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epi logue december 2018


creative spaces books of hours & feminist zines: support for women





december december 2018 2018


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cover story: creative spaces: medieval books of hours & modern feminist zines, support for women through comparison


jennifer, wilma & natalie: an interview with contemporary women on their respective pasts, presents, & futures in amerian society


opinion: why saving milwaukee’s historic buildings is crucial

arts the honey bee: a poem on power & powerlessness



in memoriom of dickey chapelle, photographer


from the archives of the shorewood historical society


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protecting milwaukee’s structures an opinion on the importance of preserving Milwaukee’s architecture, and what it means for the community to lose sight. By Celeste Carroll Recently, while driving along Prospect Avenue in downtown Milwaukee, I remarked at the fact that there was a very interesting mix of beautiful old houses from the turn-of-the century and modern day condominiums lining the streets. For me, it has always been these beautiful, intricately designed houses that have made the streets of Milwaukee the most unique-- however, I couldn’t help noticing as I made my trip down Prospect that the amount of these historic homes and structures were very limited next to the many modern structures, including condos and apartments. And I couldn’t help but realize that many of the historic homes that had once had existed must have been knocked down in order to make way for the modern and efficient condos and buildings that now make up much of the city of milwaukee to accommodate a growing population. For decades, Milwaukee has lost so many pieces of our history due to decisions made that caused our historic buildings to be demolished-- and I believe

that those actions have detrimental effects on the city we call home. Not only has sacrificing historic buildings for efficiency allowed us to lose physical representation of Milwaukee’s past accomplishments, but it has allowed to lose appreciation for our history. There are many historic buildings in Milwaukee that have been destroyed in the past, ones that represented Milwaukee’s growth as a city and served as physical representation of local ability to create beautiful buildings with advanced architectural techniques. The Plankington Mansion, built in 1886 on West Wisconsin Avenue, for example, was knocked down to make way for the Marquette campus in 1980. The building, which was built by and for John Plankington, who was not only a pioneer in the development and origins of Milwaukee, but also a leader in establishing Milwaukee as the once foremost city west of the Cincinnati in the meat packing industry, was built of beautiful Wauwatosa limestone and included many carved granite columns, terra cotta tiles, andornmanetal metal work as well as a three story conical turret. Losing this building not only made us lose a beautiful old structure, but the story behind a man who made Milwaukee well established as a city. Then there was the North Western train depot along Milwaukee’s lakefront, built in the late 1880’s and demolished in 1968. The towering structure, which included a massive four sided clock, restaurants, and a hotel in it, served as a station that held railroad lines that connected Chicago and Milwaukee, the first sign that railroads would become of great importance in the ever growing city. My mother remembers drawing this station as a young girl, and remembered feeling very sad when it fell into disrepair and was demolished-- in the words of Charlie House, who wrote for the Feb 2, 1968 edition of the Milwaukee Journal, described the station in its final days before it was destroyed. “The 78-year-old building, once a symbol of affluence and progress in Milwaukee, has ceased to serve its historic purpose as the city’s gateway. The striking clock tower thrusts itself for 234 feet into Milwaukee’s skyline. But it languishes in shabby elegance, used up, debased, slighted, unwanted. With a


life expectancy which has faded to mere days, it stands as a vandalized, pigeon stained, disconsolate monument to the history of a city which does not care.� The list goes on and on-- Sydney Hih in downtown Milwaukee, which began construction in 1860 and was destroyed in 2012, served as a place for artists, musicians and creative minds alike to meet and greater influence the city of Milwaukee. Our Lady of Pompeii, a beautiful church that served as a place of worship and a community meeting place for Italian Immigrants from 1904 until it was knocked down--including prominent Italian families that greatly influenced the city-- and their culture, was knocked down to create a highway system. While many artifacts were saved, like the bell of the church, the building itself ceased to exist and therefore a reminder of Milwaukee’s past was lost, and this has happened to many more buildings in our city. While money is an important part of the building preservation process, I believe it is important to re-

Top: A vintage postcard features the Milwaukee train depot. Bottom: The 1874 Villa Filomena, one of the historic houses seen on my drive down Marshall Avenue


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Top Left: Our Lady of Pompeii meets her demise in 1967. Left: A group of women create in the old Sydney Hih building. Right: Preservation efforts are underway for Milwaukee’s Mackie building.


member that that shouldn’t be the sole factor in deciding whether to save a building or not. It is necessary for all of us, young and old residents of Milwaukee, to realize that it is these historical buildings that represent the times and eras that Milwaukee originally grew from and advanced from. We must acknowledge our roots-- and destroying buildings that are beautifully crafted, hundreds of years old, and mark the beginning of our city certainly doesn’t do so. When we destroy these aspects of Wisconsin history, we destroy physical documentation of the art, culture, and techniques of the time. If we don’t learn to value the buildings that represent our history and past accomplishments, we will not be able to preserve or understand where our present and future achievements stemmed from. Sacrificing history for efficiency does nothing but dishonor our past. We lose physical markers that remind us of where our city grew from when we make the decisions to knock down these structures-- we lose buildings that represent times when Milwaukee was a more populated city than even Chicago, times that mark the start of the city’s growth as a city known for industry. We lose the opportunity to educate current and future residents of Milwaukee about our history, and taking the effort to preserve and document our past by

“Sooner rather than later, I hope Milwaukee learns to better embrace these historic structures that make the city unique.”

saving these buildings is crucial to preserving and representing our city as a whole. When the Plankington Mansion was knocked down to make way for the Marquette campus, we lost the chance to educate future students on what life for a person of the turn of the century was like. When Our lady of pompeii was demolished in order to create a concrete highway system, Milwaukeeans lost the chance to see where an Italian Immigrant of the early 1900’s felt at home with their spirituality in a new country. And because the Atwater Beach House was demolished in Shorewood, kids again will never realize what the impact this structure had on summer fun for children that were just like them. While efforts by some have been taken to preserve our buildings-- protests were made by citizens to save Sydney Hih, and recently, and the local radio station 88.9 often does shows featuring Urban Spelunking in the city and old historic buildings-- I believe more efforts should be taken, and a change in mindset in residents is necessary to save these structures. Sooner rather than later, I hope Milwaukee learns to better embrace these historic structures that make the city unique and represent the history behind the place we call home. Taking the effort to preserve these buildings will allow us to better appreciate, and honor, the progressa and achievements our city has made for hundreds of years.


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behind the pearl earrings A memorial service honors the life of Dickey Chapelle, an American war photographer who paved the way for women in the field. By Celeste Carroll & Sydney Widell If you were to ask a group of Shorewood students if they recognized the name Dickey Chapelle, class of 1938, it is likely the question would bring looks of confusion. It is possible that even teachers or local Shorewoodians would not be familiar with this incredible Shorewood graduate, whose accomplishments have long gone unknown over the generations. “I am amazed no one has heard of her,” said Maryann Lazarski, producer of “Behind the Pearl Earrings,” a recently released documentary chronicling Chapelle’s life. “She is someone who deserves to be remembered.” Chapelle’s story is remarkable, and one that all Shorewood students should strive to know. Chapelle, a Shorewood High School graduate, was arguably one of the most influential female photojournalists and war correspondents in American history– her career spanned from World War II to the Vietnam War, and redefined photojournalism while paving the way for

women to come. She would ultimately become the first first female war correspondent killed in Vietnam, and the first American female reporter to be killed in action. November 4th marked the 50th anniversary of her death, and November 14th’s memorial service at Forest Home Cemetery, the site of Chapelle’s grave, celebrated her life and commemorated her contributions to journalism. Chapelle was known for her love for adventure, devotion to informing the public and for the pair of pearl earrings she sported on the battlefield. “She’s local, but her legacy touches everywhere. We need to make sure we preserve this history,” said Jackie Spinner, a modern combat journalist who has toured Iraq and Afghanistan. Born Georgette Louise Meyer in Milwaukee in 1918, Dickey Chapelle was raised in Shorewood and attended Shorewood High School, where she was valedictorian as well as the editor-in-chief of Ripples, the Student Newspaper. Chapelle often attributed her skills as a writer to her time at Shorewood High School, and after graduating at age sixteen and attending the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, she put the skills she had learned while in high school to use by applying them to photography and journalism. Though she began with little credentials, she soon was recruited as a photojournalist for National Geographic, reporting on wartime conflicts in World War II. Throughout her life, she reported as a photojournalist for conflicts in Algeria, the Dominican Republic, Lebanon, Hungary, and Cuba, returning back to the United States periodically. Chapelle, who was killed in a booby trap explosion in Vietnam in 1965, was honored fifty years after her death on November 12th, 2015.Those in attendance at her memorial included her nieces and nephew, leaders and members in the Shorewood and Wisconsin Historical Societies and the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, representatives from the Milwaukee Press Club, the American Legion Post 18 Honor Guard as well as marines from the Recruiting Station Milwaukee. Several renowned journalists also came to pay their respects. “It was very nice and tasteful,” said Rob Meyer,

99 “Chapelle, who was killed in a booby trap explosion in Vietnam in 1965, was honored fifty years after her death.”

Chapelle’s nephew. “It’s always nice to see that people still remember her and care.” Throughout the memorial service, attendees were invited to explore the extensive collection of photographs, army memorabilia and personal artifacts, such as her iconic bush hat, her camera, and letters she had written home. Books displaying her writings and photographs were also exhibited.The service included insightful comments by historical society and press club affiliates and a moving eulogy, and was followed by a motorcade to Chapelle’s gravesite, where a blessing was read and a wreath was laid. Ceremonies concluded with a 21 gun salute and the playing of Taps. Regarding Chapelle’s writing as both a journalist and a daughter writing home, Martha Rosemeyer, Chapelle’s niece, said she loved seeing her aunt’s writings that showed her as both a powerful recorder of worldly events and a loving family member. “She was an [embedded journalist] before we even talked about embedded journalists-- she was pioneering in so many ways. She was so much herself… her writing was just so alive,” said Rosemeyer. “ She was [also] very affectionate and loving towards her family.” As well as having a strong relationship with her family, maintaining a sense of femininity was always important to Chapelle, who had, as a woman, pioneered and exceeded in a role that had then often been reserved for men.“She was able to be a woman and she was able to do what she could do. She did it really successfully,” said Rosemeyer. She was part of a movement that pushed the

Left: young female war photographer Dickey Chapelle in uniform, before her death from a booby trap in Vietnam. She was commemorated at a memorial decades after her death.


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bounds of what was acceptable for a woman in her day and proved that journalism functioned beyond the realm of gender definition. “It doesn’t matter if you’re a man or a woman in a combat zone because in the end you are simply there to bear witness,” said Spinner. Chapelle helped blaze the trail for all woman seeking representation in the fields they are passionate about. “I’m grateful for every woman who came before me because they make what I do possible,” said Spinner. Today, a renewed recognition of Chapelle’s legacy has seen her inducted into to the Milwaukee Press Club Hall of Fame in 2014, featured in a documentary in 2015 and several books. Shorewood remembers this heroine with a plaque as part of the Tradition of Excellence display in the Library Media Center at the high school– her memory has also been commemorated by the efforts of the Shorewood Historical Society, which has been involved with various projects about Chapelle, including the documentary “Behind the Pearl Earrings,” which was shown in the Shorewood High School Auditorium earlier this month.Karen de Hartog, President of the Shorewood Historical Society, says that Chapelle is an example of someone who followed their passion, and someone with guts as well as passion. “We are proud to claim Dickey one of our own,” said de Hartog in her comments at the memorial service. “Dickey really got her foundation as a writer at Shorewood High School....Her yearning for adventure had its basis here too.” Chapelle’s story continues to be an inspiration. “It’s gratifying to know that people continue to find inspiration in her life. The most rewarding [thing] is the gathering of the people who have been inspired

Below: veterans observe Chapelle momementos Right: Chapelle’s gravestone. Far Right: Chapelle in action, with camera.

11 “She was part of a movement that pushed the bounds... & proved that journalism functioned beyond the realm of gender definition.”

by her life,” Rosemeyer said.The memorial honoring Chapelle’s death fifty years after the fact left many feeling empowered and reflective. “ I feel like it was a moving memorial to her life. It was a celebration of her life and her contributions-- not everyone has memorials has fifty years after their death,” said Rosemeyer. Dickey Chapelle’s contributions to the world were both courageous and important, as well as inspiring for many-- her story began in Shorewood, and, years after her death, her legacy remains a part of her hometown’s identity. Hopefully, her heroism will continue to influence journalists and non journalists alike. “I think that she inspires people to take risks in order to get the story that needs to be told,” said Rosemeyer. “She took the risk to be who she was, and that’s a message for all of us.”

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creative spaces Throughout time, people

Books of Hours & Feminist

have relied on literary

Zines: Support for Women

sources as crutches of

through Comparison

support. This especially pertains to women.

By Celeste Carroll



The interweaving of text and visual imagery has a long history in relation to women. This connection spans centuries and generations; often a source of hope and creativity in the face of systemic oppression, women have turned to objects such as books throughout time. Two of these such books include medieval Books of Hours and feminist Zines of the 1990’s and the present. During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, with the rise of mass production and and the availability of cheap manuscripts and books to the laity (otherwise known as ordinary people,) women especially found purpose in these manuscript productions that contained series of prayers designed to be recited at different times of the day, called Books of Hours; often highly personalized, the books were a massive source of faith and connection for many women. Zines, (short for ‘magazines,’ but a meaning of their own,) have come to represent the cheap, “Do-ityourself ” creative and educational publications that are often handwritten and photocopied on printer paper, or published independently, and that came to popularity in feminist circles of the 1970’s and especially 1990’s. The two productions hail from completely different time periods and represent different people, places, and structures. But while these two types of books may appear different, it is possible to believe that they are actually much more related than one would inherently think: through allowing women to participate in a creative outlet, to promote systems of faith, education, and healing, and to find support networks between fellow women and kin,

“Similarly, “Similarly, Zines, Zines, while while of of aa much much more more later later & & secular secular time time period, period, helped helped women women find find applicable applicable faith, faith, education education & & healing healing methods.” methods.”

these devotionals allowed and continue to allow average women to express themselves and their beliefs in ways that were made for them, and often by them.

Creative Spaces, Centuries Apart Books for women have long been tied to the creative practices; this may be seen in both Books of Hours and feminist Zines. Medieval Books of hours were ornately illuminated and illustrated, and valued highly for their combination of the spiritual and material; the rise in literacy in women of the time led to the books of hours being a core part of a female’s daily life. However, outside of the importance of the physical text came the physical book and illustration that accompanied it to engage the reader. Accounts of female Books of Hours artists describe how trained female illustrators worked in family workshops, such as the daughters of the Nuremberg painter, Georg Glockendon the Elder (who died in 1520,) worked alongside their husbands, such as Jeanne de Montbaston (of cerca 1353), who illustrated secular manuscripts as well as books on the lives of saints in Paris, or were trained by their artist fathers and went on to be successful court painters, convent illustrators, art dealers and especially, manuscript and Book of Hours artists, such as Katharina Witz (of cerca 1454) and Antonia Uccello (1456-1491). (Light, pg 11). Some women were even able to support themselves through their illustration for Books of Hours, as recounted in The “Sister-Book” of the Dominican convent of Oetenbach in Zürich, written in c. 1340, which tells that three women who could copy, paint, and illuminate earned enough in a year to support the three women in the convent. This was an important for these females, who could actually succeed in a craft in a male-dominated working environment, where women were most often expected to be mothers and caregivers of the household aside their male counterparts. (Light, pg 11). Further, the miniatures that were featured in the Books of hours were catered to the mostly women who owned them, in content and in design. In the Book of Hours Francoise

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The Book of Hours of Engelbert of Nassau is a book of hours in the Dominican Rite, illuminated by the Master of Mary of Burgundy, which was produced in Ghent in the 1470s.




Fortin from 1480 France that was made for a woman (as can be seen from the pronouns in the introductory prayer,) the only Suffrage (a prayer invoking the protection of a saint) included was St. Margaret, the patron saint of childbirth and pregnant women. Along with this depiction are the accompaniment of “numerous marginal motifs of great charm and imagination that seem to underscore female ownership since they celebrate childhood and domestic life, including scenes of a mother and child playing, a mother teaching her child to walk, and a young girl, perhaps the owner (or the Virgin Mary?) with a unicorn,” ( Light pg 29). It is clear that the featured illustrations were included purposefully; to honor motherhood and the woman who owned the book itself. And lastly, it is important to remember that many women were the patrons of Books of Hours-- not only were they illustrating them, but they were commissioning them to fit their specific needs as women, often paying artists and bookbinders to fashion the perfect book for their needs. Similarly, Zines of the 1990’s riot grrrl punk rock movement and beyond contained important artistic material that was made by and for average women as well. Zines often take a Do-It-Yourself approach to art-making, where collages are made from sexist imagery in old newspapers, cut out words, and personal contributions such as illustrations. Essentially, the women who make them often find solace in deconstructing the patriarchal and traditional forms of art by reconstructing images of women through their own lense. According to author Alison Piepmeier in an essay reviewed by Jessica Clark, “zines [are] “dark matter;” invisible to traditional art and academic worlds and more virtuous because of it.” (Clark, pg. 2). Activists in the 1990s could produces these publications because technologies like the mimeograph machine and photocopiers allowed laypeople with limited resources to create and circulate print these texts without expending much money...The existence of DIY culture is so important for historically marginalized people because it shows you that you don’t have to have formal educa-

Left: a comic illustrations the intersection between health and comics. Panel 3 from Annals Graphic Medicine— Judgment Call, by Sharon Rosenzweig. Right: A close-up of a riot grrrl publication, published in the early 1990’s.



In this manuscript from the university of Georgia, a woman, likely the book’s patron, who reads her devotional is visited by a holy angel. (Annunciation, Walters Book of Hours, MS. W197).

tion in something or be an expert to do it well. DIY makes room for everyone to participate, and that means you.” (Beins, pg 1).Essentially, the purpose of zines are for all women to be included in the creative space. And, along with the DIY approach to physically making and distributing the zines comes the art and illustration by women within them. For example, in the zine anthology entitled “Things that Help,” edited by Cindy Crabb, penciled illustrations by many different female artists are juxtaposed with collaged typewriter sentences. Comics with graphics including women taking care of chil-


dren, dealing with depression, and celebrating life with friends accentuate text that speaks of feminist, queer, and anti-racist content, furthering messages that pertain to and inspire readers. Zines provided the space for women to expressively create for themselves as well as for an audience that cared to listen. Even just the act of physically creating zines-- gluing, glittering, and stickering-- generates pleasure for women that is cathartic as well as inspiring. (Clark, pg. 1). Both Books of Hours and feminist Zines have their roots in creative material-the two productions similarly included messages that

were enhanced by art and illustration that were most often crafted by women themselves. Art as a form of expression in these publications engaged the female reader, while at the same time involving them at an extremely intimate level and inducing connection, through aesthetics. While zines were much more accessible in some ways than Books of Hours, (for example, more women are literate now and many zines are free,) the two forms of text still catered to women through visual imagery, whether that was through depictions of patron saints of childbirth that women could find solace in praying to, or



through comics that 20th century women could relate to because it resembled their lives. Even the act of creating art in both books allowed women to support themselves financially, as in the case of some Books of Hours, or allowed women to become inspired or experience catharsis, as in zines. Both Zines and Books of Hours provided a space for women to create imagery that pertained to them, which was powerful as it is clear many artists of both types of books were women who understood a sort of shared reality.

Faith & Healing Books of Hours and feminist Zines have also promoted systems of faith and healing for the women who would read, and continue to read, them. Books of Hours as objects, for example, are largely tied to women’s’ role in religion, as they were prayer books in a time when faith dominated most facets of life for females. One example of a prayer is a short French text, titled “this is the prayer that Notre Dame du Puy holds in her hand,” inscribed in two women’s prayer books. Notre Dame du Puy was a patron saint of infertile and pregnant women, and the prayer itself is that “the devotee dedicates herself to the Virgin “in soul and body,” and asks that “the Virgin protect her from sin, comfort her, and pray to Jesus on her behalf,” (Reinburg, 237). A second type of prayer in many Books of Hours, often called “magical” or “superstitious” practices, embodies a type faith that extends

“Books “Books of of Hours Hours and and feminist feminist Zines have also promoted systems systems of of faith faith and and healing healing for the women who would read, and continue to read, them.”

beyond the simple reciting of prayers; in these cases, “prayer-writings” were included in Books of Hours that were meant to be torn out and attached to the body, perhaps in an amulet or piece of jewelry. (Reinburg, pg. 237). Faith here was quite literally connected to the body in association with Books of Hours, bringing the ‘spiritual’ into the ‘real.’ For women in medieval times, much of their identity was formed around motherhood-being able to pray in support of a healthy motherhood and pregnancy provided women with support and hope in the area of faith. Beyond the spiritual aspect of these objects, Books of hours also played an important role in education. Literate women who had Books of Hours often were the first teachers of their children for praying and reading; according to Margaret M. Manion in her book The Art of the Book: Its Place in Medieval Worship women actually played an important role in the shaping of court and family life around regular daily prayer. “We know, too, that not only were children of royal and noble households taught from an early age to pray but that they often learnt to read and write from their prayer books.” (Manion, pg 40). There is also pictorial evidence of this in Books of Hours; for example, a miniature in the prayer book of Jeanne of Navarre features Queen Blanche presiding over the lesson of her young son. (Manion, pg 40). Further, a Book of Hours allowed lay women practice in reading and writing not only in the vernacular, but also some in Latin based on the presence of the Latin liturgy and private prayer in these books. (Light, pg 25). A woman’s education, as well as a child’s education, was important in finding success as a caregiver and mother during medieval times. Through the use of books of hours, women were able to explore faith and literacy for themselves and for their families, an integral part of their lives. Regardless of whether a Book of Hours was used for personal prayer or for education, it was certainly helpful for the woman; it allowed her to practice her faith in juxtaposition to her role as a mother, a position essentially given to her automatically during the medieval period.Similarly, Zines, while of a much more later and secular time period, helped women find


Barnard College’s zine library is one of the largest zine collections in the USA. Included zines are created by women with an emphasis on zines by women of color. They collect zines on feminism and femm grrrl, sexual assault, trans experience, and other topics.



11-year-old LĂŠopoldine Hugo holds her Book of Hours in 1835, showing the importance of Books of Hours as a family heirloom.


applicable faith, education and healing methods. These small productions could be made on cheap paper and distributed easily, and were and are often self published as an alternative to mainstream media, which aided women who could not find reliable information elsewhere. “The publications have come to be known as “resistance media” and have reflected perspectives of the everyday woman in a way that promotes education and health.” (Barnard Zine Library, pg 2). Women have used these publications to further “radical” ideas, and as a result, the objects have often included pertinent information on health, politics, and rights that were not taught in schools, by parents and doctors, or through libraries and bookstores. For example, in the aforementioned zine anthology “Things that Help,” there are various articles that feature educational and healing information on medical issues specific to women such as menstruation, sex, abortion, rape, and contraception: important resources. Not only are these written by women who have experience with these areas of health, but they are written to be accessible for the everyday woman in the form of print collection. (Crabb, pg 4-5). A Zine collective “Graphic Medicine, which uses zines and comics as a vehicle for talking about healthcare , including titles often related to the female sex such as “how to have a baby,” “[Rape] Trauma is really Strange,” and Love “STINGS” which promotes healing for modern day women specifically, and women of color. Zines often embrace the vernacular and common language in a way that makes the information accessible and understandable to the women reading them; just as laywomen embraced prayers in Latin, but also in the vernacular, to personalize their book, zines allowed women clear and real information in an understandable language. Books of Hours and Zines are tied to one another because of the ways in which they were and are used to promote faith, education, and healing for the women that have used them. Whether it was teaching children to read or adults healthcare, assisting in finding god or the self, or aiding in a healing process, this form of media allowed women a passageway to personal help.

Timeless Devotionals As written and illustrated texts made by women, Books of Hours and Feminist Zines acted (and continue to act) as devotionals that catered specifically to women and their needs, desires and hobbies. Through allowing women to participate in a creative outlet that was made for needs of women, by promoting systems of faith, education, and healing through prayer and health material, and allowing them to find support networks between fellow women and kin through the act of giving and receiving the loved objects, these devotionals allowed and continue to allow everyday women to express themselves, their beliefs, and their motivations in life. Though they belong to different time periods, the two books gave women purpose in creating, expressing, and finding themselves-- showing that books, and the meaningful importance of them between the lines, has a long, interconnected history in relation to women. In conclusion, it is possible that medieval Books of Hours and feminist Zines, as literary objects that cater to women, are actually much more related than one would think upon first thought. Visit your local library or zine exchange today to learn more about zines and their circulation: also browse your local university’s special collections to view historic Books of Hours for more information on these devotionals that dominated so many lives. Most larger cities will have these resources available.

“Though “Though they they belong belong to to different different time time periods, periods, the the two two books books gave gave women women purpose purpose in in creating, creating, expressing, expressing, and and finding finding themselves.” themselves.”

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from the archives Community secrets may be found in the Shorewood Historical Society’s Archives in Wisconsin. By Celeste Carroll Tucked away in the lower level of the Shorewood Public Library, the Shorewood Historical Society finds its home in the Sheldon room, a fact that may surprise many people of the village.The room, though small, reveals much information about Shorewood’s History-- information that is even unknown to people who have grown up and lived here all their lives. The room is accessible from 11 a.m. to 2 p.m on Wednesdays, and is open to the public. When asked what the most interesting thing was that could be found within the Historical Society, Karen de Hartog, president of the Society, had a difficult time pinpointing just one specific thing. “I have a hard time naming just one thing...I’m overwhelmed.” Whether it is knowledge gained about Shorewood’s past or an artifact seen in the archives, the Shorewood Historical Society contains many things of the past that the people of Shorewood may want to look into; especially if one’s family has lived here for multiple generations.

Shorewood Grows In 1900, Shorewood, then known as East Milwaukee, separated from Milwaukee and established its own village and government.The population was about 300 at

this time--however, with transportation methods quickly improving and a shortage of homes in Milwaukee, people soon found that they could live in Shorewood and still be able to commute to the big city for work. By 1910, the first cement sidewalks were put down, and in 1913 the first paved roads were added. Four years later in 1917, East Milwaukee’s name was changed to Shorewood in order to reflect the village that attracted business and professional people.The population soon skyrocketed to 13,479 by 1930, and about 200 houses were being built a year at this time. In 1950 the population was a massive 16,199. “The population grew fast because [Shorewood’s] government worked hard to install streets and sewers, encouraging people to move out here. Another reason was that people liked the education system and schools,” de Hartog said.Today, Shorewood has a population of about 14,000, and remains the most densely populated community in all of Wisconsin.

Shorewood During the Depression Many Shorewoodians today are unsure of how the Great Depression affected Shorewood during the late 1920’s and 30’s. While the impact was not as extreme as it was in other parts of the United States, many people and families were still affected by this event.When skimming through the past yearbooks of Shorewood High School, it’s evident in the even the simple shape and size of the book. The historical society has nearly every yearbook from the High School’s past, and the yearbooks at the beginning of the High School’s existence in 1925 were an average size, about the size of the current yearbook. Starting in 1931, however, the yearbooks greatly decreased in size. This was most likely because people during the Depression lacked money both to make and purchase them. Once the Depression ended, the yearbooks began to return to its normal size. During this time, some Shorewoodians lost their jobs and homes. “Everybody had to cut back and do their share,” said de Hartog. In order to assist the people of the village,

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Shorewood’s government set up a special program called “The Shorewood Way” to employ the people and supply them with jobs. Many programs similar to these appeared all over America as a way to aid those affected by the Depression.

“Spirit of Shorewood” World War II had a massive impact on the people of Shorewood, so much, in fact, that the village had its own plane named in honor of it. War Bonds were extremely popular at this time; they could be purchased by anyone for $18.75, kept for 10 years, and then cashed in for $25. All of this was done to raise money for the troops fighting in the war, and many people invested in them to do their share for the war effort. The result of all the war bonds was a B-29 military aircraft that was purchased, named “ Spirit of Shorewood,” and used in the war. A picture was just recently submitted into the Historical Society, showing what the aircraft looked like. Propaganda was also popular at this time; ads that encouraged people to buy war bonds or contribute to the war effort were a large part of the Shorewood Herald, the village’s newspaper during the second World War, as was “emotional propaganda” that showed soldiers in uniforms or distressed mothers. de Hartog said that she believed this picture was one of the most interesting things in the Historical Society.

What you May not Know Unknown to many, Shorewood’s first school was built in 1848 on the current campus of the high school. After that school burned down, another elementary school was built-- a one room school house named the little pink school because of its fading red exterior colors. The school was located on the North West Corner of Capital and Oakland, used as a school for a short while, then used as a village hall around 1908. Once Atwater and the current village hall were built, the schoolhouse was used to store hay for horses in 1913. de Hartog said that

A view of Capitol Drive in Shorewood in (post war) 1948, courtesy the Shorewood Historical Society Archives. The Chicago & Northwestern train passes by on the tracks, which have since been put out of service.

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Right: the Spirit of Shorewood,the B-29 military aircraft and result of all the war bonds sold in Shorewood during World War II efforts.

the most surprising thing turned into the Historical Society was a recently submitted photograph of the Domar Farm, which had the barn that is still standing to this day on Newton St., near the current Legacy Condos. The photograph was taken in the late 1800’s, before there were many houses in the area, and before Shorewood was even a village. Shorewood at the time was mostly farmland, and the photo is significant because the barn is the last standing barn in Shorewood today.

Artifacts from the Archives While the Historical Society’s office is in the Sheldon Room, the actual archives are located in the Shorewood City Hall building. Within this room lies photographs, old newspapers and yearbooks, and objects from Shorewood’s past that have been submitted or kept over the years. Interesting artifacts include a wool gray warm up jersey for sports from the middle of the 20th century, which has a massive red “S” filling up most of the sweatshirt’s back, and now sits on a mannequin. There is also the bell from the former Little Pink School, and a coal scuttle, a bucket-like tool used to scoop coal into furnaces when the practice was common to do so a century ago. A little brown jug, called the “Hubbard Award,” an award during the mid 20th century that was given to either Riverside High School or Shorewood to the school

that exhibited the best sportsmanship in football, can also be found in the archives. Hundreds of photographs are there that portray Shorewood, ranging from pictures of a family’s everyday life, to students moving about through the high school decades ago, to the dirt roads and mostly houseless streets that Shorewood once was. An old copy of a “Ripples” was recently submitted to the Historical Society, but it wasn’t just a student newspaper-- the Ripples of 1923 was a yearly book that was a combination student newspaper, yearbook, and literary magazine. There is also every copy of the Shorewood Herald, Shorewood’s old newspaper, as well as every Ripples ever printed. Those looking to find information on a house, a former Shorewoodian, or other things concerning Shorewood’s past may find what they are searching for in The Shorewood Historical Society.

During this time, some Shorewoodians lost their jobs & homes. ‘Everybody had tocut back and do their share,’said de Hartog.

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The Honey Bee By Celeste Carroll

Hark! Before my eye I see a humble yet diligent sky-bound honey bee gossamer wings, an existence excluding strife Dost thou know of your purpose in life? Indeed, you fly in patterns with the wind, you hunt the earth for its fruit; but conscious of the truth are you? is thy life only but a pursuit? Dost thou possess a mind beyond that of your aid to the hive your life seems to be but a mindless path nothing past the instinct to survive But perhaps within your miniature thoughts you are indeed aware; a conscious soul trapped inside that of which you share Does your mind struggle to subvert your duty and responsibilities, Do you ever wonder what exists, What could result from the possibilities? Have you considered a life outside of your fixed existence one that veers off the predetermined path one that disregards the status quo’s insistence? But it is possible that you are just a drone forever devoted to the queen, a life unknowing is a life fulfilled, at least in the eye of a honey bee.

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modern women On July 25, 2018, three women

Sometimes it takes

from Milwaukee, Wisconsin were

understanding the past to

interviewed on their experiences,

know how far we’ve come.

past and present. Here are their stories, and why it matters.

By Celeste Carroll


Natalie Carroll is my mother, creative designer, and member of the Shorewood Historical Society. Jennifer Maney is my friend’s mother and wife to Wilma, and coordinator at a Milwaukee University. Wilma Bonaparte is my friend’s mother and wife to Jennifer. She is the vice president of a Milwaukee University. What do you think has been the biggest area of change for women in your lifetime? Why? Natalie: Medical advances allowed me to have two successful births after 4miscarriages. In pioneer times, myself and my first daughter would probably have died together in childbirth. What started out as a regular low-risk birth turned into a sudden medical emergency resulting in an emergency C-section. Without the immediate expert care and monitoring available to us, I would not have survived togive birth to another daughter 4 years later nor would she have her older sister. Also, the discovery and surgical removal of benign uterine

cysts and scar tissue from prior miscarriages allowed me to have another full-term pregnancy. None of this could have happened without advanced medical intervention. Jennifer: I think the biggest area of change for women (although not perfect) is the permission to have both a career and family. I think it’s gotten better that women are not judged for either decision they make, but I know they are still challenged with different elements of society judging either decision. But I think the ability to have maternity leave without risk of losing a job and the idea of being to be fluidto come in and out of the workplace (again, not without complications or challenges) has been a significant area of change for women in my lifetime Wilma: To be a mother and be able to handle a professional career as well and have that accepted by society. What single historical event has had the most impact on your life as a woman?



Natalie: I think the awareness of the #MeToo and Times Up era and the criticism of catcalling has removed some barriers and taken some fear out of life’s equation for many women, allowing ourselves to take chances and pursue dreams on our own power. For me in my youth, the fear of going anywhere alone or unaccompanied by a male (I felt) made me an easy target for assault and prohibited me from exploring places by myself or on my own terms. Girls I knew in high school were getting attacked, raped and even murdered while riding their bikes on secluded bike paths and in parks or walking home from work at night. Everywhere I/we went, we were subjected to constant catcalls and heckling, like it was just expected and to dismiss it as “boys will be boys.” Drunk men/boys in bars and clubs were fueled with false bravado and inappropriate comments and actions were common. Slipping drugs into drinks was nothing new and I hated going places with girlfriends unaccompanied by my boyfriend because somehow an “unattached” female was fair game for groping, “mashing” (unwanted mouth kissing), grinding and other unprovoked attention. To this day I have zero tolerance for drunks and despise tipsy stupid behavior-- it just turns me off. Because I don’t drink or take recreational drugs, I’m sure people just write me off as a real prude, lol! In reality it just became self-protection from others who excused their behavior by writing it off as innocent fun and just getting wasted. Jennifer: Although I am tempted to say something like the decision of the Supreme Court of Roe vs. Wade (in terms of reproductive rights and decisions for women, apart from how one feels about abortion), I honestly think I will answer this question in this manner. I think living through the #metoo movement has the potential to shift significant change for women, especially in the workplace. I think that if this movement continues to gather steam and has staying power, it will forever change the ways in which women are made vulnerable in work places that put them in jeopardy. In other words, it began in Hollywood but will continue to bleed into

other arenas where women are working alongside men. I think the most significant potential change this has is with men and what is deemed appropriate in terms of both behavior and language as it relates to working with, reporting to, or managing women. Wilma: I think it was seeing the first African American president. As a woman of color this validated that other minority groups can also exercise influence and become leaders. How has your life changed for better or worse in regard to the above two things? Natalie: In the age of social media and tinder, etc., it’s probably easier to vet meeting somebody without having to expose oneself to that kind of treatment. I think these movements have given young people the awareness and peer expectations to know that sort of behavior won’t and shouldn’t be tolerated. Jennifer: I do think my life was changed for the better in this realm, particularly in the sense of supervisors understanding the needs of family. I was fortunate to both work in a field and have supervisors who understood that I was co-parting a daughter and how important time was. Time with her was a priority as was making myself available during her formative years. A different era may have meant that I could not have contributed to the family from a salary standpoint and would stayat home. OR a different era might have meant a supervisor that would not understand leaving work at 3:15 to pick up a middle school or high school student. My professional life has fallen during a time when there was respect for people stating those family priorities and being able to tangibly act in a way that meant I was home with my child after school or be able to get her to various activities without depending on others to do that. Wilma: These events allowed myself to feel more accepted in society. Finding open minded people who embrace


Wilma and Jennifer this summer, in front of their house in Shorewood. They’ve been together for over 20 years and have raised a child together, and have since been married.

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you, whether you are a single parent or a person with different sexual preferences, these thing gs helped me feel a little more acceptance and understanding. Do you think that women overall have it “better” or “worse” now than when you were born? Why? In what ways is it worse? Natalie: For my mom, in the early 60s, as a widowed mother of two children underthe age of three, I know how hard it was for her to make ends meet, but that’s another story! It seems as though today, progressive companies are more accommodating to the constant balance-juggling and time-management necessary of child-rearing in this era, allowing more personal time off and more flexible work shift arrangements to help families stay afloat. Jennifer: I think for the most part women have it better now than they did than during my mom’s time, for example. All you have to do is watch older television to

An old, but loved, photograph of my mom Natalie in 1993. At this time, she was pregnant with my sister Celia and had a Keith Haring shirt to match. She still has this shirt today.

see the way women were treated and spoken to, almost as if they were children. People are much more sensitive today about valuing and respecting women inequal ways as men. I think in some ways what is harder is the idea that womencan have it all and not compromise some area of their life. If a woman truly wants to earn a lot of money and climb some sort of corporate ladder there are still prices to pay for that. And I think women who stay at home are sometimes looked at as less than their professional counterparts. Also, I think the emphasis on materialism makes it difficult to live a simpler life vs. trying to “keep up with the Jones.” Wilma: I think this generation is better because the struggle to become visible in both personal or professional arena is not as hard as it was when my parents were my age. We continue to strive for more rights and equity although we do have setbacks. Women do sometimes continue to feel that they have to be in competition with men and as a result some of the priorities have shifted. Sometimes this might lead to more emphasis put on being a professional to be more conformed to society than being a wife. Women might feel internal pressure to be more like a man and many people choose to focus on professional career at the expense of being a parent, which is a choice but in some cases I wonder whether or not people give up that other part of their life. As lesbian women, how has this piece of your identity shape you? Do you believe this part of your identity has been viewed differently be the public or some people in thepast, differently than it has now? What challenges did you face then versus now? Were there challenges in the workplace or with family? Jennifer: My identity as a lesbian definitely has shaped who I am. It has shaped my sensitivity to the “other” for sure, meaning sometimes greater empathy to groups who don’t fit into some normed way of being. I think if I’m honest I will say it sometimes has made me feel the



need to be better than or more successful than or more perfect than, for example, my siblings. I think I’ve always strived to be the perfect daughter to my mom because I felt that maybe I let her down in terms of not being part of a traditional family. That has gotten much better over the years but I think in some ways that identity motived me to get a PhD. I think that being a lesbian today, in some ways influence by the media, is made easier today than in the past. Ellen DeGeneres played a big role in this, making it more acceptable and mainstream to identify this way. In our experience, sometimes people think it’s cool to meet a lesbian couple. It hasn’t come without complications or times where people have shouted “dyke” our way but that is rare. It has caused challenges in the workplace in the sense that I need to trust someone because I disclose my life to them. This is especially true right now given the political culture and permission given to people making their prejudices more known than say five years ago. I still pick and choose who I tell about my family and identity in the workplace and generally wait until I can get some data to suggest how they feel in general about the LGBTQ community and things like gay marriage. Wilma: I don’t feel that we have gotten to a place where we’ve been completely accepted based on sexual identity. People assume in my workplace that I am a straight woman. My work depends on relationships with external people in the community, some who may not accept my lifestyle. So I don’t feel like we’ve gotten to a point where

Right Top: Jennifer and her daughter, when Gabby was younger. Right: Jennifer, Gabby, and Wilma today.

I can add to the layer of complexities of being a woman of color and then also identifying as a lesbian. So I sometimes hide that part, particularly in a largely white, male environment. What has it been like raising a child [Or] raising a child together as partners? What was the hardest part? What has been the most rewarding part? Natalie: Raising a child has been rewarding and challenging. I felt it was a great responsibility and took a lot


of “behind the scenes” involvement. For our family, having a two-income household was not sustainable for our situation at the time and we felt that me leaving my job to become a stay-at-home mom was the best solution. The benefits are obvious to us -- in our opinion, our daughters are our wealth and all that’s good in humanity. What’s challenging is the financial impact of one less income and my personal surrender of a rewarding career I had worked hard for, enjoyed and identified with. The role of stay-at-home mom is still perceived as a less valued one for women even though it was undeniably the most important one for me.



Jennifer: It’s been amazing co-parenting our daughter. We balance each other out in terms of what we each bring to that scenario. We live in a fairly progressive area and didn’t once have an issue raising her in terms of her non-traditional family. We always were very clear with new people that Gabby had two moms and if there was a problem we would want to know about it up front to shield her from any harm. We have been very fortunate that so far that did not happen broadly and therefore provided her with the safety to be proud of her family and never ashamed (at least that’s what we think!) The hardest part has been that we did have to announce to new people our family situation, which is sometimes awkward. When she began to have sleepovers we would disclose the situation up front via phone and that sometimes made us feel vulnerable. Wilma: The hardest part for me has been worrying about her being hurt due to my sexual preference. It would be just one more thing in addition to being a women and having a Latina last name. The most rewarding part has been to be able to provide her with a home, a safe environment, and an emotionally and financially stable environment. Seeing her succeed and the choices we’ve made in terms of who we have welcomed into our life have affirmed both her and us to provide that safety. (For Wilma:) As a Puerto Rican woman of color and a lesbian woman, how do you see these parts of your identity intersecting? Have you ever felt there was a clash between your cultural upbringing and your sexual orientation? Wilma: Definitely I have felt this. This was a big part of my ability to come out of the closet earlier. The Latino culture is still fairly machismo in my experience. The first lens was to overcome the culture and family expectations. As a successful Latina woman working in a largely white environment, I almost had to choose which one took priority so my sexual orientation took a backseat. Being a woman and a person of color I was already

coming into places sometimes behind so my defenses are sometimes up and I always have to be on the alert for who will accept my orientation or not. As a person of color I cannot hide my color or accent but I can choose who I disclose my sexual orientation. I can control that. Jennifer: In many ways my experience was shaped just as much by being with a woman of color than living life as a lesbian. Complicated to get into but the cross identity of being a lesbian and then being part of a multicultural/ bilingual family has shaped my view of the world just as much. What is your favorite part of being a woman? Natalie: The miracle of having this amazing nurturing child-bearing body. Jennifer: I love being a woman because of the range of things I can be. I can be smart, I can be sensitive, I can be empathetic, I can be strong sometimes and weak other times. I feel sometimes being a man must really feel like a box where one can’t be much more than one thing. Being a woman, at least for me, makes it easier to make friends of all kinds (gay, straight, female, male, young, old). I don’t feel boxed in by any particular identity. Wilma: Being a mother and in a successful relationship is my favorite part.

End of interview. My Mother in the front row, with my father and I behind her. This photo was taken two years ago.

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Profile for Celeste Carroll

Epilogue Magazine  

Epilogue Magazine is a publication that features opinions, articles and essays on history, artistic environments, and the lives of women. Th...

Epilogue Magazine  

Epilogue Magazine is a publication that features opinions, articles and essays on history, artistic environments, and the lives of women. Th...