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STUDIO RE 2009 10 06 review 01 CELIA HO SIN SZE

REINTERPRETATION of HONG KONG HOUSING TYPOLOGIES TYPOLOGY / noun the systematic classification of the types of something according to their common characteristics.

In the 50 years of housing development in Hong Kong, various typologies such as “slab type” and “ tower type” are recorded. However, from the photo next page or from our daily experience, it’s difficult to distinguish variety of typologies within the region. Only one type - the cruciform tower - can be found. The monotonic phenomenon drives my research on housing typologies.

/ CRUCIFORM TOWER

ONLY?


STUDIO RE 2009 10 06 review 01 CELIA HO SIN SZE

Hong Kong housing comprises PUBLIC HOUSING and PRIVATE HOUSING. PUBLIC HOUSING are mainly built by the Hong Kong Housing Authority and the Hong Kong Housing Society. PRIVATE HOUSING refers to housing estate developed by a private developer.

Domestic Households by Type of Quarters Type of Quarters

Total Households

Private residential flats

1 109 653

Public rental flats

690 788

HA subsidized sale flats

347 582

Staff quarters

21 018

Simple stone structures/Traditional village houses

19 281

Temporary housing

17 186

HS subsidized sale flats

14 857

Non-domestic quarters

5 281

Marine vessels

900

Total

2 226 546

source: 2006 Population By-census Office, Census and Statistics Department

Distribution of Population by Type of Housing Type of Housing

1998

2003

2008

Public Permanent Housing

49.4%

49.5%

47.8%

- Rental Flats

- 37.5%

- 30.9%

- 29.4%

- Subsidized Sale Flats

- 11.9%

- 18.6%

- 18.4%

Private Permanent Housing

48.5%

49.6%

51.6%

Public Temporary Housing

0.3%

-

-

Private Temporary Housing

1.8%

0.9%

0.6%

source: Housing in Figures 2008, Hong Kong Housing Authority


STUDIO RE 2009 10 06 review 01 CELIA HO SIN SZE

PUBLIC HOUSING

PUBLIC HOUSING

HK HOUSING

PRIVATE HOUSING

PRIVATE HOUSING

Evolution of Public Housing > to ONE Typology/ Prototype/ TOWER > MONOTONIC IN HK HOUSING

?


TIMELINE

EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TYPOLOGIES


EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TYPOLOGIES

YEAR 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959

1950 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969

1960 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

1970 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

1980 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

1990

SLAB

SINGLE/ TWIN TOWER

H

CRUCIFORM

LINEAR

Y

HARMONY

CONCORD

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

2000


milestones in development

SINGLE/ TWIN TOWER

1965 The resettlement blocks became high-rise buildings. Facilities gradually ameliorated. In Mark IV, V and VI buildings, a balcony and toilet were provided inside each flat. The population in public housing estates reached one million.

1964 The Temporary Housing Scheme was launched.

1961 The Government Low-cost Housing Programme was introduced.

1958 North Point Estate, the first low-cost housing estate built by the Hong Kong Housing Authority, was completed.

1954 Eight permanent six-storey buildings - the Mark I - were completed to resettle the victims of the Shek Kip Mei Fire.

1953 A fire swept through the Shek Kip Mei Squatter area in Kowloon, rendering more than 50 000 people homeless overnight.

1949 Masses of refugees surged into the territory as a consequence of the Civil War on the mainland. The number of squatters increased drastically

.

EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TYPOLOGIES

1973 Development of new towns gained momentum to match with the building of large housing estates. Redevelopment of the Mark I and Mark II estates began, starting at Shek Kip Mei.

1972 The Government announced the Ten-year Housing Programme.

CRUCIFORM

LINEAR

Y

1985 The Extended Redevelopment Programme to clear sub-standard blocks built in the 60's began.

1982 The government announced that the Ten-year Housing Programme would be extended for another five years to 1987.

HARMONY

1988 The Housing Authority was reorganized. It became financially autonomous and its Chairman was to be a non-official person.

1987 The Long Term Housing Strategy (1987-2001) was introduced.

CONCORD

1997 The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government announced a ten-year housing plan.

1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

1980

1994 The Mark I and Mark II redevelopment and re-housing programme was completed.

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

1970

1981 The population in Housing Authority estates reached 2 million.

1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969

1960

1971 Wah Fu Estate was completed. It was the first public housing estate in Hong Kong where the "New Town" concept was applied in its planning.

1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959

YEAR 1950 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

1990

SLAB

H

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

2000


total population in HK

2,993,000

2,010,000

4,045,000

EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TYPOLOGIES

SINGLE/ TWIN TOWER

increase in population in 10 yrs

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 H

CRUCIFORM

LINEAR

1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

1980

49%

1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

1990

SLAB

CONCORD

7,008,000

6,665,000

1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969

1970

5,752,000

1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959

1960

5,183,000

YEAR 1950 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

2000

35%

28%

Y

16%

HARMONY

11% 5%


EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TYPOLOGIES

YEAR 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959

1950 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969

1960 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

1970 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

1980 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

1990

H

CRUCIFORM

LINEAR

Y

HARMONY

CONCORD

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

2000

SLAB

SINGLE/ TWIN TOWER flat production by HA 1988-2008


EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TYPOLOGIES no. of household no. of storeys

YEAR

number of household per floor & storeys per block

1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959

1950 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969

1960 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

1970 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

1980 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

1990

SLAB

SINGLE/ TWIN TOWER

H

CRUCIFORM

LINEAR

Y

HARMONY

CONCORD

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

2000


EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TYPOLOGIES

YEAR

number of typologies per estate

1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959

1950 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969

1960 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

1970 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

1980 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

1990

SLAB

SINGLE/ TWIN TOWER

H

CRUCIFORM

LINEAR

Y

HARMONY

CONCORD

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

2000


EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TYPOLOGIES total population in HK number of typologies per estate

increase in population in 10 yrs

milestones in development

SINGLE/ TWIN TOWER

49%

4,045,000 CRUCIFORM

35%

1973 Development of new towns gained momentum to match with the building of large housing estates. Redevelopment of the Mark I and Mark II estates began, starting at Shek Kip Mei.

1972 The Government announced the Ten-year Housing Programme.

1971 Wah Fu Estate was completed. It was the first public housing estate in Hong Kong where the "New Town" concept was applied in its planning.

LINEAR

Y

28%

1985 The Extended Redevelopment Programme to clear sub-standard blocks built in the 60's began.

1982 The government announced that the Ten-year Housing Programme would be extended for another five years to 1987.

HARMONY

1988 The Housing Authority was reorganized. It became financially autonomous and its Chairman was to be a non-official person.

1987 The Long Term Housing Strategy (1987-2001) was introduced.

11%

CONCORD

1997 The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government announced a ten-year housing plan.

1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

1990

SLAB

7,008,000

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

1980

1994 The Mark I and Mark II redevelopment and re-housing programme was completed.

5,752,000

1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969

1970

1981 The population in Housing Authority estates reached 2 million.

H

5,183,000

1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959

1960

6,665,000

1965 The resettlement blocks became high-rise buildings. Facilities gradually ameliorated. In Mark IV, V and VI buildings, a balcony and toilet were provided inside each flat. The population in public housing estates reached one million.

1964 The Temporary Housing Scheme was launched.

1961 The Government Low-cost Housing Programme was introduced.

2,993,000

1958 North Point Estate, the first low-cost housing estate built by the Hong Kong Housing Authority, was completed.

1954 Eight permanent six-storey buildings - the Mark I - were completed to resettle the victims of the Shek Kip Mei Fire.

1953 A fire swept through the Shek Kip Mei Squatter area in Kowloon, rendering more than 50 000 people homeless overnight.

.

number of household per floor & storeys per block

1949 Masses of refugees surged into the territory as a consequence of the Civil War on the mainland. The number of squatters increased drastically

2,010,000

no. of household no. of storeys

YEAR 1950 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

2000

flat production by HA 1988-2008

16%

5%


EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TYPOLOGIES

.

number of typologies per estate

increase in population in 10 yrs

milestones in development

PRIVATE HOUSING

total population in HK

SINGLE/ TWIN TOWER

49%

4,045,000

1965 The resettlement blocks became high-rise buildings. Facilities gradually ameliorated. In Mark IV, V and VI buildings, a balcony and toilet were provided inside each flat. The population in public housing estates reached one million.

1964 The Temporary Housing Scheme was launched.

35%

1973 Development of new towns gained momentum to match with the building of large housing estates. Redevelopment of the Mark I and Mark II estates began, starting at Shek Kip Mei.

1972 The Government announced the Ten-year Housing Programme.

CRUCIFORM

LINEAR

Y

28%

1985 The Extended Redevelopment Programme to clear sub-standard blocks built in the 60's began.

1982 The government announced that the Ten-year Housing Programme would be extended for another five years to 1987.

HARMONY

11%

CONCORD

1997 The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government announced a ten-year housing plan.

SLAB per floor & PUBLIC storeys per block HOUSING household

7,008,000

1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

1980

1994 The Mark I and Mark II redevelopment and re-housing programme was completed.

5,752,000

H

1988 The Housing Authority was reorganized. It became financially autonomous and its Chairman was to be a non-official person.

1987 The Long Term Housing Strategy (1987-2001) was introduced.

1970

1981 The population in Housing Authority estates reached 2 million.

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969

1960

1971 Wah Fu Estate was completed. It was the first public housing estate in Hong Kong where the "New Town" concept was applied in its planning.

1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959

1950

1961 The Government Low-cost Housing Programme was introduced.

2,993,000

1958 North Point Estate, the first low-cost housing estate built by the Hong Kong Housing Authority, was completed.

1954 Eight permanent six-storey buildings - the Mark I - were completed to resettle the victims of the Shek Kip Mei Fire.

1953 A fire swept through the Shek Kip Mei Squatter area in Kowloon, rendering more than 50 000 people homeless overnight.

1949 Masses of refugees surged into the territory as a consequence of the Civil War on the mainland. The number of squatters increased drastically

no. of storeys

no. of household

2,010,000

YEAR 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

1990 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

2000

flat production by HA 1988-2008

CONVERGENCE > MONOTONIC

RESEARCH FOR DIVERGENCE UNDER THE HYPOTHESIS :

MORE TYPES PER ESTATE BETTER LIVING

5%

?


HK Housing REinterpretation