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European Comics A European comic is a generalized term for comics produced in Continental Europe. British comics are for historical and cultural reasons, considered separate from European comics. This is due to the existence of their own well-established domestic market which more closely resembles the development of American comics. Though many purely European comic books exist, the comic album is a very common printed medium. While sometimes referred to as graphic novels; this term is rarely used in Europe, and is not always applicable as albums often consist of separate short stories, placing them somewhere halfway between a comic book and a graphic novel.

History The roots of European comics date back to 18th century caricatures (mocking others styles or behaviors) and illustrated picture books such as Wilhelm Busch' Max and Moritz. The early 19th century Swiss artist R. Töpffer is regarded by many as the "father of the modern comic" and his publication Histoire de M. Vieux Bois is sometimes called the first "comic book". Franco-Belgian comics, Spanish comics, and Italian comics are historically amongst the dominant scenes of European comics.

Golden Age


In 1938 success of action comics and its lead hero superman marked of the Golden Age of comic books, in which the superhero genre was most prominent. Captain Marvel had sales of over 1.4 million copies per issue published under the title W. Comics. Timely sold over 1 million issues titles which iconic names like Captain America, “Namor the Submariner” and “The Human Torch”. The golden age is known for some plot devices that don't often appear in modern comics. Two of the most common were realistic androids and the need by heroes to convince someone in their closest circles that their heroic persona and their alter ego were in fact different people. Many Golden Age characters lost their copyright status and became Public Domain. It is because of this that the characters have been written about by many different comic Companies. America's Best Comics has done a lot with the Public Domain, Golden Age characters. Dynamite Entertainment has as well.

Japanese comics The word “Manga” is the word given to any comic created in Japan. Manga has become more popular over the years, forming an important part of Japanese culture. The first appearance of Manga can be treated back to the 17th and 18th centuries to an artist who referred to himself as Hokusai, although his real name is unknown. The majority of manga is read in a right to left, up to down format. Each mangaka has their own style of drawing, and depending on the genre of the manga, the style used can be very greatly. Often times, most would associate manga with large eyes, small nose or heads the may be larger than they would be if properly proportioned. (

Graphic Novel

Graphic novel is a book made up of comic’s content. The word “Novel” normally refers to a long fictional work, the term “graphic novel” is applied broadly and includes fiction, non-fiction and anthologized work. A graphic novel is a type of comic book, usually with much more lengthy and complex storyline similar to those novels, having many more pages and content then a comic book and often aimed of mature audiences (but not always).


are a visual medium used to express ideas via imag-

es, often combined with text or visual information. ( Modern comic strips emerged in Japan in the early 20th-century and it been called 'manga'. Although most comics are aimed at teens, there are tons of comics aimed at children. One of the most known comics for children is The Beano comics. Here’s an example: Demographics like ethnicity, sexual orientation or social class is not important of choosing specific comics!

Different genres of comics:



manga 

science fiction



horror, humour


children's and adult.

Many comics are sold in stores. Others are sold illegally in black markets, or in garage sales. Currently more than


comic book and graphic novel sales figures online!

It's noteworthy that almost the exact same number of comic books sold within the Top 300 in February 2014 as sold fifteen years earlier, in February 1999. Further, while the sales at the top of the charts were more or less comparable then and now — 130,000 versus 114,000 now — the sales at the bottom of the charts are much better. The 300th place comic book in February 1999 sold 1,157 copies to retailers; this February, the title at that level sold 4,263 copies


Science fiction: Science fiction comic books tell futuristic stories that incorporate advanced technology and, usually, travel through space. Many superhero comic books also fall under the science fiction category because of the superpowers and weapons they include. Teenagers boys (10-16) Gender: boys

Alternative/esoteric: Alternative comics are usually for adults (aged 25-50). They are mainly in black and white, and include adult humour. The comics are read by both males and females. The alternative comics were made in the USA and started in the early 1980’s. The people who read these types of comics are mostly American and English people. Anyone can red these comics, but the majority of the people who read them are students, unemployed people, pensioners and casual workers. Let me talk about the differences between alternative comics and mainstream comics. Here’s a mainstream comic:

The difference between alternative comics and mainstream comics is alternative is more old-fashioned and maybe boring. Most adults enjoy the alternative comics because they have adult humour and there are no colours (alternative comics are mostly black and white). Mainstream comic is a relatively new concept, as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) themes and characters were historically omitted intentionally from the content of comic books.

The Beano comics have loads of different characters such as Dennis the Menace, Minnie the Mix, The Bash Street Kids etc. The Beano was made in 1938 by a British publisher. Both genders of British kids of all ages read these comics. I can tell by the sense of humour they use and the very colourful use of pictures and logo. The genre is mainly comedy and family.

Another example of a comic book for children is Jack & Jill: Jack & Jill was published between 1954 and 1985. This is read by British kids aged 7-12. When you see the front cover of the comic, you know it’s for children because of the bright colours that they use and the little boy and girl always looking happy. The genre of the Jack & Jill comics is comedy. Inside these comics there’s not a lot of writing, because kids usually hate reading and would rather look at pictures. This is read by British kids aged 7-12. When you see the front cover of the comic, you know it’s for children because of the bright colours that they use and the little boy and girl always looking happy. The genre of the Jack & Jill comics is comedy. Inside these comics there’s not a lot of writing, because kids usually hate reading and would rather look at pictures.

Burst Balloons are used when someone is screaming in the dialogue.

Hollow Balloons

Sound ef-




when the

point to


a char-

of the



mouth as


if an invisible line continued on past the

That symbol symbolizes his vilTrough Balloon when the character is thinking on something

lage called “Konoha�, all ninjas from that village need to use that hairband! Each village has different symbols. This symbol is a

Mode of address: when we look at this comic page we can notice that they are ninjas due to their clothes and hairband. In each page of these comics they use the same clothes all the time. This is a code and a convention because they use bright colours on the cosThe combination of the tittle and the background combines because we can read easily and has the same colour of Spider-Man (red). The tittle is the “The Amazing Spider-Man” it is written in capital letters and part of the tittle “SpiderMan” is written differently, it looks is going from big to small. The composition in this front page of comic has a specific The selection in this front page of

order with different elements.

comic is target to young male and

The tittle is on the top of the

female although it doesn’t mean

page and it is central. The slo-

that other age group don’t read it.

gan is on the right above the

The positions of the 3 characters

character girl with orange hair

are different. The main character

and can mean that the new

is on the front and the other 2 are

generation of heroes appeared

behind him and it looks the Spider

so it makes the audience ask

-Man is leading and ready to fight

for their self’s why? And also

against the enemies. In my opin-

appeals the audience more in-

ion if the audience see this front

terested to read the comic. The

page it will encourage them to

barcode with the respective

read because they look very seri-

price is above the old women

ous and confident so it can means

so that, it doesn’t cover any

they will have a hard fight to de-

part of the characters.

fend the country and society.

Fantasy Fantasy comic books involve fantasy creatures, swords, sorcery, and mythological figures. Some of the most successful fantasy comic books are also turned into very successful fantasy novels. An example of a fantasy comic book that has had widespread success is the Conan the Barbarian series. ( Types_of_Comics) Audience group: teenagers ( 12-18) Gender: boys and girls

Action/adventure Action/adventure comic books usually involve characters that do not have special powers. Rather, they are everyday people experiencing a conflict. Most of the characters, however, are detectives or police, and the story focuses on their battles against criminals.

( How_to_Make_a_Comic/Types_of_Comics) Audience group: teenagers (10-17) Gender: boys

Romance Romance comic books involve stories about love and relationships. Many times, these comic books also cross over to other genres. In fact, comic books that are strictly about romance are no longer very common. Audience group: teenagers and adults Gender: male/female ( How_to_Make_a_Comic/Types_of_Comics)

Adult Adult comic books are considered the underground publications of the comic book genre. Nonetheless, there are numerous adult comic books to choose from. Many mainstream bookstores and even comic book shops do not carry this genre. Rather, most are downloaded from the Internet. Audience group: adults only (18 - 18+) Gender: male/female

THE END Made and published by: Beatrice Kawter Miguel 2014

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