House Dedel Atlas

Page 1

HOUSE DEDEL ATLAS


Design by Caterina Tioli Additional writing and editing Malte Sonnenschein Research Caterina Tioli Malte Sonnenschein Photo Caterina Tioli Infographics Malte Sonnenschein Special thanks to INSIDE - Interior Architecture Master The Royal Academy of Art Ira Koers Anne Hoogewoning Stichting Design Museum Dedel


House Dedel Atlas A project by Malte Sonnenschein and Caterina Tioli


8 18 32 40 134 164 174

4


Index 1 Intro 2 About 3 Territory 4 Official Rooms 5 Unofficial Rooms 6 Activities 7 Articles

5


6


7

Photos by Architectenbureau Prent Bv Netherlands Sotheby‘s, International Realty


1 Intro

8


Malte Sonnenschein The past Two different groups are inhibiting the house simultaneously, in a relation of symbiosis and dependencies, one not being able to exist without the other — but with a clear imbalance in power. The servants, in charge of keeping the household running, like the wheels of a complex machinery, are supposed to act hidden, unseen, as often as possible. They inhabit the spaces designed with less care for look or comfort. They‘re preparing food in the kitchen, living in the attic, moving through the house using hidden shortcuts, hidden doors and only appear seldomly to please the owners. Space occupied by them is easy to distinguish from the others, colourless, with almost no ornaments. For the owners inhabiting the house is mostly about comfort, luxury and representation. They don‘t only display their wealth to their guests, the don‘t take part in running the machine more then putting money in it as fuel. They act like the usual car driver, who surely knows about the engine and where it‘s located, 9

House Dedel Atlas

Intro

Malte Leon Sonnenschein Past Present Future


but only rarely and with repulsion leaves the padded seats to look at it. On the other hand, a car without an engine is unuseable for the driver. The owners move in a different manner around the house, doorways to their disposal are mostly huge, very present and wide. Their surroundings are decorated, not only by the interior, but by the architecture as well. The present Being called a Design Museum now, house Dedel invites the public to wander it‘s floors. But not all changed — even though more visible, the wheels of the museum machinery are reclusive and only interact with the visitor if they break the rules or need to pay the entrance fee. Even these days, the only ones using most of the hidden rooms are responisble to keep the machinery running. The visitor again is confronted with the former ways of the owners, following decoration and the display of former power and wealth. But the change of times changed the needs of the building, more rooms are accepted by the visitors and developed for their visit. The basement now serves as an entry, for toilets and further education in the cinema and library. 10

House Dedel Atlas

Intro

Malte Leon Sonnenschein Past Present Future


Therefore it‘s parts are now decorated, new doors are established and lighting is adjusted. Other rooms, formerly appointed to the servants, stay unused so far, locked from the eyes of the visitors. The attic now is empty, smaller rooms are closed — the visitor now doesn‘t get to see much more then the former owner wanted to see. The future Visibility is a basis for acknoledgement and also for something to have a respected place in society. Especially the hidden forms of labour in households and the spacial seggregation, that came with it for centuries, must be seen as a major part to keep our economy focused society working. A house formerly dedicated to keep reproductive labour unseen and to keep parts of the society out of touch with it, now plays in it‘s spatial appearance with the paths of servants and owners. The visitor can wander along either or will be confronted with a spatial experience of hiding and showing the history of the building. Not limited to servants rooms, a different way of exploring and discovering as well as spatial 11

House Dedel Atlas

Intro

Malte Leon Sonnenschein Past Present Future


barriers now divide the space. The visitor experiences the feeling of being hidden from others just as decorations being hidden from him. Former servants rooms still deal with narrowness and low ceilings, but keep the treasures of exhibitions in them, as a center of knowledge. This sets a new focus, while the former owners rooms are set apart from modern exhibitions and only stand in the background as subtle a history lesson.

12

House Dedel Atlas

Intro

Malte Leon Sonnenschein Past Present Future


Caterina Tioli The past It’s 1734, House Dedel is dwelled by Jan Hudde Dedel and his wife Magdalena Antonia Muyssart. It’s Saturday. 12 o’clock. Jan Hudde Dedel is going through his paper works from the last week. Magdalena is reading a book on the sofa in the living room. They are both waiting for their guest to arrive, and gather all together in the dining room, where the lunch will take place. Running from the kitchen, to the larder, and then again from the larder to the kitchen, and then again from the kitchen, in the basement, to the scullery, upstairs, and from the scullery to the the dining room. You can hear the quick steps of the servants, organising and preparing the food, the room, the table for the guests, passing through narrow corridors, and stiff stairs, hiding between the walls, avoiding the rooms of the employers. The bell rings, the servant runs to the door, he opens it, and let the guests in. From the hall, to the salon and to the dining room. Avoiding the corridors and the hidden doors. There is a route for the guest and the owners, and there is a route for the servants. The guests are now sitting around the table, 13

House Dedel Atlas

Intro

Caterina Tioli Past Present Future


waiting for their meals to be served. The servants are acting around them, trying to be as invisible as possible, occupying the dining room only if strictly necessary. They serve the meal, and then they walk to the scullery, through a hidden door, cover by wallpapers. When the plates are empty, they are ready to take them away, hiding them together with their bodies. There are space for the guests and the owner, and there are spaces for the servants. There is a division in classes and society which is clearly visible in a house. The present It’s November 19th 2020. House Dedel is now a graphic design museum. It welcomes visitors and tells them two stories: one about the consumerist world, about advertisements, posters, slogans and catchy graphics; the other one about history, about beautiful wallpapers, stucco ceilings and staircases. When you enter Museum Dedel, Martijn Le Coultre, the curator of the museum, will welcome you in the hall and show you the images of Jan Hudde Dedel and his wife Magdalena Antonia Muyssart. 14

House Dedel Atlas

Intro

Caterina Tioli Past Present Future


From there he will guide you through the salon waiting room, where guests were attended, to step right after into the living room. From the living room to the hallway, to the dining room, to the garden, to the staircase and then to the bedrooms upstairs. Martijn Le Coultre will briefly show you the servants room behind the living room, called scullery, where they used to prepare the food, through a hidden door covered by wallpaper. He will show you the secret spaces, that allowed servants to do their job as invisible and obscure as possible. The tour you will follow will be about the great majesty this house offered in the past, it will show you the traces of power, and richness. But it won’t show you hidden places, between staircase, and it won’t open you door to hidden rooms. Because the majesty of the building is in those room of the owner and not in the small dark rooms of the servants. The future In the future of Design Museum Dedel the official and unofficial rooms will be part of different ways of discovering the house. Visitors will experience a division that was 15

House Dedel Atlas

Intro

Caterina Tioli Past Present Future


already there in the past and that in the future will be clearly visible in the space through spaces and atmospheres. In the future of House Dedel, past and present will be divided within the official and unofficial rooms. The servants room won‘t be hidden anymore, they will instead become treasures room, showing what is unshown and unseen in the official rooms.

16

House Dedel Atlas

Intro

Caterina Tioli Past Present Future


17

House Dedel Atlas

Intro


2 About

18


Museum From private residence to auction house to museum: that is Design Museum Dedel. A museum in a stellar 17th-century building at the Prinsegracht, in The Hague, where the history of advertising, graphic art and design comes to life! Design and advertising We all have to deal with advertising on a daily basis. But how often do we consciously look at the designs associated with it? The design says a lot about the time in which it originated and gives the opportunity to approach history from a different perspective. With a semi-permanent layout, Design Museum Dedel will show an overview of 150 years of advertising and design. Be surprised by the various themes of the temporary exhibitions such as Russian Avantgarde, Art Deco, the Seventies... Museum under construction The museum not only develops in light of the ongoing restoration, it also develops further through new insights and possibilities and through the establishment and operation of partnerships with other similar institutes elsewhere in the world. 19

House Dedel Atlas

About


20

House Dedel Atlas

About

Basement


Basement The basement was a floor mainly dedicated to the work of servants. Today, it is use as a side space for visitors: toilettes, lockers, a common library, a restingeating area.

21

Room

Past

Present

001 002 003 004 005 006 007

Unknown Unknown Unknown Scullery Kitchen Corridor Pantry

Toilettes Lockers Library Storage Cafeteria Corridor Storage

House Dedel Atlas

About

Basement


22

House Dedel Atlas

About

First Floor


First floor The first floor was a floor mainly dedicated to the masters and the guest. Today, it is use mainly as exhibition space and as office.

23

Room Past

Present

101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108

Exhibition room Hall Office Storage Exhibition room Corridor Exhibition room Corridor

Salon Hall Office Servants room Dining room Corridor Living room Corridor

House Dedel Atlas

About

First Floor


24

House Dedel Atlas

About

First and Half Floor


First and half floor This floor is part of the staircase. In the past was used to store food. Today it became a space for toilettes.

25

Room Past

Present

109

Toilettes

Scullery

House Dedel Atlas

About

First and Half Floor


26

House Dedel Atlas

About

Second Floor


Second floor The second floor was a floor mainly dedicated to the masters and the children. Today, it is use mainly as exhibition space and as office.

27

Room Past

Present

201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209

Exhibition room Exhibition room Exhibition room Storage Exhibition room Office Exhibition room Storage Corridor

Children room Children room Children room Servants room Guest room Nursery Masters room Storage room Corridor

House Dedel Atlas

About

Second Floor


28

House Dedel Atlas

About

Attic


Attic The attic was a floor mainly dedicated to the servants. This space was used firstly to wash clothes, and to sleep.

29

Room Past

Present

300 301 302

Unknown Unknown Unknown

Washing aerea Servants room Servants room

House Dedel Atlas

About

Attic


30

House Dedel Atlas

About

Attic


Attic This second part of the attic was probably used as storage.

31

Room Past

Present

400

Unknown

Storage

House Dedel Atlas

About

Attic


4 Territory

32


The house is inhabited by two major groups, also representing two different societal branches within one building. There are up to five members of the Dedel family, who own the house and will be called the masters in the following. They are the decision makers and hold most of the power in the hierarchical structure of the residential building. Their employees were a group of seven servants, caring for any kind of domestic work, but separated as good as possible from the masters during the day. There is an imbalance in spatial treatment, movements and architectural attributes assigned to each group. The servants are supposed to be as invisible as possible, keeping the household running and getting food on the table as required, but not to disturb the daily live of the house’s owners. In doing so, they use the house entirely different than the family of masters.

33

House Dedel Atlas

Territory


Attic 1

Attic 2

1st Floor

2nd Floor

Basement

34

House Dedel Atlas

Territory

Servants movements in the house


Attic 1

Attic 2

1st Floor

2nd Floor

Basement

35

House Dedel Atlas

Territory

Masters movements in the house


BASEMENT

1ST FLOOR

2ND FLOOR

ATTIK

4:00

8:00

12:00

18:00

22:00

36

House Dedel Atlas

Territory

Servants use of the house


BASEMENT

1ST FLOOR

2ND FLOOR

ATTIK

4:00

8:00

12:00

18:00

22:00

37

House Dedel Atlas

Territory

Masters use of the house


165 cm

469 cm

226 cm

250 cm

178 cm

203 cm

160 cm

0 cm

servants main entry

average human being

hidden servants door

ceiling servant room 1

servants entry living room

living room ceiling

Servants’ sizing

Territory

House Dedel Atlas

38


39

House Dedel Atlas

Territory

Masters’ sizing

living room ceiling

living room window

double door

average human being

fireplace

0 cm

117 cm

178 cm

281 cm

439 cm

469 cm

165 cm


5 Official Rooms

40


41


Hall

42


After passing the main door, the hall ist the first room to step in. For the inhabitants of the house there are three doors to choose from, leading directly to the parlour, the study and the corridor. Visitors would be welcomed here, probably leaving their coats and a selection of paintings portraying the owner were there to admire, surrounded by stucco. It’s a room made for walking through it, a room of movement. Servants would only answer the door, maybe take the coats and lead visitors into the parlour.

43

House Dedel Atlas

Official Rooms

Hall


44


45

Photos by Architectenbureau Prent Bv Netherlands Sotheby‘s, International Realty


46


47


48


49


50


51


52


53

House Dedel Atlas

Official Rooms

Hall


Parlour

54


55


In the manner of a waiting room, the parlour served as an area to warm up and get comfortable, before guests would be welcomed officially by the owners. Therefore it comes with a fireplace, but doesn’t serve any use other than being one step closer to the living room. Of course marble and decorations are put in place, but the clear focus lies on the double door to the living room.

56

House Dedel Atlas

Official Rooms

Parlour


57


58


59


Living room

60


Following the owners and their visitors, one would enter the more then ten meter long room with a direct view on the windows on the opposite side. Behind these the carefully maintained garden would present itself. A fireplace also cares for the right temperature, the architectural features keep the eye busy. From the asian wallpaper, which back in the days was a clear sign of huge wealth, to the stunning decorated ceiling more then three meters above the peoples heads, to the marble chimney the room already comes with many impressions. The furniture here, which can only be assumed, used to be comfortable, ment to host its users through long evenings. Another entry allows servants to care for fire, curtains and dusting, without interrupting the main walking routs of the owners.

61

House Dedel Atlas

Official Rooms

Living Room


62


63


64


65


66


67


68


69


70


71


72


73


Dining room

74


From crossing the corridor, a direct path leads from the living room through the two winged sliding door into the dining area. The view through the door is lead to the paining on the chimney, daylight will light the room well. The owner is standing already in the middle of the room, probably right in front of a dining table, while servants again use two other entries or exits. Small doors, one hidden behind wallpaper and one seemingly normal — until one realises it’s cut to half the height of the owners doors. Clearly the way of serving the table only uses these two small ways, coming from the basement with food and vanishing behind the secret door into a hidden passage. The time servants need to enter and leave the room is as short as possible.

75

House Dedel Atlas

Official Rooms

Dining Room


76


77

Photos by Architectenbureau Prent Bv Netherlands Sotheby‘s, International Realty


78


79


80


81


82


83


84


85


Corridor 1

86


87


Forming a direct connection between the hallway with the front door and the garden, the corridor passes the staircase as well as two entries to the living room and two to the dining room, being divided by a large double glass door in between. Even though meant to be used by the masters and mistresses as well as the servants, this glass door can provide a barrier between the two classes if need be — e.g. official visits or guests over dinner. Being on of the few areas the owners pass but also have stone floors, it’s also one of the darkest areas of the owners. Stucco still decorates the ceiling.

88

House Dedel Atlas

Official Rooms

Corridor 1


89


90


91


Staircase

92


The center of the decorations in house Dedel is the staircase, richly decorated with one of the most excessive and earliest works of italian stucco in the Netherlands. All in white, fifteen meters high and lit by the light shaft up on the roof it’s the most famous treasure of the house. Next to the artistic woodwork of the staircase railing, there are two little cabinets. They served for storage used by the servants. Here also the bell is placed, allowing the masters and mistresses to ring for assistance if need be. The baroque stucco was established by Jan Hudde Dedel in 1733 to honour his deceased wife who died giving birth. It displays not only her — larger then life — but also their four children, two girls on the on hand and two boys on the other.

93

House Dedel Atlas

Official Rooms

Staircase


94


95

Photos by Architectenbureau Prent Bv Netherlands Sotheby‘s, International Realty


96


97


Corridor 2

98


When moving through Huis Dedel, the corridor on second floor is the first space one enters, which is equipped with a painted floor. Red stars on light ground decorate the wooden panels, while the ceiling is covered in white stucco as the other rooms. It’s a very small area in T-shape, leading to five bedrooms and three servants areas all together. It’s divided by a step, a last one after the stairs, that leads to a storage room, the attic stairs and the master bedroom.

99

House Dedel Atlas

Official Rooms

Corridor 2


100


101


Master Bedroom

102


A highly decorated ceiling and a heavy marble fireplace welcome anybody who enters the master bedroom on the north east of the second floor. Parquet flooring comforts the feet, in difference to floorboards in the other rooms. If the door is closed from the inside, nothing interrupts the decorated wallpaper: Even the entry is covered by it. The windows face the garden and thereby away from the former smell of the canal on the frontside.

103

House Dedel Atlas

Official Rooms

Master Bedroom


104


105

Photos by Architectenbureau Prent Bv Netherlands Sotheby‘s, International Realty


106


107


Bedroom 1

108


It’s the bedroom with the most ways to enter or leave it. First, there’s the main door, located close to the entry to the masters bedroom. Then the door to the nursery and a hidden door to the third servants room. It also offers warmth with a big fireplace and also a view of the garden.

109

House Dedel Atlas

Official Rooms

Bedroom 1


110


111


112


113


Bedroom 2

114


115


Distinctively smaller than the two bedrooms on the back of the building, this room can be entered through three different doors as well. A fireplace provides comfort, and the passage of the third servants room suggests a direct call for assistance was easy. A hidden door also leads to the room next door.

116

House Dedel Atlas

Official Rooms

Bedroom 2


117


118


119


Bedroom 3

120


Located directly above the main entrance, it’s the only room offering a small seating area built in in front of every of the three windows. The interrupted paint on the floor, which otherwise is decorated with stars just like the corridor, suggests there once was a pedestal or some more built in furniture here. A wallpapered door, hidden this way, connects it with the second bedroom. It’s the only bedroom not equipped with its own fireplace and therefore noticeably colder.

121

House Dedel Atlas

Official Rooms

Bedroom 3


122


123

Photos by Architectenbureau Prent Bv Netherlands Sotheby‘s, International Realty


124


125


126


127


Bedroom 4

128


129


The last bedroom can only be reached through one door, just like the masters bedroom. It is located on the south east corner of the building overlooking the canal and also has its own fireplace.

130

House Dedel Atlas

Official Rooms

Bedroom 4


131


132


133


3 Unofficial Rooms

134


135


Basement

136


The servants entry leads the way from the pavement into the basement, an only 1,6m meter high door under the stairs to the owners door, almost unrecognizable from the outside. The basement, being the floor where most servants spent most of their time working, offers the only heated place for servants, the kitchen. Some servants probably lived there, too, but other then that it is not entirely clear how the seperate rooms were used during the centuries, for either storage, accomodation or work. Only the kitchen with the scullery attached is still clearly recognizable as such and the servants entry to the garden, which they of course also took care of.

137

House Dedel Atlas

Unofficial Rooms

Basement


138


139


Servants Room 1

140


Placed between the study and the dining room, the servants room comes with the lowest ceiling in the house — 2,10m, barely above head level. The only thing decorated, if you want, are the shelves, which take up more than a third of the small room. Narrow, dark, low-risen — the adjectives describing the room also display how the space immediately put servants into their place, down the hierarchy. Only to windows, decorated from outside only, bring dim light in.

141

House Dedel Atlas

Unofficial Rooms

Servants Room 1


142


143


144


145


Servants Room 2

146


Located below the stairs to the attic the only servants room with a visible and therefore decorated door can be found. But it lacks even the tiniest bit of decoration on the inside, clearly ment for storage and with no light coming in. The stairs cutting the space right above the heads disappoint what could have been expected from the decorated door an leave the servants to enter with a slight bow of the head yet again.

147

House Dedel Atlas

Unofficial Rooms

Servants Room 2


148


149


Servants Room 3

150


151


Right behind the admirable stucco displaying the early deceased wife of Jan Hudde Dedel in the manner of a ancient Minerva, another servants room is located. Hidden behind wallpapered doors it connects two bedrooms, allowing the servants to quickly move between them. This way they didn’t need to use the masters and mistresses main routes when making the beds or caring for the fires. The room itself shows the wooden backside of the relief and a ladder leads even further up. Similar to the room downstairs, complicated shelfs, one with a semi-dome, are there for storage.

152

House Dedel Atlas

Unofficial Rooms

Servants Room 3


153


Nursery

154


155


A small room attached to one other bedroom, which might have hosted the owners parents at one point, might have served as the nursery. The huge window and the high ceiling as well as the decorated door distinguishes this room from the other servants areas, only the narrowness left as a parallel in spatial attributes. It might have been the room for a servant, always ready to help the elderly living next door, but kept out of sight if not needed.

156

House Dedel Atlas

Unofficial Rooms

Nursery


157


Attic

158


Being the most spacious and light of the servants areas, the attic was used for washing and drying the laundry mostly. As you can see the tiles directly, it could not have been comfortable spending time there during the winter. Nevertheless three separate rooms are included, serving as bedrooms for some of the servants. The water supply for the washing is done by an extra built access to the gutter from the inside — which in the Dutch weather must have been a continuous stream.

159

House Dedel Atlas

Unofficial Rooms

Attic


160


161


162


163


6 Activities

164


165


Seven maids, Black River Falls, Wisconsin, about 1905, Charles Van Schaick, photographer. They demonstrate the tasks of sweeping, scrubbing, making pastry, serving, receiving a visitor‘s card, caring for children, and peeling fruit, but whether they worked for one household of for many is unclear. Courtesy of the State Historical Society of Wisconsing.

166


167

From The Grand Domenstic Revolution by Hayden Dolores


168


169

Nicolaes Maes, The Eavesdropper c. 1657


170 170


171171

Pieter de Hooch, Woman lacing her bodice, c. 1661


172

From The Grand Domenstic Revolution by Hayden Dolores


Caroline Howard, Gilman, The Housekeeper‘s Annual and Lady‘s Register, 1844, frontispiece illustrating the round of tasks in “woman‘s sphere“

173

House Dedel Atlas

Activities


7 Articles

174


175


176


177 177

Wages for Housework Campaign


Spatial Segregation of Reproductive Labour in Residential Buildings

Malte Sonnenschein

178


Preceding Assumption In this essay I will research the parallels in the placement of reproductive labour from the 17th and today. In doing so, I will check my assumption that in terms of visibility and acknowledgement, as well as respect and noticeability, there are many parallels up to these days. How did the spatial as well as the social placement of reproductive labour in residential buildings and in urban landscapes change in Western Europe in the upper classes? In the process, observations of the spatial setting in Huis Dedel, The Hague, will be combined with research of servant’s rights and duties in history. Personal observations of the societal placement of reproductive labour in present days will be supported by the results of further research. There are two major factors that are difficult to leave out: on the one hand the employment status and freedom of servants in the 18th century given Europe’s history in slave trade.1 On the other the ongoing fight for equal rights for women across Europe, with its beginning in the French Revolution in the 18th century, and the situation of women still being tasked with domestic labour more often.2,3

women protesting for payed reproductive labour in the 1970s [Image 1]

Cook, Greg: Were Those Black ‘Servants’ In Dutch Old Master Paintings Actually Slaves? wbur, Jan 15th 2016. on: https://www.wbur.org/artery/2016/01/15/black-servants-old-master-art-slavery, accessed Jan 4th 2021 2 Remy-Hébert, Brigitte: The first women’s movement. FU Berlin, 2011. on: https://www.jfki.fu-berlin.de/academics/SummerSchool/Dateien2011/Papers/ juncker_remy.pdf, accessed Jan 18th 2021 3 Nier, Hedda: So ungleich ist Hausarbeit verteilt. Statista, Mar 8th 2019. on: https://de.statista.com/infografik/15857/verteilung-von-hausarbeit-beimaennern-und-frauen/, accessed Jan 8th 2021 1

179

House Dedel Atlas

Unofficial Articles Rooms

Malte Sonnenschein Spatial Segregation Attic


In dealing with the spatial segregation primarily, both topics can’t be covered to the extend I feel they’d deserve in the discussion about reproductive labour.

Definition of reproductive labour as opposed to productive labour The Oxford Dictionary defines work as an “activity involving mental or physical effort done in order to achieve a purpose or result”.4 It adds right after further information: “Mental or physical activity as a means of earning income; employment.”5 It is very common to call only those activities work or labour that are monetarily remunerated. The reference made by this statement is mainly pointing out productive labour, labour seen as serving the production of goods. On the economical side this part of labour is more important in most countries and employs the bigger part of society. The Federal Agency for Civic Education in Germany describes it as “instrumentally1 bound, purposeful, socially useful planned activity for which mental and physical forces are used in production and service”.6 Opposed to the productive side, the reproductive labour is set. It summarizes activities which are working on creation and preservation of society. It describes domestic work, raising children, caring for the elderly, sick, or physically challenged. Voluntary activities and thereby unpaid work in the social and cultural sector fall within this terminology as well.7 Due to the traditional “gender-hierarchical division of labour within capitalistpatriarchal society”,8 it is predominantly women who do domestic labour.9 These activities are mostly performed privately, in isolation and unpaid. In western Europe many women entered the labour market in the past fifty years. The result is that reproductive activities are continuously marketed.10 Child care, care for the elderly, house cleaning or delivery services are more often paid for,

Lexico: work. on: https://www.lexico.com/definition/work, accessed Jan 7th 2021 ibid. 6 Notz, Gisela: Unbezahlte Arbeit. bpb, Oct 19th 2010. on: https://www.bpb.de/gesellschaft/gender/frauen-in-deutschland/49411/unbezahlte-arbeit, accessed Jan 7th 2021. Trans. Malte Sonnenschein 7 Exploring-Economics-Team: Reproductive Labour and Care. Exploring Economics, 2016. on: https://www.exploring-economics.org/en/discover/reproductive-labour-and-care/, accessed Jan 7th 2021 8 Notz, Gisela: Unbezahlte Arbeit. bpb, Oct 19th 2010. on: https://www.bpb.de/gesellschaft/gender/frauen-in-deutschland/49411/unbezahlte-arbeit, accessed Jan 7th 2021. Trans. Malte Sonnenschein 9 ibid. 10 Exploring-Economics-Team: Reproductive Labour and Care. Exploring Economics, 2016. on: https://www.exploring-economics.org/en/discover/ reproductive-labour-and-care/, accessed Jan 7th 2021 4 5

180

House Dedel Atlas

Articles

Malte Sonnenschein Spatial Segregation


Spatial Segregation in the Past using the Example of Huis Dedel even though they form jobs in the lower income sector. Huis Dedel, built in the 17th century in the city centre of The Hague, was inhabited for several generations not only by the Dedel family, but also by their staff consisting out of up to seven servants.11 The current user, the Design Museum Dedel, claims it is a “city palace” rather than just a residential building.12 In the 17th and 18th century the employment of servants was common for the upper classes in Western Europe and considered a status symbol.13 But in the complex hierarchy of society, direct contact between the servants and the masters and mistresses was to be as limited as possible, with some lower servants not even allowed to look at, let alone speak with their employers.14 In general, the working conditions of servants were harsh, consisting of up to seventeen hour days with little pay and almost no vacation.15 They were housed in the damp and dark places of the house, the attic and the basement, where they also spend most of their time. By keeping the staff out of sight of their employers, a general spatial seggegation of their existence and their work in the house was implemented.

inside of a hidden servants’ room, seeing only the backside of the stucco decorating the masters areas [Image 2] DMD: About Huis Dedel. n.d. on: https://designmuseumdedel.nl/en/huis-dedel/about-huis-dedel/, accessed Jan 7th 2021 DMD: House Rules. n.d. on: https://designmuseumdedel.nl/en/house-rules/, accessed Jan 8th 2021 Cox, Pamela: Servants — The True Story of Life Below Stairs — Knowing Your Place. BBC Two, Sep 28th 2012. on: https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=wqiMASk5MIU&t=66s, accessed Jan 6th 2021 14 ibid. 15 Hill, Bridget: Servants. Encyclopedia of European Social History, 2020. on: https://www.encyclopedia.com/international/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/servants, accessed Jan 6th 2021 11

12

13

181

House Dedel Atlas

Articles

Malte Sonnenschein Spatial Segregation


And “the contrast between the sumptuous, richly decorated master’s areas and the dull-coloured servant’s quarters is stark”, Pamela Cox summarizes for BBC2.16 The attic of Huis Dedel, not only housing servants in three unheated rooms, was the major place for washing and drying the laundry. The uninsulated roof and the Dutch climate provide a cold and damp atmosphere, the only warmth coming up from the fireplaces in the bedrooms right below. The basement, housing further servants, was also unheated, apart from the big kitchen stove delivering some warmth. The damp and cold climate in those areas often caused health issues for the servants.17 Both floors were probably rarely visited by the house’s owners, their only reason would have been to check on their servants or to access the safe at the bottom of the basement stairs. But spatial segregation didn’t only happen by placing the servant’s activities in different floors with their own, low entry from the street: special doorways and secret rooms are provided in the 1st and 2nd floor as well, to make sure servants wouldn’t cross ways with the masters and mistresses and could hide quickly. A phenomenon common across European residential buildings of the aristocracy in that time. Anonymity and invisibility were a big part not only of servants lives,

Servants working in the basement kitchen in 17th century [Image 3]

but also of their activities.18 Servants tasks in the bel-etage or the 2nd floor, where the master bedrooms were 16 Cox, Pamela: Servants — The True Story of Life Below Stairs — Knowing Your Place. BBC Two, Sep 28th 2012. on: https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=wqiMASk5MIU&t=66s, accessed Jan 6th 2021 17 ibid. 18 ibid.

182

House Dedel Atlas

Articles

Malte Sonnenschein Spatial Segregation


located, were to be completed when those were empty. Taking care of dusting and cleaning, lighting the four fireplaces and maintaining the fires just as the lights (consisting of candles first and gas lamps later) were one part. But also changing the linen, polishing the tenant’s shoes and watering the plants were activities best done unseen. There we have an explanation for the long workdays, as those activities not only had to be done completely by hand in those days, Comparing the Scenario of the Past with Present Times but also partly before the masters and mistresses would start their day or after they went to bed. This treatment of reproductive labour partly still is alive. Today, we can look back on a significant development of household appliances and machines as well as societal changes. These have led to household live-in servants becoming a rarity among the upper middle class — yet domestic work still remains something to hide from the public or guests.

delivery service employees waiting outside a fast food chain to pick up their packages [Image 4]

In modern architecture, the invisibility and isolation of reproductive labour still can be seen. The laundry machine will be in the basement, or at least out of the living areas if possible, the cleaning is to be done, when nobody is home. “For example, the functional kitchen of the post-war period in most flats was designed so small that only one person could be in it.”, Katrin Dietrich states in her analysis of patriarchy in architecture.19 A kitchen for one person only simultaneously 183

House Dedel Atlas

Articles

Malte Sonnenschein Spatial Segregation


means no division of labour or visibility for anybody else than the working person — mostly women. The percentage of women entering the job market has significantly changed since designs as the Frankfurt kitchen, made to be perfectly operated by one person only, were developed in 1926.20 Still, most families even today live in a traditional distribution of roles with the women taking care of most reproductive activities and men leaving for work.21 While those leaving for productive work visibly move to another place, meet colleagues there, have architecture built for said purpose, the workplace for reproductive care is mostly the private house, working in solitude and invisible in the city. And it is for the most part unpaid. The built environment is a product of society which reflects social norms and values, it effects how society acts in it — Dietrich concludes: “Architecture can point people to their place.”22 This place being, for those taking care of reproductive labour, hidden in their private homes. Of course we, the inhabitants of industrialised countries, experienced a very fast development in the earlier past, which outsources some services, e.g. cooking, partly to delivery services. This industry doubled in size over the course of only the past five years.23 But still, in the observation of these service providers, the similarity to servants in their Victorian uniforms are obvious: the individual vanishes behind a uniform, only created to reduce the human being wearing it to their job.24 These workers are there to disappear from their clients sight as quickly as possible after delivering — not to say serving them — may it be parcels, groceries or food. If you visit a restaurant employing such services, you will mostly find them waiting outside, while the customer is allowed in, where there is warmth and shelter, as well as seating. The zones of comfort are still there for the Conclusion people in power, while the employees are meant to move quick, unobtrusive and effective. Their protest is still the same: against bad working conditions and long hours with little pay.25 The nature of reproductive labour has changed significantly: It has become less 19 Dietrich, Katrin: Reclaim the City — Männerzentrierte Städte und feministische Architektur. Archiv3, 2012. on: https://www.archiv3.org/volltext_277352. htm, accessed Jan 7th 2021 20 Kühn, Gerd: Wohnkultur und kommunale Wohnungspolitik in Frankfurt am Main 1880-1930. Bonn, 1998. p.147f. Trans. Malte Sonnenschein 21 Notz, Gisela: Unbezahlte Arbeit. bpb, Oct 19th 2010. on: https://www.bpb.de/gesellschaft/gender/frauen-in-deutschland/49411/unbezahlte-arbeit, accessed Jan 7th 2021 22 Dietrich, Katrin: Reclaim the City — Männerzentrierte Städte und feministische Architektur. Archiv3, 2012. on: https://www.archiv3.org/volltext_277352.htm, accessed Jan 7th 2021. Trans. Malte Sonnenschein 23 Singh, Sarwant: The Soon To Be $200B Online Food Delivery Is Rapidly Changing The Global Food Industry. Forbes, Sep 9th 2019. on: https://www. forbes.com/sites/sarwantsingh/2019/09/09/the-soon-to-be-200b-online-food-delivery-is-rapidly-changing-the-global-food-industry/, accessed Jan 8th 2021 24 Cox, Pamela: Servants — The True Story of Life Below Stairs — Knowing Your Place. BBC Two, Sep 28th 2012. on: https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=wqiMASk5MIU&t=66s, accessed Jan 6th 2021 25 Haswell, Julius: Foodora and Deliveroo couriers protest working conditions in Berlin. The Local, May 18th 2017. on: https://www.thelocal.de/20170518/ foodora-and-deliveroo-couriers-protest-working-conditions-in-berlin, accessed Jan 8th 2021

184

House Dedel Atlas

Articles

Malte Sonnenschein Spatial Segregation


physically exhausting due to technical progress and there seemingly is more freedom of choice for the people doing the work, though their spatial placement is still not very visible. The appreciation and acknowledgement of this work grows slowly, but the similarities to a society from three centuries ago are unmistakable. Although modern servants don’t live in unheated rooms without windows anymore and also their workload might be regulated more thoroughly by the law, their situation isn’t great. Nine out of ten cleaners are employed illegally in Germany today, leading to insurance problems, insecurity, misuse of power and inhumane working conditions.26 Similar problems occur down the chain in many service industries, such as delivery workers, couriers and further more.27 Spatially, those workers are still separated, the cleaners come in, when nobody is home or out of working hours in offices. Domestic work is unpayed and doesn’t get acknowledged visibly, even less spatially in society. It remains hidden from the areas of representation and comfort. The treatment of the people serving us food and bringing us supplies is still similar to the little interaction of the past. They are supposed to do their job silent, quick and must not appear too relatable to their employers or even pitiful. The similarities to the situation of the servants in the 17th century are obvious. What used to be the bell to ring servants is now an app. The beds are still made, and clothes washed daily for a bigger part of society, mostly men, without them contributing to it.

Davis, Austin; Walther, Tessa: Housekeeping in Germany: You clean up my mess and I pay you for it! DW, Aug 10th 2019. on: https://www.dw.com/en/ illegal-cleaners-germany-struggle-work/a-49908013, accessed Jan 18th 2021 27 DPA: Lieferdienst-Fahrer demonstrieren für bessere Bezahlung. SpiegelOnline, Aug 22nd 2020. on: https://www.spiegel.de/wirtschaft/unternehmen/ lieferando-foodora-lieferdienst-fahrer-demonstrieren-fuer-bessere-bezahlung-a-1283124.html, accessed Jan 18th 2021 26

185

House Dedel Atlas

Articles

Malte Sonnenschein Spatial Segregation


Sources Remy-Hébert, Brigitte: The first women’s movement. FU Berlin, 2011. on: https://www.jfki.fu-berlin.de/academics/SummerSchool/Dateien2011/Papers/juncker_remy.pdf, accessed Jan 18th 2021 Cook, Greg: Were Those Black ‘Servants’ In Dutch Old Master Paintings Actually Slaves? wbur, Jan 15th 2016. on: https://www.wbur.org/artery/2016/01/15/black-servants-old-master-art-slavery, accessed Jan 4th 2021 Cox, Pamela: Servants — The True Story of Life Below Stairs — Knowing Your Place. BBC Two, Sep 28th 2012. on: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wqiMASk5MIU&t=66s, accessed Jan 6th 2021 Davis, Austin; Walther, Tessa: Housekeeping in Germany: You clean up my mess and I pay you for it! DW, Aug 10th 2019. on: https://www.dw.com/en/illegal-cleaners-germany-struggle-work/a-49908013, accessed Jan 18th 2021 Dietrich, Katrin: Reclaim the City — Männerzentrierte Städte und feministische Architektur. Archiv3, 2012. on: https://www.archiv3.org/volltext_277352.htm, accessed Jan 7th 2021 Design Museum Dedel: About Huis Dedel. n.d. on: https://designmuseumdedel.nl/en/huis-dedel/about-huis-dedel/, accessed Jan 7th 2021 House Rules. n.d. on: https://designmuseumdedel.nl/en/house-rules/, accessed Jan 8th 2021 DPA: Lieferdienst-Fahrer demonstrieren für bessere Bezahlung. SpiegelOnline, Aug 22nd 2020. on: https://www.spiegel.de/wirtschaft/unternehmen/lieferando-foodora-lieferdienst-fahrer-demonstrieren-fuer-bessere-bezahlung-a-1283124.html, accessed Jan 18th 2021 Exploring-Economics-Team: Reproductive Labour and Care. Exploring Economics, 2016. on: https://www.exploring-economics.org/en/discover/reproductive-labour-and-care/, accessed Jan 7th 2021 Haswell, Julius: Foodora and Deliveroo couriers protest working conditions in Berlin. The Local, May 18th 2017. on: https://www.thelocal.de/20170518/foodora-and-deliveroo-couriers-protest-working-conditions-in-berlin, accessed Jan 8th 2021 Hill, Bridget: Servants. Encyclopedia of European Social History, 2020. on: https://www.encyclopedia.com/international/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/servants, accessed Jan 6th 2021 Kühn, Gerd: Wohnkultur und kommunale Wohnungspolitik in Frankfurt am Main 1880-1930. Bonn, 1998. p.147f. Lexico: work. on: https://www.lexico.com/definition/work, accessed Jan 7th 2021 Nier, Hedda: So ungleich ist Hausarbeit verteilt. Statista, Mar 8th 2019. on: https://de.statista.com/infografik/15857/verteilung-von-hausarbeit-bei-maennern-und-frauen/, accessed Jan 8th 2021 Notz, Gisela: 186 House Dedel Atlas

Articles

Malte Sonnenschein Spatial Segregation


Unbezahlte Arbeit. bpb, Oct 19th 2010. on: https://www.bpb.de/gesellschaft/gender/frauen-in-deutschland/49411/unbezahlte-arbeit, accessed Jan 7th 2021. Singh, Sarwant: The Soon To Be $200B Online Food Delivery Is Rapidly Changing The Global Food Industry. Forbes, Sep 9th 2019. on: https://www.forbes.com/sites/sarwantsingh/2019/09/09/the-soon-to-be-200b-online-food-delivery-israpidly-changing-the-global-food-industry/, accessed Jan 8th 2021 Image 1 https://www.peoplespolicyproject.org/2020/10/19/the-earned-income-tax-credit-is-racist/, accessed Jan 8th 2021 Image 1 https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/07/27/lebanon-abolish-kafala-sponsorship-system Image 2 © Caterina Tioli, Dec 2020 Image 3 https://world4.eu/tag/traditional-dutch-costumes/, accessed Jan 8th 2021 Image 4 https://cdn.prod.www.manager-magazin.de/images/489981ad-596b-4f54-85b3-7cd97ed225f0_w718_ r1.5053254437869823_fpx41.83_fpy48.88.jpg, accessed Jan 8th 2021

187

House Dedel Atlas

Articles

Malte Sonnenschein Spatial Segregation


188


189

International Feminist Collective, Rome in 1975. Tano d’Amico


Hi Mom An intimate view on a universal topic: domestic workers.

Caterina Tioli

190


“Hi Mom, I want to talk with you about reproductive labor”. My mother, on the other side of the screen looks at me disoriented and asks me somewhat embarrassed: “What is reproductive labor?”. “Reproductive labor” is defined as work “often associated with care giving and domestic housework roles including cleaning, cooking, child care, and the unpaid domestic labor force”.1 Coined by Margaret Benston and Peggy Morton, two Marxist feminists, the concept of reproductive labor stresses the attention on a clear division between productive and unproductive labor.2 “These theories specify that, while productive labor results in goods or services that have monetary value in the capitalist system and are thus compensated by the producers in the form of a paid wage, reproductive labor is associated with the private sphere and involves anything that people have to do for themselves that is not for receiving a wage.”3 The question my mother asks, doesn’t come to me with complete surprise, looking introspectively into my familiarity with the topic. However, what does surprise me is that the most influential reproductive labor movements was the “International Wages for Housework Campaign”. It was an organisation launched in Italy in 1972 by members of the International Feminist Collective, such as Selma James, Mariarosa Dalla Costa, Brigitte Galtier and Silvia Federici.4 Holding our phones, my mother and I look at each other astonished. It was hard to imagine that 50 years ago questions and discussions were already arising, in a country where today families are often built around the figure of men as patriarchs.5 There is one main question that persist during the entire call with my mother and it helps us to reflect: “Who performed domestic work in the past and who performs domestic work today in our family?” According to Wikipedia, “A domestic worker is a person who works within the scope of a residence. […] Domestic workers perform a variety of household services for an individual(s), from providing cleaning and household maintenance, or cooking, laundry and ironing, or care for children and elderly 1 Definition of reproductive labor by Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reproductive_labor 2 Definition of Marxist feminism by Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marxist_feminism 3 Definition of productive and unproductive labor by Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Productive_and_unproductive_labour 4 Italian feminism, workerism and autonomy in the 1970s, by Patrick Cuninghame https://journals.openedition.org/amnis/575?lang=en 5 Reflection on the documentary Comizi d’Amore directed by Pier Paolo Pasolini. Set in 1964, , “microphone in hand, Pier Paolo Pasolini asks Italians to talk about sex: he asks children where babies come from, young and old women if they are men’s equals, men and women if a woman’s virginity matters, how they view homosexuals, how sex and honor connect, if divorce should be legal, and if they support closing the brothels”. https://www. imdb.com/title/tt0057960/

191

House Dedel Atlas

Articles

Caterina Tioli Hi Mom


192


193

Downstairs at Downton Abbey


dependents, and other household errands.”6 The description is followed by a list of 41 positions, and within that list I recognise some which I am very familiar with: babysitter, cleaner, cook, nanny. Another question arises immediately, but I keep it intimately to myself: has my mother been the main domestic worker in my family for the past 24 years?7 If I go back 400 years, domestic workers are perpetually present in every movie and every novel I have watched and read.8 It is clear scene after scene, chapter after chapter, that for a large period of time - from the sixteenth to the early twentieth century – the “servants”, domestic workers of the past, are essential figures within domestic spaces. Not only when it comes to domestic duties - all the hard work for the house was done and commissioned to them, from cooking, to cleaning, to taking care of the children; but they also, and especially, become imperative when it comes to show the status of a family: the number of servants would immediately present the level of class. Every family, middle class to upper class, would have, at least a few, added members to the house: such as maids, cooks, waiters, valets, butlers, laundresses, gardeners, gatekeepers, stablelads, chauffeurs, caretakers, governesses, babysitters, tutors, secretaries, just to name a few. Servants constituted a whole family within a family, and had a clear hierarchy within their system.9 But what happens a few centuries later, or in underprivileged families, when the servants are not present, who takes over their role? I understand now that the conversation should be more intimate and more reflective, for such a broad and important topic that goes back generations. I look at my mother and announce what’s coming next: “I think we should talk about roles and activities within domestic spaces throughout generations. Explain to me what it was like in your family.” She nods with her head, and starts to explain. In my mom’s grandparents generations, which was at the end of 1800 and 6 Definition of domestic worker by Wikipedia + today’s facts: “While the domestic work industry was once believed to be an industry that belonged to a past type of society and did not belong in a modern world, trends are showing that although elements of the domestic work industry have been changing the industry itself has shown no signs of fading away, but only signs of transformation. There are several specific causes that are credited to continuing the cycle of the demand for domestic work. One of these causes is that with more women taking up full-time jobs, a dually employed household with children places a heavy burden on parents. It is argued however that this burden wouldn’t result in the demand for outside domestic work if men and women were providing equal levels of effort in domestic work and child-rearing within their own home.” https://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Domestic_worker 7 According to Eurostat, in Italy women participation in household and family care is 95.4%, against 69.7% for men. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ statistics-explained/index.php?title=How_do_women_and_men_use_their_time_-_statistics&oldid=463738 8 The girl with the pearl earring, a movie from 2003 by Peter Webber, fantasise for us on the identity of the young girl behind the homonymous famous painting by Johannes Vermeer realised in the 17th century. Essentials also when it comes to creativity?. https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0335119/ Pride and Prejudice, a novel by Jane Austen set in England in 1812, even if the level of the class isn’t high, the servants are always present in the back of the movie. They are necessary roles in those times. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pride_and_Prejudice 9 Servants reality narrated from the past. https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-19544309#:~:text=In%20the%20Victorian%20era%20it,the%20 maid%20of%20all%20work

194

House Dedel Atlas

Articles

Caterina Tioli Hi Mom


195

Family memory pictures. Portraited from left to right: my mother’s mother, my mother’s grandmother


beginning of 1900, she explains during our call - she noticed two very different realities. On the side of her father, she saw a very traditional country family: seven siblings, the only member with a salary was the father, while the mother had the main role of taking care of the children. She would always see her - my mom remembers with a subtle smile - mending with her sewing machine, taking care of the animals or the garden. “She clearly never had any help, she literally dedicated her life exclusively to the house, which included: taking care of the children, taking care of the kitchen, taking care of the garden, taking care of the clothes, etc.” - says my mom with no doubts on her face, and transferring a bit of discontent on mine. “The one having authority over the house was definitely her” - she continues with a laugh. “She was the one with a crucial, meaningful and necessary role; the one that would take care not only of the emotional aspects - which I doubt there was space for - but also, and especially, she would take care of directing the domestic daily life, which included also power over her husband, at least in the domestic context.” On the other side, the side of her mother, the situation was very different. Her grandmother had the luxury to be the youngest and the only - within nine sibling - to obtain a diploma. Eventually, she had the possibility to work and become a teacher and so she had to delegate those domestic duties to “help figures” - as she calls them. “Her situation appeared to be - my mom continues - an exceptional situation for the beginning of 1900.” But even if both of them, my mother’s grandfather and grandmother, would take home a salary, there was definitely no parity in the roles: it was clear in that house that the male figure had the role of governing: he would tell you how to behave, which decisions to make, etc. but “he definitely never even brought the salt to the table”, clearly states my mother. There is an entangled reflection starting already in the back of my head, where I compare generations and question myself what has changed and what hasn’t. But before I jump to any conclusion, I want my mother to continue her story and continue to the next generation, the one she experienced herself: her mother and her father. “Your grandparents lived in the middle of a very important period: 1968. So, even if I personally think my parents never reached an equal balance, they at least discussed about the formulation of the roles they had in the family”. Both my grandparents worked and since their first years together they had 196

House Dedel Atlas

Articles

Caterina Tioli Hi Mom


197

Family memory pictures. Portraited from left to right: my mother, my mother’s mother, my mother’s uncles


Floorplan of my parent’s house. Room C# was the room dedicated to my father’s studio, with its own entrance to not be disturbed.

198


a constant help in the house - a fourteen year old young girl, coming from the country side of Vicenza, that would live at home in her private room. My grandfather would also have a room assigned for him, as my mother names it “the space for the man”, that kept on existing even once my grandfather retired. Without a personal space, ultimately, my grandmother was still the one in charge of mainly everything, from the organisational to the emotional aspects of the house. My mother concludes, and I see there is a first taste of a bitterness in her mouth: “There was no parity in the roles of our household. They lived following those models coming from the fact that a man would never carry out domestic duties. And for my dad this was very strong: his role model was his father and his father could not stay in the kitchen; my father would have to fight against a stereotype that would have made him appear weak and non-“masculine”.” My parents is the next generation in line, which gives me the opportunity to confront myself with some events that took place in my life, and analyse the role that my parents had in a generation that comes 100 years later. Being both architects, my parents chose different paths. My father became an actual architect, working in a studio from 9:00 a.m. till 7:30 p.m., and my mother became an art history teacher and took the decision to step down from her carrier and limit the time at work in order to focus more at home. The division of the space in our house adopted the same path of my parents careers: my father assigned himself a room, which then became his studio to use during those extra hours of work at home; my mother, on the contrary, would spend her evenings correcting homework from students laying in bed, as she recalls in her memories. Today, my mother owns a two meters desk, and she is proud of it. When I confront my mom with this fact, she realises that there was never even a discussion with my father about their carriers decisions. She understands that now this matter probably requires at least a thought. My parents eventually divorced when I was 4, because as my mother stated “we were used to share literally everything, and not sharing our children is probably what mostly caused an end to our marriage”. Suddenly, at the age of 38 my father learnt to cook, something my mother would always do for him. My father my mother repeats it over and over during our call - would do different things in the house, on weekends when absent from his work; but during the week his first duty was to have a job and excel in that, as his father had taught him. What I like about my generation is that at least we are questioning roles in domestic spaces. We are inquiring the idea of equal gender, provoking thoughts which my mother, born in 1964 - only 56 years ago - that never even came to her. 199

House Dedel Atlas

Articles

Caterina Tioli Hi Mom


Culturally and socially intrinsic in our minds, roles are clearly stated when it comes to family issues. Is it maybe time today, in the flourishing year of 2021, to reconsider those traditional domestic roles? I believe the conversation has already started, if I look around my peers.10 One last time, on the other side of the screen, my mother looks at time with affection and says: “There is one thing that screws us as women: motherhood, right? It’s an instinct that we have, the one of caring and looking after someone. And being a mother is the one thing on top of all that I would never trade with anything else.” I look at her with a gentle smile, because as a woman I understand she is right, that will never change.

10 Differently from what stated in my essay: “With 67.9 out of 100 points, the EU has a long way to go before reaching gender equality. The Gender Equality Index score has increased by only 4.1 points since 2010 and 0.5 points since 2017. At this pace of progress – 1 point every 2 years – it will take more than 60 years to achieve gender equality in the EU. We need to speed up.” Maybe I’m just being more positive? https://eige.europa.eu/publications/gender-equality-index-2020-key-findings-eu

200

House Dedel Atlas

Articles

Caterina Tioli Hi Mom


201

Family memory pictures. Portraited from top to bottom: myself, my sister, my mother


Sources

Cuninghame, Patrick: Italian feminism, workerism and autonomy in the 1970s. on: https://journals.openedition. org/amnis/575?lang=en

EIGE: Gender Equality Index 2020 — Key findings for the EU. Oct 28th 2020. on: https://eige.europa.eu/ publications/gender-equality-index-2020-key-findings-eu

Eurostat: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=How_do_women_and_men_use_ their_time_-_statistics&oldid=463738

IMDB: The Girl with the Pearl Earring. on: https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0335119/

Rasolini, Paolo: Reflection on the documentary Comizi d’Amore. 1964. on: https:// www.imdb.com/title/tt0057960/

Wallis, Lucy: Servants — A life below stairs. 2012. on: https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-19544309#:~:text=In%20 the%20Victorian%20era%20it,the%20maid%20of%20all%20work

Wikipedia: Definition of Domestic Worker. on: https://en.wiki- pedia.org/wiki/Domestic_worker

Wikipedia: Definition of Marxist Feminism. on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marxist_feminism

Wikipedia: Definition of Reproductive Labour. on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reproductive_labor

Wikipedia: Definition of Unproductive Labour. on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Productive_and_ unproductive_labour

Wikipedia: Pride and Prejudice. on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pride_and_Prejudice

202

House Dedel Atlas

Articles

Caterina Tioli Hi Mom


203

House Dedel Atlas

Articles

Caterina Tioli Hi Mom


204


205


206


207




Issuu converts static files into: digital portfolios, online yearbooks, online catalogs, digital photo albums and more. Sign up and create your flipbook.