-.)$*%&/%&$(0(1/%)$-&%-2(%),,(3)#4.%&/%-2(%(5(+642#$*)$*%,&6 ,($-%7(.&$3%3)0-)$4-)&$0%#$3%)$%7(-8(($%-2(%9-2)0%#$3%-2#-:%8&+13; 1+&43"&ST43&$(D"<:"*.&43"&(6"+5+9&+5934&(?&37<?&STTN.&43"&XK/R/1$&"+0"<:-"&6"*?(*<";&#573,*;& \,**"44=0&56-'(')*"3*#.-*1"%#.&LMNNSAN`PE&a)*5+9&43"&*"3",*0,-&6*(7"00.&/&06(G"&>543&R,40)G5&1;,<)A *,.&43"&"+0"<:-"=0&!"#"&6-,8"*.&>3(&50&,&',6,+"0"&<)0575,+&7)**"+4-8&:,0";&5+&[)04*,-5,E&a)*5+9&43"0"& 7(+D"*0,45(+0.&03"&6(0";&,+&5+4"*"045+9&J)"045(+&>3573&*,50";&,&+)<:"*&(?&500)"0V&Q>3,4&50&43"&*(-"&(?& ƒ…‘†—…–‘”ǫdzŠƒ–†ƒ—”ƒ™ƒ•ƒ††”‡••‹‰‹–Š‹••–ƒ–‡‡–™ƒ•–Š‡‹••—‡‘ˆŠ‘™’‡”ˆ‘”‡”•ƒ’A 6*(,73&43"&4"<6(*,-&,06"74&(?&<)057,-&6"*?(*<,+7"E&[0&,&',6,+"0"&7(<6(0"*.&/&,<&5+4"*"04";&5+&3(>& ‘‡ǯ•’‡”…‡’–‹‘ƒ†Šƒ†Ž‹‰‘ˆ–‹‡‹•‹ƪ—‡…‡†„›–Š‡—‹“—‡•‡•‹„‹Ž‹–›–Š‡‹”…—Ž–—”ƒŽ„ƒ…‰”‘—†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–‘…‘’Ž‡–‡Ž›Ƥš–Š‡’‡”ˆ‘”‡”ǯ•”‡ƒŽ‹•ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ–Š‡ 07(*"E&H350&75*7)<04,+7"&*"J)5*"0&43"&6"*?(*<"*&4(& ,66-8&43"5*&6"*0(+,-&0"+05:5-548&4(&,--&,06"740&(?&43"& <)057.&7*",45+9&,&054),45(+&5+&>3573&43"&6"*?(*<"*& ,+;&43"&65"7"&,*"&<"*9";E

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1;,<)*,&*"?"*0&4(&4350&7(+7"64&(?&/0&,0&:"5+9&43"& "00"+7"&(?&4*,;545(+,-&',6,+"0"&<)057.&,+;&54&,--(>0& 3"*&4(&U:"7(<"&<)057&540"-?=&;)*5+9&,&6"*?(*<,+7"& (?&K5<=0&65"7"E&H350&*573-8&,<:59)()0&4"*<&7,**5"0& :(43&(:B"745D"&,+;&0):B"745D"&<",+5+90E&[0&,&;"A !(<6(0"*& K5C,& K5<.& >3(& 3,0& >(*G";& >543& 1;,A 07*5645(+&(?&*",-548.&/0&:,057,--8&5+;57,4"0&Q43"&U5+A —”ƒ ”‡‰—Žƒ”Ž› ‘˜‡” –Š‡ Žƒ•– Ƥˆ–‡‡›‡ƒ”•ǡ —•‡†ƒ 4"*D,-=&>3573&-5"0&:"4>""+&4>(&L(*&<(*"P&06,45,-&(*& ?(*<& (?& 4,:-,4)*"& +(4,45(+& 5+& 3"*& 7(<6(0545(+& –‡’‘”ƒŽ–Š‹‰•Ȁ‡˜‡–•ǤdzO&/+&<)057,-&4"*<0.&54&5+;5A $%&'(')*+"%,-&LMNNOP&?(*&!"#"&,+;&D(57"&L(+"&6"*A ?(*<"*PE&&K5<&04,4"0&43,4&4350&+(4,45(+&Q5+;57,4"0& S&&XA<,5-&"@73,+9"&>543&K5<.&KE.&WT43&$(D"<:"*&STTN 43"&04*5+9& +)<:"*& L+(4&43"&4)+5+9P&,+;&43"&9"0A W&&/+&43"&07(*".&+)<:"*0&,*"&5+;57,4";&:8&!35+"0"&5;"(A 4)*,-&<(D"<"+40&43,4&"-,:(*,4"&43"&>,8&43"&04*5+9& 9*,630&?(*&MAMWE 4 Lim, L., Burning house (Milan, 2000) ‹••‘—†‡†ƒ†‹ƪ‡…–‡†ǤdzM&R3"&,-0(&"@6-,5+0&43,4& O&&F5-9*5<.&#E&\E.&Q/+4"*D,-0&LU10=P&5+&R6,7"&,+;&45<"V&?()+A M&&K5<.&KE.&$%&'(')*."%,-&L%5-,+.&STTTP

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2 C,:"0&:6"&08-"+C"&?":5""+&,+;&58:68+&0()+;0.&568C6& ‡”•‹Ž‡…‡ȋƒ•–ƒ–‡‘ˆ”‡…‡’–‹˜‡‘’‡‡••ȌǤdz2&3-0"4 8:0"-@& *"-,:"0& :(& *6B:69.& :"9A(& ,+;& :898+GJ& U6"& 56"*".&789&6,0&0:,:";<&& C(+:"9A(*,*B&,*C68:"C:&P*,:,&/0(>,V8I0&&;"0C*8A:8(+& =(*&9".&:6"&!"#&&(*&>8:6"*&80&,+&"9?-"9&(@&6(5&:6"& ‘ˆ–Š‡†‹ơ‡”‡…‡•„‡–™‡‡ ƒ’ƒ‡•‡ƒ†‡•–‡” 0"+0)()0&,+;&:6"&A6B08C,-&5(*-;0&C(++"C:&58:6&:6"& C(+C"A:8(+0&(@&0A,C"4:89"&6"-A0&:(&8--)0:*,:"&56,:& +)98+()0&D&6(5&E80C"*,-&"FA"*8"+C"&80&8+:"*:58+";& 1;,9)*,&*"@"*0&:(&,0&H899",0)*,?-"&0A,C"4:89"I< 58:6&:6"&0)?:-"&*",-90&(@&"+"*GB.&(*&:6"&H8+:"*A-,B&(@& & :,C:8-8:B&,+;&;*",9IJKL W68-"&8+&:6"&W"0:&:6"&0A,C"4:89"&C(+C"A:&G,E"&*80"& –‘ ƒ„•‘Ž—–‡Ž› Ƥš‡† ‹ƒ‰‡• ‘ˆ ƒ Š‘‘‰‡‡‘—• ƒ† ‹Ƥ‹–‡…‘–‹——ǡƒ•’”‡•‡–‡†‹‡•…ƒ”–‡•ǡ‹ ƒ4 A,+&0A,C"&,+;&:89"&5"*"& +"E"*& @)--B&0"A,*,:";& ?):& 5"*"& C(+C"8E";& ,0& C(**"-,:8E"& ,+;& (9+8A*"0"+:J& X& YA,C"& C()-;& +"E"*& ?"& A"*C"8E";& 8+;"A"+;"+:-B& (@& :6"&"-"9"+:&(@&:89"&Z,+;[&:89"&5,0&+(:&,?0:*,C:";& ƒ• ƒ ”‡‰—Žƒ–‡† Š‘‘‰‡‡‘—• ƪ‘™ǡ „—– ”ƒ–Š‡” ™ƒ• ?"-8"E";& :(& "F80:& (+-B& 8+& *"-,:8(+& :(& 9(E"9"+:0& 8+& 0A,C"J&X&0A,C"&5,0&*"C(G+8>";&(+-B&8+&8:0&*"-,:8(+&:(& –‹‡Ǧƪ‘™ǤS

Ma – the heart of silence, as well as that of traditional Japanese music, may be seen as intervals in space or time which empties the objective/subjective world. In this space lies an experience beyond the boundaries of sounds and silence, instruments and performers, physicality and sensibility, an experience such as Odamura’s in the act of performing Lim’s piece, beyond this and that world, is the transcendent aspect of the musical performance.

P0&,+&"FA"*8"+:8,-&0)?\"C:.&73&C,+&?"&:6()G6:&(@& ,0& :6"& 8+:"*E,-& (*& G,A& ?":5""+& (?\"C:0& (*& "E"+:0& 568C6&*"E",-0&,&*8C6&*",-8:B&(@&A*"0"+C"J&1;,9)*,& ;"0C*8?"0&73&8+&:680&C(+:"F:&,0&O,&+"G,:8E"&0A,C"& ƤŽŽ‡† „› ‹ƒ‰‹ƒ–‹‘™Š‹…Š…‘–ƒ‹•ƒ™‡ƒŽ–Š‘ˆ ‡‘–‹‘dzƒ†Dz‹ŽŽ—‹ƒ–‡•ƒ’‘•‹–‹˜‡•’ƒ…‡„›‹–• ‡š‹•–‡…‡dzǤ ‘–Š‡”™‘”†•ǡ73&80&,0&,+&"FA"*8"+:8,-& 0A,C"&568C6&"E(V"0&,&6"8G6:"+";&0"+0"&(@&*",-8:B& Ȃ –Š‡ •‹—Ž–ƒ‡‘—• ƒ™ƒ”‡‡•• ‘ˆ –Š‡ —‹Ƥ…ƒ–‹‘ ?":5""+&@(*9&,+;&8:0&,?0"+C".&568C6&80&A"*C"8E";& :6*()G6&:6"&899";8,CB&(@&"FA"*8"+C"J] 93& 80&G*,A68C,--B& *"A*"0"+:";& ?B& 8:0& !68+"0"& 8;"(4 G*,9&;"A8C:8+G&:6"&C6,*,C:"*&@(*&G,:"&(*&;((*&R7%#T& 58:6&:6"&C6,*,C:"*&@(*&0)+&R2"T&(*&9((+&R-)&:"T&A,004 8+G&:6*()G6J&JJJ&93&C,+&?"&"FA"*8"+C";&,0&?(:6&,&0:,:4 ‹…ƒ†ƒ†›ƒ‹…•–ƒ–‡•‹…‡–Š‡‰ƒ–‡‹•ƒƤš‡†‘„Œ‡…– ,+;&:6"&0)+&(*&9((+&,*"&9(E8+G&?(;8"0J&U6"&0)+^& 9((+& 068+8+G& :6*()G6& :6"& G,:"& ,-0(& A*"40)AA(0"0& •‘‡–Š‹‰‹˜‹•‹„Ž‡ƒ†‹†‡Ƥƒ„Ž‡ǡ•‘‡–Š‹‰ƒ„4 0:*,C:&B":&0(9"6(5&C(+C*":"J_

& =(*& 789.&:6"& :%-%& 80&,&@(*9&(@& 8+0:*)9"+:& :6,:&80&O,?-"&:(&C6,*:&,+;&*"G80:"*&E"*B&0)?:-"&-"E4 ‡Ž• ‘ˆ ˜‹„”ƒ–‹‘ ƒ† ‹ƪ‡…–‹‘dzƒ† ‹ –Š‡ —•‹… OA6B08C,-&G"0:)*"0&Z,*"[&:6"&():5,*;&08G+0&(@&,+&8+4 S&&`8-G*89.&#J&aJ.&O/+:"*E,-0&RH93IT&8+&YA,C"&,+;&:89"<&@()+4 †ƒ–‹‘•ˆ‘”ƒ”‡Ž‹‰‹‘Ǧƒ‡•–Š‡–‹…’ƒ”ƒ†‹‰‹ ƒ’ƒdzǡ;")-%+5( %1(+/4"0"%#).&NQ4M&R="?*),*B.&K2_ST.&AJNQSJ ]&&`8-G*89.&#J&aJ.&O/+:"*E,-0&RH93IT&8+&YA,C"&,+;&:89"<&@()+4 †ƒ–‹‘•ˆ‘”ƒ”‡Ž‹‰‹‘Ǧƒ‡•–Š‡–‹…’ƒ”ƒ†‹‰‹ ƒ’ƒdzǡ;")-%+5( %1(+/4"0"%#).&NQ4M&R="?*),*B.&K2_ST.&AJNSS4N]SJ& _&&Y:(CV.&!J.&OU6"&8+:"*E,-&?":5""+JJJ&:6"&0A,C"&?":5""+JJJ<& ‘…‡’–•‘ˆ–‹‡ƒ†•’ƒ…‡‹•‹ƒƒ”–ƒ†’‡”ˆ‘”ƒ…‡dzǡ <"7/(3#'(),3*/("#(=)"3#(*%#-/>-.(?%#-/7,%+3+5('3#*/("#( =)"3(RNLLQT.&AJ2J

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1

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It is of the utmost importance that the performer treats the voice part as an autonomous domain. The voice part should reflect the vocal range of the performer, and one should not attempt to match that of the instrument. However, due to register and contour, an audible intervallic relationship between the voice and bass clarinet may be propitious in some instances.

The voice part is notated with the indeterminate, 3-lined staff. throughout, with the exception of measure 52, where traditional bass clef is used, and where specific pitches are indicated.

The voice part is largely without dynamic markings. Dynamic levels should more-or-less agree with those pertaining to the bass clarinet staff.

The voice part is in an almost constant state of glissando. The movement of the voice through its various registers is indicated by a thick black line, which also aids in conveying duration of a note. A wavy line indicates that the performer should create an undulating vocal tone with the use of the diaphragm [the pitch of the voice should not undulate, but, rather, the quality of the sound itself] [ex: measure 34]. A series of grace notes issuing from the voice part requires the performer to execute fast, sharp iterations from within the throat while executing the notated gesture of the voice part [ex: measures 124-5]. The voice should terminate at the rhythmically specified impulse, regardless of the notated duration of that impulse.

The integral voice part is notated on a three-lined staff, with each of the three lines, from top to bottom, indicating the performer’s absolute vocal ceiling, a comfortable middle, and the absolute lowest range possible, with indeterminate vocal areas in the spaces between. The unpredictability inherent in this arrangement is quite deliberate - not only will vocal effects differ between performers and performances, but will also be varied within one performance. The performer should not be concerned with refining definitive highest and lowest possible notes which can be reliably accessed throughout the piece. Instead, these tessituras should be constantly circumscribed by the other musical material happening simultaneously [such as range in the instrument, type of flutter tongue, etc...]. When singing, the mouth should never leave the mouthpiece of the instrument, even when there is no music for the bass clarinet itself. The voice should always sound through the bass clarinet.

2] Voice

In the score, a thick black line is presented as a visual aid for the duration and the exact rhythmic execution for each flutter effect. The flutter effect should terminate at the rhythmically specified impulse, regardless of the notated duration of that impulse.

Since these flutter techniques are autonomous from other parameters, they will frequently contradict phrasing from the ‘bass clarinet’ staff. In such cases, the flutter tongue phrasing should take precedence over that of the clarinet staff [meaning, the rhythm specified on the flutter tongue staff should re-phrase the instrument’s gestures, though not exclude any of its material]. Conversely, the phrasing of the growl effect can be forfeited in favor of the phrasing pertaining to the clarinet stave [since the tongue is free to execute the specified attacks]. Furthermore, the flutter technique staff may not re-phrase the material of the bass clarinet staff if the notes on the clarinet staff are accompanied by specific attack markings [such as accents, exaggerated accents, staccato or tenuto markings]. In such cases, the tongue should execute the attacks at the rhythmic impulses specified by the bass clarinet staff while maintaining the flutter technique. The physical awkwardness and resulting aural distortion of the material implicit in this is situation is quite deliberate and intended.

- ‘growl’ - produced in the throat. The resultant effect on the sound should be dark, hidden, and subtle. Notated on the bottom line.

- traditional flutter tongue - produced through a rolling ‘r’ effect with the front of the tongue. The resultant effect on the sound should be very bright, present, and harsh. Notated on the top line.

There are two distinct types of flutter techniques specified in the score:

1] Flutter Techniques

The bass clarinet material is notated on four autonomous staves: 1] Flutter techniques; 2] Voice; 3] Fingered pitches; 4] Embouchure position upon the reed/mouthpiece.

Due to the varying degrees of pressure put upon the reed by both the jaw and teeth, the performer may choose to use a fiberglass or plastic reed in place of a wooden one.

Bass Clarinet

Duration is approximately 10’30”

Vibrato should never be employed.

The score is in C. In the parts, the bas clarinet is notated a major ninth above the sounding pitch. The piccolo trumpet is notated a minor seventh below the sounding pitch.

This work is notated on four rhythmically independent [or, at times, quasi-independent] staves per instrument: one of which can be thought of as a ‘traditional’ staff [which prescribes the pitches, rhythms, and dynamics of the sound produced through the instruments themselves], while the other two specify and isolate techniques that alter the aural result produced by the first staff.

Performance Notes

Commissioned by the ELISION Ensemble, and dedicated to Richard Haynes, Tristram Williams, Benjamin Marks and Daryl Buckley

Disfix [2008] for bass clarinet, piccolo trumpet and trombone

2


A circled ‘x’ on a note’s stem indicates slap tongue.

- ‘growl’ - produced in the throat. The resultant effect on the sound should be dark, hidden, and subtle. Notated on the middle line.

- traditional flutter tongue - produced through a rolling ‘r’ effect with the front of the tongue. The resultant effect on the sound should be very bright, present, and harsh. Notated on the top line.

There are two distinct types of flutter techniques specified in the score:

A] Flutter Techniques:

This three-lined staff indicates both flutter techniques [the top two lines] and the left hand’s positions in conjunction with the Harmon mute [the bottom line]

1] Flutter Techniques/Left Hand

The piccolo trumpet material is notated on four autonomous staves: 1] Flutter techniques/Left hand [in conjunction with the Harmon mute]; 2] Voice; 3] Fingered pitches; 4] Embouchure.

The Harmon mute is the only mute used in this piece.

Piccolo Trumpet

4] The space above the top line indicates that the mouth should be placed at the very tip of the reed and mouthpiece. The resultant tone should be rather pale and weak, and should leave the notated pitch and normal timbre reasonably in-tact. In isolated instances, this is illustrated through a hollow circle [as above]:

3] The space between these two lines indicates respective positions upon the mouthpiece. The aural result should combine elements of the two other positions: while there should be a clearly audible distortion of timbre and a rich spectrum of pitches, the notated pitch should still be audible, almost as a fundamental. In isolated instances, this is indicated through a half-filled-in circle:

2] The bottom line indicates that as much of the mouthpiece as possible should be in the mouth [that is, before the piece that holds the reed in place]. The resultant pitch material should be highly unpredictable, and should bear no aural relation to the fingered pitch[es]. In isolated instances, this is indicate through a solid circle:

1] The top line indicates the normal position, and implies that the notated pitch on the third staff should be the sounding pitch [unless, of course, if teeth tones are being employed]. In isolated instances, this position is illustrated through a hollow circle:

This two-lined staff indicates four positions one’s mouth is to be placed upon the reed and mouthpiece. Although this is usually illustrated by a thick black line, isolated instances are displayed through small circles:

4] Embouchure position upon the reed/mouthpiece

This piece employs a four and one half tessitura from [sounding] B-flat 2 to F 6. It is entirely possible [and expected] that pitches above this will be produced by virtue of teeth tones and through the sonic ramifications of the fourth staff.

Double-Neighbor Trill - this is a trill incorporating two trill pitches aside from the ‘main’ pitch. Trill evenly among the given pitches, creating no hierarchy between them. Furthermore, no perceivable pattern among the pitches should be created. [Ex: measures 77-78]

Teeth Pressure The amount of pressure to be put upon the reed from the teeth is indicated through upside-down triangles issuing from a note [usually from the bass clarinet staff]. These teeth tones will alter the pitch, timbre, and register of the fingered pitch quite drastically. The duration for which the performer is employing teeth tones is indicated by a dotted horizontal line. If no dotted line is provided, the teeth tone only pertains to the pitch it is connected to. Similarly, an arrow from one degree of pressure to another indicates a gradual transition. When employing teeth tones and moving from one reed/mouthpiece position to another, it is expected that the performer will drag their teeth along the reed, making no adjustments to the degree of pressure. Teeth-tone smorzato is indicated as a tremolo between the two degrees of teeth pressure.

Jaw Pressure - Jaw pressure is indicated through small circles that are attached to a note [usually on the bass clarinet staff]. A hollow circle indicates a normal amount of jaw pressure; a solid circle indicates a very heavy amount of jaw pressure; a half-filled-in circle indicates a slight increase in jaw pressure. Smorzato is expressed through a tremolo between two of these positions. When between normal and heavy jaw pressure, smorzato should be rather extreme, causing wide undulations in pitch and, depending on concurrent strata, a large amount of distortion of timbre.

An ‘x’ on a note’s stem indicates an exaggerated tongue attack.

This staff indicates the pitches to be fingered on the bass clarinet. The resulting pitches will not always be the notated pitches, depending on the situational culmination between various strata. Regardless, the notated pitches should always be fingered.

3] Fingered Pitches/Bass Clarinet Staff

3

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-left hand is not covering the opening at all

- left hand is slightly covering the opening

!"#"$"%&'()*+,-.&/00)"&1+"

-MUTE OFF

-INSERT STEM

-REMOVE STEM

A note head with a slash through it indicates split tones [ex: measure 32]

1] The tongue temporarily blocks airflow to the instrument, and subsequently ‘releases’ it, resulting in a very loud, sudden pitch. 2] The employment of a very plosive, pursed embouchure, whereby the lips temporarily block airflow to the instrument, and subsequently ‘releases’ it, resulting in a very loud, sudden pitch.

An ‘x’ on a note’s stem indicates an explosive attack which can be produced using one of two ways:

This staff indicates the pitches to be fingered on the piccolo trumpet. The resulting pitches will not always be the notated pitches, depending on the situational culmination between various strata. Regardless, the notated pitches should always be fingered.

3] Fingered Pitches/Piccolo Trumpet Staff

It is of the utmost importance that the performer treats the voice part as an autonomous domain. The voice part should reflect the vocal range of the performer, and one should not attempt to match that of the instrument. However, due to register and contour, an audible intervallic relationship between the voice and bass clarinet may be propitious in some instances.

The voice part is largely without dynamic markings. Dynamic levels should more-or-less agree with those pertaining to the piccolo trumpet staff.

The voice part is in an almost constant state of glissando. The movement of the voice through its various registers is indicated by a thick black line, which also aids in conveying duration of a note. A wavy line indicates that the performer should create an undulating vocal tone with the use of the diaphragm [the pitch of the voice should not undulate, but, rather, the quality of the sound itself ] [ex: measure 45]. A series of grace notes issuing from the voice part requires the performer to execute fast, sharp iterations from within the throat while executing the notated gesture of the voice part [ex: measures 128]. The voice should terminate at the rhythmically specified impulse, regardless of the notated duration of that impulse.

The integral voice part is notated on a three-lined staff, with each of the three lines, from top to bottom, indicating the performer’s absolute vocal ceiling, a comfortable middle, and the absolute lowest range possible, with indeterminate vocal areas in the spaces between. The unpredictability inherent in this arrangement is quite deliberate - not only will vocal effects differ between performers and performances, but will also be varied within one performance. The performer should not be concerned with refining definitive highest and lowest possible notes which can be reliably accessed throughout the piece. Instead, these tessituras should be constantly circumscribed by the other musical material happening simultaneously [such as range in the instrument, type of flutter tongue, etc...]. When singing, the mouth should never leave the mouthpiece of the instrument, even when there is no music for the piccolo trumpet itself. The voice should always sound through the trumpet.

2] Voice

The piece begins with the Harmon mute on, with the stem inserted.

-MUTE ON

Insertions, removals, and other instructions concerning the Harmon mute are indicated in boxed text thusly:

An arrow between two positions indicates a gradual transition from one to the other in the duration specified. The absence of an arrow indicates no transition, and changes in positions should be sudden and instantaneous at their rhythmically specified impulses.

When a rest appears in the ‘left hand’ material, the last hand position indicated before the rest is to be maintained. This is especially important after tremolos between two positions. Usually, it the position to be maintained is ‘open.’

Tremolos between two of the left hand indications are to be executed as rapidly as possible.

- left hand is completely covering the opening

The following symbols are used to indicate the position of the left hand upon the Harmon mute:

B] Left Hand Positions [in conjunction with the Harmon mute]:

In the score, a thick black line is presented as a visual aid for the duration and the exact rhythmic execution for each flutter effect. The flutter effect should terminate at the rhythmically specified impulse, regardless of the notated duration of that impulse.

Since these flutter techniques are autonomous from other parameters, they will frequently contradict phrasing from the ‘piccolo trumpet’ staff. In such cases, the flutter tongue phrasing should take precedence over that of the trumpet staff [meaning, the rhythm specified on the flutter tongue staff should re-phrase the instrument’s gestures, though not exclude any of its material]. Conversely, the phrasing of the growl effect can be forfeited in favor of the phrasing pertaining to the trumpet stave [since the tongue is free to execute the specified attacks]. Furthermore, the flutter technique staff may not re-phrase the material of the trumpet staff if the notes on this staff are accompanied by specific attack markings [such as accents, exaggerated accents, staccato or tenuto markings]. In such cases, the tongue should execute the attacks at the rhythmic impulses specified by the piccolo trumpet staff while maintaining the flutter technique. The physical awkwardness and resulting aural distortion of the material implicit in this is situation is quite deliberate and intended.

[Piccolo Trumpet - Flutter Techniques continued]

4


- ‘growl’ - produced in the throat. The resultant effect on the sound should be dark, hidden, and subtle. Notated on the middle line.

- traditional flutter tongue - produced through a rolling ‘r’ effect with the front of the tongue. The resultant effect on the sound should be very bright, present, and harsh. Notated on the top line.

There are two distinct types of flutter techniques specified in the score:

A] Flutter Techniques:

This three-lined staff indicates both flutter techniques [the top two lines] and the left hand’s positions in conjunction with the Harmon mute [the bottom line]

1] Flutter Techniques/Left Hand

The trombone material is notated on four autonomous staves: 1] Flutter techniques/Left hand [in conjunction with the Harmon mute]; 2] Voice; 3] Trombone Staff; 4] F-Trigger.

The Harmon mute is the only mute used in this piece.

Trombone

4] Bottom line - this indicates an extruding and ‘rolled out’ embouchure, and is employed to produce extremely low [as low as possible] pedal tones. Gradual transitions [or “glissandi”] from this position to others is not expected [or desired] to sound clean and smooth. The physical and aural awkwardness in re-adjusting one’s embouchure from this position to another while maintaining a sound through the instrument is quite deliberate and desired. In isolated instances, this is indicated with a solid circle:

3] Middle line - this indicates a slight ‘loosening’ of the embouchure, and should produce a pitch lower than the notated pitch, but within the same range. It is desirable that the resultant pitch is non-tempered/microtonal. In isolated instances, this position is indicated with a half-filled- in circle:

2] Top line - this indicates the use of a normal embouchure, and should be understood as variant depending on the pitch and range specified in the third staff. In isolated instances, this position is indicated with a hollow circle:

1] Above the staff - this indicates the use of an extremely pursed and ‘rolled in’ embouchure, and is employed to produce extremely high partials. This differs from the arrow note-head of the third staff in that the desired fingering[s] to be used in combination with this are indicated in the third staff. The resultant pitch[es] should be rather unpredictable. In isolated instances, this position is indicated with a hollow circle:

This three-lined staff indicates four types of embouchure to be used, from extremely pursed and ‘rolled in’ to extruding and ‘rolled out’. When nothing is indicated, the performer is to use a ‘normal’ embouchure.

4] Embouchure

3] Embouchure + fingers + tongue - notated as a regular glissando with a two series of grace note iterations both ABOVE and BELOW the figure. Whereas the first two glissandi should be rather unbroken ascendant and descendant gestures, this figure requires the tongue to execute rapid, staccato iterations in the shape of the glissando [ex: measure 29 for a uni-directional glissando; measure 30 for a multi-directional glissando, indicated by staccato marks].

2] Embouchure + fingers - notated as a regular glissando with a series of grace note iterations ABOVE the figure. While the embouchure should behave as it would in the first type of glissando, the grace note iterations require one to rapidly depress the valves with the fingers, one finger at a time, creating no pattern or hierarchy of depressed valves [ex: measure 7].

1] Embouchure only - notated as a regular glissando, use only adjustments in the embouchure to execute the glissando. Finger should only be used to facilitate the initial and arrival pitches of the glissando [ex: measure 11]. If the glissando arrives at an arrow note-head indicated extremely high upper partials, use the fingering of the initial pitch in the glissando [ex: measure 5].

There are three distinct types of glissandi for the trumpet:

- indicates extremely low pedal tones, and can be achieved with the lower lip extruding from under the mouthpiece; a very ‘rolled-out’ embouchure.

- indicates extremely high upper partials, and can be achieved through a very tight, pursed, ‘rolled-in’ embouchure.

An arrow note-head indicates the highest or lowest pitch possible. Use whatever fingering will facilitate this best. This is similar to the utility of the fourth staff.

Double-Neighbor Trill - this is a trill incorporating two trill pitches aside from the ‘main’ pitch. Trill evenly among the given pitches, creating no hierarchy between them. Furthermore, no perceivable pattern among the pitches should be created. [Ex: measure 7]

[Piccolo Trumpet staff continued]

5

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-left hand is not covering the opening at all

- left hand is slightly covering the opening

!"#"$"%&'()*+,-.&/00)"&1+" -MUTE OFF

-INSERT STEM

-REMOVE STEM

This work employs two types of continuous or quasi-continuous slides between two notes: glissando and portamendo. Portamento requires one to ‘simulate’ a glissando between two notes too distant in range to be connected through a true glissando. This can be achieved through simultaneously adjusting one’s embouchure and the slide. Portamento should not sound as clean and pure as a natural glissando - a chaotic and disarranged transition from one register to another is desired. In most cases, portamento passages will be obvious to the performer as they generally span intervals larger than an octave. In both glissandi and portamenti, arrival notes should never be articulated, unless specific articulation is given.

A note head with a slash through it indicates split tones [ex: measures 109-10].

3] Trombone Staff

It is of the utmost importance that the performer treats the voice part as an autonomous domain. The voice part should reflect the vocal range of the performer, and one should not attempt to match that of the instrument. However, due to register and contour, an audible intervallic relationship between the voice and bass clarinet may be propitious in some instances.

The voice part is largely without dynamic markings. Dynamic levels should more-or-less agree with those pertaining to the trombone staff.

The voice part is in an almost constant state of glissando. The movement of the voice through its various registers is indicated by a thick black line, which also aids in conveying duration of a note. A wavy line indicates that the performer should create an undulating vocal tone with the use of the diaphragm [the pitch of the voice should not undulate, but, rather, the quality of the sound itself] [ex: measure 34]. A series of grace notes issuing from the voice part requires the performer to execute fast, sharp iterations from within the throat while executing the notated gesture of the voice part [ex: measures 128]. The voice should terminate at the rhythmically specified impulse, regardless of the notated duration of that impulse.

The integral voice part is notated on a three-lined staff, with each of the three lines, from top to bottom, indicating the performer’s absolute vocal ceiling, a comfortable middle, and the absolute lowest range possible, with indeterminate vocal areas in the spaces between. The unpredictability inherent in this arrangement is quite deliberate - not only will vocal effects differ between performers and performances, but will also be varied within one performance. The performer should not be concerned with refining definitive highest and lowest possible notes which can be reliably accessed throughout the piece. Instead, these tessituras should be constantly circumscribed by the other musical material happening simultaneously [such as range in the instrument, type of flutter tongue, etc...]. When singing, the mouth should never leave the mouthpiece of the instrument, even when there is no music for the trombone itself. The voice should always sound through the trumpet.

2] Voice

The piece begins with the Harmon mute off. The stem is inserted throughout the piece.

-MUTE ON

Insertions, removals, and other instructions concerning the Harmon mute are indicated in boxed text thusly:

An arrow between two positions indicates a gradual transition from one to the other in the duration specified. The absence of an arrow indicates no transition, and changes in positions should be sudden and instantaneous at their rhythmically specified impulses.

When a rest appears in the ‘left hand’ material, the last hand position indicated before the rest is to be maintained. This is especially important after tremolos between two positions. Usually, it the position to be maintained is ‘open.’

Tremolos between two of the left hand indications are to be executed as rapidly as possible.

- left hand is completely covering the opening

The following symbols are used to indicate the position of the left hand upon the Harmon mute:

B] Left Hand Positions [in conjunction with the Harmon mute]:

In the score, a thick black line is presented as a visual aid for the duration and the exact rhythmic execution for each flutter effect. The flutter effect should terminate at the rhythmically specified impulse, regardless of the notated duration of that impulse.

Since these flutter techniques are autonomous from other parameters, they will frequently contradict phrasing from the ‘trombone’ staff. In such cases, the flutter tongue phrasing should take precedence over that of the trombone staff [meaning, the rhythm specified on the flutter tongue staff should re-phrase the instrument’s gestures, though not exclude any of its material]. Conversely, the phrasing of the growl effect can be forfeited in favor of the phrasing pertaining to the trombone stave [since the tongue is free to execute the specified attacks]. Furthermore, the flutter technique staff may not re-phrase the material of the trombone staff if the notes on this staff are accompanied by specific attack markings [such as accents, exaggerated accents, staccato or tenuto markings]. In such cases, the tongue should execute the attacks at the rhythmic impulses specified by the trombone staff while maintaining the flutter technique. The physical awkwardness and resulting aural distortion of the material implicit in this is situation is quite deliberate and intended.

[Trombone - Flutter Techniques continued]

6


Tremoli between two positions should be as fast as possible.

3] Bottom line - Fully engaged, resulting in a transposition of pitch material. In isolated instances, this position is indicated with a solid circle:

2] Between the lines - Half-engaged, resulting in a distortion of timbre and alteration of pitch material. In isolated instances, this position is indicated with a half-filled-in circle:

1] Top line - disengaged [normal]. In isolated instances, this position is indicated with a hollow circle:

This two-lined staff indicates the movement of the f-trigger, and details three distinct positions:

4] F-Trigger

[Trombone continued]

7

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Mouthpiece

Bass Clarinet in Bb

Flutter Tongue

Trombone

Piccolo Trumpet in Bb

score in C











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Copyright Š 2008 Timothy McCormack. All Rights Reserved









  

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Timothy MCCORMACK [2008/09]

8


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33

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1

Richard Glover

Gradual music !"#$%&'()*+,#()

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!"#"$"%&'()*+,-.&/00)"&1+"

Written for musikFabrik for performance at the Huddersfield Contemporary Music Festival, 28th November 2009.

Transposed score

Duration c. 9 - 12'

Violin Viola Cello

Piano (with three eBows)

Trumpet French Horn Trombone

Instrumentation:

Richard Glover

Gradual Music

2


French Horn

Trombone

Cello

Viola

Violin

While it is acknowledged that the microtonal pitches will be approximations, players should aim to match the pitch of their instrumental pair at the beginning of each glissando as best as possible.

Trumpet

The following pairs of instruments continue on from each others' glissandi:

The open-string drones are played continuously throughout the piece. These drones should end simultaneously with the release of the piano sustain pedal.

Both the brass and string families should each act as one instrument. Visual cues should be used to ensure players enter and exit simultaneously.

The ensemble dynamic should be slightly louder than the eBow drones. Players should use a minimum of attack at all times. The focus of the piece is naturally-occurring subtle fluctuations within the surface layer; emphasis should be placed on a steady dynamic throughout.

Black noteheads indicate a short held note, so that there is some overlap between glissandi. Glissandi should last between 15 – 25”, and should be played as linearly as possible. No vibrato should be used throughout the piece.

Notes for ensemble

Richard Glover

Gradual Music

3

!"#"$"%&'()*+,-.&/00)"&1+"


!"#"$"%&'()*+,-.&/00)"&1+"

The pianist may prefer to use a wedge for the sustain pedal; ensure it can easily be removed for the end of the piece.

Piano

Aim for a similar dynamic between the open-string drone and stopped glissandi tone. Ensure this dynamic matches the brass. Use beating patterns where possible to gauge small micro-intervals between the open-string and stopped note.

Strings

Glissandi may be played using either lip glisses or the moving of tuning/valve slides. Half-valving should not be used to produce a glissando. Alternative fingerings may be used as and when necessary; they are not provided in the score as the player may prefer to use tuning slides for glissandi.

Trumpet and French Horn

Richard Glover

Gradual Music

4


Violoncello

Viola

Violin

Piano

Trombone

Trumpet in Bb













 









A

I



II





III



IV



III



IV





Strings begin once eBows have established drone

Place eBows on strings in the order G, A & D







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C

Gradual Music













 

 



 



 

D













Richard Glover

5

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