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Handbook For Graduates And Jobseekers by Leevon Phillips

A publication of the Institute of Business and Professional Development Email:

CONTENTS Page Introduction.........................................................................................................1 SECTION 1: CAREER GUIDANCE Chapter 1: Guidelines to choosing your ideal career.......................................... SECTION II: PURSUING A TERTIARY EDUCATION Continuing full time studies immediately after graduation Financing your tertiary education .......................................................................... Selecting a tertiary institution................................................................................ Classified directory of tertiary institutions in Jamaica........................................... SECTION III: SEEKING EMPLOYMENT Seeking employment immediately after graduation................................................ Reality of working and studying Nature and trends of the labour market in Jamaica Effective job seeking strategies Preparing and submitting effective résumés and application/cover letters............. Completing job application forms Interviewing techniques Strategies for excelling on the job While you wait for a job SECTION IV: ENTREPRENEURSHIP Realities of being your own boss Business advice and ideas Business plan outline SECTION V: SPIRITUAL GUIDANCE Inspiration to guide you along your career path

INTRODUCTION Completing high school is a significant achievement which must be celebrated. Do not focus on the challenges and disappointment you may have experienced instead focus on the tremendous possibilities ahead. Graduating from high school should be celebrated because: • • •

You have completed at least five years of high school. Many persons did not get the opportunity to attend high school and many others started but did not complete high school You have attained the grades required for graduation. This means that you worked hard and passed most if not all of your internal exams You have the ability to realize your full potential

From this point you can chose to go in one of three major directions namely; • • •

Furthering your studies on a full time basis at University or re-sitting CSEC/CAPE subjects Going to work full time Starting your own business

Whichever option you take this book will provide you with a wealth of information and resources that will help you to succeed. You should read the entire book even if certain sections do not apply to your life right now. This book is not intended for a one time read only, instead it should be consulted as often as you need guidance in any particular area covered.

YES, YOU CAN Yes, you can achieve whatever noble goals you conceive, As long as deep down inside you truly believe. Yes, you can overcome the odds and succeed through determination, resulting in your own prosperity and the development of your nation. Yes you can succeed at last, even if you have experienced failure before. Remember the race is not for the swift, but for those who to the end endure. Yes, you can achieve great things. In due season, you too will experience the joy that true success brings. Yes, you can; just take time to identify and develop your talents. You will soon be amazed at all your accomplishments. Yes, you can be anything you truly want to be. Don’t be discouraged by what you now see. Yes, you can, though the road ahead looks long and filled with anguish. Begin with the first step and soon you will be finished. Yes, you can, because you were created in the image of your Creator, who promised to give to all who seek overcoming power. Yes, you can. Just keep your eyes on the prize; A measure of success is guaranteed to the one who constantly tries. Yes, you too can win. Just remember that deep within your heart is where it all begins. Work smart, work hard, and your dreams will come true. Yes, you can, though life is a struggle. Don’t ever stop trying and you will some day soar like the eagle. Leevon Phillips


GUIDELINES TO CHOOSING YOUR IDEAL CAREER • Do as much research as you can about your chosen career. Talk to professionals in the field, use the internet and read career books such as ‘A Guide To Choosing Your Ideal Career’. • Discuss your career choice or options with your parents, other family members and your mentors • Search your heart and examine your skills and interests. Choose a career that is compatible with our core beliefs and interests. • Choose a career that you enjoy doing and one that is compatible with your personality type (see careers that match various personality types). Your personality type can be one or more of the following: Inspirer – Persons of this personality type are usually articulate and have no problem expressing themselves. They have a passion for advocacy or to impart information to others, and are better at literary than numeric subjects. Problem Solver/Scientific - Persons of this personality type are usually are technically oriented and like to do things with their hands. They naturally like to diagnose and solve problems and do well at subjects that include figures like Mathematics and Physics.

Implementer – Persons with this personality type usually have lots of ideas that you are willing and able to implement. They are natural leaders who are not afraid or unwilling to take on challenges and take risks. Designer (Artistic) – Persons of this personality type are usually neat, creative and meticulous with a keen eye for details. They prefer to work alone where most of their creative energy is unleashed. Caregiver (Social) – Persons of this personality type usually possess a soft spot for persons who are hurting or suffering in any way. Takes pleasure in serving others and addressing their physical and emotional needs. Conventional (Administrative) – Persons of this personality type usually like to operate in an environment where duties and functions are clearly defined. They prefer working in a stable and predictable environment such as an office. They also like working with figures and tend to be goal oriented.

CONSIDERATIONS FOR CHOOSING YOUR IDEAL CAREER Earning potential Income While earning should not be the only factor considered when choosing a career, it is certainly an important consideration. Some careers are very important and fulfilling yet they do not pay high salaries. These include teaching, nursing and the military service. Persons who are mainly driven by the desire for high earnings may not be satisfied in these careers. Before spending time and money pursuing a career, research the earning potential. Physical or mental requirement Some jobs such as construction and mining require extensive physical labour as oppose to those in administration which are mainly mental. Amount of traveling involved Professionals such as pilots, flight attendants, politicians and sales representatives do a lot of traveling. They are sometimes away from home and family for extended periods. While this may be fine for some it could be a serious problem for others. It might seem like an exciting idea at first but as you grow older and want to establish a family it may become a real challenge.

Amount of ongoing training required Ongoing training and certification is a reality for several professionals in the areas such as Information Technology, Accounts, Law and Medicine. These professionals must be prepared to keep abreast of the constant changes which take place in there profession. Recertification is compulsory in some fields in order to practice. Working outdoor vs indoor Working outdoors is preferred by some individuals while working indoors by others. Some persons dread the idea of sitting at a desk for eight hours

PURSUING FULL TIME STUDIES IMMEDIATELY AFTER GRADUATION In light of the competitive nature of the job market it is generally accepted and proven that individuals who gain a university education will earn approximately three to four times more during their life than individual who don’t. While there are admittedly a few exceptions especially in the case of entrepreneurs, this principle is generally true. With the cost of a university education increasing each year it makes good sense to get it over with now even if you have to make significant sacrifice. If you fall into any of the following categories you should consider furthering your studies immediately after high school: • You maintain high academic standards. You have very good passes in your CSEC or CAPE exams. Students who are doing well academic should make every effort to continue their studies even if tremendous financial and other challenges are being experienced. It is likely that with your impressive academic record you can secure a scholarship or other financial assistance. • You have a burning desire to further your studies even if your grades are not very impressive right now. • You have the assurance of continued support from your family or other reliable source. • You are able to secure a scholarship or other financial support. • changes of getting into graduate schools and getting scholarships.

FINANCING YOUR TERTIARY EDUCATION Unless your parents saved up a college fund for you or you have money of your own then you may need to consider one or more of the following options for financing your tertiary education. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Student Loan Bureau Work Study Scholarship Involvement in business venture

Student Loan Bureau – 5th floor NorthTower, NCB Towers, 2 Oxford Road, Kingston 5. Tel 876-754-2559, toll free at 1-888-991-2626. Email: Terms and conditions for borrowing from the Students Loan Bureau The Student Loan Bureau offers loans for students attending the following institutions • Bethlehem Teachers College • Browns Town Community College • Caribbean Maritime Institute • Catholic College of Mandeville • Churches Teachers College • College of Agriculture Science and Education • Edna Manley College for the Visual and Performing Arts • Excelsior Community College • GC Foster College of Physical Education and Sports • International University of the Caribbean • Jamaican Institute of Management • Jamaica Theological Seminary • Knox Community College • Management Institute of National Development • Mico Teachers College • Moneague Teachers College


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Do as much research as possible and select schools that are reputable and registered with an official organization such as University Council of Jamaica Consider the cost of the programme and the payment options available. Fees charged by colleges/universities sometimes vary widely for the same programme. Shopping around could save you thousands of dollars. Schools that facilitate the payment of fees in installments will be attractive in these economic times. As much as possible ensure that the programme or course that you intend to pursue is accredited or is at least in the process of being accredited. Ensure that the content of the programme/course meets the requirements of the profession you intend to pursue. Unless you are boarding select an school within relative close proximity to your home. This will greatly reduce the cost and time involve in commuting to and from school. Chose a school and course of study that is recognized in the job market. Talk to related professional associations and employer and get their views. Check out the school’s work study, scholarship and grant assistance programs. These are particularly important if you will be needing financial assistance. Thoroughly check out the University’s policies on examinations, discipline religious liberty/practices, dress code etc. Check if the school has a job placement or job fair for graduates. This is particularly important for full time students who will be seeking employment after graduation.


Get involved in at least one on campus social club or fraternity. This is a great way to network and develop contacts which may come in handy in later years. It is also a way of giving back to the University and the community that the social club or fraternity serve. Involvement in extra curricula activities on campus is oftentimes a requirement for gaining scholarships. Your achievements and experience in these organizations should be included on your resume. • Get to know your lecturers personally. In the event that you need a recommendation • Seek to build a relationship with as many of your class mates as possible. Many important business and personal relationship originated while studying at university. • Stay in touch with developments occurring on campus especially as it relates to your programme. Take time out to relax and participate in sporting and entertainment events occasionally. Balance is key.

CLASSIFIED DIRECTORY OF TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN JAMAICA AGRICULTURE, ENVIRONMENT, NATURAL & ANIMAL SCIENCE NAME OF SCHOOL AWARD Bethlehem Moravian College Associate Brown’s Town Community College Certificate, Associate Degree College of Agriculture, Science and Diploma, Associate Degree, Education Bachelor Ebony Park HEART Academy Certificate International University of the Caribbean Masters Knox Community College Associate Degree, Bachelor Mico University College, The Bachelor Northern Caribbean University Bachelor, Masters University of Technology Bachelor, Masters University of the West Indies, Jamaica Bachelor, Masters BEAUTY, FASHION & GROOMING NAME OF SCHOOL Annie Gee's Fashion Institute Beechamville Vocational Training Centre Black River Vocational Training Centre Buff Bay Vocational Training Centre Crowning Glory School of Cosmetology Del's Beauty School and Salon Dornid School of Beauty Culture Edna Manley College of the Visual & Performing Arts Excelsior Community College Garmex HEART Academy Girls Town Professional Institute Granville Vocational Training Centre Gray's Beauty School

AWARD Certificate Certificate Certificate Certificate Certificate Certificate Certificate Certificate Certificate, Diploma Certificate Certificate Certificate Certificate

SEEKING EMPLOYMENT IMEDIATELY AFTER GRADUATION While it is ideal to move from high school straight into College/University there are students who will seek employment immediately after graduation from high school. Seeking employment upon graduation may be an appropriate option if: • • • • •

You are uncertain about the career path You are experiencing severe financial challenges and have no means of financing a tertiary education. You are intend to support your family financially You lack the desire and or aptitude for further studies You have acquired skills that you can develop and employ immediately to earn a reasonable income. These skills include vocational or entrepreneurial.

Seeking employment immediately after high should not prevent you from perusing further studies later. In fact it is recommended that you continue your studies as soon as your circumstances have changed. At the end of your studies you will have your qualification plus valuable work experience which will make you more attractive to employer.

REALITY OF WORKING AND STUDYING As indicated above it is a fact that some people will have to seek employment immediately after high school. It highly recommended that as early as possible you resume your studies. The following tip will help you in this regard. • Take some time and ensure that the area of your studies is compatible with your career choice. • Negotiate with your school a payment plan for your school fees. • As far as possible ensure that there is some connection between your current employment and your course of study. If not as soon as possible try and find employment in your chosen profession. Your weekend and after work hours are very important. • It is important that you practice strict time management in order to fulfil the requirements of your studies and your job, • Chose a school that is not too far from your job/work. Even if you are mobile you still need to cut down on commuting time. • Inform your employer of your study plan and schedule. • Plan and use your leave for studying Advantages of working and studying • • • •

You will earn and save up the funds needed to study instead of having to borrow and increase your indebtedness. You will approach your studies with more maturity and urgency as you have less time to waste and you certainly don’t want to blow your hard earned money. At the end of your studies you will have both academic credential and valuable work experience which will make you competitive in the job market. A lot of your work knowledge can be incorporated in your studies especially when doing projects.

NATURE AND TRENDS OF THE LABOUR MARKET IN JAMAICA The unemployment rate in Jamaica during the first quarter of 2010 was 11%. Its likely that the figure is much higher than this as many unemployed persons have virtually given up on finding gainful employment. The job market is not large enough to absorb all the persons that are available for employment. Whenever a vacancy is advertised the prospective employer is usually overwhelmed with applicants. The labour market in Jamaica can be described as an employer’s market meaning that they can pick choose and refuge applicants. Usually the successful applicants for jobs advertised are more qualified than the requirements of the job. Many of these over qualified applicants are prepared to accept lower pay than they are worth.

Jobs/professionals in high demand Security services - The crime problems in Jamaica has given rise to booming security industry. Security firms are always recruiting new employees to meet the needs of their clients. Many security guards for various reasons do not keep these jobs for long resulting in the need for security companies to constantly replacing guards who have left. The poor working conditions, terms of employment and salary for security guards are the main reasons for the high attrition rate in the industry. Many of the guards who enter the industry do so because they are unable to find employment elsewhere. Health Care – the growing demand for health care workers is true not only in Jamaica but in many other countries around the world. The high

and growing demand for health care workers is driven by the following factors: • More persons are now willing and able to access health care • There is a rise in number of persons suffering from various disease and illnesses • The is a growing number of retirees who usually require increased healthcare Although there is shortage of health care professionals in Jamaica, every year we lose many of our nurses to countries like the s United States and Canada who are able to pay much more for their services. Nurse and doctors are rarely unemployed. They usually pick jobs immediately after leaving school. Sales and marketing – persons who willing and able to sell especially on a commission basis should have no difficulty finding employment. Many companies are only prepared to take on sales representatives on a commission basis. While this is not attractive to many job seekers it is one of the areas that should be seriously considered for persons having difficulties finding other employment. Most employers are not keen on the academic qualifications of applicants; the most important thing to them is that their employees are willing and able to sell their products Food Preparation- No matter how hard times get people still have to eat. Though less people may go to expensive restaurants doing economic hard times, more people eat fast food and at low price restaurants. An explanation for this is that more persons are working longer hours or going back to school leaving little time for home cooking. The demand for professionals in the food industry is, and is expected to remain, high.


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The process of finding employment in Jamaica could take as much as six months. Therefore be prepared mentally for a long wait. Following the guidelines set out below will shorten the time it takes to land a job Let your friends and associates know you are job hunting – don’t keep it a secret. Not everyone who is unemployed is seeking employment so people may not necessary assume that you are seeking a job unless you tell them. Ask friends, acquaintances and relatives to inform you of any job opportunities that fits your profile. You may even ask them to deliver your applications to their workplaces. Learn and practice the art of networking. This involves becoming active in associations and organizations where you can interact with a wide cross section of people. These organizations include your church, community association, youth clubs and other civic organizations. Be attentive and assertive in your job search. Follow every lead and be prepared to attend interviews at short notices. Conduct yourself respectfully at all times while job hunting. The way you dress, speak and conduct yourself should always be circumspect. You are being watched by prospective employers or references. Check the newspaper daily especially the Sunday and Wednesday paper. Slowly peruse the classified and career pages. Read through more than once. If you cant afford the newspaper then borrow from someone you know or visit a nearby library and read the copy available there daily. Register with reputable online agencies including online sites. Popular employment websites include: Splash, and . Send job applications to organizations where you would like work even if they have not advertised a vacancy. Their have been cases when a company need someone urgently and your application may


NAME AND CONTACTS Name, address, telephone number and email - Ideally these should be typed in a larger (especially your name) and different font than the rest of the resume. It is usually centered on the page. Your address will indicate your proximity to the job. If you live out of the parish of the job for example this could reduce your chances of getting even an interview. While it is true that some employers are reluctant to employ especially young people from the inner city communities for varying reasons you still need to be honest in declaring where you live. If you use another address it should be declared that its mailing address. If granted an interview, your actual address should be revealed. You must have a telephone contact where you can be reached. This could be your home or cell number. It is advisable that you have a cell phone to improve your accessibility. An email contact is important as it indicate to employers that you are computer literate and it is also an easy way of communicating. Since it does not cost any money to get an email I suggest that you get one. Your email address should not include any obscene words. If your email contain any such word(s) it is recommended that your create a new email for employment and official purposes

PROFESSIONAL PROFILE/SUMMARY A brief summary of your professional attributes or aspirations. Since you may not have a professional track record focus on your academic achievement and the qualities/skills you intend to bring to the job. Mention special skills you may possess such as computing, multilingual, communication etc


CHRISTOPHER JOHNSON 26 Lake Street, Lark Bay Tel: 876-898-2289 Email:

CUSTOMER SERVICE REPRESENTATIVE EDUCATION Lark Lake High School 2004 – 2009 CXC subjects passed: • Mathematics Grade 1 English Language Grade 1 • Social Studies Grade 2 Principles of Business Grade 1 • History Grade 1 Principles of Accounts Grade 1 • Information Technology Grade 2 • •

SKILLS Computer Skills: Microsoft Word, Excel, Power point and Web page designing Excellent oral and written communication skills

EXPERIENCE St. James Parish Council Filing Clerk July – August 2009 • Filed over one hundred documents daily • Photocopied documents based on the request of employees and visitors • Entered data unto the computer using Excel VOLUNTEER EXPERIENCE St. James Infirmary October 2009 - Present Caregiver • Feed and comb hair of residents • Participated in devotional activities at the infirmary HONOURS AND AWARDS Most improved student in Information Technology – Cornwall College 2007 Pathfinder of the year – West Jamaica Conference of Seventh Day Adventist 2008 ASSOCIATIONS Public Relation Officer, Inter School Christian Fellowship 2008 – 2010 Youth Leader – Salem Seventh Day Adventist Church 2008 – present

RESUME OF APPLICANT WITH RELATED WORK EXPERIENCE ROBERT SMITH 23 Seaforth Drive, Ironshore Montego Bay. Tel: 876- 666-8877, INVENTORY CLERK ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------PROFESSIONAL SUMMARY Recent graduate of Lark Lake High School with passes in five CXC subjects including a distinction in Information Technology. SKILLS • Data Entry • Form Design • Trouble shooting and computer repairs • Microsoft Applications (Word, Excel, Access and Power point) EXPERIENCE SMITHS HARDWARE AND SUPPLIES 2007- Present Order/Data Entry Clerk (Evenings and weekends) • Process over thirty orders received daily by walk in customers, phone, email and fax • Developed summary reports of order entries and identify activity pattern and sales trends • Designed and use forms for recording and monitoring orders from customers EDUCATION Lark Lake High School CXC Subjects • Information Technology • Mathematics • English Language • History • Physics Enclosure

2004 – 2009 Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 2 Grade 2 Grade 3


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Read over your application to ensure that it is neat, free of error and address to the right place and person. Sometimes when you are sending out a lot of applications it is easy for mix up to occur. Submit applications unfolded in a clean 9 x 12 envelope (preferably brown) Ensure that the application is properly addressed. Most job advertisements indicate who and where the application should be addressed. Don’t wait until the deadline to submit your application. Some employer will simply not consider applications beyond the deadline stated. Call if possible to ensure that your application has been received by the right person/department. An increasing number of employers are requesting that applications be submitted by email. In such cases ensure that you type the correct email address and you type in the correct email address of the employer. Send a copy of the application to your email address. Attach both your resume and application when responding to adds Retain an electronic and or hard copy of all application submitted. The copy retained will be used to prepare for an interview. Most questions asked in an interview are based on the resume and application letter submitted.

COMPLETING JOB APPLILCATION FORMS Many organizations require that all applicants or persons to be interviewed complete a job application form. The information provided on the application form is often times treated more seriously than the information in your resume. It is therefore that you provide all the information required. Some employers treat your completion of the application form as a part of the assessment process. Guidelines for completing job application form • Read the form carefully before attempting to complete it. • Write neatly and legibly even if the space is small. • Try to complete the application form within half an hour • Have the information presented below readily available • Ensure that all relevant sections are completed • As much as possible avoid making mistakes if you have made a few errors ask for a new form instead of submitting a form with multiple errors • Read over the form before submitting. Requirements for adequately completing job application form: • A pen in good working condition (take at least two to the interview) • Your TRN and NIS number • Your contact information which must be consistent with the information on your resume. • The names, addresses, telephone numbers and emails of at least two references • The dates when you attended various schools • The grades and dates of your academic achievements • The dates, places and nature of previous employment • Reasons for leaving previous employment • Reasons for wanting to work with the organization • Expected salary

JOB APPLICATION FORM ___________________________________________________________ _ FIRST NAME MIDDLE NAME



__________________________________________________________ MAILING ADDRESS (IF DIFFERENT FROM ABOVE)

___________________________________________________________ _ ___________________________________________________________ _ Telephone number _______________ Cell______________________ Email ______________________________________________________ NIS__________________________TRN___________________________

Position applying for ___________________________________________________________ Expected salary __________________________________________ Date available for employment ______________________________ EDUCATION Date attended

Name of school



INTERVIEWING TECHNIQUES Types of interview • • • •

Telephone interview – Used mainly by overseas employers to screen applicants before investing in face to face interview which may include traveling overseas. One and one interview – you and a representative of the organization Panel interview – where you are interviewed by a team of persons from the organizations Group interview – where applicants are interviewed in groups.

Before the interview •

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Find out the name of the organization where you will be interviewed and get as much information as possibly can about it. Find out about its owners, achievements, core business activities, challenges, major competitors and clients. Prepare at least six questions and be prepared to ask at least three in the interview. Do a thorough research on the organization where you will be interviewed. This can be done by visiting the organization’s website or any available publication about or relating to the organization. If these are not available or are not adequate, speak to an employee, customer or supplier of the organization. Enquire about the type and nature of interview that you will be doing. If there will be a test ask about the kind of questions or the topics on which you will be tested. Most employers may not divulge a lot of information about the test therefore you may have to prepare generally. Most of these tests involve simple arithmetic, psychometric testing and essay writing. Remind references that they me be contacted to speak on your behalf.

APPROPRIATE QUESTIONS TO ASK INTERVIEWERS It is important to ask questions when given the opportunity. A maximum of five profound questions should be asked. Be careful not to ask questions that were already addressed during the course of the interview. In addition to specific questions about the job itself, the following general questions may be asked only if they were not already answered during the interviewed. 1. Is there anyone presently acting in this position 2. How long has this position been vacant or available 3. Why or how long did the last person leave this job (question only applicable if the job is not new) 4. How many persons have occupied this position before 5. How soon do you expect the new employee to start working


Be punctual at all times Pay attention to detail Study the organization, understand its culture rules and norms and abide by them Go beyond the call of duty as often as possible ie don’t be exact in the execution of your work. Be reliable and dependable. If you say you are going to do something- do it. Learn to say no. Don’t bite off more than you can chew to get a good name. Don’t excel by unfairly or disingenuously tearing down a fellow co-worker Put your all into any assignment given. WORK HARD

WHILE YOU WAIT FOR A JOB Dealing with job rejection • Don’t take it personal. In most cases you were not offered the job because someone else was more qualified, experienced or more impressive in the interview. Bear in mind that job application is a very competitive process. • Rejection gives you an opportunity to improve on your weak areas. • You could still be considered for that job or another at the same company at a later date. • The job you will eventually get is likely to be better than the ones you missed out on. Things to do while you wait for employment • • • • • •

Work on your employability skills in areas such as leadership, punctuality, time management, penmanship and punctuality. Read magazines, books and visit go to websites related to the careers in which you have an interest. Volunteer your services at a nearby business or government organization. Request a letter of recommendation at the end of your tenure Learn new skills or enhance existing skills. Enroll in short inexpensive courses such as Information Technology, Foreign Language or a vocational area. Stay focus and don’t stop trying. If you are seeking employment it may take a while and you may be tempted to give up. DON’T GIVE UP. Get active in service and civic organizations such as churches, youth clubs and uniform groups. These will provide a great platform for networking

BEING YOUR OWN BOSS Reasons for starting your own business • As a means of creating employment or earning a living. By starting a business you are creating your own job which can grow from strength to strength • As a means of putting out a product or idea to the market. If you have a product or idea that you have formulated, it might be necessary to start you own business to get it to the market. Requirements for starting and operating a business successfully • A good business idea. You need to identify the product(s) or service(s) that you will be offering • A business plan provides direction and focus for the business operator. It will show the objectives and direction the business should take if it is to be successful. A business plan is indispensable for a successful business. Your business idea must first look good on paper before actually starting. (see page # for an outline of the plan) • Adequate financing or capital for the business. (See page # for various financing options) • A certificate of registration. This gives your business legitimacy and status. Some customers and suppliers will not do business with you unless your business is registered. Qualities required to be a successful entrepreneur • •

Discipline – Must be willing and able to perform tasks in a timely and proper manner. Must be willing to abide by established rules and best practices Hardworking – To succeed in your own business you will have to work even harder than if you were an employee in another organization. The working hours of an entrepreneur is much more than eight hours per day or forty hours per week. It is common for entrepreneur to work in excess of sixteen hours per day during busy seasons or during the early stages of the business.

BUSINESS ADVICE AND IDEAS Financing your business • • • • •

Start your business small using your personal savings Personal savings. Invite friends and relative to invest in your business as partners or shareholders. Borrow a small business loan from one of the many micro small business loan companies now in operation. Ask supplier for credit Participate in the Young Entrepreneurs Programme (YEP). The government provides a maximum of $100,000 per individuals and up to four person can receive up to $400,000 to start a business. Under the YEP programme school leavers will be provided with business advice and guidance in preparing a business plan. For further information contact: Development Bank of Jamaica Ltd. 11a-15 Oxford Road, Kingston 5. Tel: 929-4010-2 or 929-4015-7. Email: Website: www/

Financial Management • Keep proper records of all your financial transactions. • Pay all taxes and statutory obligations on a timely basis • Reinvest profits in the business. Take just enough money from the business that you need to survive even if the business is doing well. • Treat your personal and business finances separately. Take a salary (just enough that you need to survive initially until the business is properly established.) Don’t dip into the business finance on a regular basis to finance personal expenditure. • Pass all sales receipt through your business bank account. This will improve your standing with your banker especially if you need a loan .

BUSINESS PLAN OUTLINE Executive Summary • Though this section is found at the beginning of the business plan, it is in fact the last thing done as it summarizes the entire plan. It is a summary of each section of the actual business plan. The Company • Name and general nature of the business • The ownership structure of the business • History and owners of the business • How it came into being • Identify products and services Target market • Describe location and size of target market • Describe the demographics of target market • Analyze market condition Competition • Identify specific competitors • Determine the strengths and market share • Determine your competitive position • Evaluate the possibility and nature of increased competition Marketing and sales Plan • Summarize your marketing strategy • Identify target market • Identify distribution channels • Evaluate your competitive/market strength Management/Organization structure • Determine Human Resource requirement

Determine and design organization chart- reporting relationship

INSPIRATION TO GUIDE YOU ALONG YOUR CAREER JOURNEY Understanding the importance of hard work and productivity The Lord your God will bless you in all your harvest and in all the work of your hands. And your joy will be complete. (Deuteronomy 16:15) Whatever thy hand findeth to do, do it with all thy might (Ecclesiastes Your relationship with colleagues – team building Do everything without complaining or arguing ..(Philippians 2: 14) Don’t do anything for selfish praise and glory. With humility consider the interest of other more than your own. (Philippians 2:3) Bear with one another, forgive one another. If any man has a quarrel against another, Forgive as the Lord has forgiven you. (Colossians 3: 13) As we have the opportunity, let us do good to all men especially those of the household of faith. (Galatians 6: 10) Your conversations should always be graceful and kind so that you may know how to appropriately answer everyone (Colossians 4: 6)

Thank you!

Handbook for Graduates and Job Seekers