UNESCO Windhoek Office Newsletter Issue 30

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Windhoek, Namibia

Office Newsletter APRIL 2018


Message from Head of Office

UNESCO Head of Office and Representative to Namibia, Dr. Jean Pierre Ilboudo

Welcome to the thirtieth issue of the UNESCO Windhoek Office Newsletter. This issue provides an update of the events and activities implemented by our office during the month of April 2018.

Some of the highlights for this issue include:

UNESCO and the Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture as well as the Ministry of Environment and Tourism, officially inaugurated the Namib Sand Sea as a World Heritage Site.

IN THIS ISSUE Inauguration of the Namib Sand Sea Fact Finding Mission to ECD Centres for San Communities National Liberations Experts Meeting

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Invitee of the Month: Ms. Farayi Zimudzi, Food and Agriculture Organization Representative to Namibia

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The preparations for the celebration of World Press Freedom Day, for 2018, are under way. This year the theme of the co mmemoration of this day is, “Keeping Power in Check: Media Justice and the Rule of Law”. The science sector presents the reflection of the Month, which deals with Innovation in Namibia and the way to bridge the Gap. The education sector informs on the monitoring mission undertaken with several partners such as our sister agency UNICEF to visit Early Childhood Development Centres that we first developed by UNESCO Windhoek years ago. The Windhoek Office also collaborated with the UNESCO Regional Office for Southern African to host the first ever experts meeting for the National Liberation Movement for the SADC Region. We are also pleased to introduce a new Invitee of the Month, Ms. Farayi Zimudzi, who is the new FAO Representative to Namibia, we encourage you to read this article and learn more about the work of FAO in Namibia. We hope to continue informing you on our activities in the months to come. Happy reading!

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This year, the 25th celebration of World Press Freedom Day (WPFD 2018) will take place under the theme “Keeping Power in Check: Media, Justice and the Rule of Law”. The main celebrations will be hosted in Accra, Ghana on 2 – 3 May by UNESCO and the Government of the Republic of Ghana. The celebrations aim at providing a platform for diverse actors to discuss the interplay between media, the rule of law and the judiciary, within the context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In Namibia a Steering Committee chaired by the UNESCO Windhoek Office initiated the preparations for WPFD 2018 on March 15 and held several meetings until the end of April. These meetings took place to plan activities revolving around this year’s theme and discuss their implementation. Aside from UNESCO Windhoek Office, the Committee consists of the following stakeholders: Editors Forum of Namibia (EFN), Delegation of the European Union to Namibia (EU), Internet Society of Namibia (ISOC), the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology (MICT), Namibia National Commission for UNESCO (NAT-

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COM), Namibia Media Trust (NMT) and the Namibia University of Science and Technology (NUST). In the course of the gatherings, the meeting agreed on the following 4 activities, starting on 7 May. Due to public holidays in the first week of May, the Committee consented to start the celebrations for WPFD after the global launch taking place from 2-3 May, (to reach a broader public). The activities are defined as follows: 1. Training of Bloggers: May 07 at the Namibia University of Science and Technology 2. Official ceremony of World Press Freedom Day 2018: May 08 at the Safari Court Hotel 3. Public lecture on Sustainable Development Goal 5 (Gender Equality) and 16 (Promotion of Just, Peaceful and Inclusive Societies): (TBA) 4. Briefing Session of Judges: (TBA) The Training of Bloggers aims at equipping young people with skills such as blogging, coding and other ICT online literacy skills to empower them for promoting social inclusion, to make their voice audible in the national discourse and to generally strengthen democracy. The lectures will cover the following topics: Fundamental Human Rights online & African Charter of Internet Freedom and Rights, Social Media and Personal Brand Management, Reporting on Transparency and Accountability, Basic Photography and Web Development as well as a Review of created Blogs. The Official World Press Freedom Celebration in Windhoek will focus on the presentation of a study on the stage of sustainability of the media in Namibia as well as on a panel discussion with experts from different areas of the media industry, sharing their perspective about the imperative need to allow for the Sustainability of the Media in Namibia while also considering the aspects of keeping power in check, within the media landscape of Namibia. The Public lecture on Sustainable Development Goal 5 (Gender Equality) and 16 (Promotion of Just, Peaceful and Inclusive Societies) will involve both female and male gender-activists in the talk, as well as a media lecturer to make the audience aware of the importance of both SDGs, relating to press freedom, freedom of expression and access to information. In the end the audience should have an appropriate overall picture of the linkage between SDG 5 and 16 and their respective courses of study be it media studies or Law. The Briefing Session of Judges intends to expose judges to the Declaration of Human Rights (Art. 19) and the significance of the UN Plan of Action on the Safety of Journalists, to allow for open dialogue between all the relevant stakeholders and the judges themselves to acquired knowledge in their courtrooms, promoting an environment where the justice system supports free and safe journalism. Worldwide, participants in World Press Freedom Day events will also address pressing challenges to freedom of expression and discuss ways of strengthening journalism as a central factor in building just, peaceful and inclusive societies. The 2018 theme therefore is intended to resonate in more than 100 countries. The outcome of the occasion should be better understanding, enabling stakeholders to respond to contemporary challenges affecting press freedom worldwide.

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From L to R: Councillor Edward Wambo, Ms Esther Moombalah-Goagoses, Governor of Hardap Miss Esme Sophia Isaack, Hon. Minister of Education, Arts and Culture Katrina Himarwa, Minister of Environment and Tourism, Hon. Pohamba Shifeta UNESCO Head of Office and Representative to Namibia Dr Jean Pierre Ilboudo

The Namib Sand Sea World heritage site was inaugurated by Hon. Minister of Education, Arts and Culture, Katrina Hanse Himarwa. The event took place on April, 6 in the Namib desert at Sossusvlei in presence of the Minister of Environment and Tourism, Hon. Pohamba Shifeta; the Deputy Minister of Health, Ms Juliet Kavetuna; the Governor of the great Hardap region, Miss. Esme Sophia Isaack; the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Environment and Tourism Dr. Malan Lindeque, the Chairperson of the Committee on the Implementation of the 1972 UNESCO World Heritage Convention, Ms Esther Moombolah-/Goagoses; the Head of Office of UNESCO Windhoek Office, Dr Jean-Pierre Ilboudo, and other officials of the Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture and the Ministry of Environment and Tourism. Before the official ceremony, an excursion to climb the dunes was organised and led by Hon. Minister of Education, Arts and culture, Katrina Himarwa. The official ceremony was marked by three different speeches.

UNESCO Head of Office and Country Representative, Dr. Jean Pierre Ilboudo delivers remark at inauguration First to deliver his remarks was the UNESCO Head of Office and Country Representative, Dr. Jean Pierre Ilboudo who said that “UNESCO describes these sites as irreplaceable sources of life and inspiration. Moreover, because of their significance to the world's cultural and natural heritage, UNESCO protects and preserves the sites around the world that are considered to be of outstanding value to humanity. Heritage is our legacy from the past, what we live with today, and what we pass on to future generations. Our cultural and natural heritage is both irreplaceable sources of life and inspiration.

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INAUGURATION OF THE NAMIB SAND SEA: A UNIQUE WORLD HERITAGE SITE IN THE WORLD address, recalling the history of the region, of its communities, their culture. She expressed her disappointments at those who do not obey rules and regulations at designated tourists’ sites: “It is not always about money, it is important for tourists to respect local rules as we need to preserve our heritage for future generations.” She stressed that some sites such the Namib Sand Sea are cultural and national heritage that possesses a rich history and should be preserved. “My call to the tourists is to respect, appreciate and value the importance of heritage sites with us so we can preserve the pride of many years,” she added. Heritage Site placard at Namib Sand Sea According to the UNESCO 1972 World Heritage Convention, protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage is developed from the merging of two separate movements: the first focusing on the preservation of cultural sites, and the other dealing with the conservation of nature. By regarding heritage as both cultural and natural, the Convention reminds us of the ways in which people interact with nature, and of the fundamental need to preserve the balance between the two.” He added that “cultural and natural tourism will remain a key priority for UNESCO’s development agenda in Namibia. UNESCO will also be on the position to support the relevant ministries and local authorities. With the spirit of Harambee, we will be able to maximize the social and economic value of natural and cultural heritages could potentially bring us. From cultural heritage to cultural and creative industries, Culture is both an enabler and a driver of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. To be kept alive, heritage must be relevant to its community, continuously recreated and transmitted from one generation to another. The protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage is important because heritage sites are our connection to the past and every historical site has an important story to tell; and lastly heritage sites are great for economic development as I said earlier”.

Sand dunes at Namib Sand Sea Heritage Site The Minister of Environment and Tourism has decided that no exploitation of minerals will occur within the Namib Sand Sea World heritage site in Sossusvlei in the Hardap region. Hon. Pohamba Shifeta stated that “the Government is committed to meet its obligations by ensuring that all activities which are not consistent with world heritage sites shall not be allowed to take place at this important site.” Speaking at the inauguration of the Namib Sand Sea World Heritage Site, Hon. Katrina Hanse Himarwa, Minister of Education, Arts and Culture delivered a vibrant keynote

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The site is the second world heritage site in Namibia after Twyfelfontein in the Kunene region, which is home to the world largest concentration of rock art. It was inscribed to the World Heritage List in 2007.


The Namib Sand Sea is the only coastal desert in the world that includes extensive dune fields influenced by fog. Covering an area of over three million hectares and a buffer zone of 899,500 hectares, the site is composed of two dune systems, an ancient semi-consolidated one overlain by a younger active one. The desert dunes are formed by the transportation of materials thousands of kilometres from the hinterland that are carried by river, ocean current and wind. It features gravel plains, coastal flats, rocky hills, inselbergs within the sand sea, a coastal lagoon and ephemeral rivers, resulting in a landscape of exceptional beauty. Fog is the primary source of water in the site, accounting for a unique environment in which endemic invertebrates, reptiles and mammals adapt to an ever-changing variety of microhabitats and ecological niches. This is the second World Heritage Site in Namibia after Twyfelfontein, home to the world's largest concentration of rock art, which was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2007. In order for a natural site to be listed as a World Heritage Site, it must meet one of the following criteria’s: • To contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance; • To be outstanding examples representing major stages of Earth's history, including the record of life, significant ongoing geological processes in the development of landforms, or significant geomorphic or physiographic features; • To be ou tstanding examples representing significant ongoing ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, freshwater, • To contain the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation. The Namib Sand Sea has met all four criteria for becoming a Natural World Heritage Site and was inscribed on the World Heritage List on 21 June 2013, making it the first natural site for ten years to do so. That puts the Namib Sand Sea on a par with The Galapagos Islands off the coast of South America and the Great Barrier Reef off Australia that also fulfilled all four criteria when they were added to the list in 1978 and 1981 respectively. Key management issues today include managing the increasing demand for visitor access to pristine areas and precluding mineral exploration rights that would influence the values and attributes of the area. There is potential for serial extension of the Namib Sand Sea beyond the Namib-Naukluft Park and beyond national borders to include other significant dune systems within other protected areas of the larger Namib Desert. The designation means that the site displays outstanding universal value.

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FACT-FINDING MISSION TO ECD CENTRES FOR SAN COMMUNITIES EDUCATION A fact-finding mission, composed by members of UNESCO, UNICEF, Office of the President, Palms for Life and Line Ministries, travelled to Ohangwena on 19-20 April 2018. The mission was to assess the current situation of the San Early Childhood Development (ECD) Centres in the region, propose recommendations as a way forward and revitalize the partnership between the different stakeholders to ensure that the centres are adequately supported in terms of providing appropriate resources for teaching and learning.

Participants of the fact finding mission during a courtesy visit with Ohangwena Governor, Hon. Usko Nghaamwa elementary school.

Children at Oshandi ECD Centres during the fact finding mission

After that time, in 2011, the centres were handed over to the government and since then, the support received has been limited. As a result, these centres are now in decaying conditions and not functioning properly. In addition, the children are not receiving the necessary early learning and child stimulation support due to the poor capacity of educarers, insufficient materials and furniture and the poor feeding program offered to them.

In 2002 UNESCO established and supported Early Childhood Development (ECD) centres for the San communities in Ohangwena Region as part of the Integrated Approach to Education, providing a forum to engage parents and broader community in an effort to improve the San people’s quality of life. A fully dedicated staff member was on the ground providing support to the project coordinator and supervising the progress and quality of activities at the centres, in order to fully prepare young children (0-5) for their transition into

During the mission a number of shared needs among the ECD centres were identified related to substandard infrastructure and furniture, deficient learning materials and playground facilities, underqualified educarers, poor nutritional support and weak community engagement. In order to take the first needed steps towards a complete support to these ECD centres, a holistic approach is going to be developed by the identified task force.

Ouholamo community members discuss living conditions of their community with mission

Onamatadiva ECD Centre without little to no equipment & learning material

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Participants on the National Liberation Movement pose for a group photo after the opening ceremony at National Assembly An experts meeting on the National Liberation Movements in the SADC region tool place from 24 to 25 April in Windhoek, Namibia. UNESCO in partnership with the Southern Africa Research and Documentation Centre (SARDC), Ministry of Higher Education, Arts and Culture, and the National Assembly of Namibia organised the meeting. This meeting was to produce resource material on the National Liberation Movements (NLM) in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Region. The meeting looked at the regional dimensions and linkages of this region. The official opening ceremony took place on the 24th of April 2018 in the chambers of the National Assembly of Namibia in Windhoek, following a gathering of the experts at Country Club the same day. The experts meeting continued the next day (25th of April), ending with a common dinner.

youth to understand and appreciate the commonalities and solidarity among the people of colonial Southern Africa hence creating an environment of mutual respect and togetherness. The experts meeting brought together prominent scholars and experts such as Mr Joel Khathutshelo Netshitenzhe, the Executive Director of Mapungubwe Institute for Strategic Reflection (MISTRA) in South Africa; Mr Godfrey Madaraka Nyerere, the Coordinator of Butiana Cultural Tourism Enterprise in Tanzania; Professor Simbi Mubako and Zimbabwean Former Cabinet Minister, High Court judge, diplomat, law lecturer and legal advisor of Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (ZANU PF) Party among others.

Dr Hubert Gijzen, UNESCO Regional Director for Southern Africa during his address View of participants during the opening ceremony The objective of this experts meeting was to share and utilize the diverse experiences of the liberation struggle in Southern Africa to help the region address its contemporary challenges of xenophobia and other forms of discrimination as well as to promote regional integration, tolerance, unity and social cohesion. The region went through protracted colonial rule and apartheid system, which resulted in the struggles for independence, democracy and majority rule. UNESCO aims to document the history of liberation struggles in such a way that will allow citizens, particularly the

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Delivering UNESCO remarks at the official opening ceremony, Prof Hurbert Gijzen, the Director and Representative of UNESCO Regional Office for Southern Africa said that contemporary Southern Africa was shaped in the theatre of the liberation struggle which helped to define and redefine the region’s identity and notions of community, nationhood, citizenship, rights, democracy and governance through negotiation, contestation and consensus. “The struggle for the liberation of Southern Africa from colonialism was an important historical epoch because it was one of those episodes that rallied Southern African people at both local/national and regional levels to fight one common evil-

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Sanet Steenkamp, Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Education during her address From left: Prof Hurbert Gijzen, Hon. Peter Katjavivi and Dr Jean-Pierre Ilboudo racial discrimination and oppression. This kind of solidarity should continue in post-colonial societies” Prof Gijzen emphasized. He also said the programme will contribute to the understanding of a common history and heritage, thus promoting inclusion, cultural diversity, and civic education and it seeks to link the tacit knowledge and memories that are yet to be documented with the transmission of information and knowledge to the younger generations.

Hon. Peter Katjavivi, Speaker of the National Assembly during his address Hon. Peter Katjavivi, Speaker of the National Assembly of the Republic of Namibia delivered the keynote address. In his remarks he said, “The solidarity shown by our African brothers and sisters was instrumental in liberating the African continent. In our meeting today, we are also reminded of the words of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah who once said, “The independence of Ghana is meaningless unless it is linked-up with the total liberation of the African Continent”. The African dream, which was every African’s conviction at that time, was that Africa must be free.” The Speaker reiterated the importance of the meeting to Namibia and other SADC countries. “The resource material on National Liberation Movements will help our schools, universities and other public institutions to impart knowledge about National Liberation Movements as well as regional history, heritage, and cultural diversity to the youth and future generations,” he said. He also paid tribute to the United Nations for playing a key role in the liberation of the region: “The United Nations played a crucial role in the liberation and decolonisation of this region, in particular, Namibia and South Africa”.

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Ms Sanet Steenkamp, the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture delivered remarks on behalf of the Minister, Honourable Katrina Hanse-Himarwa. Ms Steenkamp thanked UNESCO and partners for choosing Namibia to host the experts meeting. She stressed that the initiative is important to Namibia and the region because it seeks to bring unity and cohesion. Ms Steenkamp emphasised the importance of cultural diversity within countries and in the region. The second day of the experts meeting focused on developing resource material, looking at content, literature review and documenting sources as well as discussions on the National Liberation Movement Heritage Programme, including the objectives, expected results and implementation strategy. The meeting revolved around the following five key themes: • The role and contribution of women to the National Liberation Movements • Transnationalism and regional integration: approaching NLMs through a lens that goes beyond artificial national ‘silos’ • How a strengthened regional identity can be a tool in combating discrimination and xenophobia in our current societies in the SADC region • Youth, then and now: exploring the age dimension of the struggles, and acknowledging the fact that most of the actors involved in the NLMs were youth, can help us reflect on inter-generational exchange and engage contemporary youth in their region’s history, and • The role and contribution of the church and labour unions to NLMs, particularly in Namibia and South Africa. The experts agreed on the outline of the resource material that UNESCO will produce and most countries including Namibia expressed interest to introduce the volumes of the “General History of Africa” in schools. Mr Charaf Ahmimed, Programme Specialist for Social and human Sciences Sector at UNESCO Regional Office for Southern Africa quoted the words of the late Nelson Mandela who said “…we must work together to ensure the equitable distribution of wealth, opportunity, and power in our societies …” which had deep resonance through the experts meeting. In his closing Remarks, Dr Jean-Pierre Ilboudo Head of UNESCO Windhoek Office and Representative to Namibia said UNESCO will continue to work in collaboration with all valued partners to generate awareness and educational tools to sustain shared knowledge about the independence movement across the region and contributing to regional integration and sustainable development.

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Keynote Address by Hon. Prof. Peter H. Katjavivi, MP Speaker of the National Assembly of the Rep. of Namibia at the Occasion of Experts meeting NATURAL SCIENCES on production of resource material on National Liberation Movements in the SADC Region- Regional dimensions and linkages.

Experts meeting on production of resource material on “National Liberation Movements in the SADC Region: Regional dimensions and linkages”, which has brought many of you here, from within and from outside Namibia. To you, I say, your presence here is very much valued and appreciated. Firstly, permit me to acknowledge UNESCO and partner institutions, for organising this important event.

Hon. Peter H. Katjavivi, delivering the keynote address at opening ceremony

Parliament Building, Windhoek, Namibia 24 – 25 April 2018 • Director of Ceremonies, • Deputy Speaker of the National Assembly of the Republic of Namibia, • Honourable Katrina Hanse-Himarwa, Minister of Education, Arts and Culture, • Honourable Ministers and Deputy Ministers, • Hon. Professor Mburumba Kerina, • Honourable Members of Parliament, • Your Excellences, High Commissioners and Ambassadors, • Professor Hubert Gijzen, Director and Representative, UNESCO Regional Office for Southern Africa, • Dr. Jean-Pierre Ilboudo, UNESCO Windhoek Head of Office and Representative to Namibia, • Ms. Phyllis Johnson, Founding Member and Former Director of the Southern African Research and Documentation Centre, • Mr. Munesti Madakufamba, Executive Director of the Southern African Research and Documentation Centre, • Members of the United Nations Country Team in Namibia, • Secretary Generals of UNESCO National Commissions, • Distinguished Academics, guests and participants, • Members of the Media, • Ladies and Gentlemen, Good morning to you all! I would like to extend a warm welcome to all of you, dear participants, to this important event of the

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This meeting is important as it aims to generate awareness and educational tools to sustain shared knowledge about independence movements across the region and to regenerate the shared cohesion across borders that emerged during that period, thus contributing to regional integration. I would like to highlight the fact that this project is closely following in the footsteps of similar projects, such as the UNESCO History of Africa series and the SADC Hashim Mbita Project. This project was named after Lt. General Hashim Mbita, a Tanzanian General who served as the Executive Secretary of the OAU Liberation Committee. He had this to say: “In order that present and future generations do not forget the sacrifices made by millions of their fore fathers and mothers in the liberation struggle, the 2004 SADC Summit Conference held in Port Louis, Mauritius, approved a research project to document the liberation struggle in southern Africa, and to publish the documents from that research”. Indeed, the project was kick-started and it went on to produce nine volumes, which have a wealth of information on the history of the liberation struggle of southern Africa, thereby projecting the voices of those who fought in the liberation struggle. This project covered Southern African Liberation Struggles, 1960-1994 and it produced volumes 1-9, which were edited by Arnold J. Temu and Joel das N. Tembe. It was completed in 2014 and each of the countries in SADC that participated in the struggle for freedom and independence, contributed to the project. Over and above that, there are also contributions by other countries and organisations which closely associated with the liberation struggle in southern Africa. Let me hereby take this opportunity to acknowledge

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NATIONAL LIBERATIONS EXPERTS MEETING SOCIAL HUMAN SCIENCES the excellent work done by the entire team which worked on the Hashim Mbita Project. I was one of the liaison people for the Namibian Chapter of the Hashim Mbita Project.

of the United Nations. Subsequent to this event, many more Namibians appeared as petitioners at the United Nations, including our current President, Comrade Hage Geingob.

Director of Ceremonies, Ladies and Gentlemen,

After many years of struggle aimed at mobilising inside the country to curtail the South African Government from imposing its illegal schemes, the struggle against South Africa’s colonial rule in Namibia to which it also extended its apartheid policy – received impetus with the creation of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) in 1963. The OAU’s formation was aimed at eliminating all forms of colonialism in Africa.

The United Nations played a crucial role in the liberation and decolonisation of this region, in particular, Namibia and South Africa. The struggle for the freedom and independence of Namibia comprised of a three pronged approach, i.e., 1) the political mobilisation of the oppressed people of our country, 2) the diplomatic front which sought solidarity and support from the rest of the international community and, 3) the armed struggle that our people had to undertake. As many of you know, Namibia has a long history of close association to the United Nations. Namibia was inherited by the United Nations as a Mandate, from the League of Nations. South Africa was entrusted by the UN to administer Namibia as a Mandate on behalf of the UN. It was this mandate which South Africa abused as it sought to annex Namibia to the Union of South Africa. In direct response to this, Namibians at home and abroad, mobilised to try and overcome this illegal act and its associated atrocities. In the 1940s, Rev. Michael Scott, an Anglican Church priest from the United Kingdom, petitioned the United Nations on behalf of the people of Namibia. In 1957, Mburumba Kerina was sent to the United States, having travelled as a student, to petition the United Nations on behalf of Chief Hosea Kutako, who headed the Herero Chiefs’ Council. He was followed in 1959 by Hans Beukes and Jariretundu Kozonguizi, also sent by Chief Hosea Kutako, with the aim of reinforcing the representation and demand of the oppressed people of Namibia. In 1960, they were joined by Sam Nujoma, who had gone into exile through Bechuanaland (today’s Botswana) on 1 March 1960 as a direct consequence of the December 1959 massacre in the Old Location, Windhoek. In June 1960, Sam Nujoma joined his fellow petitioners in New York and petitioned the Subcommittee of the Fourth Committee

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In 1966, the United Nations adopted Resolution 2145(XXI), which terminated South Africa’s mandate over South-West Africa, Namibia today. This Resolution assigned the UN direct responsibility for the territory and designated the UN Council for Namibia as the legal administering authority. Ladies and Gentlemen, Our struggle was also linked to the struggle of the peoples of South Africa, Zimbabwe, Angola, Mozambique, Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde. The struggle for self-determination in all these countries was led by nationalist organisations also closely coordinated with each other on the continent. I also want to take this opportunity to emphasize that frontline states including, Angola, Tanzania, Zambia and other African countries in their individual capacity and under the OAU umbrella, played a significant role in the decolonisation and eventually, the attainment of independence by Namibia and South Africa. Namibia’s neighbours provided refuge to Namibian freedom fighters and exiles who fled from persecution by the South African Apartheid regime. Some went to Angola, while others went to Tanzania, Zambia (where the United Nations Institute for Namibia was established in 1976) and elsewhere in the region. These countries eventually provided gateways to destinations abroad where Namibians received education and military training. In this regard and very importantly, Egypt, Algeria, China, Cuba and the former Soviet Union were among Namibia’s most important friends abroad.

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NATIONAL LIBERATIONS EXPERTS MEETING SOCIAL HUMAN SCIENCES These countries contributed immensely to the independence of our country. Namibians are forever grateful to them. Furthermore, there were also countries in the West which provided humanitarian assistance and reinforced our educational and health centres in Zambia and Angola. I must also acknowledge with thanks and appreciation, the solidarity received from a number of solidarity organisations and friends, who dedicated themselves to the cause of Namibia, and played a critical role in sustaining the vigour for the quest for self-determination of Namibia and the rest of southern Africa. Ladies and Gentlemen, In 1978, the UN passed Resolution 435, which provided a firm foundation on which Namibia’s independence was later achieved, after it emphasized and reinforced the declaration that South Africa's illegal administration should withdraw from Namibia and further, called for the holding of free and fair elections in the country. In 1988, South Africa agreed to end its illegal occupation of Namibia and subsequently its apartheid policy in the country. On 21 March 1990, Namibia finally gained its independence. On 23 April 1990, Namibia was admitted to the UN. The independence of Namibia sent a clear message to the apartheid government in South Africa that its days were numbered. Ladies and Gentlemen, The solidarity shown by our African brothers and sisters was instrumental in liberating the African continent. In our meeting today, we are also reminded of the words of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah who once said, “The independence of Ghana is meaningless unless it is linked-up with the total liberation of the African Continent”. The African dream, which was every African’s conviction at that time, was that Africa must be free. In conclusion, I would like to reiterate the importance of this meeting to Namibia and other SADC countries. The resource material on National Liberation Movements will help our schools, universities and other public institutions to impart knowledge about National Liberation Movements as well as

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regional history, heritage, and cultural diversity to the youth and future generations. Indeed, our minds are reverberated by the African proverb that says, “The further behind you look, the farther ahead you are likely to see”. A well-known Marxist historian, Eric Hobsbawm has this to say, “It is part of life and business to question ourselves where the future is leading. However, predicting or dealing with the future, must necessarily be based on knowledge of the past. Future events must have some connection with past events, and this is where historians come in”. Indeed, historians and other scholars are a very important interface in this regard. In this connection, I would like to mention that as a follow-up to the Hashim Mbita Project, the Government of the Republic of Namibia, in partnership with the University of Namibia, have embarked upon a similar project called, ‘The History of the Namibia Liberation Struggle’. This project is currently on-going and it is intended to produce a thorough in-depth documentation on Namibia. Like all these kind of projects, there is need to undertake deeper interrogation of what happened, why it happened and the aspect of taking ownership of these events. As we do this, we are confronted by the need for academic thoroughness and peer review, to ensure quality control. On this note, I would like to thank UNESCO and partners for organising this meeting and for choosing Namibia to host the meeting. Also, I would like to express gratitude to all dignitaries from outside Namibia and academics who took time from their busy schedules to attend this important meeting. Finally, let me say that, Namibia and the rest of the SADC Region, look forward to a positive outcome of this gathering in terms of taking this project forward. We hope that UNESCO will also work with us to make the materials generated by this project, available to schools throughout the SADC Region. Such a move will also contribute to regional integration. I now hereby declare this meeting, officially opened! Thank you!

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STRENGTHENING INNOVATION IN NAMIBIA - BRIDGING THE GAP By Kombada Mhopjeni Innovation is the implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service), or process, a new marketing method, or a new organisational method in business practices, workplace organisation or external relations (OECD, 2015). Why strengthen innovation? Although science, technology and innovation (STI) is an essential driver of development challenges, the rate of change will depend on how advances in STI address the needs of the communities. Innovation is the game changer that built strong economies in Europe and the United States who made strategic investment in education, science and innovation. Innovation is a critical factor for enhancing economic growth, and is crucial for social cohesion, equality and poverty alleviation. Thus to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a joint plan by for a better world, governments should move away from business as usual.

Climate & Environment

Social Progress

Economic Development

Sustainable Development

The corner stones of Sustainable Development

Innovation in Africa Globally Africa lags behind in innovation hindered by persistent disparities in research capacities. This is due to substantial research and development (R&D) costs required to foster innovation. Apart from R&D costs, African innovators face other challenges such as inequality in infrastructure, financial and educational resources unevenly distributed in rural and urban

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areas, fragmented business under varying economic, societal and political factors. Despite these challenges Africa has a host of notable inventions including the Biomedical smart jacket (Uganda), M-farm application (Kenya), Square Kilometre Array (SKA, South Africa), Virtual reality mine (South Africa), Mobius Motors (Kenya), fusing neurons with silicon chip technology (Nigeria), portable Cardio Pad (Cameroon), robot traffic wardens (Democratic Republic of Congo) and BeSpecular (South Africa). Countries such as Kenya, Nigeria, Morocco and South Africa harnessed the ICT opportunities and have a strong Tech base. Smartphones through e-commerce, present opportunities to drive the growth of microfinance businesses, and increase financial inclusion by providing financial services to low-income people and small enterprises. For instance, the West African Economic and Monetary Union is using block chain as a basis for a new digital currency – the West African Franc (eCFA). Universities, sites of critical inquiry and intellectual engagement, are transformative at multiple levels and with the right support, conduct research that leads to innovation in products, services and technologies. For instance, research at the University of Pretoria has led to companies such as Mabu Casing Soils that employ more than 30 people. Policy-makers and businesses both have a role to play in supporting innovation in Africa by establishing technology hubs, solid legal frameworks and improving the quality of education and infrastructure. Innovation in Namibia The National Commission on Research and Science Technology (NCRST) is key a innovation partner, mandated to promote, co-ordinate, develop and fund research, science and technology in Namibia. Local institutions such as UNAM and NUST are set on contributing to achieving Namibia’s development agenda. In a move to better align research to national priorities, UNAM latest initiative on Research, Innovation and Development (RID) through the Centre for

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REFLECTION OF THE MONTH: STRENGTHENING INNOVATION IN NAMIBIA Innovation and Development (CID) aims to add value to research and enhance its impact on communities through innovation. The University of Namibia (UNAM) recently launched the //Karas Innovation Hub (KIH) at UNAM Southern Campus. Serving as a technology transfer platform for start-up entrepreneurs and a value chain acceleration in southern Namibia whilst focusing on technologies such as Geosciences, KIH will enhance national competencies and accelerate enterprise. NUST has several innovation initiatives including the recently launched Inclusive Collaborative Local Tech Innovation Hub (ICTIH) Project at the NUST Innovation Village with seed funding from the Finnish Embassy. Led by the Faculty of Computing and Informatics, the ICTIH Project will include minorities and vulnerable groups from rural and urban areas in the innovation processes. The multi-disciplinary research centre, Innovation Design Lab (IDL) applies research to solve Namibian challenges and foster creative innovation. FABlab, opened in 2014, has initiated innovative add-on modules (PlusMods) that provide access to cutting-edge skills at NUST. Limited research budgets pose significant constraints to institutional research, innovation and competitiveness, with academia in Namibia mainly relying on the state purse. Both universities regularly host Innovation fora e.g. Annual Research and Innovation Day (UNAM). More resources are needed for fully equipped labs to nurture the entire innovation process from R&D to product development and business incubation to production. Most local innovations remain as prototypes as resources are limited. This implies a need for increased support, additional funds/resources for institutions that provide access to education and research such as NCRST and Namibia students financial assistance fund (NSFAF). Apart from Ministry of Higher Education, Training and Innovation (MHETI), academia and business, supporting agencies such as Business and Intellectual Property Authority (BIPA), Namibia Business Innovation Institute (NBII), Ministry of Industrialisation, Trade and SME Development play a key role in enabling innovation in Namibia. Some local innovations include Digital Owela Game touch table (National Software Engineering Academy

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(NSEA)), PowerCan prototype for electricity in rural areas UNAM), the ganoderma mushroom dietary supplement capsules (UNAM), a drawing machine called NAMBOT (NUST), Omuriro Firelighters (Peter and Claudia Til), and waterless Namibian Eco-Sustainable Toilets (NEST, co-founder, Kaveto Tjatjara). Namibian Innovation System In 2016, after assessing Namibia’s systems for technical and vocational education and training (TVET), higher education and innovation UNESCO’s scoping mission identified six strategic priorities that included promoting research, innovation and entrepreneurship; enhancing responsiveness to labour market needs; and reviewing the institutional structure and filling policy gaps. Namibia has a comprehensive policy and institutional framework for STI. However, public institutions dominate the R&D landscape that lacks scientific and technological dynamism. In addition, poor implementation of policies coupled with a weak entrepreneurial culture undermine innovation limiting job creation and economic diversification. To strengthen innovation, cross-cutting issues need to be addressed by reducing inequality; orienting policies towards employment creation by expanding work-based learning, removing barriers to innovation and entrepreneurship, and engaging enterprises in skills formation, innovation and jobs creation; and to improving policy implementation. Firstly, policies need to bridge the skills deficit by ensuring the education courses provide skills that correspond to labour market needs and boost the responsiveness of the economy to technological change and innovation. Secondly, mainstreaming of entrepreneurship and innovation in education. Thirdly, Namibia needs to establish appropriate mechanisms, such as an innovation fund, to stimulate initiatives to harness full potential of ICT. Lastly, rewarding of businesses engaged in skills formation through improvement and innovation. Progress towards SDG 9 - Call for Action Over the years, UNESCO has facilitated innovation mechanisms through a variety of tools including the University-Industry Science Partnership Programme

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REFLECTION OF THE MONTH: STRENGTHENING INNOVATION IN NAMIBIA (UNISPAR), aimed at enhancing innovation through the development of Science parks and Technology Business Incubators (TBI). Promoting a Culture of Innovation is part of the UNESCO’s integrated STI strategy for sustainable development, focussing on grassroots innovation to develop national capacity in creating, nurturing and managing knowledge-based SMEs. For innovation to overcome poverty, it needs to be socially inclusive tool. UNESCO’s Science Report, one of the tools, monitors progress towards SDG target 9.5- enhancing scientific research, industrial technological capabilities and encouraging innovation by 2030. The number of researchers per 1 million people and proportion of GDP invested in research serve as key basic indicators. To achieve SDG 9, UNESCO is fostering public–private partnerships to tackle national challenges and to break the barriers between scientists/researchers, policy-makers and the industry. Member states need to take stock of progress towards becoming an innovation-driven nation. GO-SPIN country profiles mapping the innovation system landscape of member states taking institutional linkages, human resources, business clusters/stake and SETI/STI policy framework into consideration. To date several countries have participated in GO-SPIN including Botswana and Malawi. At present, innovation in Namibia is focused on high-end R&D. To scale innovation across all levels of society, review of institutional linkages to enhance institutional partnerships with business and communities, promotion and development of innovation in the production of goods and services and promotion of start-ups is needed along with facilitating business development through incubation for start-ups in institution. UNESCOs STI Policy unit supports the incubation of start-up business and grassroot innovation through the development of Innovation Acceleration Platforms such as Science Parks and TBIs. Budding entrepreneurs need a lab, a safe haven with access to the cutting edge technology and where they can bring their ideas to reality through repeated testing and modifications till refined prototype (good or service) is made. For instance, the training, mentorship, product development and promoting the Owela game invention, which won the Namibian Youth Inno-

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vator Grand Award, received support from NCRST. Similarly, the inventors of Omuriro Firelighters and NEST, received mentorship, training and N$50 000 seed capital each for expanding their businesses after their ideas were among the top five short-listed for the Sanlam Innovation Works Competition. The support provided much needed skills crucial for their business. The Sanlam Innovation Works Competition, is a public platform that offers seed funding for innovative entrepreneurial projects. Stable sectorial funds to boost innovation, targeted pro-poor innovation and evidence-based decision-making are needed to set the stage for a knowledge society with thriving Knowledge brokers and think-tanks. Government needs to facilitate the creation of networks bringing all stakeholders - policy makers, Academia, innovators, communities, on board, and nurture an atmosphere of innovation. Innovation creates jobs of the future thus, it is important to bridge the gap between actual and needed funding for research and Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education. The state needs to nurture critical thinking in schools and tertiary institutions, innovation labs. “Without creative investments in science and technology, we are not going to have a 21st century, and the next generation cannot lead an innovation nation if they are scientifically illiterate.” - Neil deGrasse Tyson (Astrophysicist). Key Sources: • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development - http://www.oecd.org • UNESCO Science Report - http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002354/235406e.pdf • UNESCO Culture of Innovation - http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/science-technology/science-policy/ • TVET, Higher Education and Innovation: Policy Review - Namibia - http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002458/245818e.pdf • The Namibian & New Era • World economic Forum - https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/05/africa-needs-an-innovation-revolution-here-s-how-it-can-happen/ • CNN - https://edition.cnn.com/2017/11/16/africa/gallery/africa-innovations-that-could-change-the-world/index.html

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INVITEE OF THE MONTH: INVITEE OF THE MONTH: MS. FARAYI ZIMUDZI, FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION (FAO) REPRESENTATIVE TO NAMIBIA Since this CPF is ending, this year, we have initiated the process of developing a new one together with the key Ministries and stakeholders that we work with. The CPF is aligned to the UNPAF, which in turn, is aligned to NDP5 and the SDGs. 3. Being part of the UN family, what are the comparative advantages of FAO and how do you complement other Agencies’ efforts? FAO is a technical agency of the UN System specializing in agriculture, forestry, fisheries and food security. Thus it brings technical support within these areas; working in concert with other agencies of the UN. 4. What are some of the key success stories of FAO in Namibia thus far? Ms. Farayi Zimudzi, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Representative to Namibia

Over the years, FAO has been providing support to Namibia in policy development, support for sustainable and improved agriculture (agriculture in its broad sense – to include crops, livestock, forestry and fisheries).

1. Thank you for agreeing to be our invitee of the month. As the, FAO Representative to Namibia, what are the core polic ies and strategies that govern the organizations’ activities? The Food and Agriculture Organization’s work in Namibia is governed by the mandate of the Organization, its Strategic Framework and the Country Programme Framework. FAO’s mandate is to support its members in their efforts to ensure that people have regular access to enough high-quality food to lead active, healthy lives. The strategic framework is made up of five strategic objectives: 1. Help eliminate hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition; 2. Make agriculture, forestry and fisheries more productive and sustainable; 3. Reduce rural poverty; 4. Enable inclusive and efficient agricultural systems and 5. Increase the resilience of livelihoods from disasters. The Country Programming Framework (CPF) defines the development priorities for collaboration between FAO and the Government of Namibia, the outputs to be achieved contributing to national outcomes and FAO's regional priorities and corporate results, and the resources and partnerships required over a 5 year period. 2. Can you briefly describe your Organizations’ cooperation strategy with the Government of the Republic of Namibia? The current CPF for Namibia which ends this year – having started in 2014, has 4 priorities, namely, Supporting policy, legal and the institutional environment for food and nutritional security and agricultural development; sustainable agricultural production; linking farmers to markets and improved preparedness to threats and crises.

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Mr. Zhengui Deng demonstration to Salem farmers how to make compost from locally available material

5. What are some of the pressing issues for FAO in Namibia? Climate change mitigation and adaptation in agriculture is a key issue; and agriculture on which many Namibians depend for their livelihoods is very vulnerable to climate change. Other important areas are - supporting national efforts to ensure agricultural production and productivity are improved through adopting good agricultural practices; value chain development and strengthening the policy and institutional environment for all this to happen. 6. Following the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015, can you tell us how they have impacted/will impact on your work in Namibia? The 2030 Agenda offers a vision for food and agricul-

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INVITEE OF THE MONTH: MS. FARAYI ZIMUDZI, FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION (FAO) REPRESENTATIVE TO NAMIBIA 9. As a specialized agency of the United Nations, FAO leads international efforts to fight hunger. It is both a forum for negotiating agreements between developing and developed countries and a source of technical knowledge and information to aid development. (a) The Harambee Prosperity Plan calls for a unified Namibia where no citizen feels left out. What are some of the challenges Namibia faces in terms of enabling inclusive and efficient agricultural and food systems?

Ms. Zimudzi delivers remarks at the celebration of World Water Day 2018

ture as key to sustainable development. FAO possesses experience and expertise in supporting policymaking, partnership-building, and projects and programmes built on 3-dimensional sustainability (social, economic and environmental). Both the SDGs and FAO's strategic framework are geared towards tackling the root causes of poverty and hunger, building a fairer society and leaving no one behind. Crops, livestock, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture – are powerful tools to end poverty and hunger, and bring about sustainable development. Agriculture has a major role to play in combating climate change. 7. Which of the 17 SDG’s is/are your Organization prioritizing in Namibia and why? Food and agriculture are key to achieving the entire set of SDGs. FAO’s work in Namibia is guided by the priorities set out in the NDP5, and the UNPAF. As we are in the process of developing our Country Programme Framework – which, as I indicated earlier, is guided by these two documents, we will then take our cue from the consensus derived during CPF development process.

The main challenges revolve around low production and productivity, especially in the communal areas which prevents smallholder farmers from benefitting fully from their endeavours. Vulnerability to natural hazards is another key challenge – droughts, flooding, pest and diseases. (b) What steps is FAO taking to meet the demands posed by major global trends in agricultural development and challenges faced by member nations such as Namibia? FAO ensures that Namibia has at its disposal the technical expertise of the Organization, as well as access to knowledge and good practices from across the globe. (c) The world’s population is predicted to increase to 9 billion people by 2050. Are there any programmes FAO is working on in Namibia to make agriculture, forestry and fisheries more productive and sustainable? Our current portfolio - which comprises programmes to promote good agricultural practices thus strengthening resilience to climate change, poverty and food insecurity; improving capacities for improving agricultural and fishery production and productivity; managing threats to agricultural production – aims to achieve just that. As making agriculture, forestry and fisheries more productive and sustainable is at the heart of our mandate, this will continue to be the focus of our future programmes.

8. Namibia is now categorized as an upper-middle income country and there have been concerns by some development partners that this category will see a decline in donor support for the country. What are your views about this argument and has your Organization been affected in any way? First of all, being classified as an upper middle income is recognition for the progress that Namibia has achieved in terms of improving the livelihoods and standard of living for its people. However, there still remain some challenges in ensuring that all Namibians are able to have a high standard of living. For FAO, the challenge is to ensure that the 70% of the population dependent of agriculture for livelihoods can do so optimally. There is need to build partnerships, in innovative ways so that we can continue to contribute to the national aspirations of a prosperous Namibia.

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The Manheim Research Station officials showing the FAO Representative to Namibia, Ms. Farayi Zimudzi their mutation breeding trails on sorghum

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I learnt the art of compartmentalizing some years ago – I try not to take my work home (either physically or mentally), unless it is absolutely unavoidable. In order to do that, I make the utmost effort to focus single-heartedly while at work. My family and I also make time to get away from it all, every once in a while to reconnect with each other and build memories. 16. Tell us about your parents and siblings. Did they have any influence on the person you are today? And who inspired you most in life?

Ms. Zimudzi plants a tree during World Water Day 2018 11. In 2015 the President of the Republic of Namibia declared war on poverty and called upon all development partners to help his government win this fight. What is FAO doing to contribute to poverty eradication within the context of its mandate? Through supporting national efforts to make agriculture productive and profitable for the many Namibians that depend on it. To this end, we working with stakeholders, Government, development partners, civil society, farmers’ unions, academia, private sector and many others to make this happen. 12. For every successful tall tree there is a beginning. Can you tell us a bit about your professional career and how you ended up in this position?

I am the middle child in a family of five siblings. I have an elder sister, an elder brother, a younger brother and a younger sister. So in many respects I have the best position ever! Being a middle child meant that all my life, I have always been a mediator, the peacemaker in most childhood battles! And I daresay, in many adult ones, too! I was raised by a trio of strong women – my grandmother, mother and aunt. These three women had the greatest influence in my life. 17. We have come to the end of our interview, thank you for sharing your time with us. However, before we say goodbye, what advice, quote or words of inspiration would you like to share with our readers? I love the words of a famous British actress who is quoted as having said, “Speak your truth, even if your voice shakes”.

I started my career 30 years ago as a civil servant in my native country, Zimbabwe. I have been with FAO for the last 18 years – having worked in in programme development and management in three countries in Southern Africa. Before coming to Namibia, I worked in the FAO Africa Regional Office, in Accra, Ghana, as a champion for resilience building. 13. To us you are known as the FAO Representative to Namibia. But please tell us who Ms. Farayi Zimudzi is besides the title of leadership she holds? What are your hobbies? I love a good story – nothing like a well written book or great movie! Nature and travel are also other passions of mine; as is gardening. Recently, I have rekindled my interest in knitting – after a break of close to twenty years! 14. What does a perfect day look like to you? A quiet one, spent with my family, watching a good movie or having a braai. 15. How do you deal with challenges and balancing between your demanding work and your family?

UNESCO Windhoek Office Newsletter, Issue 30

Himba’s water supply tanks supported by FAO and other stakeholders

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From L to R: Hon. Minister of Education, Arts and Culture Katrina Himarwa, Minister of Environment and Tourism, Hon. Pohamba Shifeta, UNESCO Head of Office and Representative to Namibia Dr Jean Pierre Ilboudo

Hon. Minister of Education, Arts and Culture Katrina Hanse Himarwa during tour of the Namib Sand Sea

Sand dunes at the Sand Sea Heritage Site

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Cultural Group perfomance at opening ceremony

Mr Charaf Ahmimed, welcomes participates to the 2nd day of the National Liberations Experts meeting

Experts from across SADC region engage on topics during second day of the NLM Experts meeting

Panelists during sessions at the NLM Experts meeting facilitate discussions

Director of Publications: Dr. Jean Pierre Ilboudo Chief Editor: Caroline Nkuziwalela Editors: Dickson Kasote, Kombada Mhopjeni, Natalia Garcia, Caroline Nkuziwalela, Stefanie Weniger

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