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Twine Carapace Wai Yan Cassandra TOM

767899 James + Group 5





CONTENT 0.0 Introduction


1.0 Ideation


2.0 Design


3.0 Fabrication


4.0 Reflection


5.0 Appendex




0.0 Introduction Design Brief

To design a sleep ‘pod’ for 1 person that explore the idea of personl space. It has to create a 3 dimensional volume that will explore explore, measure, and/or negotiage the boundary of personal space.


The concept of our design is an abstraction of the folding/unfolding system of paper fan. Through the unfoldable system of the sleeping pod, in creating a volume that provide sufficent personal space for the person to feel comfortable in the sleeping pod.





1.1 OBJECT MEASURING METHODOLOGY Different elevations of the fan are scanned and printed out in the original size for actual tracing.





As the size of the object is relatively small, ruler is used to measure exact dimensions.


1.2 ANALYSIS 530mm

MECHANISM The fan forms a folding/unfolding system along the pivot point. It can be unfolded on both ends, however the mechanism of the fan has restricted the unfolding direction be anticlockwise only.

26 °


STRUCTURE DETAILS The fan consist of a curved paper section, 24 inner wooden blades and 2 wooden outter blades. The curved paper is folded into 53 quadrilateral equal parts, combinating with the 24 inner blades and sandwiched by 2 outter blades, connected by a plastic pin at the bottom end of the blades, acting as the pivot of the system.

Inner Blade

Outter Blade






PROCESS An image of the elevation of the fan is put into rhino for trace over of the shape of the blades. Pattern of holes in the inner blades is then trimmed off, and the blades are then arrayed and rotate into position. Lastly, use SrfPt to create the paper SrfPt between blades.



The paper fan is a flat object without volume on its own. Yet, through exploring the folding/unfolding system of the fan, differentiation of folding methods of the same flat sheet gave out different forms of volume. Hence, instead of targeting one, I have created multiple sketch models in experimenting with the notion of space, the transformation of a 2 dimensional plane to a 3 dimensional space through the folding of repeating panels. The start off of the model is based on the folding system of the paper component of the original model, and experimented on the folding direction from free-flow to linear, forming different shapes and volume. Then I tried combining multiple folded strips together to create larger volumes. The final sketch model on the left, is joined together 3 sets paper strips of same folding system, but of different sizes, creating a proportionally graduate increase of volume.



Sketch Design 2

Supportive base The helmet can be shortened and stretched.

The idea of the design is to create personal space that isolate the person from the crowd. The helmet is stretchable along the vertical axis, allowing user to decide the amount of coverage from the head down half way through the body. The stretchable helmet is able to be compressed/ unfolded into a small flat piece when unused, such that it is easily carried out for use in public.

Layers can be folded into a rectangle.


The shell-like space is connecting repetitive blades forming a folding system that tailor for the sleeping position of leaning on the table. Personal space can be increased through stretching the folding panels further apart to the back. The area in which the person is leaning on also the supportive base of the sleeping pod to stand on the edge of the table.


Top view Diffrientation of spacing of the folding strips


Siting position

The design is a closed loop of stretchable folding panels, which utilize the spacings between the folds to create different degrees of support to the person in a relaxed position. Personal space can also be adjusted through altering the shape. The diagram above shows the degree of support needed for supporting a person lying down. As more support is needed at the back, spacing between folds is adjusted to be closer to give more support.

Shield is flexible in the extend of coverage to the user.

Laying position


M1 REFLECTION A paper fan, as simplistic as it looks, is not a great challenge to do the measured drawings. I have tried several attempts on different measuring methods such as scanning, photographing and ruler measuring to ensure drawings accuracy, as working on multiple methods would achieve a higher level of accuracy (Heath et al., 2000). What I found more important in this module is the process of conducting the measured drawing. According to Cheng (2008), the process of making measured drawings of the object helps understanding the process of designing that object. Such that though the process measuring and analyzing the fan, it gets me to develop ideation of personal space with the principle of the mechanism of paper fan. Hence, leading to the use of folding/unfolding system my sketch designs as the core concept.




2.1 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION Our sleeping pod aimed to provide a sufficient personal space for a person to sleep/power nap under circumstances in public, we started off a personal space mapping to study the common sleeping positions, which include sitting on a chair, lying on to the table and standing.

In 1.0 Ideation, both of our sketch designs incorporated the folding/ unfolding system of paper fan, hence we commit to further explore on this potential, targeting specifically at the transition between a compressed object into an expanded space for users. We combined our previous sketches and came up with the concept of forming a folding/ unfolding system that fans out from the back to front in creating an isolated space for the person.


(Ye, 2016)





Our first design is based on the refined sketch model that we tested out on connecting and fanning out of panels. It forms like a helmet head piece that could provide coverage of the head and some parts of the upper body. In response to our personal space mapping earlier, which certain parts such as the head and chest areas have a greater intimate space, the panels are growing in size from back to front in providing larger room in the front in order to make users feel more secure and safe. As gaps form in between panels, an external connection is needed to link panels into a continuous piece. Hence, a pivoting point came to essential in our design, and we need a support that connects the body and the pivot of the panels.



In our further exploration of the connection at the pivoting point, we developed a bone structure that forms as a continuous loop in growing size, and created a preliminary model with paper. We have tested out with stiffer materials, yet it is hard to unfold at the edges, such that we may further modify that edge of the pivot to allow a smooth flow in folding/unfolding.





Integrating the folding/unfolding system of panels and the continuous bone structure that we have developed, it is formulating this second design proposal. The shape reminds similar as previous, with the bone structure, inserted in between the gaps of the panel, forming an entirely concealed space. As we think that the volume creating through the head piece is created has a limited volume in creating sufficient personal space, we consider enlarging the head piece into a shell that could cover two thrid the body.


2.3 PRECEDENT RESEARCH 1 + DESIGN PROPOSAL V.2 The use of origami folds in creating volume in the VEASYBLE project inspired us to develop folding techniques integrate with the bone structure such that our design could be fully compressed flat. We have then research and experiment on origami folds, investigating in the different types of folds and the effect it creates.

VEASYBLE created by GAIA





After a series of testing on folding techniques, we came across to the Miura Ori Pattern (Herringbone Pattern), the main creases describe a zig zag line. The fold is conducted of repetition of reverse folds, a very large piece of paper can be compressed to a tiny piece using this fold. We then tested out in rhino forming a similar pattern by drawing polygons, offset faces to fit inside each arch, such that it fits the shape of our bone structure. In exploration our design development with the preceding concept of a continuous piece of self-supportive origami folds, we start considering selfsupportiveness of our design, in the way how we could potentially attach to the body. we created straps that can be worn on like a backpack, easy to carry around and also helps the sleeping pod design to stay in place when it’s unfolded over the head. Yet the limitations in the shape of origami folds would be hard to develop on exploring personal space along the horizontal axis, hence it leads us to further research on other precedents.


2.4 PRECEDENT RESEARCH 2 + DESIGN PROPOSAL V.3 These precedents showcase the effects lines create in a large scale, the boldness and irregularity of the horizontal line like planes forms a face on the facade. The gradient effects of lines show a potential on visualizing our exploration on the degree of privacy along the horizontal axis.

William Barak Aprartment Tower by Ashton Raggat McDougall

We find out that light and shadow affects a person’s sensation in perceiving the degree of privacy and security, hence it has led us to further explore on the user’s experience in our sleeping pod in terms of vision impact, and formulating atmosphere that integrates with the need of privacy and security for users sleeping in the design. We then tested with different types of strings on the coverage and patterning of the light and shadow. It results that stings of thickness 1-2mm works best in providing the vision block and formulate a lining pattern. In Design Proposal V.3, we have made use of different spacing between strings to create the gradient effect relation with the sense of security and privacy need to feel comfortable in the space.





Through testing in rhino, we found that the gradient effect is more visible and works better with larger volume, hence we go for the previous consideration of enlarging our design volume. As to this stage of development, with our previous sketch models with strings, paper is way too floppy to provide support and weight to stretch the strings in tension. Hence we will be looking for stiffer materials, such as boxboard or Medium Density Fiberboard to work with prototyping and fabrication. And in addressing the support to the huge size and weight created in the development of greater volume, we found out that it is too heavy and uncomfortable by user in a relaxed mode, hence we try to work on making it self-supporting. Hence, we are looking into creating a support by clinging our sleeping pod onto the back of a chair, and make use of gravity to counter balance the cantilevered part.

hook-like connection



We have produced 2 prototypes from the bone structure using different materials, boxboard and 3mm MDF. It results that MDF is more stiff and stable, whereas boxboard slightly buckled. Hence we continued to work on the gradient effect of strings using the MDF prototype.




As for the connection of the pivoting point, since MFD is too strong to be folded, we break them down into arches and connect them through using the rings/ spiraling wire, such that it allows the rotation in the pivot for folding/ unfolding.


M2 REFLECTION Reduction is about the use of optimal way to transport information, through rewriting the description without altering the content (Scheurer, 2011). In the process of our design, development moving from origami folds to strings, we have been actually putting this theory into practice. To a large extent, the reason that we decided to move on from developing origami folds to strings, is because we thought that the repetitiveness of origami folds limited our exploration in visualizing the personal space in 3 dimensions. The use of origami folds seems not as concise in representing our concept of interpreting personal space. Hence, we have then conducted another set of precedent research to redevelop our initial concept. Throughout the design proposal development in this modular, we have been focusing on developing the volume in exploring and visualizing personal space 3 dimensionally, yet putting less concerns on how we are to make it supportive, which the brief ideation on constructing the design we have developed has brought us to a greater challenge in fabrication in our next modular. Throughout the design proposal development in this module, we have been focusing on developing the volume in exploring and visualizing personal space 3 dimensionally, yet putting less concern on how we are making it supportive, which the brief ideation on constructing the design we have developed has brought us to a greater challenge in fabrication in our next modular.




3.1 FABRICATION INTRODUCTION Through the prototyping in 2.0 Design, we continue using 3mm MDF for its stiffness and stability, in the fabrication of the bone structure of the volumetric sleeping pod. Yet, in addressing the concept of self-supporting and the folding & compressing, there is a list of issues to cover: 1. Self Supportiveness To determine where and how the sleeping pod to be support onto for folding/unfolding. 2. The pivoting point Other than wire spiral, could there be a cleaner finish using rings, clips or tubes. 4. Tension To ensure the strings remain in tension after its been unfolded 5. Shape of the panels Prefer smooth edge to sharp edges in giveing a better finish on the overall look.




As to create it stably self supportive, we specify targeted a type of chair from MSD 3rd Floor to fit in our sleeping pod, tailormade for its dimension. So we started off to create a rhino version of the chair to test out how our design could cling on the chair such that it can stand without a bulky support.


The principle of how the support works are making use of the back of the chair as a pivoting point, which the weight of the pod in the front is to be counterbalanced by a J-hook stretched down to the bottom front of the chair.


3.2 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT + FABRICATION OF PROTOTYPE V.2 The sleeping pod would cover below the knees when it is entirely unfolded. In applying the gradient effect with the use of strings in the design, the front where user’s eyesight lands has the most coverage (mostly strings) to create privacy and isolation. As the bone structure is way too large to be laser cut, we have broken down the bone into smaller puzzles, and make use of curve edged joints to maximize the contact surface for gluing. We used PVA glue as it works as a hard contact glue on MDF. Yet, it takes a while to dry, so we used temporary clips to hold the joints in position.

Largest loop thicken twice the original width for stablility.

Rhino capture of all the puzzle pieces of modified 9 panels.


After fabricating the largest panel, the portion of the panel is relatively thinner than the smaller loops, which makes it make buckle when holding the two ends and broke off easily. Hence, we have to thicken the width of the largest panel to achieve stability.


3mm Ribbon

1mm Inelastic string

Further from 2.0 Design, we continue to test out on different types of strings to work on the gradient effect. Limitations on color (Black, as it gives the best vision block), thickness (our desirable thickness of 1-2mm diameter and initial trimming of 3mm holes in the bone structure), and materiality (the elasticity and strength of the string being stretched and pull), we worked out the best with use of yarn.

1mm Elastic band

1mm Yarn


3.3 DESIGN DEVELOPMENT + FABRICATION OF PROTOTYPE V.3 In 2.0 Design, the pivoting edge of the bone structure were initially connected by using wire to spiral over, however as it gave a rough finish, we looked for varies sizes rings to substitute the wire spiral. We begin trying with smaller rings (12mm diameter), but when the panels fan out, the mouth of rings tear apart, so we worked on several larger ones.

12mm diamter ring, sprayed black

17mm double loop ring splited

12mm diameter ring

19mm single ring


For the various ring sizes that we looked up are basically metal rings, such that we have tried to spray them black in coherent with our design. Yet, the finish is again rough, and the paint peels off easily on the smooth surface of metal rings, hence we decided to remain the original look of the metal rings instead.

3.4 FINAL PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT + OPTIMISATION As we have fabricated all the elements and fanned out the 9 panels, it has made us realize the limitation on the extent of support the pivoting area can reach. The sleeping pod was very unstable and fragile when it’s unfolded. The smallest panel was under great tension and close to buckling. Thus we reduced the largest panels to make the sleeping pod workable. In relation to strengthening the panels, especially in the puzzle joint areas, we created reinforcement strips that attach along the inner edges of panels. Closely against the unstable areas which reduces the chance of them cracking and falling apart. The strip is 9mm in height, slowly decreasing to 5mm at the end, as this it is less visible from view.

Inner strip attached onto the panel



To ensure the sleeping pod stands on the chair stably, we thicken and trimmed off the base panel to interlock with the chair. Several attempts were made to achieve the exact dimension for the curvature of the back of the chair. J hook is also created to fit exactly on the edge of the footrest.


3.4 FINAL PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT + OPTIMISATION The support system of the sleeping pod consist of 3 components: the J hook, the interlocking panel, and the vertical clip holder. J hooks and trimming of base panel are cut into the exact dimensions for fitting into the chair, whereas the vertical clip added as an extra support to secure the interlocking panel onto the chair. It locks the panel against the back of the chair, preventing the sleeping pod falling to one side due to imbalance. J hook is attached to the back of base panel with an elastic band stretched in great tension in balancing the weight of the cantilevered part. The opening of the vertical clip holder is designed in curve shape such that it is more bearable to pressure and notbreak/crack easily.



The original color of the MDF is in yellow tone with brown burn marks around the areas being laser cut, the puzzle joints of the two areas and burn marks are way too visible. Thus we painted it black as a coverage to small flaws, as well as creating a unified look. Prior to that, we had glued the puzzle pieces of panels, hooks & vertical holder together with PVA glue and let it sit overnight. Sanding the glued areas further enhances the smooth finish . Joints are still visible when examined very closely.

Preview of design model in MDF painted black in Rhino.

The drying of one side takes 2 hours+, thus it took over 5 hours to finish both sides of the panels. The sanding and painting process was repeated for touch ups in imperfect areas. To avoid the time consuming process in priming the panels, we used a self-primed acrylic paint to roll over the surfaces of the panels. Using a roller creates an even coat of paint on each layer, which creates a smooth finish.


Preview of design model in MDF without paint in Rhino.










3.6 ASSEMBLY DRAWING Strings Arcylic Yarn (Black)

Folding Panels 3mm MDF (Black Self-primed Acrylic Paint Finishes) x7

Interlocking Base Panel 3mm MDF (Black Self-primed Acrylic Paint Finishes) x5

Reinforced Inner Supportive Strips 3mm MDF (Black Self-primed Acrylic Paint Finishes) x6 Ring Connection 1.9mm diameter Metal Ring x36 Veritical Clip Holder 3mm MDF (Black Self-primed Acrylic Paint Finishes) x4 Chair MSD 3rd Floor High Table Chair Tension Connection 12mm Flat Black Elastic Band x2

J Hook 3mm MDF (Black Self-primed Acrylic Paint Finishes) x2



Step.1 Laser cut the required pieces.

Step. 2 Glue the puzzle pieces Step. 3 Let the glue dry and use Step. 4 Test on the fitting on the chair. together after separating them from temporary clips to stabilize them. the board.

Step. 5 Sand the glued areas.

Step. 6 Paint over the panels using Step. 7 Paint over the secondary Step. 8 Break the split rings into roller. elements. singular pieces.



Step. 9 Tie strings to stretch out to Step. 10 Sew strings through all the Step. 11 Lock rings into pivoting holes. Step. 12 Glue the seat interlocking sleeping pod. holes in each panel element with the smallest panel and attaching the elastic on the hook with itself.

Step. 13 Stabilize panels using vertical Step. 14 Testing the sleeping pod Step. 15 Pull and tighten strings, and Step. 16 Set up the sleeping pod onto onto the chair to make sure it can be snipping off the excess. the chair. holders while the glue sets. stable.





Motion of unfolding panels


M3 REFLECTION Our fabrication process starts off as a two dimensional fabrication (Iwamoto, 1969), which then became more on human manipulation as the later fabrication stages. The use of CAD has been useful throughout the design process and some important stages of our fabrication. The fabrication of our sleeping pod could basically split into 3 parts, cutting of panels and supports, gluing and applying finishes, and string installation. Even though two third of our fabrication process is outside control of digitalization, yet the part that being control by digital technology has set up the foundation in uncertainties elimination, driving to our success in the fabrication process. Through using 3D computerized model, it gave us the preview the effects of the prototype before actual producing it, and the use of laser cutting greatly reduced uncertainties and worries about the preciseness for the interlocking parts of the support and trim holes for the gradient effect of our design. It allows us to have control on the accuracy of the dimensions of the panels, as well as cutting materials (in our case MDF) that is quite stiff to cut through precisely if hand cutting instead. The utilization of CAD has been especially helpful in our modifications during the prototyping of the interlocking trimming of the base panel. We have been prototyping that specific part for fours times after fine adjustments again and again. It would be much harder if we were to do the fine modification without all these digital technologies and became more time consuming in fabrication.





M4 reflection Digital Design and Fabrication has been an intensity studio with fast moving pace from conceptual ideation till completion of fabrication, which required an enormous amount of time effort and contribution consistently throughout the semester. The subject does not merely give me an introduction on fabrication process, with the amount of workload and pace of moving from one stage to another, it has unexpectedly trained me on getting used to utilize the digitalization tools throughout the fabrication process. I find the physical prototyping process the most interesting part of the subject and most challenging at the same time. Utilization of digital technology such as preciseness in rhino digital model and accuracy in use laser cut has helped us to eliminate some uncertainties. Yet, owing to our initial design of using strings, there is a limited scope that we could do digitally to control the uncertainties in the installation process, hence the design risk has been one of the most challenging issues that we came across during fabrication. Without precise mathematical measures of length of each string connection, or anything digital physic simulation, installation of

the strings were just based on the estimation through the visual effects on the rhino model, and this is a great challenge to get the preciseness with machine control. The challenge was not limited to the uncertainty due to inaccuracy of stringing without exact measuring. It is that the tension of which stretch out our panels are not as equally location on certain spots of the panels all-time, which makes us much harder to string the yarn into a fully stretched straight for all positions. Eventually, we have strung it based on the initial string we have thread through for fanning out of panels as the reference distance to string the rest, and then repeat waving of curved strings to get it about straight. The above is just one of the major issue we have come across in the fabrication process, which I find that the fabrication is like an endless process to come the model to perfect. Even with machine control on the cutting of the panels, we still find little flaws like some gaps between puzzles due to distortion of material during laser cutting. Risk has a resiliency (Bernstein, 2008), such that it would always be an ongoing process to get to the perfect model, and we are always in the process of getting a better model time by time.




BIBLIOGRAPHY Architecture in the Digital Age - Design and Manufacturing /Branko Kolarevic. Spon Press, London, c2003 Building the Future: Recasting Labor in Architecture/ Philip Bernstein, Peggy Deamer. Princeton Architectural Press. c2008. pp 38-42 Cheng, R. (2008). Inside Rhinoceros 4 / Ron K.C. Cheng. Clifton Park, NY : Thomson/Delmar Learning, c2008. Digital fabrications: architectural and material techniques / Lisa Iwamoto. New York : Princeton Architectural Press, c2009. Heath, A., Heath, D., & Jensen, A. (2000). 300 years of industrial design : function, form, technique, 1700-2000 / Adrian Heath, Ditte Heath, Aage Lund Jensen. New York : Watson-Guptill, 2000. Scheurer, F. and Stehling, H. _2011_: Lost in Parameter Space? IAD: Architectural Design, Wiley, 81 _4_, July, pp. 70-79


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Drawings Computation 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49


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Cassandra Tom Faye Ye

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DDF M4 Cassandra Tom