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California Association of Pest Control Advisers

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Cover Photo: Š Fred Rehrman, Elysian Fields | Art: Rosemary N Southward, Southward Design

Table of Contents

Legacy Members

page 20


PCAs: The consummate professionals Rick Harrison


Matt Bristow: Desert Valleys PCA engages in CAPCA's mission


2019 Scholarship winner announced


Looking Back: CAPCA Legacy Members Looking Back: Reflecting on chapter purpose


Selecting resistant cultivars: The backbone of turfgrass disease prevention Maggie Reiter


Healthy IPM toolbox facilitates spider mite management in California


Effect of microbial and botanical biostimulants with nutrients on tomato yield


Situation update on the polyphagous shot hole borer in California


A fortuitous arrival: Key natural enemy of BMSB found in California


Palmer amaranth growth rate and the consequences of incomplete control

David Haviland

Surendra K. Dara

Jesus R. Lara, Deena Husein, Christine Dodge, Sonia Rios, and Richard Stouthamer Jesus R. Lara, Charles H. Pickett, and Mark S. Hoddle Lynn M. Sosnoskie and Kurt J. Hembree

DEPARTMENTS 05 From the Editor 26 Featured: Organics 32 Featured: Nutrients 72 Career Opportunities 74 CAPCA Ed & Chapter Events 75 Continuing Education



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From the Editor Return to our Roots It has been a tough year for Agriculture. Whether companies are facing pressure from flooding in the Midwest or feeling the limitations of a toolbox caught in a cultural war with certain active ingredients under a microscope. Serving growers while bringing healthy and affordable food to market is facing old and new challenges. As we work to navigate the new vision of the Governor and legislature, CAPCA is turning to our membership to lend their voice to the conversations and engage as Chapter Champions. We are asking members to return the grassroots of what formed CAPCA by engaging within their Chapter territory – initiating outreach with local Board of Supervisors and Legislators while in district. Over the summer we trained the first group of PCAs in the basics of engagement with their local Board of Supervisors and Legislators. These trainings have sparked requests for additional resources CAPCA state office can develop to better arm Chapter Champions to effectively engage in communication on local issues, with local Board of Supervisors and Legislators and have the confidence to provide clear comments on behalf of the PCA license. Will you help us grow the group of Chapter Champions poised to engaged in 2020!? The unfortunate reality is that there are groups far more organized, who are flooding these same decision makers with anti-pesticide messages. The influence of these groups was built on relationships and keeping regular meetings on the books with regulators and legislators alike. As CAPCA has grown over the years, the state office and leadership have assumed much more of the Advocacy role. But we have reached a critical tipping point where a meeting here and there around the Capitol isn’t enough. Although CAPCA staff will continue to engage in these discussions, there is a value for CAPCA members to walk into their local office as a constituent to address the impact of a local ordinance or proactively educate decision makers on the realities of what is being faced in the field. Your professional voice as not only a licensee, but a constituent carries the message further than CAPCA staff alone. The local Board of Supervisors are making rapid and potentially consequential decisions that impact permit conditions, crop restrictions and are beginning to encroach on the availability of pesticide tools for PCAs at a county level. Consider volunteering as a Chapter Champion in 2020 - who knows, the future of your license and IPM toolbox may one day depend on the relationship you start building today!


CAPCA EDITORIAL STAFF Ruthann Anderson - Editor Joyce Basan - Deputy Editor Dee Strowbridge - Membership/Conference Sylvia Stark - Advertising Sales Manager Rachel Taft - Executive Assistant Adam Barsanti - Outreach Relations Manager Graphic Design - Rosemary N. Southward MISSION & PURPOSE California Association of Pest Control Advisers (CAPCA) is a non-profit voluntary mutual benefit association that represents 75% of the 4,000 California EPA licensed pest control advisers. CAPCA’s purpose is to serve as the leader in the evolution of the pest management industry through the communication of reliable information. CAPCA is dedicated to the professional development and enhancement of our members’ education and stewardship which includes legislative, regulatory, continuing education and public outreach activities. PUBLISHING INFORMATION CAPCA Adviser is published bi-monthly by the California Association of Pest Control Advisers (CAPCA), 2600 River Plaza Dr., Suite 250, Sacramento, California 95833. Web:, (916) 928‑1625. POSTMASTER: send address change to CAPCA. A portion of CAPCA membership dues is used to provide subscription privileges to the Adviser magazine. Non-member subscriptions are $30/year. Third class bulk postage paid at Tucson, AZ and at additional mailing offices. CAPCA has endeavored to include appropriate and accurate statements, but disclaims any and all warranties and/or responsibility for the statements or articles submitted to CAPCA Adviser that may have additionally been edited for style, content and space prior to publication. Views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent CAPCA policies, or positions or endorsements. Editorial content of this publication is educational and informational in nature. No part of this publication, including images, may be reproduced without prior written permission from the publisher. Contact CAPCA at (916) 928‑1625 for reprint authorization. PRINTING: Sundance Press Tucson, Arizona

Ruthann Anderson, Editor




PCAs: The consummate professionals Rick Harrison, CAPCA Chair

As CAPCA’s 45th annual conference approaches, we can look back and be proud of CAPCA’s commitment to professionalism. From CAPCA's inception through today, the role of the Pest Control Adviser (PCA) as a dedicated, competent consultant for pest and disease management in the food and fiber industry has been a focal point for CAPCA. Our Code of Ethics outlines a professional standard for members including actions in the field and in maintaining a business, with our license being an extension of this. With the formal adoption of CAPCA’s Code of Ethics in 1992, our leadership chose to focus on our obligations, thereby highlighting how our members concentrate their efforts and use their expertise in a professional manner that extends beyond the field. Those obligations are: • Obligation of the PCA to the Public and Environment • Obligation of the PCA to the Client • Obligation of the PCA to the Profession As we have all experienced, misunderstandings around the PCA license is commonplace. General public, not acquainted with the scope of our business, see PCAs as salesman, pesticide sellers or product pushers. We can shed light on misconceptions through professional actions. Debunking the salesman image through our subject matter of education with understanding of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), agronomics and cultural practices. Many PCAs do sell pesticides, however, in their practice of IPM, pesticides as the solution is too simplistic without taking into consideration all the activities/mitigation/actions of the PCA prior to a written recommendation. Mitigation measures applied span far beyond a container of pest control material. We are



plant doctors and know the picture is much broader than that. The Continuing Education (CE) component of our license has been a ongoing, key element to our being able to expand our knowledge and maintain a high standard of professionalism. We should always continue to be professional in attending CE events. Our jobs and the future of our license depends on this. This higher standard includes attending sessions, being engaged with the information being presented at CE seminars and conferences, limiting calls to breaks/lunch, only reporting hours for the time spent in session, and trying not to leave early. In the history of CAPCA, California Government has allowed us the privilege of maintaining our license through CE versus the alternative of state mandated re-examination. Our professionalism during CE meetings contributes to the continuation of these meetings. Additionally, our State office and local Chapter volunteers strive to not only secure speakers who will present on topics that are timely and relevant to in-field operations but will highlight emerging and/or reliable pest control tools that figure into the IPM practices we implement and support. As caretakers who are investing our time using our training, skills and experience in the pest management industry we can never allow our duty to professionalism to become secondary. █

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CAPCA members will conduct themselves in a professional manner according to their code of ethics by observing all laws and all regulations, broadening their abilities through continuing education, and respecting the needs of their clients, the environment and public safety at all times.

CODE OF ETHICS Adopted 1992


The California Association of Pest Control Advisers (CAPCA) recognizes the unique ethical and professional responsibility of the licensed pest control adviser (PCA). PCAs have the responsibility to support and promote the highest standards of conduct in the performance of their duties to the public, the environment and their clients. CAPCA members will observe and obey all laws and regulations pertaining to our industry, and will voluntarily assume the obligations of self-discipline, honor, and environmental respect set forth in the CAPCA ‘Code of Ethics.’

ARTICLE I: OBLIGATION OF THE PCA TO THE PUBLIC AND ENVIRONMENT • Prescribe environmentally sound pest management methods which do not jeopardize the public health and welfare. • Ensure that alternative measures for pest management situations have been reviewed, as provided by law. • Maintain an awareness of public concerns and be willing to address those concerns in a sound, scientifically-based manner. • Serve as a leading advocate of safe and effective pest management technologies. • Participate in the advancement of pest management and professional knowledge.

ARTICLE II: OBLIGATION OF THE PCA TO THE CLIENT • PCAs have an affirmative ethical obligation not to conceal their source of compensation when asked. • Help the client keep abreast of relevant regulatory and technological changes which could impact the client’s business. • Provide the client with pest management advice which meets the following criteria: - environmentally, economically, and ethically sound - legal uses that are objective and are research-based

ARTICLE III: OBLIGATION OF PCA TO THE PROFESSION • Refrain from making false or misleading statements about the work of other PCAs. • Recognize the duty to report illegal practices to the proper authorities. • Maintain state-of-the-art knowledge of pest management through conscientious pursuit of continuing education. • Participate in industry affiliated organizations and activities which encourage the betterment of the profession. • Foster and support research and education for the advancement of pest management.



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Nitrogen management certification Final training to be held CDFA FREP and UCOP


The last in-person CDFA Nitrogen Management Certification Training is scheduled to take place in 2020!

March 3-4, 2020*

After six years of providing in-person Nitrogen Management Certification training, stakeholders have been in discussions to find an avenue to help new CCAs qualify to sign off on the Irrigation and Nitrogen Management Plans (INMP). Limitations on the number of training opportunities and attendees has led the group to approach online learning and testing options to issue Nitrogen Management Certification after the March 2020 training. Additional information on the Nitrogen Management Certification will be available in the coming months, but for now, the March 2020 Nitrogen Management Certification in Fresno will be the final training available before the new Certification program goes into effect. If you need to be certified to assist your growers with the INMP in 2020, please register online at

2020 CDFA

Nitrogen Management Certification Wedgewood Wedding & Banquet Center 4584 W. Jacquelyn Ave Fresno CA 93722 CCA CE Credit ONLY (Not approved for DPR hours) Registration and Agenda are available online at: Pre-registration and payment required. NO ON-SITE REGISTRATION. NO REFUNDS. $180/person *MUST ATTEND BOTH DAYS FOR CERTIFICATION Times: Tuesday: 9:00am-5pm Wednesday: 8:00am-12pm



Nitrogen Management Update November 3, 2019 8:30 am -11:45 pm Grand Sierra Resort $100 registration fee - meeting only $75 registration fee - combined with CAPCA Conference Registration Meeting will only be accredited with ICCA - Soil/ Water & Nutrient Management categories


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Nutrient Management Strategies for Sorghum Nitrogen Forms and Formulations in Sustainable Nutrient Management Building Soil Health On-Farm: A Case Study of Warm-season Legume Cover Cropping Research Advances in Nitrogen Management of California Fruit and Nut Crops

Open to All Agricultural Professionals Sponsored by:

CCA Accreditation: 0.5 Soil & Water 2.0 Nitrogen Mgmt 0.5 Crop Mgmt


STUDENT NETWORK EVENT Facilitating Conversation, Investing in the Future

SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 3, 2019 | GRAND SIERRA RESORT | RENO, NV For more information about the Student Network Event, visit 12:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m. | 10:00 a.m. Educators' Workshop Registration Available through CAPCA Conference: STUDENTS: • 1-Day Student Network Event (Sunday Only) $50

EDUCATORS: • 1-Day Student Network Event & Educators' Workshop (Sunday Only) $50

• Full Conference (incl. Student Network Event) $150

• Full Conference (incl. Student Network & Educators' Workshop) $225

Thank you to our 2019 Student Network Event Supporters!



Photo: Fred Rehrman, Elysian Fields

COMPANY RECRUITER REGISTRATION: Contact Rachel Taft for information


CAPCA’s 45 Annual Conference & Agri-Expo th

November 3-5, 2019 Grand Sierra Resort - Reno, Nevada REGISTER NOW!!

Professional Accreditation from: CDPR - 14.0 hrs

ISA - 7.5 hrs

CCA - 14.0 hrs

GCSSA - 0.95 un

AZA - 12.5 hrs

NDA - 16.0 hrs

ODA - 7.0 hrs

WDA - 14.0 hrs

3.0 Laws; 0.5 Arial; 10.5 Other

TW, CA, MS, BCMA-P 8.0 Laws; 8.0 General

1.0 NM; 0.5 PD; 12.5 PM

10.0 General; 4.0 Weeds

Conference Registration and Hotel Accommodations can be made at



Registration Rates:

GSR Standard Room - $115.00* Summit Suites - $125.00*

Member/Exhibitor - $330 Non Member - $410 Educator - $225 Student - $150 Spouse - $175 Golf Fees - $100

*Reduced daily resort fee Please always remember to book accommodations through CAPCA’s website or directly with the hotel. Most 3rd party companies offering lower rates are a scam.

Hunting for Solutions

Questions - Contact Dee Strowbridge 916-928-1625 x 3 or

November 3-5, 2019 - Grand Sierra Resort, NV





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CAPCA’s 45 Annual Conference & Agri-Expo th

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Caltec Ag Inc CDFP PD | GWSS CDMS, Inc Central Life Sciences Ceres Imaging, Inc Certis USA Chemurgic Agricultural Chemicals

Concentric Ag Converted Organics LLC Cool Planet Corteva Agriscience CSI Chemical |Nutri-Cal Cultiva D & V Unlimited Davis Instruments Dellavalle Laboratory, Inc Diamond K Dino-Lite Scopes Diversified Waterscapes, Inc Drexel Chemical Co DTN Duarte Nursery EarthSol, LLC ECO2MIX Ecological Laboratories, Inc Ecostadt Technologies FBSciences, Inc Fertum USA, Inc Fieldin, Inc FMC Agricultural Solutions Gar Tootelian, Inc Gowan USA LLC Green Leaf Ag Grow West Grower’s Secret Haifa North America Inc HCT, LLC Helena Agri-Enterprises LLC HELM Agro US Holloway Ag Services Hortau Huma Gro ICL Specialty Fertilizers Insero |AgOtter

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Hunting For Solutions

Quali Tech, Inc Redox Chemical Rotam North America Semios USA, Inc Sentinel SePRO Corporation Simplot Grower Solutions Spectrum Technologies SQM North America SummitAgro – USA Superior Soil Supplements Suterra Sym-Agro Symborg Syngenta Taminco US LLC Terramera The Hat Source Tiger-Sul Products, LLC TKI Crop Vitality Trace Genomics TracMap Trece, Inc. TriCal Diagnostics True Organic Products, Inc U.S. Water UC ANR UPL NA, Inc Valagro USA Valent USA LLC Verdegaal Brothers, Inc Verdesian Life Science Veritas Substrates Vestaron Corporation Westbridge Agricultural Products

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Matt Bristow: Desert Valleys PCA engages in CAPCA's mission CAPCA Staff Matt Bristow graduated from California Poly Pomona with a Bachelor of Science degree in Crop Science. In addition to his PCA license, which he obtained in 2004, Matt is also a Certified Crop Adviser. The major crops he consults in are vegetables and citrus, but also works with dates, table grapes and a few acres of alfalfa. He began his career as an intern for Western Farm Service while in college and continued with them straight out of school. Currently he works for Nutrien in Coachella, where he’s been for the last 17 years. Other work experience included tractor driver, welder/ fabricator, chef and bike mechanic – “I think I was able to bring some of the knowledge I gained from all of my other jobs to being a PCA.” Asked how he knew being a PCA was a good career fit, Matt says, “Honestly, I didn’t until I was hired as an intern to pull tissue samples one summer. I worked outside all day and no one was mad at me for getting dirty. I enjoyed the fact that the job was mentally challenging, not mundane.” He says getting to work outside and not be cooped up in an office all day is one of the highlights of the job and he jokes, “Lunch is about the only part of the day I feel like I know what I’m doing. I do my best to take a comprehensive approach to my work. In my experience it is very rare that a problem has only one solution.” But he also acknowledges customer service is really the foremost portion of the job, being knowledgeable and practical about the problems you encounter. When talking about the value of his CAPCA membership, Matt recalls why he initially joined: “Becoming a CAPCA member was strongly suggested to me by my first boss. He was adamant that I needed to be a member and participate in my local chapter.” Matt currently serves as the Secretary on the State Board of Directors after serving for two years as the Director representing Desert Valleys Chapter. “I was probably too eager to join the local board and then get on to the Government Relations Committee. But I am glad to be a part of the team, I think Government Relations is CAPCA’s most important role and I want to support the people who are defending my license.” When he describes his job for someone outside the industry or unfamiliar with PCAs, he says casually, “I try to make sure the bugs don’t eat your food before you do. I’m really not trying to poison anyone.” When asked what CAPCA involvement has to offer PCAs he considers his experience volunteering over the last several years: “I really feel like the work that the Government Relations Committee does is not understood or appreciated to the extent it should be by all members. We PCAs are misunderstood and outnumbered in the capital. Our story was being told by our opposition. We are changing that.” █ 16


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2019 Scholarship winner announced Each year CAPCA, the Stanley W. Strew (SWS) Education Fund awards a scholarship to an exceptional student who is pursuing a career in the pest management industry. The Stanley W. Strew Educational Fund, Inc., Mission Statement states, “We promote and communicate the development and implementation of educational and scholarship programs to insure the future prosperity of our nation’s food, fiber and ornamental enterprises.” The Fund is dedicated to establishing educational opportunities and career growth avenues for the students of today and the leaders of tomorrow. The Stanley W. Strew Education Fund administers these programs. Applications were distributed to interested students, universities and were posted on CAPCA’s website. The CAPCA Scholarship recipient receives $3,000. This year we congratulate our 2019 Stanley W. Strew Scholarship recipient, Brendy Orozco.



Brendy Orozco 2019 CAPCA Scholarship Brendy is a senior attending Cal Poly Pomona this fall. Her majors are Plant Science and Agricultural Science with a minor in Pest and Disease Management. Brendy plans to graduate at the end of 2019 and become a Pest Control Adviser working as a grower or farm manager for a large-scale vegetable production company, eventually becoming an independent grower. For the last year she has worked as an intern with San Miguel Produce, learning from experienced PCAs, walking fields and gaining knowledge about the industry and pest management. She has three years’ experience as a Food Safety Supervisor, and hopes to get her certificate as a Good Agricultural Practice Auditor. One of her references commended her accomplishments and ability to balance multiple academic programs with a full-fledged career in California production agriculture, noting her professionalism and stating that she is self-directed and determined.

We received the following letter from Brendy:

I am honored to be the recipient of the 2019 CAPCA/Stanley W. Strew Scholarship. Thanks to your generous support I will be able to attend California Polytechnic University of Pomona full time this coming semester to complete my Bachelor of Science. I will be completing my undergraduate career as a senior this coming December 2019 at California Polytechnic University of Pomona. I am pursuing a double major in Plant Science and Agricultural Science, with a minor in Pest and Disease Management Control. In addition to obtaining my Bachelor of Science, I am interested in obtaining my Pest Control Adviser License, for which I’m signed up to take this August 2019. In the near future I am also interested in obtaining my Certified Crop Advisor License. At California Polytechnic University of Pomona I have obtained hands-on experience in many courses that support my career as well as technical training that has prepared me for the Agricultural industry. Thank you for supporting students in the Agriculture Industry and for this great scholarship opportunity. Throughout my career I’ve had several difficulties, one of them the commute from Ventura County to Pomona, another one being a full-time student with 15+ units each semester and working full time to cover my education expenses. I am very grateful to be the recipient of the 2019 CAPCA/Stanley W. Strew Scholarship. Thank you very much for your generosity and support. Sincerely,



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Looking Back:

Legacy Members CAPCA’s Legacy Membership is bestowed upon long-time CAPCA members for their service and contributions to the Association. Each chapter may only nominate one member per year. The requirements include being a PCA member of CAPCA for 20+ years with three or more years of involvement in leadership with the Association, either at the local chapter level or at the state level. In 2019 the San Francisco Bay, SoCal and Ventura Chapters were very pleased to nominate Bill Charlson, Cliff Prather and Neale McNutt, respectively.

Bill Charlson

Bill began his career in the industry in the 1960’s after graduating from UC Davis with a BS in Landscape Horticulture and started working for the Santa Clara County Parks Department where over the years he advanced from a Seasonal Park Ranger eventually to Superintendent of Parks overseeing half the county parks operations and maintenance. Throughout his career with the parks district, Bill had been integral in developing workplace and pesticide safety programs, using IPM practices in his management systems and policies. In the 1990’s when California law required public agencies to have PCA, Bill obtained his PCA license. After obtaining his license, Bill became a CAPCA member because he saw the value of the tools and information available, and that being a licensed PCA made his job easier: IPM was science-based and with the weight of the UC system behind it. He is very proud of the work that CAPCA does and became involved in CAPCA at the local and State level for many years serving on the Chapter and State Boards, and with the Conference Committee. Following his retirement from the county, Bill faced some significant health challenges but remained active with CAPCA as well as endeavors on 55 acres just outside Yosemite National Park. There he raises timber and built the Lillaskog Bed & Breakfast which opened in 2006. He credits IPM practices for the minimal damage following the Rim Fire in 2013: the previous year they grazed the property with cattle and used herbicides to keep the floor clear so when the fire came through it was cooler and the mature trees survived, only some needed replanting. Looking to the next generation, Bill says “There is a lot of satisfaction for time well spent when you know your profession is significant. I believe it is the utmost importance that we mentor the next generation so that CAPCA can be proactive and remain on the front end of the curve to make what we do safer, better, cleaner and happier.” 20


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Clifford Prather

Cliff is a native of Orange County with long-time family roots in the area. He grew up aground agriculture, his family living near the orange groves. His father had a business selling orange juice to travelers on Highway 101. In high school he got a summer job with Hines Nursery, which spiked his interest in horticulture and eventually turned into a career. In pursuit of that career, he graduated from Orange Coast College in 1967 with an Associate degree in Ornamental Horticulture, and Cal Poly Pomona in 1970 with a Bachelor of Science degree in Parks Administration. He obtained his PCA license in the early 1980s and worked for 40 years at Hines Nurseries, mostly in the Technical Services Department, working with fertilizer and irrigation systems, soil and water analysis, pesticide trials, irrigation water runoff monitoring and reporting to the Regional Water Control Board. He worked as a Pest Control Supervisor during his final years with Hines and held a Private Applicator License for the Hines Nurseries' Irvine location. Even in retirement, he is still involved in the Industry, serving on the Orange County Farm Bureau Board of Directors, and previously on the Nursery Growers Association Board of Directors. Cliff joined CAPCA in 1986. He’s honest about CE tracking being the initial reason, but he quickly discovered the benefits of membership. He cites the education, advocacy on important pest control issues and the opportunity to network as valuable reasons why he is a long-time member. For him, being part of CAPCA is being part of something bigger, and giving a voice to the industry. Cliff has served as the SoCal Chapter Treasurer since 2013 and looks forward to continuing to support CAPCA and the next generation of PCAs. █ Cliff Prather with crew at Hines Nurseries, inspecting hydrangeas after a flood.


CAPCA Legacy Members

In recognition of your dedication to CAPCA and support of the PCA license. Your contribution has been significant and influential to our Association and membership. Bill Charlson

San Francisco Bay Chapter

Cliff Prather SoCal Chapter

Neale McNutt Ventura Chapter

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Looking Back:

Reflecting on Chapter Purpose


One main area that CAPCA programs have always focused on is continuing education (CE). Although the annual conference includes this important professional element, CE has been high on the list of Chapter initiatives for a very long time. Securing and presenting essential technical developments to keep the PCA informed on current, new/emerging pest management practices has been key to CAPCA’s membership. With years of cooperation between CAPCA and UCCE Farm Advisors and other industry experts, CAPCA members have been exposed to the best statewide authorities and at the same time seen the benefits to maintaining a positive working relationship with UCCE and industry personnel in addressing local problems.



Another very important element for Chapters has been their working relationship with the Ag Commissioners. Several Chapters have been able to meet regularly with Ag Commissioners and other County personnel to address and/or and resolve concerns before they become serious problems. The Chapter involvement within the agricultural and horticultural industry helps the Association grow and supports our mission. Additionally, since many times one person finds it difficult to make much of an impact on their own, the Chapters are able to provide an avenue for networking and consolidation of efforts to strengthen the voice of the PCA. Chapters can have considerable credibility! The Chapters can leverage on a very grassroots level. For example, in the first thirteen years of CAPCA’s formation, the membership went from zero to 2,500 members. Chapter influence was credited with this successful growth. Working at the local level, focusing on common concerns and interest, Chapters offered the PCAs a chance to participate and influence what happens in their profession, their community, and the industry. CAPCA leadership recognizes that our membership is where our strength lies in order to promote our professional contribution and proactively continue our engagement into the future. With the projects such as the Chapter Resource Budget and the Chapter Champions, leadership anticipates a strengthening of the Chapters so they will grow their ability to supporting CAPCA’s mission even more. █

Photo: Fred Rehrman, Elysian Fields

CAPCA Articles of Incorporation states “The specific purpose and business in which the corporation is primary to engage is to initiate, sponsor, promote and carry out plans, policies and activities which will tend to further the well-being of and to upgrade the qualifications of agricultural pest control advisers in the State of California and to promote, educate and communicate and serve as a proactive voice for the pest management industry as it relates to pest control advisers making recommendations for pest solutions for the agricultural, turf and ornamental and industrial industries.”




potted wing drosophila (SWD) was first found in berries along the California coast in 2008. Within a year, the pest had spread from California all the way to Canada and the eastern U.S., notes Dr. Peter Shearer, strawberry entomologist with the Cal Poly Strawberry Center. Dr. Shearer is an established authority on SWD in tree fruit crops who joined the Cal Poly Strawberry Center to lead its strawberry entomology program. The Cal Poly Strawberry Center is the only organization in the U.S. solely dedicated to strawberry research and education. Drosophila suzukii, commonly called the spotted wing drosophila, is a fruit fly originally from Southeast Asia that causes significant damage to fruit crops. Unlike other vinegar flies that occur in California, spotted wing drosophila attack healthy ripening fruit as well as damaged or rotting fruit. It can be found infesting ripening cherry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry and strawberry fruits in many California counties.

SWD is less of a problem in fresh strawberries, due to frequent picking, but it can become severe when growers transition from fresh to processing strawberries during the season. “The longer picking interval for processing strawberries provides drosophila ample opportunity to infect the ripening fruit,” explains Dr. Shearer. Management strategies Managing SWD requires insecticide sprays, removal of overripe fruit from fields, shorter harvest intervals and cold storage of picked fruit, according to Dr. Shearer. Good sanitation is critical since infested fruit that remains in the field serves as a food source and allows eggs and larvae to fully develop and serves as a source of more flies.

“The spotted wing drosophila lays eggs directly in the fruit and, when the larvae hatch, the fruit collapses and decays as it is being eaten from the inside out,” explains Dr. Shearer. SWD reduces marketable fruit yields and is a significant pest for strawberry growers in the Watsonville-Salinas growing district where high tunnel production of raspberries and blackberries attract drosophila. “Raspberries are like candy to spotted wing drosophila, attracting high numbers and exploding populations, which find their way to commercial strawberry fields,” says Dr. Shearer.

“Exirel® insect control powered by Cyazypyr® active is an effective material against spotted wing drosophila as well as Lepidoptera and thrips,” says Dr. Shearer. “It has a different mode of action than pyrethroids or spinosyns providing growers another chemical class to help minimize resistance development.” Exirel insect control has a one-day preharvest interval.

Always read and follow all label directions, precautions and restrictions for use. Some products may not be registered for sale or use in all states. The EPA registered label for Exirel insect control contains the following statements: This product is highly toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment on blooming crops or weeds. Do not apply this product or allow it to drift to blooming crops or weeds if bees are foraging (actively visiting) the treatment area. FMC, the FMC logo, Cyazypyr and Exirel are trademarks of FMC are trademarks of FMC Corporation or an affiliate. ©2019 FMC Corporation. All rights reserved. 19-FMC-1125 08/19



Special to the Adviser

Combatting resistance and the future of organic herbicides Scott Ockey, Western US Field Development Manager, Certis USA Herbicides have been under increased scrutiny with many of the challenges appearing at the forefront of multiple news cycles. With recent legal issues, from drift concerns to performance issues and/ or herbicide resistance, one might wonder if there is anything positive to discuss concerning herbicides. The good news is there is hope for growers who are in need of reliable weed control. Registration of herbicides by the EPA through the USDA-funded National Organic Program (NOP) has listed several products that answer both performance and resistance concerns, giving growers the tools to help address these concerns and gain peace of mind. Herbicide resistance has been documented in nearly 250 cases across a wide array of chemistries worldwide, with 160+ cases in the United States-with 90 cases alone in California. To help educate growers on how to avoid or significantly reduce the risk of herbicide resistance, the Herbicide Resistance Action Committee (HRAC) and most University Extension Services publish Best Management Guidelines/Tools. The primary tactics common to most guidelines include: identifying the modes of action of the herbicides being used and to rotate to different modes of action on subsequent sprays, rotate crops for the most successful and robust weed control programs, and employ mechanical and cultural weed management strategies in an herbicide spray program. Report suspected herbicide resistant weeds to your local extension service so that they can be tested, and if resistance is found, a control plan can be initiated. Diligent adherence to these guidelines will ensure long-term efficacy of your most useful herbicides. We’re also seeing our options limited, with some of the nonselective herbicides that are often used to manage resistant weeds being placed under increased scrutiny by the EPA. This is mainly due to concerns surrounding toxicity, which has resulted in new labeling rules that restrict application to only certified applicators and requires additional recurring and specific training for those applicators. With increased restrictions and a reduction in these options, growers are left searching for viable solutions to compliment the efforts of the HRAC and University Extension Services. Effective organic herbicides are now available for inclusion in programs as those mentioned above to help safeguard against herbicide resistance by introducing additional modes of action into weed management programs. As the name states, they are 26


also vital for weed management programs in organic farming systems. Currently available organic herbicides are non-selective and act through catastrophic disruption of the plant cuticle, which results in exposure and destruction of cellular contents. Because of the nature of this mode of action, it is highly unlikely that plants will develop resistance to these weed control products. The incorporation and timing of applications to preserve the use of selective herbicides is an ideal use for organic based bioherbicides. Primary organic herbicide categories that are available today include fatty acids, soaps, plant extracts, and acetic acids. These broad-spectrum contact herbicides have strong attributes, but each has characteristics that require a bit of education for optimal performance. Since organic herbicides rely on destruction of the plant cuticle, coverage is paramount. Increasing application volume directly correlates with increased weed control. Treating weeds when they are young is also advised. It’s more manageable to control 2"-5” weeds vs. 6”-12” weeds. This timing is more effective as full coverage is achieved with lower water volumes and the plants have not yet been able to lignify tissues or produce a substantial root system to support regrowth. Fatty acids and soaps often benefit from application under higher temperatures and low pH. Acetic acid efficacy increases in water sources with low carbonates and low pH. Acetic acid is corrosive and may damage application equipment. Immediate rinsing of spray tank and washing all equipment contacted by the acetic acid solution is advised. Plant extracts vary in requirements to optimize efficacy; however, purity due to the plant source and processing/ formulation for these extracts can often impact efficacy. It is advisable to consult local distributors and/or University Extension Service reports to make the decision of which plant extract is appropriate. While we will certainly continue to face current and future challenges as it relates to weed management, it’s good to know that we have some great guidance and viable solutions. When used correctly and according to the guidelines from those with knowledge of these products, our future is bright and full of crops, and free of weeds. █



Double Nickel® — Five Modes of Effective Protection. Your Crops Will Thank You!


Made in America

Certis USA’s ISO manufacturing facility at Wasco, California, has been producing Bacillus-based products for over half a century. It’s important to Certis USA that we provide products to growers that are of the highest quality and we strive to ensure those standards throughout our manufacturing facility. It’s why we are consistently investing in new equipment and new processes at our Wasco facility. Today at Wasco, we manufacture Double Nickel ® ( Bacillus amyloliquefaciens D747 ), LifeGard ® WG ( Bacillus mycoides isolate J ), Deliver ® and Javelin ® WG ( Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki) and Agree ® WG ( Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai) among other products for use in agriculture around the world. Our manufacturing expertise and attention to detail ensures that growers receive products containing the consistent quality that they’ve grown to rely upon.

In trial data spanning nearly a decade, Double Nickel has consistently proven its efficacy. Researchers have put Double Nickel to the test by performing nearly 700 lab and field trials with over 74 different crops or ornamentals. In those trials, conducted at prestigious universities including the University of California system, the University of Illinois, the University of Georgia, Michigan State University, Rutgers University, the University of Florida, Texas A&M, and the University of Arizona, Double Nickel proved efficacious in the treatment of more than 90 different diseases, such as: • Anthracnose (Colletotrichum sp.) • Apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) • Bacterial spot (Xanthomonas perforans) • Botrytis bunch rot/fruit rot/gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) • Cercospora leaf spot (Cercospora beticola) • Downy mildews (cucurbit, grape, Option 2 spinach) lettuce, • Early blight (Alternaria solani)

Ready to Work Double Nickel uses five modes of action to fight back against bacterial and fungal plant diseases that threaten your crops. AntiFungal

Ready to Rely Upon


• Flyspeck/sooty blotch/summer diseases (pome fruit) • Lettuce drop (Sclerotinia minor) • Phytophthora blight (Phytophthora capsici) • Powdery mildews (cucurbit, grape, pepper, pome, strawberry, tomato) • Rhizoctonia • Southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii)

• White mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum)

• Fire blight (Erwinia amylovora)

Metabolites kill pathogens by disrupting cell membrane.


Metabolites kill pathogens by disrupting cell wall.

Growth Promotion

Plant Triggering

Improved nutrient uptake. Hormonal interactions.

Certis USA: The Leader in Biopesticides With a proven, broad portfolio of crop protection solutions for organic and commercial production, Certis USA is ready to meet the dynamic challenges facing growers today. Pioneering bio-based innovations to solve tomorrow’s agricultural issues makes Certis USA the leader in biopesticides.

SAR/ISR response.

Competitive Exclusion Prevention of infection by pathogens.

4 hr. REI 0 PHI

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Selecting resistant cultivars: The backbone of turfgrass disease prevention

Figure 1. Large patch disease (Rhizoctonia solani) affecting kikuyugrass (Pennisetum clandestinum; lighter-green patch on right) while leaving bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon; darker green area) untouched. Photo: James Hempfling, Bayer Crop Science. Maggie Reiter, Environmental Horticulture Advisor and Affiliated IPM Advisor, UC Cooperative Extension, Fresno County Importance of turfgrass in California Turfgrass is a significant “crop� in California, comprising over an estimated 2.7 million acres across the state (Milesi et al. 2005). In fact, California has greater turf acreage than almonds, grapes, and pistachios combined (CDFA 2019). Turfgrass plays an important role in public urban spaces (e.g., parks, sports fields, schools, and golf courses) to provide multiple recreational, ecosystem, and aesthetic functions. Maintaining turfgrass health is important to ensure that turfgrass benefits are realized. Diseases can weaken or kill turfgrass, which can lead to decreased functionality and increased maintenance costs. Turfgrass disease is usually addressed by altering management strategies and applying fungicides. IPM strategy for prevention Turfgrass scientists and extension professionals emphasize the need to select species and, subsequently, cultivars of that species that are appropriate for the local climate and intended functions (Hartin et al. 2011). Selecting disease-resistant cultivars is also an important IPM strategy that focuses on long-term prevention. By reducing the risk of disease, this strategy also supports reduction in pesticide usage. However, selecting appropriate cultivars requires an understanding of potential disease pressures for the environment and the host turf species (Fig. 1). Too often, turfgrass managers will opt to plant older cultivars they are familiar with and have worked with in the past. Penncross is still the most-sold cultivar of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) although this variety was released in 1954. In recent decades, turfgrass breeding and development has focused on releasing more disease-resistant cultivars. Turfgrass managers may not be aware of these newer cultivars or may be unsure how to select appropriate cultivars for their locations. Access to unbiased information on these newer cultivars is important for incorporating superior genetics into landscapes, and ensuing disease prevention will result in economic and environmental savings. 28


Data-driven decision making A starting point is to review data from local variety trials conducted by the University of California and the National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP). NTEP collaborates with University researchers to conduct variety trials across the country, evaluating relevant turfgrass species and cultivars. Data from these studies provide unbiased, multi-year data on new cultivars and popular industry standards (Fig. 2). Over 30 years of NTEP research is publically available online at; additionally, local trial results are often available at turfgrass research and extension programs’ websites of collaborator universities. When reviewing the data, turfgrass managers can filter potential results for turfgrass species, location, and disease ratings (if available). For example, spring dead spot (Ophiosphaerella spp.) is a widespread fungal disease of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon). This disease is common in California where bermudagrass is popular and winter temperatures cause the grass to go dormant. Disease damage (Fig. 3) is visible when bermudagrass emerges from dormancy in the springtime. Spring dead spot ratings for over 30 cultivars of bermudagrass are posted in the NTEP database, and this information can be applied to select more disease resistant bermudagrasses (NTEP 2019). Cultivars that had no disease at the date and location rated include: Latitude 36, Northbridge, Patriot, Premier, PSG 94524, SWI-1057, and Tifway. Royal Bengal had unacceptable disease ratings at the date and location rated and would not be a good choice for preventing spring dead spot. NTEP data may include experimental cultivars that are not commercially available (like PSG 94524). For current updates on review data from variety trails or other evaluation information, visit the NTEP website at While providing useful information, the NTEP website can be cumbersome and difficult to navigate. A multi-state research project is underway to develop a more user-friendly web application for accessing and filtering NTEP data (Watkins 2019).

“WHEN QUANTIX IS DONE FLYING I can look at the Quick-Look images immediately and get some answers right away. It’s going to make us more efficient and make


DECISIONS.” —NICK GATZMAN, Tavaille & Phippen, CA


UC IPM, CONT, Selecting resistant cultivars for turfgrass disease prevention

Additional resources Beyond NTEP, cultivar selection decisions can be made in consult with University of California Cooperative Extension, United States Golf Association agronomists, seed company representatives, and allied turfgrass industry. If time and resources allow, on-site test plots are useful for evaluating cultivar options in a specific microclimate. Once turf managers have identified potential cultivars for their project, turfgrass seed and sod distributors can assist managers in exploring local availability of the desired cultivars. Conclusion Selection and use of disease-resistant turfgrass cultivars is a way to stack the cards against disease. Time spent on prevention by identifying disease-resistant cultivars will pay dividends in the longterm. However, cultivar selection alone may not prevent turfgrass disease. This IPM approach, when used in conjunction with other IPM tactics and best management practices, will optimize turfgrass health and function while reducing the risk of disease. █ Literature cited [CDFA] California Department of Food and Agriculture. 2019. California Agricultural Statistics Review 2017–2018. Available at: Hartin J, Geisel P, Harivandi MA. 2011. Lawn Diseases: Prevention and Management. University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication Number 7497.

Figure 2a. Fine fescue variety trial managed as a lawn. Plots of different cultivars have variable susceptibility to red thread disease (Laetisaria fuciformis). Photo: Maggie Reiter, UCCE. Figure 2b. Creeping bentgrass variety trial managed as a golf course putting green. Plots of different cultivars have variable susceptibility to dollar spot disease (Clarireedia spp., formerly called Sclerotinia homoeocarpa), as well as color. Photo: Maggie Reiter, UCCE.

Milesi C, Running SW, Elvidge CD, Dietz JB, Tuttle BT, and Nemani RR. 2005. Mapping and Modeling the Biogeochemical Cycling of Turf Grasses in the United States. Environmental Management 36: 426-438. National Turfgrass Evaluation Program. 2019. Spring dead spot ratings of bermudagrass cultivars, 2010–2012 data. Available at: Watkins E. 2019. Increasing Low-Input Turfgrass Adoption Through Breeding, Innovation, And Public Education. Available at: txt&id=anon&pass=&search=R=75690&format=WEBLINK



Figure 3. Spring dead spot disease (Ophiosphaerella spp.) patches on bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) in springtime. Photo: Maggie Reiter, UCCE


© 2019 Almond Board of California. All rights reserved.

Cal Expo, Sacramento

COME GROW YOUR KNOWLEDGE • Production research • Marketing program updates • Global and technical regulations • Much more The conference is free to attend.



Special to the Adviser

Making choices: The appropriate nutrients for your crops John Leif, Field Agronomy Manager, AgroLiquid Seed and crop protection selection has changed dramatically over the past 20 years, but crop nutrition planning is sometimes based on past history rather than on knowledge of the soil and needs of the crop (“It’s what I’ve always done”). The agricultural economy can make it tempting to take a few shortcuts and not purchase inputs or services that were purchased in the past. The challenge is making the best use of financial resources but not cutting inputs that will make money. As growers consider their crop nutrition needs it is tempting to forgo something as basic, and important, as soil testing.

In addition to selecting nutrients needed to grow the crop, a soil test report will show relationships among nutrients in the soil. If one nutrient is in excess, other nutrients may not be available to the crop, even if the values of those nutrients are high. An excellent example of this is manganese and iron. If the manganese level is higher than the iron level, there is a risk that iron will be less available to the crop and supplemental iron nutrition is recommended. Excess levels of calcium can reduce the availability of several nutrients, including phosphorus, potassium and manganese, among others. Mulder’s Chart graphically describes some of those relationships.

Soil testing allows the grower to determine the current condition of the soil, including imbalances, deficiencies, and excesses. It also helps identify how much nutrition is already available in the soil so that fertilizer applications can be optimized. A multi-year testing program allows the grower to monitor changes in the soil over time. Yes, soil testing does cost money – around $25 per sample for a complete test that includes soil characteristics, nutrient levels and base saturation. However, if one soil sample represents 20 acres in a field and the field is sampled every three years, the cost of soil sampling averages out to be about $0.41 per acre per year. Not a bad investment, considering the amount of information received from that test. Nutrient levels in soil will change over time. Nutrient level reductions can be the result of crop removal, changes in fertilizer use, and loss through erosion or leaching. Nutrients that weren’t well managed 20 years ago, such as sulfur or micronutrients, have become more prominent as nutrients that can be limiting to yield. Soluble nutrients such as manganese and boron are difficult to build up in the soil, and higher crop yields of today take more crop nutrition than the yields of 20 – 30 years ago. “Free” sulfur from manufacturing and power generation facilities is not as available as it was before the Clean Air Act was implemented. Simply applying the same fertilizer mix you have always applied may not provide the best production or economic return. The soil test report can be used to develop a complete nutrient management program for a field, including soil amendments to adjust nutrient imbalances as well as determine the fertilizer application needs for the crop. Using products that can be mixed to address the needs of a field will provide the best opportunity for economic return. 32


As this year’s harvest comes to an end, begin thinking about next year’s crop. Having a soil test analysis in-hand is the best, first step in developing a fertility game plan. That will give your 2020 crop a good start next spring, and you’ll be well on your way to improving yields and quality year after year. █


10 nutrients... one product

AgroLiquid Introduces Micro 1000™ Growers asked for a comprehensive micronutrient package. AgroLiquid delivers with 10 nutrients in one manufactured product. AgroLiquid is excited to introduce the newest product in its microLink line-up. Micro 1000™ is a combination of eight essential micronutrients: zinc, nickel, molybdenum, manganese, iron, copper, cobalt, and boron; and two secondary nutrients: calcium and magnesium. Soil tests do not analyze the availability of all micronutrients we know plants utilize during the growing season (albeit in very small amounts). Regardless of the quantity of a nutrient needed, if a plant does not have access to those micronutrients, it can lead to susceptibility to disease, stunting, reduced root structure and ultimately, reduced yields. At the recent Ag PhD Field Day, TV show host, Darren Hefty, commented, “I talk with many farmers who say ‘well, we haven’t really focused on micros on our farm, which ones are most important?’ Obviously all of them.” Micro 1000 was developed to provide secondary and micronutrients to the crop during key growth stages. Zn, Mn, Fe, and Cu are components of chlorophyll production and are critical for photosynthesis. Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Ca, and Mg help improve nitrogen utilization by the crop. All of them are needed during the early development of the crop, with boron being needed most during pollination. The

Flavonol Polymer Technology contained in Micro 1000 allows for improved uptake and assimilation by the crop. The availability of secondary and micronutrients to the crop can be affected by a number of soil and environmental factors. While a thorough soil test analysis is critical to making an informed crop nutrition recommendation, a soil test may not measure, or fails to provide, sufficient information about certain factors. Some of these factors include soil nutrient interactions, temperature, water content and light. Find out if Micro 1000 is right for your operation at About AgroLiquid AgroLiquid manufactures and distributes high-efficiency liquid fertilizer, formulated to protect nutrients from loss to the environment. AgroLiquid’s products work with, instead of against, the biology of the soil, which makes them more usable by the crop. Continuous research and product improvement, coupled with an ethical business model, keeps AgroLiquid focused on its mission: ‘To Prosper the Farmer’.

Micro 1000TM is a trademark of AgroLiquid. Copyright 2019 AgroLiquid. All rights reserved.



CAPCA Watching Out for PCAs

MISSION & PURPOSE CAPCA’s mission is to facilitate the success of the PCA and to represent our 3,000 members who provide pest management consultation for the production of food, fiber and ornamental industries of California. CAPCA’s purpose is to serve as the leader in the evolution of the pest management industry through the communication of reliable information. CAPCA is dedicated to the professional development and enhancement of our members’ education and stewardship which includes legislative, regulatory, continuing education and public outreach.


• New waterproof formula—rain, mold and water resistant • Broadcast application in citrus for maximum snail control and easy compliance • Kills fast—dead snails observed within 24 hours


• Small Micro-pellet® for maximum number of baiting points • Residue (MRL) exempt • Zero PHI, 4 hr REI • Unlimited number of applications per year allowed, no retreatment interval • Broad label includes citrus, grapes, nuts, nursery stock and more

Bait Back!

• Unique mode of action = superior activity in wet and cool weather • Easy to see blue pellets Neudorff North America 250-652-5888 • OCTOBER 2019 | CAPCA ADVISER



Healthy IPM toolbox facilitates spider mite management in California David Haviland, Entomology Farm Advisor, UCCE Kern County Management of spider mites is a great opportunity for California pest control advisers to practice integrated pest management (IPM). This includes proper identification of spider mites and natural enemies, including predatory mites, well-established monitoring programs and treatment thresholds, effective biological control, and the judicious use of miticides when needed. When properly implemented, these IPM programs can maximize biological control, mitigate issues with resistance, and provide effective crop protection. Proper identification Most spider mite species, such as Pacific, two-spotted, citrus red, European, Willamette and Persea mites are relatively easy to identify due to their color patterns, production of webbing (in most cases), preference to feed in a specific location on certain hosts, the shape of their eggs, and their relatively sessile behavior. Likewise, predatory mites are readily identifiable due to their shiny appearance, lack of hairs, teardrop shape, uniform clear or amber color, and active behavior of running on the leaf surface in search of food. Distinguishing these two groups of mites is essential while determining if mites are pests or beneficials, especially when using treatment threshold tables that take into account biological control. Monitoring and thresholds For most major crops, excellent guidelines for monitoring programs and treatment thresholds can be found at the University of California Statewide IPM Program web site (http://ucipm.ucanr. edu) by clicking on ‘Agricultural Pests’, then selecting a crop, and then clicking on the mite species. While monitoring, it is important to keep records of pest and natural enemy densities so that multiweek comparisons can be made. To exemplify this point, imagine that an almond orchard has mites on 20% of the leaves. Is this a concern? Well, if it was only 5% last week then the field should be watched closely and will likely be at a treatment threshold the following week, whereas if it was 60% last week, biological control is functioning and no intervention is needed. For this reason, the most effective treatment decisions, using written records, not only focus on what is being seen today, but also on how this relates to what was seen previously. Resurgence of biological control For many years, the prevalence of organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides in many California crops led to a significant reduction in spider mite natural enemies. It was common to hear of spider mite flare-ups and of reports of significant leaf damage or defoliation in crops like almonds, walnuts, grapes, cotton, corn, strawberries and avocados. This has changed significantly over the past few years, with major new classes of insecticide chemistries, such as the neonicotinoids, diamides, and various groups of insect growth regulators having reduced impacts on natural enemies than 36


their predecessors. This has allowed for overall improvements in biological control in many of these crops. For example, one decade ago, it was common for almond growers to apply one to three miticide applications per season in an attempt to control spider mites, oftentimes still resulting in significant leaf damage and defoliation. Currently, an increase in the prevalence of the natural enemy sixspotted thrips usually allows mites to be managed with one, and sometimes no sprays. Across all commodities, key natural enemies to monitor in crops with spider mites include phytoseiids (predatory mites), sixspotted thrips, spider mite destroyer beetles, lacewing larvae and minute pirate bugs. Most of these species occur naturally in the field, with some of them, such as lacewing larvae or phytoseiids, readily available for purchase from commercial insectaries for release in augmentative biocontrol programs. Caution should also be used when applying insecticides that might affect spider mite natural enemies. These include broadspectrum insecticides, such as organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids, as well as some narrow-spectrum insecticides, such as spinosyns, that can affect thrips regardless of whether the species is considered a pest or natural enemy. Chemical control and resistance management Since the early 2000s, there has been a significant increase in the number of effective miticides available for use in California (Table 1). Miticide options now include products that affect nerve and muscle cells, regulate growth, or impact mites’ ability to produce energy in the mitochondria (Table 1-2). Mites can also be suppressed through a variety of biological or microbial products based on bacteria (Burkhohlderia sp., Chromobacterium sp.) or plant extracts (Neem, Chenopodium sp.), as well as traditional mineral oils, stylet oils or soaps (Table 2). Some of these latter products also have the advantage of being OMRI certified for use on organic crops. The diversity of miticide options has benefitted growers by driving down the cost of miticides, while also benefitting PCAs employing resistance management programs. The number of options available makes it easy to ensure that no two miticides of the same mode of action are applied sequentially. Resistance management can also be enhanced by tank mixing traditional miticides with oilbased products. Oil serves the purpose of smothering mites while simultaneously functioning as a surfactant that allows the even spread of, or translaminar movement of, the primary miticide in the tank. With only a few exceptions, most modern-day miticides are also safe on predatory insects that can survive miticide applications and feed on any surviving mites that may have developed resistance.

Table 1- Targeted life stage and modes of action for common active ingredients1 found in miticides registered for use in California, 2019.

Active Ingredient

Targeted life stages and mode of action

IRAC Number2

Abamectin Acequinocyl Bifenazate Bifenthrin Clofentezine Cyflumetofen Etoxazole Fenazaquin Fenbutatin-oxide Fenpropathrin Fenpyroximate Hexythiazox Spirodiclofen Spiromesifen Propargite Pyridaben

contact or ingestion toxin that paralyzes juveniles and adults; death by starvation contact toxin on all stages; prevents the utilization of energy by cells contact toxin on all stages by preventing the utilization of energy by cells nerve toxin to juveniles and adults by modification of sodium channels growth regulator of mite eggs and some nymphs contact on all mite stages by preventing utilization of energy by cells contact toxin on eggs; inhibits molting of juveniles; adult females produce sterile eggs contact toxin to eggs, juveniles and adults; inhibits electron transport in the mitochondria contact toxin to juveniles and adults by inhibition of ATP synthesis nerve toxin to juveniles and adults by modification of sodium channels contact toxin to eggs, juveniles and adults; inhibits electron transport in the mitochondria mite growth regulator; adult females lay sterile eggs; contact toxin on eggs and juveniles contact on all mite stages by inhibiting lipid biosynthesis; most effective on juveniles contact on all mite stages by inhibiting lipid biosynthesis; most effective on juveniles contact on juveniles and adults by inhibition of ATP synthesis contact on juveniles and adults by inhibition of energy production

6 20B 20D 3A 10A 25A 10B 21A 12B 3A 21A 10A 23 23 12C 21A

To receive a full version of this table, including principal Tradenames and Manufacturers of each of the active ingredients, please contact David Haviland at 2 List only includes miticide active ingredients for which a mode of action is known and described by the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC). 3 IIRAC numbers used to denote different modes of action. Same number indicates same mode of action. 1

You don’t report to the front lines. You live on them. Too much rain. Too much sun. Weeds. Disease. Insects. Farming is a battle — and the only way to win is to go all in. That applies to us just as much as it applies to you. Our place is at your side, with you in the fight. Our way of helping is through value-driven crop protection. And the expertise to help you get the most out of it. Learn more at


©2019 Atticus. Important: Always read and follow label instructions.

FARM ADVISORS, CONT, Healthy IPM toolbox facilitates spider mite management in CA

Each of these new miticides has something to offer to mite management in California; the trick is to figuring out which miticide will work best under which situation, and to determine how to best fit them into resistance management plans and the economics of the crop. For example, products that utilize translaminar activity, such as those containing abamectin and etoxazole, work best when applied to tender leaves without dust. Growth regulators are often slower to act than contact materials, but can have longer residual effects. When trying to put out a fire, contact miticides that affect energy metabolism (such as METI inhibitors) tend to produce the quickest results. In organic crops, OMRI-approved biological products, soaps and oils are industry standards. In some cases research is readily available to document the effects of these products, and in other cases our knowledge of the best fit of these products is still being developed. Crop-specific information on miticide options can be found within the UCIPM Pest Management Guidelines for Agricultural Pests (

Conclusion Managing spider mites requires good integrated pest management skills and dedication. PCAs who visit fields weekly, monitor for mites and their natural enemies, keep records, use treatment thresholds, and avoid pesticides that kill natural enemies typically have very good success. Effective spider mite management is a great example of services that are best provided by an experienced, licensed pest control adviser who understands and can implement a complete integrated pest management program. For more information on how to manage specific mite pests in specific crops, consult the UCIPM Pest Management Guidelines ( or visit a Farm Advisor at your local UC Cooperative Extension office. â–ˆ

Table 2- Mode of Action Groups for Common Miticides Used in California (2019).1

Main Group Mode of Action


What it Affects in Mites

Sodium channel modulators (pyrethroids)


nerve action

Chloride channel modulators (avermectins)


nerve and muscle action


growth regulation


growth regulation


12B 12C 20B 20D

energy metabolism energy metabolism energy metabolism energy metabolism

Mitochondrial complex I inhibitors


energy metabolism

Inhibitors of acetyl CoA carboxylase


lipid synthesis, growth regulation

Mitochondrial complex II inhibitors Unknown (Compounds) Unknown (Bacterial agents)


energy metabolism unknown unknown

Unknown (Botanicals)



fenbutin-oxide propargite acequinocyl bifenazate fenpyroximate fenazaquin pyridaben spirodiclofen spiromesifen cyflumetofen sulfur Burkholderia sp. Chenopodium extract Neem Oil Chromobacterium sp. blend of pheromones mineral oil stylet oil soaps

Mite growth inhibitors Inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP synthase Mitochondrial complex III inhibitors

Not classified


stomach poison excitation of males primarily affect respiration (smothering)

Active Ingredient bifenthrin fenpropathrin abamectin clofentezine hexythiazox

To receive a full version of this table, including principal Tradenames and Manufacturers of each of the active ingredients, please contact David Haviland at 2 Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) numbers used to denote different modes of action. Same number indicates same mode of action. 1



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ThripsM sMites


Spider Mites

Powdery Mildew

Broad Leaf

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Effect of microbial and botanical biostimulants with nutrients on tomato yield Surendra K. Dara, Entomology and Biologicals Advisor, UC Cooperative Extension, Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties Biostimulants are mineral, botanical, or microbial materials that stimulate natural processes in plants, help them tolerate biotic and abiotic stressors, and improve crop growth and health. There has been a growing interest in the recent years in exploring the potential of biostimulants in crop production. While some commercial products contain biostimulants exclusively, others also have some nutrient materials. Several recent studies demonstrated the potential of the biostimulant or soil amendments in improving crop yields and health. For example, in a 2017 field study, silicon, microbial, botanical and nutrient materials improved processing tomato yields by 27 to 32% compared to the standard fertility program (Dara and Lewis, 2018). In a 2017-2018 strawberry field study, some biostimulant and soil amendment products resulted in a 13-16% increase in marketable fruit yield compared to the grower standard (Dara and Peck, 2018). He et al. (2019) evaluated three species of Bacillus and Pseudomonas putida alone and in different combinations in tomatoes grown in laboratory and greenhouse. The combination of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. pumilus, and P. putida increased the plant biomass and the root/shoot ratio. Significant increase in fruit yield, between 18 and 39%, was also achieved from individual or co-inoculations of these bacteria. A field study was conducted in processing tomato to evaluate the impact of nutrient products containing beneficial microbes and botanical extracts on tomato yields and fruit quality.



Methodology The study was conducted from late spring to fall of 2018 to evaluate three treatment programs compared to the grower standard. A tomato cultivar was seeded on April 25 and transplanted on June 19 using a mechanical transplanter. Due to high temperatures at the time of planting, some transplants died, and they were re-planted on June 28. Herbicide rimsulfuron was applied on July 5 and sethoxydim was applied on July 13 followed by hand weeding on July 27. Crop was irrigated, fertigated, and treatments were applied through a drip system. Overhead sprinkler irrigation was additionally used immediately after transplanting. The following treatments were included in the study: 1. Grower standard: Ammonium polyphosphate solution (primarily containing 10% nitrogen and 34% phosphate) was applied at 10 gal/ ac at the time of transplanting followed by the application of urea ammonium nitrate solution [containing 32% nitrogen in the form of ammonical nitrogen (7.75%), nitrate nitrogen (7.75%) and urea nitrogen (16.5%)] at the rate of 15 units of nitrogen at 3, 6, and 13 weeks after planting and 25 units of nitrogen at 7 weeks after planting. 2. Grower standard + Microbial consortium with N and P: The microbial consortium, hitherto referred to as MC-16N40P, contains 16% ammonical nitrogen and 40% phosphate derived from diammonium phosphate along with B. amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, and B. subtilis at 1X108 cfu/gram. MC16N40P was applied at 1 lb/ac at the time of planting followed by the application 0.5 lb/ac at 3, 6, and 9 weeks after planting.

3. Grower standard 85% + MC-16N40P: MC16N40P was applied at the same rate and frequency as in treatment 2, but the grower standard was reduced to 85% with the same application schedule. 4. Botanical-5K: This product, hitherto referred to as Botanical-5K, contains 5% soluble potash derived from potassium hydroxide and proprietary botanical extracts from trees, and is supposed to stimulate a broad range of antioxidant compounds in the plant. Botanical-5K was applied at 0.25 gal/ac at the time of planting followed by the application of 0.5 gal/ac at 3, about 7, and 13 weeks after planting. Each treatment contained 30’ long bed with a single row of tomato plants and replicated five times in a randomized complete block design. Along with the fruit yield, the sugar content of the fruit and leaves [using a refractometer from three fruits (two measurements from each) and four leaves per plot], chlorophyll content (using a digital chlorophyll meter from four leaves per plot), and frost damage levels (using a visual rating on a 0 to 5 scale where 0 = no frost damage and 5 = extreme frost damage with a complete plant death) were also monitored. Due to an unknown reason, some plants in the fifth replication were stunted halfway through the study. Data from the fifth replication were excluded from the analysis. Data were subjected to the analysis of variance

TECH-FLO and the stylized N logo are registered trademarks of Nutrient Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved.



FARM ADVISORS, CONT, Effect of microbial and botanical biostimulants with nutrients on tomato yield

using Statistix software and significant means were separated using the Tukey’s HSD test. Results Fruit yield: Marketable and unmarketable fruit yield was monitored from August 27 to November 13. Seasonal total for marketable fruit was significantly (P = 0.04) different among the treatments where Botanical-5K resulted in a 26.5% increase over the grower standard while MC-16N40P with the full rate of the grower standard had an 8%, and with 85% of the grower standard had a 13.2% increase. It appeared that a similar improved yield response was also seen when MC-16N40P was used at a reduced rate of the grower standard in other studies conducted by the manufacturer. Sugar content: Sugar content of the fruit and leaves was measured once after the last harvest and there were no significant (P > 0.05) difference among the treatments. Chlorophyll content: Chlorophyll content was measured once after the last harvest and there was no significant (P > 0.05) difference among the treatments. Frost damage: Study was concluded after frosty conditions in November 2018 damaged the crop. Although there were no statistically significant (P > 0.05) differences, plants treated with Botanical-5K had the lowest rating of 2. Discussion Biostimulants are technically those materials that promote plant growth without providing nutritional value or having pesticidal activity. The products



Field crew collecting harvest data. Photo: S. Dara.

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FARM ADVISORS, CONT, Effect of microbial and botanical biostimulants with nutrients on tomato yield

evaluated in this study, however, have nutrients in the form of N and P or K and the yield improvement could have been from both biostimulants and the additional nutrients. Bradáčová et al. (2019) also found improved plant growth and yields in tomato with microbial consortia and single-strain inoculants in the presence of nutrient sources. A strain of B. amyloliquefaciens, one of the microbes in MC-16N40P, induced systemic resistance against tomato yellow leaf curl virus in tomato by upregulating the pathogenesis-related gene expression and significantly reduced the infection rate, disease severity, and leaf virus quantity (Guo et al. 2019). The bacterium also improved the root development, shoot biomass, and the ratio between beneficial soil microbes and plant pathogenic fungi in the rhizosphere.


Positive impact on plant growth or yield was also seen from the use of botanical biostimulants in tomato or other crops. Kim et al. (2019) observed that a botanical biostimulant containing amino acids, peptides, and some trace elements initiated adventitious roots in basil, chrysanthemum, and tomato cuttings as well as promoted antioxidant activity. In a different study, Paul et al. (2019) also observed a significant improvement in growth rate and growth performance of tomato from some botanical protein hydrolysates. Rosemary oil improved nutrient uptake, fresh weight of shoots and roots, and chlorophyll content in tomato seedlings, but plant height was reduced when applied as a foliar spray at 1000 pm (Souri and Bakhtiarizade, 2019). These studies demonstrate the positive impact of botanical and microbial biostimulants on plant growth and health and support the results observed in the current study. █

Dara, S. K. and E. Lewis. 2018. Impact of nutrient and biostimulant materials on tomato crop health and yield. UCANR eJournal of Entomology and Biologicals ( cfm?postnum=26054)

Transplanting tomatoes. Photo: S. Dara.

Bradáčová, K., A. S. Florea, A. Bar-Tal, D. Minz, U. Yermiyahu, R. Shawahna, J. Kraut-Cohen, A. Zolti, R. Erel, K. Dietel and M. Weinmann. 2019. Microbial Consortia versus Single-Strain Inoculants: An Advantage in PGPM-Assisted Tomato Production? Agronomy 9: 105. https://doi. org/10.3390/agronomy9020105 Kim, H-J., K.-M. Ku, S. Choi, and M. Cardarelli. 2019. Vegetal-derived biostimulant enhances adventitious rooting in cuttings of basil, tomato, and chrysanthemum via brassinosteroid-mediated processes. Agronomy 9: 74. Dara, S. K. and D. Peck. 2018. Microbial and bioactive soil amendments for improving strawberry crop growth, health, and fruit yields: a 20172018 study. UCANR eJournal of Entomology and Biologicals (https://

Guo, Q., Y. Li, Y. Lou, M. Shi, Y. Jiang, J. Zhou, Y. Sun, Q. Xue, and H. Lai. 2019. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Ba13 induces plant systemic resistance and improves rhizosphere microecology against tomato yellow leaf curl virus disease. Applied Soil Ecology 137: 154-166. apsoil.2019.01.015 He. Y., H. A. Pantigoso, Z. Wu, and J. M. Vivanco. 2019. Co-inoculation of Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas putida at different development stages acts as a biostimulant to promote growth, yield and nutrient uptake of tomato. J. Appl. Microbiol. Paul, K., M. Sorrentino, L. Lucini, Y. Rouphael, M. Cardarelli, P. Bonini, H. Reynaud, R. Canaguier, M. Trtilek, K. Panzarová, and G. Colla. 2019. Understanding the biostimulant action of vegetal-derived protein hydrolysates by high-throughput plant phenotyping and metabolomics: a case study on tomato. Frontiers in Plant Science 10: 47. https://doi. org/10.3389/fpls.2019.00047 Souri, M. K. and M. Bakhtiarizade. 2019. Biostimulation effects of rosemary essential oil on growth and nutrient uptake of tomato seedlings. Scientia Horticulturae 243: 472-476. scienta.2018.08.056




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Situation update on the polyphagous shot hole borer in California


Jesus R. Lara1, Deena Husein1, Christine Dodge1, Sonia Rios2, Richard Stouthamer1 Department of Entomology, UC Riverside; 2 UCCE Subtropical Horticulture Farm Advisor, Riverside/San Diego Counties

Background The polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB), Euwallacea whitfordiodendrus (Schedl) is an invasive ambrosia beetle from Southeast Asia that was first detected in Los Angeles County in 2003 (Gomez et al. 2018, Rabaglia et al. 2006; Fig 1). PSHB is a pest of great concern in southern California because it can attack over 300 tree species and reproduce on a subset of these (Table 1). The list of reproductive hosts includes several native oaks, maples, sycamores, willows, and avocado, an important specialty crop in California (Eskalen et al. 2013). PSHB has a strong symbiotic relationship with several fungi, including Fusarium euwallaceae, the causal agent of Fusarium Dieback (FD) disease (Freeman et al. 2013). The fungus disrupts the vascular transport of water and nutrients, producing symptoms such as branch dieback and may lead to tree death (Eskalen et al. 2012; Fig 2). Correct diagnosis of the source of these symptoms is critical for proper tree treatment given that there are several look-a-like insects that can attack the same host and tree response symptoms to injury can vary among species (Dimson et al. 2015). The introduction of the fungus into the tree xylem occurs when a female PSHB excavates a gallery and inoculates the gallery walls with fungal spores that it carries in special structures called mycangia (Beaver 1989). The female PSHB and her offspring feed exclusively on the fungal spores (Kirkendall et al. 2015). PSHB adults engage in sibling mating within the natal gallery, and offspring sex ratios are generally female biased to maximize reproductive output such that one male can inseminate many of his female siblings. Once fully developed and mated, female PSHB exit their natal gallery to start a gallery of their own and repeat the cycle. Unlike their sisters, male PSHB do not disperse since they

Fig. 1. Relative size of field-collected shot hole borer females, Euwallacea sp. 46


are not capable of flying and do not possess mycangia for fungus storage. This cryptic lifestyle renders conventional control methods (e.g., mating disruption) ineffective and poses a significant barrier to developing cost-effective management strategies. Things Get More Cryptic Reports of dieback symptoms in El Cajon, San Diego County led to the discovery of another species, the Kuroshio shot hole borer (KSHB), Euwallacea kuroshio Gomez and Hulcr, in 2013 (Eskalen et al. 2015, Gomez et al. 2018). KSHB has caused substantial damage to willow trees in the Tijuana River Valley (Boland 2016) and is also present in commercial avocado orchards in San Diego County. The KSHB was originally limited to the San Diego region, but has since spread to Orange, Los Angeles, and Santa Barbara Counties. Presumably, the PSHB and KSHB were introduced accidentally into southern California via wooden products and/or shipping material from Southeast Asia. KSHB also carries fungi that cause Fusarium Dieback (FD) and is morphologically indistinguishable from PSHB. PSHB and KSHB are both indistinguishable from a third ambrosia beetle known as the tea shot hole borer (TSHB), Euwallacea fornicatus (Eichoff), which is invasive in Florida and Hawaii but is not present in California. These three beetles can only be identified reliably by comparing their DNA profiles (Stouthamer et al. 2017, Gomez et al. 2018). For this reason, PSHB, KSHB, and TSHB are considered part of the cryptic Euwallacea fornicatus species complex. Research by McPherson et al. (2017) indicated that 23.2 million trees in southern California are susceptible to attacks by the invasive shot hole borer species complex (PSHB and KSHB). Should half of those trees become infested, the estimated cost of removing and replacing them is $15.9 billion USD with an annual accruement of $616.9 million USD over the next 10 years (McPherson et al. 2017). Current Shot Hole Borer Management Status No specific sex or aggregation pheromones are known for PSHB or KSHB, but cost-effective detection of these invasive species was greatly improved using the commercially available semiochemical querciverol (Dodge et al. 2017). Concerted monitoring efforts led by UCANR, CDFA, Ag County offices and affiliated organizations have been effective in tracking the spread of both

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FARM ADVISORS, CONT, Polyphagous shot hole borer in California

(* species known to be susceptible to FD) Acacia (Acacia spp.) American sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua)* Avocado (Persea americana)* Bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum)* Black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) Black Mission fig (Ficus carica) Blue palo verde (Cercidium floridum)* Box elder (Acer negundo)* Brea (Cercidium x sonorae)* California sycamore (Platanus racemosa)* Camellia (Camellia semiserrata)* Castor bean (Ricinus communis)* Chinese holly (Ilex cornuta)* Coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia)* Coral tree (Erythrina corallodendron)* Cork oak (Quercus suber)* Engelmann oak (Quercus engelmannii) English oak (Quercus robur)* Evergreen maple (Acer paxii)* Fremont’s cottonwood (Populus fremontii) Goodding's black willow (Salix gooddingii) Japanese beech (Fagus crenata) Japanese maple (Acer palmatum)* Japanese wisteria (Wisteria floribunda)* Kurrajong (Brachychiton populneus) London plane (Platanus x acerifolia) Mesquite amargo (Prosopis articulata) Mexican sycamore (Platanus mexicana) Moreton Bay chestnut (Castanospermum australe)* Palo verde (Parkinsonia aculeata)* Persian silk tree (Albizia julibrissin)* Red flowering gum (Corymbia ficifolia) Red willow (Salix laevigata) Titoki (Alectryon excelsus)* Tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima) Trident maple (Acer buergerianum)* Valley oak (Quercus lobata)* Weeping willow (Salix babylonica) White Alder (Alnus rhombifolia)



Fig 2. Avocado trees with Fusarium dieback (FD) can display disease symptoms such as branch dieback (A), the formation of white sugary exudate from wound sites (B), and wood staining (C). FD symptoms can overlap with other causes so correct disease diagnosis should be made by a trained expert.

A Photo: Christine Dodge, used with permission.

Table 1. Overall, more than 300 host trees are at risk from attack by PSHB (Eskalen et al. 2013), but only a limited set of these species are known to be reproductive hosts for PSHB and Fusarium. Some of the known reproductive host trees for PSHB include the following (UC IPM 2017):



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FARM ADVISORS, CONT, Polyphagous shot hole borer in California

Fig 3. Sentinel log of a native Acer sp. deployed in an avocado orchard in Taiwan to attract PSHB and associated natural enemies. The log has been baited with the shot hole borer attractant querciverol and is partially protected with a plastic container.

Fig 4. Sentinel log of a native Acacia sp. deployed in a commercial avocado orchard in Taiwan. This log has an unidentified shot hole borer entry hole and fresh sawdust indicating that a gallery is being formed. Some of the shot hole borer visiting these logs are collected to determine their cryptic species identify.

the PSHB and KSHB in southern California; current detection information is readily available at However, methods to reduce beetle densities and the associated economic and environmental damage in California are still under development. The effectiveness of insecticides, fungicides, and the combination of both for controlling this pest were evaluated by Eatough Jones et al. (2017). The results indicated that pesticide treatments only provided limited control over a one to six month trial period. Eatough Jones et al. (2017) suggest that pesticide treatments may be more effective for shot hole borer control in the early stages of beetle attack. However, one reason pesticide efficacy may be limited can be attributed to the fact that PSHB and KSHB feed on fungi and not directly on wood tissue, thus reducing their exposure to active ingredients (Eatough Jones et al. 2017). Complementary cultural management practices include removal of infected branches to reduce local beetle numbers and fungal spread in the infested area, chipping (< 1 inch) and solarizing infested wood, and avoiding movement of infested materials to new areas (UC IPM 2017). These management strategies can perhaps abate the severity of local shot hole borer infestations, but the distribution of this pest continues to expand over time. More details on the shot hole borer situation in California is available at https://

Biological Control: Improving PSHB Management in CA Reducing the PSHB populations in California using chemical and cultural control practices alone has been challenging due to the abundance of susceptible host plants in the state along with the hidden lifestyle of the beetle. Another significant limitation in the current PSHB management program is the lack of effective natural enemies. In this case, there is a clear opportunity to introduce coevolved natural enemies of the PSHB from its native range in Asia as part of a classical biological control strategy. Recent molecular analyses traced the origin of California’s PSHB population to Taiwan (Stouthamer et al. 2017) and this knowledge is helping optimize foreign exploration for natural enemies. In Taiwan, several natural enemies of the PSHB have been collected from PSHBinfested avocado wood (Fig 3-5). Among collected specimens are beneficial Hymenopteran parasitoids from the families Bethylidae, Braconidae, and Eulophidae. Current research activities are focused on collecting more of these parasitoids from the field to develop laboratory rearing methods. By doing so, behavioral assays can be conducted in a quarantined facility in California to determine the host specificity of these wasps and ensure minimum environmental risk prior to any approved field release for shot borer control in the state. Ultimately, it is expected that these natural enemies would naturally target PSHB in the field and provide cost-effective PSHB control in California.




Lock Out Weeds Protect the orchard floor from nutrient-robbing weeds. Killing weeds after they take over the orchard floor is akin to installing a security system after thieves emptied the house.

“Most growers,” he says, “prefer a tree line application, though some broadcast Alion across their acreage.”

To protect yield from nutrient-robbing weeds, lock them out of the orchard floor. Slam the gate on weeds with a tankmix of a long-lasting, foundational herbicide paired with a contact treatment that provides a second mode of action.

Wilson’s goal is to simplify weed control for growers and help them harvest high yields.

Benefits include: • Increased yield potential • Reduced insect and disease pressure • More efficient water and nutrient uptake • Improved harvestability in tree nuts

“It’s important to maintain control of weeds in an orchard throughout the growing season,” Wilson says. “If weeds go untreated through the growing season, they can potentially rob the orchard of valuable nutrients and water, which can put unnecessary stress on the crop. At harvest time, weeds can compromise the harvest process.” Ryan Garcia, of Hughson, California, a PCA/CCA with Salida Ag Chem, sees the weed population diminishing in the orchards he helps manage.

“Herbicides are important in almond orchards,” says Pest Control Advisor/ “Alion does a really good job, “I continue to use Alion in a pre-emergent Certified Crop Advisor (PCA/CCA) has long residual weed control rotation because it’s a good product and David Vermeulen, Modesto, California. and it takes care of a lot of it works really well. We can see Alion “Weeds compete for nutrients. They broad-spectrum weeds…” reducing the weed population overall as compete for water. Those are probably soon as we start using it,” Garcia states. your bigger two issues in the almond “I think it’s one of the top – if not the top – pre-emergent product orchard, especially early on, so by keeping them down you have out in the market right now. Alion does a really good job, has long more water and more nutrients getting to the plant to get a better residual weed control and it takes care of a lot of broad-spectrum crop. Weeds also harbor insects – take morning glory, when you weeds that are giving us issues here in the Central Valley.” control it, you have a little less mite pressure in the orchard.”

“Alion works well and it works perfectly for switching chemistries around,” Vermeulen states.

Alion Provides Long-Lasting Weed and Grass Control The effective, long-lasting weed control extends across a broad spectrum of broadleaf weeds and grasses. With low use rates in an easy-to-use liquid SC formulation, Alion also offers excellent crop safety. Bayer Sales Representative Matthew Wilson, PCA, recommends Alion for pre-emergent weed control in mature almonds, walnuts and grapes during dormancy from November through January.

Outstanding Weed Control Compared to Other Premium Herbicides Percent of weed control at 121 days after application replicated at two locations in California tree nuts. Percent of Weed Control (121 Days after Application)

Vermeulen uses Alion® two ways, depending on crop needs: a single application in a tankmix with a second mode of action in the fall or Alion alone in a split application with treatments in November and February. As a Group 29 herbicide, Alion offers a unique mode of action, which Vermeulen particularly appreciates for the resistance management opportunity.

100 80






85 72.5



60 40 20 0

Roundup® + Rely ® Overall

Alion® at 3.5 oz./A + Roundup + Rely Jungle rice

Mission® at 2.15 oz./A + Roundup + Rely Fluvellin

Source: Brad Hanson, UC Davis, 2017.

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FARM ADVISORS, CONT, Polyphagous shot hole borer in California

Fig 5. In some cases, shot hole borer presence in these sentinel logs can be confirmed by using a handlens with a light source to see females with their abdomens protruding from the gallery entrance.

References Beaver RA (1989) Insect-fungus relationships in the bark and ambrosia beetles, pp.121–143. In N Wilding, NM Collins, PM Hammond, JF Webber (eds), Insect-fungus interactions. Academic Press, London Boland JM (2016) The impact of an invasive ambrosia beetle on the riparian habitats of the Tijuana River Valley, California. PeerJ 4:e2141 Dimson M, et al. (2015) Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer + Fusarium Dieback: Identifying Symptoms and Look-Alike Pests. UCANR. PSHB-Look-Alikes-eng.pdf Dodge C, et al. (2017) Querciverol as a lure for the polyphagous and Kuroshio shot hole borers, Euwallacea spp. nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae), vectors of Fusarium dieback. PeerJ, DOI: 10.7717/peerj.3656 Eskalen A, et al. (2012) First report of a Fusarium sp. and its vector tea shot hole borer (Euwallacea fornicatus) causing Fusarium dieback on avocado in California. Plant Dis 96:1070 Eskalen A, et al. (2013) Host range of Fusarium dieback and its ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Scoyltinae) vector in southern California. Plant Dis. 97:938–951 Eskalen A (2015) Fusarium dieback and polyphagous shot hole borer on avocado. cfm?postnum=19197 Eatough Jones M, et al. (2017) Evaluations of insecticides and fungicides for reducing attack rates of a new invasive ambrosia beetle (Euwallacea sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in infested landscape trees in California. J Econ Entomol 110:1611–1618

Acknowledgements Foreign exploration of shot hole borers in Asia was funded in party by USDA-APHIS agreement No. AP18PPQ&T00C132. The Robert van den Bosch scholarship provided additional funding for biocontrol research being conducted by Deena Husein at UC Riverside. █

Freeman S, et al. (2013) Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. –a symbiotic fungus of Euwallaceae sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California. Mycologia 105:1595–1606 Gomez DF, et al. (2018) Species delineation within the Euwallacea fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) complex revealed by morphometric and phylogenetic analyses. Insect Syst Divers 2:1–11 Kirkendall LR, et al. (2015) Evolution and diversity of bark and ambrosia beetles, pp. 85–156. In FE Vega RW Hofstetter (eds), Bark Beetles: Biology and ecology of native and invasive species. Elsevier, London, United Kingdom McPherson EG, et al. (2017) The structure, function and value of urban forests in California communities. Urban For Urban Gree 28:43–53 Rabaglia RJ, et al. (2006) Review of American Xyleborina (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) occurring north of Mexico, with an illustrated key. Ann Entomol Soc Am 99:1034–1056 Stouthamer R, et al. (2017) Tracing the origin of a cryptic invader: Phylogeography of the Euwallacea fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) species complex. Agric Forest Entomol, DOI: 10.1111/afe.12215

Photos by Jesus R. Lara, except where noted.



[UC IPM] University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program (2017) UC IPM Guidelines: Avocado. UCANR.




A fortuitous arrival: Key natural enemy of BMSB found in California 1

Jesus R. Lara1, Charles H. Pickett2, Mark S. Hoddle1 Department of Entomology, UC Riverside; 2 California Department of Food and Agriculture

Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys StĂĽl (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an invasive species in North America. BMSB is native to Asia and has been detected in 44 U.S. states and 4 Canadian provinces (NIC 2017). In the U.S., BMSB is a serious pest of vegetable, fruit, and nut crops and has generated economic damage, especially for apple growers, in Mid-Atlantic states (Rice et al. 2014). Since its arrival to California in 2002, BMSB became widely established in 16 counties, from Siskiyou County to Orange County, thereby raising the likelihood that damage to agricultural crops will result. BMSB detections in commercial peach in 2016 (Rijal and Duncan 2017) and almond orchards in 2017 (Rijal and Gyawaly 2018) and establishment in Fresno County (in 2018), a major production center for almonds and grapes (both are among 100+ recorded BMSB hosts in the U.S.), reinforced the need for proactive management (Lara et al. 2016). An approach for meeting this goal in California stems from understanding key aspects of the population dynamics of BMSB in its native range, especially the impacts of natural enemies. In Asia, BMSB field populations are regulated, in part, by an egg parasitoid, Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) (Zhang et al. 2017; Fig 1. inset article cover photo). T. japonicus is adapted for finding and parasitizing BMSB eggs (see Bertoli et al. 2019). Several native North American parasitoids have been recorded parasitizing BMSB eggs in the field, but with limited success compared to T. japonicus (Abram et al. 2017). Fig 1. Trissolcus japonicus, the co-evolved natural enemy of BMSB from Asia, emerges from a heavily (100% of all egg were attacked) parasitized BMSB egg mass in quarantine.



Furthermore, some native parasitoid species cannot complete egg-to-adult development successfully on BMSB eggs because they are not adapted to use BMSB as a reproductive host (Konopka et al. 2019; Fig 2). An interesting mix of generalist predators (e.g., spiders, cockroaches, rodents, an exotic beetle) attack BMSB in parts of California (Pickett, personal observation), but their collective impacts on BMSB population control is limited (Lara et al. 2016; Fig 3). These findings suggest that resident egg parasitoids and generalist predators are likely to offer limited BMSB control in urban and agricultural areas and California specialty crops remain vulnerable to BMSB population outbreaks. In 2007, T. japonicus was imported from China into the U.S. with approval from USDA-APHIS to study its host range in quarantine conditions in preparation for the development of a classical biological control program (Buffington et al. 2018). UC Riverside and CDFA took the lead role in California for conducting safety tests for T. japonicus in quarantine. While the safety evaluations were being conducted at UC Riverside, accidentally introduced populations of T. japonicus in North America were found attacking BMSB eggs in Maryland (2014), Delaware (2015), Virginia (2015), Washington (2015), D.C. (2015), West Virginia (2016), Oregon (2016), New York (2016), New Jersey (2016), Ohio (2017), Michigan (2018) and Canada (British Columbia, 2018). Fortunately, DNA analyses confirmed field population of T. japonicus in the U.S. had different molecular


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agronomists, gives Yara a comprehensive understanding of the nutritional needs of crops and the ability to assist crop advisors in developing complete fertility programs that provide maximum value to their customers. Yara’s commitment to supporting retail partners and crop advisors is evidenced in the multiple layers of support from Sales Agronomists, to Regional Sales Managers, YaraVita Specialists, and Crop Managers. These roles are structured to support the industry by implementing demo trials, prescribing products to meet critically specific nutritional needs, and committing to comprehensive crop solution-based research. We encourage all CAPCA members to participate in Yara’s journey to responsibly feed the world and protect the planet by visiting us at the Yara Incubator Farm. Here, through collaborative efforts with customers, partners, and various technology providers, Yara has committed to years of field-scale research on permanent crops in California to advance our complete crop nutrition portfolio. Research efforts will allow us to more effectively assess complete crop nutrition programs and provide Crop Advisors absolute confidence in their crop nutrition recommendations. The Yara Incubator farm is a place to explore, evolve, refine, and share knowledge of crop solutions for growers, partners and the industry.

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FARM ADVISORS, CONT, Key natural enemy of BMSB found in CA

profiles than those maintained in quarantine as part of the U.S. biological control program, indicating that these field populations had not escaped from quarantine but had originated from other countries (Buffington et al. 2018). The introduction pathway of T. japonicus into North America from Asia is unclear but established populations have dispersed naturally into BMSB-invaded habitats where they attack BMSB eggs (Buffington et al. 2018, Milnes and Beers 2019). Consequently, it was anticipated that accidentally introduced populations of T. japonicus might establish in California, possibly arriving from neighboring states where this parasitoid is established (e.g., Oregon, Washington). To determine if T. japonicus was present in California, coordinated surveillance efforts were undertaken in 2017-2018 to determine if T. japonicus was in California. This involved deployment of cards with BMSB eggs glued to them; eggs were freezer-killed prior to placement in the field. BMSB egg cards were placed in a mixture of urban and agricultural systems on known BMSB host plants (Fig 4). These areas were most likely to result in detection of T. japonicus if the parasitoid was present in these BMSB habitats. For these surveys, more than 47,000 BMSB eggs were deployed in California during 2017-2018 (Fig 4). Data collected by UC Riverside across field sites in the San Joaquin Valley (sampled only in 2017) and Los Angeles County (sampled both years) yielded interesting results. Overall egg parasitism (<1% across both years) and predator attack (6-12%), for a total of 16,571 eggs deployed,

Photo: Mike Lewis, used with permission.

Fig 2. An unidentified resident egg parasitoid collected from a wild BMSB egg mass in the field (Los Angeles County). Some eggs are beginning to show an egg breaker (orange arrow pointing to the gray area on the right side of the egg), a strong indication that a viable BMSB nymph will eclose soon and that it was not parasitized.



was low in the field across both years. This supports the notion that there is limited area-wide biotic resistance against BMSB. However, the primary surveillance objective of this study was accomplished. T. japonicus was reared from two different BMSB egg cards. In August 2017, T. japonicus was recovered from an egg card deployed at a community garden in Pomona, California. In August 2018, T. japonicus was recovered a second time from a card deployed at a community park in Downtown Los Angeles. The identity of adult T. japonicus reared from sentinel eggs was confirmed by Dr. Elijah Talamas (Florida Dept. of Agriculture), an expert on BMSB egg parasitoids. The origin of the T. japonicus field population in California is unknown. Consequently, these specimens were sent to the USDA molecular laboratory in France for DNA analyses to determine their potential area of origin. The DNA results are still pending. Given the few finds of T. japonicus in California, it is likely this parasitoid recently arrived and is becoming established in urban habitats where BMSB occurs. Field detection of T. japonicus in California may expedite release of T. japonicus from quarantine and/ or movement of field collected parasitoids into areas of the Central Valley to target problematic BMSB infestations. To support this endeavor safety testing results indicating the limited parasitism of non-target hosts have been published (Lara et al. 2019; also see Milnes and Beers 2019) and a petition for moving field-captured T. japonicus into new areas has been submitted to the California Department of Food & Agriculture for review. At the time of this publication: (1) T. japonicus was detected in another U.S. western

Fig 3. A lacewing larva found interacting with a sentinel BMSB egg mass in the field (LA County) was not able to successfully pierce BMSB eggs with its prominent mandibles to feed.


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FARM ADVISORS, CONT, Key natural enemy of BMSB found in CA

state (taxonomic & molecular identification is being confirmed) and (2) New Zealand (N.Z.) approved the field release of T. japonicus for proactive biocontrol of BMSB in advance of the anticipated potential establishment of this pest there (EPA 2018). It is clear that T. japonicus is spreading in the Western U.S. and that its value as a biological control agent to protect agricultural production against invasive pests is recognized by other countries. Interestingly, both California and N.Z. share a history for conducting successful classical biological control for stink bugs. The egg-parasitoid Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston) was introduced in N.Z. (1949) and California (1987) for classical biological control of southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Ehler 2002). In California, T. basalis still provides control of N. viridula (Ehler 2002), but it will avoid parasitizing BMSB eggs when offered in abundance in the lab (Lara, personal observation). This result indicates that a BMSB-adapted natural enemy like T. japonicus is needed for BMSB population suppression.

Fig 4. Sentinel cards with BMSB eggs killed by freezing were deployed on known BMSB ornamental and agricultural host plants in BMSB-infested areas of California. Cards were affixed on the underside of foliage where BMSB generally lays eggs to monitor natural enemy activity and detect the potential presence of Trissolcus japonicus.

Current efforts are attempting to find additional areas where T. japonicus is established in California to monitor their impact on local BMSB populations and measure their spread. Biological control of BMSB in California will be a major benefit to growers (Fig 5) as T. japonicus will help protect valuable specialty crop systems from BMSB feeding damage. T. japonicus would likely exert its greatest effects BMSB populations in early spring at the start of the growing season for most commercial crops, thus leading to reduced pest pressure during the summer, a critical period when crops are maturing. â–ˆ

Fig 5. CAPCA Fresno seminar in September 2018 led by UCRCDFA where progress on BMSB pest management (classical biological control) in California was presented.

Acknowledgements This research was supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Agricultural Marketing Service through Grant 16-SCBGPCA-0035, USDA Farm Bill 16-8130-0359CA, USDA-NIFA SCRI 2016-51181-25409, California Pistachio Research Board Grant CPRB-16101166, and Consolidated Central Valley Table Grape Pest and Disease Control District Grant CCVTGP-15004. Special thanks to the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County (BioSCAN Project), Los Angeles Arboretum, Huntington Botanical Gardens, Long Beach Organic Inc., and Long Beach Organic Association for providing access to field sites in southern California. The contents of this article are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the USDA and the other funding and collaborating agencies. Photos by Jesus R. Lara, except where noted.



References Abram, PK, Hoelmer KA, Acebes-Doria A, Andrews H, Beers EH, Bergh JC, Bessin R, Biddinger D, Botch P, Buffington ML, Cornelius ML, Costi E, Delfosse ES, Dieckhoff C, Dobson R, Donais Z, Grieshop M, Hamilton G, Haye T, Hedstrom C, Herlihy MV, Hoddle MS, Hooks CRR, Jentsch P, Joshi NK, Kuhar TP, Lara JR, et al. 2017. Indigenous arthropod natural enemies of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug in North America and Europe. J Pest Sci 90:1009-1020 Bertoli V, Rondoni G, Brodeur J, Conti E (2019) An egg parasitoid efficiently exploits cues from a co-evolved host but not those from a novel host. Front Physiol 10:746. fphys.2019.00746 Buffington ML, Talamas EJ, Hoelmer KA (2018) Team Trissolcus: integrating taxonomy and biological control to combat the brown Contact your64:224–232 local Dormex representatives: marmorated stink bug. Am Entomol RYAN ATWOOD Ehler L (2002) An evaluation of some natural enemies of Nezara T 352.267.3229 viridula in Northern California. BioControl 47:309–325 [EPA] Environmental Protection Authority New Zealand (2018) Application APP203336 to release Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead 1904). APP203336/0ed5350647/APP203336-Decision.pdf. Accessed 07 August 2019 Konopka JK, Gariepy TD, Haye T, Zhang J, Rubin BD, McNeil JN (2019) Exploitation of pentatomids by native egg parasitoids in the native and introduced ranges of Halyomorpha halys: a molecular approach using sentinel egg mass. J Pest Sci 92:609–619 Lara, JR, Pickett C, Kamiyama M, Figueroa S, Romo M, Cabanas ContactK, your local representative: C, Bazurto V, Strode V, Briseno Lewis M, Dormex Oliva J, Hernandez G, Hoddle M (2019) Physiological host range of Trissolcus japonicus in relation to Halyomorpha CREAMINO halys and other pentatomids from California. Biocontrol. KEVIN MILLER REGIONAL MANAGER Lara JR, Pickett C, Ingels C, Haviland D, Grafton-Cardwell E, Doll D, Bethke J, Faber B, Dara724-831-0550 SK, Hoddle M (2016) Developing a biological control program for brown marmorated stink bug in California. Calif Agr 70:15-23 JOHN THOMSON Milnes JM, Beers EH (2019) Trissolcus japonicus (Hymenoptera: SALES MANAGER, US Scelionidae) causes low levels of parasitism in three North American ANIMAL NUTRITION pentatomids under field conditions. J Insect Sci 19:15;1–6 +1 678 780-6166 JOHN.THOMSON@ALZCHEM.COM [NIC] Northeastern IPM Center (2017) Where is BMSB? https:// Accessed 05 Aug 2019 Rice KB, Bergh CJ, Bergmann EJ, Biddinger DJ, Dieckhoff C, Dively G, Fraser H, Gariepy T, Hamilton G, Haye T, Herbert A, Hoelmer K, Hooks CR, Jones A, Krawczyk G, Kuhar T, Martinson H, Mitchell W, Nielsen AL, Pfeiffer DG, Raupp MJ, Rodiguez-Saona C, Shearer P, Shrewsbury P, Venugopal PD, Whalen J, Wiman NG, Leskey TC, Tooker JF (2014) Biology, ecology, and management of brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). J Integr Pest Manag 5:A1–A13 Rijal J, Duncan R (2017) Brown marmorated stink bug spread to peach growing areas in the Northern San Joaquin Valley. CAPCA Adviser 20:32–35





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Rijal J, Gyawaly S (2018) Characterizing brown marmorated stink bug injury in almond, a new host crop in California. Insects 9:126 Zhang J, Zhang F, Gariepy T, Mason P, Gillespie D, Talamas E, Haye T (2017) Seasonal parasitism and host specificity of Trissolcus japonicus in northern China. J Pest Sci 90:1127–1141

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Palmer amaranth growth rate and the consequences of incomplete control Lynn M. Sosnoskie, Assistant Professor, Cornell University Kurt J. Hembree, Farm Advisor, Fresno County, University of California Cooperative Extension According to CalFlora (, 21 different Amaranthus species have been reported in California, several of which are weedy competitors in the state’s cropping systems. One of those species, Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) is native to the southwestern deserts of the United States. Stems of Palmer amaranth are hairless and range from green to red in color. Leaf shape can be variable, but most leaves are egg-, diamond-, or lanceshaped and may exhibit a white, chevron-shaped watermark. Leaf petioles (especially on older leaves) are as long or longer than the leaf blades (this is a trait for distinguishing the species from other amaranth species). Palmer amaranth produces male and female flowers on separate plants, necessitating pollen flow for fertilization and seed set. Flowers are held on long (up to 2-3' in length) terminal flower spikes (or on spikes that arise from upper leaf axils). Female Palmer amaranth flower heads are instantly recognizable by the presence of sharp bracts (Figures 1a-c). Palmer amaranth can produce prodigious amounts of seed; individual female plants have been reported to produce up to a million seeds under ideal growth conditions. In the San Joaquin Valley, Palmer amaranth has been observed competing with multiple annual crops including beans, tomatoes, cotton, sweet potatoes, and corn, and has even be found in orchards and vineyards. Populations with resistance to glyphosate have

been identified in California, which could explain escapes in some production systems. Resistance to many different herbicides have evolved in Palmer amaranth throughout the US, with many populations developing resistance to more than one herbicide. For example, populations of Palmer Amaranth in Arkansas and Kansas have confirmed resistances for up to six different herbicide sites of action ( Even without the development of herbicide resistance, Palmer amaranth may escape chemical control because it can grow to a significant size (heights > 8'), very rapidly, and exceed the height recommendations for many postemergenceapplied herbicides in very short periods of time (Figure 2). In 2019, a trial was undertaken in Fresno to describe the growth of Palmer amaranth in response to emergence date and determine how quickly Palmer amaranth can overcome most herbicide label height limits. Palmer amaranth seed was collected in September of 2018 from a population growing alongside a corn field in Merced County. Seed were planted into plastic pots containing all-purpose garden soil on April 21st, April 28th, May 30th and June 18th, 2019. Palmer amaranth emerged on April 24th, May 2nd, June 2nd and June 21st and were thinned to a density of one plant per pot (ten pots total per planting date). Palmer amaranth growth and development was recorded for each individual pot every second day for 20 days after emergence (DAE).

Figures 1a-c. A Palmer amaranth flower spike rising above corn; Palmer amaranth petiole length longer than the length of the leaf blade; close-up of male (left) and female (right) flowers (note the presence of sharp bracts for the females).



All photos by Lynn Sosnoskie.

Figures 2. Palmer amaranth can grow large, rapidly. Female plants that grow unimpeded have been reported to produce up to a million seeds each. All Palmer amaranth in this study reached a height of 3 inches by six to 10 DAE (Figure 3). Palmer emerging on April 24th and May 2nd reached a height of six inches 14 to 16 DAE, whereas Palmer amaranth emerging on June 2nd and June 24th reached a height of 6 inches 12 DAE. Plant heights at 20 DAE were 11.5, 8.5, 20.0 and 21.3 inches for the April 24th, May 2nd, June 2nd and June 21st emergence dates, respectively. To standardize Palmer growth across all observation periods, plant heights were regressed against accumulated growing degree days (GDD) using a second-order polynomial model and a threshold base temperature of 50F (Figure 4). GDD were calculated for each observation window using UC IPM models (http://ipm. Results indicated that Palmer amaranth required 175 to 180 GDD to achieve a height of 3 inches and 270 to 275 GDD to reach a height of 6 inches. If Palmer amaranth escapes herbicide (or cultivation) treatments, hand-weeding may be needed to prevent Palmer amaranth

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FARM ADVISORS, CONT, Palmer amaranth growth rate

from producing seed that can be returned to the soil seedbank. Remember: female Palmer amaranth can produce up to a million seed per plant, which can support an infestation for many years to come. When hand-weeding, plants should, ideally, be removed entirely from the field to prevent them from becoming re-established. Even plants that are cut off at or near the base of the stem can re-sprout and achieve reproductive maturity (See: blogcore/postdetail.cfm?postnum=27583).

Figure 3. Palmer amaranth plant heights at 2-20 DAE as affected by emergence date. Mean daily minimum and maximum temperatures for the April 24th and May 2nd emergence cohorts were 54 and 84 F and 51 and 77 F, respectively. The average daily minimum and maximum temperatures for the June 2nd and 24th emergence cohorts were both 61 to 92 F.

Palmer amaranth is a significant problem in many production systems, including cotton, corn, beans and vegetables. Sites with substantial infestations should use an integrated weed management program to reduce the density of plants that can compete with the crop (See: html). Escapes are not uncommon as Palmer amaranth can grow rapidly and outpace many control efforts. If plants become established in the field and handweeding is necessary, be sure to remove as much of the weed biomass as possible to prevent plants from growing and achieving reproductive maturity. Special note: Waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus), a pigweed species similar in habit to Palmer amaranth but native to the Midwest, have been observed in Merced County (Figure 5). Like Palmer, waterhemp plants can grow rapidly, females can produce prodigious amounts of seed, and herbicide resistance is widespread throughout the United States. A joint research project with CSU Fresno has been undertaken to describe the genetic background and resistance profile of local populations. A guide to discriminating among pigweed species in California can be found at: postdetail.cfm?postnum=27501. Please contact Dr. Lynn Sosnoskie ( or Dr. Anil Shrestha ( if you come across this species while scouting. â–ˆ



Figure 4. When Palmer amaranth plant heights were regressed against accumulated growing degree days (assuming a base temperature of 50F) results indicated that Palmer amaranth requires 175 to 180 GDD to achieve a height of 3 inches and 270 to 275 GDD to reach a height of 6 inches. For more information about growing degree day calculators see:

Figure 5. Waterhemp is a tall and dioecious pigweed that is similar in appearance to Palmer amaranth.

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Fruit length


Control Trichosym Bio Fruit diameter




Trichosym Bio

Root length



Control Trichosym Bio Yield (lb/acre)

Studies conducted by Symborg at official research stations, demonstrated the efficacy of this product by improving the vegetative state of plants and therefore the quality and quantity of the harvest. An example of this is the scientific test conducted on a Jalapeño pepper (Capsicum annuum) crop in 2016, under greenhouse conditions in Mexico. A yield increase of 27% was achieved. It also improved plant height, stem thickness and fruit diameter and length.

The product is sold in liquid form in bottles of one quart. 12 bottles per box.

Yield Increase

CAPCA 2020 Sustaining Membership Levels BRONZE









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** October issue guaranteed if booked by Feb. 2020

For additional information, contact Dee Strowbridge: (916) 928-1625 x3 64






TODAY’S SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IS UNSUSTAINABLE One of the most precious resource for mankind is the soil. Through cultivation and erosion, we have lost tons of productive topsoil. As losses pile up, we cannot merely “sustain” agriculture as it is today. We must innovate. We must embrace regenerative agriculture, an approach founded on long-term soil health. Heliae® Agriculture is dedicated to providing the regenerative tools growers need to improve yields and quality, rebuild soil health and contribute to a better environment for people and the planet.

Native soil microbes thrive when fed PhycoTerra®. They quickly increase the availability of bio-active nutrients to feed plants. They also provide soil health benefits like improved water penetration, better aggregation and increased productivity.

Yield and quality increase with PhycoTerra® with the best results on marginal acres. These bottom-line benefits happen at the same time that soil microbes work to improve soil structure and build soil carbon and organic matter.

We have the tools to help you improve your farming operation without a capital expense or major changes. If you are interested in joining the effort toward regenerative agriculture, please sign up at our website.




Thank You 2019

Platinum Sustaining Members

Prospering the Farmer Through Responsible Nutrient Management



Science for a Better Life

Leading Plant Health Innovation and Sustainability


QMIN® K-Gain 0-0-22 Optimizing Brix Value

QMIN® Polysaccharide Technology: effective in optimizing brix value in ripening fruit • • • • •

Complexed with potassium to enhance carbohydrate translocation from leaves to fruit QMIN’s polysaccharide technology optimizes foliar absorption Absence of nitrogen to prioritize resource allocation away from vegetative growth and toward developing fruit Compatible with a wide variety of fertilizers and crop production products Effective across a wide range of high-value crops including fruits, nuts and vegetables

QMIN K-Gain: Provides an essential nutrient for growth and brix enhancement in grapes •

Controls the opening and closing of stomata in plants and therefore has a significant role in water regulation • Significant role in transport of nitrate, phosphate, Ca, Mg and amino acids • Critical to the transport of carbohydrates in plant

• • • •

Helps to increase plant resistance to diseases Plays an important role in photosynthesis Activates over 60 plant enzymes Optimizes crop quality Fruit Brix (%) 23.0







20.0 19.0








18.0 17.0 16.0 15.0

Brix 9/15/2018 Control

Figure 1. Effect of K Gain application on fruit brix in wine grapes. Data not connected by the same letter are significantly different between treatments at a given sampling date at 0.05 level of significance.

Distributed by:

K Gain 1 qt/ac

Brix 9/29/2018 KOH Product 1 qt/ac

Brix 10/17/2018 K Acetate Product 1 qt/ac

Figure 2. Effect of foliar application of different potassium fertilizer products on fruit brix in wine grapes. Data not connected by the same letter are significantly different between treatments at a given sampling date at 0.1 level of significance.

All the Benefits of Nutrients Maximized Nutrients enhance plant growth and stress tolerance - if they’re absorbed into the plant and transported where they can do their job. Better uptake yields better results. QMIN technology delivers proven results.

Contact Information. For more information, contact your Nutrien Ag Solutions Representative. | 318 Lake Hazeltine Drive | Chaska, MN 55318-1093 | o. 952.448.5151 | f. 952.448.3603 © 2019 QualiTech, Inc.

Thank You 2019 Su DIAMOND LEVEL


Put Drone Analytics to Work BioFlora Nurtures the Partnership between Plants and Soil

Grow with Agrian

Crop Protection Products Restoring Vitality to Water for Improved Quality, Yield and ROI

Your Trusted and Dedicated Partner in Agriculture

Industry Leader in Insect Monitoring and Control

Keep Growing Grow More With Less

Providing Resources for Value Creation

Ideas to Grow With

Creating Value through Innovative Solutions

Products that Work, From People Who CareÂŽ

ustaining Members GOLD LEVEL

Helping Our World Grow Healthier Plants

For a Better and Safer World

Inspired by Customers Evolving with Technology.


Bringing Plant Potential to Life

Natural Products for Pest Management and Plant Health

Power to Grow

Yield Enhancement Solutions

Growing a Healthy TomorrowTM

The Grower's Advantage

A Pioneer in Leading Crop Health Products

Simply Sustainable. Always Effective.



Thank You 2019 Sustaining Members SILVER LEVEL ADAMA

AgroPlantae, Inc

Capturing Maximum Genetic Potential

Atticus LLC

Relevant. Simple. Reliable.

Belchim Crop Protection Buttonwillow Warehouse Central Life Sciences The Ant Control Experts

Drexel Chemical Company Serving Growers Since 1972


Official Licensed Distributor of Seasol

FBSciences, Inc

Leaders in Nutrient Technologies

J.G. Boswell Company Kemin - Crop Technologies

Crop protection and crop health solutions for growers.

Miller Chemical and Fertilizer

Serving Global Agriculture Through Committed People, Innovation and Quality Products

Nature Safe Natural & Organic Fertilizers The Natural Choice for Soil and Plant Nutrition

NuFarm Americas, Inc

Pinnacle Ag

Our Commitment to You Is Growing

Precision Laboratories Results. Expect it.

S.P. McClenahan Co., Inc Arborculturists Since 1911

Suterra LLC

Making Your World a Better Place. Naturally.

SQM North America Target Specialty Products

Valagro USA

Where science serves nature

Wonderful Nurseries

Largest Grapevine Nursery in North America

BRONZE LEVEL Actagro Ag 1 Source AG RX Agrinos, Inc Agro Logistic Systems, Inc Agroplasma Inc.ÂŽ AquaBella Organic Solutions, LLC Baicor, L.C. Bio Ag Services Corp Blue Mountian Minerals California Organic Fertilizers, Inc CDMS, Inc Deerpoint Group, Inc Dellavalle Laboratory, Inc Diversified Waterscapes Duarte Nursery, Inc EcoStadt Technologies LLC Earth Science Laboratories, Inc HELM Agro US, Inc Hortau, Inc Hydrite Chemical Co. Interstate Ag Plastics Jet Harvest Solutions Key Plex Magna Bon II Motomco Nature's Source North Valley Ag Services Nutrient Technologies, Inc OHP, Inc Organic Ag Products Pacific Biocontrol Corporation Phytech, Inc Polymer Ag LLC Produce Careers, Inc Progressive Crop Consultant San Joaquin Grower Services Semios Southern Valley Chemical Co. Spectrum Technologies SummitAgro - USA Taminco US LLC The Morning Star Packing Co Tiger-Sul Products, LLC Van Beurden Insurance Svcs Vestaron Corporation Western Region Certified Crop Advisers Zenith Insurance Company


SUCKER MANAGEMENT IN TREE AND VINE CROPS By Pedro Hernandez, Product Development Project Manager

Sucker control is an expensive and time-consuming task that many growers must perform on a yearly basis. Suckers are nonproductive and undesirable plant material that protrude from the trunk, base of the rootstalk, or roots. The main reason suckers are removed is to maintain the shape of the tree or vine; however, suckers can interfere with farming practices such as: irrigation, weed control, and harvest. Suckers can also harbor insects and diseases that can move over to the crop. Grape, cherry, plum, pomegranate, and olive are among the crops that often require suckering. Typically, suckers are removed manually which puts stress on budgets and an already short supply of available labor. Growers have been known to spend up to $200/acre per pass on manual labor to remove suckers, and often two passes are needed to effectively remove the suckers during the season. A more economical and efficient alternative to manual removal of suckers is chemical burndown with non-systemic contact herbicides. For this strategy to be effective, suckers must be sprayed while they are young and tender (8 to 12 inches of growth), and complete spray coverage is imperative. Often, two applications spaced at 3 to 4 weeks are necessary for control. Chemical sucker control can be accomplished in two ways: (1) by using a standard herbicide sprayer and adjusting the direction and height of the nozzles to spray the suckers or (2) by spot spraying with a hand wand. Whichever method is chosen, make sure it fits the needs of the orchard or vineyard. The fastest and easiest way to remove suckers is via the spray rig, but with this method, thorough spray coverage may not be achieved and the area in-between trunks will needlessly be sprayed if suckers are not present. However, if weeds exist on the berm, both weeds and suckers can be controlled with the application. With the sprayer application, multiple applications will likely be needed. Spot spraying is the most effective way to control suckers since only the suckers are being targeted for treatment, good spray coverage can be accomplished, and waste of spray product will be reduced. However, this strategy is a bit more time consuming and labor intensive. Proper selection of herbicides for sucker control is key to avoid damaging the trees or vines. VenueÂŽ herbicide from Nichino America is registered for sucker control in a number of crops including grape, pomegranate, cherry, prune, and olive. Venue is a Group 14 PPO contact herbicide/desiccant which rapidly burns down suckers and tender shoots without translocation into the tree or vine. In recent sucker control studies in the Central Valley and Central Coast, Venue proved very effective at providing control of suckers in grape, cherry, pomegranate, and plum. When comparing spot treatment versus spray rig application, Venue showed superior control via spot treatment. Venue at 4 fl oz/acre should be used alone or in combination with paraquat, glufosinate, or carfentrazone at label use rates. Use of COC or MSO is recommended. Because spray coverage is critical, use 30 to 40 gallons of water per acre or spray suckers by hand till wet. Venue will also provide burndown of broadleaf weeds. The label allows a total of 12 fl oz per acre per year for weed and sucker control. Always read and follow all labels for use directions.

Untreated Grape Suckers

Venue 4 fl oz Spot Spray Application

Venue 4 fl oz Spray Rig Application

Š2018 Nichino America, Inc. All rights reserved. Venue and Nichino America logo are registered trademarks of Nichino America, Inc. Always read and follow all label directions. Refer to global MRL database for current established tolerances | 888-740-7700 |



CAREER OPPORTUNITIES NOTE: Some of the following job opportunities are abbreviated postings. To view the complete posting, please log into your membership access on our website at

Regional Territory Manager Southwest – Southern California, Nevada, Arizona Arborjet, Inc.

Summary: This is a salaried, technical sales position. The primary objective for this position is to identify and secure business in the region and to support our customer and distributor network with consultation, education and training. You would call on existing accounts and prospect new accounts including; Distributors, Municipalities, Landscape Companies, Arborists, Universities, etc. Requirements: We seek a team player with Plant Health Care sales experience and the ability to present in front of large & small technical groups. Sales experience in the green industry is a must & a BS degree in a related field is desired. Candidate will be expected to be proficient in the use of portable computer technologies including the use of a CRM software for tracking sales and customer activity. The candidate will be asked to pass the ISA test to become a “certified arborist” within a year of hire and will be asked to acquire a California PCA license as well. Benefits include; salary, health, dental, life, vacation, flex spending, holidays, 401(k), etc. Apply: Send resume and letter of interest to:

Manager/PCA – Ventura and Santa Barbara County, California Oxnard Pest Control Association

Summary: Duties include performing pest monitoring in coastal citrus and avocados as well as performing relevant duties involved in the management of a pest management business. Manager will work with the Board of Directors to set long term goals and implement policies. Our current manager is retiring, but willing to mentor his replacement. Requirements: Applicants must have valid PCA, QAL and California Driver's License. CCA license is a plus. Successful candidate should have an understanding of accounting basics, personnel management, equipment and facilities maintenance and repair, and appropriate laws and regulations. Good communication skills are necessary in communicating with Board of Directors, growers, staff and vendors. Conversational Spanish a plus. Apply: Send resume and questions care of

Director of Technical Services - Woodland, CA and areas throughout N. CA Grow West

Summary: The Director of Technical Service provides technical support, direction and training for the specific agronomic growing area of Grow West. It is imperative that this position conducts regular demonstration trials for managers, sales and customers. For a full job description and territory overview, visit Requirements/Duties: Responsible for training technical competency and personal development of PCAs and CCAs. Develop training programs for proprietary and priority products within a geographical area. Implement training sessions, sales presentations and demonstrations trails. Investigate product performance issues through forensic investigation. Performs research for hire and/or contract research trials. Qualifications: Graduate degree in Agricultural Sciences (PhD or Masters) OR a Bachelor's degree in Agricultural Sciences with a minimum of five years' experience. Apply: Resumes may be submitted to



Regional Sales Manager, CA & AZ Heliae® Agriculture

Description: This position manages sales and profit goals within a region. Designs and recommends sales programs and sets short- and long-term sales strategies. Evaluates and implements appropriate new sales techniques to increase the region’s sales volume. Collects relevant competitors’ market information to increase sales volume and market share. Duties/Requirements: A wide degree of creativity and latitude is expected, and the successful individual will rely heavily on their previous experience and judgment to plan and accomplish their goals. Must be familiar with a variety of concepts, practices, and procedures in the agriculture industry. Required Competencies: Selling – Customers, Channels and Product Lines; Communication Proficiency; Results Driven; Initiative; Customer/Client Focus; Technical Capacity; Performance Management; Demand Creation; Leadership; Problem Solving/Analysis; Organizational Skills; Teamwork Orientation; Business Acumen; Diligence Apply: Please send resume/cover letter to

Agronomist Technical Service Representative – San Joaquin Valley Buttonwillow Warehouse Company

Summary: This position provides technical development, support, direction and training for a specific agricultural growing area for an agronomic solutions service and/or defined proprietary, MarVista or priority product line for Buttonwillow Warehouse Company (BWC). The area will include branches, personnel and customers in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Duties/Requirements: Responsible for training, advising, researching and practicing agronomic solutions on a wide variety of crops, BWC personnel and customers. Develops training programs for agronomic practices, proprietary, MarVista and priority products/services within geographic area plus participates in forecasting, business plans and succession planning. Contributes to pricing strategies and marketing plans. Bachelor’s agricultural degree. Five plus years related experience and/or training. Knowledge of the California agriculture industry; agronomic sales, procurement and logistics systems of crop nutrition, crop protection, technology, specialty product offerings. Apply: Contact Tracy Chavez, Human Resources, (661) 695-6500 or


of Water & Nutrition means Moisture Retention Which means less watering, plant hydration & nutrition on demand Resulting in less costs with improved plant vitality, product grade, yield & ROI

WaterSOLV™ Solutions Minerals and bound up nutrition in water and soils, made available Hardness converted to nutrition - Sodium stabilized to be inert, non-toxic Management of aerobic soil conditions by organically inhibited peroxide and dissolved oxygen In just 3 years - over 2 million acres ag under treatment and 700 water wells rehabilitated – mostly City Drinking Water Wells

Breakthrough Technology Best grapes in this valley in 20 years – It’s just the best thing I’ve ever seen I think it will not only save us money, but actually make us more For your nearest certified PCA, call or email (888) 788-5807 – Registered with NSF 60 for offline use and the California Department of Food & Agriculture - Well-Klean©, WaterSOLV™ and Water Treatment to Agronomy are Trademarks of HCT, LLC



2019 CAPCA Ed & Chapter Events Please visit for registration and event details. DATE





San Ramon

SF Bay CAPCA CE Meeting




CAPCA Ed CE Meeting




Urban Pest Control Seminar

San Diego Chapter


Reno, NV

CAPCA 45th Annual Conference

CAPCA State Office



Tulare-Kings Chapter CE Meeting

Tulare-Kings Chapter



Fresno-Madera Label Update

Fresno-Madera Chapter



Desert Valleys CE Meeting

Desert Valleys Chapter



San Diego Laws & Regs Seminar

San Diego Chapter

Ventura CAPCA Student Scholarship Awards Ventura CAPCA Along with providing continuing education to chapter members and legislative outreach, our chapter focuses on raising money to help students who are pursuing a PCA career in Ventura County. We will be awarding scholarships to the following students during our September CE meeting: Dee Vega - $2,000 Currently enrolled at California State Polytechnic University Pomona pursuing a MS in Plant Pathology. Remington Richardson - $1,500 Attending California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo in the fall to pursue a BS in Agriculture & Environmental Plant Sciences. Rachel Richardson - $1,500 Currently enrolled at California State University Channel Islands pursuing a BS in Biology. Claudia Romero - $1,500 Currently enrolled at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo pursuing a BS in Agricultural Business, with a minor in Crop Sciences.




CONTINUING EDUCATION 2019 DPR Accredited Course Report

Copyright 1993, 2010, Continuing Education Center for Pest Management




E Siskiyou Co Pesticide Use Monthly Update PAPA QAC/QAL Test Prep Pesticide Safety Instructor Training Workshop Pesticide Safety Instructor Training Workshop Tree & Landscape IPM 2


Grape Research Update

10/1/19 10/1/19 10/1/19 10/2/19

10/9/19 10/9/19 10/10/19 10/15/19 10/16/19 10/22/19 10/23/19 10/29/19 10/29/19 11/3/19 11/4/19 11/5/19 11/12/19 11/12/19 11/12/19 11/13/19 11/20/19

CAPCA Ed & UC ANR Arcadia Director's Decision on Appeal County Decision PAPA Chico Bionatural Healing College Arundo Donax Treatment & Laws PAPA Long Beach Vertebrate Pest Control Closed Systems, Correct Herbicide for Sensitive Sites Pesticide Safety Instructor Training Workshop CAPCA Conference & AgriExpo Sunday Label Update CAPCA Conference & Agri-Expo Monday CAPCA Conference & Agri-Expo Tuesday Bionatural Healing College PAPA QAC/QAL Test Prep PAPA Petaluma Pesticide Handler Requirements Recognition & Mgmt of Pesticide Poisoning






Merrill, OR

Siskiyou Co Ag Dept

Orr, Tony





Anselmi, Maryana





Blecker, Lisa





Blecker, Lisa




Solano Co Ag Coachella Valley Water District

Simon, James



Johnson, Angela



Indio Arcadia


Barsanti, Adam




Kings Co Ag Dept

Martinez, Elvis



Chico Pomona

PAPA Nadir Sidiqi

Guevara, Michelle Sidiqi, Nadir

(831)442-3536 (909)568-4150

7 7


Wildscape Restoration

Murano, Noreen



Long Beach Hanford

PAPA Kings Co Ag Dept

Guevara, Michelle Martinez, Elvis

(831)442-3536 (559)852-2830

7 2


Stanislaus Ag Comm

Bates, Angela





Blecker, Lisa



Reno, NV


Strowbridge, Dee



Reno, NV


Strowbridge, Dee



Reno, NV


Strowbridge, Dee



Pomona Petaluma Petaluma

Nadir Sidiqi PAPA PAPA

Sidiqi, Nadir Anselmi, Maryana Guevara, Michelle

(909)568-4150 (831)442-3536 (831)442-3536

7 7 7


Kings Co Ag Dept

Martinez, Elvis




Kings Co Ag Dept

Martinez, Elvis





If It’s In-Season It’s Feeding Season. Ask how ProAcqua® Pulse and ProAcqua® Elevate, with Nickel, Cobalt and Molybdenum, can help make your post-harvest fertility plan more efficient. Visit

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