Page 1

underGROUND Proposals for the New National Speleological Society Headquarters

Dora Chan/ Danni Chen/ Michelle Claudio/ Yunyuan Deng/ Leann Dreher/ Ryan Giles/ Spencer Kroll/ Cameron Stewart/ Benjamin Thomas/ Sheri Zon/ Prof. Jennifer Harmon

University of Michigan / Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning / underGROUND Studio


CONTENTS

PART I RESEARCH CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 4 Investigation Membership Research and Site Conservation Suitability

CHAPTER 5 Finances

page 07

page 75

page 33

page 41

page 63

PART II PROGRAM CHAPTER 9 Program Analysis

CHAPTER 10 Case Studies

page 143

page 151

PART III PROPOSALS CHAPTER 11 CHAPTER 12 CHAPTER 13 CHAPTER 14 CHAPTER 15 Dora Danni Michelle Yunyuan Leann Chan Chen Claudio Deng Dreher page 161

page 169

page 181

page 193

page 205


CHAPTER 6 Access

CHAPTER 7 Site Visit

CHAPTER 8 Locations Summary

page 85

page 95

page 111

Ch .1 / 07 Ch. 2 / 33 Ch. 3 / 41 Ch. 4 / 63 Ch. 5 / 75 Ch. 6 / 85 Ch. 7 / 95 Ch. 8 / 111 Ch. 9 / 143 Ch. 10 / 151 Ch. 11 / 161 Ch. 12 / 169 Ch. 13 / 181 Ch. 14 / 193 Ch. 15 / 205 Ch. 16 / 215 Ch. 17 / 227 Ch. 18 / 239 Ch. 19 / 251 Ch. 20 / 263

CHAPTER 16 CHAPTER 17 CHAPTER 18 CHAPTER 19 CHAPTER 20 Ryan Spencer Cameron Benjamin Sheri Giles Kroll Stewart Thomas Zon page 215

page 227

page 239

page 251

page 263


CHAPTER 1 Investigation CHAPTER 1 / 07 Introduction / page 09 A Message from the President / page 11 Current Situation / page 13 NSS Membership / page 27 Outreach Demographics / page 29


Introduction

“…all the Commissioners are unanimous in that the NSS should be the world’s leader in all things speleological and that the NSS must have a greater public presence. In order to do so, the new headquarters should have a public presence in an appropriate prestigious location.”


09

Merriam-Webster defines society as “an organized group working together or periodically meeting because of common interests, beliefs, or profession.� Membership of the NSS has, historically, been exclusive to those immersed in caving culture. Talented, rigorous individuals who are dedicated to the conservation efforts of the society. With an aging membership and a declining contingent of new, incoming members, the question has arisen regarding who can/must be admitted to this society as a means to further its efforts. What this means, potentially, is the necessity to widen the range of those who can benefit from the information gained by the current, die-hard caving members. A new headquarters is the first step in the effort of the NSS to encompass those individuals previously excluded from the society who have the capability to aid in the goals and vision of the society. Through a refocused effort in conservation and potential outreach programs, the new headquarters can begin to serve as a physical and symbolic location for a new page the NSS’ history. The following pages present our initial research and framework into why we believe the new headquarters is necessary and the potential benefits that the location could provide, looking specifically at data from within the NSS itself and otherlike minded organizations.

CHAPTER 1 Investigation


A Message from the President

A special publication for the National Speleological Society by: UnderGROUND Studio Taubman College - University of Michigan 2011


The National Speleological Society office and library in Huntsville, AL have outgrown the available space. Both facilities should be doubled in size and there is a need for storage space. Additionally, the Board has voted to establish a museum with the office and library. The current structures are on the Shelta Cave Preserve, which is owned by the Society. New construction and human presence may cause damage on fragile karst areas, and directly to caves. In the interest of protecting the underlying cave it has been determined that further building or construction on that site would not be acceptable. The Congress of Grottos passed four resolutions pertaining to a NSS Headquarters: 1) Proposes housing all NSS assets in a new central facility. 2) If a new facility is to be built, the Bloomington IN site be strongly considered. 3) The new facility be open to the public. 4) The new facility should include facilities for public outreach and education.

The purpose of this Society shall be to promote interest in and to advance in any and all ways the study and science of speleology, the protection of caves and their natural contents, and to promote fellowship among those interested therein. The Society is focused on the study and science of caves, conservation, and fellowship. The anticipated headquarters should address all of those concerns. The development of the headquarters is an important investment in the future of our organization. –WHAT?– The NSS 11 Headquarters is a requirement to establish building space necessary for the NSS to conduct the business of our organization. The NSS Office (monetary) is our Business arm, the Library (intellectual) is our Science and Conservation arm, and the Museum (social) fulfills our The NSS has a three prong vision and mission statement which states:

Fellowship and Conservation arm. Our current requirements consist of adequate building space to house three segments of our business. We need a business office space, a library space, and a museum space. The NSS Office space is where all of the business of the society is conducted, including member support and bookstore operations. The NSS library space is where all of the books and other related media including video, film, and photographs will be stored. It is critical that fire-proof archive rooms be attached to the library to permanently protect our paper and photo archives. Ideally the Library will act as a scientific research center further promoting our commitment to science and the study of caves as guided by our mission and vision statement. The NSS Museum space is where all of the historical items gathered over the years will be stored. There needs to be adequate space for inventorying new items, storing archival items, a staging area for retrieving stored items for display, and a restricted access space to view and study items. Museum items will be prepared for transportation when loaned out nationally and globally. The Museum should be a center of fellowship by functioning as a learning center and by presenting a platform aimed towards the exchanging of ideas. A multimedia center or auditorium would allow space for member and public viewing, training, and presentations. Obviously,

an all-encompassing, one-site headquarters would

be the most desirable option. The labor required to operate each segment expands if the segments are located separately.—WHERE?— The number one issue in real estate is location, location, location. In these days of Internet, rapid communication, the location could be almost anywhere. The challenge for the NSS is to sift through the available locations and select a site that will best satisfy the goals of the Society. Property the NSS currently owns would be optimal because no additional funds would need to be expended to obtain the real estate for the building space. However,

$"%$/" T'3T2/T$"1,3!/0T.%"T ,/T T/30#3" /"!T3&0T3&T3&0T3((T$"%$%!3(!T+((T2/T-+/&T/#3(T1%&!+0/"3 +%&>T ,/"T+'$%" 3& T$3"3'/ /"!T+&1(0/—TTÂŒT% T!+/T˜T /""3+&˜T/1%(%-+13(T!/ +&-˜T &/+-,2%"!˜T(%13 +%&T%.T&/3"/! T %&!T%"T1+ +/!˜T/ 1>TTÂŒT%! T%.T ,/T$"%$/" ˜T%&+&-T1,3&-/!˜T3&0T2+(0+&-T$/"'+ !T3&0T.//!>TTÂŒT,/T!+ /T!,%(0T3((%T.%"T3T2+(0+&-T%.T54˜444T %T64˜444T!#3"/T.// ˜T + ,T!$31/T.%"T. "/T/$3&!+%&>TTÂŒT3+(32(/T +(+ +/!T3&0T,3 T+!T"/#+"/0T %T$"%+0/T.((T +(+ +/!>TTÂŒT!T ,/T!+ /T1(%!/T %T3T(3"-/T1%&1/& "3 +%&T%.T13/"!T+((+&-T %T0%&3 /T +'/T3&0T/&/"-T %T "&&+&-T3&0T'3+& 3+&+&-T ,/T.31+(+ ˆT% ,T(%&-T3&0T!,%" F /"'T%(& //"!T+((T2/T&//0/0>TTÂŒT3+(32+(+ T%.T3T$%%(T%.T#3(+.+/0T$/"!%&&/(T.%"T2% ,T.((F +'/T3&0T$3" F +'/T$3+0T$%!+ +%&!>TTÂŒT 11/!!T %T'3*%"T3+"$%" !T3&0T+& /"! 3 /T,+-,3!>TTÂŒT,/T(%13(T13+&-T3"/3>T%/!T ,/T!+ /T+&1(0/T3&T13/!ˆTTÂŒT"/T$%(+1/T3&0T.+"/T!/1"+ T"/3!%&32(T33+(32(/ˆTTÂŒT!T ,/T!+ /T&/3"T3T'3*%"T &+/"!+ T%"T1%((/-/T ,3 T+!T."+/&0(T %T ,/T T3&0T3"/T ,/T+& /"/! /0T+&T0//(%$+&-T3T1%((32%"3 +/T"/(3 +%&!,+$ˆTTÂŒT!T ,/T!+ /T1/& "3(T %T ,/T'/'2/"!,+$T!%T ,3 T3((T'/'2/"!T,3/T311/!!ˆTTÂŒT!T local community support available with possible financial support?—WHEN?— ,/T T3!T"&T."%'T3!,+&- %&˜T>>T% T%.T13"02%3"0T2%/!T.%"T /& T&+&/T/3"!T2/.%"/T'%+&-T %T Huntsville, Alabama. The BOG made the decision to buy the NSS Office in Huntsville at the 6 March 1971 meeting, which was 37 years ago. That was a crossroad for us. It was an incredible step forward for our organization and provided an outstanding base of operation that promoted our vision, mission, and goals. And, the NSS owes a debt of gratitude to the Huntsville Grotto in

The NSS is bursting at the seams with no more space available to operate and no more options available. There is no more space for library books or items. There is no more space for warehousing book store items. There has never been any space for the NSS museum or the

particular and to any and all groups and individuals that were instrumental in supporting the office to make it successful. The time to act is NOT now. The time to act was yesterday.

museum items. We are at the crossroad again and this is our time. Now's the time when we have the opportunity to elevate ourselves from a cool caving club to a world-class organization with

The sooner we achieve a professional NSS complex, the sooner we can move on to the next level of our new history.—WHO?—The who are you! The who is every NSS member, NSS employee, NSS decision maker, and NSS contributor. We need to come together to make housing our business requirements a reality. Our mantra should be one purpose, one goal, one society. The needs of the many outweigh

a professional business face. Inaction freezes the NSS in time and stalling only postpones the inevitable, which increases the expense and cost of the inevitable.

the needs of the few. Let's organize ourselves as a group engaged in elevating our thought and purpose above the local scene and make a conscious effort to apply our energy to resolving the NSS Headquarters issue on the national level and global arena.

Gordon Birkhimer NSS President

CHAPTER 1 Investigation


Current Situation NSS Performance Evaluated By Board of Governers in Functions and Goals Satisifactory Job A survey was conducted 4 years ago asking the current NSS BOG to evaluate the organization’s performance in terms of a set of functional criteria determined by the NSS board. The results of the survey provide a valuable picture as to what the NSS is doing right and, perhaps more importantly, what areas it should focus on improving in order to not only strengthen the organization as a whole, but also provide greater value to its members and perhaps attract a new generation of people educated in cave conservation and research efforts.

Research + Exploration

Cave / Species Conservation

Significant Issues Not Being Accomplished

Scholarship Facilitation

Education

Research

Cave Conservation

Exploration

Cave Life Conservation

Provide Library + Archive

Karst + Groundwater Conservation

Provide Museum

External Publication

Provide Conferences

What’s At Stake:

What’s At Stake:

What’s At Stake:

Current membership seems happy with the amount of field exploration undertaken and organized by members of the NSS; however, the amount of scientific research being conducted in tandem with this is exploration is borderline. Outreach to members of the scien tific community or close cooperation with / relocation near university settings could begin to reshape this dynamic.

The category of conservation seems to be an overall area of borderline concern among the NSS community. Much of the concern over communities’ relationship with and effect on the natural systems could be aided by the more visible presence of an accessible head quarters with an increased focus on outreach.

Educational and scholarly efforts by the NSS have garnered mixed response from the caving community. While internal organiza tion functions such as conferences and the maintainence of a library are generally well-recieved, concern over externally oriented goals such as caving education and the need for a museum seems prevalent. This issue is primarily one again concerned with outreach and could be evaluated in the proposal of a new NSS headquarters.


Current NSS Functions + Goals Membership Survey

Society Government

Membership Services

13 Manage the NSS

Facilitate Social Opportunities

Liaison / Coordination External to the NSS

Hold Conventions

Facilitate IO Operations

Membership

Encourage Caver Membership

Facilitate Recreation

Facilitate NSS Info Exchange

Retain Members

New Membership?

What’s At Stake:

What’s At Stake:

Membership services within the NSS currently seem to be the strongest for the organization in terms of performance. Members seem articularly satisfied with the social and recreational functions the NSS has undertaken, indicating a high level of internal strength for the community once a person is integrated as a member.

The governing functions of the NSS seem to be the other are of high concern from its membership. While satisfaction has been expressed over the NSS’ management abilities, significant concern has arisen over the retention of current members beyond a year and the organization’s coordination outside of its own membership. A new focus on education and outreach through a new headquarters may allow a higher value from current membership in terms of the organization’s goals and attract new and valuable members from similar communities and mindsets.

CHAPTER 1 Investigation


Current Situation NSS Performance, Functions + Goals Evaluated By Importance Board of Governors vs. Membership A further extension of the survey had members of both the Board of Governors and current NSS members rank each criteria in terms of overall importance. These rankings have been distilled and compared across the board to comapre and contrast where the interests and focus of each contigent lies to establish trends and possible areas to address. This is also juxatposed with the levels of satisfaction of the membership, demonstrating the distribution of contentment and concern as a cross-reference.

Research + Exploration

Research

Cave / Species Conservation

Cave Conservation

Scholarship Facilitation

Education

Provide Library + Archive Cave Life Conservation

Exploration

Provide Museum

Karst + Groundwater Conservation

External Publication

Provide Conferenc

What’s At Stake:

What’s At Stake:

What’s At Stake:

Current membership seems happy with the amount of field exploration undertaken and organized by members of the NSS; however, the amount of scientific research being conducted in tandem with this is exploration is borderline. Outreach to members of the scien tific community or close cooperation with / relocation near university settings could begin to reshape this dynamic.

The category of conservation seems to be an overall area of borderline concern among the NSS community. Much of the concern over communities’ relationship with and effect on the natural systems could be aided by the more visible presence of an accessible head quarters with an increased focus on outreach.

Educational and scholarly efforts by the NSS have garnered mixed response from the caving community. While internal organiza tion functions such as conferences and the maintainence of a library are generally well-recieved, concern over externally oriented goals such as caving education and the need for a museum seems prevalent. This issue is primarily one again concerned with outreach and could be evaluated in the proposal of a new NSS headquarters.


Satisifactory Job

Importance according to BOG

Significant Issues

Importance according to Membership

Critical Issues / Nonexistant

Society Government

Membership Services

Liaison / Coordination External to the NSS

Facilitate IO Operations

Encourage Caver Membership

Facilitate Recreation

Facilitate NSS Info Exchange

s

15

Manage the NSS

Facilitate Social Opportunities

Retain Members

What’s At Stake:

What’s At Stake:

Membership services within the NSS currently seem to be the strongest for the organization in terms of performance. Members seem articularly satisfied with the social and recreational functions the NSS has undertaken, indicating a high level of internal strength for the community once a person is integrated as a member.

The governing functions of the NSS seem to be the other are of high concern from its membership. While satisfaction has been expressed over the NSS’ management abilities, significant concern has arisen over the retention of current members beyond a year and the organization’s coordination outside of its own membership. A new focus on education and outreach through a new headquarters may allow a higher value from current membership in terms of the organization’s goals and attract new and valuable members from similar communities and mindsets.

CHAPTER 1 Investigation


Current Situation NSS Performance, Functions + Goals Evaluated By Category Board of Governors vs. Membership

Both contingents place a high value on research efforts. While membership seems relatively satisfied with research efforts thus far, the BOG considers this a problematic area which could use a more focused effort through outreach and relocation.

0.8

0.8

1.0

Research + Exploration

Current Conditions:

Research

1.0

1.2

1.2

Research + Exploration

Current Conditions:

Survey results indicate that both the general membership and the Board place a relatively high level of importance on research and exploration. However, when compared to satisfaction results from the BOG, the current condition of the NSS in this area could use a boost through a more focused effort on research.

Membership places a higher value on active exploration than the BOG, though both groups reflect a high degree of satisfaction with the NSS’ performance in this category.

0.2

What’s At Stake:

0.4

0.6

0

0.8

0

0.2

1.0

0.2

1.2

0.4

0.4

0.6

0.6

Research

0

Exploration

Exploration


The NSS’ efforts in cave conservation seems to be the most satisfactory area of performance in this category with both the membership and BOG. While survey results indicate a higher focus in this area from the members than the BOG, this simply suggests a possible difference in ways of thinking about the NSS’ future.

1.0

1.2

Current Conditions:

Cave / Species Conservation

0.6

1.2

0.8

Cave / Species Conservation

Cave Conservation

1.2

Cave Life Conservation

1.0

0.6

0

0.8

0.2

0.4

1.0

Cave Conservation

0.6 0.4

0.2

0.4

Cave life conservation is similar to cave conservation in how it is valued by the two contingents, though there is a lower level of satisfaction overall. A focused effort on outreach to external groups may begin to reshape this.

0.8

Current Conditions:

0

Karst + Groundwater Conservation

0.6 0.4

Current Conditions: Karst and Groundwater conservation is the most balanced area of focus in this category for the NSS, though survey results indicate an overall dissatisfaction from the entire group on how the organization is working to address this issue.

0.2

A large disjuncture occurs in terms of how much importance is placed on cave and species conservation between the BOG and the members. According to the NSS’ mission, conservation is an integral part of the organization’s function. This difference is indicative of where the priorities of each contingent may begin to differ, even though they have the same goals (just different strategies).

0

What’s At Stake:

0.8

1.0

1.2

0

0.2

Cave Life Conservation

Karst + Groundwater Conservation

CHAPTER 1 Investigation

17


Current Situation NSS Performance, Functions + Goals Evaluated By Category Board of Governors vs. Membership

1.0

Education seems to be the biggest focus of the NSS in this category between both groups. However, both groups have also indicated an underperformance in this area, possibly explained by an underutilized public aspect in the form of museum, etc.

Current Conditions: Both the BOG and the membership indicate a relatively low overall focus on the provision of a library and archive as part of the NSS’ priorities; however, this can be explained by the fact that both groups are mostly satisfied with this aspect of the group’s public education efforts.

0.4

0.6

Provide Library + Archive

Provide Library + Archive 0.2

The educational and scholarly efforts of the NSS are an integral part of accomplishing the public conservation focus that seems central to the organization’s mission. However, value and performance in this category have been voted as low by both contingents, reflecting an increasing need for education and outreach.

0

What’s At Stake:

0.8

1.0

0

1.2

0.2

0

0.4

0.2

0.6

Education

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Scholarship Facilitation

Education

0.8

1.2

Current Conditions:

1.2

Scholarship Facilitation


Current Conditions: The provision of a museum is an interesting point of contention between the two groups, both in value and performance. Both contingents display a high amount of dissatisfaction with the NSS’ efforts in this area; However, they both place a relatively low value on this category as well, running counter to the desired focus on public education.

0.8

1.0

1.2

Provide Museum

0.6

Provide Museum

External Publication

0.8

1.0

0

1.2

0.2

0.4

19

0.4

External Publication

Provide Conferences

0.8

1.0

1.2

0

0.2

External publication is one of the best areas of the NSS’ functions in terms of performance, indicating a strong, non-physical public education effort. These efforts could be further supported by the creation of a central physical location for public interaction.

0.6

Current Conditions:

0.6

Current Conditions:

0

0.2

0.4

Provide Conferences

The provision of conferences is another area where the NSS seems to be excelling according to its membership. The creation of a central physical location could allow a larger number and wider variety of conferences to be offered to the NSS community.

CHAPTER 1 Investigation


Current Situation NSS Performance, Functions + Goals Evaluated By Category Board of Governors vs. Membership

1.2

Membership Services

1.0

Valued more highly by the members, the facilitation of social opportunities is the highest area of performance in terms of membership services, suggesting the NSS’ high level of strength as a social community that could begin to provide more to its community through a consolidated location.

0.8

0.6

1.0

Membership Services

Facilitate Social Opportunities

0.8

1.2

Current Conditions:

Facilitate IO Operations

0.8

0

1.0

0.2

1.2

0

0.4

0.2

0.6

0.4

Facilitate Social Opportunities

IO operations are valued much more highly by the BOG than the membership, obviously due to the fact that IO is integral to the boards’ role. While membership seems satisfied for the most part with IO performance, the BOG is more concerned, reflecting a high level of self awareness in terms of their role within the NSS.

0.4 0.2 0

Internal membership services appears to be the NSS’ strongest area of performance across the board. While the BOG places a much a higher focus on this category than the membership does, both contingents display a high level of satisfaction with its performance. This disjuncture reveals a heavy membership focus from the BOG, perhaps reflecting their intention to boost performance in education and conservation through a widening of the membership base and outreach.

0.6

What’s At Stake:

Current Conditions:

Facilitate IO Operations


Current Conditions: The facilitation of recreational activities is ranked relatively low in terms of both contingents as a reflection of the active participation of membership in caving related trips. As can be expected satisfaction in terms of performance reflects these sentiments.

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

Facilitate Recreation

Facilitate NSS Info Exchange

Current Conditions:

0

Facilitate NSS Info Exchange

0.2

0.4

While valued much more highly by the BOG than the membership, extensive efforts have been made facilitate the flow of NSS information, reflected by the high level of satisfaction in this area from both groups. Current expertise in this area could easily be used to boost outreach efforts.

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

0

0.2

0.4

Facilitate Recreation

CHAPTER 1 Investigation

21


Current Situation NSS Performance, Functions + Goals Evaluated By Category Board of Governors vs. Membership

1.2

1.2

Society Government

Manage the NSS Manage the NSS

0.8

1.0

1.0

Society Government

0.6 0.4 0.2

Government of the NSS as a society is a critical category for evaluation in that it reflects not only the performance of the community as a whole, but also potential for growth both physically and financially. While both contingents place a middle amount of importance on the category overall, membership base and retention of current members are large areas of concern fot the society as a whole, adding to the importance of a new focus on outreach and physical consolidation into a new central headquarters.

0

What’s At Stake:

0.6

Liaison / Coordination External to the NSS

Liaison / Coordination External to the NSS

0.8

1.0

0

1.2

0.2

0

0.4

0.2

0.6

NSS management is the only area of satisfaction in this category from both sides. Much like overall society government, a middle level of importance is placed on this category; however, this is most likely due to the fact that the entire organization is happy with how management has been carried out by the administration overall.

0.4

0.8

Current Conditions:

Current Conditions: External liaison outside of the NSS also has a lower level of overall importance to the membership as an entity; however, the BOG has expressed some concern over how this is currently being carried out. A more focused and consolidated outreach effort through a new physical location could allow a reevaluation of these external efforts and help boost current membership issues as well.


Encourage Caver Membership

1.0

1.2

Encourage Caver Membership

0.6

0.8

23

Current Conditions:

1.2

0

0.2

0.4

Encouragement of caver membership nationwide is an area that begins to reveal where both contingents are expressing concern over NSS performance. While ranking of importance is pretty standard within the category, both groups have expressed a heightened level of concern over encouraging new membership, even within the caving community. This concern further suggests the criticality of a reformatted outreach efforts in order to maintain overall membership health and potential for growth to ensure a continued future for the NSS.

Retain Members

0.4 0.2

Retention of current NSS efforts represents the other area of extreme concern for the entire society. Current reports suggest that the organization has had trouble retaining members outside of a year. Both groups place a decent amount of importance on this category as wel, reflecting an awareness of how a shrinking membership is endangering the future of the NSS and its conservation efforts. This area of evaluation may be one of the biggest signs that a new consolidated headquarters and outreach center is absolutely a priority.

0

Current Conditions:

0.6

0.8

1.0

Retain Members

CHAPTER 1 Investigation


Survey: Current NSS Functions and Goals Value Rating 0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.1 Research Research & Exploration

1.2 Exploration 2.1 Conserve Caves 2.2 Conserve Cave Life

Cave / Specie Conservation

2.3 Conserve Karst and Groundwater 3.1 Educate 3.2 Library 3.3 Museum

Scholarship Facilitation

3.4 Publish 3.5 Conferences 4.1.1 Social 4.1.2 IO Operations Membership Services

4.2 Recreation 4.3 Info Exchange 5.1 Manage 5.2 Liason Society Government

5.3.1 Encourage membership 5.3.2 Retain Members NSS Members

Board of Governers

Value Difference

Significant Variance


NSS Flow of Interaction

protection

action

cave exploration “caving” cave monitoring

value technique safety

25 active education

information dispersal

NSS mediation

passive informing

earth biology hydrology

environment impacts evaluation of concerns continuing cave study

adverse affects human involvement

research

analysis

Comparison between the results of the two surveys given to the Board of Governors and the general NSS membership reveal two major zones of disparity in terms of value and importance of the organization’s functions: Cave Conservation and Membership Services. What’s most interesting about this separation is where the interests lie; membership values the NSS’ conservation efforts more, while the BOG seems more concerned with membership services, be it provided to current membership or basic outreach efforts. This doesn’t necessarily mean a difference in overall interests, however - just in strategy. It would seem that the BOG’s interests look to increasing the value of membership and maximizing caver interest and member retention. This does not mean that they do not value conservation as an integral part of the NSS’ functionality, just that they hope to increase funding and awareness of these efforts through increased membership while simultaneously ensuring the organization’s future. While the NSS’ conservation efforts are vital, they are ultimately impossible to sustain with a shrinking membership base. Therefore, the BOG’s membership focused strategy is ultimately a more viable one that would be greatly enhanced by a new centralized headquarters. CHAPTER 1 Investigation


NSS Membership The growth and history of the national speleological society (right). Membership categories by popularity, price and benefits.

51.4%

Regular membership is the most popular membership category. It is for adult members: seventeen and older. NSS literature including magazines, news and journals comes with this membership as well as library benefits. The Regular Life membership is at a distant second place; this membership category comes with the same benefits as the regular membership but has a one time fee as opposed to an annual fee. Next is the Family Regular membership, family memberships are tied to another individual member and do not come with additional publications. Regular Basic membership has the same benefits as regular membership with the exception of the nss news and journal. Family Associate members are for kids (under seventeen) or for full time students; this membership depends on another member and does not include publications.

13.2%

16.4%

An Associate member is for kids (under seventeen) and full time students but does not depend on another membership and comes with publications. 10.9%

A Family Life member is for those who are married to a life member.

0.1% $1000 + Life Membership

0.1%

0.2%

0.4%

0.1%

Conservation_L.M.

$0

Spouse of Deceased L.M.

$125 / yr

conservation_member

$50 / yr

family_sustaining

$99/ yr

institutional

1.1% $120 / yr

regular_sustaining

1.3%

f a m i l y _ l i f e

$400

1.4% $30 / yr

a s s o c i a t e

$8 / yr

family_associate

$24/ yr

regular_basic

$10 / yr

family_regular

$800

r e g u l a r _ l i f e

$40/yr

regular_member

3.5%

Regular Sustaining members are regular members making an additional annual payment towards a life membership. Institutional memberships are for organization-wide groups with interest in research and/or education. Family Sustaining members are married to other life or sustaining members and are making annual payments towards life membership. Conservation members are regular members making additional payments towards conservation and education related causes. Conservation Life members are life members that have made an additional $1000 payment to the nss.

The NSS had the greatest growth the year after the NSS Cave Conservencies Committee officially joined the NSS. Yet, conservation memberships are only 0.1% of all memberships.

“There has been some discussion recently that it may be time for the NSS to broaden its appeal to the people who may have no actual interest in going in caves, but who nevertheless appreciate the uniqueness and importance of underground systems, and who might support efforts to better understand these realms, even if vicariously.�


Exploration

Research

Conservation Efforts 27

Active

Caver -- Serious Caver, Exploration Resource

MEMBERSHIP

Novice Caver -- Outdoor Enthusiast, Serious Caver Training Recreational Caver -- Outdoor Enthusiast, Inexperinced Caver

Mountaineer -- Outdoors Enthusiast, Non-Caver

Rescue Worker-- Ourdoors, Non-Caver

Education

Revenue

Cabin Camper -- Outdoors, Non-Caver

Concerned Public -- Non-Outdoors, Non-Caver Information Tourist -- Non-Outdoors, Non-Caver

Passive Non-Outdoors, Non-Caver (No Interest)

CHAPTER 1 Investigation


Outreach Demographics Tourist Tourist

Who are they? These are generally people who do not venture outdoors very often with the exception of a family vacation to a national park. Exposure to caves comes through their growing prevalence in major motion pictures. They are not well read on the efforts of caving or the benefits of karst research. Tourists, however, are quick to put forth funds for entertainment in the spirit of vacation.

What is their importance to the NSS? While this demographic may not know much of conservation as a whole, there is power in numbers. Contributions from a small percentage of these people stands to generate a significant dollar amount that can further the efforts of the NSS. Because of this, it is important to physically locate the NSS near a major tourist destination.

How can the NSS be important to them? Apart from exploration and research, a large part of conservation efforts is informing the masses of proper practices and appreciation of the people involved with these efforts. Interaction with this demographic allows the NSS to increase awareness on a large scale.

Conscious Public Who are they? The conscious public consists of those people who may prefer to spend their free time watching informative television shows on a select number of networks. While not very active, physically, they have an appreciation for those people and organizations who work to further develop awareness for specific causes.

What is their importance to the NSS? Support comes in many forms. One way is monetary contribution to a cause that is of particular interest. Supplying access to more information via the internet or television can gain the NSS a collection of loyal supporters.

How can the NSS be important to them? The conscious public prefers to be well informed. They enjoy their affiliations with a variety of organizations because it keeps them up to date with the focused efforts they donate to.

Cabin Camper Who are they? These people enjoy being a part of the natural environment while retaining a sense of modern convenience in their experience. They are adventurous, but prefer a safety factor. They are most inclined to engage in guided tours and trails. While they may not own their own gear, they have no problem renting the necessities for the event at hand.

What is their importance to the NSS? The cabin camper is the next installment of the conscious public. A more mobile type whose curiosity for information may lead them to attend exhibits held on cave conservation; therein benefiting the NSS as a person of interest for extending their educational outreach.

How can the NSS be important to them? The NSS allows these conservative adventures the opportunity to understand a lifestyle that they may be too apprehensive to try themselves.

Mountaineer Who are they? The mountaineer is more than an outdoor enthusiast; it defines them as an individual. They often associated themselves with groups organized a specific activity. Mountaineers are both monetarily and physically involved in conservation-based activities.

What is their importance to the NSS? Dedicated and determined are two traits of a long list that describe these people. The potential to begin productive relationships with these individuals and their organizations is high. They are share the same appreciation for proactive conservation efforts, and they may have connections to both local and national affiliates that can provide for the NSS cause.

How can the NSS be important to them? It would be counterproductive to care about conservation efforts within the natural environment while neglecting others. If presented with a worthwhile cause, other types of conservationists see it their responsibility to aid in the effect of that cause. Because of this, the mountaineer will benefit from continued education and information regarding the efforts of the NSS and the opportunities it can offer this individual type to get more involved. They may even seek training and become a member of their local grotto.


Recreational Who are they? commonly referred to as “spelunkers,� these people desire to be active. They may, however, conduct their activities with a level of ignorance that can Caver Most be an endangerment to themselves and the environments they enter. Given the opportunity they will seek to become more conscious of their impact on the natural world.

What is their importance to the NSS? The recreational caver may be deterred from greater involvement with the NSS due to the projected image of caving culture as an exclusive clique. It is the duty of the NSS to educate these individuals on proper caving procedures and techniques. Local grottos can be the major point of impact for this to happen. Helping the willing spelunker become more adept to caving culture and efforts can gain the NSS a good asset and decrease the negative impact recreational caving has on the environment.

How can the NSS be important to them? As stated, the spelunker may be willing, but shy to become more involved with caving culture due to negative stereotypes. With a more open invitation they will jump at the chance to get involved with a society that is conscious of the full scope of caving.

Novice Who are they? cavers are involved in caving culture. They continually check the website of their local grotto to stay up to date on current happenings close to Caver Novice home. They may even already be NSS members. They aspire to cave with the best of the best; to learn and become better themselves. What is their importance to the NSS? Novice cavers are the next generation of caver. It is through these individuals that the NSS can be confident in knowing their goals of cave exploration and conservation will be sustained in the future.

How can the NSS be important to them? The NSS means opportunity. The society allows the novice caver to gain further knowledge to better their practical caving skill sets and conservation involvement. They seek the mentorship and camaraderie of those experienced in the field.

Rescue Who are they? rescue worker is all about safety. They have no problem with being outdoors and in many ways are conservation-conscious, though their primary Worker The concern and focus is the safety of others. What is their importance to the NSS? Rescue workers are aware of the dangers of caving activity. Though they recognize the importance of exploration and research, safety of the people performing the exploration is their primary goal. Rescue workers can be a large asset to the NSS by providing training and seminars to novice and new cavers, as well as rescue support to caving expeditions.

How can the NSS be important to them? The NSS can provide rescue workers with an opportunity to train and educate those new to the practice of caving, as well as allowing them to pursue any exploration interests they have themselves.

Caver

Who are they? The caver is a driven person who has taken the time to become educated in the ways of the caving culture, uphold its values to the highest degree, and have the experience to handle the most complicated caving expeditions. They are secretive, but this results in stronger bonds with those they let into their circle. Cavers are loyal, conscious, and skillful.

What is their importance to the NSS? Cavers are the heart and soul of the NSS. It is because of these individuals that the NSS exists and can charge forward with their mission. Caver support is more than just membership dues; it is direct involvement in the activities, both internal and external, that occur within the society.

How can the NSS be important to them? The NSS allows cavers to have access to funds, caves, and conservation opportunities that they may not be able to access on their own or from through their grotto. The society brings them into contact with like-minded individuals who they can form close bonds with. For the caver the NSS benefits are both physical and social.

CHAPTER 1 Investigation

29


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CHAPTER 1 Investigation


CHAPTER 2 Membership CHAPTER 2 / 33 Introduction / page 35 Membership Statistics / page 37 Membership Across the US / page 39


Introduction

(The NSS is) â&#x20AC;&#x153;an organization that attempts to contain a widely diverse membership with a wide range of interests, but tied together with the common factor being caves.â&#x20AC;?


35

This chapter analyzes historical NSS membership growth from the societyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s commencement 1939 through its current state today in relation to significant events in NSS history. Additionally, membership density is highlighted geographically. The distinction between membership population in the TAG (Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia) region and membership population in Kentucky is noted. Grotto and National park locations are compared to membership density.

CHAPTER 2 New Membership


5=99 5=:4 5=:9

Butler Cave Conservancy Society (BCCS) established as the first official US cave conservancy

5=94

The first NSS preserve was donated

5=89

Cave Research Foundation (CRF) incorporates

5=7=

NSS arranges the Collins Crystal Cave expedition (C-3) and it is found that Crystal Cave reaches toward Mammoth Cave

SSDC becomes national organizatoin and the NSS incorporates. Mammoth Cave Nationa Park officially dedicated

year

Speleological Society of the District of Columbia (SSDC) formed

number of members

Membership Statistics 56444

55444

54444

=444

<444

;444

:444

9444

8444

7444

6444

5444

5=;4


5=<9 5==4 5==9 6444

total members new members

5=<4

NSS reorganization: NSS Cave Conservancies Committee (NSS CCC) is recognized as an indivudal portion of the NSS

5=;9

NSS members from the Detroit Urban Grotto discover Fisher Ridge cave system

37

6449 644=

CHAPTER 2 New Membership


Membership Across the US The graph below shows the twenty states (plus foreign members) with the most members. the u.s. map on the right charts grotto and national park locations compared to membership density. Georgia Virginia Tennessee California Florida Pennsylvania Texas Ohio

TAG

Alabama Indiana Colorado Maryland Missouri West Virginia New York Kentucky Foreign Illinois North Carolina Arizona

KY


Wind Caves National Park

Mammoth Caves National Park

39 Carlsbad Cavern National Park

National Park Service Caves NSS Grotto Locations NSS Member Density

Wind Caves National Park

Mammoth Caves National Park

Carlsbad l Cavern National Park

CHAPTER 2 New Membership


CHAPTER 3 Research and Conservation CHAPTER 3 / 41 Introduction / page 43 Research Institutions / page 45 Caving Skills / page 49 Longest and Deepest Caves / page 51 White Nose Syndrome / page 55


Introduction

(The NSS wants to) “promote cave conservation and management, cave science and education, and safe caving practice – all for the present and future enjoyment of any who are interested in caves…”


43

In order to determine a suitable location for the new NSS headquarters, we examined local research universities, prominent and extreme caves, and related environmental issues that affect such caves. The proximity of universities with caving related research programs is crucial in determining a site as they could potentially provide support. The immediacy of interesting caves will help draw in potential new NSS members. Research institutions can aid in understanding and preventing the spread of white nose syndrome.

CHAPTER 3 Research and Conservation


Research Institutions Same as the distribution of the NSS membership density, the research institutions are also located in the northeast and West Coast of the United States.

The Mid-Atlantic

New England

1-5

7.8% The Southwest

50%

17.1% 20.9%

22.9%

8.0%

19.2%

The West 6-10 10.4%

26.9%

16.7%

The South

The Midwest

Distribution of Geology Programs by Region

Undergraduate program

geoscience

21+

11-20

Distribution of States with Varying Numbers of Universities who offer Geology Program

graduate program

atmospheres, oceans & climate

environmental science

Geology, Geochemistry, and Geobiology

atmospheres, oceans & climate

Geophysics

planetary science & astronomy

Planetary Science

geophysics


45

University which offers Geology program NSS Grotto Locations NSS Member Density

Atmospheric Science, Climate Physics and Chemistry, Physical Oceanography, Chemical Oceanography

Tectonics, Geochemistry and Petrology, Sedimentary Geology, Geobiology, Surface Processes

MAINLY CAVE RELATED CHAPTER 3 Research and Conservation


Regional Research Institutions There are some research institutions around Kentucky and the TAG region. According to the analysis, the Mammoth Cave in Kentucky has a stronger research background than the TAG region.

X 44

X 12

YES

NO 2. Murray State University

1. Western Kentucky University

miles 100

140 miles

X 21

X 19

NO

NO

3. University of Louisville

4. University of Kentucky

miles 100

X 20

NO 5. Jacksonville State University

20 mil es

30 mil es

140 miles

X 15

NO 6. University of Tennessee - Chattanooga


4

3

Louisville

Lexington

Mammoth Cave

2

1

47

KY Nashville

6 Chattanooga TN

7 Huntsville

5

Atlanta

Birmingham

University which offers Geology program in Kentucky University which offers Geology program in the TAG Freeways GA

AL

iles 80 m XXX miles

X 10

X 00 Number of Undergraduate Major

Number of Faculty Number of Graduate Program

Number of Undergraduate Minor

NO

Distance to Mammoth Cave or TAG

Number of PhD. Program

YES/NO

Cave Related Program

7. University of Alabama - Huntsville CHAPTER 3 Research and Conservation


Caving Skills

wa lk cra ing w be ling lly ch craw im li cli neyin ng mb g rig ing gi up rap ng /dow p n tra elling ve asc rsing en cav ding ed ivi ng

Movement through requires a range of skills and equipment as well as different levels of physical activity. Longer caves allow for a diverse range of users that may not need roping skills to enjoy caving. Deeper caves require roping techniques, physical training and knowledge of equipment. Cave Diving, requires novice skill level, knowledge of equipment, and physical training. Therefore, longer caves would be best suited for the NSS to gain members who have interest in caving but need to learn the skills for more advanced caves to feed there interests.

1

helmet three sources of light knee/elbow pads rope and harness bolts and hangers snorkel gear easy

physical difficulty level difficult

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10


1

2

3

4

5

1

walking: very beginner; horizontal, commerical caves often with designated walkways

49

2

crawling:beginner; horizontal caves

3

belly crawling: beginning-advanced caving; horizontal caves; introduction to cave exploring

4

chimneying: intermediate-advanced level caving; horizontal caves; introduction to cave exporing

5

climbing up/down:caving; intermediate-advanced caving; horizontal caves without rope

6

rigging: advanced caving; vertical caves or entrance to caves using rope skills

7

rappelling: advanced caving; vertical caves with rope skills

8

traversing: advanced caving; vertical caves with rope skills

9

ascending: advanced caving; vertical caves with rope skills cave diving: novice exploring and highly dangerous; horizontal, deep caves with intense equipment

10

6

7

8

9

10

CHAPTER 3 Research and Conservation


Longest and Deepest Caves The top 100 Longest and Deepest Caves are scaled in relation to length and depth for Kentucky, the TAG region, and National Park Service Caves. As you can see, many of the longest and deepest caves are located in the TAG region. The longest cave, Mammoth Caves, is located in Kentucky and is also a commercial caves allowing access to a range of skill levels; from beginner to advanced.

depth in meters

length in miles

1

50

Big Bat Cave Thornhill Cave James Wells LeeWebster Cave Cave Goochland-Poplar Anvil Cave Cvyler Cave Gradys Crumps Dunbar Cave Hauus Spring Wolf River Cave Creek Ca

50

Hidden River Cumberland Caverns Cu Xaana XXanadu du Syst System Sloan's Slo Valley

Vi Vinegar innegCaveRidge Rice Big Bone LLong Lo oong Hollow Hol

Blue Spring Cave Blu

Mountain Eye Mo

100 Grassy Cove

Coral Cave System Cora Nunley Mountain System

Russell

150

200

250

Rumbling Falls Wilkson McBrides Small CaveHollow Gouffre EngleEmDouble Pit Hang Stole Well/Davis The Kids Cove Luminary Pit HighFern Cave Paint Rock Ain't No Cave Bloddy Gary Self PitElbow Cave Kelly Ridge Scotts Barn Tony Sink-Cox Youngs Creek MOS Cave Jewett I Cave Rawhide HorrorII Cave Jewett Dorton Knob Smokehole

Rich Mountain Blowhole

Bull Cave

300 Carlsbad Cavern

350

400

450

500

Fisher Ridge


00

150

400

51

Mammoth Caves

Wind Cave

Lechuguilla Cave

CHAPTER 3 Research and Conservation


Longest and Deepest Cave Locations The top 100 Longest and Deepest caves are mapped within the Kentuck and TAG region as well as National Park Service Caves. NSS Caves are also mapped to show proximity to the Kentucky region.


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CHAPTER 3 Research and Conservation


White Nose Syndrome White-nose syndrome (WNS) was first noted among dead and hibernating bats found in caves near Albany, New York, by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation beginning in February 2007. Affected bats had a white substance on their face and wings. Since March 2008, biologists estimate that over a million bats have died from this disease. White-nose syndrome mortality has been documented in 11 states in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic, and in 2 Canadian provinces (Ontario and Quebec). The fungus responsible for white-nose syndrome, Geomyces destructans, was recently described as causing the fungal skin infection that is the hallmark of bat whitenose syndrome (WNS). Since first photo-documented near Albany, NY in 2006, WNS has devastated populations of cave-hibernating bats in the northeastern US, with mortality rates of 75-95%. Outside of North America, G. destructans has also been observed to colonize bats across Europe, but without associated bat population declines.

little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus): Their wingspans range from 8.7â&#x20AC;?-11â&#x20AC;?, and they weigh .2-.5 oz. They are insectivores. Little brown bats are the most abundant bat found in the United States, and are found all over the U.S. They hibernate in caves as a community.

eastern pipistrelle (Perimyotis subflavus): Their wingspan averages about 9â&#x20AC;? and they weigh .15-.35 oz. They are insectivores and are found throughout the eastern U.S. They hibernate alone or in small groups.


indiana bat (Myotis sodalis): These bats are an endangered species, their population has declined over 50% within the last 10 years. Their wingspan is 9.5”-10.5” and they weigh approximately .25 oz. Indiana bats are insectivores and are primarily found in the eastern and midwestern U.S. and in parts of the south.

northern bat (Myotis septentrionalis): Their wingspan is 9”-10” and they weigh .17-.35 oz. They are found in the eastern U.S. and throughout the Great Plains. Northern bats are usually found singly or in small groups of up to 100.

eastern small-footed bat (Myotis leibii): Their wingspan is 8.3”-9.2” and they weigh .15-.3 oz. They are found in the eastern U.S. and are among the smallest bats in North America. Eastern small-footed bats are active in mountainous regions from 790’-3,690.’

CHAPTER 3 Research and Conservation

55


White Nose Syndrome

cave bat (Myotis velifer): Their wingspans range from 11-12.5”, and they weigh .4-.5 oz. Cave bats are insectivores, are found in the southwestern United States, and live in colonies of 2,000-5,000.

gray bat (Myotiss grisescens): These bats are an endangered species. Their wingspans range from 11”-12”, and they weigh .25-.55 oz. They are insectivores, and are found in the southern United States. Gray bats will travel up to 8.5 miles from their roosts to foraging areas.

southeastern bat (Myotis austroriparius): Their wingspans range from 9”-11”, and they weigh .2-.3 oz. They are insectivores, and are found in the Gulf Coastal Plain and lower Mississippi Alluvial Plain.


Overlap of bat habitats. Darkest areas are those that have the greatest number of bat species, making those areas the most vulnerable to White Nose Syndrome outbreak.

57 The Broad Institute of MIT/ Harvard is receiving help from the USGS NWHC to sequence the genome of G. destructans. They have recently released the assembly of its nuclear and mitochondiral genomes. The Broad Instituteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s data will facilitate the identification of virulence determinants of WNS, allow researchers to study the genetic history of the fungus and provide access to additional genetic markers for the development of improved diagnostic tests.

NSS White Nose Syndrome Rapid Response Fund: The purpose of the fund is to initiate or continue field and laboratory research into White Nose Syndrome in bats, especially where other funding is not readily available, and would result in critically identified seasonal research not occurring. It gives people the opportunity to provide timely, direct and much needed support for WNS research. Because NSS is a private organization, they can respond rapidly to appropriate research requests. Given the seasonal nature of bat research, this is most critical. Since 2008, the NSS WNS Rapid Response Fund has funded twelve projects that were research priorities collectively identified by the science and management communities, and would not have occurred otherwise. As of September 15, 2010, over $96,000 has been donated to the fund, and nearly $75,000 has been awarded.

CHAPTER 3 Research and Conservation


White Nose Syndrome February, 2006: White Nose Syndrome discovered in Schoharie County, NY.

Confirmed White Nose Syndrome cases in 2007-2008: WNS has now been confirmed in nearby caves in Schoharie County and adjacent Albany County.

Confirmed White Nose Syndrome cases for 2007-2008: WNS has now been confirmed in VT, MA and CT. WNS has now been confirmed in 4 states NY, VT, MA, and CT.


Confirmed White Nose Syndrome cases for 2008-2009: WNS has now been confirmed in NH, NJ, PA, VA and MD. WNS has now been confirmed in 9 states - NY, VT, MA, CT, NH, NJ, PA, VA, and MD.

59 Confirmed White Nose Syndrome cases for 2009-2010: WNS has now been confirmed in WV and TN. WNS has now been confirmed in 11 states NY, VT, MA, CT, NH, NJ, PA, VA, MD, WV, and TN, and has been suspected in MO and OK.

Confirmed White Nose Syndrome cases for 20102011: WNS has now been confirmed in IN and NC. WNS has now been confirmed in 13 states - NY, VT, MA, CT, NH, NJ, PA, VA, MD, WV, TN, IN, and NC and has been suspected in MO and OK.

CHAPTER 3 Research and Conservation


White Nose Syndrome

Pest Control

Balance system with bats

Imbalance system with decrease number of bats

Pollination

Balance system with bats

Imbalance system with decrease number of bats


cave and mine closure.” (March, 2009) Tennessee: “Great Smokey Mountains National Park closes all park caves to protect bats.” (April,

“Shawnee National Forest, Harrisburg, Ill,

2009)

Bat hibernating sites in Forest and Westmoreland counties remain closed to

Pennsylvania: “ visitors.” (April, 2009)

“Virginia confirms cases of white-nose syndrome in bats, asking cavers, owners of caves to help by

reducing

cave traffic.” (April, 2009) “White-nose syndrom prompts cave closures in Eastern forests.” (April, 2009) “Indiana DNR closes caves to slow bat disease spread.” (May, 2009) “Pennsylvania game commission urges closures to prevent spread of WNS.” (May, 2009) “Forest service closes caves and mines to protect bats in southeast.” (May, 2009) “State of Tennessee closes all public caves to protect bats in southeast.” (July, 2009) “Tennessee Valley Authority asks public to avoid caves on TVA-managed land.” (November, 2009) “Illinois DNR closing state owned and managed caves: move intended to help slow spread of white-nose syndrome killing bats in northeastern states and recently confirmed in the midwest.” (April, 2010)

closure of caves where bats hibernate.” (April, 2010) “Most Missouri state park caves will close temporarily to protect bats from disease.” (May, 2010) Missouri: “Ozark National Scenic Riverways closes caves.” (May, 2010) Iowa: “Rapid spreading disease prompts

“Bat Conservation International supports Tuesday’s emergency decision of the U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Region to

close all caves and abandoned mines on its lands in Colorado, Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska

temporarily and Kansas.” (July, 2010)

Fulford Cave closure.” (July, 2010) “Texas Parks and Wildlife Department restricting cave access on agency owned land to protect bats.” (August, 2010) Georgia: “State issues white-nose caution: disinfect gear, limit caving.” (January, 2011) Colorado: “White nose syndrom fears lead to

CHAPTER 3 Research and Conservation

61


CHAPTER 4 Site Suitability CHAPTER 4 / 63 Introduction / page 65 Site Analysis / page 67 Habitat Conservation / page 69 Infrastructure / page 71 Water Quality Impact / page 73


Introduction

â&#x20AC;&#x153;A creatively located (headquarters) can perform significant work for public outreach as well as generating significant revenues for the Society.â&#x20AC;?


65

With a high concentration of caves in Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama and Georgia, there is a substantial influx of cavers who collect around these two regions. The caving community plays a significant role politically, economically, socially and environmentally in this area. For this analysis, counties that lay on or adjacent to main cave entrances will be examined for suitable site conditions due to regional government operations and data sets based at this scale. This section narrows down appropriate areas of land use per zip code. Using the process of elimination, remaining candidate areas will be highlighted below throughout the steps listed: STEP 1: Habitat Conservation STEP 2: Available Infrastructure STEP 3: Water Quality Impact

CHAPTER 4 Site Suitability


Site Analysis ,/T.+"! T! /$T3%+0!T3! T31"/!T%.T&0//(%$/0T-"//&!$31/T %T $"%'% /T,32+ 3 T1%&!/"3 +%&>TĂ&#x153;"% /1 +&-T/&03&-/"/0Â&#x2DC;T ,"/3 /&/0T3&0T"/1%/"+&-T!$/1+/!T+((T2/T%&/T%.T ,/T1"+ +13(T $"+&1+$(/!T %T Â&#x2DC;T,+1,T+((T2/T3T.31 %"T2/,+&0T!+ /T!/(/1 +%&>T ,/T!/1%&0T+&/! +-3 /!T ,/T/+! +&-T+&."3! "1 "/T %T/&!"/T 30/#3 /T&/ %")!T3&0T"/!%"1/!>T,/T.+&3(T! /$T ,/&T&3""%!T 0%&T ,/T"/'3+&+&-T%$ +%&!T %T!+ /!T(/3! T(+)/(T %T1%& 3'+&3 /T 30*31/& T"+/"!T3&0T! "/3'!T ,"%-,T+ ,0"3(T3&0T"&%..>T,+!T +!T3T$3" +1(3"(T1"+ +13(T! /$T0/T %T ,/T0+"/1 T+'$31 T%&T13/T 3 /">TT

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86658

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3""/&T%& Â&#x2DC;T

3" T%& Â&#x2DC;T

86577

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Site Analysis

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"3&)(+&T%& Â&#x2DC;T

79=9;

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3"!,3((T%& Â&#x2DC;T

30+!%&T%& Â&#x2DC;TT

79=:6 79=94

74;75 74;7< 74;94 74;96 74;9;

CHAPTER 4 Site Suitability


Habitat Conservation Ă&#x153;T5Â&#x2014;T32+ 3 T%&!/"3 +%& /0/"3(T3&0T 3 /T&03&-/"/0T$/1+/!T$/&0+ "/T644=T FWS: $ 900 Other Fed: $ 105 States: $ 0 % 3(Â&#x2014;TÂźT5Â&#x2DC;449

Group: Flowering Plants Morefield's leather flower (Clematis morefieldii)

FWS: $ 2,000 Other Fed: $ 250 States: $ 0 % 3(Â&#x2014;TÂź6Â&#x2DC;694

Group: Clams Turgid blossom (pearlymussel)

FWS: $ 900 Other Fed: $ 32,000 States: $ 0 % 3(Â&#x2014;TÂź76Â&#x2DC;=44

Group: Crustaceans Alabama cave shrimp (Palaemonias alabamae)

Group: Snails Royal marstonia (Pyrgulopsis ogmorhaphe)

FWS: $ 19,700 Other Fed: $ 43,664 States: $ 0 % 3(Â&#x2014;TÂź:7Â&#x2DC;7:8

Group: Clams purple cat's paw (purple cat's paw pearlymussel)

Group: Clams Yellow blossom (pearlymussel)

FWS: $ 104,300 Other Fed: $ 22,127 States: $ 1,000 % 3(Â&#x2014;TÂź56;Â&#x2DC;86;

Group: Clams Rough pigtoe (Pleurobema plenum)

Group: Crustaceans Kentucky cave shrimp (Palaemonias ganteri)

FWS: $ 56,900 Other Fed: $ 77,277 States: $ 5,100 % 3(Â&#x2014;TÂź57=Â&#x2DC;6;;

Group: Flowering Plants Running buffalo clover (Trifolium stoloniferum) Group: Clams Northern riffleshell (Epioblasma torulosa rangiana)

Group: Clams Upland combshell (Epioblasma metastriata)

FWS: $ 157,500 Other Fed: $ 308,000 States: $ 2,500 % 3(Â&#x2014;TÂź8:<Â&#x2DC;444

Group: Clams Clubshell (Pleurobema clava)

FWS: $ 2,000 Other Fed: $ 9,500 States: $ 0 % 3(Â&#x2014;TÂź55Â&#x2DC;944

Group: Clams Alabama lampmussel (Lampsilis virescens)

FWS: $ 169,800 Other Fed: $ 314,819 States: $ 39.300 % 3(Â&#x2014;TÂź967Â&#x2DC;=5=

Group: Clams Pink mucket (pearlymussel)

FWS: $ 4,000 Other Fed: $ 7,605 States: $ 4,577 % 3(Â&#x2014;TÂź5:Â&#x2DC;5<6

Group: Flowering Plants Green pitcher-plant (Sarracenia oreophila)

86598

865;5

86585

8659; 86577

FWS: $ 1,550.996 Other Fed: $ 8,540,689 States: $ 165,242 % 3(Â&#x2014;TÂź54Â&#x2DC;69:Â&#x2DC;=6;

Group: Mammals Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis)

6 5

6 6

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54 = : 8 8 6

4 4 4 4 4 4

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; ; 6 6 6 6

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Group: Clams Group: Plant Northern riffleshell Running Buffalo Clover

$/"+'/& 3(TĂ&#x153;%$T$/1+/!

4 4

Group: Clams Clubshell

3&0+03 /T$/1+/!

4 5

Group: Clams Pink Mucket

/1%/"+&-T$/1+/!

8 55

3" T%& Â&#x2DC;T

,"/3 /&/0T$/1+/!

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86567 8656; 86574 86575 86577 86585 86586 86596 86598 8659: 865:4 865:: 865;5 86;8=

Group: Crustaceans KY Cave Shrimp

Group: Clams Cumberland pigtoe (Pleurobema gibberum)

Group: Clams Fanshell

Group: Mammals Gray bat (Myotis grisescens)

Group: Mammals Gray bat

FWS: $ 913,084 Other Fed: $ 1,221,224 States: $ 41,331 % 3(Â&#x2014;TÂź6Â&#x2DC;5;9Â&#x2DC;:7=

Group: Mammals Indiana bat

Group: Fishes Pygmy madtom (Noturus stanauli)

Group: Crustaceans KY Cave Shrimp

Group: Clams Fanshell (Cyprogenia stegaria)

3""/&T%& Â&#x2DC;T

FWS: $ 673,200 Other Fed: $ 28,118 States: $ 3,000 % 3(Â&#x2014;TÂź;48Â&#x2DC;75<

865::

Group: Clams Purple Catâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Paw

FWS: $ 5,500 Other Fed: $ 19,000 States: $ 0 % 3(Â&#x2014;TÂź68Â&#x2DC;944

86658

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FWS: $ 74,700 Other Fed: $ 240,147 States: $ 1,100 % 3(Â&#x2014;TÂź759Â&#x2DC;=8;

FWS: $ 16,000 Other Fed: $ 600 States: $ 0 % 3(Â&#x2014;TÂź5:Â&#x2DC;:44

86;8:

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Group: Clams Pale lilliput (pearlymussel)

FWS: $ 6,500 Other Fed: $ 0 States: $ 500 % 3(Â&#x2014;TÂź55Â&#x2DC;944

86;66

Group: Clams Rough Pigtoe

FWS: $ 2,000 Other Fed: $ 9,500 States: $ 0 % 3(Â&#x2014;TÂźT55Â&#x2DC;944

86;9;

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FWS: $ 4,000 Other Fed: $ 0 States: $ 0 % 3(Â&#x2014;TÂźT8Â&#x2DC;444

86;<8

Group: Mammals Gray bat

FWS: $ 3,500 Other Fed: $ 350 States: $ 0 % 3(Â&#x2014;TÂź7Â&#x2DC;<94

Group: Snails Anthony's riversnail (Athearnia anthonyi)

Group: Mammals Indiana bat

FWS: $ 3,000 Other Fed: $ 0 States: $ 0 % 3(Â&#x2014;TÂź7Â&#x2DC;444

FWS: $ 27,000 Other Fed: $ 2,500 States: $ 0 % 3(Â&#x2014;TÂź6<Â&#x2DC;944


30+!%&T%& Â&#x2DC;TT

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Group: Clams Stirrupshell

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Group: Clams Upland combshell

74;75 74;7< 74;94 74;96 74;9;

Group: Mammals Gray bat

Group: Fishes Pygmy madtom Group: Clams Upland combshell Group: Snails Royal marstonia

79;9:

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79;8:

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7;768

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CHAPTER 4 Site Suitability


Infrastructure Ă&#x153;T6Â&#x2014;T&."3! "1 "/ 6454TFT6455T +'(!T&0+&-TĂ&#x153;/"T%&  Âź5Â&#x2DC;658

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$466,000

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+&1,/! /"T +(+ +/!

% ,TĂ&#x153;+ !2"-T3 /"T%")! ,+ /((T3 /"T%")! /3&//T +(+ T+! "+1

%&T%.T3!$/"T3 /"T3&0T//"

30/T%& T3 /"T ,%"+ 

+&1,/! /"T +(+ +/!

%& /3-(/T+ T +(+ T%'$3&

/&(%T3 /"TĂ&#x201A;T//"T! /'

% ,TĂ&#x153;+ !2"-T3 /"T%")! ,+ /((T3 /"T%")!

7;74: 7;75< 7;768 7;76< 7;774 7;779 7;789 7;7;9 7;7;: 7;7<7 7;7<< 7;7=<

7;784 7;78; 7;79: 7;7;8 7;7<4 7;7<; 7;7=: 7;7=; 7;849 7;85=

30/T%& Â&#x2DC;T

%3T3 /"TĂ&#x201A;T//"T

79;841% !2%"%T3 /"Â&#x2DC;T//"TĂ&#x201A;T3! 79;88 3 /"T%3"0T%.T/1 +%&TĂ&#x201A;T %&T 79;89 79;8:'2/"(3&0T %& 3+&T3 /" 79;8<1% !2%"%T3 /"Â&#x2DC;T//"TĂ&#x201A;T3! 79;95 //&!%&T +(+ +/! 79;96 79;99 79;:8 79;:9 79;:: 79;:< 79;:= 79;;5 79;;6 79;;8 79;;: 79=9< 79=:: 79=;< 79=;=

"3&)(+&T%& Â&#x2DC;T

"32T3 /"T%")!

3"+%&T%& Â&#x2DC;T

31)!%&T%& T3 /"

&+1+$3(T +(+ +/!T%3"0

3"!,3((T%& Â&#x2DC;T

30+!%&T%& Â&#x2DC;TT

79=94

79;7= 79;85 79;8< 79;8= 79;94 79;9: 79;9; 79;9< 79;9=& !+((/T +(+ +/! 79;:4 79;:5 79;:6 79;:7 79;:; %" ,T(323'3T3!T+! "+1 79;;7 79<45 79<46 79<47 30+!%&T +(+ +/! 79<48 79<49 79<4: 79<4; 79<4< 30+!%&T +(+ +/! 79<4= 79<54 79<55 79<56 79<57 79<58 79<59 79<5: 79<68 79<=7 79<=8 79<=9 79<=: 79<=; 79<=< 79<==

74;75 74;7< 74;94 74;96 74;9;

CHAPTER 4 Site Suitability

71


Water Quality Impact Ă&#x153;T7Â&#x2014;T3 /"T3(+ T'$31

30+!%&T%& Â&#x2DC;T

30/T1%& Â&#x2DC;T

"3&)(+&T%& Â&#x2DC;T

3"+%&T%& Â&#x2DC;T

97Â&#x2DC;:94

6=<Â&#x2DC;5=6 <9Â&#x2DC;:78

5:Â&#x2DC;484

85Â&#x2DC;447

6;Â&#x2DC;;9;

4>44 ;>56 ;>56

4>44 7>:= 7>:=

4>:8 54>4< 54>;6

67>;5 7<><9 :6>9:

6>=< 65>5; 68>59

4>44 6>79 6>79

5>=7 7>84 9>77

5>8: 6>6= 7>;9

4>5= 4>47 6>8= 6>;5

4>47 4>46 5>66 5>6;

4>=5 4>44 5>:= 7>:4

5>56 4>44 74>=5 76>47

4>7< 4>44 9>7< 9>;:

4>44 4>44 6>44 6>44

4>47 4>44 6><: 6><=

4>6: 4>44 7>96 7>;<

4>44 4>44 4>44

4>44 4>44 4>44

4>44 <>;< <>;<

4>44 4><= 4><=

4>7: 4>44 4>7:

4>44 4>44 4>44

4>44 4>44 4>44

4>44 4>:9 4>:9

4>44 4>49 4>49

4>44 4>46 4>46

4>48 4>:; 4>;5

5>:5 7>74 8>=5

4>44 4>:< 4>:<

4>59 4>75 4>8:

4>:6 4>6< 4>=4

4>47 4>44 4>47

¡

¡

¡

¡

¡

¡

4>48 4>78 4>7<

5>:5 6>65 7><6

4>44 4>49 4>49

4>59 4>46 4>5;

4>:6 4>6< 4>=4

4>47 4>44 4>47

¡

¡

¡

¡

¡

¡

4>44 4>77 4>77

4>44 5>4= 5>4=

4>44 4>:7 4>:7

4>44 4>6= 4>6=

4>44 4>44 4>44

4>44 4>44 4>44

"%&03 /"T+ ,0"33( ".31/T3 /"T+ ,0"33( % 3(T3 /"T+ ,0"33(

4>4= 5>:7 5>;6

4>49 4><7 4><<

4>76 4>84 4>;6

4>58 4>5= 4>77

4>:4 4>:4 5>64

4>45 4>4< 4>4=

4>88 4>5< 4>:6

4>57 4>47 4>5:

"%&03 /"T+ ,0"33( ".31/T3 /"T+ ,0"33( % 3(T3 /"T+ ,0"33(

4>44 4>44 4>44

4>44 4>44 4>44

4>44 4>44 4>44

4>44 4>44 4>44

4>44 4>45 4>45

4>44 4>44 4>44

4>44 4>44 4>44

4>44 4>44 4>44

4>44 4>44 4>44

4>44 4>44 4>44

4>4; 4>47 4>54

4>8< 4>66 4>;4

4>5= 4>4= 4>6<

4>44 4>44 4>44

4>44 4>84 4>84

4>44 4>85 4>85

4>44 4>44 4>44

4>44 4>44 4>44

4>44 4>44 58;:>74 4>44 58;:>74 4>44

4>44 4>44 4>44

4>44 4>44 4>44

4>44 4>44 4>44

4>44 4>44 4>44

4>6< <><7 

4>4< 8>9: 

5>=< 6;>4: 58=:>6: 87>89   

8>95 66>99   

4>5: 6>;8 

7>46 8>6: 

5><< 7>7< 

Ă&#x153;%$(3 +%& Ă&#x153;2(+1T$$( "%&03 /"T+ ,0"33( ".31/T3 /"T+ ,0"33( % 3(T3 /"T+ ,0"33(

%'/! +1Â&#x2DC;T/(.T$$( "%&03 /"T+ ,0"33( ".31/T3 /"T+ ,0"33( /(+/"+/!T."%'TĂ&#x153;2(+1 % 3(T3 /"T+ ,0"33(

3" T%& Â&#x2DC;T

84Â&#x2DC;4;7 5<Â&#x2DC;75=

3""/&T%& Â&#x2DC;T

31)!%&T%& Â&#x2DC;T

3"!,3((T%& Â&#x2DC;T

% 3(T3 /"T!/T2T3 /-%"T3&0T%& T+&T6449TÂĄ+&T +((+%&T3((%&!¡3Â

86;8=

8656;

&0! "+3(Â&#x2DC;T/(.T$$( "%&03 /"T+ ,0"33( ".31/T3 /"T+ ,0"33( % 3(T3 /"T+ ,0"33(

""+-3 +%& "%&03 /"T+ ,0"33( ".31/T3 /"T+ ,0"33( % 3(T3 /"T+ ,0"33(

""+-3 +%&Â&#x2DC;T"%$ "%&03 /"T+ ,0"33( ".31/T3 /"T+ ,0"33( % 3(T3 /"T+ ,0"33(

""+-3 +%&Â&#x2DC;T%(. "%&03 /"T+ ,0"33( ".31/T3 /"T+ ,0"33( % 3(T3 /"T+ ,0"33(

+/! %1)

#31( "/

+&+&"%&03 /"T+ ,0"33( ".31/T3 /"T+ ,0"33( % 3(T3 /"T+ ,0"33(

"%&03 /"T+ ,0"33( 4>45TFT6>44 6>45TFT8>44 8>45TFT:>44 ÂŤT:>44 ".31/T3 /"T+ ,0"33( 4>45TFT9>44 9>45TFT54>44 54>45TFT74>44 ÂŤT74>44

,/"'%/(/1 "+1

"%&03 /"T+ ,0"33( ".31/T3 /"T+ ,0"33( % 3(T3 /"T+ ,0"33(

%'/! +1T$$( &0! "+3(T$$( ""+-3 +%& Ă&#x153;2(+1T$$( ,/"'%/(/1 "+1

8656; 86;57 86;66 86;6= 86;8: 86;8= 86;9; 86;:8 86;:9 86;<6 86;<8

3""/&T%& Â&#x2DC;T

% 3(T3 /"T+ ,0"33(

3" T%& Â&#x2DC;T

"%&03 /"T+ ,0"33( ".31/T3 /"T+ ,0"33( % 3(T3 /"T+ ,0"33(

86567 8656; 86574 86575 86577 86585 86586 86596 86598 8659: 865:4 865:: 865;5 86;8=


7;784 7;78; 7;79: 7;7;8 7;7<4 7;7<; 7;7=: 7;7=; 7;849 7;85=

30/T%& Â&#x2DC;T

7;74: 7;75< 7;768 7;76< 7;774 7;779 7;789 7;7;9 7;7;: 7;7<7 7;7<< 7;7=<

3"+%&T%& Â&#x2DC;T

79;84 79;88 79;89 79;8: 79;8< 79;95 79;96 79;99 79;:8 79;:9 79;:: 79;:< 79;:= 79;;5 79;;6 79;;8 79;;: 79=9< 79=:: 79=;< 79=;=

"3&)(+&T%& Â&#x2DC;T

7945: 794<; 795;9 79;8; 79;99 79;:4 79;:= 79;;: 79=94 79=95 79=9; 79=:6 79=:8 79=;9 79=;: 79=<4

31)!%&T%& Â&#x2DC;T

79;7= 79;85 79;8< 79;8= 79;94 79;9: 79;9; 79;9< 79;9= 79;:4 79;:5 79;:6 79;:7 79;:; 79;;7 79<45 79<46 79<47 79<48 79<49 79<4: 79<4; 79<4< 79<4= 79<54 79<55 79<56 79<57 79<58 79<59 79<5: 79<68 79<=7 79<=8 79<=9 79<=: 79<=; 79<=< 79<==

3"!,3((T%& Â&#x2DC;T

30+!%&T%& Â&#x2DC;TT

73

74;75 74;7< 74;94 74;96 74;9;

CHAPTER 4 Site Suitability


CHAPTER 5 Finances CHAPTER 5 / 75 Introduction / page 77 Market Analysis and Property Assessment / page 79


Introduction

“Through communication channels…as well as evergrowing social media, we potentially have a worldwide stage…”


77

Preliminary investigations over real estate appraisals reveal negligible differences in tax rates and average property values per individual in the Mammoth Cave and TAG regions (with the exception of Huntsville in Jackson County). However, current amenities and existing infrastructure for each county significantly differ in terms of budget allocation. While populous areas may provide more businesses and funding, potential for growth in recreational activities and education are highest in the KY Barren and Hart counties due to itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s comparably milder inclines for visitors and fiscal investments geared towards accessible tourism and conservation.

CHAPTER 5 Finances


#$%&'% 3/T+  %"!/T3/

%! TÜ%$(3 /0T +$T%0/! ¼57:˜75< 86;:9 ¼569˜697 86;8= ¼557˜=<9 86;57 ¼=6˜7=9 86;<8 ¼66=˜;7< 86;9;

3(/!T3T:Å 3!%(+&/T3T66>9T1/& !·-3((%& Ü/"!%&3(T&1%'/T3T3 /T3&-/T6ÅTFT:Å

3" T%& T T

3&0T"/3—T85:T!#3"/T'+(/ Ü%$(3 +%&T/&!+ —T88T$/%$(/T$/"T!#3"/T'+(/ ! +'3 /0T /0+3&T%!/T3(/—T¼;;˜<44 ! +'3 /0T /0+3&T%!/,%(0T&1%'/—T¼6=˜;87T

3""/&T%& T T

%! TÜ%$(3 /0T +$T%0/! ¼587˜;:4 86585 ¼665˜;74 8656; ¼57;˜489 865:4 ¼5;<˜5<4 86567 ¼;9˜444 8659:

8656;

3&0T"/3—T8=5T!#3"/T'+(/! Ü%$(3 +%&T/&!+ —T<9T$/%$(/T$/"T!#3"/T'+(/! ! +'3 /0T /0+3&T%!/T3(/—T¼=9˜444 ! +'3 /0T /0+3&T%!/,%(0T&1%'/—T¼7:˜=5=

/& 1)

/& 1)

86;8=

0'+&+! "3 +/T/"+1/!

013 +%&3(T/"+1/!

/3( ,T3"/T3&0T%1+3(T!!+! 3&1/

  !" 

<5 8= 5<  68 54 8= 5= 88 6

69

7 <<

 ;5

6

77 68 65  67 ; 77

8 59

8;

 9:

31)!%&T%& 

=

8

5

:7 := 84  75 58 95 69 98

30+!%&T%& 

:

6

5 ::6 76= 85=   598 584 946 898 56;8 7= 858 =9 <<9     ;:6 =

3"!,3((T%& 

6

6

7 58< 568 =6  :; 74 599 ;; 578 54 97 = 5=:   5:< ;

30/T%& 

5

6: 5: 8

 7

: 55

= 74

7 74 7 555   <;

7 56 5

<

8

59

  6;

&0! "+/!T % T(3!!+.+/0

6

8

5< 5

 ,/"T/"+1/!

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5

3&3-/'/& T%.T%'$3&+/!

6

3"+%&T%& 

: 56 ;

Ü"%./!!+%&3(˜T1+/& +.+1TÂT/1,&+13(

"3&)(+&T%& 

/3(T! 3 /T

69 : 547   <5 6

 9

+&3&1/TÂT&!"3&1/

77 58 =

6 ;: 8< 89  67 57 ;6 69 97 9

&.%"'3 +%&

<

"3&!$%" 3 +%&TÂT3"/,%!+&-

5

8



3""/&T%& 

,%(/!3(/T"30/

3" T%& 

3&.31 "+&-

%&! "1 +%&

69

 +(+ +/!

+&+&-˜T3""+&-T3&0T+(

(0T(3!-%T%30 (0T++/T+-,3 T3&0T T"&$+)/T%30 ,3"(+/T %"3&T+-,3 3! T 3+&T "// /! T 3+&T "//

%" ,T++/T "// % ,T++/T "//

9

-"+1( "/˜T%"/! "˜T+!,+&-˜T& +&-

3" T%&  %"!/T3/ 86;8=

3''% ,T3/T%30 3$$T3((/T%30 %+!+((/T%30

%" ,T++/T+-,3 % ,T++/T+-,3 (0T++/T+-,3 "+0/"+((/T%30 (0T &.%"0+((/T%30

$/&T3&0 +! +&-

3/T+  $/&T3&0 +! +&-

8756;

3""/&T%& 

644<T>>T/&!!T%& T!+&/!!TÜ3 /"&!T¡ 

6

9


¼6<6˜<<= ¼589˜:5= ¼=4˜8;4 ¼66=˜=<= ¼59;˜968

¼576˜96; ¼58:˜=84 ¼;;˜656 ¼59:˜6<4 ¼658˜=5; :6469 :6678 :6484 :6478 :668=

%! TÜ%$(3 /0T +$T%0/!

%! TÜ%$(3 /0T +$T%0/!

%! TÜ%$(3 /0T +$T%0/!

¼556˜97= ¼=6˜;94 ¼<6˜867 ¼54=˜7;: ¼546˜:44 :597; :5984 :57:= :59:9 :57;9

¼6=5˜688 ¼6:7˜;:8 ¼788˜86; ¼576˜<<: ¼5=;˜<:=

¼675˜:<: ¼799˜644 ¼=<˜87< ¼5;8˜97: ¼667˜68= 7;7=< 7;774 7;7;9 7;768 7;789

%! TÜ%$(3 /0T +$T%0/!

%! TÜ%$(3 /0T +$T%0/!

%! TÜ%$(3 /0T +$T%0/!

¼57=˜7:4 ¼78;˜64< ¼68;˜9<: ¼6:=˜::<

7;865 7;849 7;855 7;848 7;859

74;96 74;94 74;7< 74;9; 7;496

79

3(/!T3T8Å 3!%(+&/T3T64>=T1/& !·-3((%& Ü/"!%&3(T&1%'/T3T3 /T3&-/T5ÅTFT:Å

30/T%& TT

3&0T"/3—T5;8T!#3"/T'+(/! Ü%$(3 +%&T/&!+ —T=7T$/%$(/T$/"T!#3"/T'+(/ ! +'3 /0T /0+3&T%!/T3(/—T¼55<˜;44 ! +'3 /0T /0+3&T%!/,%(0T&1%'/—T¼84˜4<5

3(/!T3T;Å 3!%(+&/T3T65>8T1/& !·-3((%& Ü/"!%&3(T&1%'/T3T3 /T3&-/T:Å

3"+%&T%& T T

3&0T"/3—T8=<T!#3"/T'+(/! Ü%$(3 +%&T/&!+ —T9:T$/%$(/T$/"T!#3"/T'+(/ ! +'3 /0T /0+3&T%!/T3(/—T¼544˜544 ! +'3 /0T /0+3&T%!/,%(0T&1%'/—T¼7<˜7:;

"3&)(+&T%& T T

3&0T"/3—T999T!#3"/T'+(/! Ü%$(3 +%&T/&!+ —T;8T$/%$(/T$/"T!#3"/T'+(/ ! +'3 /0T /0+3&T%!/T3(/—T¼54<˜644 ! +'3 /0T /0+3&T%!/,%(0T&1%'/—T¼85˜789T

:6=:: :6=68 :6=76 :6=4; :6==8

3(/!T3T8Å 3!%(+&/T3T64>=T1/& !·-3((%& Ü/"!%&3(T&1%'/T3T3 /T3&-/T6ÅTFT9Å

31)!%&T%& TT

3&0T"/3—T:7:T!#3"/T'+(/! Ü%$(3 +%&T/&!+ —T8=T$/%$(/T$/"T!#3"/T'+(/ ! +'3 /0T /0+3&T%!/T3(/—T¼<8˜644 ! +'3 /0T /0+3&T%!/,%(0T&1%'/—T¼79˜4;7

3"!,3((T%& TT

3&0T"/3—T9:;T!#3"/T'+(/! Ü%$(3 +%&T/&!+ —T59=T$/%$(/T$/"T!#3"/T'+(/ ! +'3 /0T /0+3&T%!/T3(/—T¼=<˜544 ! +'3 /0T /0+3&T%!/,%(0T&1%'/—T¼7;˜7=:

30+!%&T%& T

3&0T"/3—T<49T!#3"/T'+(/! Ü%$(3 +%&T/&!+ —T84;T$/%$(/T$/"T!#3"/T'+(/ ! +'3 /0T /0+3&T%!/T3(/—T¼58;˜;44 ! +'3 /0T /0+3&T%!/,%(0T&1%'/—T¼98˜=;=

CHAPTER 5 Finances


#$%&'% 3+'' ¼:97˜844·31"/

3+'' ¼:59˜444·31"/

%"!/T3/

3/T+ 

3+'' ¼6;=˜=44·31"/

3+'' ¼6=5˜::;·31"/

/"3-/ ¼55;˜799·31"/

3+'' ¼6=4˜688·31"/

3+'' ¼67=˜:44·31"/

/"3-/ ¼557˜789·31"/

+&+'' ¼5˜9=9·31"/

+&+'' ¼5˜944·31"/

+&+'' ¼5˜694·31"/

/"3-/ ¼74˜454·31"/ +&+'' ¼5˜;9=·31"/

/"3-/ ¼;8˜;67·31"/

/"3-/ ¼;;˜654·31"/

/"3-/ ¼;;˜654·31"/

/"3-/ ¼;8˜;67·31"/

/"3-/ ¼;8˜;67·31"/

3+'' ¼7=˜;94·31"/ +&+'' ¼:˜<=4·31"/

3+'' ¼69˜444·31"/ +&+'' ¼5˜694·31"/

+&+'' ¼5˜7:<·31"/

+&+'' ¼5˜=7<·31"/

 TÜ"%$/" T3 ((T"/3(T$"%$/" T+&T/& 1)T+!T!2*/1 T %T! 3 /T3&0T(%13(T $"%$/" T 3>T,/T! 3 /T"/3(T$"%$/" T 3T"3 /T+!T57>:T1/& !T $/"T/31,T¼544T%.T3!!/!!/0T3(/>T/3(T$"%$/" T+!T3!!/!!/0T %&T544ÅT%.T.3+"T'3")/ T3(/>T/& 1)T,3!T3T,%'/! /30T //'$ +%&T%&T ,/T3!!/!!/0T3(/T%.T3T#3(+.+&-T!+&-(/T&+ T "/!+0/& +3(T$"%$/" T,+1,T+!T30*! /0T//"T %T/3"!T 311%"0+&-T %T ,/T1%! T%.T(++&-T+&0/>T%"T,%'/%&/"!T:9T 3&0T%(0/"T%"T % 3((T0+!32(/0˜T¼6=˜844T%.T ,/T3!!/!!/0T3(/T %.T ,/+"T$"%$/" T+!T//'$ T."%'T! 3 /T 3/!T&0/"T ,/T ,%'/! /30T$"%+!+%&>T

 TÜ"%$/" T3 /&&/!!//T0%/!T&% T,3/T3T,%'/! /30T//'$ +%&>T %//"˜T ,/"/T+!T3T$"%$/" T 3T"/(+/.T$"%-"3'T.%"T ,/T /(0/"(˜T0+!32(/0T3&0T/ /"3&!>T,/T3!!/!!/0T3(3 +%&T %.T3T$"%$/" T+!T23!/0T%&T69ÅT%.T+ !T.3+"T'3")/ T3(/>TT /$/&0+&-T%&T ,/T(%13 +%&T%.T ,/T"/!+0/&1/˜T,%'/%&/"!T +((T2/T3!!/!!/0T$"%$/" T 3/!T."%'T ,/T1+ T%&(˜T ,/T 1+ T3&0T1%& ˜T%"T ,/T1+ ˜T1%& ˜T3&0T3T!$/1+3(T!1,%%( 3&0T.+"/T0+! "+1 T"3 />TT(%13(T-%/"&'/& T'3T3 ,%"+/T ¡3 T ,/+"T%$ +%& T3T$/"!%&T,%T+!T:9T/3"!T%.T3-/T%"T%(0/"T %T0/./"T$3'/& T%.T 3T$T %T¼:4˜444T%.T ,/T3$$"3+!/0T .3+"T'3")/ T3(/T%.T ,/T,%'/%&/"”!T"/!+0/&1/T+.T ,/T 1%'2+&/0T+&1%'/T+!T&% T'%"/T ,3&T¼56˜444>TT%13(T %$ +%&T1%(0T+&1"/3!/T+ T %T¼69˜444>T

TÜ"%$/" T3 ,/T! 3 /T0%/!T&% T1%((/1 T 3/!T%&T$/"!%&3(T$"%$/" T !1,T3!T2%3 !T3&0T1%'$ /"!>TT !T30T3(%"/'T¡$"%$/" T 3 T+!T:>9T'+((!>T31,T1+ T3&0T1%& T'3T(/T,3!T+ !T %&T'+((3-/T"3 />T%'/%&/"!T:9T3&0T%(0/"T3"/T//'$ T ."%'T3((T! 3 /T$"%$/" T 3/!>TT%'/T1+ +/!T3(!%T3!!/!!T !/$3"3 /T$"%$/" T 3/!>TTT,%'/! /30T//'$ +%&T$T %T ¼9˜444T%.T3!!/!!/0T3(/T+!T-"3& /0T2T ,/T! 3 /T%&T"/3(T $"%$/" T 3/!>TT(3"-/"T//'$ +%&T+!T33+(32(/T %T $/"!%&!T%/"T:9>T

¼54

¼4

/%"-+3



%& T%>T+&3&1/! ."%'TÜ"%$/" T3/! ¼5˜;:8˜444

30/T%& 

¼4

¼74

¼64

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CHAPTER 5 Finances

83


CHAPTER 6 Access

CHAPTER 6 / 85 Introduction / page 87 Airports / page 89 Interstate Freeways / page 91 Regional Drive Times / page 93


Introduction

“By limiting our membership to those who seek us out or stumble upon us, we as a consequence largely don’t have the two-way communication lines open for interaction with those outside the caving community.”


87

Travel times and general accessibility from major cities throughout the United States to both the Mammoth Cave and TAG regions are compared. A more focused assessment of driving times from major highways is also depicted. Through these analyses convenience of access is determined.

CHAPTER 6 Access


Airports The analysis of airports shows the main airports in Kentucky have more direct airlines than the TAG region. These airlines in Kentucky link the cities in Northeast and West Coast where the grottos are located.

Owensboro-Daviess

Louisville

Nashville Chattanooga Huntsville

Direct Airlines to Kentucky

Airports near Kentucky

Major Cities

Direct Airlines to TAG Region

Airports in TAG Region

NSS Grotto Locations NSS Member Density

Philadelphia New York City Los Angeles Chicago Washington D.C. 0

50

100

150

200

Flying Time from Major Cities to KY or TAG

250 (Minutes)


Louisville

Lexington

Mammoth Cave

KY Nashville Chattanooga

89

TN Huntsville

Atlanta Birmingham

Primary Airports in KY Other Airports in KY Primary Airports in KY Other Airports in KY

GA

AL

100

90 90 73

9

80

71 71

70 70

62 5

625

655

665

60

49 49 43 5

40

20

Primary Airports 0

445 KENTUCKY

TENNESSEE

AlABAMA

819 GEORGIA

Other Airports

Airport Number in Four Caving Regions CHAPTER 6 Access


Interstate Freeways The freeway analysis shows the Mammoth Cave has a better accessibility in comparison to the TAG region.

US Highways NSS Grotto Locations NSS Member Density

1,200,000

Mammoth Cave

1,000,000

+1,024,968

800,000 600,000 400,000 200,000

Population

0

200,000 400,000 600,000

TAG

800,000

City Population Comparison


Columbus Indianapolis Cincinnati

Louisville

Lexington

Mammoth Cave

KY Charlotte

Nashville Chattanooga

91

TN Huntsville

Atlanta Birmingham

GA Jackson ville AL

Chicago (10.5hrs)

Chicago (7hrs) Indianapolis (3.5hrs)

Cincinnati (3.5hrs)

Indianapolis (7hrs)

Kentucky

St. Louis (5hrs)

Columbus (5hrs) 2 hr

Memphis (5hrs)

St. Louis (7.5hrs)

Cincinnati (6hrs)

TAG

4 hr

4 hr

6 hr

6 hr

8 hr

Charlotte (7.5hrs)

Memphis (5.5hrs)

10 hr

Nashville (1.5hrs)

Columbus (7.5hrs)

2 hr

8 hr

Charlotte (5.5hrs)

10 hr

Driving Hours Comparison

Nashville (2.5hrs)

CHAPTER 6 Access


Regional Drive Times Comparisons between the Mammoth Cave Region, KY and the location of the current NSS HQ in Huntsville, AL. Areas are evaluated based on the driving times between the highway, existing downtowns and predominant cave attractions. How convenient are these areas for a populace that is using the highway as a main means of transportation?

Mammoth Cave Region 5 minutes 45 mph/3.9 mi

1 minute 45 mph/.8 mi

10 minutes 25mph/7.1 mi

15.5 minutes

1 minute

flint ridge entrance 25 mph/9.3 mi

35 mph/.59 mi

exit 58

3.9 minutes 35 mph/2.3 mi

Mammoth Cave Natâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;l Park 14.8 minutes east entrance 25 mph/7.7 mi

Horse Cave 10 minutes

I-65

25 mph/6 mi

15.2 minutes south entrance 25 mph/7.7 mi

10 minutes 25 mph/5.6 mi

7 minutes

5 minutes

exit 53

45 mph/3.9 mi

Cave City

Cave City-Horse Cave 45 mph/4.1 mi

5 minutes 25 mph/3.4 mi

1 minute

2.4 minutes

45 mph/.8 mi

35 mph/1.5 mi

1 minute 35 mph/.6 mi

exit 48 1 minute 45 mph/.8 mi

11 minutes Park City

Park City-Cave City 45 mph/6.5 mi

4T'+> 0 mi .5>9T'+>mi 15T'+>mi

Average driving time from I-65 to Mammoth Cave Natâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;l Park

26T'+>mi

15.2 minutes/8.2 miles


Huntsville, AL

23.5 minutes

5 minutes

I-65 to NSS HQ 35mph/23.5 mi

45 mph/3.9 mi

I-65

93

10 minutes

Current NSS Headquarters

55 mph/7.5 mi

20 minutes 65 mph/17 mi

565

20 minutes

Downtown Huntsville, AL

35 mph/21.8 mi

30 minutes 55 mph/26.2 mi

exit 340

42 minutes

10 minutes 1 minute

25 mph/32.6 mi

70 mph/7.6 mi

70 mph/1.2 mi

Cathedral Caverns

5 minutes 70 mph/5.8 mi

0 mi 2.5 mi 5 mi

Driving time from I-65 to Cathedral Caverns Driving time from I-65 to current NSS HQ

10 mi

42 minutes/32.6 miles 23.5 minutes/23.5 miles

CHAPTER 6 Access


CHAPTER 7 Site Visit

CHAPTER 7 / 95 Introduction / page 97 underGROUND Studio / page 99 underGROUND Studio Reflections / page 101 Site Observations / page 107


Introduction

(If) “someone has mentally connected with the ‘urge to cave,’ we ought to be the organization that reaches out to that individual with the proper training, gear, and culture of conservation and preservation.”


97

On January 14th, 2011, the UNDERGROUND studio traveled from Ann Arbor, MI to Cave City, KY. The UNDERGROUND studio was exposed to the Mammoth Cave landscape, above and below the surface. The UNDERGROUND studio was introduced to the exploration and adrenaline that is caving, crawling, climbing and shimmying through tight spaces and mud filled pits. On the surface, the UNDERGROUND studio scoured the post-highway landscape of Horse Cave, Cave City and Park City. Each team member took with them unique observations and understandings from the relationship between the greater area of Mammoth Cave and caving culture. It is with this knowledge that the UNDERGROUND studio evaluated the area and executed proposals for the NSS Headquarters project.

CHAPTER 7 Site Visit


GROUND Studio

UNDER

Site Observations UNDERGROUND STUDIO IS: Jen Harmon, professor Dora Chan Danni Chen Michelle Claudio Yunyuan Deng Leann Dreher Ryan Giles Spence Kroll Cam Stewart Ben Thomas Sheri Zon


99

At Lost River Cave

With Dean Wiseman at American Cave Museum

Post caving at Mammoth Caves

With David Foster at Horse Cave

With Peter Quick at the University of Michigan

CHAPTER 7 Site Visit


GROUND Studio

UNDER

Site Observations

Member: Dora Chan Hometown: San Leandro, CA

Member: Danni Chen Hometown: Columbus, OH

“I don’t think you can miss the exit with dinosaurs. They evoke wonder, shock, and glee no matter who you are and what state of mind you’re in.”

It was quite a surprise for me when I realized I had never been to a smaller town like Horse Cave or Cave City in the States before this trip. I had passed through similar townships but never actually experienced the cultures. I found the relationship between cities and roadways is interesting. The cities were


Member: Michelle Claudio Hometown: Chico, CA

Member: Yunyuan Deng Hometown: Shanghai, China

I was inspired by the remarkably undisturbed environment of mammoth cave. The pitch black and seemingly unwavering atmosphere of the cave was otherworldly. I am glad to have been enlightened to the value of this preserved terrain.

Like other exploration sports, caving requires energy, intelligence and enthusiasm. It always pushes oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s potential to the limit. For example, facing a cave hole that might too small to get through, what will you do? Give up? Back off? No, you must try you best to scrunch your body to pass it. You challenge all the things that you think are impossible and finally you make it. Just like the situation in our real life, you set a mission or goal, realize it and then head for another.

101

CHAPTER 7 Site Visit


GROUND Studio

UNDER

Site Observations

Member: Leann Dreher Hometown: Vicksburg, MI

Member: Ryan Giles Hometown: Aurora, IL

Our trip to Kentucky started with the creation of an expedition flag for our studio in which we used the caving icon as inspiration. We still needed to add the lettering to the flag when we got to Kentucky, so we got to work once we checked in at our hotel. Several of my studio mates didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know how to sew, so I gave a quick sewing demonstartion. We now take photographs with the flag when we do anything studio related.

What was most striking about the area surrounding Mammoth Cave is the strange banding or layering of tourist related areas with the local community radiating out from the highway. Locations such as Guntown Mountain, Dinosaur World, and the sea of antique stores that pepper the landscape of Cave City create a unique collage of the local people, the natural landscape, and the attractions targeting the transient tourist.


Member: Spence Kroll Hometown: Rochester, MI

Member: Cam Stewart Hometown: Plainwell, MI

Horse Cave and Cave City are products of a the current post-highway U.S.; all of the commercial energy has been displaced to direct proximity focused around the thoroughfare exits. The towns stand as remnants of the American road trip, cheap gas and the advent of the motel.

The most amazing experience of the trip was our decent into Mammoth Cave. Just when you begin realize just how remote the underground world is, the caveâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ecosystem begins to emerge around you. You come across bats, cave crickets, cave shrimp, and an array of other lifeforms that have never experienced anything but pure, silent darkness. The world is so foreign it feels almost extraterrestrial, and yet it is right there under us.

Mysterious, quiet and spooky with plenty of stranded auto relics, these places are inundated with ghosts and stories.

103

CHAPTER 7 Site Visit


GROUND Studio

UNDER

Site Observations

Member: Ben Thomas Hometown: Milwaukee, WI

Member: Sheri Zon Hometown: Chicago, IL

The area cities are an eclectic set of languages derived from the various influences of agriculture, history, and modern day tourism. Peculiar is the way these contrary features coalesce through their unwavering devotion to palette, solidifying an understanding of these cities as a whole; retaining their independence from the billboards and motels that line their nearby streets.

The physical and mental qualities of the caves interested me most during our introduction to caving. I enjoyed the constantly shifting spaces, the range of textures and qualities of the rock and its formations, as well as the difference in temperature and noise in the shift from the above world to the undergroundperimeter.


Professor: Jennifer Harmon Hometown: Underground, Washington, D.C. I embarked with students in two vans headed for Cave Country located in the heart of Kentucky on a cold January weekend. My mission was to introduce these 10 hearty souls to one of my most passionate endeavors, cave exploration. We ventured into subterranean worlds and the cultures that exist between cavers and common folk above ground. It was a journey that allowed us to discover a history hidden to most.

105

CHAPTER 7 Site Visit


GROUND Studio

UNDER

Site Observations signs / grub / tourist traps / relics


107

CHAPTER 7 Site Visit


GROUND Studio

UNDER

Site Observations prepare / descend / crawl / explore


109

CHAPTER 7 Site Visit


CHAPTER 8 Locations Summary

CHAPTER 8 / 111 Introduction / page 113 Mammoth Cave Validity / page 115 Mammoth Cave Access / page 117 2010 Mammoth Cave Demographics / page 119 I-65 Corridor Densities / page 121 Mammoth Cave Visitors / page 123 Park City / page 129 Horse Cave / page 131 Cave City / page 135


Introduction

â&#x20AC;&#x153;The NSS will significantly increase public outreach. The organization will work to make its name and mission known among the conservation-minded public outside the caving community and encourage supporting memberships.â&#x20AC;?


113 In January of 2011, the Underground Studio investigated existing urban areas as well as undeveloped land within the vicinity of Mammoth Caves to serve as potential sites for the NSS Headquarters. The towns of Horse Cave, Cave City and Park City were examined with regards to their available infrastructures, amenities and overall accessibility. Experiencing these locales firsthand revealed an incredible dependency of the surrounding economies upon the Mammoth Cave tourist culture. As well, the towns are remnants of a post-highway culture with focused commercial development along the I-65 corridor and deserted downtown neighborhoods hidden from direct highway access.

CHAPTER 8 Locations Summary


Mammoth Cave Validity Most Visited National Caves Among the three most visited National Park Caves, Mammoth National Park has consistently maintained the highest number of caving visitors annually, further establishing itself as an iconic tourist caving destination. Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico and Wind Cave in South Dakota are among other highly visited national caves.

Mammoth Cave Natâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;l Park

Wind Cave Natâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;l Park

Carlsbad Caverns Natâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;l Park

all recreational visitors

cave faring visitors


600

500

400 115

300

200

1,000s of visitors

100

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

CHAPTER 6 Access


Mammoth Cave Access With such a large influx of visitors, the Mammoth Cave region is plugged into transportation infrastructures that include highways, state roads and backroad connections. Understanding how the total amount of annual visitors is distributed throughout specific points of entry informs which roadways are most utilized with the most potential exposure for the NSS HQ.

Horse Cave Mammoth Cave Natâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;l Park

I-65

east entrance

I-70 west entrance

Cave City I-70 east entrance south entrance

Park City

0

1 mi. 2 mi.

4 mi.

2005 Mammoth Cave Natâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;l Park total visitors: 1,878,006

entrypoint distribution backroads 217,403 I-70 west 282,454

east entrance 569,292

total visitors with direct access to I-65: 1,378,148 visitors 73.4% of all Mammoth Cave visitors in 2005

I-70 east 283,733

south entrance 525,123


1886 Construction of Mammoth Cave Railroad. The line connects directly with the Louisville / Nashville railway.

117

1930 Incorporation of U.S. Route 31 connecting Horse Cave, Cave City and Park City. Mammoth Cave R.R. has halted operation.

1960 I - 65 is constructed as a thoroughfare from Indiana to Alabama spurring commercial development adjacent to the highway.

CHAPTER 6 Access


2010 Mammoth Cave Visitors Monthly Demographic Four major visitor demographics exist within the Mammoth Cave region that the NSS HQ must consider in the evaluation of proper site location and the development of building program. The fluctuating schedules of each demographic creates a dynamic in Mammoth Cave National Park visitation and the surrounding area which peaks during the summer months.

caver. Year - round expeditions limited only by hibernaculum restraints and ambition.

graduate pair. Long weekends, school breaks and summer recess. Limited by academic schedule.

retiree adventurers. An all season crew but limited by harsh winter ice, snow and family holidays.

mini van crew. Consistent school and parental work schedules prevent vacation planning. Summer break is most opportune.


December

november

october

september

august

july

june

may

april

March

February

January

Labor Day

4th of July

memorial day

1000â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s of visitors 100

80

60

40

119

20

CHAPTER 6 Access


I - 65 Corridor Densities Highway densities add value to an existing location; their various functions serve as a practical destination and potential attractor for cave visitors and a resting point for highway transients. 3 major caving tour operations: *Mammoth Cave *Diamond Caverns *Hidden River Cave.

tourist cave Establishments that do not offer a cave experience but charge admission: *Go Karts *Video Arcades *Giant Dinosaurs

caveless diversions

Longer duration of consumption with fewer daytime highway transients. *El Mazatlan *Cracker Barrel *The Ole Watermill

table service The highway establishment, drive-thru and counter service. Pit stop, quick bite, restroom breaks.

fast food


121

CHAPTER 6 Access


I - 65 Corridor Densities Highway densities add value to an existing location; their various functions serve as a practical destination and potential attractor for cave visitors and a resting point for highway transients. Hotels, motels and resorts with fully conditioned accomodations; drive-up motel relics: *The Wigwam *Diamond Caverns Resort *Mammoth Cave Hotel

hotel / motel Campgrounds that range from full hook-up trailer parks to rustic tent sites. *Yogi Bearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Jellystone *Horse Cave KOA *Mammoth Cave Campgrounds

rv / tent

Great collections of farm implements, house remnants and salvaged junk; traditional souvenir fare: *Nuttinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Fancy Antiques *Magalineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Antiques

antiques Christian churches established in old urban centers and remote pastoral landscapes.

church


123

CHAPTER 6 Access


Mammoth Cave Visitors Demographic Itinerary Trip itineraries recognizing four specific demographics of users within the Mammoth Cave region. The itinerary of each group is catered towards the desired experience of each party and what recreational resources within the region that they will utilize.

caver. Exploratory, non-recreational caving.

2 41 3

retiree adventurers Cross country eco-tour.

1

2

36 745


4full tank

10:00

Gas station

$2.99/gallon $47.84 total: $71.84

12:00

14:00

16:00

18:00

20:00

22:00

00:00

02:00

04:00

06:00

08:00

10:00

12:00

El Mazatlan

biscuits and gravy $9.00

2 adults Violet City Tour $30.00

1

Magalineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Antiques

total: $59.00

18:00

20:00

pizza dinner $19.00 total: $78.00

3

22:00

00:00

02:00

04:00

06:00

Cracker Barrel

Mammoth Cave

16:00

Nachos Rodeo $15.00 total: $24.00

125

5porcelain giraffe 7full tank RV

$29.00

Snappyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Pizza

Horse Cave KOA

21 night, full hookup

14:00

16:00

3

08:00

$5.00 total: $101.00

10:00

pancake breakfast $18.00 total: $96.00

4

12:00

Hidden River Cave

1

12:00

14:00

Gas Station

08:00

Cracker Barrel

exertion level

Cave Exploration

2

$2.99/ gallon total: $238.60

14:00

tour and museum 2 adults $30.00 total: $131.00

6

CHAPTER 6 Access


Mammoth Cave Visitors Demographic Itinerary Trip itineraries recognizing four specific demographics of users within the Mammoth Cave region. The itinerary of each group is catered towards the desired experience of each party and what recreational resources within the region that they will utilize.

mini van crew. Enroute to summer vacation.

3

4251

graduate pair. Fall break cave and camp.

2

3 4 156


1

22:00

00:00

Dinosaur World 02:00

04:00

06:00

dinner for 4 $45.00

18:00

1 night campsite $20.00 total: $74.00

3

total: 144.00

3

16:00

full tank $2.99/gallon $35.88

1127

total: $261.88

5

6to photograph

total: $96.00

22:00

14:00

2 adults, 2 children Historic Tour $40.00

$22.00

20:00

12:00

total: $189.00

The Wigwams

The Watermill 16:00

10:00

08:00

$45.00

Gas Station

20:00

00:00

02:00

04:00

06:00

08:00

10:00

Cream and Sugar

snack $8.00

14:00

Mammoth Cave

Mammoth Cave McDonalds

exertion level

total: $54.00

12:00

total: $104.00

4catfish buffet

2 adults $46.00

10:00

$59.00

1

2Intro to Caving

08:00

42 adults, 2 children

Mammoth Cave

18:00

Cracker Barrel

exertion level

Comfort Inn

21 night, 2 queens

12:00

breakfast $20.00 total: $116.00

5

CHAPTER 6 Access


Park City Site Summary Park City has a broad history of Mammoth Cave tourism, however, there are few, if any, remnants of commerical activity. A location in Park City would provide direct adjacency to I-65 and the southern entrance to Mammoth Cave.

+

( )

-

( )

*Direct access to southern entrance to Mammoth Caves *Adjancecy to I-65

*No existing commercial amenities *No tourist culture; lack of draw

I-65

exit 48

31W


129

U.S. Route 31 West Park City, KY

CHAPTER 6 Access


Horse Cave Site Summary Horse Cave is the location for the existing ACCA Cave Museum. Proposals have been made that suggest the new HQ for the NSS locate within or in direct proximity to the Cave Museum. The UNDERGROUND studio does not advocate locating the NSS HQ within the existing museum block because of redundancy in institutional presence. Multiple siting opportunities exist outside of the Cave Museum for

+

( )

-

( )

*Existing cave â&#x20AC;&#x153;cultureâ&#x20AC;?, Hidden River Cave history *Possibility for adaptive reuse of a downtown structure

*Not directly adjacent to I-65 *Lacking in tourist amenities, hotels, gas stations *Existing ACCA Cave Museum a possible redundancy *Depressed downtown location

31W

American Cave Museum / Hidden River Cave System


131

CHAPTER 6 Access


Horse Cave American Cave Museum The American Cave Museum is sole cave tourist draw for visitors in the city of Horse Cave; the Cave Museum is the only way of accessing the Hidden River Cave system of which Horse Caveâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s name is derived. The Cave Museum is composed of a number of exhibits illustrating the history of cave exploration as well as cave geology and biology. Space for an NSS addition within the American Cave Museum complex is limited.


133

American Cave Museum Horse Cave, KY

CHAPTER 6 Access


Cave City Site Summary Cave City has a high concentration of tourist amenities directly adjacent to the I-65 corridor. Connected by interstate 70, Cave City functions as a major commercial gateway to Mammoth Cave National Park. Downtown Cave City has suffered economically since the construction of I-65, pulling tourists away from U.S. 31 which passes through several small-town centers.

+

( )

-

( )

*Strong existing commercial infrastructure *Direct adjancecy to I-65 *East of access to Mammoth Cave Natâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;l Park *High influx of travelers (transient or visiting)

*Economically depressed downtown *Competing attractions

I-65

Downtown Cave City

exit 53

advocated Cave City site

31W


135

Downtown Cave City Looking southwest towards I - 65

CHAPTER 6 Access


Cave City Downtown Cave City Downtown Cave City has an incredible density of churches and antique stores for such a small and economically depressed area. The antique stores post irregular “by appointment” hours and seem to be the only consistent commercial stakehold in the downtown area. Additionally, there is a small grocery store, a bank and a independent cafe with a consistent base of “regulars”.


137

Main Street Cave City, KY

CHAPTER 6 Access


Cave City Highway Adjacent Site The specified highway adjacent site is located on a hillside overlooking the commercial development surrounding exit 53 on I-65. The site offers major highway visibility and direct accessibility from the main Mammoth Cave thoroughfares. The density of tourist amenities at exit 53 suggests a major source of visitors, both cave seeking and the general public.


139

hilltop site, east of I-65 looking northeast towards Cave City

CHAPTER 6 Access

NSS Headquarters Research and Proposals - PART 1  

Research and proposals for the new National Speleological Society Headquarters by Jennifer Harmon's 2G2/3G4 studio.

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