CATECHISM OF THE
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CATECHISM OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH The CTS Definitive & Complete Edition
CATHOLIC TRUTH SOCIETY
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THE PROFESSION OF FAITH
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The Profession of Faith
Section One “I BELIEVE” – “WE BELIEVE” 26. We begin our profession of faith by saying: “I believe” or “We believe.” Before expounding the Church’s faith, as confessed in the Creed, celebrated in the liturgy, and lived in observance of God’s commandments and in prayer, we must first ask what “to believe” means. Faith is man’s response to God, who reveals himself and gives himself to man, at the same time bringing man a superabundant light as he searches for the ultimate meaning of his life. Thus we shall consider first that search (Chapter One), then the divine Revelation by which God comes to meet man (Chapter Two), and finally the response of faith (Chapter Three). Chapter One MAN’S CAPACITY FOR GOD
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I. The Desire for God 27. The desire for God is written in the human heart, because man is created by God and for God; and God never ceases to draw man to himself. Only in God will he find the truth and happiness he never stops searching for: The dignity of man rests above all on the fact that he is called to communion with God. This invitation to converse with God is addressed to man as soon as he comes into being. For if man exists, it is because God has created him through love, and through love continues to hold him in existence. He cannot live fully according to truth unless he freely acknowledges that love and entrusts himself to his creator.1
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28. In many ways, throughout history down to the present day, men have given expression to their quest for God in their religious beliefs and behaviour: in their prayers, sacrifices, rituals, meditations, and so forth. These forms of religious expression, despite the ambiguities they often bring with them, are so universal that one may well call man a religious being: From one ancestor [God] made all nations to inhabit the whole earth, and he allotted the times of their existence and the boundaries of the places where they would live, so that they would search for God and perhaps grope for him and find him – though indeed he is not far from each one of us. For “in him we live and move and have our being.”2
Vatican Council II, GS 19 § 1. Acts 17:26-28.
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29. But this “intimate and vital bond of man to God” can be forgotten, overlooked, or even explicitly rejected by man.3 Such attitudes can have 2123-2128 different causes: revolt against evil in the world; religious ignorance or indifference; the cares and riches of this world; the scandal of bad example on the part of believers; currents of thought hostile to religion; finally, that attitude of sinful man which makes him hide from God out of fear and flee his call.4 398 30. “Let the hearts of those who seek the LORD rejoice.”5 Although man can forget God or reject him, He never ceases to call every man to seek him, so 2567, 845 as to find life and happiness. But this search for God demands of man every effort of intellect, a sound will, “an upright heart,” as well as the witness of 368 others who teach him to seek God. You are great, O Lord, and greatly to be praised: great is your power and your wisdom is without measure. And man, so small a part of your creation, wants to praise you: this man, though clothed with mortality and bearing the evidence of sin and the proof that you withstand the proud. Despite everything, man, though but a small part of your creation, wants to praise you. You yourself encourage him to delight in your praise, for you have made us for yourself, and our heart is restless until it rests in you.6
II. Ways of Coming to Know God 31. Created in God’s image and called to know and love him, the person who seeks God discovers certain ways of coming to know him. These are also called proofs for the existence of God, not in the sense of proofs in the natural sciences, but rather in the sense of “converging and convincing arguments”, which allow us to attain certainty about the truth. These “ways” of approaching God from creation have a twofold point of departure: the physical world and the human person. 32. The world: starting from movement, becoming, contingency, and the world’s order and beauty, one can come to a knowledge of God as the origin 54, 337 and the end of the universe. As St Paul says of the Gentiles: For what can be known about God is plain to them, because God has shown it to them. Ever since the creation of the world his invisible nature, namely, his eternal power and deity, has been clearly perceived in the things that have been made.7 And St Augustine issues this challenge: Question the beauty of the earth, 3 GS 19 § 1. 4 Cf. GS 19-21; Mt 13:22; Gen 3:8-10; Jon 1:3. 5 Ps 105:3. 6 St Augustine, Conf. 1, 1, 1: PL 32, 659-661. 7 Rom 1:19-20; cf. Acts 14:15, 17; 17:27-28; Wis 13:1-9.
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question the beauty of the sea, question the beauty of the air distending and diffusing itself, question the beauty of the sky… question all these realities. All respond: “See, we are beautiful.” Their beauty is a profession [confessio]. These beauties are subject to change. Who made them if not the Beautiful One [Pulcher] who is not subject to change?8 2500 1730, 1776 1703 366
33. The human person: with his openness to truth and beauty, his sense of moral goodness, his freedom and the voice of his conscience, with his longings for the infinite and for happiness, man questions himself about God’s existence. In all this he discerns signs of his spiritual soul. The soul, the “seed of eternity we bear in ourselves, irreducible to the merely material”,9 can have its origin only in God. 34. The world, and man, attest that they contain within themselves neither their first principle nor their final end, but rather that they participate in Being itself, which alone is without origin or end. Thus, in different ways, man can come to know that there exists a reality which is the first cause and final end of all things, a reality “that everyone calls ‘God’”.10 35. Man’s faculties make him capable of coming to a knowledge of the existence of a personal God. But for man to be able to enter into real intimacy with him, God willed both to reveal himself to man and to give him the grace of being able to welcome this revelation in faith. The proofs of God’s existence, however, can predispose one to faith and help one to see that faith is not opposed to reason. III. The Knowledge of God According to the Church 36. “Our holy mother, the Church, holds and teaches that God, the first principle and last end of all things, can be known with certainty from the created world by the natural light of human reason.”11 Without this capacity, man would not be able to welcome God’s revelation. Man has this capacity because he is created “in the image of God.”12 37. In the historical conditions in which he finds himself, however, man experiences many difficulties in coming to know God by the light of reason alone: Though human reason is, strictly speaking, truly capable by its own natural power and light of attaining to a true and certain knowledge of the one personal God, who watches over and controls the world by his providence, and of the 8 St Augustine, Sermo 241, 2: PL 38, 1134. 9 GS 18 § 1; cf. 14 § 2. 10 St Thomas Aquinas, STh I, 2, 3. 11 Vatican Council I, Dei Filius 2: DS 3004; cf. 3026; Vatican Council II, Dei Verbum 6. 12 Cf. Gen 1:27.
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natural law written in our hearts by the Creator; yet there are many obstacles which prevent reason from the effective and fruitful use of this inborn faculty. For the truths that concern the relations between God and man wholly transcend the visible order of things, and, if they are translated into human action and influence it, they call for self-surrender and abnegation. The human mind, in its turn, is hampered in the attaining of such truths, not only by the impact of the senses and the imagination, but also by disordered appetites which are the consequences of original sin. So it happens that men in such matters easily persuade themselves that what they would not like to be true is false or at least doubtful.13
38. This is why man stands in need of being enlightened by God’s revelation, not only about those things that exceed his understanding, but also “about those religious and moral truths which of themselves are not beyond the grasp of human reason, so that even in the present condition of the human 2036 race, they can be known by all men with ease, with firm certainty and with no admixture of error.”14 IV. How can we speak about God? 39. In defending the ability of human reason to know God, the Church is expressing her confidence in the possibility of speaking about him to all men 851 and with all men, and therefore of dialogue with other religions, with philosophy and science, as well as with unbelievers and atheists. 40. Since our knowledge of God is limited, our language about him is equally so. We can name God only by taking creatures as our starting point, and in accordance with our limited human ways of knowing and thinking. 41. All creatures bear a certain resemblance to God, most especially man, created in the image and likeness of God. The manifold perfections of creatures – their truth, their goodness, their beauty – all reflect the infinite 213 perfection of God. Consequently we can name God by taking his creatures’ 299 perfections as our starting point, “for from the greatness and beauty of created things comes a corresponding perception of their Creator”.15 42. God transcends all creatures. We must therefore continually purify our 212, 300 language of everything in it that is limited, image-bound or imperfect, if we are not to confuse our image of God – “the inexpressible, the incomprehensible, 370 the invisible, the ungraspable” – with our human representations.16 Our human words always fall short of the mystery of God. Pius XII, Humani Generis, 561: DS 3875. Pius XII, Humani Generis, 561: DS 3876; cf. Dei Filius 2: DS 3005; DV 6; St Thomas Aquinas, STh I, 1, 1. 15 Wis 13:5. 16 Liturgy of St John Chrysostom, Anaphora. 13 14
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43. Admittedly, in speaking about God like this, our language is using human modes of expression; nevertheless it really does attain to God himself, though unable to express him in his infinite simplicity. Likewise, we must recall that “between Creator and creature no similitude can be expressed without implying an even greater dissimilitude”;17 and that “concerning God, we cannot grasp what he is, but only what he is not, and how other beings stand in relation to him”.18 IN BRIEF 44. Man is by nature and vocation a religious being. Coming from God, going toward God, man lives a fully human life only if he freely lives by his bond with God. 45. Man is made to live in communion with God in whom he finds happiness: “When I am completely united to you, there will be no more sorrow or trials; entirely full of you, my life will be complete” (St Augustine, Conf. 10, 28, 39: PL 32, 795). 46. When he listens to the message of creation and to the voice of conscience, man can arrive at certainty about the existence of God, the cause and the end of everything. 47. The Church teaches that the one true God, our Creator and Lord, can be known with certainty from his works, by the natural light of human reason (cf. Vatican Council I, can. 2, § 1: DS 3026). 48. We really can name God, starting from the manifold perfections of his creatures, which are likenesses of the infinitely perfect God, even if our limited language cannot exhaust the mystery. 49. “Without the Creator, the creature vanishes” (GS 36). This is the reason why believers know that the love of Christ urges them to bring the light of the living God to those who do not know him or who reject him.
Lateran Council IV: DS 806. St Thomas Aquinas, SCG I, 30.
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THE CELEBRATION OF THE CHRISTIAN MYSTERY
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252 Why the liturgy?
1066. In the Symbol of the faith the Church confesses the mystery of the Holy Trinity and of the plan of God’s “good pleasure” for all creation: the Father accomplishes the “mystery of his will” by giving his beloved Son and his Holy Spirit for the salvation of the world and for the glory of his name.1 Such is the mystery of Christ, revealed and fulfilled in history according 236 to the wisely ordered plan that St Paul calls the “plan of the mystery”2 and the patristic tradition will call the “economy of the Word incarnate” or the “economy of salvation”. 50
1067. “The wonderful works of God among the people of the Old Testament were but a prelude to the work of Christ the Lord in redeeming mankind and giving perfect glory to God. He accomplished this work principally by the Paschal mystery of his blessed Passion, Resurrection from the dead, and glorious Ascension, whereby ‘dying he destroyed our death, rising he restored our life’. For it was from the side of Christ as he slept the sleep of death upon the cross that there came forth ‘the wondrous sacrament of the whole Church’.”3 For this reason, the Church celebrates in the liturgy above all 571 the Paschal mystery by which Christ accomplished the work of our salvation. 1068. It is this mystery of Christ that the Church proclaims and celebrates in her liturgy so that the faithful may live from it and bear witness to it in the world: For it is in the liturgy, especially in the divine sacrifice of the Eucharist, that “the work of our redemption is accomplished,” and it is through the liturgy especially that the faithful are enabled to express in their lives and manifest to others the mystery of Christ and the real nature of the true Church.4 What does the word liturgy mean?
1069. The word “liturgy” originally meant a “public work” or a “service in the name of/on behalf of the people”. In Christian tradition it means the participation of the People of God in “the work of God.”5 Through the liturgy Christ, our redeemer and high priest, continues the work of our redemption in, with, and through his Church. 1070. In the New Testament the word “liturgy” refers not only to the celebration of divine worship but also to the proclamation of the Gospel and 1 Eph 1:9. 2 Eph 3:9; cf. 3:4. 3 SC 5 § 2; cf. St Augustine, En. in Ps. 138, 2: PL 37, 1784-1785. 4 SC 2. 5 Cf. Jn 17:4.
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to active charity.6 In all of these situations it is a question of the service of God and neighbour. In a liturgical celebration the Church is servant in the image of her Lord, the one leitourgos;7 she shares in Christ’s priesthood (worship), which is both prophetic (proclamation) and kingly (service of charity): 783 The liturgy then is rightly seen as an exercise of the priestly office of Jesus Christ. It involves the presentation of man’s sanctification under the guise of signs perceptible by the senses and its accomplishment in ways appropriate to each of these signs. In it full public worship is performed by the Mystical Body of Jesus Christ, that is, by the Head and his members. From this it follows that every liturgical celebration, because it is an action of Christ the priest and of his Body which is the Church, is a sacred action surpassing all others. No other action of the Church can equal its efficacy by the same title and to the same degree.8 Liturgy as source of life
1071. As the work of Christ liturgy is also an action of his Church. It makes the Church present and manifests her as the visible sign of the communion in Christ between God and men. It engages the faithful in the new life of the 1692 community and involves the “conscious, active, and fruitful participation” of everyone.9 1072. “The sacred liturgy does not exhaust the entire activity of the Church”:10 it must be preceded by evangelization, faith, and conversion. It can then produce its fruits in the lives of the faithful: new life in the Spirit, involvement in the mission of the Church and service to her unity. Prayer and liturgy
1073. The liturgy is also a participation in Christ’s own prayer addressed to the Father in the Holy Spirit. In the liturgy, all Christian prayer finds its source and goal. Through the liturgy the inner man is rooted and grounded in “the great love with which [the Father] loved us” in his beloved Son.11 It is the same “marvellous work of God” that is lived and internalized by all prayer, “at all times in the Spirit.”12 2558 6 Cf. Lk 1:23; Acts 13:2; Rom 15:16, 27; 2 Cor 9:12; Phil 2:14-17, 25, 30. 7 Cf. Heb 8:2, 6. 8 SC 7 § 2-3. 9 SC 11. 10 SC 9. 11 Eph 2:4; 3:16-17. 12 Eph 6:18.
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Catechesis and liturgy
1074. “The liturgy is the summit toward which the activity of the Church is directed; it is also the fount from which all her power flows.”13 It is therefore the privileged place for catechizing the People of God. “Catechesis is intrinsically linked with the whole of liturgical and sacramental activity, for it is in the sacraments, especially in the Eucharist, that Christ Jesus works in fulness for the transformation of men.”14 1075. Liturgical catechesis aims to initiate people into the mystery of Christ (it is “mystagogy”) by proceeding from the visible to the invisible, from 774 the sign to the thing signified, from the “sacraments” to the “mysteries.” Such catechesis is to be presented by local and regional catechisms. This Catechism, which aims to serve the whole Church in all the diversity of her rites and cultures,15 will present what is fundamental and common to the whole Church in the liturgy as mystery and as celebration (Section One), and then the seven sacraments and the sacramentals (Section Two). 426
13 SC 10. 14 St John Paul II, CT 23. 15 Cf. SC 3-4.
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Section One THE SACRAMENTAL ECONOMY 1076. The Church was made manifest to the world on the day of Pentecost by the outpouring of the Holy Spirit.1 The gift of the Spirit ushers in a new era 739 in the “dispensation of the mystery” – the age of the Church, during which Christ manifests, makes present, and communicates his work of salvation through the liturgy of his Church, “until he comes.”2 In this age of the Church Christ now lives and acts in and with his Church, in a new way appropriate to this new age. He acts through the sacraments in what the common Tradition of the East and the West calls “the sacramental economy”; this is the communication (or “dispensation”) of the fruits of Christ’s Paschal mystery in the celebration of the Church’s “sacramental” liturgy. It is therefore important first to explain this “sacramental dispensation” (Chapter One). The nature and essential features of liturgical celebration will then appear more clearly (Chapter Two). Chapter One THE PASCHAL MYSTERY IN THE AGE OF THE CHURCH Article 1 THE LITURGY – WORK OF THE HOLY TRINITY I. The Father – Source and Goal of the Liturgy 1077. “Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us in Christ with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places, even 492 as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and blameless before him. He destined us before him in love to be his sons through Jesus Christ, according to the purpose of his will, to the praise of his glorious grace which he freely bestowed on us in the Beloved.”3 1078. Blessing is a divine and life-giving action, the source of which is the 2626 Father; his blessing is both word and gift.4 When applied to man, the word “blessing” means adoration, and surrender to his Creator in thanksgiving. 1079. From the beginning until the end of time the whole of God’s work is a blessing. From the liturgical poem of the first creation to the canticles of the 1 Cf. SC 6; LG 2. 2 1 Cor 11:26. 3 Eph 1:3-6. 4 eu-logia, bene-dictio.
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heavenly Jerusalem, the inspired authors proclaim the plan of salvation as one vast divine blessing. 1080. From the very beginning God blessed all living beings, especially man and woman. The covenant with Noah and with all living things renewed this blessing of fruitfulness despite man’s sin which had brought a curse on the ground. But with Abraham, the divine blessing entered into human history which was moving toward death, to redirect it toward life, toward its source. By the faith of “the father of all believers”, who embraced the blessing, the history of salvation is inaugurated. 1081. The divine blessings were made manifest in astonishing and saving events: the birth of Isaac, the escape from Egypt (Passover and Exodus), the gift of the promised land, the election of David, the presence of God in the Temple, the purifying exile, and return of a “small remnant.” The Law, the Prophets and the Psalms, interwoven in the liturgy of the Chosen People, recall these divine blessings and at the same time respond to them with blessings of praise and thanksgiving. 1082. In the Church’s liturgy the divine blessing is fully revealed and communicated. The Father is acknowledged and adored as the source and the end of all the blessings of creation and salvation. In his Word who became incarnate, died, and rose for us, he fills us with his blessings. Through his Word, he pours into our hearts the Gift that contains all gifts, the Holy Spirit. 1083. The dual dimension of the Christian liturgy as a response of faith and love to the spiritual blessings the Father bestows on us is thus evident. On the one hand, the Church, united with her Lord and “in the Holy Spirit,”5 blesses the Father “for his inexpressible gift”6 in her adoration, praise and 1360 thanksgiving. On the other hand, until the consummation of God’s plan, the Church never ceases to present to the Father the offering of his own gifts and to beg him to send the Holy Spirit upon that offering, upon herself, upon the faithful and upon the whole world, so that through communion in the death and resurrection of Christ the Priest and by the power of the Spirit, these divine blessings will bring forth the fruits of life “to the praise of his glorious grace.”7 2627
5 Lk 10:21. 6 2 Cor 9:15. 7 Eph 1:6.
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II. Christ’s Work in the Liturgy Christ glorified…
1084. “Seated at the right hand of the Father” and pouring out the Holy Spirit 662 on his Body which is the Church, Christ now acts through the sacraments he instituted to communicate his grace. The sacraments are perceptible signs 1127 (words and actions) accessible to our human nature. By the action of Christ and the power of the Holy Spirit they make present efficaciously the grace that they signify. 1085. In the liturgy of the Church, it is principally his own Paschal mystery that Christ signifies and makes present. During his earthly life Jesus announced his Paschal mystery by his teaching and anticipated it by his actions. When his Hour comes, he lives out the unique event of history which does not pass away: Jesus dies, is buried, rises from the dead, and is seated at the right hand of the Father “once for all.”8 His Paschal mystery is a real event that occurred in our history, but it is unique: all other historical events happen once, and then they pass away, swallowed up in the past. The Paschal mystery of Christ, by contrast, cannot remain only in the past, because by his death he destroyed death, and all that Christ is – all that he did and suffered for all men – participates in the divine eternity and so transcends 519 all times while being made present in them all. The event of the Cross and 1165 Resurrection abides and draws everything toward life. …from the time of the Church of the Apostles…
1086. “Accordingly, just as Christ was sent by the Father so also he sent the 858 apostles, filled with the Holy Spirit. This he did so that they might preach the Gospel to every creature and proclaim that the Son of God by his death and resurrection had freed us from the power of Satan and from death and brought us into the Kingdom of his Father. But he also willed that the work of salvation which they preached should be set in train through the sacrifice and sacraments, around which the entire liturgical life revolves.”9 1087. Thus the risen Christ, by giving the Holy Spirit to the apostles, entrusted to them his power of sanctifying:10 they became sacramental signs of Christ. By the power of the same Holy Spirit they entrusted this power to their successors. This “apostolic succession” structures the whole liturgical life 861 of the Church and is itself sacramental, handed on by the sacrament of Holy Orders. 1536 8 Rom 6:10; Heb 7:27; 9:12; cf. Jn 13:1; 17:1. 9 SC 6. 10 Cf. Jn 20:21-23.
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…is present in the earthly liturgy…
1088. “To accomplish so great a work” – the dispensation or communication of his work of salvation – “Christ is always present in his Church, especially in her liturgical celebrations. He is present in the Sacrifice of the Mass not only in the person of his minister, ‘the same now offering, through the ministry of priests, who formerly offered himself on the cross’, but especially in the 1373 Eucharistic species. By his power he is present in the sacraments so that when anybody baptizes it is really Christ himself who baptizes. He is present in his word since it is he himself who speaks when the holy Scriptures are read in the Church. Lastly, he is present when the Church prays and sings, for he has promised ‘where two or three are gathered together in my name there am I in the midst of them’.”11
1089. “Christ, indeed, always associates the Church with himself in this great work in which God is perfectly glorified and men are sanctified. The Church 796 is his beloved Bride who calls to her Lord and through him offers worship to the eternal Father.”12 …which participates in the liturgy of heaven 1137-1139
1090. “In the earthly liturgy we share in a foretaste of that heavenly liturgy which is celebrated in the Holy City of Jerusalem toward which we journey as pilgrims, where Christ is sitting at the right hand of God, Minister of the sanctuary and of the true tabernacle. With all the warriors of the heavenly army we sing a hymn of glory to the Lord; venerating the memory of the saints, we hope for some part and fellowship with them; we eagerly await the Saviour, our Lord Jesus Christ, until he, our life, shall appear and we too will appear with him in glory.”13
III. The Holy Spirit and the Church in the Liturgy 1091. In the liturgy the Holy Spirit is teacher of the faith of the People of God 798 and artisan of “God’s masterpieces”, the sacraments of the New Covenant. The desire and work of the Spirit in the heart of the Church is that we may live from the life of the risen Christ. When the Spirit encounters in us the response of faith which he has aroused in us, he brings about genuine cooperation. Through it, the liturgy becomes the common work of the Holy Spirit and the Church. 1092. In this sacramental dispensation of Christ’s mystery the Holy Spirit acts in the same way as at other times in the economy of salvation: he prepares 11 12 13
SC 7; Mt 18:20. SC 7. SC 8; cf. LG 50.
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the Church to encounter her Lord; he recalls and makes Christ manifest to 737 the faith of the assembly. By his transforming power, he makes the mystery of Christ present here and now. Finally the Spirit of communion unites the Church to the life and mission of Christ. The Holy Spirit prepares for the reception of Christ
1093. In the sacramental economy the Holy Spirit fulfils what was prefigured in the Old Covenant. Since Christ’s Church was “prepared in marvellous fashion in the history of the people of Israel and in the Old Covenant,”14 the Church’s liturgy has retained certain elements of the worship of the Old Covenant as integral and irreplaceable, adopting them as her own: – notably, reading the Old Testament; – praying the Psalms; – above all, recalling the saving events and significant realities which have found their fulfilment in the mystery of Christ (promise and covenant, Exodus and Passover, kingdom and temple, exile and return). 1094. It is on this harmony of the two Testaments that the Paschal catechesis of the Lord is built,15 and then, that of the apostles and the Fathers of the Church. This catechesis unveils what lay hidden under the letter of the Old Testament: the mystery of Christ. It is called “typological” because it reveals the newness of Christ on the basis of the “figures” (types) which announce him in the deeds, words and symbols of the first covenant. By this re-reading in the Spirit of Truth, starting from Christ, the figures are unveiled.16 Thus the flood and Noah’s ark prefigured salvation by Baptism,17 as did the cloud and the crossing of the Red Sea. Water from the rock was the figure of the spiritual gifts of Christ and manna in the desert prefigured the Eucharist, “the true bread from heaven.”18
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1095. For this reason the Church, especially during Advent and Lent and above all at the Easter Vigil, re-reads and re-lives the great events of salvation 281 history in the “today” of her liturgy. But this also demands that catechesis help the faithful to open themselves to this spiritual understanding of the economy 117 of salvation as the Church’s liturgy reveals it and enables us to live it. 1096. Jewish liturgy and Christian liturgy. A better knowledge of the Jewish
people’s faith and religious life as professed and lived even now can help our better understanding of certain aspects of Christian liturgy. For both Jews and Christians
14 LG 2. 15 Cf. DV 14-16; Lk 24:13-49. 16 Cf. 2 Cor 3:14-16. 17 Cf. 1 Pt 3:21. 18 Jn 6:32; cf. 1 Cor 10:1-6.
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sacred Scripture is an essential part of their respective liturgies: in the proclamation of the Word of God, the response to this word, prayer of praise and intercession for the living and the dead and the invocation of God’s mercy. In its characteristic structure 1174 the Liturgy of the Word originates in Jewish prayer. The Liturgy of the Hours and other liturgical texts and formularies, as well as those of our most venerable prayers, 1352 including the Lord’s Prayer, have parallels in Jewish prayer. The Eucharistic Prayers also draw their inspiration from the Jewish tradition. The relationship between Jewish liturgy and Christian liturgy, but also their differences in content, are particularly 840 evident in the great feasts of the liturgical year, such as Passover. Christians and Jews both celebrate the Passover. For Jews, it is the Passover of history, tending toward the future; for Christians, it is the Passover fulfilled in the death and Resurrection of Christ, though always in expectation of its definitive consummation.
1097. In the liturgy of the New Covenant every liturgical action, especially the celebration of the Eucharist and the sacraments, is an encounter between Christ and the Church. The liturgical assembly derives its unity from the “communion of the Holy Spirit” who gathers the children of God into the one Body of Christ. This assembly transcends racial, cultural, social – indeed, all human affinities. 1098. The assembly should prepare itself to encounter its Lord and to become “a people well disposed.” The preparation of hearts is the joint work of the Holy Spirit and the assembly, especially of its ministers. The grace of the 1430 Holy Spirit seeks to awaken faith, conversion of heart, and adherence to the Father’s will. These dispositions are the precondition both for the reception of other graces conferred in the celebration itself and the fruits of new life which the celebration is intended to produce afterward. The Holy Spirit recalls the mystery of Christ
1099. The Spirit and the Church co-operate to manifest Christ and his work of salvation in the liturgy. Primarily in the Eucharist, and by analogy in the other sacraments, the liturgy is the memorial of the mystery of salvation. The 91 Holy Spirit is the Church’s living memory.19 1100. The Word of God. The Holy Spirit first recalls the meaning of the 1184 salvation event to the liturgical assembly by giving life to the Word of God, which is proclaimed so that it may be received and lived: 103, 131
In the celebration of the liturgy, Sacred Scripture is extremely important. From it come the lessons that are read and explained in the homily and the psalms that are sung. It is from the Scriptures that the prayers, collects, and hymns draw their inspiration and their force, and that actions and signs derive their meaning.20 19 Cf. Jn 14:26. 20 SC 24.
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1101. The Holy Spirit gives a spiritual understanding of the Word of God to 117 those who read or hear it, according to the dispositions of their hearts. By means of the words, actions, and symbols that form the structure of a celebration, the Spirit puts both the faithful and the ministers into a living relationship with Christ, the Word and Image of the Father, so that they can live out the meaning of what they hear, contemplate and do in the celebration. 1102. “By the saving word of God, faith… is nourished in the hearts of believers. By this faith then the congregation of the faithful begins and grows.”21 The proclamation does not stop with a teaching; it elicits the response of faith as consent and commitment, directed at the covenant 143 between God and his people. Once again it is the Holy Spirit who gives the grace of faith, strengthens it and makes it grow in the community. The liturgical assembly is first of all a communion in faith. 1103. Anamnesis. The liturgical celebration always refers to God’s saving 1362 interventions in history. “The economy of Revelation is realized by deeds and words which are intrinsically bound up with each other…. [T]he words for their part proclaim the works and bring to light the mystery they contain.”22 In the Liturgy of the Word the Holy Spirit “recalls” to the assembly all that Christ has done for us. In keeping with the nature of liturgical actions and the ritual traditions of the churches, the celebration “makes a remembrance” of the marvellous works of God in an anamnesis which may be more or less developed. The Holy Spirit who thus awakens the memory of the Church then inspires thanksgiving and praise (doxology). The Holy Spirit makes present the mystery of Christ
1104. Christian liturgy not only recalls the events that saved us but actualizes them, makes them present. The Paschal mystery of Christ is celebrated, not 1085 repeated. It is the celebrations that are repeated, and in each celebration there is an outpouring of the Holy Spirit that makes the unique mystery present. 1105. The Epiclesis (“invocation upon”) is the intercession in which the priest begs the Father to send the Holy Spirit, the Sanctifier, so that the offerings 1153 may become the body and blood of Christ and that the faithful, by receiving them, may themselves become a living offering to God.23 1106. Together with the anamnesis, the epiclesis is at the heart of each sacramental celebration, most especially of the Eucharist: 21 PO 4. 22 DV 2. 23 Cf. Rom 12:1.
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You ask how the bread becomes the Body of Christ, and the wine… the Blood of Christ. I shall tell you: the Holy Spirit comes upon them and accomplishes what surpasses every word and thought… Let it be enough for you to understand that it is by the Holy Spirit, just as it was of the Holy Virgin and by the Holy Spirit that the Lord, through and in himself, took flesh.24
1107. The Holy Spirit’s transforming power in the liturgy hastens the coming of the kingdom and the consummation of the mystery of salvation. While we wait in hope he causes us really to anticipate the fulness of communion with the Holy Trinity. Sent by the Father who hears the epiclesis of the Church, the Spirit gives life to those who accept him and is, even now, the “guarantee” of their inheritance.25 The communion of the Holy Spirit
1108. In every liturgical action the Holy Spirit is sent in order to bring us into 788 communion with Christ and so to form his Body. The Holy Spirit is like the sap of the Father’s vine which bears fruit on its branches.26 The most intimate 1091 co-operation of the Holy Spirit and the Church is achieved in the liturgy. The Spirit, who is the Spirit of communion, abides indefectibly in the Church. For 775 this reason the Church is the great sacrament of divine communion which gathers God’s scattered children together. Communion with the Holy Trinity and fraternal communion are inseparably the fruit of the Spirit in the liturgy.27 1109. The epiclesis is also a prayer for the full effect of the assembly’s communion with the mystery of Christ. “The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit”28 have to remain with us always and bear fruit beyond the Eucharistic celebration. The Church therefore asks the Father to send the Holy Spirit to make the lives of the 1368 faithful a living sacrifice to God by their spiritual transformation into the image of Christ, by concern for the Church’s unity, and by taking part in her mission through the witness and service of charity.
24 St John Damascene, De fide orth. 4, 13: PG 94, 1145A. 25 Cf. Eph 1:14; 2 Cor 1:22. 26 Cf. Jn 15:1-17; Gal 5:22. 27 Cf. 1 Jn 1:3-7. 28 2 Cor 13:13.
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IN BRIEF 1110. In the liturgy of the Church, God the Father is blessed and adored as the source of all the blessings of creation and salvation with which he has blessed us in his Son, in order to give us the Spirit of filial adoption. 1111. Christ’s work in the liturgy is sacramental: because his mystery of salvation is made present there by the power of his Holy Spirit; because his Body, which is the Church, is like a sacrament (sign and instrument) in which the Holy Spirit dispenses the mystery of salvation; and because through her liturgical actions the pilgrim Church already participates, as by a foretaste, in the heavenly liturgy. 1112. The mission of the Holy Spirit in the liturgy of the Church is to prepare the assembly to encounter Christ; to recall and manifest Christ to the faith of the assembly; to make the saving work of Christ present and active by his transforming power; and to make the gift of communion bear fruit in the Church.
Article 2 THE PASCHAL MYSTERY IN THE CHURCH’S SACRAMENTS 1113. The whole liturgical life of the Church revolves around the Eucharistic sacrifice and the sacraments.29 There are seven sacraments in the Church: 1210 Baptism, Confirmation or Chrismation, Eucharist, Penance, Anointing of the Sick, Holy Orders, and Matrimony.30 This article will discuss what is common to the Church’s seven sacraments from a doctrinal point of view. What is common to them in terms of their celebration will be presented in the second chapter, and what is distinctive about each will be the topic of Section Two. I. The Sacraments of Christ 1114. “Adhering to the teaching of the Holy Scriptures, to the apostolic traditions, and to the consensus… of the Fathers”, we profess that “the sacraments of the new law were… all instituted by Jesus Christ our Lord.”31 1115. Jesus’s words and actions during his hidden life and public ministry were already salvific, for they anticipated the power of his Paschal mystery. They announced and prepared what he was going to give the Church when all was accomplished. The mysteries of Christ’s life are the foundations of 512-560 what he would henceforth dispense in the sacraments, through the ministers 29 Cf. SC 6. 30 Cf. Council
of Lyons II (1274) DS 860; Council of Florence (1439): DS 1310; Council of Trent (1547): DS 1601. 31 Council of Trent (1547): DS 1600-1601.
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of his Church, for “what was visible in our Saviour has passed over into his mysteries.”32 1504 774
1116. Sacraments are “power that come forth” from the Body of Christ,33 which is ever-living and life-giving. They are actions of the Holy Spirit at work in his Body, the Church. They are “the masterworks of God” in the new and everlasting covenant.
II. The Sacraments of the Church 120 1117. As she has done for the canon of Sacred Scripture and for the doctrine of the faith, the Church, by the power of the Spirit who guides her “into all truth”, has gradually recognized this treasure received from Christ and, as the faithful steward of God’s mysteries, has determined its “dispensation”.34 Thus the Church has discerned over the centuries that among liturgical celebrations there are seven that are, in the strict sense of the term, sacraments instituted by the Lord. 1118. The sacraments are “of the Church” in the double sense that they are “by her” and “for her”. They are “by the Church”, for she is the sacrament of Christ’s action at work in her through the mission of the Holy Spirit. They 1396 are “for the Church” in the sense that “the sacraments make the Church,”35 since they manifest and communicate to men, above all in the Eucharist, the mystery of communion with the God who is love, One in three persons. 792
1119. Forming “as it were, one mystical person” with Christ the head, the Church acts in the sacraments as “an organically structured priestly community.”36 Through Baptism and Confirmation the priestly people is enabled to celebrate the liturgy, while those of the faithful “who have received Holy Orders, are appointed to nourish the Church with the word and grace of God in the name of Christ”.37
1120. The ordained ministry or ministerial priesthood is at the service of the baptismal priesthood.38 The ordained priesthood guarantees that it really is Christ who acts in the sacraments through the Holy Spirit for the Church. The saving mission entrusted by the Father to his incarnate Son was committed to the apostles and through them to their successors: they receive the Spirit 32 St Leo the Great, Sermo. 74, 2: PL 54, 398. 33 Cf. Lk 5:17; 6:19; 8:46. 34 Jn 16:13; cf. Mt 13:52; 1 Cor 4:1. 35 St Augustine, De civ. Dei, 22, 17: PL 41, 779; cf. St Thomas Aquinas, S Th III, 64, 2 ad 3. 36 LG 11; cf. Pius XII, Mystici Corporis (1943). 37 LG 11 § 2. 38 Cf. LG 10 § 2.
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of Jesus to act in his name and in his person.39 The ordained minister is the sacramental bond that ties the liturgical action to what the apostles said and did and, through them, to the words and actions of Christ, the source and foundation of the sacraments. 1121. The three sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders confer, in addition to grace, a sacramental character or “seal” by which the 1272, 1304, Christian shares in Christ’s priesthood and is made a member of the Church 1582 according to different states and functions. This configuration to Christ and to the Church, brought about by the Spirit, is indelible;40 it remains for ever in the Christian as a positive disposition for grace, a promise and guarantee of divine protection, and as a vocation to divine worship and to the service of the Church. Therefore these sacraments can never be repeated. III. The Sacraments of Faith 1122. Christ sent his apostles so that “repentance and forgiveness of sins should be preached in his name to all nations”.41 “Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit.”42 The mission to baptize, and so the sacramental mission, is implied in the mission to evangelize, because the sacrament is 849 prepared for by the word of God and by the faith which is assent to this word: 1236 The People of God is formed into one in the first place by the Word of the living God… The preaching of the Word is required for the sacramental ministry itself, since the sacraments are sacraments of faith, drawing their origin and nourishment from the Word.43
1123. “The purpose of the sacraments is to sanctify men, to build up the Body of Christ and, finally, to give worship to God. Because they are signs they also instruct. They not only presuppose faith, but by words and objects they also nourish, strengthen, and express it. That is why they are called 1154 ‘sacraments of faith’.”44 1124. The Church’s faith precedes the faith of the believer who is invited to 166 adhere to it. When the Church celebrates the sacraments, she confesses the 1327 faith received from the apostles – whence the ancient saying: lex orandi, lex credendi (or: legem credendi lex statuat supplicandi, according to Prosper of 39 Cf. Jn 20:21-23; Lk 24:47; Mt 28:18-20. 40 Cf. Council of Trent (1547): DS 1609. 41 Lk 24:47. 42 Mt 28:19. 43 PO 4 §§ 1, 2. 44 SC 59.
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Aquitaine [5th cent.]).45 The law of prayer is the law of faith: the Church believes as she prays. Liturgy is a constitutive element of the holy and 78 living Tradition.46 1205
1125. For this reason no sacramental rite may be modified or manipulated at the will of the minister or the community. Even the supreme authority in the Church may not change the liturgy arbitrarily, but only in the obedience of faith and with religious respect for the mystery of the liturgy.
1126. Likewise, since the sacraments express and develop the communion of faith in the Church, the lex orandi is one of the essential criteria of the 815 dialogue that seeks to restore the unity of Christians.47 IV. The Sacraments of Salvation 1127. Celebrated worthily in faith, the sacraments confer the grace that they signify.48 They are efficacious because in them Christ himself is at work: it 1084 is he who baptizes, he who acts in his sacraments in order to communicate the grace that each sacrament signifies. The Father always hears the prayer 1105 of his Son’s Church which, in the epiclesis of each sacrament, expresses her 696 faith in the power of the Spirit. As fire transforms into itself everything it touches, so the Holy Spirit transforms into the divine life whatever is subjected to his power 1128. This is the meaning of the Church’s affirmation49 that the sacraments act ex opere operato (literally: “by the very fact of the action’s being performed”), i.e., by virtue of the saving work of Christ, accomplished once for all. It 1584 follows that “the sacrament is not wrought by the righteousness of either the celebrant or the recipient, but by the power of God”.50 From the moment that a sacrament is celebrated in accordance with the intention of the Church, the power of Christ and his Spirit acts in and through it, independently of the personal holiness of the minister. Nevertheless, the fruits of the sacraments also depend on the disposition of the one who receives them. 1257 2003
1129. The Church affirms that for believers the sacraments of the New Covenant are necessary for salvation.51 “Sacramental grace” is the grace of the Holy Spirit, given by Christ and proper to each sacrament. The Spirit heals and transforms those who receive him by conforming them to the Son of 45 Prosper of Aquitane Ep. 8. 46 Cf. DV 8. 47 Cf. UR 2; 15. 48 Cf. Council of Trent (1547): DS 1605; DS 1606. 49 Cf. Council of Trent (1547): DS 1608. 50 St Thomas Aquinas, S Th III, 68, 8. 51 Cf. Council of Trent (1547): DS 1604.
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God. The fruit of the sacramental life is that the Spirit of adoption makes the 460 faithful partakers in the divine nature52 by uniting them in a living union with the only Son, the Saviour. V. The Sacraments of Eternal Life 1130. The Church celebrates the mystery of her Lord “until he comes,” when God will be “everything to everyone.”53 Since the apostolic age the liturgy has been drawn toward its goal by the Spirit’s groaning in the Church: Marana tha! 54 The liturgy thus shares in Jesus’s desire: “I have earnestly desired to eat 2817 this Passover with you… until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God.”55 In the sacraments of Christ the Church already receives the guarantee of her 950 inheritance and even now shares in everlasting life, while “awaiting our blessed hope, the appearing of the glory of our great God and Saviour Christ Jesus”.56 The “Spirit and the Bride say, ‘Come… Come, Lord Jesus!’”57 St Thomas sums up the various aspects of sacramental signs: “Therefore a sacrament is a sign that commemorates what precedes it – Christ’s Passion; demonstrates what is accomplished in us through Christ’s Passion – grace; and prefigures what that Passion pledges to us – future glory.”58
IN BRIEF 1131. The sacraments are efficacious signs of grace, instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church, by which divine life is dispensed to us. The visible rites by which the sacraments are celebrated signify and make present the graces proper to each sacrament. They bear fruit in those who receive them with the required dispositions. 1132. The Church celebrates the sacraments as a priestly community structured by the baptismal priesthood and the priesthood of ordained ministers. 1133. The Holy Spirit prepares the faithful for the sacraments by the Word of God and the faith which welcomes that word in well-disposed hearts. Thus the sacraments strengthen faith and express it. 1134. The fruit of sacramental life is both personal and ecclesial. For every one of the faithful on the one hand, this fruit is life for God in Christ Jesus; for the Church, on the other, it is an increase in charity and in her mission of witness.
52 Cf. 2 Pt 1:4. 53 1 Cor 11:26; 15:28. 54 1 Cor 16:22. 55 Lk 22:15. 56 Titus 2:13. 57 Rev 22:17, 20. 58 St Thomas Aquinas, S Th III, 60, 3.
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1691. “Christian, recognize your dignity and, now that you share in God’s own nature, do not return to your former base condition by sinning. 790 Remember who is your head and of whose body you are a member. Never forget that you have been rescued from the power of darkness and brought into the light of the Kingdom of God.”1 1692. The Symbol of the faith confesses the greatness of God’s gifts to man in his work of creation, and even more in redemption and sanctification. What faith confesses, the sacraments communicate: by the sacraments of rebirth, Christians have become “children of God”,2 “partakers of the divine nature”.3 Coming to see in the faith their new dignity, Christians are called to lead henceforth a life “worthy of the gospel of Christ”.4 They are made capable of doing so by the grace of Christ and the gifts of his Spirit, which they receive through the sacraments and through prayer. 1693. Christ Jesus always did what was pleasing to the Father,5 and always lived in perfect communion with him. Likewise Christ’s disciples are invited to live in the sight of the Father “who sees in secret”,6 in order to become “perfect as your heavenly Father is perfect”.7 1267
1694. Incorporated into Christ by Baptism, Christians are “dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus” and so participate in the life of the Risen Lord.8 Following Christ and united with him,9 Christians can strive to be “imitators of God as beloved children, and walk in love”10 by conforming their thoughts, words and actions to the “mind… which is yours in Christ Jesus”,11 and by following his example.12 1695. “Justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God”,13 “sanctified… [and] called to be saints”,14 Christians have become the temple of the Holy Spirit.15 This “Spirit of the Son” teaches them to pray to 1 St Leo the Great, Sermo 21 in nat. Dom., 3: PL 54, 192C. 2 Jn 1:12; 1 Jn 3:1. 3 2 Pt 1:4. 4 Phil 1:27. 5 Cf. Jn 8:29. 6 Mt 6:6. 7 Mt 5:48. 8 Rom 6:11 and cf. 6:5; cf. Col 2:12. 9 Cf. Jn 15:5. 10 Eph 5:1–2. 11 Phil 2:5. 12 Cf. Jn 13:12–16. 13 1 Cor 6:11. 14 1 Cor 1:2. 15 Cf. 1 Cor 6:19.
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the Father16 and, having become their life, prompts them to act so as to bear “the fruit of the Spirit”17 by charity in action. Healing the wounds of sin, the Holy Spirit renews us interiorly through a spiritual transformation.18 He enlightens and strengthens us to live as “children of light” through “all that is good and right and true”.19 1696. The way of Christ “leads to life”; a contrary way “leads to destruction”.20 The Gospel parable of the two ways remains ever present in the catechesis of 1970 the Church; it shows the importance of moral decisions for our salvation: “There are two ways, the one of life, the other of death; but between the two, there is a great difference.”21 1697. Catechesis has to reveal in all clarity the joy and the demands of the way of Christ.22 Catechesis for the “newness of life”23 in him should be: – a catechesis of the Holy Spirit, the interior Master of life according to Christ, a gentle guest and friend who inspires, guides, corrects and strengthens this life; – a catechesis of grace, for it is by grace that we are saved and again it is by grace that our works can bear fruit for eternal life; – a catechesis of the Beatitudes, for the way of Christ is summed up in the Beatitudes, the only path that leads to the eternal beatitude for which the human heart longs; – a catechesis of sin and forgiveness, for unless man acknowledges that he is a sinner he cannot know the truth about himself, which is a condition for acting justly; and without the offer of forgiveness he would not be able to bear this truth; – a catechesis of the human virtues which causes one to grasp the beauty and attraction of right dispositions towards goodness; – a catechesis of the Christian virtues of faith, hope and charity, generously inspired by the example of the saints; – a catechesis of the twofold commandment of charity set forth in the Decalogue; – an ecclesial catechesis, for it is through the manifold exchanges of “spiritual goods” in the “communion of saints” that Christian life can grow, develop and be communicated.
1803ff 1812ff 2067
16 Cf. Gal 4:6. 17 Gal 5:22, 25. 18 Cf. Eph 4:23. 19 Eph 5:8, 9. 20 Mt 7:13; cf. Dt 30:15-20. 21 Didache 1, 1: SCh 248, 140. 22 Cf. St John Paul II, CT 29. 23 Rom 6:4.
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1698. The first and last point of reference of this catechesis will always be Jesus Christ himself, who is “the way, and the truth, and the life”.24 It is by looking to him in faith that Christ’s faithful can hope that he himself fulfils his promises in them, and that, by loving him with the same love with which he has loved them, they may perform works in keeping with their dignity: I ask you to consider that our Lord Jesus Christ is your true head, and that you are one of his members. He belongs to you as the head belongs to its members; all that is his is yours: his spirit, his heart, his body and soul and all his faculties. You must make use of all these as of your own, to serve, praise, love and glorify God. You belong to him, as members belong to their head. And so he longs for you to use all that is in you, as if it were his own, for the service and glory of the Father.25 For to me, to live is Christ.26
24 25 26
Jn 14:6. St John Eudes, Tract. de admirabili corde Jesu, 1, 5. Phil 1:21.
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Section One MAN’S VOCATION: LIFE IN THE SPIRIT 1699. Life in the Holy Spirit fulfils the vocation of man (Chapter One). This life is made up of divine charity and human solidarity (Chapter Two). It is graciously offered as salvation (Chapter Three). Chapter One THE DIGNITY OF THE HUMAN PERSON 1700. The dignity of the human person is rooted in his creation in the image and likeness of God (article 1); it is fulfilled in his vocation to divine beatitude 356 (article 2). It is essential to a human being freely to direct himself to this fulfilment (article 3). By his deliberate actions (article 4), the human person does, or does not, conform to the good promised by God (article 5) and attested by moral conscience (article 6). Human beings make their own contribution to their interior growth; they make their whole sentient and spiritual lives into means of this growth. With the help of grace they grow in virtue (article 7), avoid sin, and if they sin they entrust themselves as did the prodigal son1 to the mercy of our Father in heaven (article 8). In this way 1439 they attain to the perfection of charity. Article 1 MAN: THE IMAGE OF GOD 1701. “Christ,… in the very revelation of the mystery of the Father and of his 359 love, makes man fully manifest to himself and brings to light his exalted vocation.”2 It is in Christ, “the image of the invisible God”,3 that man has been created “in the image and likeness” of the Creator. It is in Christ, Redeemer and Saviour, that the divine image, disfigured in man by the first sin, has been restored to its original beauty and ennobled by the grace of God.4 1702. The divine image is present in every man. It shines forth in the communion of persons, in the likeness of the unity of the divine persons among themselves (cf. Chapter Two). 1878 1703. Endowed with “a spiritual and immortal” soul,5 the human person is 363 “the only creature on earth that God has willed for its own sake”.6 From his conception, he is destined for eternal beatitude. 2258 1 Lk 15:11-32. 2 GS 22. 3 Col 1:15; cf. 2 Cor 4:4. 4 Cf. GS 22. 5 GS 14 § 2. 6 GS 24 § 3.
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1704. The human person participates in the light and power of the divine Spirit. By his reason, he is capable of understanding the order of things established by the Creator. By free will, he is capable of directing himself 339, 30 toward his true good. He finds his perfection “in seeking and loving what is true and good”.7 1730
1705. By virtue of his soul and his spiritual powers of intellect and will, man is endowed with freedom, an “outstanding manifestation of the divine image”.8
1706. By his reason, man recognizes the voice of God which urges him “to do 1776 what is good and avoid what is evil”.9 Everyone is obliged to follow this law, which makes itself heard in conscience and is fulfilled in the love of God and of neighbour. Living a moral life bears witness to the dignity of the person. 1707. “Man, enticed by the Evil One, abused his freedom at the very beginning of history.”10 He succumbed to temptation and did what was evil. 397 He still desires the good, but his nature bears the wound of original sin. He is now inclined to evil and subject to error: Man is divided in himself. As a result, the whole life of men, both individual and social, shows itself to be a struggle, and a dramatic one, between good and evil, between light and darkness.11 617
1708. By his Passion, Christ delivered us from Satan and from sin. He merited for us the new life in the Holy Spirit. His grace restores what sin had damaged in us.
1709. He who believes in Christ becomes a son of God. This filial adoption transforms him by giving him the ability to follow the example of Christ. It makes him capable of acting rightly and doing good. In union with his Saviour, the disciple attains the perfection of charity which is holiness. 1050 Having matured in grace, the moral life blossoms into eternal life in the glory of heaven. 1265
7 8 9 10 11
GS 15 § 2. GS 17. GS 16. GS 13 § 1. GS 13 § 2.
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IN BRIEF 1710. “Christ… makes man fully manifest to man himself and brings to light his exalted vocation” (GS 22 § 1). 1711. Endowed with a spiritual soul, with intellect and with free will, the human person is from his very conception ordered to God and destined for eternal beatitude. He pursues his perfection in “seeking and loving what is true and good” (GS 15 § 2). 1712. In man, true freedom is an “outstanding manifestation of the divine image” (GS 17). 1713. Man is obliged to follow the moral law, which urges him “to do what is good and avoid what is evil” (cf. GS 16). This law makes itself heard in his conscience. 1714. Man, having been wounded in his nature by original sin, is subject to error and inclined to evil in exercising his freedom. 1715. He who believes in Christ has new life in the Holy Spirit. The moral life, increased and brought to maturity in grace, is to reach its fulfilment in the glory of heaven.
Article 2 OUR VOCATION TO BEATITUDE I. The Beatitudes 1716. The Beatitudes are at the heart of Jesus’s preaching. They take up the promises made to the chosen people since Abraham. The Beatitudes fulfil the promises by ordering them no longer merely to the possession of a territory, but to the Kingdom of heaven: Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted. Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth. Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied. Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy. Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God. Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God. Blessed are those who are persecuted for righteousness’ sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are you when men revile you and persecute you and utter all kinds of evil against you falsely on my account. Rejoice and be glad, for your reward is great in heaven.12 12
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1717. The Beatitudes depict the countenance of Jesus Christ and portray his charity. They express the vocation of the faithful associated with the glory of his Passion and Resurrection; they shed light on the actions and attitudes characteristic of the Christian life; they are the paradoxical promises that 1820 sustain hope in the midst of tribulations; they proclaim the blessings and rewards already secured, however dimly, for Christ’s disciples; they have begun in the lives of the Virgin Mary and all the saints. 459
II. The Desire for Happiness 27, 1024 1718. The Beatitudes respond to the natural desire for happiness. This desire is of divine origin: God has placed it in the human heart in order to draw man to the One who alone can fulfil it:
We all want to live happily; in the whole human race there is no one who does not assent to this proposition, even before it is fully articulated.13 How is it, then, that I seek you, Lord? Since in seeking you, my God, I seek a happy life, let me seek you so that my soul may live, for my body draws life from my soul and my soul draws life from you.14 God alone satisfies.15
1719. The Beatitudes reveal the goal of human existence, the ultimate end of human acts: God calls us to his own beatitude. This vocation is addressed to each individual personally, but also to the Church as a whole, the new people made up of those who have accepted the promise and live from it in faith.
III. Christian Beatitude 1027 1720. The New Testament uses several expressions to characterize the beatitude to which God calls man: – the coming of the Kingdom of God;16 – the vision of God: “Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God”;17 – entering into the joy of the Lord;18 – entering into God’s rest:19 There we shall rest and see, we shall see and love, we shall love and praise. Behold what will be at the end without end. For what other end do we have, if not to reach the kingdom which has no end?20 13 St Augustine, De moribus eccl. 1, 3, 4: PL 32, 1312. 14 St Augustine, Conf. 10, 20, 29: PL 32, 791. 15 St Thomas Aquinas, Expos. in symb. apost. I. 16 Cf. Mt 4:17. 17 Mt 5:8; cf. 1 Jn 2; 1 Cor 13:12. 18 Mt 25:21-23. 19 Cf. Heb 4:7-11. 20 St Augustine, De civ. Dei 22, 30, 5: PL 41, 804.
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1721. God put us in the world to know, to love, and to serve him, and so to come to paradise. Beatitude makes us “partakers of the divine nature” and of eternal life.21 With beatitude, man enters into the glory of Christ22 and into the joy of the Trinitarian life. 260 1722. Such beatitude surpasses the understanding and powers of man. It 1028 comes from an entirely free gift of God: whence it is called supernatural, as is the grace that disposes man to enter into the divine joy. “Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God.” It is true, because of the greatness and inexpressible glory of God, that “man shall not see me and live”, for the Father cannot be grasped. But because of God’s love and goodness toward us, and because he can do all things, he goes so far as to grant those who love him the privilege of seeing him…. For “what is impossible for men is 294 possible for God.”23
1723. The beatitude we are promised confronts us with decisive moral choices. It invites us to purify our hearts of bad instincts and to seek the love 2519 of God above all else. It teaches us that true happiness is not found in riches or well-being, in human fame or power, or in any human achievement – however beneficial it may be – such as science, technology and art, or indeed in any creature, but in God alone, the source of every good and of all love: 227 All bow down before wealth. Wealth is that to which the multitude of men pay an instinctive homage. They measure happiness by wealth; and by wealth they measure respectability…. It is a homage resulting from a profound faith… that with wealth he may do all things. Wealth is one idol of the day and notoriety is a second…. Notoriety, or the making of a noise in the world – it may be called “newspaper fame” – has come to be considered a great good in itself, and a ground of veneration.24
1724. The Decalogue, the Sermon on the Mount, and the apostolic catechesis describe for us the paths that lead to the Kingdom of heaven. Sustained by the grace of the Holy Spirit, we tread them, step by step, by everyday acts. By the working of the Word of Christ, we slowly bear fruit in the Church to the glory of God.25
21 2 Pt 1:4; cf. Jn 17:3. 22 Cf. Rom 8:18. 23 St Irenaeus, Adv. haeres. 4, 20, 5: PG 7/1, 1034-1035. 24 Bl. John Henry Cardinal Newman, “Saintliness the
Standard of Christian Principle” in Discourses to Mixed Congregations (London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1906) V, 89-90. 25 Cf. the parable of the sower: Mt 13:3-23.
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IN BRIEF 1725. The Beatitudes take up and fulfil God’s promises from Abraham on by ordering them to the Kingdom of heaven. They respond to the desire for happiness that God has placed in the human heart. 1726. The Beatitudes teach us the final end to which God calls us: the Kingdom, the vision of God, participation in the divine nature, eternal life, filiation, rest in God. 1727. The beatitude of eternal life is a gratuitous gift of God. It is supernatural, as is the grace that leads us there. 1728. The Beatitudes confront us with decisive choices concerning earthly goods; they purify our hearts in order to teach us to love God above all things. 1729. The beatitude of heaven sets the standards for discernment in the use of earthly goods in keeping with the law of God.
Article 3 MAN’S FREEDOM 1730. God created man a rational being, conferring on him the dignity of a person who can initiate and control his own actions. “God willed that man should be ‘left in the hand of his own counsel’, so that he might of his own 30 accord seek his Creator and freely attain his full and blessed perfection by cleaving to him.”26 Man is rational and therefore like God; he is created with free will and is master over his acts.27
I. Freedom and Responsibility 1731. Freedom is the power, rooted in reason and will, to act or not to act, to do this or that, and so to perform deliberate actions on one’s own responsibility. By free will one shapes one’s own life. Human freedom is a 1721 force for growth and maturity in truth and goodness; it attains its perfection when directed toward God, our beatitude. 396 1849 2006
1732. As long as freedom has not bound itself definitively to its ultimate good which is God, there is the possibility of choosing between good and evil, and thus of growing in perfection or of failing and sinning. This freedom characterizes properly human acts. It is the basis of praise or blame, merit or reproach. 26 27
GS 17; Sir 15:14. St Irenaeus, Adv. haeres. 4, 4, 3: PG 7/1, 983.
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1733. The more one does what is good, the freer one becomes. There is no 1803 true freedom except in the service of what is good and just. The choice to disobey and do evil is an abuse of freedom and leads to “the slavery of sin”.28 1734. Freedom makes man responsible for his acts to the extent that they are 1036 voluntary. Progress in virtue, knowledge of the good, and ascesis enhance 1804 the mastery of the will over its acts. 1735. Imputability and responsibility for an action can be diminished or 597 even nullified by ignorance, inadvertence, duress, fear, habit, inordinate attachments and other psychological or social factors. 1736. Every act directly willed is imputable to its author: Thus the Lord asked Eve after the sin in the garden: “What is this that you have 2568 done?”29 He asked Cain the same question.30 The prophet Nathan questioned David in the same way after he committed adultery with the wife of Uriah and had him murdered.31 An action can be indirectly voluntary when it results from negligence regarding something one should have known or done: for example, an accident arising from ignorance of traffic laws. 1737. An effect can be tolerated without being willed by its agent; for instance, a 2263 mother’s exhaustion from tending her sick child. A bad effect is not imputable if it was not willed either as an end or as a means of an action, e.g., a death a person incurs in aiding someone in danger. For a bad effect to be imputable it must be foreseeable and the agent must have the possibility of avoiding it, as in the case of manslaughter caused by a drunken driver.
1738. Freedom is exercised in relationships between human beings. Every human person, created in the image of God, has the natural right to be recognized as a free and responsible being. All owe to each other this duty of respect. The right to the exercise of freedom, especially in moral and religious 2106 matters, is an inalienable requirement of the dignity of the human person. This right must be recognized and protected by civil authority within the 2109 limits of the common good and public order.32 II. Human Freedom in the Economy of Salvation 1739. Freedom and sin. Man’s freedom is limited and fallible. In fact, man 387 failed. He freely sinned. By refusing God’s plan of love, he deceived himself and became a slave to sin. This first alienation engendered a multitude of 28 Cf. Rom 6:17. 29 Gen 3:13. 30 Cf. Gen 4:10. 31 Cf. 2 Sam 12:7-15. 32 Cf. DH 2 § 7.
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others. From its outset, human history attests the wretchedness and oppression born of the human heart in consequence of the abuse of freedom.
1740. Threats to freedom. The exercise of freedom does not imply a right to say or do everything. It is false to maintain that man, “the subject of this freedom”, is “an individual who is fully self-sufficient and whose finality is the satisfaction of his own interests in the enjoyment of earthly goods”.33 Moreover, the economic, social, political and cultural conditions that are 1887 needed for a just exercise of freedom are too often disregarded or violated. Such situations of blindness and injustice injure the moral life and involve the strong as well as the weak in the temptation to sin against charity. By deviating from the moral law man violates his own freedom, becomes imprisoned within himself, disrupts neighbourly fellowship, and rebels against divine truth. 2108
1741. Liberation and salvation. By his glorious Cross Christ has won salvation for all men. He redeemed them from the sin that held them in bondage. “For freedom Christ has set us free.”34 In him we have communion with the “truth 782 that makes us free”.35 The Holy Spirit has been given to us and, as the Apostle teaches, “Where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom.”36 Already we glory in the “liberty of the children of God”.37 1742. Freedom and grace. The grace of Christ is not in the slightest way a rival of our freedom when this freedom accords with the sense of the true and the good that God has put in the human heart. On the contrary, as Christian experience attests especially in prayer, the more docile we are to the promptings of grace, the more we grow in inner freedom and confidence 1784 during trials, such as those we face in the pressures and constraints of the outer world. By the working of grace the Holy Spirit educates us in spiritual freedom in order to make us free collaborators in his work in the Church and in the world: 2002
Almighty and merciful God, graciously keep from us all adversity, so that, unhindered in mind and body alike, we may pursue in freedom of heart the things that are yours.38 33 CDF, Instr. Libertatis conscientia 13. 34 Gal 5:1. 35 Cf. Jn 8:32. 36 2 Cor 17. 37 Rom 8:21. 38 Roman Missal, 32nd Sunday, Opening
Prayer: Omnipotens et misericors Deus, universa nobis adversantia propitiatus exclude, ut, mente et corpore pariter expediti, quae tua sunt liberis mentibus exsequamur.
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IN BRIEF 1743. “God willed that man should be left in the hand of his own counsel (cf. Sir 15:14), so that he might of his own accord seek his creator and freely attain his full and blessed perfection by cleaving to him” (GS 17 § 1). 1744. Freedom is the power to act or not to act, and so to perform deliberate acts of one’s own. Freedom attains perfection in its acts when directed toward God, the sovereign Good. 1745. Freedom characterizes properly human acts. It makes the human being responsible for acts of which he is the voluntary agent. His deliberate acts properly belong to him. 1746. The imputability or responsibility for an action can be diminished or nullified by ignorance, duress, fear and other psychological or social factors. 1747. The right to the exercise of freedom, especially in religious and moral matters, is an inalienable requirement of the dignity of man. But the exercise of freedom does not entail the putative right to say or do anything. 1748. “For freedom Christ has set us free” (Gal 5:1).
Article 4 THE MORALITY OF HUMAN ACTS 1749. Freedom makes man a moral subject. When he acts deliberately, man is, so to speak, the father of his acts. Human acts, that is, acts that are freely 1732 chosen in consequence of a judgement of conscience, can be morally evaluated. They are either good or evil. I. The Sources of Morality 1750. The morality of human acts depends on: – the object chosen; – the end in view or the intention; – the circumstances of the action. The object, the intention, and the circumstances make up the “sources”, or constitutive elements, of the morality of human acts. 1751. The object chosen is a good towards which the will deliberately directs itself. It is the matter of a human act. The object chosen morally specifies the act of the will, insofar as reason recognizes and judges it to be or not to be in conformity with the true good. Objective norms of morality express the 1794 rational order of good and evil, attested to by conscience.
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1752. In contrast to the object, the intention resides in the acting subject. Because it lies at the voluntary source of an action and determines it by its end, intention is an element essential to the moral evaluation of an action. 2520 The end is the first goal of the intention and indicates the purpose pursued in the action. The intention is a movement of the will toward the end: it is concerned with the goal of the activity. It aims at the good anticipated from the action undertaken. Intention is not limited to directing individual actions, but can guide several actions toward one and the same purpose; it can orient one’s whole life toward its ultimate end. For example, a service done with the 1731 end of helping one’s neighbour can at the same time be inspired by the love of God as the ultimate end of all our actions. One and the same action can also be inspired by several intentions, such as performing a service in order to obtain a favour or to boast about it. 1753. A good intention (for example, that of helping one’s neighbour) does not make behaviour that is intrinsically disordered, such as lying 1731 and calumny, good or just. The end does not justify the means. Thus the 596 condemnation of an innocent person cannot be justified as a legitimate means of saving the nation. On the other hand, an added bad intention (such as vainglory) makes an act evil that, in and of itself, can be good (such as almsgiving).39 1754. The circumstances, including the consequences, are secondary elements of a moral act. They contribute to increasing or diminishing the moral goodness or evil of human acts (for example, the amount of a theft). 1735 They can also diminish or increase the agent’s responsibility (such as acting out of a fear of death). Circumstances of themselves cannot change the moral quality of acts themselves; they can make neither good nor right an action that is in itself evil. II. Good Acts and Evil Acts 1755. A morally good act requires the goodness of the object, of the end, and of the circumstances together. An evil end corrupts the action, even if the object is good in itself (such as praying and fasting “in order to be seen by men”). The object of the choice can by itself vitiate an act in its entirety. There are some concrete acts – such as fornication – that it is always wrong to choose, because choosing them entails a disorder of the will, that is, a moral evil. 1756. It is therefore an error to judge the morality of human acts by considering only the intention that inspires them or the circumstances (environment, social pressure, duress or emergency, etc.) which supply their 39 Cf. Mt 6:2-4.
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context. There are acts which, in and of themselves, independently of circumstances and intentions, are always gravely illicit by reason of their object; such as blasphemy and perjury, murder and adultery. One may not do evil so that good may result from it. 1789 IN BRIEF 1757. The object, the intention, and the circumstances make up the three “sources” of the morality of human acts. 1758. The object chosen morally specifies the act of willing accordingly as reason recognizes and judges it good or evil. 1759. “An evil action cannot be justified by reference to a good intention” (cf. St Thomas Aquinas, Dec. praec. 6). The end does not justify the means. 1760. A morally good act requires the goodness of its object, of its end, and of its circumstances together. 1761. There are concrete acts that it is always wrong to choose, because their choice entails a disorder of the will, i.e., a moral evil. One may not do evil so that good may result from it.
Article 5 THE MORALITY OF THE PASSIONS 1762. The human person is ordered to beatitude by his deliberate acts: the passions or feelings he experiences can dispose him to it and contribute to it. I. Passions 1763. The term “passions” belongs to the Christian patrimony. Feelings or passions are emotions or movements of the sensitive appetite that incline us to act or not to act in regard to something felt or imagined to be good or evil. 1764. The passions are natural components of the human psyche; they form the passageway and ensure the connection between the life of the senses and the life of the mind. Our Lord called man’s heart the source from which the 368 passions spring.40 1765. There are many passions. The most fundamental passion is love, aroused by the attraction of the good. Love causes a desire for the absent good and the hope of obtaining it; this movement finds completion in the pleasure and joy of the good possessed. The apprehension of evil causes hatred, aversion, and fear of the impending evil; this movement ends in sadness at some present evil, or in the anger that resists it. 40 Cf. Mk 7:21.
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1766. “To love is to will the good of another.”41 All other affections have their source in this first movement of the human heart toward the good. Only the 1704 good can be loved.42 Passions “are evil if love is evil and good if it is good.”43 II. Passions and Moral Life 1767. In themselves passions are neither good nor evil. They are morally 1860 qualified only to the extent that they effectively engage reason and will. Passions are said to be voluntary, “either because they are commanded by the will or because the will does not place obstacles in their way.”44 It belongs to the perfection of the moral or human good that the passions be governed by reason.45 1768. Strong feelings are not decisive for the morality or the holiness of persons; they are simply the inexhaustible reservoir of images and affections in which the moral life is expressed. Passions are morally good when they contribute to a good action, evil in the opposite case. The upright will orders the movements of the senses it appropriates to the good and to beatitude; an evil will succumbs to disordered passions and exacerbates them. Emotions 1803, 1865 and feelings can be taken up into the virtues or perverted by the vices. 1769. In the Christian life, the Holy Spirit himself accomplishes his work by mobilizing the whole being, with all its sorrows, fears and sadness, as is visible in the Lord’s agony and passion. In Christ human feelings are able to reach their consummation in charity and divine beatitude. 1770. Moral perfection consists in man’s being moved to the good not by his will alone, but also by his sensitive appetite, as in the words of the psalm: “My 30 heart and flesh sing for joy to the living God.”46 IN BRIEF 1771. The term “passions” refers to the affections or the feelings. By his emotions man intuits the good and suspects evil. 1772. The principal passions are love and hatred, desire and fear, joy, sadness and anger. 1773. In the passions, as movements of the sensitive appetite, there is neither moral good nor evil. But insofar as they engage reason and will, there is moral good or evil in them. 41 42 43 44 45 46
St Thomas Aquinas, STh I-II, 26, 4, corp. art. Cf. St Augustine, De Trin. 8, 3, 4: PL 42, 949-950. St Augustine, De civ. Dei 14, 7, 2: PL 41, 410. St Thomas Aquinas, STh I-II, 24, 1, corp. art. Cf. St Thomas Aquinas, STh I-II, 24, 3. Ps 84:2.
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1774. Emotions and feelings can be taken up in the virtues or perverted by the vices. 1775. The perfection of the moral good consists in man’s being moved to the good not only by his will but also by his “heart”.
Article 6 MORAL CONSCIENCE 1776. “Deep within his conscience man discovers a law which he has not laid 1954 upon himself but which he must obey. Its voice, ever calling him to love and to do what is good and to avoid evil, sounds in his heart at the right moment…. For man has in his heart a law inscribed by God…. His conscience is man’s most secret core and his sanctuary. There he is alone with God whose voice echoes in his depths.”47 I. The Judgement of Conscience 1777. Moral conscience,48 present at the heart of the person, enjoins him at the appropriate moment to do good and to avoid evil. It also judges particular choices, approving those that are good and denouncing those that are evil.49 It bears witness to the authority of truth in reference to the supreme Good to 1766 which the human person is drawn, and it welcomes the commandments. 2071 When he listens to his conscience, the prudent man can hear God speaking. 1778. Conscience is a judgement of reason whereby the human person recognizes the moral quality of a concrete act that he is going to perform, is 1749 in the process of performing, or has already completed. In all he says and does, man is obliged to follow faithfully what he knows to be just and right. It is by the judgement of his conscience that man perceives and recognizes the prescriptions of the divine law: Conscience is a law of the mind; yet [Christians] would not grant that it is nothing more; I mean that it was not a dictate, nor conveyed the notion of responsibility, of duty, of a threat and a promise…. [Conscience] is a messenger of him, who, both in nature and in grace, speaks to us behind a veil, and teaches and rules us by his representatives. Conscience is the aboriginal Vicar of Christ.50
1779. It is important for every person to be sufficiently present to himself in order to hear and follow the voice of his conscience. This requirement 47 GS 16. 48 Cf. Rom 2:14-16. 49 Cf. Rom 1:32. 50 Bl. John Henry Cardinal Newman, “Letter to the Duke of Norfolk,” V, in Certain Difficulties
felt by Anglicans in Catholic Teaching II (London: Longmans Green, 1885), 248.
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of interiority is all the more necessary as life often distracts us from any reflection, self-examination or introspection: Return to your conscience, question it…. Turn inward, brethren, and in everything you do, see God as your witness.51
1780. The dignity of the human person implies and requires uprightness of moral conscience. Conscience includes the perception of the principles of morality (synderesis); their application in the given circumstances by practical discernment of reasons and goods; and finally judgement about concrete acts yet to be performed or already performed. The truth about the moral good, stated in the law of reason, is recognized practically and 1806 concretely by the prudent judgement of conscience. We call that man prudent who chooses in conformity with this judgement. 1731
1781. Conscience enables one to assume responsibility for the acts performed. If man commits evil, the just judgement of conscience can remain within him as the witness to the universal truth of the good, at the same time as the evil of his particular choice. The verdict of the judgement of conscience remains a pledge of hope and mercy. In attesting to the fault committed, it calls to mind the forgiveness that must be asked, the good that must still be practised, and the virtue that must be constantly cultivated with the grace of God: We shall… reassure our hearts before him whenever our hearts condemn us; for God is greater than our hearts, and he knows everything.52
1782. Man has the right to act in conscience and in freedom so as personally to make moral decisions. “He must not be forced to act contrary to his conscience. Nor must he be prevented from acting according to his 2106 conscience, especially in religious matters.”53 II. The Formation of Conscience 1783. Conscience must be informed and moral judgement enlightened. A well-formed conscience is upright and truthful. It formulates its judgements according to reason, in conformity with the true good willed by the wisdom of the Creator. The education of conscience is indispensable for human beings who are subjected to negative influences and tempted by sin to prefer 2039 their own judgement and to reject authoritative teachings. 1784. The education of the conscience is a lifelong task. From the earliest years, it awakens the child to the knowledge and practice of the interior law recognized by conscience. Prudent education teaches virtue; it prevents or 51 St Augustine, In ep Jo. 8, 9: PL 35, 2041. 52 1 Jn 3:19-20. 53 DH 3 § 2.
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cures fear, selfishness and pride, resentment arising from guilt, and feelings of complacency, born of human weakness and faults. The education of the conscience guarantees freedom and engenders peace of heart. 1742 1785. In the formation of conscience the Word of God is the light for our path;54 we must assimilate it in faith and prayer and put it into practice. We must also examine our conscience before the Lord’s Cross. We are assisted by the gifts of the Holy Spirit, aided by the witness or advice of others and guided by the authoritative teaching of the Church.55 890 III. To Choose in Accord with Conscience 1786. Faced with a moral choice, conscience can make either a right judgement in accordance with reason and the divine law or, on the contrary, an erroneous judgement that departs from them. 1787. Man is sometimes confronted by situations that make moral judgements less assured and decision difficult. But he must always seriously seek what is right and good and discern the will of God expressed in divine law. 1955 1788. To this purpose, man strives to interpret the data of experience and the signs of the times assisted by the virtue of prudence, by the advice of 1806 competent people, and by the help of the Holy Spirit and his gifts. 1789. Some rules apply in every case: – one may never do evil so that good may result from it; – the Golden Rule: “Whatever you wish that men would do to you, do so to them.”56 – charity always proceeds by way of respect for one’s neighbour and his conscience: “Thus sinning against your brethren and wounding their conscience… you sin against Christ.”57 Therefore “it is right not to… do anything that makes your brother stumble.”58
1756 1970 1827 1971
IV. Erroneous Judgement 1790. A human being must always obey the certain judgement of his conscience. If he were deliberately to act against it, he would condemn himself. Yet it can happen that moral conscience remains in ignorance and makes erroneous judgements about acts to be performed or already committed. 54 Cf. Ps 119:105. 55 Cf. DH 14. 56 Mt 7:12; cf. Lk 6:31; Tob 4:15. 57 1 Cor 8:12. 58 Rom 14:21.
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1791. This ignorance can often be imputed to personal responsibility. This is the case when a man “takes little trouble to find out what is true and good, or when conscience is by degrees almost blinded through the habit of committing sin.”59 In such cases, the person is culpable for the evil he commits.
1792. Ignorance of Christ and his Gospel, bad example given by others, enslavement to one’s passions, assertion of a mistaken notion of autonomy of conscience, rejection of the Church’s authority and her teaching, lack of conversion and of charity: these can be at the source of errors of judgement in moral conduct.
1793. If – on the contrary – the ignorance is invincible, or the moral subject is not responsible for his erroneous judgement, the evil committed by the person cannot be imputed to him. It remains no less an evil, a privation, a disorder. One must therefore work to correct the errors of moral conscience. 1794. A good and pure conscience is enlightened by true faith, for charity proceeds at the same time “from a pure heart and a good conscience and sincere faith.”60
The more a correct conscience prevails, the more do persons and groups turn aside from blind choice and try to be guided by objective standards of moral conduct.61
IN BRIEF 1795. “Conscience is man’s most secret core, and his sanctuary. There he is alone with God whose voice echoes in his depths” (GS 16). 1796. Conscience is a judgement of reason by which the human person recognizes the moral quality of a concrete act. 1797. For the man who has committed evil, the verdict of his conscience remains a pledge of conversion and of hope. 1798. A well-formed conscience is upright and truthful. It formulates its judgements according to reason, in conformity with the true good willed by the wisdom of the Creator. Everyone must avail himself of the means to form his conscience. 1799. Faced with a moral choice, conscience can make either a right judgement in accordance with reason and the divine law or, on the contrary, an erroneous judgement that departs from them. 1800. A human being must always obey the certain judgement of his conscience. 59 GS 16. 60 1 Tim 5; cf. 3:9; 2 Tim 3; 1 Pt 3:21; Acts 24:16. 61 GS 16.
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Section One PRAYER IN THE CHRISTIAN LIFE 2558. “Great is the mystery of the faith!” The Church professes this mystery in the Apostles’ Creed (Part One) and celebrates it in the sacramental liturgy (Part Two), so that the life of the faithful may be conformed to Christ in the Holy Spirit to the glory of God the Father (Part Three). This mystery, then, requires that the faithful believe in it, that they celebrate it, and that they live from it in a vital and personal relationship with the living and true God. This relationship is prayer. WHAT IS PRAYER? For me, prayer is a surge of the heart; it is a simple look turned toward heaven, it is a cry of recognition and of love, embracing both trial and joy.1 Prayer as God’s gift
2559. “Prayer is the raising of one’s mind and heart to God or the requesting of good things from God.”2 But when we pray, do we speak from the height of our pride and will, or “out of the depths” of a humble and contrite heart?3 He 2613 who humbles himself will be exalted;4 humility is the foundation of prayer. 2736 Only when we humbly acknowledge that “we do not know how to pray as we ought,”5 are we ready to receive freely the gift of prayer. “Man is a beggar before God.”6 2560. “If you knew the gift of God!”7 The wonder of prayer is revealed beside the well where we come seeking water: there, Christ comes to meet every human being. It is he who first seeks us and asks us for a drink. Jesus thirsts; his asking arises from the depths of God’s desire for us. Whether we realize it or not, prayer is the encounter of God’s thirst with ours. God thirsts that we may thirst for him.8 2561. “You would have asked him, and he would have given you living water.”9 Paradoxically our prayer of petition is a response to the plea of the living God: “They have forsaken me, the fountain of living waters, and hewn 1 St Thérèse of Lisieux, Manuscrits autobiographiques, C 25r. 2 St John Damascene, De fide orth. 3, 24: PG 94, 1089C. 3 Ps 130:1. 4 Cf. Lk 18:9-14. 5 Rom 8:26. 6 St Augustine, Sermo 56, 6, 9: PL 38, 381. 7 Jn 4:10. 8 Cf. St Augustine, De diversis quaestionibus octoginta tribus 64, 4: PL 40, 56. 9 Jn 4:10.
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out cisterns for themselves, broken cisterns that can hold no water!”10 Prayer is the response of faith to the free promise of salvation and also a response of love to the thirst of the only Son of God.11 Prayer as covenant
2562. Where does prayer come from? Whether prayer is expressed in words or gestures, it is the whole man who prays. But in naming the source of prayer, Scripture speaks sometimes of the soul or the spirit, but most often of the heart (more than a thousand times). According to Scripture, it is the heart that prays. If our heart is far from God, the words of prayer are in vain. 2563. The heart is the dwelling-place where I am, where I live; according to the Semitic or Biblical expression, the heart is the place “to which I withdraw.” The heart is our hidden centre, beyond the grasp of our reason and of others; only the Spirit of God can fathom the human heart and know it fully. The heart is the place of decision, deeper than our psychic drives. It is the place of truth, where we choose life or death. It is the place of encounter, because 1696, 2699 as image of God we live in relation: it is the place of covenant. 2564. Christian prayer is a covenant relationship between God and man in Christ. It is the action of God and of man, springing forth from both the Holy Spirit and ourselves, wholly directed to the Father, in union with the human will of the Son of God made man. Prayer as communion
2565. In the New Covenant, prayer is the living relationship of the children of God with their Father who is good beyond measure, with his Son Jesus Christ and with the Holy Spirit. The grace of the Kingdom is “the union of the entire holy and royal Trinity… with the whole human spirit.”12 Thus, the 260 life of prayer is the habit of being in the presence of the thrice-holy God and in communion with him. This communion of life is always possible because, through Baptism, we have already been united with Christ.13 Prayer is Christian insofar as it is communion with Christ and extends throughout the Church, which is his Body. Its dimensions are those of Christ’s love.14 792
10 Jer 2:13. 11 Cf. Jn 7:37-39; 19:28; Is 12:3; 51:1; Zech 12:10; 13:1. 12 St Gregory of Nazianzus, Oratio, 16, 9: PG 35, 945. 13 Cf. Rom 6:5. 14 Cf. Eph 3:18-21.
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Chapter One THE REVELATION OF PRAYER THE UNIVERSAL CALL TO PRAYER 2566. Man is in search of God. In the act of creation, God calls every being 296 from nothingness into existence. “Crowned with glory and honour,” man is, after the angels, capable of acknowledging “how majestic is the name of the Lord in all the earth.”1 Even after losing through his sin his likeness to God, 355 man remains an image of his Creator, and retains the desire for the one who 28 calls him into existence. All religions bear witness to men’s essential search for God.2 2567. God calls man first. Man may forget his Creator or hide far from his face; he may run after idols or accuse the deity of having abandoned him; 30 yet the living and true God tirelessly calls each person to that mysterious encounter known as prayer. In prayer, the faithful God’s initiative of love 142 always comes first; our own first step is always a response. As God gradually reveals himself and reveals man to himself, prayer appears as a reciprocal call, a covenant drama. Through words and actions, this drama engages the heart. It unfolds throughout the whole history of salvation. Article 1 IN THE OLD TESTAMENT 2568. In the Old Testament, the revelation of prayer comes between the fall 410 and the restoration of man, that is, between God’s sorrowful call to his first 1736 children: “Where are you?… What is this that you have done?”3 and the response of God’s only Son on coming into the world: “Lo, I have come to do your will, O God.”4 Prayer is bound up with human history, for it is the 2738 relationship with God in historical events. Creation – source of prayer
2569. Prayer is lived in the first place beginning with the realities of creation. The first nine chapters of Genesis describe this relationship with God as an offering of the first-born of Abel’s flock, as the invocation of the divine name 58 at the time of Enosh, and as “walking with God.”5 Noah’s offering is pleasing to God, who blesses him and through him all creation, because his heart was
1 Ps 8:5; 8:1. 2 Cf. Acts 17:27. 3 Gen 3:9, 13. 4 Heb 10:5-7. 5 Cf. Gen 4:4, 26; Gen 5:24.
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upright and undivided; Noah, like Enoch before him, “walks with God”.6 This kind of prayer is lived by many righteous people in all religions. In his indefectible covenant with every living creature,7 God has always called people to prayer. But it is above all beginning with our father Abraham that prayer is revealed in the Old Testament. 59 God’s promise and the prayer of Faith
2570. When God calls him, Abraham goes forth “as the Lord had told him”;8 Abraham’s heart is entirely submissive to the Word and so he obeys. Such 145 attentiveness of the heart, whose decisions are made according to God’s will, is essential to prayer, while the words used count only in relation to it. Abraham’s prayer is expressed first by deeds: a man of silence, he constructs an altar to the Lord at each stage of his journey. Only later does Abraham’s first prayer in words appear: a veiled complaint reminding God of his promises which seem unfulfilled.9 Thus one aspect of the drama of prayer appears from the beginning: the test of faith in the fidelity of God. 2571. Because Abraham believed in God and walked in his presence and in covenant with him,10 the patriarch is ready to welcome a mysterious Guest into his tent. Abraham’s remarkable hospitality at Mamre foreshadows the annunciation of the true Son of the promise.11 After that, once God had 494 confided his plan, Abraham’s heart is attuned to his Lord’s compassion for men and he dares to intercede for them with bold confidence.12 2635 2572. As a final stage in the purification of his faith, Abraham, “who had received the promises,”13 is asked to sacrifice the son God had given him. Abraham’s faith does not weaken (“God himself will provide the lamb for a burnt offering.”), for he “considered that God was able to raise men even from the dead.”14 And so the father of believers is conformed to the likeness of the Father who will not spare his own Son but will deliver him up for us 603 all.15 Prayer restores man to God’s likeness and enables him to share in the power of God’s love that saves the multitude.16 6 Gen 6:9; 8:20-9:17. 7 Gen 9:8-16. 8 Gen 12:4. 9 Cf. Gen 15:2 f. 10 Cf. Gen 15:6; 17:1 f. 11 Cf. Gen 18:1-15; Lk 1:26-38. 12 Cf. Gen 18:16-33. 13 Heb 11:17. 14 Gen 22:8; Heb 11:19. 15 Rom 8:32. 16 Cf. Rom 8:16-21.
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2573. God renews his promise to Jacob, the ancestor of the twelve tribes of Israel.17 Before confronting his elder brother Esau, Jacob wrestles all night with a mysterious figure who refuses to reveal his name, but who blesses him before leaving him at dawn. From this account, the spiritual tradition of 162 the Church has retained the symbol of prayer as a battle of faith and as the triumph of perseverance.18 Moses and the prayer of the mediator 62
2574. Once the promise begins to be fulfilled (Passover, the Exodus, the gift of the Law, and the ratification of the covenant), the prayer of Moses becomes the most striking example of intercessory prayer, which will be fulfilled in “the one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus.”19 2575. Here again the initiative is God’s. From the midst of the burning bush he calls Moses.20 This event will remain one of the primordial images of prayer in the spiritual tradition of Jews and Christians alike. When “the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob” calls Moses to be his servant, it is because he is the living God who wants men to live. God reveals himself in order to save them, though he does not do this alone or despite them: he calls Moses to be his messenger, an associate in his compassion, his work of salvation. There is something of a divine plea in this mission, and only after long debate does Moses attune his own will to that of the Saviour God. But in the dialogue in which God confides in him, Moses also learns how to pray: he balks, makes excuses, above all questions: and it is in response to his question that the Lord confides his ineffable name, which will be revealed through his mighty deeds. 2576. “Thus the Lord used to speak to Moses face to face, as a man speaks to his friend.”21 Moses’ prayer is characteristic of contemplative prayer by which God’s servant remains faithful to his mission. Moses converses with God often and at length, climbing the mountain to hear and entreat him and coming down to the people to repeat the words of his God for their guidance. Moses “is entrusted with all my house. With him I speak face to face, clearly, not in riddles,” for “Moses was very humble, more so than anyone else on the face of the earth.”22 2577. From this intimacy with the faithful God, slow to anger and abounding in steadfast love,23 Moses drew strength and determination for his 17 Cf. Gen 28:10-22. 18 Cf. Gen 32:24-30; Lk 18:1-8. 19 1 Tim 2:5. 20 Ex 3:1-10. 21 Ex 33:11. 22 Num 12:3, 7-8. 23 Cf. Ex 34:6.
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intercession. He does not pray for himself but for the people whom God 210 made his own. Moses already intercedes for them during the battle with the Amalekites and prays to obtain healing for Miriam.24 But it is chiefly after 2635 their apostasy that Moses “stands in the breach” before God in order to save the people.25 The arguments of his prayer – for intercession is also a mysterious battle – will inspire the boldness of the great intercessors among the Jewish people and in the Church: God is love; he is therefore righteous 214 and faithful; he cannot contradict himself; he must remember his marvellous deeds, since his glory is at stake, and he cannot forsake this people that bears his name. David and the prayer of the king
2578. The prayer of the People of God flourishes in the shadow of God’s dwelling place, first the ark of the covenant and later the Temple. At first the leaders of the people – the shepherds and the prophets – teach them to pray. The infant Samuel must have learned from his mother Hannah how “to stand before the Lord” and from the priest Eli how to listen to his word: “Speak, Lord, for your servant is listening.”26 Later, he will also know the cost and consequence of intercession: “Moreover, as for me, far be it from me that I should sin against the Lord by ceasing to pray for you; and I will instruct you in the good and the right way.”27 2579. David is par excellence the king “after God’s own heart,” the shepherd 709 who prays for his people and prays in their name. His submission to the will of God, his praise and his repentance, will be a model for the prayer of the people. His prayer, the prayer of God’s Anointed, is a faithful adherence to 436 the divine promise and expresses a loving and joyful trust in God, the only King and Lord.28 In the Psalms David, inspired by the Holy Spirit, is the first prophet of Jewish and Christian prayer. The prayer of Christ, the true Messiah and Son of David, will reveal and fulfil the meaning of this prayer. 2580. The Temple of Jerusalem, the house of prayer that David wanted to 583 build, will be the work of his son, Solomon. The prayer at the dedication of the Temple relies on God’s promise and covenant, on the active presence of his name among his People, recalling his mighty deeds at the Exodus.29 The king lifts his hands toward heaven and begs the Lord, on his own behalf, on behalf of the entire people and of the generations yet to come, for the 24 Cf. Ex 17:8-12; Num 12:13-14. 25 Ps 106:23; cf. Ex 32:1-34:9. 26 1 Sam 3:9-10; cf. 1:9-18. 27 1 Sam 12:23. 28 Cf. 2 Sam 7:18-29. 29 1 Kings 8:10-61.
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forgiveness of their sins and for their daily needs, so that the nations may know that he is the only God and that the heart of his people may belong wholly and entirely to him. Elijah, the prophets and conversion of heart
2581. For the People of God, the Temple was to be the place of their education in prayer: pilgrimages, feasts and sacrifices, the evening offering, the incense, 1150 and the bread of the Presence (“shewbread”) – all these signs of the holiness and glory of God Most High and Most Near were appeals to and ways of prayer. But ritualism often encouraged an excessively external worship. The people needed education in faith and conversion of heart; this was the mission of the prophets, both before and after the Exile. 2582. Elijah is the “father” of the prophets, “the generation of those who seek him, who seek the face of the God of Jacob.”30 Elijah’s name, “The Lord is my God,” foretells the people’s cry in response to his prayer on Mount Carmel.31 St James refers to Elijah in order to encourage us to pray: “The prayer of the righteous is powerful and effective.”32 2583. After Elijah had learned mercy during his retreat at the Wadi Cherith, he teaches the widow of Zarephath to believe in the Word of God and confirms her faith by his urgent prayer: God brings the widow’s child back to life.33 The sacrifice on Mount Carmel is a decisive test for the faith of the People of God. In response to Elijah’s plea, “Answer me, O Lord, answer me,” 696 the Lord’s fire consumes the holocaust, at the time of the evening oblation. The Eastern liturgies repeat Elijah’s plea in the Eucharistic epiclesis. Finally, taking the desert road that leads to the place where the living and true God reveals himself to his people, Elijah, like Moses before him, hides “in a cleft of the rock” until the mysterious presence of God has passed by.34 555 But only on the mountain of the Transfiguration will Moses and Elijah behold the unveiled face of him whom they sought; “the light of the knowledge of the glory of God [shines] in the face of Christ,” crucified and risen.35 2709
2584. In their “one to one” encounters with God, the prophets draw light and strength for their mission. Their prayer is not flight from this unfaithful 30 Ps 24:6. 31 1 Kings 18:39. 32 Jas 5:16b-18. 33 Cf. 1 Kings 17:7-24. 34 Cf. 1 Kings 19:1-14; cf. Ex 33:19-23. 35 2 Cor 4:6; cf. Lk 9:30-35.
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world, but rather attentiveness to the Word of God. At times their prayer is an argument or a complaint, but it is always an intercession that awaits and prepares for the intervention of the Saviour God, the Lord of history.36 The Psalms, the prayer of the assembly
2585. From the time of David to the coming of the Messiah texts appearing in these sacred books show a deepening in prayer for oneself and in prayer for others.37 Thus the psalms were gradually collected into the five books of 1093 the Psalter (or “Praises”), the masterwork of prayer in the Old Testament. 2586. The Psalms both nourished and expressed the prayer of the People of God gathered during the great feasts at Jerusalem and each Sabbath in the synagogues. Their prayer is inseparably personal and communal; it concerns both those who are praying, and all men. The Psalms arose from the communities of the Holy Land and the Diaspora, but embrace all creation. Their prayer recalls the saving events of the past, yet extends into the future, even to the end of history; it commemorates the promises God has already kept, and awaits the Messiah who will fulfil them definitively. Prayed by Christ and fulfilled in him, the Psalms remain essential to the prayer of 1177 the Church.38 2587. The Psalter is the book in which the Word of God becomes man’s prayer. In other books of the Old Testament, “the words proclaim [God’s] works and bring to light the mystery they contain.”39 The words of the Psalmist, sung for God, both express and acclaim the Lord’s saving works; the same Spirit inspires both God’s work and man’s response. Christ will unite the two. In him, the Psalms continue to teach us how to pray. 2641 2588. The Psalter’s many forms of prayer take shape both in the liturgy of the Temple and in the human heart. Whether hymns or prayers of lamentation or thanksgiving, whether individual or communal, whether royal chants, songs of pilgrimage or wisdom-meditations, the Psalms are a mirror of God’s marvellous deeds in the history of his people, as well as reflections of the human experiences of the Psalmist. Though a given psalm may reflect an event of the past, it still possesses such direct simplicity that it can be prayed in truth by men of all times and conditions. 2589. Certain constant characteristics appear throughout the Psalms: simplicity and spontaneity of prayer; the desire for God himself through and 36 Cf. Am 7:2, 5; Isa 6:5, 8, 11; Jer 1:6; 15:15-18; 20:7-18. 37 Ezra 9:6-15; Neh 1:4-11; Jon 2:3-10; Tob 3:11-16; Jdt 9:2-14. 38 Cf. GILH, nn. 100-109. 39 DV 2.
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with all that is good in his creation; the distraught situation of the believer who, in his preferential love for the Lord, is exposed to a host of enemies and temptations, but who waits upon what the faithful God will do, in the 304 certitude of his love and in submission to his will. The prayer of the psalms is always sustained by praise; that is why the title of this collection as handed down to us is so fitting: “The Praises.” Collected for the assembly’s worship, the Psalter both sounds the call to prayer and sings the response to that call: Hallelu-Yah! (“Alleluia”), “Praise the Lord!” What is more pleasing than a psalm? David expresses it well: “Praise the Lord, for a psalm is good: let there be praise of our God with gladness and grace!” Yes, a psalm is a blessing on the lips of the people, praise of God, the assembly’s homage, a general acclamation, a word that speaks for all, the voice of the Church, a confession of faith in song.40
IN BRIEF 2590. “Prayer is the raising of one’s mind and heart to God or the requesting of good things from God” (St John Damascene, De fide orth. 3, 24: PG 94, 1089C). 2591. God tirelessly calls each person to this mysterious encounter with himself. Prayer unfolds throughout the whole history of salvation as a reciprocal call between God and man. 2592. The prayer of Abraham and Jacob is presented as a battle of faith marked by trust in God’s faithfulness and by certitude in the victory promised to perseverance. 2593. The prayer of Moses responds to the living God’s initiative for the salvation of his people. It foreshadows the prayer of intercession of the unique mediator, Christ Jesus. 2594. The prayer of the People of God flourished in the shadow of the dwelling place of God’s presence on earth, the ark of the covenant and the Temple, under the guidance of their shepherds, especially King David, and of the prophets. 2595. The prophets summoned the people to conversion of heart and, while zealously seeking the face of God, like Elijah, they interceded for the people. 2596. The Psalms constitute the masterwork of prayer in the Old Testament. They present two inseparable qualities: the personal, and the communal. They extend to all dimensions of history, recalling God’s promises already fulfilled and looking for the coming of the Messiah. 2597. Prayed and fulfilled in Christ, the Psalms are an essential and permanent element of the prayer of the Church. They are suitable for men of every condition and time. 40
St Ambrose, En. in Ps. 1,9; PL 14, 924; LH, week 10, Saturday, OR.
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Article 2 IN THE FULNESS OF TIME 2598. The drama of prayer is fully revealed to us in the Word who became flesh and dwells among us. To seek to understand his prayer through what his witnesses proclaim to us in the Gospel is to approach the holy Lord Jesus as Moses approached the burning bush: first to contemplate him in prayer, then to hear how he teaches us to pray, in order to know how he hears our prayer. Jesus prays
2599. The Son of God who became Son of the Virgin also learned to pray 470-473 according to his human heart. He learns the formulas of prayer from his mother, who kept in her heart and meditated upon all the “great things” done by the Almighty.41 He learns to pray in the words and rhythms of the prayer of his people, in the synagogue at Nazareth and the Temple at Jerusalem. But 584 his prayer springs from an otherwise secret source, as he intimates at the age of twelve: “I must be in my Father’s house.”42 Here the newness of prayer in 534 the fulness of time begins to be revealed: his filial prayer, which the Father awaits from his children, is finally going to be lived out by the only Son in his humanity, with and for men. 2600. The Gospel according to St Luke emphasizes the action of the Holy Spirit and the meaning of prayer in Christ’s ministry. Jesus prays before the decisive moments of his mission: before his Father’s witness to him during his baptism and Transfiguration, and before his own fulfilment of the Father’s plan of love by his Passion.43 He also prays before the decisive moments involving the mission of his apostles: at his election and call of the Twelve, before Peter’s confession of him as “the Christ of God,” and again that the faith of the chief of the Apostles may not fail when tempted.44 Jesus’s prayer before the events of salvation that the Father has asked him to fulfil is a humble and trusting commitment of his human will to the loving will of the Father.
535, 554 612 858 442
2601. “He was praying in a certain place and when he had ceased, one of his disciples said to him, ‘Lord, teach us to pray.’”45 In seeing the Master at prayer the disciple of Christ also wants to pray. By contemplating and hearing the Son, the master of prayer, the children learn to pray to the Father. 2765 41 Cf. Lk 1:49; 2:19; 2:51. 42 Lk 2:49. 43 Cf. Lk 3:21; 9:28; 22:41-44. 44 Cf. Lk 6:12; 9:18-20; 22:32. 45 Lk 11:1.
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2602. Jesus often draws apart to pray in solitude, on a mountain, preferably at night.46 He includes all men in his prayer, for he has taken on humanity in his incarnation, and he offers them to the Father when he offers himself. Jesus, the Word who has become flesh, shares by his human prayer in all that “his brethren” experience; he sympathizes with their weaknesses in order to free them.47 It was for this that the Father sent him. His words and works are the visible manifestation of his prayer in secret.
2603. The evangelists have preserved two more explicit prayers offered by 2637 Christ during his public ministry. Each begins with thanksgiving. In the first, Jesus confesses the Father, acknowledges, and blesses him because he has hidden the mysteries of the Kingdom from those who think themselves 2546 learned and has revealed them to infants, the poor of the Beatitudes.48 His exclamation, “Yes, Father!” expresses the depth of his heart, his adherence 494 to the Father’s “good pleasure,” echoing his mother’s Fiat at the time of his conception and prefiguring what he will say to the Father in his agony. The whole prayer of Jesus is contained in this loving adherence of his human heart to the mystery of the will of the Father.49 2604. The second prayer, before the raising of Lazarus, is recorded by St John.50 Thanksgiving precedes the event: “Father, I thank you for having heard me,” which implies that the Father always hears his petitions. Jesus immediately adds: “I know that you always hear me,” which implies that Jesus, on his part, constantly made such petitions. Jesus’s prayer, characterized by thanksgiving, reveals to us how to ask: before the gift is given, Jesus commits himself to the One who in giving gives himself. The Giver is more precious 478 than the gift; he is the “treasure”; in him abides his Son’s heart; the gift is given “as well.”51 2746
The priestly prayer of Jesus holds a unique place in the economy of salvation.52 A meditation on it will conclude Section One. It reveals the ever present prayer of our High Priest and, at the same time, contains what he teaches us about our prayer to our Father, which will be developed in Section Two.
2605. When the hour had come for him to fulfil the Father’s plan of love, Jesus allows a glimpse of the boundless depth of his filial prayer, not only before he freely delivered himself up (“Abba… not my will, but yours.”),53 46 Cf. Mk 1:35; 6:46; Lk 5:16. 47 Cf. Heb 2:12, 15; 4:15. 48 Cf. Mt 11:25-27 and Lk 10:21-23. 49 Cf. Eph 1:9. 50 Cf. Jn 11:41-42. 51 Mt 6:21, 33. 52 Cf. Jn 17. 53 Lk 22:42.
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but even in his last words on the Cross, where prayer and the gift of self are 614 but one: “Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do”;54 “Truly, I say to you, today you will be with me in Paradise”;55 “Woman, behold your son” – “Behold your mother”;56 “I thirst”;57 “My God, My God, why have you forsaken me?”;58 “It is finished”;59 “Father, into your hands I commit my spirit!”60 until the “loud cry” as he expires, giving up his spirit.61 2606. All the troubles, for all time, of humanity enslaved by sin and death, all 403 the petitions and intercessions of salvation history are summed up in this cry of the incarnate Word. Here the Father accepts them and, beyond all hope, answers them by raising his Son. Thus is fulfilled and brought to 653 completion the drama of prayer in the economy of creation and salvation. The Psalter gives us the key to prayer in Christ. In the “today” of the 2587 Resurrection the Father says: “You are my Son, today I have begotten you. Ask of me, and I will make the nations your heritage, and the ends of the earth your possession.”62 The Letter to the Hebrews expresses in dramatic terms how the prayer of Jesus accomplished the victory of salvation: “In the days of his flesh, Jesus offered up prayers and supplications, with loud cries and tears, to him who was able to save him from death, and he was heard for his godly fear. Although he was a Son, he learned obedience through what he suffered, and being made perfect, he became the source of eternal salvation to all who obey him.”63 Jesus teaches us how to pray
2607. When Jesus prays he is already teaching us how to pray. His prayer to 520 his Father is the theologal path [the path of faith, hope, and charity] of our prayer to God. But the Gospel also gives us Jesus’s explicit teaching on prayer. Like a wise teacher he takes hold of us where we are and leads us progressively toward the Father. Addressing the crowds following him, Jesus builds on what they already know of prayer from the Old Covenant and opens to them the newness of the coming Kingdom. Then he reveals this newness to them in parables. Finally, he will speak openly of the Father and the Holy Spirit to his disciples who will be the teachers of prayer in his Church. 54 Lk 23:34. 55 Lk 23:43. 56 Jn 19:26-27. 57 Jn 19:28. 58 Mk 15:34; cf. Ps 22:2. 59 Jn 19:30. 60 Lk 23:46. 61 Cf. Mk 15:37; Jn 19:30b. 62 Ps 2:7-8; cf. Acts 13:33. 63 Heb 5:7-9.
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2608. From the Sermon on the Mount onwards, Jesus insists on conversion of heart: reconciliation with one’s brother before presenting an offering on the altar, love of enemies, and prayer for persecutors, prayer to the Father in secret, not heaping up empty phrases, prayerful forgiveness from the depths of the heart, purity of heart, and seeking the Kingdom before all else.64 This filial conversion is entirely directed to the Father.
2609. Once committed to conversion, the heart learns to pray in faith. Faith is a filial adherence to God beyond what we feel and understand. It is possible because the beloved Son gives us access to the Father. He can ask us to “seek” and to “knock,” since he himself is the door and the way.65
2610. Just as Jesus prays to the Father and gives thanks before receiving his gifts, so he teaches us filial boldness: “Whatever you ask in prayer, believe that you receive it, and you will.”66 Such is the power of prayer and of faith that does not doubt: “all things are possible to him who believes.”67 Jesus is 165 as saddened by the “lack of faith” of his own neighbours and the “little faith” of his own disciples68 as he is struck with admiration at the great faith of the Roman centurion and the Canaanite woman.69 2827
2611. The prayer of faith consists not only in saying “Lord, Lord,” but in disposing the heart to do the will of the Father.70 Jesus calls his disciples to bring into their prayer this concern for co-operating with the divine plan.71
2612. In Jesus “the Kingdom of God is at hand”.72 He calls his hearers to 672 conversion and faith, but also to watchfulness. In prayer the disciple keeps watch, attentive to Him Who Is and Him Who Comes, in memory of his first coming in the lowliness of the flesh, and in the hope of his second coming in 2725 glory.73 In communion with their Master, the disciples’ prayer is a battle; only by keeping watch in prayer can one avoid falling into temptation.74 546 2613. Three principal parables on prayer are transmitted to us by St Luke:
– The first, “the importunate friend,”75 invites us to urgent prayer: “Knock, and it will be opened to you.” To the one who prays like this, the heavenly Father will “give whatever he needs”, and above all the Holy Spirit who contains all gifts.” 64 Cf. Mt 5:23-24, 44-45; 6:7, 14-15, 21, 25, 33. 65 Cf. Mt 7:7-11, 13-14. 66 Mk 11:24. 67 Mk 9:23; cf. Mt 21:22. 68 Cf. Mk 6:6; Mt 8:26. 69 Cf. Mt 8:10; 15:28. 70 Cf. Mt 7:21. 71 Cf. Mt 9:38; Lk 10:2; Jn 4:34. 72 Mk 1:15. 73 Cf. Mk 13; Lk 21:34-36. 74 Cf. Lk 22:40, 46. 75 Cf. Lk 11:5-13.
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– The second, “the importunate widow,”76 is centred on one of the qualities of prayer: it is necessary to pray always without ceasing and with the patience of faith. “And yet, when the Son of Man comes, will he find faith on earth?” – The third parable, “the Pharisee and the tax collector,”77 concerns the humility of 2559 the heart that prays. “God, be merciful to me a sinner!” The Church continues to make this prayer its own: Kyrie, eleison!
2614. When Jesus openly entrusts to his disciples the mystery of prayer to the Father, he reveals to them what their prayer and ours must be, once he has returned to the Father in his glorified humanity. What is new is to “ask in his name.”78 Faith in the Son introduces the disciples into the knowledge of 434 the Father, because Jesus is “the way, and the truth, and the life.”79 Faith bears its fruit in love: it means keeping the word and the commandments of Jesus, it means abiding with him in the Father who, in him, so loves us that he abides with us. In this new covenant the certitude that our petitions will be heard is founded on the prayer of Jesus.80 2615. Even more, what the Father gives us when our prayer is united with that of Jesus is “another Counsellor, to be with you for ever, even the Spirit of truth.”81 This new dimension of prayer and of its circumstances is displayed 728 throughout the farewell discourse.82 In the Holy Spirit, Christian prayer is a communion of love with the Father, not only through Christ but also in him: “Hitherto you have asked nothing in my name; ask, and you will receive, that your joy may be full.”83 Jesus hears our prayer
2616. Prayer to Jesus is answered by him already during his ministry, through signs that anticipate the power of his death and Resurrection: Jesus hears the 548 prayer of faith, expressed in words (the leper, Jairus, the Canaanite woman, the good thief)84 or in silence (the bearers of the paralytic, the woman with a haemorrhage who touches his clothes, the tears and ointment of the sinful woman).85 The urgent request of the blind men, “Have mercy on us, Son of David” or “Jesus, Son of David, have mercy on me!” has been renewed in the traditional prayer to Jesus known as the Jesus Prayer: “Lord Jesus Christ, Son 2667 76 Cf. Lk 18:1-8. 77 Cf. Lk 18:9-14. 78 Jn 14:13. 79 Jn 14:6. 80 Cf. Jn 14:13-14. 81 Jn 14:16-17. 82 Cf. Jn 14:23-26; 15:7, 16; 16:13-15, 23-27. 83 Jn 16:24. 84 Cf. Mk 1:40-41; 5:36; 7:29; cf. Lk 23:39-43. 85 Cf. Mk 2:5; 5:28; Lk 7:37-38.
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of God, have mercy on me, a sinner!”86 Healing infirmities or forgiving sins, Jesus always responds to a prayer offered in faith: “Your faith has made you well; go in peace.” St Augustine wonderfully summarizes the three dimensions of Jesus’s prayer: “He prays for us as our priest, prays in us as our Head, and is prayed to by us as our God. Therefore let us acknowledge our voice in him and his in us.”87 The prayer of the Virgin Mary
2617. Mary’s prayer is revealed to us at the dawning of the fulness of time. Before the incarnation of the Son of God, and before the outpouring of the 494 Holy Spirit, her prayer co-operates in a unique way with the Father’s plan of loving kindness: at the Annunciation, for Christ’s conception; at Pentecost, for the formation of the Church, his Body.88 In the faith of his humble handmaid, the Gift of God found the acceptance he had awaited from the 490 beginning of time. She whom the Almighty made “full of grace” responds by offering her whole being: “Behold I am the handmaid of the Lord; let it be [done] to me according to your word.” “Fiat”: this is Christian prayer: to be wholly God’s, because he is wholly ours. 148
2618. The Gospel reveals to us how Mary prays and intercedes in faith. At Cana,89 the mother of Jesus asks her son for the needs of a wedding feast; this is the sign of another feast – that of the wedding of the Lamb where he gives his body and blood at the request of the Church, his Bride. It is at the hour of the New Covenant, at the foot of the cross,90 that Mary is heard as the 726 Woman, the new Eve, the true “Mother of all the living”.
2619. That is why the Canticle of Mary,91 the Magnificat (Latin) or Megalynei (Byzantine), is the song both of the Mother of God and of the Church; the song of the Daughter of Zion and of the new People of God; the song of thanksgiving for the fulness of graces poured out in the 724 economy of salvation and the song of the “poor” whose hope is met by the fulfilment of the promises made to our ancestors, “to Abraham and to his posterity for ever”.
86 Mt 9:27; Mk 10:48. 87 St Augustine, En. in Ps. 85, 1: PL 37, 1081; cf. GILH 7. 88 Cf. Lk 1:38; Acts 1:14. 89 Cf. Jn 2:1-12. 90 Cf. Jn 19:25-27. 91 Cf. Lk 1:46-55.
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Prayer in the Christian Life
IN BRIEF 2620. Jesus’s filial prayer is the perfect model of prayer in the New Testament. Often done in solitude and in secret, the prayer of Jesus involves a loving adherence to the will of the Father even to the Cross and an absolute confidence in being heard. 2621. In his teaching, Jesus teaches his disciples to pray with a purified heart, with lively and persevering faith, with filial boldness. He calls them to vigilance and invites them to present their petitions to God in his name. Jesus Christ himself answers prayers addressed to him. 2622. The prayers of the Virgin Mary, in her Fiat and Magnificat, are characterized by the generous offering of her whole being in faith.
Article 3 IN THE AGE OF THE CHURCH 2623. On the day of Pentecost, the Spirit of the Promise was poured out on 731 the disciples, gathered “together in one place”.92 While awaiting the Spirit, “all these with one accord devoted themselves to prayer”.93 The Spirit who teaches the Church and recalls for her everything that Jesus said94 was also to form her in the life of prayer. 2624. In the first community of Jerusalem, believers “devoted themselves to 1342 the apostles’ teaching and fellowship, to the breaking of bread and the prayers”.95 This sequence is characteristic of the Church’s prayer: founded on the apostolic faith; authenticated by charity; nourished in the Eucharist. 2625. In the first place these are prayers that the faithful hear and read in the Scriptures, but also that they make their own – especially those of the Psalms, in view of their fulfilment in Christ.96 The Holy Spirit, who thus keeps the memory of Christ alive in his Church at prayer, also leads her toward the 1092 fulness of truth and inspires new formulations expressing the unfathomable mystery of Christ at work in his Church’s life, sacraments, and mission. These formulations are developed in the great liturgical and spiritual traditions. 1200 The forms of prayer revealed in the apostolic and canonical Scriptures remain normative for Christian prayer. 92 Acts 2:1. 93 Acts 1:14. 94 Cf. Jn 14:26. 95 Acts 2:42. 96 Cf. Lk 24:27, 44.
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I. Blessing and Adoration 1078 2626. Blessing expresses the basic movement of Christian prayer: it is an encounter between God and man. In blessing, God’s gift and man’s acceptance of it are united in dialogue with each other. The prayer of blessing is man’s response to God’s gifts: because God blesses, the human heart can in return bless the One who is the source of every blessing. 1083
2627. Two fundamental forms express this movement: our prayer ascends in the Holy Spirit through Christ to the Father – we bless him for having blessed us;97 it implores the grace of the Holy Spirit that descends through Christ from the Father – he blesses us.98
2628. Adoration is the first attitude of man acknowledging that he is a creature before his Creator. It exalts the greatness of the Lord who made us99 and the almighty power of the Saviour who sets us free from evil. Adoration is homage of the spirit to the “King of Glory,”100 respectful silence in the presence of the “ever greater” God.101 Adoration of the thrice-holy 2559 and sovereign God of love blends with humility and gives assurance to our supplications.
II. Prayer of Petition 2629. The vocabulary of supplication in the New Testament is rich in shades of meaning: ask, beseech, plead, invoke, entreat, cry out, even “struggle in prayer.”102 Its most usual form, because the most spontaneous, is petition: by prayer of petition we express awareness of our relationship with God. We are creatures who are not our own beginning, not the masters of adversity, 396 not our own last end. We are sinners who as Christians know that we have turned away from our Father. Our petition is already a turning back to him. 2630. The New Testament contains scarcely any prayers of lamentation, so frequent
2090 in the Old Testament. In the risen Christ the Church’s petition is buoyed by hope,
even if we still wait in a state of expectation and must be converted anew every day. Christian petition, what St Paul calls “groaning,” arises from another depth, that of creation “in labour pains” and that of ourselves “as we wait for the redemption of our bodies. For in this hope we were saved.”103 In the end, however, the Holy Spirit “helps us in our weakness; for we do not know how to pray as we ought, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with sighs too deep for words.”104 97 Cf. Eph 1:3-14; 2 Cor 1:3-7; 1 Pt 1:3-9. 98 Cf. 2 Cor 13:14; Rom 15:5-6, 13; Eph 6:23-24. 99 Cf. Ps 95:1-6. 100 Ps 24, 9-10. 101 Cf. St Augustine, En. in Ps. 62, 16: PL 36, 757-758. 102 Cf. Rom 15:30; Col 4:12. 103 Rom 8:22-24. 104 Rom 8:26.
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Prayer in the Christian Life
2631. The first movement of the prayer of petition is asking forgiveness, like 2838 the tax collector in the parable: “God, be merciful to me a sinner!”105 It is a prerequisite for righteous and pure prayer. A trusting humility brings us back into the light of communion between the Father and his Son Jesus Christ and with one another, so that “we receive from him whatever we ask”.106 Asking forgiveness is the prerequisite for both the Eucharistic liturgy and personal prayer. 2632. Christian petition is centred on the desire and search for the Kingdom 2816 to come, in keeping with the teaching of Christ.107 There is a hierarchy in these petitions: we pray first for the Kingdom, then for what is necessary to welcome it and co-operate with its coming. This collaboration with the 1942 mission of Christ and the Holy Spirit, which is now that of the Church, is the object of the prayer of the apostolic community.108 It is the prayer of Paul, the apostle par excellence, which reveals to us how the divine solicitude for all the churches ought to inspire Christian prayer.109 By prayer every baptized person works for the coming of the Kingdom. 2854 2633. When we share in God’s saving love, we understand that every need can 2830 become the object of petition. Christ, who assumed all things in order to redeem all things, is glorified by what we ask the Father in his name.110 It is with this confidence that St James and St Paul exhort us to pray at all times.111 III. Prayer of Intercession 2634. Intercession is a prayer of petition which leads us to pray as Jesus did. He is the one intercessor with the Father on behalf of all men, especially 432 sinners.112 He is “able for all time to save those who draw near to God through him, since he always lives to make intercession for them”.113 The Holy Spirit “himself intercedes for us… and intercedes for the saints according to the will of God”.114 2635. Since Abraham, intercession – asking on behalf of another – has been 2571 characteristic of a heart attuned to God’s mercy. In the age of the Church, Christian intercession participates in Christ’s, as an expression of the 105 Lk 18:13. 106 1 Jn 3:22; cf. 1:7-2:2. 107 Cf. Mt 6:10, 33; Lk 11:2, 13. 108 Cf. Acts 6:6; 13:3. 109 Cf. Rom 10:1; Eph 1:16-23; Phil 1:9-11; Col 1:3-6; 4:3-4, 12. 110 Cf. Jn 14:13. 111 Cf. Jas 1:5-8; Eph 5:20; Phil 4:6-7; Col 3:16-17; 1 Th 5:17-18. 112 Cf. Rom 8:34; 1 Jn 2:1; 1 Tim 2:5-8. 113 Heb 7:25. 114 Rom 8:26-27.
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communion of saints. In intercession, he who prays looks “not only to his own interests, but also to the interests of others,” even to the point of praying for those who do him harm.115
2636. The first Christian communities lived this form of fellowship intensely.116 Thus the apostle Paul gives them a share in his ministry of preaching the Gospel117 but also intercedes for them.118 The intercession of Christians recognizes no boundaries: “for all men, for kings and all who are in high 1900, 1037 positions,” for persecutors, for the salvation of those who reject the Gospel.119 IV. Prayer of Thanksgiving 224 2637. Thanksgiving characterizes the prayer of the Church which, in 1328 celebrating the Eucharist, reveals and becomes more fully what she is. Indeed, in the work of salvation, Christ sets creation free from sin and death to consecrate it anew and make it return to the Father, for his glory. The 2603 thanksgiving of the members of the Body participates in that of their Head. 2638. As in the prayer of petition, every event and need can become an offering of thanksgiving. The letters of St Paul often begin and end with thanksgiving, and the Lord Jesus is always present in it: “Give thanks in all circumstances; for this is the will of God in Christ Jesus for you”; “Continue steadfastly in prayer, being watchful in it with thanksgiving.”120 V. Prayer of Praise 2639. Praise is the form of prayer which recognizes most immediately that God is God. It lauds God for his own sake and gives him glory, quite beyond 213 what he does, but simply because HE IS. It shares in the blessed happiness of the pure of heart who love God in faith before seeing him in glory. By praise, the Spirit is joined to our spirits to bear witness that we are children of God,121 testifying to the only Son in whom we are adopted and by whom we glorify the Father. Praise embraces the other forms of prayer and carries them toward him who is its source and goal: the “one God, the Father, from whom are all things and for whom we exist.”122 2640. St Luke in his gospel often expresses wonder and praise at the marvels of Christ and in his Acts of the Apostles stresses them as actions of the Holy Spirit: the 115 Phil 2:4; cf. Acts 7:60; Lk 23:28, 34. 116 Cf. Acts 12:5; 20:36; 21:5; 2 Cor 9:14. 117 Cf. Eph 6:18-20; Col 4:3-4; 1 Th 5:25. 118 Cf. 2 Th 1:11; Col 1:3; Phil 1:3-4. 119 1 Tim 2:1; cf. Rom 12:14; 10:1. 120 1 Th 5:18; Col 4:2. 121 Cf. Rom 8:16. 122 1 Cor 8:6.
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Prayer in the Christian Life
community of Jerusalem, the invalid healed by Peter and John, the crowd that gives glory to God for that, and the pagans of Pisidia who “were glad and glorified the word of God.”123 2641. “[Address] one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody to the Lord with all your heart.”124 Like the inspired writers of the New Testament, the first Christian communities read the Book of Psalms in a new 2587 way, singing in it the mystery of Christ. In the newness of the Spirit, they also composed hymns and canticles in the light of the unheard-of event that God accomplished in his Son: his Incarnation, his death which conquered death, his Resurrection, and Ascension to the right hand of the Father.125 Doxology, the praise of God, arises from this “marvellous work” of the whole economy of salvation.126 2642. The Revelation of “what must soon take place,” the Apocalypse, is borne along by the songs of the heavenly liturgy127 but also by the intercession of the “witnesses” 1137 (martyrs).128 The prophets and the saints, all those who were slain on earth for their witness to Jesus, the vast throng of those who, having come through the great tribulation, have gone before us into the Kingdom, all sing the praise and glory of him who sits on the throne, and of the Lamb.129 In communion with them, the Church on earth also sings these songs with faith in the midst of trial. By means of petition and intercession, faith hopes against all hope and gives thanks to the “Father of lights,” from whom “every perfect gift” comes down.130 Thus faith is pure praise.
2643. The Eucharist contains and expresses all forms of prayer: it is “the pure offering” of the whole Body of Christ to the glory of God’s name131 and, according to the traditions of East and West, it is the “sacrifice of praise.” 1330 IN BRIEF 2644. The Holy Spirit who teaches the Church and recalls to her all that Jesus said also instructs her in the life of prayer, inspiring new expressions of the same basic forms of prayer: blessing, petition, intercession, thanksgiving, and praise. 2645. Because God blesses the human heart, it can in return bless him who is the source of every blessing. 2646. Forgiveness, the quest for the Kingdom, and every true need are objects of the prayer of petition. 123 Acts 2:47; 3:9; 4:21; 13:48. 124 Eph 5:19; Col 3:16. 125 Cf. Phil 2:6-11; Col 1:15-20; Eph 5:14; 1 Tim 3:16; 6:15-16; 2 Tim 2:11-13. 126 Cf. Eph 1:3-14; Rom 16:25-27; Eph 3:20-21; Jude 24-25. 127 Cf. Rev 4:8-11; 5:9-14; 7:10-12. 128 Rev 6:10. 129 Cf. Rev 18:24; 19:1-8. 130 Jas 1:17. 131 Cf. Mal 1:11.
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INDEX OF CITATIONS The arabic number(s) following the citation refers to the text paragraph number(s); the asterisk following a text paragraph number indicates that the citation has been paraphrased.
SACRED SCRIPTURE OLD TESTAMENT Genesis
1:1-2:4 337 1:1 268,* 279, 280, 290 1:2-3 292* 1:2 243,* 703,* 1218* 1:3 298* 1:4 299 1:10 299 1:12 299 1:14 347* 1:18 299 1:21 299 1:26-29 2402* 1:26-28 307* 1:26-27 36,* 1602* 1:26 225, 299,* 343,* 2501, 2809 1:27 36,* 355, 383, 1604,* 2331 1:28-31 2415* 1:28 372, 373, 1604, 1607,* 1652, 2331, 2427* 1:31 299, 1604*, 2002 2:1-3 345 2:2 314,* 2184 2:7 362, 369,* 703* 2:8 378* 2:15 378 2:17 376,* 396, 400,* 1006,* 1008* 2:18-25 1605* 2:18 371, 1605, 1652 2:19-20 371, 2417* 2:22 369,* 1607* 2:23 371 2:24 372, 1605, 1616, 1627,* 1644,* 2335 2:25 376* 3 390,* 2795* 3:1-5 391*
CATECHISM BOOK New.indb 615
3:1-11 397* 3:3 1008* 3:5 392, 398,* 399,* 1850 3:6 2541, 2847 3:7-16 400* 3:8-10 29* 3:9-10 399* 3:9 410,* 2568 3:11-13 400* 3:11 2515 3:12 1607* 3:13 1736, 2568 3:14-19 2427* 3:15 55, 70,* 410,* 489* 3:16-19 1607* 3:16 376,* 400,* 1609 3:16b 1607* 3:17-19 378* 3:17 400* 3:19 376,* 400, 400,* 1008,* 1609 3:20 489* 3:21 1608* 3:24 332* 4:1-2 2335* 4:3-15 401* 4:3-7 2538* 4:4 2569* 4:8-12 2259* 4:10-11 2259 4:10 1736,* 1867,* 2268* 4:25-26 2335 4:26 2569* 5:1-2 2331 5:1 2335* 5:24 2569 6:3 990* 6:5 401* 6:9 2569 6:12 401* 8:8-12 701*
8:20-9:17 2569* 9:1-4 2417* 9:5-6 2260 9:8-16 2569* 9:9-10 56* 9:16 56, 58, 71* 10:5 56 10:20-31 56* 11:4-6 57* 12:1-4 145* 12:1 59 12:2 762,* 1669* 12:3 706,* 2676 12:3 LXX 59 12:4 2570 13:8 500* 14:16 500* 14:18 58,* 1333, 1544 15:2-3 2570* 15:2 2374 15:5-6 762* 15:5 146,* 288* 15:6 146,* 2571* 17:1-2 2571* 17:4-8 1819* 17:5 59 18:1-15 706,* 2571* 18:10-14 489* 18:14 148,* 276 18:16-33 2571* 18:20 1867* 19 332* 19:1-29 2357* 19:13 1867* 21:1-2 489* 21:17 332* 22:1-18 1819* 22:8 2572 22:11 332* 22:17-19 706* 23:4 145*
SUBJECT INDEX The main entry words are printed in bold type. References to “In Brief ” entries in some texts are printed in italics. The sub-headings that follow main entries provide additional information about the same or closely related topics (for example: Abraham: call of Abraham: 59, 72, 762). Cross references with “see” or “see also” supply information about relevant main entry words. The primary objective of this index is to provide the most comprehensive survey possible of the contents, and repetitions have been avoided where possible. For most Biblical references please see the Index of citations. All references are to paragraph numbers. Abba The Spirit of the Son in our hearts crying 693, 742, 1303, 2766, 2777 Abel fratricide 401, 2559 venerated 38 Abortion 2270-75 condemnation in the early Church 2271 excommunication as penalty 2272 inalienable right to life 2273 protection of human life from the moment of conception 2270, 2319, 2322-23 Abraham call of Abraham 59, 72, 762 faith of Abraham 144-46, 165, 1080, 2676 hope of Abraham 1819 in the Muslim religion 841 prayer of Abraham 2570-72, 2592, 2635 promise to Abraham 705-06, 762, 1222, 1716, 2810 fulfilment of the promises 422, 1725, 2619 Absolution see Penance, sacrament of: as liturgical celebration Abstinence 2043 Acclamation 559 Accusation see Penitence Acedia (spiritual sloth) as capital sin 1866 as sin against love 2094 as temptation in prayer 2733 Act; action
beatitude as meaning and end 1723
CATECHISM BOOK New.indb 657
circumstances and consequences 1754 end does not justify the means 1753, 1759 intention and goal 1752-53 judgement as good or bad 1749-50, 175556, 1757, 1760 object 1751, 1758 Adam Christ and 359, 388, 402, 504, 505, 532, 538, 539, 635 grace of original holiness 375, 399 his sin and consequences 402-05, 416-17, 1736 Adherence of Christ to his Father’s will 566, 2600, 2603, 2620 of faith to the teaching of the Church 88 of Mary to the will of God 967 to God’s will 150, 176, 1098, 1102, 1730, 2609, 2716 Adolescence and catechesis 5, 24 and sexual questions 2342, 2355, 2389, 2524 Adoption of children
Adoration and blessing 1078, 2628, 2781 and respect for God’s name 2143, 2145 and sacred art 2502 of the Blessed Sacrament 1178, 1183, 1378-81, 1418, 2691, 2696 prayer as expression of 2098 sacrifice as sign of 2099 worship of God by the Church 1083 see also Worship
Subject Index: Ad-An
658 Adultery 2380-81 as grave sin 1756, 1856, 1858, 2400 importance of conjugal fidelity 1646, 2364-65, 2397 in Jesus’s preaching 2336
Analogy between Creator and creature 41, 2500 in scripture 128-30 of faith 114 spiritual and natural life 1210-12
Adults baptism of 1247 catechesis of 5, 2688 catechumenate 1232, 1233 Christian initiation 1233, 1247 and see Christian initiation; adult children and family life 2214, 2218, 2230
Anamnesis in the Eucharistic celebration 1354, 1362 in the general liturgical celebration 1103 in the sacramental celebration 1106
Advent 524, 1095 see also Liturgy: liturgical seasons Advocate see Holy Spirit Christ our advocate 519 the Holy Spirit 692, 729, 1433, 1848 Age for Confirmation 1318-19 of body versus age of soul 1308 of discretion for Confession 1457 Agnosticism as practical atheism forms 2127
Alcohol abuse 2290 Almsgiving as act of religion 1969 as expression of penance 1434, 1438 as form of piety 575, 2101 as witness to fraternal charity 2447, 2462 on behalf of the dead 1032 Altar 1181-82, 1383, 2570 Ambo 1184 Amen Christ as the definitive 1065 in the eucharistic liturgy 1345 last word in the creed and sacred scripture 1061 meaning of the word 1062-64, 1348, 1396, 2856, 2865 Amputation see Medical treatment
CATECHISM BOOK New.indb 658
Anaphora 1352 Angels; demons 327-330, 350 as servants of Christ 331, 351, 1034, 1038 ‘fall’ of angels: as irrevocable sin 392-93, 414 by their free decision 391-92 Satan as a ‘fallen angel’ 391, 414 given intelligence and free will 311 guardian angels 336 heaven as ‘place’ of angels 326, 1023 in salvation history 332-33 significance for the Church 334-35, 352 ‘son of God’ as title for angels 441 Anger; wrath as passion 1765 as sin consequence of original sin 2259 desire for vengeance 2302 forbidden in Sermon on the Mount 2262 mortal sin 1866, 2302 Animals differences from man 371 experimentation on 2417 exploitation forbidden 2415, 2418 place in creation 2415-16 relationship to man 2417-18, 2456-57 Annunciation
Anointing Anointing of the Sick 1523 as sign of the Holy Spirit 695 Baptism 1237 Confirmation 1289, 1293-96 ordination of priests and bishops
Anointing of the Sick administration by priests and bishops 1516, 1530
Subject index: An-Au as a sacrament: one of the seven sacraments 1113, 1210 ‘sacrament of the dying’ 1523 since the beginning of the Church 1510 liturgical celebration 1517 elements of the celebration 1518-19, 1531 main effects 1520-23, 1532 comfort, peace, and courage 1520 forgiveness of sins 1520 preparation for death 1523 sanctification of the Church 1522 union with the Passion of Christ 1521 purpose 1499, 1511, 1526-27 reception Eucharist as ‘viaticum’ 1517, 1524-25 preparation 1516-17 reception recommended 1515, 1528 recipient 1514 repeated reception 1515, 1529 rite 1513 tradition of ‘Extreme Unction’ 1512 Antichrist 675 see also Jesus: Second Coming Anxiety 2088 Apostasy 2089, 817 Apostles apostolic teaching as way to heaven 75-77, 1724 called by Jesus to follow him 1506 Church built on the foundation of the apostles 857, 860 commissioned by Jesus 2, 858-60 power of the keys 981 preach the Paschal mystery 571 share in Christ’s ministry of healing 1506, 1510-11 share in Christ’s power of sanctification 1087 successors 3 witnesses of the Resurrection 860 see also Apostolic succession Apostolate 863, 864, 900, 905 Apostolic succession and the sacrament of Holy Orders 1576 apostles’ appointment of successors 77, 860-62 as bond of the Church’s unity 815
CATECHISM BOOK New.indb 659
659 as sign of the Church’s catholicity 830, 833 in the Eastern Churches 1399 significance for the liturgy 1087 see also Apostles Ark of the Covenant and the Tables of the Covenant 2058 symbol of salvation 2130 the prayer of the people of God 2578, 2594 Armed forces; soldiers 2310 Arms as deterrent 2315 as threat to peace 2317 conditions for use 2243, 2309 indiscriminate use 2314 production and trade of 2316 refusal to bear 2311 Art 2501, 2513 God’s activity in creation 2510 task of sacred art 2502-03 truth and beauty 2500 Artificial insemination 2376, 2377 see Matrimony: purpose Ascension see Jesus Christ Ascesis and baptismal profession 2340 as means to self-mastery 1734, 2340 as way to perfection 2015 Assumption 996, 974 Astrology 2116 Atheism 2123-26, 2128, 2140 and agnosticism 2128 causes of 2126, 2424 forms of 2123-24 Authority and common good 1906 and duties of citizens 2238-43 and family 2199, 2207 basis for authority: God 1899 human nature 1898 respect for the human person 1930 duty to respect public authority 2234 legitimate exercise of authority 1903, 2236 limitations 2235 necessary for human community 1898
Subject Index: Au-Ba
660 Authority Cont’d role of service 2235 tasks 1902, 2236 Autonomy of children 2232 of conscience 1792 Autopsy 2301 Avarice 1866, 2539, 2541, 2552 Aversion
Babel 57 Banquet and repentance 1439 eucharistic 1390, 1391, 1397, 1408, 1617 heavenly 1036, 1344 of the kingdom 1642, 1682, 2618, 2770, 2837, 2861 paschal 1340, 1382-1401 wedding 546, 1027, 1244, 1335 Baptism administration and reception: administration by the laity 903 cannot be repeated 1272 eligibility 1246 in emergency 1284 ordinary ministers 1256 and other sacraments 1113, 1210, 1535 Christian initiation and 1212, 1288-91, 1298, 1304-06, 1312-13 Confirmation 1288-91, 1298 Eucharist 1244, 1392, 1396 Penance 980, 1425, 1446-47, 2042 Unction 1523 as sacrament common character of Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders 1121 one of the seven sacraments 1113, 1210 sacrament of faith 1253 sacrament of regeneration 1213 Baptism and conversion 1427-29 Baptism and sin Baptism erases effects of original sin 405 first sacrament of forgiveness of sins 977-78, 985 further struggle against sin is necessary 978, 1264, 2520 justification granted 1266, 1992 loss of baptismal grace through sin 1446
CATECHISM BOOK New.indb 660
makes a ‘new creation’ of the neophyte 1265 remission of all sins and punishment for sins 1263, 2520 Baptism and the Sacrament of Penance 1425-26 Baptism in the Church 1223, 1226-28, 1277 Baptism of adults 1247-49 Baptism of infants and catechetical instruction 1231 and parental duty 1251 as practice from the beginning of the Church 1252, 1282 needed to free from original sin 1250 Baptism of Jesus Baptism of Jesus by John 438 Baptism of the Holy Spirit compared to John’s baptism 720 importance of Jesus’s Baptism 536-37, 1223 baptismal name 2156, 2165 baptismal promises 2340 basic contents 14 called ‘Baptism’ 1214-16 ‘illumination’ 1216 ‘washing of regeneration and renewal in the Holy Spirit’ 1215 effects 1279 ability to celebrate the liturgy 1119, 1141 builds up the Body of Christ 798 entrance into eternal beatitude 1257 gives the gifts of the Holy Spirit 1266 gives the moral virtues 1266 gives the theological virtues 1266 grace of rebirth in God 683 grants participation in the common priesthood 1268 reception as son of God 1997 reception into People of God 804 reception into the ‘Body of Christ’ 790, 1267 reception into the Church of Christ 1267-70 rights and duties 1269-70 seals with an indelible spiritual mark 1272-74, 1280 unites with Christ 790 importance of godparents 1253-55