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Healthy Neighborhoods Guiding the revitalization of the United Northwest Area Neighborhood using principles of urban design and healthy neighborhoods

“Health is the combination of the social, physical, and mental wellbeing of an individual or a group.� Cassandra A. Rice Ball State University College of Architecture and Planning Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis


This project is dedicated to...

Acknowledgments

my parents; for all the love and support they’ve given me the past twenty three years. Without you none of this would have ever been possible. my brothers; for always putting a smile on my face, even during the most stressful weeks of my life. You three always know how to brighten up my day. my studio classmates and friends. Without your support, critiques, and memories I would not be the designer or person I am today. I will always cherish the memories we’ve made and appreciate the projects and classes we got through together. Brad Beaubien, my thesis advisor. You kept me realistic, but creative and taught me more than I ever thought would have been possible in this short semester. I appreciate your guidance and for sharing your wealth of knowledge with me. Carla and John, my studio professors. Your guidance and encouragement helped me through this semester and pushed me to immerse myself in my creative project and push it to its potential.

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Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis


Abstract

The purpose of this project is to use principles of healthy neighborhoods and urban design to guide the revitalization plan for the United Northwest Area Neighborhood in Indianapolis, Indiana. The United Northwest Neighborhood is a distressed, predominantly African American neighborhood that lies within the boundaries of 38th Street to the north, Interstate 65 and Martin Luther King Jr. Street to the east, 16th Street to the south, and the White River on the west. The 2.1 square mile neighborhood is the site for a neighborhood urban design framework plan. Following the completion of the urban design framework plan, the Upper Canal, a waterway bisecting the neighborhood, was chosen as the site for a revitalization master plan based around the framework.

“health” is the combination of the social, physical, and mental well-being of an individual or group

According to the World Health Organization, “health” is the combination of the social, physical, and mental wellbeing of an individual or group. Health is not simply the absence of infirmary. This project focuses on integrating principles of healthy neighborhoods and urban design to revitalize and improve the quality of life in the United Northwest Area Neighborhood. This is accomplished by creating a sustainable, walkable neighborhood that provides connections within the neighborhood as well as connections to the greater Indianapolis area, providing opportunities for physical activity and social connections, revitalizing brownfields, providing healthy eating environments, assuring safety, and reinvesting in the neighborhood. Research about the construction and development of distressed neighborhoods provided insight on how the neighborhood in which one lives affects his or her behaviors, choices, and overall health at various stages of life. Case studies of urban design framework plans, sustainable neighborhoods, and active living guidelines provided insight on how to create a healthy neighborhood. Finally, research on sustainable community design and revitalization methods was inter-related with principles of healthy environments to guide the design principles for the United Northwest Area Neighborhood.

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Table of Contents

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Introduction

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Significance

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Problem + Subproblems

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Hypothesis + Delimitations + Assumptions

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Literature Review

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Case Studies- New York Active Living Design Guidelines

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Case Studies- Seattle Neighborhood Framework

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Case Studies- Bowden Neighborhood Framework

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Focus Area Precedents- Canals and Riverwalks

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Focus Area Precedents- Pedestrian Bridges

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Neighborhood Background

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Context

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Demographic Profiles

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Housing and Vacancy profile

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Neighborhood Inventory

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Contextual Analysis- Walkability

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Contextual Analysis- Tree Cover

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Neighborhood Analysis

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Retail and Residential Development Analysis

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Park and Open Space Analysis

Introduction

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

Review of literature • research

Overview• analysis


Urban Design Framework

Canal Master Plan

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Guiding Principles

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Neighborhood Connections

60

Gateways Hearts, and Edges

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Street Character

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Cross Sections

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Development and Land Use

80

Retail and Industry Development

81

Residential Development

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Building Typologies

84

Public Open Space Network

90

Introduction

92

Concept

93

Master plan

Sense of Place • Kit of Parts

102 Character images 114 Guiding Principles Diagrams 118 Aerial

Conclusion • appendices

122 Conclusion 124 Appendices 124 Appendix A- Glossary of Terms 126 Appendix B- Neighborhood History 130 Appendix C- Methodology 133 Appendix D- Timelines 134 Appendix E- List of Figures 140 Appendix F- Images Sources 144 Appendix G- References

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Introduction

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Introduction

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Neighborhoods are an integral part of a person, a community, and an entire city. They are an organic, natural phenomenon developed through human interaction, physical development, political organization, and economic progression (Hallman, 1984). Neighborhoods mean different things to different people and each person develops their idea of what a neighborhood is based on how, where, and when they grew up. It is a physical place—a place with houses, churches and institutions, streets, railroads, and rivers. It is a social community—a stage for interaction, networking, and sharing common interests. It is a place for a population to function—with shelter, facilities, and commercial establishments. Finally, it is a political community—a place of voters, activists and advocates for not only their own, but their community’s interests. Neighborhoods can be cultivated and develop or they can be stunted, struggle and deteriorate (Hallman, 1984). It is at the neighborhood level that landscape architects, planners, and policymakers can have a major impact on the sustainability, health, and livability of the city and its residents.

Introduction

fig. 1- Families gathered in UNWA in the 1950s

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Significance

residents of distressed neighborhoods are more likely to experience poorer health outcomes

The United Northwest Area Neighborhood (UNWA) qualifies as a severely distressed neighborhood as it faces a high poverty rate (27%, compared to 14.4% for the city), a high percentage of female-headed households (27%), and a high percentage of residents without high school degrees (35%). The unemployment rate of the neighborhood is also quite high at 23.7%, and 26.3% of families receive SNAP food stamps. Residents of distressed neighborhoods are more likely to experience poorer health outcomes, lower levels of academic achievement, higher crime rates, and a lack of access to healthy food relative to otherwise-comparable people living in more advantaged neighborhoods (Galster, Cutsinger, & Malega, The Social Costs of Concentrated Poverty: Externalities to Neighborhing Households and Property Owners and the Dynamics of Decline, 2007). Research has shown inner-city urban populations also suffer from the same, if not more drastic, health outcomes than those in suburban neighborhoods despite the current research focus on suburban neighborhoods. Inner-city residents are more overweight, less physically active, and suffer from high rates of cardiovascular and heart disease than their suburban counterparts (Lopez & Hynes, 2006) Many studies have concluded that children are more likely to experience more severe or longer lasting effects of living within distressed communities. (O’Hare & Mather, 2003). UNWA has a large number of children living within the neighborhood—as of 2009, 25% of the population was under the age of 18 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2009). Since 2007, The City of Indianapolis, Great Indy Neighborhoods Initiative (GINI), Ball State University, and LISC have worked together to create Quality of Life Plans for various distressed Indianapolis neighborhoods. While these plans provide a framework for policy, programs and community initiatives, they lack an urban design element that seeks to alter the urban fabric of the neighborhood to improve health, livability, and sustainability. By combining the knowledge of landscape architecture, urban planning, and urban design healthier communities can be created.

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Introduction

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Problem The purpose of this project is to revitalize the United Northwest Area Neighborhood, a low-income, predominantly African American neighborhood in Indianapolis, Indiana. This project explores how the neighborhood environment affects residents’ health, how principles of healthy neighborhoods can address these neighborhood effects, and how these principles can be implemented through urban design to guide revitalization. An analysis of these issues results in a neighborhood urban design framework based around principles of healthy neighborhoods and is followed by a master plan along the Upper Canal, a waterway that bisects the neighborhood, based around the framework.

Problem • Subproblems

Subproblems • How has urban development changed over the course of time? • How are distressed neighborhoods defined and measured? • What are the mechanisms and effects of neighborhood distress on the health neighborhood residents? • How can the urban fabric of the neighborhood sustain or exacerbate an unhealthy environment? • What are human needs and how do these relate to the components of a healthy environment? • What are historical and current revitalization methods and do they address the health of residents?

fig. 2- Youth center along Martin Luther King Jr. Street

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Hypothesis • Assumptions • Delimitations

Hypothesis Successful revitalization of the United Northwest Area Neighborhood requires consideration of urban growth patterns, neighborhood effects on overall health and the ways the urban fabric may sustain these effects in order to determine the appropriate needs of the community. Healthy environment and urban design principles can be integrated to increase the quality of life for residents and create a community that fosters upward mobility. Assumptions • Zoning variances will be able to beobtained to accommodate affordable housing, mixed use, urban agriculture and all other interventions within the neighborhood • Public-private partnerships will be formed between community organizations and local businesses • Programs and policy will be implemented in combination with the urban design framework • Vacant lots, buildings, and brownfields are available for new development or reuse. Delimitations • This project does not attempt to solve poverty. • This project does not include provisions for attaining sufficient funding. • This project does not have the degree of community participation a typical comprehensive community plan would require.

Fig. 3- brownfield at Burdsall Ave. Fig. 4- Brownfield at Montcalm Ave.

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Introduction

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Literature Review• research

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Literature Review

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Neighborhoods are an integral part of a person, a community, and an entire city. They are an organic, natural phenomenon developed through human interaction, physical development, political organization, and economic progression (Hallman, 1984). Neighborhoods mean different things to different people—each person develops their idea of what a neighborhood is based on how, where, and when they grew up. It is a physical place—a place with houses, churches and institutions, streets, railroads, and rivers. It is a social community—a stage for interaction, networking, and sharing common interests. It is a place for a population to function—with shelter, facilities, and commercial establishments. Finally, it is a political community—a place of voters, activists and advocates for not only their own, but their community’s interests. Neighborhoods can be cultivated and develop or they can be stunted, struggle and deteriorate (Hallman, 1984).

Literature Review

It is at the neighborhood level landscape architects, planners, and policymakers can make a large impact on the sustainability, health, and livability of the city. This literature review will examine urban growth patterns of the United States and Indianapolis and how they created the present conditions within inner-city neighborhoods. The research will then explore distressed neighborhoods, neighborhood effects on the health of residents, and basic human needs. Finally, the literature will review characteristics of healthy neighborhoods and current initiatives to improve the quality of life and health in distressed neighborhoods to guide revitalization.

Fig. 5- houses in the united northwest area neighborhood

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The Development of the Modern American City

Before the Industrial Revolution, few people lived in cities. However, as industrialization grew, so did American cities. Suburbanization started in the 18th century with industrialization and has continued as technology, demographics, and culture have grown and changed. Farm jobs were replaced by factory jobs, and trains and trams expanded the realm of the city to extend miles beyond a central transportation hub, or what became the central business district (von Hoffman & Felkner, 2002). Rail transportation reached Indianapolis in October, 1847, and by 1855 several railway systems crossed the central Indiana landscape (City of Indianapolis, 2002). The growing rail system eventually led to the nation’s first Union Station in the heart of the city, and Indianapolis stood well prepared to serve the uUnion during the Civil War (City of Indianapolis, 2002). Indianapolis eventually emerged as a manufacturing center, capitalizing on farm productivity and meatpacking. Foundries and machine shops were staples in the economy and the city was, at one time, the nation’s fourth largest meat pack producer (City of Indianapolis, 2002). Around the U.S., the rapid growth of industry attracted large numbers of immigrants and rural Americans to cities, including Indianapolis (City of Indianapolis, 2002). This influx, along with increasing birth rates created an 89% population increase within Indianapolis from 1940 to 1970 (City of Indianapolis, 2002). Urban immigrants were poor and the middle and upper-classes saw the urban slums as breeding grounds for disease and crime. Combined with the conditions of the factories, foundries, and, in some cases, slaughterhouses, the city became an ‘ugly’ place to live and those of higher incomes began migrating out of the innercity. Cultural factors also lead to the start of suburbanization. During the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the

Fig. 6- an african american family living in UNWA Fig. 7- townhomes in unwa from the 1950’s

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environment was considered a thing to be tamed and more Americans began to yearn for their own independently owned home. The ‘culture of domesticity’ and the idea of the American dream that developed during the Industrial Revolution created tension between the inner city and the bourgeois utopia of the urban edges (von Hoffman & Felkner, 2002). Developers in Indianapolis capitalized on this income outflow by developing affluent suburbs in Woodruff Place and Irvington while railway workers moved to Brightwood or Beech Grove and meat packing workers to Haughville and West Indianapolis (City of Indianapolis, 2002). Between 1891 and the 1920s the automobile played a major role in the development and identity of Indianapolis. The Indianapolis Motor Speedway opened in 1909 and continues to be a major national pastime. Also, the convergence of the National Road, connecting Indianapolis to the East Coast and the “Dixie Highway,” a road rally from Indianapolis to Miami, led to the adoption of the nickname “Crossroads of America” (City of Indianapolis, 2002). While suburbanization started with the Industrial Revolution, the drastic shift towards suburbia gained momentum in the 1950s with the rise of the automobile. The automobile created mobility and land use and growth patterns responded. What started as a plaything for the rich became a necessity for 1 out of every 3 Americans by 1960 (von Hoffman & Felkner, 2002). Americans began moving their homes farther from work, away from the gridded cities to the winding cul-de-sac developments of the urban fringe. In Indianapolis, the population increased 58% from 1940 to 1970, and by 1970, deindustrialization and shift from manufacturing to the service industry resulted in the major employment centers being located in suburbia (City of Indianapolis, 2002). Instead of the mixed use, dense, street front development of the 1940s, commercial strips, shopping malls and big box stores were spread throughout suburbia—the signs of ‘growth’ (City of Indianapolis, 2002). Urban businesses were unable to offer unlimited parking and became more expensive to operate. The shift from urban to suburban resulted in the closing of many downtown retail and commercial developments. Industrial sites developed in a similar fashion—opening new ‘industrial parks’ farther from the central city, water ways, and other characteristics needed before the technological advances of the twentieth century (City of Indianapolis, 2002). Demographic shifts also led to the boom in suburbanization.

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What started as a plaything for the rich became a necessity for 1 out of every 3 Americans by 1960


White Europeans who immigrated during the Industrial Revolution began moving out of the city while African Americans and Caucasians from the south began moving in. The migration of populations created middle-class suburbs and inner-city distress—sustained through policy. The Federal Housing Administration, Federal Highway Administration and Veterans Housing Administration developed policies that aggravated and sustained suburban development. The Federal and Veterans Housing Administrations created policies that provided for over 11,000 new mortgages for returning World War II veterans and the Highway Administration provided subsidies for road and highway development (von Hoffman & Felkner, 2002). Local governments also welcomed the new suburban growth and tax base, though it shrunk the tax base within the city itself. Finally, zoning created single use development focusing on low-density single-family detached housing, and spatial separation. Zoning was also effective in keeping people out of communities, segregating, and attracting particular residential or commercial development (von Hoffman & Felkner, 2002). While planners attempted to cure urban development problems such as health, overcrowding and fire and safety, as well as bring order to the city through the policies—which to some extent occurred—zoning contributed greatly to the automobile-focused communities we have today. Indianapolis has since struggled with the combination of neighborhood decay and struggling businesses in the city. Early Indianapolis subdivisions were created without adequate necessities for the now common part of the city. The large, older homes were also transformed into multifamily dwellings and many lacked livable kitchen, electrical Fig. 8-excluded cities map, Indianapolis, Indiana

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and plumbing provisions. While Indianapolis has been in a better physical and economic place than many other large cities because of the adoption of a joint city-county form of government known as UniGov; suburban growth, downtown redevelopment, and neighborhood revitalization have been at the top of local leaders’ agendas (City of Indianapolis, 2002). This outmigration of higher-income residents and investments has continued throughout the 20th and 21st centuries in both Indianapolis and the United States. It has played a major role in creating distressed inner-city and early suburban neighborhoods in the nation’s largest metropolitan areas. While distressed neighborhoods can be both inner-city and suburban, this project is specifically targeted at inner-city neighborhoods. Demographic shifts throughout the twentieth century resulted in the change of inner-city populations to lower-income, predominantly African American residents and employment opportunities left the inner city and early suburbs for the urban fringe. The flight of upper-income residents left the neighborhoods with a dwindling tax base and loss of employment opportunities resulted in vacancy, blight, and urban poverty. In Indianapolis, the majority of inner city neighborhoods and early suburbs have a high concentration of poverty (U.S. Census Bureau, 2009) Distressed neighborhoods are categorized by high poverty and unemployment rates, have an abundance of vacant or abandoned housing, and provide few job opportunities. They are also characterized by poorer health outcomes, lower levels of academic achievement, and higher crime rates relative to otherwise-comparable people living in more advantaged neighborhoods (Galster, Cutsinger, & Malega, The Social Costs of Concentrated Poverty: Externalities to

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Distressed Neighborhoods


Neighborhood Quality and Distress

Poverty is the greatest indicator of neighborhood distress

Neighborhing Households and Property Owners and the Dynamics of Decline, 2007). These neighborhoods lack quality social, physical, and service environments required to provide a healthy environment for residents. Distress can be measured in various ways—demographic characteristics, administrative data sources, survey data on neighborhood perceptions, and trained raters’ evaluations of physical and social disorder (Elo, Mykyta, Margolis, & Culhane, 2009) (Kasarda, 1993). Census data is most commonly used because of its availability and comprehensiveness. Using census data, one can determine the socioeconomic status of the neighborhood as well as the race/ethnic composition, family structure, residential stability, and housing conditions (Elo, Mykyta, Margolis, & Culhane, 2009). Administrative information can be used to determine the crime rates, availability of recreational facilities and stores, and assess exposure to environmental hazards (Elo, Mykyta, Margolis, & Culhane, 2009). Poverty is the greatest indicator of neighborhood distress and poverty tracts are those with at least 20% of their population falling below the poverty line (Kasarda, 1993). A poverty rate of 25.4% or more, combined with the other indicators would categorize a neighborhood as distressed. The four other indicators of neighborhood distress are measured by disproportionately high rates of unemployment (34 percent or more), female-headed households (37.1 percent or more), teenage school dropout (23 percent or more), and welfare receipt (O’Hare & Mather, 2003). Kasarda noted the difference between distressed and severely distressed neighborhoods is distinguished by the high rate of high school dropouts.

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The neighborhood environment affects residents through various mechanisms. Many sociologists, epidemiologists, planners, and other professionals have studied and categorized these mechanisms in various ways. This literature review will categorize them as social, service, or physical. These mechanisms affect neighborhood residents in many ways, however, according to Galster; their influence is related to their ‘dosage’ or the degree to which residents are exposed to the influences and their quality of life. Unfortunately, because they are all highly correlated the specific and direct effects are almost impossible to differentiate (Ellen & Turner, 1997).

Mechanisms through which neighborhoods affect residents

Social mechanisms refer to the various social processes endogenous to neighborhoods including social networks, cohesion and control that relate to the neighborhood resident’s behaviors. These mechanisms include the socialization by adults, or the way in which children and adolescents learn about ‘acceptable’ or ‘normal’ behavior from adults in the community. When children and teenagers grow up in neighborhoods with working adults, they develop the ability to manage time and plan ahead. However, the opposite may occur in distressed neighborhoods where there is a high rate of unemployment. (Ellen & Turner, 1997; Cubbin, Pedregon, Egerter, & Braveman, 2008). Ellen and Turner conclude that neighborhoods have a significant impact on a youth’s choice of peer groups and those influences and social networks can influence their behavior in school and involvement in crime and other dangerous behaviors. Adult social networks and community cohesion has been shown to influence resident’s levels of civic and political participation. Residents in neighborhoods with strong social networks are more likely to find employment and are more likely to have references to vouch for reliability and character to employers (Ellen & Turner, 1997). Living among non-employed neighbors reduces other’s ability to hear information about job openings and may stunt the growth of social networks (Galster, Cutsinger, & Malega, The Social Costs of Concentrated Poverty: Externalities to Neighborhing Households and Property Owners and the Dynamics of Decline, 2007).

Social Mechanisms

According to Galster, Cutsinger, and Malega, heightened exposure to crime and violence as experienced in distressed neighborhoods leads to a variety of physical and mental health issues as well as poorer educational attainment (Galster, Cutsinger, & Malega, The Social Costs of Concentrated Poverty: Externalities to Neighborhing

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Households and Property Owners and the Dynamics of Decline, 2007). Research has shown that women who live in ‘safer’ neighborhoods are more likely to walk to their various neighborhood destinations than those living in crimeridden neighborhoods. While witnessing crime may result in emotional trauma, growing up around crime and violence may result in the understanding that violent behavior is ‘normal’ and ‘acceptable’ (Ellen & Turner, 1997). Finally, those living in high crime areas may live more isolated lives, restricting their social networks, hindering the social cohesion of the neighborhood, and denying themselves the potential benefits from social networks and pooling community resources (Ellen & Turner, 1997). Service Mechanisms

Service mechanisms involve both the presence of services and institutions as well as the public stigmatization by the surrounding context (Galster, The Mechanism(s) of Neighborhood Effects: Theory, Evidence, and Policy Implications, 2010). Vacant or distressed housing, reputations, history and crime lead to stigmatization of a community (Galster, The Mechanism(s) of Neighborhood Effects: Theory, Evidence, and Policy Implications, 2010). Distressed neighborhoods have fewer private, non-profit, or public institutions and organizations that help residents improve their quality of life (Galster, Cutsinger, & Malega, The Social Costs of Concentrated Poverty: Externalities to Neighborhing Households and Property Owners and the Dynamics of Decline, 2007) Ellen and Turner point out that distressed neighborhoods that do have these services typically have reduced and less experienced staffs and are less likely to receive help from volunteers and the rest of the community. The lack of or poor quality of institutional resources can result in poor education, specifically a lack of reading and math resources. The lack of preschools or child care also affects the educational attainment of children and job opportunities of adults in distressed communities (Ellen & Turner, 1997). Access to medical care may result in a lack of treatment for chronic diseases that have been expedited and sustained by the poor physical environment. The lack of afterschool programs, specifically those geared towards sports, music, or art, may result in adolescents increased involvement in crime and violence because they do not have the opportunity to discover individual talents and strengths (Ellen & Turner, 1997).

Physical Mechanisms

Physical mechanisms can be both built and natural environmental mechanisms that may or may not directly affect resident’s behaviors but have an effect on the physical or mental health of the neighborhood including the condition Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

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of physical surroundings, vacancies, land use issues, and exposure to certain environmental hazards. (Galster, The Mechanism(s) of Neighborhood Effects: Theory, Evidence, and Policy Implications, 2010). Physical mechanisms can also be geographic mechanisms, or those mechanisms that do not arise within the neighborhood but are present because of geographic location and outside forces. These include spatial mismatch or inaccessibility to job opportunities by lack of connections or a lack of jobs in the appropriate industry for the population and a lack of public services (Galster, The Mechanism(s) of Neighborhood Effects: Theory, Evidence, and Policy Implications, 2010). The condition of physical surroundings affects the health, well-being and choices of families living in distressed neighborhoods. Decaying physical surroundings may evoke a sense of powerlessness for residents, and blight welcomes crime and vandalism, evoking a sense of fear in residents, preventing them from participating in activities outside their homes (Galster, The Mechanism(s) of Neighborhood Effects: Theory, Evidence, and Policy Implications, 2010; Lopez & Hynes, 2006). The “broken window syndrome” isolates residents, reduces trust in their neighbors, and creates safety hazards—discouraging walking. Vacant land may become overgrown by weeds, creating an eyesore for the neighborhood and may eventually welcome illegal dumping, creating another environmental hazard for residents while abandoned buildings reduce density and increase crime (Lopez & Hynes, 2006) The physical environment can also limit choices and resources available to residents in order to have healthy lives. The lack of sidewalks, parks, playgrounds, and lighting can also have a hazardous effect on the health of a neighborhood (Cubbin, Pedregon, Egerter, & Braveman, 2008). Low-income families are twice as likely to walk as people of other income groups, yet when sidewalks are unusable or simply absent, they are forced to rely on automobiles or stay inside their homes (Murakami & Young, 1997). Research has shown that people who live close to parks are more likely to utilize them, especially inner-city youth whose only arena for physical activity may be in the public park. However, it is not only the presence of public parks, but also their quality that is important and because of shrinking park budgets and the lack of investment in lower-income inner-city neighborhoods, many parks end up unusable due to decay. Trees may also improve the chances of physical activity and socialization. A study from Chicago

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Low-income families are twice as likely to walk as people of other income groups


children tend to play in highly vegetated areas more than nonvegetated areas

showed that people were more likely to gather in a space with trees than without, and children tended to play in highly vegetated areas more than non-vegetated areas (Lopez & Hynes, 2006). The presence of streetlights and traffic calming measures also offers the opportunity for physical activity for residents (Lopez & Hynes, 2006). Low-income, inner-city communities are more likely to be near toxic dumping grounds as well as have numerous brownfields as industrial developments have moved toward the urban fringe. Brownfield redevelopment can help bring investment and jobs back into the community and at the same time, improve the ‘tooth-gapped’ urban fabric. A lack of investment in the community leads to job losses and longer commutes—increasing the reliance on the automobile (Lopez & Hynes, 2006). According to Ellen and Turner, housing policy discriminates against lower-income families and therefore forces them to live in more urban, inner-city neighborhoods where there is a lack of job opportunities instead of the suburbs where jobs are growing. Low-income families are less likely to have a car and more likely to rely on public transportation than middle and higher income families, making spatial mismatch an even bigger issue (Daily Travel). This lack of investment not only causes a lack of jobs and employment, but also leads to food insecurity. Distressed neighborhoods are less likely to have supermarkets than upper and middle-income neighborhoods, thus preventing access to healthy food (Vallianatos, Shaffer, & Gottlieb, 2002; Lopez & Hynes, 2006). Stores located within distressed neighborhoods tend to be ethnic groceries, specialty stores, or corner markets that do not carry fresh fruits and vegetables and if they do, many times they are not at affordable prices. The lack of supermarkets and healthy foods forces residents to rely on public transportation or personal vehicles to travel outside the neighborhood to find affordable healthy food. Creating healthy eating environments in the neighborhood can reduce travel time of food, provide affordable healthy food and put money back into the local economy. As Galster and other researchers have mentioned, residents are affected by all mechanisms—social, service, and physical—at varying degrees. Each neighborhood, with its own specific degree of distress, also has its own set of mechanisms that must be solved to improve the health of the neighborhood.

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Regardless of age, income, or race, there are basic needs innate in all human beings. A healthy neighborhood provides an environment in which its residents’ basic human needs are fulfilled. Psychologies Abraham Maslow first developed his hierarchy for human needs between 1943 and 1954 and his theory has been widely published since. According to Maslow, we have two basic groupings of needs—deficiency needs and growth needs. Deficiency needs are basic needs that must be met before we can act unselfishly. In essence we must fulfill these needs to be healthy. Deficiency needs are physiological, safety, love and belongingness, and esteem. Physiological needs are the most basic needs for survival—food, air, water, and sleep. We must have these needs fulfilled or we may feel uncomfortable and unhappy. Once these needs are fulfilled we then think about other things such as safety needs. These are the needs we have to be stable and consistent (Huitt, 2007). For example, one may not walk around their neighborhood because they do not feel safe; they stay inside or drive their car because that fulfills their need to feel safe. The next level in his hierarchy is the need for belongingness and love—the need to feel accepted and affiliated with others (Huitt, 2007). Humans are social beings— hence why we join clubs, work groups, religious groups. The neighborhood environment then must provide those environments, services, and institutions that provide social outlets. Finally, the last category in deficiency needs is the need for esteem and recognition. As humans we yearn for both the self-esteem that comes from competence and the recognition that comes from others (Huitt, 2007).

Hierarchy of Human Needs

A healthy neighborhood provides an environment in which its residents’ basic human needs are fulfilled.

Only once these basic needs are fulfilled can we act on our growth needs. These include our need to know and Fig. 9- Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs

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understand, our need for symmetry and beauty, our need to find self-fulfillment and to connect with something beyond ourselves. Once one fulfills these needs of growth and selfactualization they have reached the point where they can act unselfishly and strive to act on something beyond themselves (Huitt, 2007). While these needs are explained in terms of transcendence and order, the dominant need is constantly shifting. For example, a painter may be overcome by the selfactualization of painting, but becomes tired and hungry and then must fulfill those needs. Also, some behaviors may combine various needs such as social or psychological (Huitt, 2007). Essentially, this hierarchy of human needs explains human motivation. If a neighborhood resident lacks a social space in the neighborhood, they will go outside the neighborhood to find it just like if the neighborhood is a food desert—food being a basic physiological need—they will be motivated to find it somewhere outside the neighborhood. Essentially, a successful, healthy neighborhood will provide the spaces, services, and events for residents to fulfill their basic human needs. Revitalization Initiatives in Indianapolis and the US

Traditionally neighborhood revitalization is often considered through two lenses—place-based and people-based. Initiatives that focus on aspects of neighborhoods such as infrastructure, jobs, services, and housing are considered place-based revitalization strategies. Initiatives that focus on overcoming neighborhood isolation and creating connections to communities that have healthy environments are considered people-based initiatives (Pastor & Turner, 2010). Place-based housing-focused strategies are typically geared to expanding access to affordable housing options for low-income residents and tend to be federally funded. Proponents typically cite this improves the quality of life for residents and revitalizes the neighborhood while opponents argue that these developments increase the spatial concentration of poverty. Also, because these developments are often done without investment in a comprehensive framework of services and institutions, the neighborhoods typically become more distressed (Pastor & Turner, 2010). Urban renewal, model cities, and the Community Development Block Grant program are all examples of federal job-focused strategies. While these programs have their successes on a larger scale, in most cases they are not targeted toward a specific neighborhood Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

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and some evidence suggest that those strategies that do target a specific neighborhood actually limit the extent to which the strategy can improve the area. Instead, job and economically-based strategies are more effective at a regional scale (Pastor & Turner, 2010) Because children have been shown to experience more severe and longer-lasting effects of place-based strategies, many distressed neighborhoods gear their revitalization efforts toward programs and services for neighborhood youth and children (Pastor & Turner, 2010). One example is the Harlem Children’s Zone which focused its efforts on the neighborhood charter school and student learning. However, while the program is innovative and has been shown to decrease the gaps in children’s education, the replicability of this program is not known (Pastor & Turner, 2010). Finally, the last category of place-based approaches is comprehensive community change strategies. Many neighborhoods have attempted to create a comprehensive strategy that encompasses housing, jobs and children as well as other problems identified by the community members themselves (Pastor & Turner, 2010). This strategy is neighborhood driven, but also uses the experience and knowledge of advocates and practitioners. Comprehensive strategies rely on the idea that neighborhoods can act as incubators for residents, offering services, social networks, opportunities, and support for lower-income families need. This strategy can better address the multitude of issues distressed communities face such as discrimination in employment opportunities and housing and disparities in the neighborhood school environments (Pastor & Turner, 2010). The City of Indianapolis and the Local Initiative Support Corporation (LISC), through the Great Indy Neighborhoods Initiative (GINI) have worked together to create Quality of Life plans for Indianapolis neighborhoods—a comprehensive community strategy. Currently there are six neighborhoods in Indianapolis that have completed their Quality of Life plans and numerous other neighborhoods are in the process of developing their own. GINI has developed their own set of Healthy Neighborhood Principles and they fall into four categories—Civic, Social, Physical, or Economic (Local Initiative Support Corporation, 2011). These principles include leadership, vision, collaborations, services, education, culture, safety, environment, housing, business diversity, and economy. All Quality of Life plans are neighborhood-driven and because they are developed in cooperation with the

26 Literature Review

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

gini’s Healthy Neighborhood Principles fall into four categories—Civic, Social, Physical, or Economic


City of Indianapolis they are eventually adopted as policy documents (Local Initiative Support Corporation, 2011). However, these plans lack a quality urban design element and focus solely on policy and programs. While this does improve the quality of life for the neighborhood, it does not provide a long term vision for the overall environment of the neighborhood. People-based strategies come in two forms—assisted housing mobility strategies and inclusive housing development strategies. Assisted housing mobility strategies attempt to improve the lives of low-income families by providing them with vouchers that allow them to move into more affluent, stable communities (Pastor & Turner, 2010). This strategy aims at de-concentrate poverty and place low-income familiestoin more opportunity rich environments. Inclusive housing development strategies attempt to require the inclusions of affordable housing through zoning and land use regulations (Pastor & Turner, 2010).

look at strategies that connect lowincome residents to the greater context

Many times these approaches are contrasted with one another. However, Pastor and Turner suggest that the two strategies are not in conflict and should be integrated together to form a place-conscious approach to revitalization. These strategies would forgo the traditions of looking solely inward or outward for solutions and initiatives and instead look at strategies that improve the neighborhood and regional conditions, open access to opportunities and strive to connect low-income residents to the greater context (Pastor & Turner, 2010). However, while these strategies begin approaching a comprehensive framework for distressed neighborhood revitalization, because they are solely focused on policy they lack the planning and design element that would create a more comprehensive vision for the neighborhood. As revitalization initiatives have progressed, many organizations are calling for alternate strategies that aim at creating a healthy environment that will then result in healthy, sustainable communities. The Centers for Disease Control, American Society of Landscape Architects, American Planning Association, American Institute of Architects, and the Congress for New Urbanism have all developed strategies for creating and designing healthy neighborhoods. Two of the most prevalent movements are Smart Growth and LEED ND.

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27


According to Smart Growth America, Smart Growth is a design approach that focuses on creating urban, suburban, and rural communities that creating housing and transportation choices near jobs and business and education opportunities. Smart growth focuses on housing, business, economic prosperity, transportation, environment, healthy communities and people, and revitalization (Smart Growth America, 2010). Because these strategies reuse alreadydeveloped land and repair existing infrastructure they spark revitalization in distressed neighborhoods (Smart Growth America, 2010). LEED for Neighborhood Development was created to integrate the principles of smart growth, urbanism and green building into a comprehensive framework and rating system that can be used to guide neighborhood development. LEED ND protects the environment and enhances the overall health and quality of life of the community. It also promotes the design of pedestrian focused neighborhoods, lessening the dependence on the car (U.S. Green Building Council, 2011). LEED neighborhoods have been shown to create several health benefits for residents including reducing the risk of obesity, heart disease, and hypertension. This is done by providing the opportunities for physical activity by promoting walking, density, building residences and businesses closer together, creating complete streets, and providing quality open spaces close to work and home. It also reduces the risk of asthma and respiratory disease by encourage the use of public transit and creating a bicycle network. Encouraging community participation and provide complete streets and quality open spaces also increases social connections and networks. Finally, healthier diets are encouraged by promoting local food production, urban agriculture, and farmer’s markets (Centers for Disease Control).

28 Literature Review

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis


CASE STUDIES • nEW yORK aCTIVE lIVING dESIGN gUIDELINES ACTIVE DESIGN GUIDELINES

ACTIVE DESIGN GUIDELINES PROMOTING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND HEALTH IN DESIGN

While urban design framework plans were easy to locate, ones aimed directly at creating a healthy environment were not. These guidelines, however, gave a clear picture of how the urban environment can be designed to promote a healthy lifestyle and provide opportunities for physical activity. While these guidelines were on a much larger scale than this project, they provided an understanding of how the built environment affects health and how guidelines can be written generally to promote healthy design. The one critique of this case study was that it focused solely on physical health instead of creating a comprehensive set of guidelines that also included social, mental, and economic health. These guidelines did, however, provide a comprehensive background on how the urban environment affects health and why urban design is key in creating sustainable neighborhoods.

ACTIVE DESIGN GUIDELINES

fig. 10-12 images from the active design guidelines

ACTIVE DESIGN GUIDELINES PROMOTING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND HEALTH IN DESIGN

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29


This framework, for Seattle South Lake Union Neighborhood, was developed in order to create a ‘thriving, sustainable, and diverse urban center.” These guidelines seek to create a vibrant, urban neighborhood with access to transit, a variety of open space, connections within the neighborhood and to the surrounding context, and a thriving local economy (City of Seattle Department of Planning and Development, 2010). The framework is structured in twelve sections ranging from street character to public space network. Ihe guidelines conclude with a framework work plan that sets a timeline, work schedule, and directives for implementing the framework plan (City of Seattle Department of Planning and Development, 2010). These guidelines served as a starting point for the UNWA framework as it gave a basic structure for the UNWA framework to follow. These guidelines also helped to understand how these specific elements--gateways, streets, urban form, etc.--shape and form the identity and character of the neighborhood and how guidelines can be written to direct development.

fig. 13-15 images from the seattle south lake union urban design guidelines

30 Literature Review

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

SOUTH LAK Urban Design

CASE STUDIES • South lake union URBAN DESIGN GUIDELINES


CASE STUDIES • bOwDEN NEIGHBORHOOD URBAN DESIGN GUIDELINES

This urban design framework plan for the Bowden East Precinct of Adelaide Australia will direct development and design for the neighborhood for years to come. The guidelines are geared at promoting healthy, sustainable cityfringe living, which contrasts this project as it focuses on an inner-city neighborhood (Bowden, Australia, 2011). These guidelines will serve as a manual for designer and developers and are geared to promote architectural diversity, quality design, and public open space networks. They provide a guide to designing a neighborhood where residents can live, work, and play (Bowden, Australia, 2011). The guidelines are structured around a master plan which provides the context for the design framework. Finally there are precinct-wide guidelines that direct early and mature stages of development, design block arrangements and building typologies, direct landscape design, and has sustainability guidelines (Bowden, Australia, 2011). These guidelines were used to understand how a places identity and character must be incorporated in order to create a successful framework as well as the ways in which building typology and design, massing, and materials have an effect on the sense of place within the neighborhood.

Fig. 16-18 Images from the bowden, Adelaide, Australia urban design guidelines

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31


FOCUS AREA pRECEDENTS• cANALS AND RIVERWALKS Indianapolis Downtown Canal Sasaki Associates Indianapolis, IN The Indianapolis Canal was designed by Sasaki Associates. The canal is an ideal place for downtown living, with multifamily dwelling units lining the corridor. The site is also home to the Indiana State Museum, the Ohio Street and Vermont Street plazas, and multiple memorials. While criticized for a lack of retail space, the canal functions well as a pedestrian destination and residential zone.

San Antonio Riverwalk San Antonio, TX The San Antonio Riverwalk is the key riverwalk precedent for any city looking to create the same destination and corridor through their downtowns. This corridor offers a variety of destinations from restaurants to parks and offers the opportunity for experience the canal by foot, bike, car, or boat.

Fort Lauderdale Riverwalk EDSA Fort Lauderdale, FL The Fort Lauderdale Riverwalk, also contrasting the predominantly residential Indianapolis Downtown Canal, has an abundance of restaurants, retail establishments, public open space, and civic centers as opposed. This riverfront is an important pedestrian destination for Fort Lauderdale. fig. 19- Indianapolis downtown canal Fig. 20- San Antonio Riverwalk Fig. 21- Fort Lauderdale Riverwalk

32 Literature Review

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis


FOCUS AREA PRECEDENTS• pEDESTRIAN bRDIGES BP Serpentine bridge Frank Gehry Chicago, IL Spanning 925 feet, Gehry’s BP Bridge was designed to be both functional and aesthetic. It not only creates an acoustic barrier for the traffic noise and functions as a pedestrian bridge but it also acts as a focal point and key feature for Millennium Park. The bridge is clad in stainless steel panels which makes it compliment that Pritzker Pavilion and provides dynamic views of the downtown Chicago skyline. The bridge is also accessible for those with disabilities, making it a thoroughfare for all (City of Chicago, 2010) Passerelle mimram marc mimram strasbourg, germany/ france The Passarelle Mimram spans over 600 feet across the Rhine River and is the focal point of the “Jardin des Deus Rives” or “Garden of the Two Banks.” It serves pedestrians and cyclists and is accessible for those with disabilities as well. The bridge was built in 2004 and offers great views of down the Rhine River and across the banks of Germany and France (Groundspeak, Inc., 2012)

Simone de Beauvoir footbridge dietmar feichtinger architects Paris, France Designed for a competition in 1998, the Simone de Beauvoir Footbridge spans 190m, crossing the Siene River. The bridge links the National Library plaza with Bercy Park. The bridge combines an arch and catenary and creates a symmetrical ‘lens’ across the river. This shape adds to its value as a focal point along the Siene (Dietmar Fiechtinger Architectes, 1998). fig.22- BP bridge fig. 23- Passerelle Mimram Fig. 24- Simone de Beauvoir footbridge

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34


Overview• Analysis

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

Overview

35


The site is the United Northwest Area Neighborhoods (UNWA) in Indianapolis, Indiana. The boundaries of the urban design framework plan neighborhood are 38th Street to the north, I-65 and Martin Luther King Jr. Street to the east, 16th Street to the south, and the White River on the west. The neighborhood covers 2.1 square miles. UNWA itself is an umbrella organization for the Crown Hill, Golden Hill, Maple Road, Near North, North West Way, Northwest, Rivers Edge, Planners, and Riverside neighborhoods, but has come to be known as the name of the neighborhoods collectively. The neighborhood is home to historic residences, remnants of the Central Canal, and parts of George Kessler’s original boulevard and park system. The neighborhood is near the Children’s Museum, IMA, IUPUI, and hospitals and it borders the proposed 16 Tech Center along 16th Street (City of Indianapolis, 2006).

Neighborhood Background

However, despite all the great amenities and historical value, the area suffers from blight, poverty, and decay. The neighborhood has become a microcosm of the city with high concentrations of wealth on the fringe while centrally located residents face crime, vacancies, and disinvestment. While various plans have been made through the cooperation of the City and the neighborhood associations, a clear, urban design framework is necessary to create connections between the amenities, improve the livability and health for residents, and draw investment and jobs back into the community.

Fig. 25- Indiana Fig. 26- Indianapolis Fig. 27- UNWA indiana

i-465 i-65 unwa i-65 i-70

i-70 indianapolis

36 Overview

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis


context

The neighborhood sits in the heart of a vast number of Indianapolis focal points—the Indianapolis Museum of Art, the Children’s Museum, IUPUI, the new life sciences health campus along 16th Street, and is a short drive from downtown. It is also surrounded by a concentration of wealth along the outer fringes of the neighborhoods. Connections need to be made to all these amenities and areas in order to foster growth, upward mobility, and livability for all residents.

fig. 28- Contextual Map

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

Overview

37


In 2000, 13,381 people lived in the United Northwest Area Neighborhood, but by 2010 the population dropped to 8,331. 90% of the neighborhood is African American while 6% is White. The ancestry of the neighborhood varies from European, African, Middle Eastern, and West Indian, making this a culturally-rich neighborhood. As of 2000, 32.8% of the neighborhood was between 45-65 years old, and in 2010 it increased to 35%.

demographic profile

2000 Census statistics show 28.01% of the neighborhood was below the poverty line compared to 8.7% of Marion County (The Polis Center at IUPUI, 2012). In 2000, 25.7% of households were female-headed households. The area was once part of the Department of Justice’s Weed-n-Seed program. The goal of the program was to decrease crime in the neighborhoods and as this is now expired, there is increasing interest on programs and strategies to decrease the crime rate of the neighborhood. As of 2004, there were a total of 129.6 crimes per 1,000 people compared to the 110.2 crimes per 1,000 people for the entire Indianapolis Police Department Service District. The most common crime was burglary (30.0) followed by simple assault (29.6) and larceny (20.5) (City of Indianapolis, 2006). 2000 Census statistics show that 25.5% of persons over 25 years old have not received their high school diploma compared to 12.4% of Indianapolis (Indianapolis Univeristy Purdue University Indianapolis Polis Center). The unemployment rate of the area was 7.97% compared to 3.71% in Marion County as a whole in 2000. As of 2010, 82.8% of students in the neighborhood schools qualify for free or reduced school lunches and 2,199 (26.3%) families received SNAP food stamps (Indiana Department of Education, 2010) (City of Indianapolis, 2006).

Total population 8331 White 526 African American 7539 Asian 19 Other 247 Age Total 8331 Under 18 2180 19-34 2006 35-65 2916 + 65 1229 38 Overview

100% 6% 90% .2% 3% 100% 26.2% 27% 35% 14.8%

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

fig. 29- summary of demographic profile


housing and vacancy profile

The majority of housing stock was built prior to 1939 and in some census tracts no new homes have been constructed since the 1970’s.

Forty-six percent of the housing units in UNWA were owneroccupied compared to Marion County’s 59%. The housing units are characterized by two-story wood frame houses. As of 2006, twenty percent (20%) of the housing units were vacant and 750 were abandoned. This information also states that 50% of residential properties are in need of maintenance (City of Indianapolis, 2006). As of 2009, the American Community Survey Data shows vacant housing units rose to 32.5%. The majority of housing stock was built prior to 1939 and in some census tracts no new homes have been constructed since the 1970s.

fig. 30- vacancies map

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

Overview

39


The UNWA Neighborhood is home to 285 acres of park and open space (18% of total land area) and the Burdsal Parkway has over 6 acres of tree-lined medians. The neighborhood boasts a number of elements from Kessler’s original Park and Boulevard Plan including Riverside Park, the areas adjacent to the White River and Fall Creek, and Burdsal Parkway. Riverside Park contains a number of features including picnic shelters, playgrounds, baseball diamonds, basketball courts, football fields, softball diamonds, and tennis courts. The area is also home to Watkins Park, Barton Park, Bertha Ross Park, Frank Young Park, and High way Parcel #15 (City of Indianapolis, 2006). There is also an abundance of golf courses in and around the neighborhood—four at last count.

Inventory

The neighborhood boasts a number of historic sites and structures including the Ritz Theatre, Thomas Taggart Riverside Park Monument, and Riverside Park United Methodist Church. Three sites are on the National Register of Historic Places. These are Golden hill Historic District, Crown Hill National Cemetery, and the Indianapolis Park and Boulevard System (City of Indianapolis, 2006). The neighborhood is home to five schools--four elementary schools and one combined junior high and high school. Three elementary schools and the junior high/high school are public and one elementary school is a parochial school. One of the elementary schools, Riverside elementary, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The neighborhood is also home to over 35 churches and religion institutions. The neighborhood library--The Flanner House Branch--is located along Martin Luther King Jr. Street. Finally, the neighborhood has 7 bus routes that travel through or along the edges of the neighborhood. Stops are located at nearly every intersection. fig. 31- historic firehouse fig. 32- canal at Burdsal Parkway fig. 33- swimming pool at riverside park fig. 34- sole north-south connection at clifton street

40 Overview

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis


Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

Overview

41


An analysis of the walkability of the neighborhood found that while UNWA has a traditional grid system, greenway access, and a close proximity to downtown, it lacks the destinations, short block lengths, safety, and complete urban fabric necessary for a truly walkable neighborhood. This analysis was generated through walkscore.com.

contextual analysis • walkability

factors that limit walkability:

fig. 36- walkability analysis, walkscore. com

• lack of jobs, destinations • incomplete sidewalk connections • vacancies • long block lengths

42 Overview

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis


contextual analysis • tree su rvey Determining factors unwa

fig 37-45 analysis criteria Fig. 46 Final tree survey map

In 2007, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) and Keep Indianapolis Beautiful (KIBI) produced a tree survey to document which neighborhoods and locations in Indianapolis that could use tree cover to meet critical environmental and human needs. Trees help reduce crime, pollution, and energy costs and they increase property values (Keep Indianapolis Beautiful, Inc., 2009) Blue areas meet less than half the criteria and are not considered critical areas. Yellow and orange locations met more than half the criteria while red areas met all the criteria. The area identified as UNWA meets all the criteria in over half the neighborhood. Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

Overview

43


While the neighborhood boasts many significant features, these features lack a connective tissue to bring them together, create social cohesion, and celebrate the identity within the neighborhood. The Wapahani trail lies along the western edge of UNWA and the Fall Creek Trail lies along the southern edge. The canal, bisecting the neighborhood, has the potential to act as a connective link between the two trails as well as a connector to downtown. There is also the potential for pedestrian connections across the canal. UNWA lacks the economic connections it needs to be a sustainable neighborhood. With the abundance of brownfields available for development, there is great potential for both retail and residential development along the canal, MLK, and near Fall Creek. The historic sites and structures will need to be preserved and featured to create a sense of place and celebrate the history of the neighborhood. The neighborhood also lacks a clear sense of identity outside these historic sites and structures-no streetscape, design elements, or gateways give a clear sense of place for the neighborhood. One challenge will be to connect the neighborhood to the existing, unique MLK streetscape without taking away from the neighborhood’s own identity. The MLK streetscape should not drive the design elements of the neighborhood, but should influence them to an extent. Finally, the lack of park space must be addressed and adjusted according to the National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA) standards.

44 Overview

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

Analysis


Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

Overview

45


retail • residential analysis

fig. 48

46 Overview

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis


An analysis of the retail and residential development resulted in a variety of conclusions that can be seen in the framework. Review of the various cultural districts and successful mixeduse developments in Indianapolis aided in the formation of the building typologies and retail and residential development framework guidelines. Two precedents included Mass Ave and Broad Ripple. These are seen in the figures below. Finally, an analysis of the consumer expenditures and retail sales revealed where the residents were spending money and what the neighborhood economy was making. The bleed in various categories helped determine what types of retail and commercial establishments would be successful within the UNWA neighborhood.

fig. 49 mass ave Fig. 50 broad ripple

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

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47


$ Per HH Total $000s

Consumer Expenditures (2002) Apparel 1,834 9,109 Entertainment 1,683 8,362 Food and Beverages

5,339

26,522

Health Care 2,004 9,958 Household Furnishings and Equipment

1,275

6,334

Household Operations 963 4,785 Personal Care 587 2,918 Reading 175 868 Tobacco 289 1,436 Transportation

6,686

33,214

Gifts 978 4,858 After examining the expenditures and retail sales it was concluded that the following types of retail establishments would have the highest possibility of success in the UNWA neighborhood - apparel and shoes - restaurants - drug and grocery stores - specialty retail - personal care, hair care, etc. - hardware and household supplies stores

48 Overview

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

retail • residential analysis


Retail Sales (2002) Lumber and Building Materials

2,590

Paint and Wallpaper 2,437 Hardware 0 Nurseries, Lawn and Garden

1,192

Department Stores 0 Variety and Other General Merchandise Stores

1,488

Grocery Stores 2,198 Candy and Confectionery Stores

0

Bakeries 0 Motor Vehicle Dealers 39,315 Gasoline Service Stations 1,135 Apparel Stores 0 Shoe Stores 0 Furniture Stores 248 Appliances 0 Radio, TV, and Consumer Electronics

192

Restaurants 6,011 Bars 537 Drug Stores 0 Liquor Stores 11,670 Sporting Goods and Bicycles

594

Books and Stationary 2,924 Hobby, Toy, and Game Shops

0

Florists 60 Other Retail Establishments 1,890

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

Overview

49


Park • open space analysis

fig. 51

50 Overview

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis


An analysis of the park and open space revealed how the current amount of park space compared with the NRPA recommendations for park space per 1,000 population. Infill and new residential development will add to the population and therefore the framework guidelines must be written to accommodate the shifts and changes in population but also encourage an abundance of park and open space. The location of the additional park space is determined by the proximity to residents. As a standard, a healthy neighborhood will have all residents within a quarter-mile walking distance of park and open spaces. As one can see from the analysis diagram, the neighborhood has various patches that are not within 1/4 mile walking distance of open space. These are the locations where new park space can be added. Brownfields are also ideal sites for new park and open space, and these are also called out on the analysis diagram. The analysis also revealed where the locations for active recreation are, what the neighborhood lacks and where new basketball courts, baseball fields, and other active and programmed recreation can be located. Playground locations were also determined

fig. 52-56 images from parks within UNWA, pavilions, basketball courts, swimming pool, playgrounds

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

Overview

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52


Urban Design Framework

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

Framework

53


Guiding Principles

54 Framework

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis


A healthy environment is welcoming to all incomes, ages, and races and has a clear identity and sense of place.

A healthy environment offers the opportunity for physical activity through walking, biking, and recreation.

A healthy environment is connected, both within the neighborhood and to the greater Indianapolis area.

A healthy environment has a mixture of land uses, encourages investment, fosters economic growth, and provides adequate services for residents.

A healthy environment offers a variety of social outlets and encourages networking and interaction between residents and visitors.

A healthy environment is a safe place, where residents feel free to walk, exercise, and socialize.

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

Framework

55


Neighborhood and Regional Connectivity “Connection is health. And what our society does its best to disguise from us is how ordinary, how commonly attainable, health is. We lose our health - and create profitable diseases and dependences by failing to see the direct connections between living and eating, eating and working, working and loving.” -Wendell Berry Perhaps the most important aspect of healthy neighborhood design is connectivity—both within the neighborhood and to the greater Indianapolis context. Connectivity is not merely physical, but also economic, social, and visual. Physical connections relate to the street grid network, destinations, and the presence of physical features such as sidewalks. As Americans have become more reliant on the automobile, spending an average of 443 hours a year behind the wheel, air pollution, respiratory diseases, and incidence of obesity have increased as well (Jackson & Kchtitzky). While inner city neighborhoods are categorized by grid patterns, barriers such as the lack of sidewalks, lack of destinations, and large block sizes may prevent residents from choosing to walk instead of drive. For needs beyond the neighborhood, access to public transit is important. However, simply the lack of sidewalks, curb cuts, and bus shelters could also prevent residents from choosing the utilizing public transport (Weathers, 2007). Just over half of residents live within ¼ mi. of public transit in Indianapolis (Weathers, 2007). A lack of connectivity prevents the development of social networks and community support. Open spaces and greenways provide the opportunity for social connectivity, and the lack thereof prevents relationships from forming. Less than a third of Indianapolis residents live within ¼ mi. of a park or greenway, and while UNWA has 378.7 acres of park and open space, as residents move back into the neighborhood, park and open space must increase as well (Weathers, 2007).

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Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis


Parks and open space connectivity is addressed later in the guidelines. Greenways also provide connectivity within the neighborhood and to the greater Indianapolis context. UNWA lacks these greenway connections as well. As jobs and industries have moved out of the inner-city to the suburbs, the neighborhoods have lost their economic connectedness to the surrounding regional context. The proximity of grocery stores, restaurants, retail facilities and industries are strongly associated with walkability and connectivity (Thompson & McCue). Providing basic needs within the neighborhood, places to live, work, and play, encourages active transport. This aspect of connectivity is addressed in the land use and development sections later in the guidelines. As the incidence of walking and biking increases, health does as well. As the use of automobiles decreases, pollution decreases, streets become safer, and the amount of people in the public realm increases leading to more nurtured community relationship. Connectivity is the key to healthy neighborhoods.

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

Framework

57


fig. 57

58 Framework

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis


framework guidelines

Transit Consolidate bus stops to create transit nodes throughout the neighborhood that encourage residents to walk to stops, use transit, and create a more efficient transit system Create a clear hierarchy of stops using signage, shelter design, and stop design Encourage transit use by improving stop locations with pedestrian conveniences

Make sidewalks wide enough to accommodate pedestrian activity by those of all abilities

Create shelters to protect users from the elements and furnish shelters with seating and/or places to lean Provide bike racks and adequate parking facilities to encourage biking to transit Neighborhood Connections Enhance sole north-south connection at Clifton Street to create a more prominent neighborhood connection Connect Clifton Street to Montcalm Street, creating a direct north-south connection within the neighborhood Pedestrian Pathways and Connections Create new greenway along Canal to create a connection through the neighborhood to the surrounding existing trail and greenway system Establish pedestrian bridges across the canal Provide seating, lighting, drinking fountains, and other infrastructure needed to support and encourage use. Provide access to transit Provide crosswalks and curb extensions to create safer pedestrian crossings on roadways

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

Framework

59


Gateways, Hearts and Edges “It is place, permanent position in both the social and topographical sense, that gives us our identity.� --J.B. Jackson

The identity of a neighborhood lies in the quality of the infrastructure, gateways, public open spaces, and architecture. Decaying surrounding and a lack of identity may lead to a negative stigmatization by those outside of the neighborhood. This can lead to feelings of powerlessness and can even reduce social and economic opportunities for neighborhood residents (Galster, The Mechanism(s) of Neighborhood Effects: Theory, Evidence, and Policy Implications, 2010). Gateways are the identifiable entrances or departures into and out of the neighborhood. It is as these gateways that residents and visitors recognize they are entering into the United Northwest Area neighborhood. These transitions provide physical and visual markers for the community to notice they are entering the neighborhood (City of Seattle Department of Planning and Development, 2010). The most important gateways in UNWA are along the major vehicular corridors on the edges of the neighborhood, however, other gateways can be found along pedestrian corridors such as the canal, Wapahani Trail, and Fall Creek Trail. Hearts are the centers in the neighborhood both residents and the overall Indianapolis context associate with the neighborhood. Hearts can be either community scale-neighborhood nodes and centers of activity--or regional-destinations identified on a larger scale. For example, Crown Hill Cemetery and Riverside Park are two regional hearts.

60 Framework

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis


Not only does the neighborhood identify these destinations they are a regional center of activity as well. Examples of community hearts are Watkins Park, the Flanner House, and Bertha Ross Park. These spaces are the centers for community social, physical, and perhaps commercial activity (City of Seattle Department of Planning and Development, 2010). They are anchors and nodes for community identity and development. Development in these nodes should enhance the central character of the neighborhood through architecture, public art, pedestrian conveniences, and uses. They separate UNWA from the surrounding neighborhoods physically and visually. Design of the edges is more clearly addressed through the gateways. The edges are central to understanding the physical, social, and economic setting of the neighborhood (City of Seattle Department of Planning and Development, 2010).

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

Framework

61


fig. 58

62 Framework

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis


framework guidelines

Gateways Enhance physical gateways through signage, lighting, and paving details Ensure clear pedestrian connections and provide a safe environment through pedestrian conveniences Enhance pedestrian gateways through use of signage, pedestrian conveniences, lighting, and paving patterns along greenways Hearts Ensure the Canal becomes a destination in itself through unique streetscapes and design features, however, ensure cohesiveness to the surrounding neighborhood Establish a community park along Fall Creek that will connect the residents within the neighborhood as well as connect the neighborhood to the surrounding context Edges Create a clear sense of identity through creative, neighborhood specific signage that create a distinct sense of place Create a visual connection to the Martin Luther King Jr. streetscape to ensure cohesiveness

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

Framework

63


The treatment of edges and gateways are perhaps the most important, identifying aspect of the neighborhood. As mentioned before, the gateways and other design elements must respond to the neighborhood history but they must also relate to existing streetscapes, hearts, and centers.

neighborhood character • sense of place

Above are examples of streetscape elements. The banners, which can be attached to light poles or hung independently, will have bright bold colors. This abundance of color is symbolic of the abundance of backgrounds, ethnicities, and histories of the neighborhood. They also respond to the existing neighborhood logo. The banners will display black and white pictures of the neighborhood’s history. These banners are similar to the MLK streetscape but can be clearly identified as being specific to UNWA. Below are examples of the totem poles that would be sprinkled throughout the neighborhood. They relate back to the historic Golden Hill totem pole while also connecting with the MLK streetscape. They will serve as art installations, gateways, and way finding markers.

fig. 59

fig. 60-62

MLK 30th Street Gateway

64 Framework

Phase One Implementation Elements Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Street November 14, 2009 Department of Metropolitan Development and the

The first phase of the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Street Vision Plan implementation will include key elements of the long-range plan for revitalization of this important commercial and institutional front door to the UNWA neighborhood of Indianapolis. INcluded Vision Plan elements include reduction from four to three travel lanes

The heritage and identity of the neighborhood will be reinforced by a celebration of the street’s namesake, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., as well as by honoring the African-American heroes that have contributed to the life of the neighborhood and city. In addition to banners and storyboards telling those

The long-range MLK Boulevard Vision Plan includes landscaped medians, roundabouts, and an additional gateway at Fall Creek Boulevard. This true boulevard will be the framework for economic development initiatives to attract new businesses and institutions to better serve the adjacent neighborhoods, provide

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis


neighborhood character • kit of parts

building character • materials fig. 63-67

public art • vegetation fig. 68-72

open space amenities

fig. 73-77

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

pedestrian conveniences

fig. 78-82

Framework

65


Street Character “Healthy streets make healthy neighborhoods” --Dan Burden

Street design is important for walkability, connections, sense of identity, and safety. As Dan Burden says, healthy streets make healthy neighborhoods. Streets are a major part of a neighborhood’s infrastructure. Decaying infrastructure and physical surroundings can have a major impact on the psychological health of residents. It may invoke a sense of powerlessness, fear of crime, and it inhibits residents’ ability to walk around their own neighborhood (Galster, The Mechanism(s) of Neighborhood Effects: Theory, Evidence, and Policy Implications, 2010). The character and design of a neighborhood’s streetscapes is also very important for the safety of pedestrians. Streets with larger sidewalks, smaller setbacks, trees, lights, and other pedestrian conveniences encourage walking, biking, and other pedestrian uses. Welldesigned streets encourage physical activity and social interaction. One would assume inner-city neighborhoods have better streetscape designs due to design standards in place when their development occurred. While inner-city streets may be much more walkable than suburbs, they typically suffer from the lack of funding and maintenance necessary to ensure they remain walkable. Crumbling sidewalks, a lack of trees and a lack of pedestrian conveniences hinders the opportunity for residents to walk to and from work, home, and school (Lopez & Hynes, 2006). This is especially troublesome for low-income families. Low-income families are twice as likely to walk instead of drive as are people of

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other income groups, yet when sidewalks are unusable or simply absent, they are forced to rely on automobiles or stay inside their homes (Murakami & Young, 1997). The absence of pedestrian conveniences such as lighting also leads to a fear of crime, again keeping residents indoors or in their cars (Lopez & Hynes, 2006). Street trees are disappearing due to age, disease, or the lack of funding to replace them, however trees have been shown to improve the perception of the neighborhood, decrease crime, improve air and water quality, reduce energy costs, and increase property values (Keep Indianapolis Beautiful, Inc., 2009; Lopez & Hynes, 2006). Simply focusing on street design and character can make major improvements on the health of a neighborhood. After extensive analysis of the various street as well as references to the Multi-modal Design Guidelines, the street character map and cross sections were developed. These guidelines are design to guide new street construction as well as street improvements and retrofitting.

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fig. 83

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framework guidelines Incorporate multiple modes of transit into street design to reduce reliance on the automobile Provide markings on the street as well as signage for bicyclists to separate uses Provide stops where buses pull off road to pick up passengers Provide infrastructure for bicycles including parking facilities and rails Establish separation zones along appropriate streets for the placement of furnishing, signage, vegetation, lighting and other pedestrian conveniences Encourage walking and physical activity through the design of sidewalks and pedestrian throughways Provide sidewalks at appropriate sizes for their use and universal access Provide lighting along paths Ensure paths are universally accessible Provide paths and curb cuts that are wide enough for the turning radii of a wheelchair Provide auditory crossings for visibly impaired persons Develop the Canal into a greenway Provide seating, drinking fountains, restrooms, and other infrastructure along pedestrian paths Celebrate views downtown along Canal Traffic Calming Design roads to be the minimum width and have the minimum number of lanes Incorporate traffic calming measures such as vegetated buffers, medians, curb extensions, and street-side parking to create safer pedestrian environments

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street cross sections

Multi-modal pedestrian corridor- Martin Luther King Jr. Street Martin Luther King Jr. Street provides multi-modal connectivity across the neighborhood while directly accessing local transit and adjacent residential and retail uses. Driveways are limited and parking is consolidated behind store fronts and multi-family dwellings. This street is visibly geared toward pedestrian access and activity, making it socially appealing and essential to the economic viability of the neighborhood.

Multi-modal commuter corridor and urban-one way corridors- 16th, 29th, 30th, 38th Streets These streets provide connectivity both along the borders of the neighborhood as well as through the neighborhood. On–street parking is encouraged while driveways and local access curbs are discouraged. Pedestrian activity zones are infrequent and if they occur they are placed along key cross streets.

Off-street multi-use corridor- Canal Greenway The Canal Greenway will be the pedestrian highway through the United Northwest Area Neighborhood and provide a major connection to the IMA and neighborhood north of 38th Street as well as the downtown canal. This will be a two-way pedestrian, bicycle, and non-motorized traffic way and may be combined with alternate forms of transportation such as boats. Refer to canal master plan for typical cross sections.

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fig. 84

fig. 85

all sections drawn at 1�=20’, scaled to fit

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Framework

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street cross sections

Multi-modal urban link corridor- Clifton, Riverside, and Harding Streets N. Clifton and Harding Streets provide smaller scale connections through the neighborhood, connecting local -streets and various sub districts to each other. On-street parking and curb cuts are encouraged as well pedestrian activity zones. Separation zones are important and may be utilized for transit stops, street trees, furnishing, etc.

City-Beautiful Boulevard and Esplanades- Burdsal Parkway, 23rd, Edgemont, 25th, 26th, Roache Streets Design by George Kessler, Burdsal Parkway serves as a major historical and cultural landmark for the United Northwest Area Neighborhood. Designated as part of the Indianapolis Historic Park and Boulevard system, these boulevards and esplanades are to be maintained and conserved. The tree lawn is to be restored to the original two rows of Elm trees and the esplanades are to be planted with ornamental trees and shrubs.

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fig. 86

fig. 87

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street cross sections

Multi-modal parkways- White River Parkway White River Parkway provides connectivity across multiple districts along the edge of the neighborhood. This corridor boasts views of the White River as well as views of Riverside Park and the golf courses and other natural resources along the White River. This corridor has limited cross streets and no on-street parking, but it allows for ample pedestrian and bicycle circulation as well as recreation cross-traffic.

Multi-modal residential streets All streets not designated as those above will be designed as multi-modal residential streets. These local streets have slow traffic speeds and low traffic volumes and are meant to serve local residents. They do not have designated bike lanes, instead bikers must share the road with automobiles, but there is a designated area for pedestrians. A separation zone is used for transit, street trees, or green infrastructure to assist with stormwater management.

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fig. 88

fig. 89

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Framework

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Development and Land Use “We must not build housing, we must build communities.” --Mike Burton

Walkability is not only based on the condition of the physical infrastructure, but also on destinations residents have to walk to. In inner-city neighborhoods a major issue residents face is the loss of jobs and industry. As industries have moved to the suburbs, they left brownfields and vacant buildings behind, some with no chance of reuse. Not only does the move to the suburbs create a ‘gapped tooth’ appearance in inner-city neighborhoods, but it also increases the distance between workers and available jobs (Lopez & Hynes, 2006). By redeveloping brownfields into open space, residential units, or commercial development, investment returns to the neighborhood and stimulates the local economy. Redevelopment can cure the issue of ‘spatial mismatch’ or the increasing distance between workers and jobs and can improve the sense of identity and place in the neighborhood (Lopez & Hynes, 2006). Vacant buildings can also increase the perception and, sometimes, incidence of crime. Vacant lots become overgrown with weeds, covered with litter, and may sometimes be used for illegal dumping (Lopez & Hynes, 2006). This fear of crime prevents residents from walking to destinations, socializing outdoors with neighbors, and exercising outdoors. Research has shown that women who live in ‘safer’ neighborhoods are more likely to walk to their various neighborhood destinations than those living in crimeridden neighborhoods. Redevelopment of brownfields can also improve the air and water quality, and thus can lead to a shrink is cases of respiratory diseases.

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Redevelopment of brownfields and vacant land would also increase density, fulfilling a goal in the Indianapolis Comprehensive Plan. This increase in density would support more retail and commercial establishments and create a vibrant, sustainable neighborhood. The canal, which was once the catalyst for the development of the neighborhood itself, can be used as a catalyst for revitalization by redeveloping it similar to the downtown canal. Vacant land can also be used for the establishment of community gardens which would foster social networks and activity and provide a healthy eating environment for all residents of UNWA.

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fig. 90

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framework guidelines Redevelop brownfields in the neighborhood Retail Locate retail and commercial buildings and their entrances near major public transit stops on the major transit corridors— 29th, 30th, Martin Luther King Jr. Street, and 16th Streets. Locate buildings and their entrances near corridors with shallow setbacks Ensure urban form celebrates, instead of blocks, important views such as the view downtown Ensure all residents live within one (1) mile of a full service grocer Residential Infill housing to increase density and improve the ‘gappedtooth’ appearance of neighborhood

Infill existing 1070 vacant lots adding an estimated additional 2611 residents to the community

Ensure an 80:20 ratio of market to affordable housing units in all new multi-family and single-family developments Develop multi-family housing near canal and major corridors Incorporate public space such as plazas or park space in developments Provide areas for community supported urban agriculture Consider architectural style of context when designing new housing--both single- and multi-family dwellings Refer to building typologies for appropriate size, style, density, and open space requirements for new residential development Ensure windows are on all sides of multi-family dwellings Place entrances in highly visible areas for multi-family dwellings Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

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Community Commercial Pedestrian-Oriented Retail and Service Corridor This land use category is for retail development of less than 125,000 square feet. This development will lie along the major arterial corridors or 29th, 30th, Martin Luther King Jr. Street, and 16th Street and will be concentrated at the major intersections. This development will be anchored by a supermarket or drug store, will contain 10-40 stores total, and will cover a market area radius of 1-3 miles. Establishments in this retail area include drugstores, grocery stores, banks, restaurants, clothing stores, hobby shops, coffee shops, specialty retail, destination retail, etc. Much of this commercial development will be mixed-use, retail, residential, and office use. These corridors will serve to reinforce existing retail along MLK and 16th Street and expand commercial development along the other major corridors.

retail • industry development

Neighborhood Retail and Service Node The small-scale commercial nodes will serve basic resident needs within a quarter mile walking distance. These will be located at secondary, minor bus stops in the heart of the residential development. These would be anchored by convenience stores and post offices and will contain 3-20 stores with a total retail space of 10,000 to 30,000 square feet. The market area radius will be less than 2 miles. Examples of retail tenants in this scale development include hair salons, medical offices, drycleaners, insurance offices, and restaurants. Village Mixed-Use Node This land use category focuses on a mixed-use core of office, retail, open space, and public and semi-public uses. This will node will be located within the northern part of the neighborhood separated from the southern half by Interstate 65 as a retail service node for that section of the neighborhood. Strip and large scale freestanding retail uses are prohibited. Light Industrial This land use development will be concentrated in the southern part of the neighborhood and will consist of industrial uses that have no, or extremely limited, outdoor uses. This development will create minimal impact on adjacent residential uses.

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Fig. 91-93 Examples of commercial development


residential development

Single Family 5-8 units per acre The majority of the UNWA neighborhood is categorized as this residential land use. Existing land use categories of this scale and density will be maintained. Infill development should be of the same density. Single Family 8-15 units per acre This density is the highest density single-family residential development and lowest density multi-family development. This type of single - and multi-family development will serve to transition between the lower density single family use and the higher density multi-family dwelling units. Multi-family >15 units per acre This density will be concentrated along major corridors such as MLK, 29th, 30th, and 16th Streets and will also be concentrated along the canal. This density will be located near the major bus stops as well as along the corridors with the potential to be used for other forms of mass transit. This development will be categorized by townhomes, rowhouses, and apartment buildings.

Fig. 94-96 examples of residential development

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The following building typologies will be used to guide both infill and new residential and retail development. Exterior design of these building will be based of the surrounding context to ensure the new or infill development fits within the neighborhood context. Existing homes are one to two story frame buildings built in the traditional American bungalow style. Exterior materials consist of both wood and vinyl siding and brick facades. infill single family

fig. 97-98

higher-density single family

fig. 99-100

contextual/american bungalow townhomes

fig. 101-02

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building typologies


mirrored green townhomes

fig. 103-04

shared court townhomes

fig. 105-06

corner, contextual rowhouses

fig. 107-08

garden court apartments

fig. 109-10

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Framework 83


Public Open Space Network The desire for community is a constant of “human nature.� --Steven Price

Public open space is important for a variety of reasons. It offers the opportunity for physical activity and also provides a site for the formation of social relationships. Research has shown that the proximity one lives near parks and open space is associated with their participation in physical activity. This is especially true with children (Weathers, 2007). Parks provide the venue for a variety of physical activity from running to organized sports to gardening. Parks are also important to the health of seniors, an important issue to note as the UNWA neighborhood has a high percentage of senior residents. A study in Tokyo found seniors who lived in neighborhoods with walkable green spaces lived longer than those living in neighborhoods without walkable green spaces (National Recreation and Park Association, 2010). Open space networks also provide the opportunity for urban agriculture and local food production. Parks and open space create an environment that improves mental health as well. Studies have shown that access to green view and environments can improve impulse control, resilience, cognitive functioning, and overall mental health (National Recreation and Park Association, 2010). Parks and open space can improve the mental health of residents suffering from ADHD, depression, stress, and anxiety. Parents of children with ADHD actually rated outdoor after school activity programs as significantly more helpful than those held indoors. One study showed that ADHD children who took a twenty-minute walk in an urban park actually improved their

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concentration performance (National Recreation and Park Association, 2010). Parks also offer the setting for establishing social networks and community relationships. Research has shown that residents living in socially cohesive communities are more likely to help neighbors through hard times and share information about relevant community news or job openings. Strong social cohesion also increases residents’ incidence of political participation (Ellen & Turner, 1997). According to the National Recreation and Park Association, when people are connected to nature, they feel less isolated and focus less on themselves and more on the community. Parks and open space can lower crime rates, increase feelings of safety, and lead residents to have a stronger feeling of belonging (National Recreation and Park Association, 2010). Riverside Park, a regional destination, is located on the western edge of the UNWA neighborhood. While the neighborhood boasts this 95.7 acre park, it lacks smaller neighborhood, community, and mini parks that could increase walkability, physical activity, and improve the overall health of the residents. There are two large portions of the neighborhood that do not live within a quarter mile of a park or open space, and this plan proposes a variety of potential spaces for establishing these smaller parks and creating a complete open space network in UNWA.

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fig. 111

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FRAMEWORK GUIDELINES Provide all residents with park space within at least Âź mi. walking distance from their home Ensure park and open space meets National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA) standards Community park space: 5-8 acres per 1,000 population Neighborhood park space: 1-2 acres per 1,000 population

Mini park space and pocket parks will be designated based on remaining acreage of community and neighborhood park space.

Incorporate park space and plazas as components of largescale developments, concentrating open space in a large area as opposed to dispersing the open space into smaller pieces if avoidable. Incorporate midblock connections when blocks are greater than 600’ wide. Utilize vacant land and brownfields as sites for new open space Create new community park near Fall Creek, connecting Watkins Park, Fall Creek Park, and the greenways Design parks, open spaces, and recreational facilities to accommodate various age groups. Incorporate playgrounds and active recreation facilities as well as passive recreation areas Incorporate paths and greenways Incorporate furnishing, drinking fountains, lighting, and other pedestrian accommodations Incorporate community gardens, urban agriculture, and farmers markets

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Canal Master Plan

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Canal Master Plan

89


fig. 112 Neighborhood and regional connectivity gateways, hearts, and edges street character land use and development public open space network

90 Canal Master Plan

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introduction

Just as the canal was the catalyst for the formation of North Indianapolis and what would eventually become the United Northwest Area Neighborhood, the canal is once again an opportunity for development and revitalization. This focus area master plan explores how the urban design framework can be implemented along the canal and how the guidelines can be used to spark revitalization. Through the framework, a basic design and development concept was formed. The canal is highlighted in all framework plans to the left and from there one can see the potential the canal has in each plan. This focus area was developed in detail from ensuring there are adequate amounts of parking per dwelling unit to the retail square footage that can be sustained by the new residential development. Building typologies follow those laid out in the urban design framework and the character of the open space was developed through perspective. Pedestrian bridges serve to create connections and establish a strong pedestrian network as well as establish focal points along the canal. This plan shows how the UNWA neighborhood can once again become a vital, sustainable, healthy place to live, work, and play.

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fig. 113

concept diagram soft, vegetated edge

central plaza

development focus area major e/w pedestrian connection

nexus for canal, development, fall creek

buffers-large setbacks, height

gateway

important pedestrian connection connect into downtown cultural trail

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fig. 114

master plan

wapahani trail connection

major development area

fall creek connection

downtown connection

0

1000’

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93


0

94 Canal Master Plan

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500’


Wapahani trail connection Fig. 115

The Wapahani Trail Connection will connect the new canal to the existing trail system along the White River. Lying along the single-family residential development, it will continue the soft, vegetated edge until it reaches 30th Street. The trail will be buffered by vegetation to create a sense of privacy for the residents as well as create enclosure for those walking along the canal. At the end of each road will be a rest stop for pedestrians and bicyclists and these rest stops will have bollards to prevent vehicular traffic. An example can be seen in Figure 120. Mini Park A mini park is proposed for the small lot near Interstate-65. This park will act as a buffer between the residential development and the interstate while also serving as a destination for bicyclists and pedestrians along the Canal Tow Path and Wapahani Trail. This mini park is 1.2 acres and has amenities such as picnic pavilions, water fountains, Gateway This gateway along White River Parkway will consist of flag and light poles with the UNWA logo, historic pictures, and bold color scheme. The gateway will not only serve as a gateway for the neighborhood but also for the canal. A totem pole will be located at the small plaza near the pedestrian bridge crossing the canal as a gateway element and public art piece. This gateway can be seen in Figure 119. Neighborhood Park Due to the extent of vacancies on this block and the need for neighborhood park space, a neighborhood park is proposed for this block. The park is 3.7 acres and will feature amenities such as a playground, basketball courts, and picnic pavilion. Contextual Townhomes These townhomes will be of the American Bungalow Style similar to the surrounding single-family context. They will serve to transition to the higher density mixed-used development along the canal. These can be seen in Figures 101 and 102. Rowhouses Row houses serve to transition from the medium- and highdensity single family development to the apartment buildings along the canal. These can be seen in Figures 107 and 108. Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

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0

96 Canal Master Plan

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500’


major development area Fig. 116

The section of the canal features the majority of the residential and retail development. It is located in the heart of the neighborhood and is designed to create a destination for UNWA residents and the greater Indianapolis context. Mixed-use Retail/Residential Along 29th and 30th Streets retail and residential uses will be clustered. This is located along the community commercial pedestrian-oriented corridor and will have 25,000 square feet of retail space that will be anchored by a grocery store. Parking for retail will be a surface lot while parking for residential units will be on the first and second floors of the apartment buildings. Residential Development Multi-family residential development will be concentrated around the canal. The residential development will be similar to that of the downtown canal and will range from townhomes to courtyard apartments. The development will transition in size and density from the existing single-family development to the 4-5 story apartments. There will also be residential development geared for senior living. Over 700 dwelling units will be added along the extent of the canal. Neighborhood Park This neighborhood park is 4 acres and will feature amenities such as a playground, basketball court, formal and informal gardens, basketball courts, and picnic pavilions. This can be seen in Figure 123. Community Garden The community garden, located near the elementary school, Neighborhood Park, and senior living development will serve many purposes. It will be a site for learning, recreation, and social networks. This also provides the opportunity for a healthier eating environment. This can be seen in Figure 122. Boat launch The boat launch and surrounding plaza acts as a public open space and a node along the larger waterway network. Here one can grab a boat or a bike and travel along the various waterways. This network improves physical and social health as well as the connectivity of the Indianapolis area. This can be seen in Figure 124. Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

Canal Master Plan

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0

98 Canal Master Plan

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500’


fall creek connection Fig. 117

This section of the canal connects the new development and trail system to the existing Fall Creek Trail. This section also acts to transition from the UNWA neighborhood to downtown Indianapolis. This does so by a transition in scale, water features, and materials. Community Park Along Fall Creek is an abundance of brownfields and old industrial sites. A community park is proposed for the reuse of this brownfields. This community park is 47.5 acres and adds a major piece in an overall green network for Indianapolis. It features a trail system, picnic pavilions, community center, and boat launch. Aqueduct The Fall Creek Aqueduct is a unique feature for the UNWA neighborhood. This master plan proposes to create a viewing platform for the aqueduct as well as an adjacent plaza where events can be held. This can be seen in Figure 125. Manufacturing trail and plaza The trail lining the manufacturing and industrial area of the UNWA neighborhood is treated much differently than the other sections of the canal. The trail lines only one side of the canal and terminates in a large basin and plaza similar to the downtown canal near the IU Medical Center. A cross section of this can be seen in Figure 126. Runnel Trail This section of the trail transitions from the UNWA neighborhood to the downtown connection. This section of the trail separates pedestrian and bicycle traffic through materials and scale and is lined by a runnel to continue the visual and physical connection to the canal. This runnel terminates at the MLK gateway in a basin where it symbolically drains into a basin that seems to lead to the downtown canal waterfall. A cross section of this can be seen in Figure 127.

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0

100 Canal Master Plan

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500’


downtown connection Fig. 118

This is the final section of the canal master plan. The downtown connection is important to connect UNWA to the overall Indianpaolis context. It offers the opportunity for a different audience and demographic to enter the UNWA neighborhood from downtown and for UNWA residents to have easy access to downtown features and amenities. Martin Luther King Jr Street/Canal Gateway This gateway serves as an entrance to both the MLK streetscape as well as the UNWA Canal. It has aspects of the MLK streetscape such as the totem poles and paving materials ans has the runnel and paving materials of the canal trail system. This can be seen in Figure Cultural trail Because of the abundance of road systems between the UNWA canal and the downtown canal, creating a successful streetscape is key in connecting the two sections of the canal and creating a large pedestrian network. This streetscape will be designed as a section of the cultural trail so it visually and physically connects into the downtown pedestrian network and extends it into the UNWA neighborhood. A cross section of this can be seen in Figure 128. Pedestrian Bridge The final connecting tissue between the UNWA canal and the downtown canal is the pedestrian bridge. This bridge, similar to the BP Bridge in Chicago will cross over Interstate 65 ramps and Martin Luther King Jr. St and will serve as a safe pathway for all pedestrians. It will be functional and aesthetic, serving as a pedestrian link and gateway.

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101


White river parkway gateway fig. 119

102 Canal Master Plan

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canal towpath rest stop Fig. 120

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103


central plaza Fig. 121

104 Canal Master Plan

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community garden Fig. 122

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106 Canal Master Plan

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neighborhood park Fig. 123

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107


108 Canal Master Plan

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boat launch Fig. 124

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109


aqueduct lookout

Fig. 125

110 Canal Master Plan

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trail

canal

manufacturing

Fig. 126

Trail near Manufacturing •Trail with Runnel

Fig. 127

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Canal Master Plan

111


MLK Cultural Trail

Fig. 128

112 Canal Master Plan

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mlk- canal gateway

Fig. 129

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113


guiding principles Fig. 130

Fig. 131

gateway

pedestrian and bicycle trail ped/bike connections

totem poles

boat launch and bike sharing public art

active and passive recreation

gateway

pedestrian bridge/ gateway

ped/bike connections

A healthy environment is welcoming to all incomes, ages, and races and has a clear identity and sense of place.

A healthy environment offers the opportunity for physical activity through walking, biking, and recreation.

- gateways

- bicycle and pedestrian connections continued along dead-end streets

- public art

- playgrounds

- pedestrian bridges - civic space and parks - signage and street elements that celebrate neighborhood history and identity

114 Canal Master Plan

- active recreation fields - connections to fall creek and wapahani trails -canoe boat launch and bicycle sharing

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis


Fig. 132

Fig. 133

open space 5-8 du per acre

physical connections

commercial 8-15 du per acre

social connections

institutional >15 du per acre

greenway connection

to downtown

A healthy environment is connected, both within the neighborhood and to the greater Indianapolis area. - designated bus stops located near major retail and residential areas - pedestrian/bicycle only crossings along canal - trail connects UNWA to downtown - pedestrian and bicycle connections continue along dead-end streets

A healthy environment has a mixture of land uses, encourages investment, fosters economic growth, and provides adequate services for residents. - mixed-use development, variety of land uses - variety of densities, housing types, and building typologies - additional 25,000 sq. ft. retail, 700 dwelling units, 56.3 ac. open space

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115


Fig. 134

Fig. 135

semi-private spaces

eyes on the street

private spaces building entrances parking lot

public spaces

A healthy environment offers a variety of social outlets and encourages networking and interaction between residents and visitors. - 56.3 acres of park and open space [1.2 ac. mini park space, 7.6 ac. neighborhood park space, 47.5 ac. community park space]

A healthy environment is a safe place, where residents feel free to walk, exercise, and socialize. - passive/natural surveillance, eyes on the canal, open space, etc. - distinguishable public and private space

- varying degrees of public, semi-public, and private space

- parking lots defined by curbs and plantings

- connection to downtown draws varying demographics and visitors to UNWA

- windows on all sides of multi-family dwellings

116 Canal Master Plan

- exterior doors visible to neighbors

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis


Fig. 136

grocery store

community gardens

A healthy environment provides access to fresh food from both local producers and full service grocers. - addition of full service grocer on 29th street - community gardens incorporated within public open spaces

Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

Canal Master Plan

117


118 Canal Master Plan

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Fig. 137

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Canal Master Plan

119


120


Conclusion • Appendices

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The United Northwest Area Neighborhood has the potential to become one of the most ideal places to live, work, and play in Indianapolis. The neighborhood lies in the heart of many Indianapolis amenities, but is not yet a destination itself. This framework in meant to be a guidebook on how to get from here to there and to once again create a healthy, sustainable, livable inner-city neighborhood. The framework celebrates the history of the neighborhood, builds upon the existing strengths, and seeks to improve its weaknesses. The framework connects the neighborhood back to Indianapolis and connects the neighborhood residents to each other. It provides the opportunities to play outside, meet one’s neighbors, live affordably, and work close to home. The canal master plan shows the potential the waterway has as a catalyst for neighborhood revitalization. What once sparked the development of the neighborhood itself can once again be used to draw new residents into UNWA and improve the neighborhood for those who already call UNWA home. It will act as a place to live and work and provide opportunities for all ages and incomes. The framework and the master plan could not be implemented in simply a year or two, but instead are meant to serve as long term guides for how to bring the United Northwest Area into the future. While ‘finished’ now, their implementation would involve change and evolution as the neighborhood changes and evolves itself. These plans serve as a starting point for what could eventually be one of the most vibrant and dynamic places to call home.

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Conclusion


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123


Neighborhood: refers to the environment in which one lives and can be defined in terms of the social, physical, economic, or political environment. Severely-distressed neighborhood: refers to a neighborhood characterized by high rates of poverty, unemployment, vacancies, and crime. They are also characterized by lower levels of academic attainment and poorer health outcomes for residents. Health: refers to a combination of the social, physical, and mental well-being of an individual or group, not simply the absence of infirmary Revitalization: refers to the process of redeveloping or redesigning a specific area in order to create a healthier, sustainable environment, improve the local economy and give new life to the area. Sustainability: refers to the idea that interventions done in or on an area at the present time will sustain or improve the lives of future generations and the environment in which they live. Sustainable Design: refers to design methods that improve the current economic, physical, social, and environmental conditions of an area or place while making sure the design will sustain or improve the conditions of future generations and the environment in which they live. Inner-city: refers to a type of neighborhood located near a city-center core within the metropolitan area of a major city as opposed to suburban. Neighborhood Effects: refers to the ways in which the neighborhood environment in which one lives affects their behaviors, choices, and health. Livability: refers to the degree in which the neighborhood provides the environment for a healthy life.

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Appendix A • Glossary of Terms


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The history of the United Northwest Area began with the construction of the Central Canal in 1837 and its opening in 1839. This shifted the development from the east side to the near west side (City of Indianapolis, 2006). While the Canal proved to be an ineffective route for the transportation of goods through Indianapolis, it did attract industries and settlement to the neighborhood including Nathaniel West’s cotton mill, Udell Ladder Works, the North Indianapolis Wagon Works, and the Henry Ocow Manufacturing Company (Indianapolis Univeristy Purdue University Indianapolis Polis Center). This increase in development spurred the platting of North Indianapolis starting in 1873, the predecessor of the UNWA neighborhoods. The Indianapolis Belt Railway Company was also incorporated and eventually led to the development of a stock yard along the river. The location of the stockyards and the Belt Railway made them a focal point for central Indianapolis and made them ideal for the import and export of livestock (Indianapolis Univeristy Purdue University Indianapolis Polis Center). By 1890, the population of North Indianapolis was around 1,479 and with the implementation of the streetcar, the population began to grow (City of Indianapolis, 2006). The neighborhood supported two churches and a country club that featured tennis courts, a clubhouse, and a nine-hole golf course. It also featured the Flanner House, an open door settlement house for African Americans stung by the post slavery era. The Alpha House, also housed in the neighborhood, served aged African American women while the Indiana Industrial School for the Blind served as another social institution for the neighborhood and surrounding context. In 1895, North Indianapolis was annexed in order to obtain cheaper natural gas rates (City of Indianapolis, 2006). After the turn of the century, on the cusp of a blossoming economy and increased mobility, the neighborhood began to grow. What was once rural country roads became frequently travelled urban corridors and more churches sprang up as people moved into the area. Many of the historic homes erected during this boom still exist in the neighborhood. Golden Hill was erected during this time as a neighborhood for the city’s most prominent families, and is still home to a concentration of wealth at the fringe of the neighborhood, a stark contrast to the modest homes within the core. Early commercial development was concentrated along Clifton Street because of the electric rail line and from 1913 to 1974, St. Vincent’s hospital was the leading employer

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Appendix b • hISTORY


for the residents (Indianapolis Univeristy Purdue University Indianapolis Polis Center). A key feature of the neighborhood during this time was not the manufacturing or prominent homes, but in fact, the Riverside Amusement Park. Riverside Amusement Park is seen to tell the story of the rise and fall of the neighborhood— starting in the early 20th century with modest beginnings through its booming development and finishing with racial tensions and disinvestment. This park featured rides, concession stands, and a dance hall and the park attracted thousands of visitors who came to see the big bands and orchestras. This park made UNWA one of the city’s centers of entertainment and during the middle of the century, as Riverside Amusement Park was expanding, George E. Kessler developed a plan for Riverside Park and over 75 percent of the homes in the neighborhood were constructed. The Children’s Museum also relocated to the neighborhood during this time and many of the churches in the area expanded or built new buildings, improving the appearance and prominence of the neighborhood (Indianapolis Univeristy Purdue University Indianapolis Polis Center). Post World War II the neighborhood began the decline of the UNWA Neighborhood. Racial tensions were high not only because the amusement park, a focal point for entertainment refused to admit African Americans except on certain days, but because the churches and surrounding institutions played into racism as well. From the late 19th century on the neighborhood was home to a significant number of African Americans and as white flight occurred during the post-World War II years, the neighborhood transformed into a racially diverse but segregated community of almost entirely African Americans. White flight was not the only event that created a drastic change in the neighborhood, though (Indianapolis Univeristy Purdue University Indianapolis Polis Center). The construction of I-65 split the neighborhood in two, causing economic and social conflicts (City of Indianapolis, 2006). During construction, over 3,000 families left the UNWA neighborhood and this outmigration continued in the preceding years (Indianapolis Univeristy Purdue University Indianapolis Polis Center). From 1960 onward can be described as the neighborhoods modern history. The racial transformation could be seen clearly in the various church congregations as poor African Americans filled the void left by the white, middle class flight to the suburbs and this led to disinvestment in the Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

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neighborhood. Again, Riverside Amusement Park reflected the economic and social conditions of the neighborhood as it shut its doors at the end of the 1970s. When St. Vincent left the neighborhood in 1974, the neighborhood suffered another economic blow as its largest employer moved to West 86th Street. Churches began springing up as the most active social organizations in the area, with Mt. Zion Baptist Church leading the way. Mt. Zion strove to create a ‘cradle to grave’ atmosphere for the neighborhood residents by building apartment complexes, day care centers, and a nursing home. The Flanner House was another prominent figure in the neighborhood during this hard time and these organizations continue to play a crucial role in the area (Indianapolis Univeristy Purdue University Indianapolis Polis Center). Despite all these efforts to improve the neighborhood, the 1990 census revealed the neighborhood face high rates of poverty, crime and decay. This led to the Department of Metropolitan development to designate an area as a redevelopment area. At this time the crime rate was 9.4 per 100 residents compared to the larger city’s 7.8 per 100 residents (City of Indianapolis, 2006). During this time a new health center open on Martin Luther King Jr. Street and a plan to redevelop School 41 into apartments, proposed by the Pilgrim Baptist Church, began. Redevelopment of Riverside Amusement Park also began during this time and the site is not home to single family homes and condominiums.

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A healthy environment is one that has connections to the context that expand job opportunities and foster upward mobility, has access to healthy eating environments, allow for physical activity and walkability, and are safe and sustainable environmentally, economically and socially. Distressed or low-income neighborhoods lack many of the features required for healthy residents and this leads to various neighborhood effects which lead to problems that can be improved or prevented through healthy neighborhood design and a focus on the urban environment. Problems: The foundation of the research project addresses the sub problems developed in the problem statement. Research has been conducted on how the urban fabric has changed over time, how distressed neighborhoods are defined, the effects of concentrated poverty and the mechanisms for these effects. Current and historical revitalization methods have been explores and principles of a healthy environment have emerged. Site specific problems that were addressed in the urban design framework were the lack of neighborhood and regional connections, geographic and social isolation, poor street design and walkability, lack of investment, the gap-toothed urban fabric, lack of park space, and unsafe environment. The canal revitalization master plan addressed the lack of investment along the canal, social and physical isolation, and finally, the lack of a distinct identity. Methods, Data Collection: Initial research was gathered through the use of JSTOR and Academic Search Premiere accessed through Bracken Library. All plans that addressed the United Northwest Area Neighborhood or pieces thereof were obtained through the City of Indianapolis Department of Metropolitan Development’s website, the City of Indianapolis Parks Department website, and the United Northwest Area Neighborhood Community Development Corporation. These plans were used as references for the urban design framework in order to create a comprehensive vision for the neighborhood that addressed current and future issues. Throughout the project, more information on healthy neighborhood principles was gathered to further inform the framework and master plan. Census data and the neighborhood plans were used in

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Appendix c • mETHODOLOGY


determining whether the UNWA would be an appropriate site for the project. Then, GIS information, transit plans, aerial images, site visits, meetings with community members, and the neighborhood plans were used to develop the site inventory and analysis and determine what mechanism of distress the neighborhood face and what issues the framework needed to address. Sanborn maps were also used to explore how the urban fabric of the neighborhood has changed over time. This information was obtained through the College of Architecture and Planning: Indianapolis Center’s Director, Brad Beaubien, Google, personal site visits, the Indianapolis Department of Metropolitan Development, the Metropolitan Planning Organization, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, and discussions with the UNWA Development Corporation members. Case studies were used to explore how communities around the United States have addressed community and neighborhood health, active living, and creating neighborhood urban design frameworks. References and documents from Urban Land Institute and National Parks and Recreation Association were also obtained through the internet to assist with issues throughout the project. Analysis and Synthesis: Through the Census demographic and housing condition information as well as the GIS analysis I understood where the vacant housing was, the condition of the overall housing stock, the income of the and from the literature I can understood how the conditions came to be. This information will also give me an estimate of where the population and housing stock of the community was headed. Synthesizing this information together I determined where and what kind of housing is needed. Commercial vacancies and potential development was determined in the same method. ULI information was used to determine appropriate square footages for the target population in the canal master plan. The GIS information, site visits, and discussions with community members were used to determine where/along what corridors the commercial development would occur. GIS and transit plans were used to determine existing and the lack of connections as well as to determine how to make the existing transit system more efficient. Site visits determined the conditions of transit stops in order to determine how they should be improved. Site visits also aided in determining where a lack of pedestrian and vehicular connections Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

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occurs and where it should be improved. Literature was also synthesized with site analysis to create the neighborhood connections plan. The census information was combined with the GIS files to determine what residents have access to park space within Âź of a mile of an open space. The existing population was analyzed to determine the ratio of neighborhood, regional, and community park space and it was determined the neighborhood did not meet the current needs for park space. With the framework planning to incorporate additional residents, the park space ratios must be adjusted as the population increases. The ratios were based off the National Parks and Recreation Association standards. The site visits and discussion with community members, synthesized through GIS and Google, were used to review where the community buys their food. Through analysis, it was determined where new grocers should be and, incorporated with public open space network analysis, where urban agriculture should be. An analysis of the streetscapes, existing and planned commercial and residential, and park space led to the development of the streetscape framework plan and section cuts. The new streetscapes will connect residents to places within their neighborhood, increasing walkability and providing greater opportunity for physical and social wellbeing. This framework was then used to design the canal revitalization master plan. Other resources that assisted this plan were GIS, aerial photos, site visits and photos, and various books on graphic and design standards.

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Appendix D • TIMELINE 1

2

3

4

5

6

Inventory and Analysis, Diagrams Program (Framework)

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

Trash Overlays Vicinity Maps, Layout, Vision

Concepts for focus areas

Inventory and Analysis, Diagrams Concept Finalization

Prepare digital materials Prepare midterm presentation

Detail Plans, Sections, Sketches

Prepare Final presentation

site visits meet with Carla or John meet with Scott and Brad Final Board Written Midterm Repot UNWA

Case Study Master Plan

Design Development, master plan, detailed plan(s), design refinement

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Final Written Report and Board

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Figure 1 [p. 8] - Families gathered in UNWA in the 1950’s Figure 2 [p. 10] - Youth center along MLK

Appendix e • list of figures

Figure 3 [p. 11] - Brownfield along Burdsal Parkway Figure 4 [p. 11] - Brownfield along Montcalm Ave. Figure 5 [p. 14] - Houses in UNWA Figure 6 [p. 15] - African American family living in UNWA Figure 7 [p. 15] - Townhomes in UNWA in the 1950’s Figure 8 [p. 17] - Excluded cities map, Indianapolis, Indiana Figure 9 [p. 24] - Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs Figure 10 [p. 29] - Image from New York Active Design Guidelines Figure 11 [p. 29] - Image from New York Active Design Guidelines Figure 12 [p. 29] - Image from New York Active Design Guidelines Figure 13 [p. 30] - Image from South Lake Union Design Guidelines Figure 14 [p. 30] - Image from South Lake Union Design Guidelines Figure 15 [p. 30] - Image from South Lake Union Design Guidelines Figure 16 [p. 31] - Image from Bowden Urban Design Guidelines Figure 17 [p. 31] - Image from Bowden Urban Design Guidelines Figure 18 [p. 31] - Image from Bowden Urban Design Guidelines Figure 19 [p. 32] - Indianapolis Downtown Canal Figure 20 [p. 32] - San Antonio Riverwalk Figure 21 [p. 32] - Fort Lauderdal Riverwalk Figure 22 [p. 33] - BP Bridge Figure 23 [p. 33] - Passerelle Mimram Figure 24 [p. 33] - Simone de Beuvoir Footbridge Figure 25 [p. 36] - Indiana Figure 26 [p. 36] - Indianapolis Figure 27 [p. 36] - United Northwest Area Neighborhood Figure 28 [p. 37] - Context Map

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Figure 29 [p. 38] - Summary of Demographic Profile Figure 30 [p. 39] - Vacancies Map Figure 31 [p. 40] - Historic Firehouse Figure 32 [p. 40] - Canal at Burdsal Parkway Figure 33 [p. 40] - Swimming pool at Riverside Park Figure 34 [p. 40] - Sole North-South Connection at Clifton Street Figure 35 [p. 41] - Inventory Figure 36 [p.42] - Walkability Analysis Figure 37 [p. 43] - KIBI and IUPUI analysis criteria Figure 38 [p. 43] - KIBI and IUPUI analysis criteria Figure 39 [p. 43] - KIBI and IUPUI analysis criteria Figure 40 [p. 43] - KIBI and IUPUI analysis criteria Figure 41 [p. 43] - KIBI and IUPUI analysis criteria Figure 42 [p. 43] - KIBI and IUPUI analysis criteria Figure 43 [p. 43] - KIBI and IUPUI analysis criteria Figure 44 [p. 43] - KIBI and IUPUI analysis criteria Figure 45 [p. 43] - KIBI and IUPUI analysis criteria Figure 46 [p. 44] - Final Tree Cover Analysis Map Figure 47 [p. 45] - Analysis Figure 48 [p. 46] - Retail and Residential Analysis map Figure 49 [p. 47] - Mass Ave Precedent Figure 50 [p. 47] - Broad Ripple Precedent Figure 51 [p. 50] - Park and Open Space Analysis map Figure 52 [p. 51] - Park Pavilion Figure 53 [p. 51] - Basketball court Figure 54 [p. 51] - Swimming Pool Figure 55 [p. 51] - Park Pavilion Figure 56 [p. 51] - Playground Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

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Figure 57 [p. 58] - Neighborhood and Regional Connections Plan Figure 58 [p. 62] - Gateway, Hearts, and Edges Plan Figure 59 [p. 64] - Signage and Wayfinding Character Figure 60 [p. 64] - Martin Luther King Jr. Streetscape Figure 61 [p. 64] - Examples of totem poles Figure 62 [p. 64] - Examples of totem poles Figure 63 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts-Building Character and Materials Figure 64 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts-Building Character and Materials Figure 65 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts-Building Character and Materials Figure 66 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts-Building Character and Materials Figure 67 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts-Building Character and Materials Figure 68 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts-Public Art and Vegetation Figure 69 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts-Public Art and Vegetation Figure 70 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts-Public Art and Vegetation Figure 71 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts-Public Art and Vegetation Figure 72 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts-Public Art and Vegetation Figure 73 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts- Open Space Character Figure 74 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts- Open Space Character Figure 75 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts- Open Space Character Figure 76 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts- Open Space Character Figure 77 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts- Open Space Character Figure 78 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts- Pedestrian Conveniences Figure 79 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts- Pedestrian Conveniences Figure 80 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts- Pedestrian Conveniences Figure 81 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts- Pedestrian Conveniences Figure 82 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts- Pedestrian Conveniences Figure 83 [p. 68] - Street Character Plan Figure 84 [p. 71] - Pedestrian Corridor Cross Section

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Figure 85 [p. 71] - Commuter Corridor Cross Section Figure 86 [p. 72] - Urban Link Cross Section Figure 87 [p. 72] - City Beautiful Cross Section Figure 88 [p. 73] - Parkway Cross Section Figure 89 [p. 73] -Residential Street Cross Section Figure 90 [p. 78] - Land Use and Development Plan Figure 91 [p. 80] - Examples of Commercial Development Figure 92 [p. 80] - Examples of Commercial Development Figure 93 [p. 80] - Examples of Commercial Development Figure 94 [p. 81] - Examples of Residential Development Figure 95 [p. 81] - Examples of Residential Development Figure 96 [p. 81] - Examples of Residential Development Figure 97 [p. 82] - Building Typologies Figure 98 [p. 82] - Building Typologies Figure 99 [p. 82] - Building Typologies Figure 100 [p. 82] - Building Typologies Figure 101 [p. 82] - Building Typologies Figure 102 [p. 82] - Building Typologies Figure 103 [p. 83] - Building Typologies Figure 104 [p. 83] - Building Typologies Figure 105 [p. 83] - Building Typologies Figure 106 [p. 83] - Building Typologies Figure 107 [p. 83] - Building Typologies Figure 108 [p. 83] - Building Typologies Figure 109 [p. 83] - Building Typologies Figure 110 [p. 83] - Building Typologies Figure 111 [p. 86] - Public Open Space Network Plan FIgure 112 [p. 90] - Framework to Focus Plan Concept Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

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Figure 113 [p. 92] - Concept Diagram Figure 114 [p. 93] - Master Plan Figure 115 [p. 94] - Wapahani Trail Connection Figure 116 [p. 96] - Major Development Area Figure 117 [p. 98] - Fall Creek Connection Figure 118 [p. 100] - Downtown Connection Figure 119 [p. 102] - White River Gateway Figure 120 [p. 103] - Canal Towpath Rest Stop Figure 121 [p. 104] - Central Plaza Figure 122 [p. 105] - Community Garden Figure 123 [p. 106-7] - Neighborhood Park Figure 124 [p. 108-9] - Boat Launch Figure 125 [p. 110] - Acquduct Figure 126 [p. 111] - Canal Cross Section Figure 127 [p. 111] - Canal Cross Section Figure 128 [p. 112] - Canal Cross Section Figure 129 [p. 113] - MLK Gateway Figure 130 [p. 114] - Guiding Principles Diagram Figure 131 [p. 114] - Guiding Principles Diagram Figure 132 [p. 114] - Guiding Principles Diagram Figure 133 [p. 114] - Guiding Principles Diagram Figure 134 [p. 115] - Guiding Principles Diagram Figure 135 [p. 115] - Guiding Principles Diagram Figure 136 [p. 115] - Guiding Principles Diagram Figure 137 [p. 116-7] - Aerial of New Development

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Figure 1 [p. 8] - Families gathered in UNWA in the 1950’s http://images.indianahistory.org/cdm4/item_viewer. php?CISOROOT=/p0266&CISOPTR=111&CISOBOX=1&REC=4

Appendix f • Image Sources

Figure 6 [p. 15] - African American family living in UNWA http://images.indianahistory.org/cdm4/item_viewer. php?CISOROOT=/p0266&CISOPTR=139&CISOBOX=1&REC=10 Figure 7 [p. 15] - Townhomes in UNWA in the 1950’s http://images.indianahistory.org/cdm4/item_viewer. php?CISOROOT=/p0266&CISOPTR=138&CISOBOX=1&REC=9 Figure 8 [p. 17] - Excluded cities map, Indianapolis, Indiana Indianapolis Comprehensive Plan Figure 9 [p. 24] - Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/regsys/maslow.html Figure 10-12 [p. 29] - Images from New York Active Design Guidelines City of New York. (2010). Active Living Guidelines: Promoting Physical Activity and Health in Design. New York: City of New York. Figure 13-15 [p. 30] - Images from South Lake Union Design Guidelines City of Seattle Department of Planning and Development. (2010). South Lake Union Urban Design Frameowrk. Seattle: City of Seattle. Figure 16-18 [p. 31] - Images from Bowden Urban Design Guidelines Bowden, Australia. (2011). Bowden Urban Design Guidelines. Adelaide: Government of South Australia. Figure 19 [p. 32] - Indianapolis Downtown Canal http://www.foreclosurelistings.com/images/resources/indianapolisin/living-indianapolis.jpg Figure 20 [p. 32] - San Antonio Riverwalk http://www.wildnatureimages.com/I%20to%20R/River_Walk_ Umbrellas..JPG Figure 21 [p. 32] - Fort Lauderdal Riverwalk http://www.destination360.com/north-america/us/florida/fortlauderdale/downtown-riverwalk

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Figure 22 [p. 33] - BP Bridge http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f0/Bp_ bridge.JPG/250px-Bp_bridge.JPG Figure 23 [p. 33] - Passerelle Mimram http://img.groundspeak.com/waymarking/display/18f1a3fd-ceba41bb-8320-15479f4dfbbf.jpg Figure 24 [p. 33] - Simone de Beauvoir Footbridge http://www.trekearth.com/gallery/Europe/France/North/Ile-deFrance/Paris/photo425669.htm Figure 37-45 [p. 43] - KIBI and IUPUI analysis criteria http://www.kibi.org/urban_forestry Figure 46 [p. 44] - Final Tree Cover Analysis Map http://www.kibi.org/urban_forestry Figure 60 [p. 64] - Martin Luther King Jr. Streetscape www.storrowkinsella.com Figure 65 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts-Building Character and Materials http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_bGl3tIx3u0o/SI6uSMPQ7jI/ AAAAAAAAB-4/Ulm2GFiW084/s400/bungalows.jpg Figure 66 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts-Building Character and Materials www.storrowkinsella.com Figure 68 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts-Public Art and Vegetation http://api.ning.com/files/GDUKye-PcskOV2PPP8b3FmiehriYWH6x3p a8U4avhAJxBpRPP3UVTQ83VVx0nyfjstyS3RDgndTbzHDrqp4KmY3T6J EUcxCG/CrenshawCaWall.jpg Figure 69 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts-Public Art and Vegetation http://greenbuildingchronicle.com/wp-content/uploads/ tdomf/6595/TSW%20Bioswale.jpg Figure 70 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts-Public Art and Vegetation http://www.forms-surfaces.com/ Figure 71 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts-Public Art and Vegetation http://www.flickr.com/photos/pandora-no-hako/5177417964/ Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

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Figure 72 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts-Public Art and Vegetation http://wwwdelivery.superstock.com/WI/223/1890/PreviewComp/ SuperStock_1890-45655.jpg Figure 74 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts- Open Space Amenities http://www.forms-surfaces.com/ Figure 75 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts- Open Space Character http://images.quickblogcast.com/73990-64894/playground2. jpg?a=80 Figure 78-82 [p. 65] - Kit of Parts- Pedestrian Conveniences http://www.forms-surfaces.com/ Figure 91 [p. 80] - Examples of Commercial Development www.storrowkinsella.com Figure 92 [p. 80] - Examples of Commercial Development www.storrowkinsella.com Figure 96 [p. 81] - Examples of Residential Development http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_bGl3tIx3u0o/SI6uSMPQ7jI/ AAAAAAAAB-4/Ulm2GFiW084/s400/bungalows.jpg Figure 102 [p. 82] - Building Typologies http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_bGl3tIx3u0o/SI6uSMPQ7jI/ AAAAAAAAB-4/Ulm2GFiW084/s400/bungalows.jpg Figure 104-109[p. 83] - Building Typologies http://www.portlandonline.com/bps/index. cfm?c=49254&a=223703

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Bowden, Australia. (2011). Bowden Urban Design Guidelines. Adelaide: Government of South Australia. Center for Disease Control. (n.d.). LEED ND and Healthy Neighborhoods: An Expert Review Panel. Atlanta: Center for Disease Control. City of Chicago. (2010). BP Bridge in Millennium Park. Retrieved Mar 2012, from Explore Chicago: http:// explorechicago.org/city/en/things_see_do/attractions/dca_ tourism/bp_bridge_in_millennium.html City of Indianapolis. (2002, Feb). Indianapolis Insight: The Comprehensive Plan for Marion County Indiana. Indianapolis, Indiana: City of Indianapolis. City of Indianapolis. (2006). United Northwest Neighborhood Plan. Indianapolis : Department of Metropolitan Development Division of Planning. City of New York. (2010). Active Living Guidelines: Promoting Physical Activity and Health in Design. New York: City of New York. City of Seattle Department of Planning and Development. (2010). South Lake Union Urban Design Frameowrk. Seattle: City of Seattle. Cubbin, C., Pedregon, V., Egerter, S., & Braveman, P. (2008). Where we Live Matter for our Health: Neighborhoods and Health. San Francisco: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Dietmar Fiechtinger Architectes. (1998). Dietmar Fiechtinger Architectes - Bridges - Simone de Beauvoir Footbridge, Competition. Retrieved Mar 2012, from Dietmar Fiechtinger Architectes: http://www.feichtingerarchitectes.com/display_ project.php/2/32 Ellen, I. G., & Turner, M. A. (1997). Does Neighborhood Matter? Assessing Recent Evidence. Housing Policy Debate, 833-66. Elo, I. T., Mykyta, L., Margolis, R., & Culhane, J. F. (2009, Dec). Perceptions of Neighborhood Disorder: The Role of Individual and Neighborhood Characteristics. Social Science Quarterly, 90(5), 1298-1320. Galster, G. C. (2010). The Mechanism(s) of Neighborhood Effects: Theory, Evidence, and Policy Implications. ESRC Seminar: “Neighborhood Effects: Theory and Evidence” (pp. 1-30). Scotland, UK: ESRC.

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Appendix g • REFERENCES


Galster, G. C., Cutsinger, J. M., & Malega, R. (2007). The Social Costs of Concentrated Poverty: Externalities to Neighborhing Households and Property Owners and the Dynamics of Decline. Boston: Joint Center for Housing Studies, Harvard University. Groundspeak, Inc. (2012). Passerelle Mimram - Strasbourg/ France. Retrieved Mar 2012 , from Waymarking: http://www. waymarking.com/waymarks/WM1J77_Passerelle_Mimram_ Strasbourg_France Hallman, H. W. (1984). Neighborhoods: Their Place in Urban Life. Beverly Hills: SAGE Publications, Inc. Huitt, W. (2007). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA, USA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved Jan 20, 2012, from Educational Psychology Interactive: http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/ topics/regsys/maslow.html Indiana Department of Education. (2010). DOE Compass. Retrieved Nov 20, 2011, from Indiana Department of Education: http://compass.doe.in.gov/SearchResults.aspx?se archVal=3&searchText=49&searchLabel=Marion Indianapolis Univeristy Purdue University Indianapolis Polis Center. (n.d.). UNWA- Narrative History. Retrieved Nov 14, 2011, from The Polis Center: http://www.polis.iupui.edu/RUC/ Neighborhoods/UNWA/UNWANarrative.htm Jackson, R. J., & Kchtitzky, C. (n.d.). Creating a Healthy Environment: The Impact of the Built Environment on Public Health. Washington DC: Sprawl Watch Clearinghouse. Kasarda, J. D. (1993). Inner-City Concentrated Poverty and Neighborhood Distress 1970-1990. Housing Policy Debate, 4(3), 253-302. Keep Indianapolis Beautiful, Inc. (2009). Trees. Retrieved Mar 2012, from Keep Indianapolis Beautiful: http://www.kibi.org/ urban_forestry Kingsley, G. T., & Pettit, K. L. (2003). Severe Distress and Concentrated Poverty: Trends for Neighborhoods in Casey Cities and the Nation. Baltimore: Annie E. Casey Foundation. Local Initiative Support Corporation. (2011). Neighborhood Power - A Gathering to Inspire Greater Indy Neighborhoods. Retrieved Dec 04, 2011 , from Neighborhood Power: http:// neighborpowerindy.org/qol Landscape Architecture Undergraduate Thesis

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Lopez, R. P., & Hynes, H. P. (2006, Sept 18). Obesity, Physical Activity, and the Urban Environment: Public Health Research Needs. Retrieved Dec 2011, from Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source: http://www.ehjournal.net/ content/5/1/25 Murakami, E., & Young, J. (1997). Daily Travel by Persons with Low Income. Betheda: NPTS Symposium. National Recreation and Park Association. (2010). Synopsis of 2010 Research Papers-- The Key Benefits. Ashburn: National Recreation and Park Association. O’Hare, W., & Mather, M. (2003). The Growing Number of Kids in Severely Distressed Neighborhoods: Evidence from the 2000 Census. Baltimore: Annie E. Casey Foundation. Pastor, M., & Turner, M. A. (2010). Reducing Poverty and Economic Distress after ARRA: Potential Roles for PlaceConscious Strategies. Washington DC: The Urban Institute. Smart Growth America. (2010). What is “smart growth?”. Retrieved Dec 01, 2011, from Smart Growth America: Making Neighborhoods Great Together: http://www. smartgrowthamerica.org/what-is-smart-growth The Polis Center at IUPUI. (2012). United Northwest Area, Inc. (UNWA) Community Profile. Retrieved Feb 2012, from SAVI: http://savi.org/savi/CommunityProfiles. aspx?SelectGeography=COUNTY Thompson, S., & McCue, P. (n.d.). The CHESS Principles for Healthy Environments: An holistic and strategic game-plan for inter-sectoral policy and action. Retrieved Nov 13, 2011, from http://www.pcal.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/file/0003/27651/ chess.pdf U.S. Census Bureau. (2009). U.S. Summary: 2009 American Community Survey. Retrieved Nov 14, 2011, from Census: http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&context=dt&-ds_name=ACS_2009_5YR_G00_&-CONTEXT=dt&mt_name=ACS_2009_5YR_G2000_B11001&-tree_id=5309&redoLog=false&-geo_id=08000US180971151236003350300&geo_id=08000US180971151236003351000&-geo_id=08000US U.S. Green Building Council. (2011). USGBC: LEED for Neighborhood Development. Retrieved Nov 13, 2011, from LEED for Neighborhood Development: http://www.usgbc. org/DisplayPage.aspx?CMSPageID=148

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Vallianatos, M., Shaffer, A., & Gottlieb, R. (2002). Linking Food and Transportation: A New Opportunity. Center for Food and Justice, Urban and Environmental Policy Institute. von Hoffman, A., & Felkner, J. (2002). The Historical Origins and Causes of Urban Decentralization in the United States. Cambridge: The Joint Center for Housing Studies Harvard University . Weathers, T. (2007). Mapping the Intersection of Physical Activity and the Built Envrionment. Indianapolis: Marion County Health Department.

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Healthy Neighborhoods  

Undergraduate thesis completed for my Bachelor of Landscape Archiecture at Ball State University.

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