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going with the flow A story about living with water


Special thanks to Nicole, my parents Soledad and Luis Gabriel, my in-laws Sabrina and Klaus and all my friends and colleagues for all their support and inspiration.

Camilo Pelaez Nino Matricula 766707 Student Number 10338710 Thesis Project Project Tutor: Matteo Poli Master of Science in Architecture Politecnico di Milano 2012


INDEX

In the fictional Colombian town of Macondo, in Gabriel García Márquez’s “One Hundred Years of Solitude”, it rains incessantly for four years, eleven months and two days. Unfortunately, in Colombia life has recently been imitating magical realism. Torrential rains have drenched the country for the past two years, destroying infrastructures, unleashing mudslides, flooding houses and farmland and leaving millions in total misery. The Economist

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00. ABSTRACT 00A. Research Question 01. MEGA SCALE 01A. Climate Change 01B. Water and Floods 02. MACRO SCALE 02A. Colombia General Info 02B. Weather Phenomena in Colombia 02C. Caribbean Colombian Culture 03. MESO SCALE 03A. Mompox Depression 04. MICRO SCALE 04A. Hatillo de Loba 05. PROBLEMATICS 05A. Defining Problematics 05B. General Objective 05C. Specific Objectives 05D. Hypothesis 06. CASE STUDIES 07. PROPOSAL 07A. Strategies 07B. Masterplan 07C. Building Design 07D. Constructive Technologies 07E. Environmental Technologies 07F. Image and Identity 08. BIBLIOGRAPHY 08A. Books 08B. Digital References 08C. Image References

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00. ABSTRACT

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Over the past 25 years the tropics, located along the equator, have expanded by as much as 500 kilometers north and south, evidence of climate change in action. The Equatorial line passes throughout 13 countries: Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Sao Tome and Principe, Gabon, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Somalia, Maldives, Indonesia and Kiribati. These countries used to be some of the few with weathers that could host tropical rain forests. Many of these rainforests are actively being diminished causing immense ecological imbalance. Colombia is one of the South American countries characterized by such tropical weather expansion and within a series of serious repercussions have started coming to light.

The Andes Mountain range reaches Colombia and its sloping lands extend throughout a big part of its territory bordering to both the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean coasts. Due to its geomorphological characteristics, the Colombian territory counts with a great deal of river mouths, aquifer reservoirs and headwaters. However, since the year 2010, the country has experienced the most intense rainfall seasons in the last fifty years. Most water bodies have overflown without any sort of control. The excessive precipitation has affected the majority of the territory in many ways, leaving deaths, injured people, missing people, and thousands of destroyed towns and villages. The increasing water levels of rivers and other water bodies, in some cases reaching up to 3-meter raises, have caused floods in urbanized and agriculture areas, leading to great losses for various settlements. The current situation can be observed and addressed with an urbanistic-architectural perspective. New alternative solutions in the matter of flood prevention strategies and sheltering solutions may be tested and applied in order to improve the living conditions of thousands of victims of the present rainfall disasters. The final goal is reaching the generation of new community weather-conscious behaviours which may help prevent future possible losses. Such weather-conscious behaviours must include amphibian adaptability in order to give birth to sustainable floating village communities.

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01.

MEGA SCALE 00A. Research Question Can new urban and architectural models influence human behaviors, such as social interaction, productivity and competitiveness in a developing community while preparing and adapting settlements to future weather changes? Can a flood prevention plan involving new infrastructure systems be applied without compromising environmental qualities in the target area?

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About Scales In most of the sciences, the term scale or spatial scale is used for describing or classifying the extent of a studied area with a large approximation. In this document, the terminology is applied following the parameters stated bellow:

SCALE MEGA

LENGTH >10000km

AREA >100000000km2

DESCRIPTION GLOBAL

MACRO

100km 10000km

10000km2 100000000 km2

CONTINENTAL

MESO

1km - 100km

1km2 - 10000km2

REGIONAL

MICRO

1m - 1km

1m2 - 1km2

LOCAL

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01A. Climate Change

Climate change is defined as a significant and long-term change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns of the Earth’s climate, or of a region on Earth. It is caused by factors including oceanic circulation, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, tectonics, volcanic eruptions and human-induced alterations. These latter effects are currently causing global warming.1 Just a few years ago it was possible for large economies to ignore the issue of global warming and to continue as always. Today even these have recognized that the biggest threat to their countries is not other economies but it is themselves causing the climate to change by burning vast amounts of coal, oil and natural gas in order to keep up their comfortable life style.

What causes global warming? There are several greenhouse gases responsible for warming, and humans emit them in a variety of ways. Most of these gases come from the combustion of fossil fuels in cars, factories, and electricity production.2 The gas responsible for most of the warming is carbon dioxide. Other contributors include methane released from landfills and agriculture, nitrous oxide from fertilizers, gases used for refrigeration and industrial processes, and the loss of forests that would otherwise store CO2. Rainforests have been one of the main sources of oxygen in the atmosphere. Nowadays, the rainforests are being destroyed at an unprecedented rate. Every second one and a half acres of rainforest are being cut down. It is

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1 http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/climate_by_any_other_name. html 2 http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn9903-instant-expert-climatechange.html

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MORE THAN

70%

OF THE WORLD IS CURRENTLY

COVERED WITH WATER... THESE NUMBERS KEEP INCREASING.

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estimated that at this current rate of destruction, all the rainforests will be gone within 40 years. 3

Some other effects possibly to occur later this century, if warming continues are:

Aside from CO2 there are other gases that contribute to global warming such as methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbon. These gases together, referred to as greenhouse gases, have up to 300 times more heat-trapping abilities than CO2. However, because their concentrations are lower than CO2, none of these gases adds as much warmth to the atmosphere as CO2. Since 1990 yearly emissions have gone up by about 6 million metric tons, which accounts to a 20 percent increase. 4

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sea levels expected to rise between 18-59 centimeters by end of century. Continued melting at poles could add between 10-20 centimeters

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hurricanes and other storms likely to become stronger

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species that depend on each other may become out of sync e.g. plants could bloom earlier than pollinating insects become active

Effects of Global Warming

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less fresh water available

The effects of rising temperatures can be seen all over the world - some being more evident than others. Protruding effects are:

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diseases will spread e.g. malaria carried by mosquitos

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ecosystems will change due to species relocating.5

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melting of ice worldwide including the earth’s poles, mountain glaciers, ice sheets covering West Antarctica, Greenland and Arctic sea ice

R5

faster rising of sea level

R5

relocation or extinction of animal and insect species

R5

increase of precipitation (rain and snowfall)

R5

increase of floods and droughts

3 http://colinandrews.net/files/c15_Proof-2012BookChapt15-WebSite.pdf 4 ibid.

Today there are three times as many extreme events of climatic or water related emergencies per year than in the 70’s. Preparedness scholars foresaid that by as soon as 2010, 50 million people around the world would be driven from their homes by weather each year.6 “As we lose rainforests, ocean ecosystems, and other natural habitats, biodiversity on the planet decreases. The first law of ecology is that diversity increases stability. As we lose diversity on the planet, the global ecosystem becomes more fragile.”7 5 http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/ gw-effects/ 6 http://colinandrews.net/files/c15_Proof-2012BookChapt15-WebSite.pdf 7 http://colinandrews.net/files/c15_Proof-2012BookChapt15-WebSite.pdf, p.205

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Nearly a third of the world’s energy consumption and 36% of carbon dioxide emissions are attributable to manufacturing industries. Large primary materials industries such as chemical, petrochemicals, iron and steel, cement, paper and other minerals and metals, account for more than two-thirds of this amount. Overall, the industry’s use of energy has grown by 61% between 1971 and 2004. This is caused by a rapidly growing energy demand in developing countries. In OECD countries the demand for energy has been stagnating.8 8 http://www.global-greenhousewarming. com/industry-CO2-emissions. html

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Airplanes that are no longer valuable enough to be repaired and put back into service are parked in areas of deserts, often referred to airplane bone yards. The old aircrafts often remain parked for long periods of times until they are taken apart for spare parts. One of the largest airplane bone yards, located in the Mojave desert (USA). Other boneyards, such as the AMARC, located in Tucson hold over 4,200 aircrafts as well as many other types of military equipment. Most of the airplanes that sit in desert graveyards in the USA today date from the Vietnam era or later.9 9 http://www.gsimrecycling.com/facts.aspx

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The car population of the world is rapidly increasing. In the 20th century automotive growth mainly took part in Europe and Northern America, but with the new millennium a wealthy middle class has sprung up in the rest of the world. Large countries like China and India have had an explosion in the number of private cars, and with more cars also more scrap tires follow.10

20

i006 i007

10 http://www.genan.eu/tyres-2.aspx

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Global Warming Solutions That humans are the main cause for global warming is evident, but the question about how to solve this problem remains controversial. Economics, sociology and politics play an important role in planning the world’s future. Current concentrations of GHG are about 380parts per million (ppm) – a commonly cited goal is to stabilize these at around 450-550 ppm which does not leave much time to bring the increase of concentrations to a halt. This could be achieved by reducing GHG emissions by 50 – 80%. Many people and governments are already working hard to reduce greenhouse gases. Researchers have suggested an approach named “stabilization wedges” which implies the reduction of GHG emissions from a number of sources with the help of technologies, which will be available to us in the next few decades. 7 wedges have been suggested that could each reduce emissions and hold these at approximately current levels for the next 50 years – making it possible to stabilize GHG emissions at around 500ppm. These so called wedges include improvements to energy efficiency and vehicle fuel economy, increases in wind and solar power, hydrogen produced from renewable sources, biofuels, natural gas and nuclear power. Another potential is “carbon sequestration” a method where carbon dioxide emitted from fossil fuels is captured and stored underground. A further way to work against global warming is to increase the amount of gases we take out of the atmosphere. Plants and trees absorb CO2 as they grow. Making changes to agricultural processes and by creating more forestlands could help increase the amount of CO2 being absorbed. 11

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11 http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/gw-solutions

global issues temperature change precipitation change climate change sea level rise extreme events concen trations

earth systems

climate process drivers

human systems

emissions

ecosystems water impacts resources and food vulnerability security settlements

governance health literacy socio-economic delelopment mitigation

adaptation

technology equity population production and consumption patterns trade socio-cultural preferences

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Just a few years ago it was possible for large economies to ignore the issue of global warming and to continue as always. Today even these have recognized that the biggest threat to their countries is not other economies but it is themselves causing the climate to change by burning vast amounts of coal, oil and natural gas in order to keep up their comfortable life style.

Climate change global processes and effects coastal wetlands disappearing gult stream modifi cation

water temperature

ocean circulation upheavel cloud cover changes

global warming

main climate features ice caps melting

precipi tation changes

major threats abrupt climate change

monsoon disturbance

defore station land conver sion to agriculture

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economic losses

bio diversity losses

drought

coral bleeching

N2O CH4

cement power plants energy produc tion

land use change

agri culture

major threats

(1,766,234 T CO2 eq)

earthquake 36% extreme temperature 4% flood 8% landslide 1% strom 27% volcanic eruption 1% drought 23% % of deaths in the world by type of natural threat (1970-2009)

chemicals

CO2

human activities

casualities

% world’s total emissions by source type in 2010

disasters cyclone flood tsunami wild fire

famine

greenhouse effect

increase in impermeable surface urbani zation

environ mental refugees

climate change processes

carbon cycle distur bance

air travel 51% - 894,537 vehicles 13 % - 225,719 public transport 1% - 2,187 stationary combustion 17% - 306,717 purchased electricity 13% - 220,273 purchased steam 2% - 39,092 refrigerants 4% - 77,707

diarrhea infectious diseases cardio respiratory mal diseases nutri tion diseases spread

farming and fishing at sake

sea level rise

salinity

traditional lifestyles endangered

heating

fossil fuel burning

industry cars

human activities

transport

fertilizers plane traffic

Source: CCCC Kick the Habit, A UN Guide to Climate Neutrality. UNEP 2008

earthquake 2% extreme temperature 2% flood 51% landslide 1% strom 13% volcanic eruption 1% drought 32% % of affected in the world by type of natural threat (1970-2009)

trucking freight shipping freight

25


=BE87B9E(;C?II?EDI

M>EB;MEHB:(&&/

30,313.25

TOTAL CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM THE CONSUMPTION OF ENERGY BY MAJOR NATION STATE 2009 ?DC?BB?EDIE<C;JH?9JEDI

13

15

6,410.61

@7F7D

10

30

1,097.96

50.56 52.15

22

2

DEHJ>7C;H?97 1

11

97D7:7 North America 1. Canada 2. Greenland 3. Mexico 4. United States

6,410.61 540.97 0.61 443.61 5424.53

Central & South America 1. Argentina 2. The Bahamas 3. Barbados 4. Belize 5. Bolivia 6. Brazil 7. Chile 8. Colombia 9. Costa Rica 10. Cuba 11. Dominican Republic 12. Ecuador 13. El Salvador 14. Guatemala 15. Guyana 16. Haiti 17. Honduras 18. Jamaica 19. Nicaragua 20. Panama 21. Paraguay 22. Peru 23. Puerto Rico 24. Suriname 25. Trinidad and Tobago 26. Uruguay 27. Venezuela

1,211.92 165.92 5.24 1.43 0.98 13.62 425.17 62.55 70.19 6.82 30.49 19.81 27.55 5.93 11.40 1.52 2.06 8.02 12.04 4.37 15.24 3.97 35.63 33.26 2.03 47.48 7.19 159.00

Europe 1. Albania 2. Austria 3. Belgium 4. Bosnia and Herzegovina 5. Bulgaria 6. Croatia 7. Cyprus 8. Czech Republic 9. Denmark 10. Finland 11. France 12. Germany 13. Greece 14. Hungary 15. Iceland 16. Ireland 17. Italy 18. Luxembourg 19. Macedonia 20. Montenegro 21. Netherlands 22. Norway 23. Poland 24. Portugal 25. Romania 26. Serbia 27. Slovakia 28. Slovenia 29. Spain 30. Sweden 31. Switzerland 32. Turkey 33. United Kingdom

4,307.29 4.54 69.24 137.36 18.36 44.49 21.28 9.46 95.32 49.56 52.15 396.65 765.56 100.37 50.03 3.41 40.27 407.87 10.58 7.38 1.94 248.91 39.58 285.79 56.55 80.01 50.05 35.75 17.38 329.86 50.56 45.81 253.06 519.94

540.97

33

HKII?7

9

KD?J;:A?D=:EC

1,556.66

519.94

16

4

5,424.53

396.65

25

69.92

80.01

28

329.86

TOTAL POPULATION BY MAJOR NATION STATE 2009 DEHJ> 7C;H?97

1

451.83

2

97D7:7

33.49 451.84 33.49 0.06 111.21 307.01

Central & South America 1. Argentina 2. Bahamas 3. Barbados 4. Belize 5. Bolivia 6. Brazil 7. Chile 8. Colombia 9. Costa Rica 10. Cuba 11. Dominican Republic 12. Ecuador 13. El Salvador 14. Guatemala 15. Guyana 16. Haiti 17. Honduras 18. Jamaica 19. Nicaragua 20. Panama 21. Paraguay 22. Peru 23. Puerto Rico 24. Suriname 25. Trinidad and Tobago 26. Uruguay 27. Venezuela

474.54 40.91 0.31 0.28 0.31 9.78 198.74 16.60 43.68 4.46 11.45 9.69 14.57 6.03 13.28 0.75 9.78 7.83 2.83 5.89 3.36 6.29 29.55 3.97 0.48 1.23 3.49 26.8

Africa 1. Algeria 2. Angola 3. Benin 4. Botswana 5. Burkina Faso 6. Burundi 7. Cameroon 8. Cape Verde 9. Central African Republic 10. Chad 11. Comoros 12. Congo (Brazzaville) 13. Congo (Kinshasa) 14. Cote d’Ivoire 15. Djibouti 16. Egypt 17. Equatorial Guinea 18. Eritrea 19. Ethiopia 20. Gabon 21. The Gambia 22. Ghana 23. Guinea 24. Guinea-Bissau 25. Kenya 26. Lesotho 27. Liberia

992.58 34.18 12.80 8.79 1.99 15.75 9.51 18.88 0.50 4.74 10.33 0.75 4.01 68.69 20.62 0.72 78.87 0.63 5.65 85.24 1.51 1.78 23.89 10.06 1.53 39.00 1.92 3.58

JKHA;O

253.06

50.05 19

1

12

13

100.37

?J7BO

4

KD?J;:IJ7J;I

307.01

2

3

10

C;N?9E

11.45

111.21

70.06

11

18

14

16

14

25

17 13

438.25

3

4

8

L;D;PK;B7 159.0

12 6

8H7P?B 9;DJH7B IEKJ> 7C;H?97

26

21

5

1,211.92

1

IEKJ>7<H?97 451.22

165.92

KD?J;: A?D=:EC

16

6.32 20.65 15.03 13.44 3.13 1.28 31.29 21.67 2.11 15.31 149.23 0.77 10.75 12.01 0.09 5.13 9.83 49.05 42.81 1.34 41.05 6.41 10.49 32.37 0.48 13.06 11.39

22

29.55

474.54

IF7?D

9 23

25 28

32

22.01

4

20

604.46

1

43 27

I$7H78?7

78.87

25.33

7<H?97

992.58

26

21

181.46

10 13

28.40

22.86

18

IK:7D

10.33

15

42.81

10

F7A?IJ7D

15

11

19

4

29

28.56

7I?7 E9;7D?7

L?;JD7C

88.58

3

8

3,762.16

87D=B7:;I>

C?::B;;7IJ

153.70

208.44

16

7

14.2

9

38

6

D?=;H?7

;J>?EF?7

85.24

22

=>7D7

13

9ED=E A?DI>7I7

49 7

51

K=7D:7

40 2

10.75

12.80

6

53 36

13.06

39.0

IEKJ> 7<H?97

49.05

47

22

66.64

1,156.90

28 24 12

15.03

?D:ED;I?7

11

240.27

48

J7DP7D?7

26

97.98

27.82

42

53

45

?D:?7

30

9.51

F>?B?FF?D;I 17

C7B7OI?7

27

J>7?B7D:

11

A;DO7

32.37

13.06 4

23

52.83

44

9.83 25

68.69

18.88

CO7DC7H

19

12

41.05 35

21.67

29 33

20.65

Eurasia 1. Armenia 2. Azerbaijan 3. Belarus 4. Estonia 5. Georgia 6. Kazakhstan 7. Kyrgyzstan 8. Latvia 9. Lithuania 10. Moldova 11. Russia 12. Tajikistan 13. Turkmenistan 14. Ukraine 15. Uzbekistan

283.30 2.97 8.24 9.65 1.30 4.62 15.40 5.43 2.23 3.56 4.32 140.04 7.35 4.88 45.70 27.61

Middle East 1. Bahrain 2. Iran 3. Iraq 4. Israel 5. Jordan 6. Kuwait 7. Lebanon 8. Oman 9. Palestine 10. Qatar 11. Saudi Arabia 12. Syria 13. United Arab Emirates 14. Yemen

208.44 0.73 75.97 28.95 7.23 6.27 2.69 4.10 2.91 4.01 0.83 25.33 21.76 4.80 22.86

JW_mWd

1

O;C;D

46

10

15.75

48.51

22.97

75.97

28.95

11

;=OFJ

3

9>?D7

1,323.59

6

37

IEKJ> AEH;7

8

13

?H7D

?H7G 5

16

5

14

15

12

2

3

4

28

15.31

20.62

27.61

15.40

IOH?7

10.49

13.44

15

22.67

7

21.76

7

9 7

7B=;H?7

34.18

6

12

10.74

58.16

31

14

D$AEH;7

45.70

19 13

1

140.04

76.81

26

17

31.29

HKII?7

9.65

2

JKHA;O

?J7BO

CEHE99E

13

@7F7D

1

3

1

7

13,238.32 0.83 417.68 55.13 0.33 7.58 12.55 3.93 7,706.83 2.23 0 1,591.13 414.94 1,097.96 79.55 528.13 1.24 149.60 7.39 3.43 39.07 140.33 4.86 72.04 156.35 12.65 279.14 254.88 0.38 98.34

127.08

5

5

14

;KHEF;

26

16.6

Asia & Oceania 1. Afghanistan 2. Australia 3. Bangladesh 4. Bhutan 5. Brunei 6. Burma (Myanmar) 7. Cambodia 8. China 9. Fiji 10. Hong Kong 11. India 12. Indonesia 13. Japan 14. North Korea 15. South Korea 16. Laos 17. Malaysia 18. Mongolia 19. Nepal 20. New Zealand 21. Pakistan 22. Papua New Guinea 23. Philippines 24. Singapore 25. Sri Lanka 26. Taiwan 27. Thailand 28. Timor-Leste 29. Vietnam

18

14

10

6

46.30

8.79

40.91

1,687.95 31.01 528.60 108.42 70.06 19.77 83.67 15.18 48.89 3.14 63.64 438.25 58.14 193.38 25.78

11

3

KAH7?D;

38.48

18

24

6.41

7H=;DJ?D7

Middle East 1. Bahrain 2. Iran 3. Iraq 4. Israel 5. Jordan 6. Kuwait 7. Lebanon 8. Oman 9. Palestine 10. Qatar 11. Saudi Arabia 12. Syria 13. United Arab Emirates 14. Yemen

6,776.92

FEB7D:

10.21

17

21

39.07

2,338.25 11.35 34.92 60.58 17.56 5.27 184.12 5.66 8.70 15.91 7.04 1,556.66 6.18 56.65 252.47 115.18

M>EB;MEHB:(&&/

82.33

31

149.23

5

20

=;HC7DO

62.98

20

9;DJH7B IEKJ> 7C;H?97

33

62.26

<H7D9;

23.89

198.74

9

417.68

4

29

8 6

8H7P?B

2

7KIJH7B?7

283.29

11

10.06

12

156.35

29

10

27

24

14.57

414.94

24

8

23

24

12

?D:ED;I?7

254.88

I?D=7FEH;

12

41

15

28

149.60

7

J>7?B7D:

25

8

21

12.01

27

22

1,687.95

9

16.72

21

26.80

98.34 27

1,591.13

72.04

;KH7I?7 33

32

9EBEC8?7 43.68

17

C7B7OI?7

6

11

?D:?7

193.38

11

22

15

52

9

16

13

K$7$;$

11

L?;JD7C

Eurasia 1. Armenia 2. Azerbaijan 3. Belarus 4. Estonia 5. Georgia 6. Kazakhstan 7. Kyrgyzstan 8. Latvia 9. Lithuania 10. Moldova 11. Russia 12. Tajikistan 13. Turkmenistan 14. Ukraine 15. Uzbekistan

35

604.07 2.98 8.21 10.41 4.61 7.20 4.49 1.08 10.21 5.50 5.25 62.98 82.33 10.74 10.01 0.31 4.58 58.16 0.49 2.07 0.67 16.72 4.66 38.48 10.71 22.01 9.18 5.46 2.01 46.30 9.06 7.64 76.81 62.26

23

4

3

55.13

23

47

7

11

9.69

13,238.32

5

10

42

39

62.55

Europe 1. Albania 2. Austria 3. Belgium 4. Bosnia and Herzegovina 5. Bulgaria 6. Croatia 7. Cyprus 8. Czech Republic 9. Denmark 10. Finland 11. France 12. Germany 13. Greece 14. Hungary 15. Iceland 16. Ireland 17. Italy 18. Luxembourg 19. Macedonia 20. Montenegro 21. Netherlands 22. Norway 23. Poland 24. Portugal 25. Romania 26. Serbia 27. Slovakia 28. Slovenia 29. Spain 30. Sweden 31. Switzerland 32. Turkey 33. United Kingdom

7I?7 E9;7D?7

19

1

C?::B;;7IJ

26

45

7H=;DJ?D7

8

28. Libya 29. Madagascar 30. Malawi 31. Mali 32. Mauritania 33. Mauritius 34. Morocco 35. Mozambique 36. Namibia 37. Niger 38. Nigeria 39. Reunion 40. Rwanda 41. Senegal 42. Seychelles 43. Sierra Leone 44. Somalia 45. South Africa 46. Sudan 47. Swaziland 48. Tanzania 49. Togo 50. Tunisia 51. Uganda 52. Western Sahara 53. Zambia 54. Zimbabwe

140.33

1,118.91

425.17

25

20

21

F7A?IJ7D

63.64

8

37 10 21 41 38 24 8 16 23 32 31 78.19 ;=OFJ 43 5 27 3 189.53 9 14 17 7 22 20 49 7<H?97 13 46 12 18 2 15 51 19 44 40 25 6 53 36 54 4 30 48

24

3

19

528.60

1

14

28

55.04

52

15

70.19

22

7B=;H?7 113.46

36.42

27

20

50

1

34

47.48

9 19

36.42 2.33 4.08 1.34 78.19 2.82 0.72 6.19 1.09 1.33 0.90 451.22 12.95 1.38 6.70 2.90 22.92 1.91 0.31 2.67 10.62

17 13

108.42

I7K:?7H78?7

23

4

13.28

JW_mWd

279.14

2

?H7D

13

83.67 11

50

9.78

26

58.14 3

?H7G

2 10

34

16

18

7

9

4

7

407.87

5

Africa 1,118.92 3 1. Algeria 113.46 C;N?9E 2. Angola 23.87 443.61 3. Benin 3.50 4. Botswana 4.53 5. Burkina Faso 1.41 6. Burundi 0.37 7. Cameroon 7.49 8. Cape Verde 0.34 9. Central African Republic 0.30 10. Chad 0.29 11. Comoros 0.15 12. Congo (Brazzaville) 6.32 13. Congo (Kinshasa) 2.64 34. Morocco 14. Cote d’Ivoire 6.52 35. Mozambique 15. Djibouti 1.76 36. Namibia 16. Egypt 189.53 37. Niger 17. Equatorial Guinea 4.60 38. Nigeria 18. Eritrea 0.78 39. Reunion 19. Ethiopia 6.88 40. Rwanda 20. Gabon 4.59 41. Senegal 21. The Gambia 0.44 42. Seychelles 22. Ghana 8.10 43. Sierra Leone 23. Guinea 1.33 44. Somalia 24. Guinea-Bissau 0.46 45. South Africa 25. Kenya 11.42 46. Sudan 26. Lesotho 0.25 47. Swaziland 27. Liberia 0.71 48. Tanzania 28. Libya 55.04 49. Togo 29. Madagascar 3.18 50. Tunisia 30. Malawi 1.28 51. Uganda 31. Mali 0.74 52. Western Sahara 32. Mauritania 2.90 53. Zambia 33. Mauritius 4.55 54. Zimbabwe

8

9>?D7

7,706.83

32

17

24

7

2

26

6 20

56.55

13

56.65

1

5

4

45.81

IF7?D

528.13

34.9

2 31

18 29

14

15

IEKJ>AEH;7 12

10 5

95.32

<H7D9;

30

North America 1. Canada 2. Greenland 3. Mexico 4. United States

15

8 11

4,307.29

79.55

115.18

6

184.12

252.47

285.79

27

137.36

14

KAH7?D;

23

FEB7D:

3

;KHEF;

9

18

3

60.58 1

248.91

KD?J;:IJ7J;I

MEHB:FEFKB7J?ED ?DC?BB?EDI

2,338.25

765.56

21

D;J>;HB7D:I 4

8

;KH7I?7

12

=;HC7DO

9

39 25

2

21.32

21.26

Asia & Oceania 1. Afghanistan 2. Australia 3. Bangladesh 4. Bhutan 5. Brunei 6. Burma (Myanmar) 7. Cambodia 8. China 9. Fiji 10. Hong Kong 11. India 12. Indonesia 13. Japan 14. North Korea 15. South Korea 16. Laos 17. Malaysia 18. Mongolia 19. Nepal 20. New Zealand 21. Pakistan 22. Papua New Guinea 23. Philippines 24. Singapore 25. Sri Lanka 26. Taiwan 27. Thailand 28. Timor-Leste 29. Vietnam

3,762.16 28.40 21.26 153.70 0.69 0.39 52.83 14.21 1323.59 0.87 7.06 1156.90 240.27 127.08 22.67 48.51 6.26 27.82 3.04 28.56 4.21 181.46 5.94 97.98 4.66 21.32 22.97 66.64 1.13 88.58

20 IEKH9;0KD?J;:IJ7J;I;D;H=O7:C?D?IJH7J?ED

26

Carbon Dioxide Emissions compared to Population

H?9>7H:@E>DIED%D7J?ED7BFEIJ

Evidence has proven that rapid population growth in the least developed countries has not contributed significantly to increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. Instead it is argued that global population growth is only a secondary cause of increased GHG emissions and that the primary cause is an increase in wealth in the developed countries and those with recently advanced economic development. 12 12 http://www.feasta.org/2011/06/06/how-arerising-co2-emissions-linked-to-a-rising-worldpopulation/

27


Growth in population by city scales 0–20

2,500

21–40 41–60 >60

2,000

no data

1,500

Flood Events, 1970-2011. Source: EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database www.emdat.be Université Catholique de Louvain - Brussels - Belgium”

1,000

500

0 1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

Fewer than 500,000

500,000 to 1 million

1 to 5 million

5 to 10 million

Growth in population by city scales. Source: based on Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision and World Urbanization Prospects: The 2009 Revision.

2000

2010

2020

10 million or more 1–2 million 2–3 million 3–5 million > 5 million

Urban agglomerations with more than 750,000 inhabitants, 2010. Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division; World Urbanization Prospects: The 2009 Revision; File 12: Population of Urban Agglomerations with 750,000 Inhabitants or More in 2009, by Country, 1950-2025 (thousands)

28

29


Arctic sea ice has reached its lowest ever recorded. Ice volume in the Arctic has declined dramatically over the past decade. In 2011 the minimum was more than 50% below that of 2005. According to the Polar Science Centre at the University of Washington the arctic ice now stands at around 5,770 cubic kilometers, compared with 12,433 cu km during the 2000s and 6,494 cu km in 2011. The consequences of losing the Arcticâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ice coverage for the summer months are expected to be immense. If the white sea ice no longer reflects sunlight back into space, the region can be expected to heat up even more than at present. This could lead to an increase in ocean temperatures with unknown effects on weather system in northern latitudes. Furthermore, as sea ice melts the natural habitat of many species is being destroyed. Surveys project that two thirds of polar bears will disappear by 2050. 13

30

13 Ibid

i008 i009

31


Exposure to direct solar radiation on areas with ozone layer holes may become a serious threat to mankind. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The desire to understand the link between the health of man and weather has existed for centuries. The human organism will adapt to changes in atmospheric conditions by subtle physical regulations such as sweating and shivering. A personâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to adapt is dependent on several factors including age, sex, state of health, and mood. Weather can apply both positive and negative roles with respect to various health conditions. Human health is primarily affected by the long-term climate and seasonal variations rather than daily weather.â&#x20AC;? 14 14 Bhatia, N.; Mayer H., J., 2010, p.78

32

i010 i011 i012 i013

33


01B. Water and Floods Water

The worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population has already surpassed seven billion, which means that more people rely on finite amounts of freshwater. The primary source of water is precipitation â&#x20AC;&#x201C; rain and snow feed the rivers and its tributaries, as well as groundwater, ponds and lakes. However, 97 percent of all water is in the oceans and only 3 percent of all Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water is fresh water. The majority of which, about 69 percent, is locked up in glaciers and icecaps, mainly in Greenland and the Antarctica. The remaining fresh water is almost all groundwater and of this, only about 0.3 percent is contained in rivers and lakes. 99 percent of all water (oceans, seas, ice, most saline water, and atmospheric water) is not available for our uses. And even of the remaining fraction of one percent is out of reach. Rivers and lakes that supply fresh surface water for human uses only constitute about 0,27 perfect of total water, even though rivers are the source of most of the water people use. 15 Water is a renewable resource that moves in a cycle with neither beginning nor end. Water vapor (evaporated from oceans, lakes, forests etc.) condenses and returns to Earth as precipitation, once again replenishing reservoirs, lakes, rivers and other sources of water. The amount of precipitation that falls around the world may range from less than 0.25 cm per year in some deserts to more than 2286 cm per year in the tropics. Once on the land, rainfall either seeps into the ground or becomes runoff, flowing into rivers and lakes. What

34

i014

15 http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/freshwater/ global-water-footprint/

35


happens to the rain after it falls depends on many factors such as: R5

The rate of rainfall – a lot of rain in a short period tends to run off the land into streams rather than soak into the ground

R5

The topography of the land – water falling on unleveled land drains downhill until it becomes part of a stream, finds a hollow place to accumulate (such as a lake) or soaks into the ground

R5

Soil conditions – dense clay soil does not soak up rain as well as sandy soil

R5

Density of vegetation – plant growth helps decrease erosion caused by flowing water. Land with a plant cover slows the speed of the water flowing on it and thus helps keep soil from eroding.

R5

Amount of urbanization – Roads, pavement and parking lots create impervious areas where water can no longer seep into the ground. Rather, water is funneled into creeks and streams that are not made up to handle the amount of runoff. This can cause problems of flooding in urban areas. 16

op flood risk management systems in affected areas. For this it is necessary to understand the causes and effects of floods and the impact they have in order to investigate, design and implement measures that minimize the impacts of the floods.18 Floods are most commonly the result of other natural disasters (storms, tsunami, etc.), however they often cause a redistribution of silt on surrounding lands. Riverbeds are often lined with farming land; the overflow of water therefore has vast repercussions on farming and livestock. Furthermore, floods in mountainous areas can lead to landslides where surfaces of land are disconnected from the under-bed through an overflow of water. 19 While some floods are categorized as the result of natural disasters others are referred to “periodic floods”. These occur on many rivers frequently, forming a surrounding 18 Jha, A. K.; Bloch, R.; Lamond, J. ,2012, p. 16 19 Bhatia, N.; Mayer H., J., 2010, p.94

km 3

Total renewable water resources (external and internal)

20 000

Part produced internally

18 000 16 000 14 000 12 000 10 000

Flooding Flooding, a global phenomenon causes widespread devastation, loss of human lives and not to forget economic damages. Amongst all natural disasters floods occur most frequently and over the past 2 decades in particular, the frequency of floods has increased noticeably. In 2010 alone, 178 million people were affected by floods.17 These occurrences and future projections give urgency to devel-

36

16 http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/earthrain.html 17 Jha, A. K.; Bloch, R.; Lamond, J. ,2012, p. 15

8 000 6 000 North America Central America and Caribbean South America Pacific Ocean

Sources : Aquastat, FAO, United Nations, 2008.

Europe Middle East and North Africa

Asia

4 000 2 000

Sub-Saharan Africa Atlantic Ocean

Pacific Ocean

Oceania

0

Indian Ocean

37


region known as a flood plain. These types of floods are caused by heavy rain. Flooding, aside from damaging property, can lead to the spread of epidemics and diseases and can also contaminate water supplies. Global climate change indicates an increase in heavy storms and with this also an increase amount of flooding.20

Flood control Since ancient times it has been attempted to avoid floods and so different methods were developed, such as: Planting vegetation to retain extra water Terracing hillsides to slow flow downhill

Reservoirs “A reservoir, artificial lake or impoundment from a dam is used to store water. Reservoirs may be created in river valleys by the construction of a dam or may be built by excavation in the ground or by conventional construction techniques such as brickwork or cast concrete.”23

Diversion “The taking of water from a stream or other body of water into a canal, pipe, or other conduit.”24

Dredging “Dredging is an excavation activity or operation usually carried out at least partly underwater […] with the purpose of gathering up bottom sediments and disposing of them at a different location. This technique is often used to keep waterways navigable”25 or to deepen the waterway.

Construction of floodways (man-made channels to divert floodwater) Construction of levees, lakes, dams and reservoirs or retention ponds21

Levees “A levee is an elongated naturally occurring ridge or artificially constructed fill or wall, which regulates water levels. It is usually earthen and often parallel to the course of a river in its floodplain or along low-lying coastlines.”22

38

20 Bhatia, N.; Mayer H., J., 2010, p.94 21 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flood_control 22 Oxford English Dictionary

23 Oxford English Dictionary 24 http://www.srh.noaa.gov/jetstream/append/glossary_d.htm 25 Oxford English Dictionary

39


Weather and Catastrophes â&#x20AC;&#x153;Weather catastrophes typically occur when the atmosphere is incurring dramatic imbalance in temperature or pressure, prompting large storms, hurricanes, tornados, etc. in order to achieve a new stare of equilibrium. This process can occur rapidly, making humans vulnerable to these dramatic atmospheric changes. What characterizes a catastrophe is the loss of human life and shelter as well as damage to infrastructure. In these past ten years, the number of worldwide weather related catastrophes has been on the rise. Not only are these occurring more frequently, they are also growing in intensity. As advances in technology have limited catastrophes in visually all aspects of human existence, weather catastrophes remind us of the sheer power of natural atmospheric systems.â&#x20AC;?26

40

26 Bhatia, N.; Mayer H., J., 2010, p.99

i015 i016

41


India is the most flood-affected nation in the world after Bangladesh. It accounts for a fifth of the global deaths by floods every year and on average 30 million people are evacuated every year. Flood management has been one of the most urgent topics on the Governments agenda. The primary emphasis has been on making dams and embankments, however, a lack or coordination and trust between government and people has made it difficult to improve the situation. 27 27 Khanna, B.K., 2005, p.65

42

i017

43


Relative changes in precipitation In percentages

December - February

Relative changes in precipitation In percentages

%

%

20

20

10

10

5

5

-5

-5

-10

-10

-20

-20

June-August

Note: Relative changes in precipitation for 2090-2099, compared to 1980-1999, according to SRES emissions scenario A1B. Areas in white represent areas for which more than 66% of the models agree on the sign of change.

Note: Relative changes in precipitation for 2090-2099, compared to 1980-1999, according to SRES emissions scenario A1B. Areas in white represent areas for which more than 66% of the models agree on the sign of change.

Sou rce: IPCC: Climate Change 2007 Synthesis Report . Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergove rnmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007.

Sou rce: IPCC: Climate Change 2007 Synthesis Report . Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergove rnmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007.

44

45


Mean changes in runoff Water availability in percentages

Vulnerability of large cities to climate hazards

Urban agglomerations

(population greater than 3 million)

Monterrey

Population in millions, 2007 19

Guadalajara Mexico City

8 3

Caracas

Medellin Bogota Fortaleza Recife Lima

Brasilia

Salvador Belo Horizonte

RĂ­o de Janeiro Sao Paulo Curitiba

% 30 10 0 -10 -30

Hazard risk

Santiago

very low

Porto Alegre Buenos Aires

low medium high very high

Note: Mean changes in annual runoff between 1980-1999 and 2090-2099 for the SRES A1B emissions scenario.

Notes: Hazard risk represents a cumulative score based

Source: Parry, M.L.et al. Technical Summary. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability,Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007.

contains the population within the contours of contiguous territory inhabited at urban levels of residential density without regard to administrative boundaries.

46

47


Retreat of the snowcapped volcano of Santa Isabel, Colombia

Expected impacts of climate change in 2050

Inc reased vulnerability to ext reme events Biodiversity threatened

Coral reefs and mangroves th reatened

2002 1995 1991 1987 1966 1959

Risk of desertification

Malaria

Current affected zones

Rock outcrops

Possible extension in 2050

Rainfall Inc rease

Source: Ceballo, J. L., et al., Fast shrinkage of tropical glaciers in Colombia, 2006.

Dec rease Coasts th reatened by sea level rise Cities th reatened by sea level rise

Hurricanes in Mesoam erica and the Caribbean, 1904-2009

Reduced water availability

10

Negative e ffects on fisheries

9

Negative effects in agriculture

8

Glacier shrinkage

7

Increased risk of forest fires

6

Increased aridity and scarcity water resou rces Changes in ecosystems

4

Negative impacts in mountain regions Ozone depletion Sources: R. Landa et al., Cambio climรกtico y desarrollo sustentable, 2010; ECLAC, Climate Change. A regional perspective, 2010.

48

Annual total number

5 3 2 1 0

1904 1910

1920

1930

1940

1950

1960

Source: National Hurricane Center , NOAA, online database, accessed October 2010.

1970

1980

1990

2000

2009

49


Hydrometeorological events in Latin America and the Caribbean 35

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 45 40 35

1999

Floods, South America Tropical Cyclones

Mortalities Thousands of people Fifi, Honduras 1974 1970

2004 Floods, Central America Tropical Cyclones

1998

1980

2005 2000

1990

2010

Affected people Millions of people

Latin America GHG emitters by sector Thousands of metric tons of CO2 equivalent

30 25 20 15

-100 0

10 5

900 800 700 600 500 400 300

Events Extreme temperatures Wildfires Droughts Storms

Argentina

Floods Each square represents 10 events

200

0

Agriculture Energy Industrial processes

W aste management

Mexico

Brazil

Sou rce: ECLAC, Climate Change and Developement in Latin America and the Caribbean. Overview, 2009.

100 0

1500 Land-use change and forestry

Chile Uruguay Panama Ecuador Bolivia Peru Jamaica Colombia Paraguay

0 1 000

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

1 970-197 9

1980-1989

1990 -1999

2 0 0 0- 2 0 0 9

10 20 30 40

50

Estimated cost of damage Billions of US dollars

Source: The International DisastersDatabase, accessed in August 2010.

51


Sustainable development mechanism projects by type 1%

Transport

2%

HFC and Nitrous Oxide reduction

2%

Fuel substitution

Renewable sources

4%

Forestation and reforestation Energy efficiency demand Energy efficiency supply

2%

earthquake 49% extreme temperature 1% flood 20% landslide 4% strom 17% volcanic eruption 9% drought 33% % of deaths in Latin America and Caribbean by type of natural threat

43%

44%

2%

Methane emissions reduction

earthquake 25% extreme temperature 2% flood 51% landslide 1% strom 13% volcanic eruption 1% drought 33% % of affected in Latin America and Caribbean by type of natural threat

Sources: ECLAC on the basis of UNEP, UNEP Risoe CDM/JI Pipeline Analysis and Database, database on line, updated to October 1st 2010.

52

53


Energy supply in Latin America Percentage

O fficial Development Assistance

Geothermal 0.5%

Cumulative assistance disbursed in Latin America and the Caribbean, Rio Markers

O fficial Development Assistance OCumulative fficial Development Assistance assistance disbursed in Latin

Other sources 1.4%

Sustainable fuelwood 6.0%

Million US d ollars, cumulative 2000-2007

America andassistance the Caribbean, Rio in Markers Cumulative disbursed Latin Desertification Climate change America and the Caribbean, Rio Markers Million US d ollars, cumulative 2000-2007 1 200 and desertification Climate change Million US d ollars, cumulative 2000-2007 Biodiversity, Desertification 1 000 Climate change climate change and 1 200 Desertification and desertification desertification Climate change Climate change Biodiversity and 1 200 800 Biodiversity, and desertification 1 000 desertification Climate change climate change Biodiversity and and Biodiversity, 1 000 Biodiversity and desertification 600 climate change climate change and 800 desertification desertification Biodiversity and 400800 desertification Biodiversity and 600 Biodiversity climate change Biodiversity and 200600 climate change 400 Biodiversity 400 0 Biodiversity 200

Sugarcane products 6.6%

Hydropower 8.5%

200 0 0

Total cumulative assitance disbursed. Latin America and Caribbean Others 8.2% Total cumulative assitance Latin Amercia and Caribbean disbursed. Latin America cumulative RioTotal Markers 0.3% assitance and Caribbean 8.2% disbursed. LatinOthers America Rest fo the world 91.5% and Caribbean Others 8.2% Latin Amercia and Caribbean Rio Markers 0.3% Latin Amercia and Caribbean Rio 0.3%91.5% RestMarkers fo the world

Coal 5.0% Nuclear 0.8% Non sustainable fuelwood 2.0% Other non-renewable sources 1.0% Renewables 23.1% Oil 41.7% Natural gas 26.3%

Rest fo the world 91.5% Sou rce: ECLAC, on the basis of OCDE, OCDE StatExtracts, online database , accessed August 2009. Sou rce: ECLAC, on the basis of OCDE, OCDE StatExtracts, online database , accessed August 2009. Sou rce: ECLAC, on the basis of OCDE, OCDE StatExtracts, online database , accessed August 2009.

54

Source: UN and ECLAC, on OLADE statistical information database, 2007.

55


Floods in Brisbane, Australia. 2011

56

i018 i019

Before Flooding

After Flooding

Before Flooding

After Flooding

i020 i021

57


Floods in Brisbane, Australia. 2011

58

i022 i023

Before Flooding

After Flooding

Before Flooding

After Flooding

i024 i025

59


Floods in Brisbane, Australia. 2011

60

i026 i027

Before Flooding

After Flooding

Before Flooding

After Flooding

i028 i029

61


Floods in Brisbane, Australia. 2011

62

i030 i031

Before Flooding

After Flooding

Before Flooding

After Flooding

i032 i033

63


Floods in Brisbane, Australia. 2011

64

i034 i035

Before Flooding

After Flooding

Before Flooding

After Flooding

i036 i037

65


Floods in Brisbane, Australia. 2011

66

i038 i039

Before Flooding

After Flooding

Before Flooding

After Flooding

i040 i041

67


02.

68

i042

MACRO SCALE

69


02A. Colombia General Info Geography

Area: 1,141,748 km2 Water Area: 8.8% of Total Area (100,474 km2) Colombia is located in northwestern South America 4°35’N and 74°4’W with access to the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Its territory shares borders with Panama, Ecuador, Venezuela, Brazil and Peru. Colombia is the fourth largest country in area extension after Brazil, Argentina and Peru. Its territory comprises mountain ranges, coastlines, grasslands, deserts and rain forests.

70

i043

71


72

i044

73


Geographic Map of South America. Showing the Andes mountain range spliting into three branches over the Colombian territory and creating two main valleys in between, finishing towards the Atlantic border.

74

i045

Political Map of South America. Showing Colombiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s neighboring countries and location of main city capitals i046

75


Colombian Geographical Map

76

i047

Colombian Political Map

i048

77


Political Aspects Colombia declared independence from Spain on the 20th of July of 1810 and was recognized as independent country on the 7th of August of 1819.

Political transformations

1819 Gran Colombia 1830 Republic of New Granada 1858 Granadine Confederation 1863 United States of Colombia 1886 Republic of Colombia Since then, the country is a unitary constitutional republic. It is composed by 32 regions also known as departments. Its government is composed by three powers: Executive, Legislative and Judicial (President, Vice-president, Congress, Senate, Chamber of Representatives and Judicial Courts).28

Economical Aspects

caribbean region

andean region pacific region orinoquia region amazon region

78

The primary sector of the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s economy is based on native products. Colombia is a big exporter of natural resources. Presently Colombiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s main export percentages are manufactured goods (41.32%), petroleum (28.28%), coal (13.17%), and coffee (6.25%). The most representative agricultural products are: coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables, and others. Regarding Industry, the most representative products are: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement, gold, coal, emeralds. Historically Colombia was an agrarian economy, however in the second half of the twentieth century the main cit28 http://data.worldbank.org/country/colombia

79


Colombia

Export Trading Treemap Machinery Electronics Aircraft Boilers Ships Metal Products Construction equipment and materials Home and Office material Pulp and Paper Beer, Spirits and Cigarettes Food processing Petrochemicals Inorganic salts and acids Other Chemicals Agrochemicals Chemicals and Health related products Coal Mining Oil Precious Stones Textile and Fabrics Garments Cereals and Vegetable Oils Cotton, Rice, Soy Beans and Others Tropical Treetops and Flowers Tobacco Fruit Miscellaneous Agriculture Fish and Seafood Meat and Eggs Animal Fibers Milk and Cheese Leather Not Classified

Source : Electronic Complexity Observatory, MIT Media Lab and the Center for International Development at Harvard University. http://atlas.media.mit.edu

80

81


ies started to sprawl and densify. In hand with this an economical shift began - away from agriculture and towards industrial production and services. Now 32.1% of the workforce is employed in industry, 54.5% in services and only 13.4% in agriculture. Colombia has introduced new economic policies promoting international free trade agreements. Since then, the GDP increased 5.7% and inflation reduced to 3.7% in the year of 2011. Nonetheless, Colombia’s economy hangs mostly on oil exports, a non-renewable resource, which may not guarantee long-term stability.

Socio-Cultural Aspects Demographics

Population: 45,239,079 in July 2012 Indigenous communities such as the Muisca, Quimbaya, Zenu, and Tairona previously inhabited a big part of the country. Most of these ancient cultures vanished during the Spanish conquest and colonization periods. Now a day a small minority still exists and has been able to preserve many aspects of their culture, such as knowledge, traditions and values. Native inhabitants, Spanish colonists, African slaves and other European and Middle Eastern immigrants composed the initial social mixture. Colombia today is a multi-ethnic population comprised by 64.5% ‘mestizo,’ 21.5 ‘white’, 10.6% ‘afro-Colombian’ and ‘mulatto’ and 3.4% ‘Amerindian’ or ‘indigenous’. It is the second largest Spanish speaking country after Mexico. However due to its vast ethnical presence, 72 other languages and dialects are also official in their regions. Its multi-ethnic character is a fertile cradle for an immense spectrum of cultural expressions. Different territorial regions of Colombia host local cultures: Carib-

82

bean, Andean, Insular, Pacific, Orinoquia and Amazon. Presently 75% of the total population in Colombia lives in urbanized areas, while the remaining 25% is located in rural areas. Such urban magnetism differs from previous times when cities did not offer the same opportunities as well as security for its citizens. However “poverty inflicts rural areas in greater magnitude than that of urban areas. While 39% percent of the urban population is considered poor (earning less than $143USD/month) and another 9% is considered extremely poor (under the level of misery), 62% of the rural population is considered poor with an additional 22% considered extremely poor.” 29

Environmental Aspects Colombia, after Brazil, has the highest bio-diversity in the world. It is also the third country with the highest natural water resources in the world: 1.200 rivers -258 big rivers-, 1.600 lakes, 4.500 micro basins  and 1.900 swamps and wetlands. The main rivers are Magdalena, Cauca, Guaviare and Caquetá. The country has four main drainage systems: Pacific drain, Caribbean drain, Orinoco Basin and Amazon Basin. The Colombian territory comprises altitudes that range from 0 meters above sea level up to 5,775 meters on the highest peaks of the Andes mountain range. Areas above sea level are mostly considered tundra or natural reserves with permanent snow and alpine conditions. The mountainous areas are niches for immense amounts of waterbirths spreading all over towards the fertile flatlands. Microclimates in Colombia are locally described as: hot land (0 to 900 meters above see level), temperate land 29 Sprague, S. “Poverty, Inequality and Drugs.” http://www.abcolombia.org. uk

83


(900 to 1980 meters above sea level), and cold land (1980 to 3500 meters above see level). Such descriptions depend on mostly altitude. Every 300 meters of altitude there is an approximate variation of 2°C. Its geomorphology permits biomes such as tundra, temperate deciduous forest, rainforest, grassland and desert. Colombia has practically two main rainfall seasons throughout the year, which correspond nearly to spring and autumn ie. mar – april – may (spring) and sept - oct – nov (autumn). The pacific coastline can have up to 500 cm of rain per year, making it one of the rainiest places on earth. In the meantime, dry areas of Colombia such as Guajira can have around 75 cm of rain per year. The valleys of the Magdalena River and Cauca River, the two most important navigable rivers, belong to the hot land climate.

Environmental challenges “The environmental challenges faced by Colombians are caused by both natural and human factors. Many natural hazards result from the geological instability related to Colombia’s position along the Pacific Ring of Fire. Colombia has 15 major volcanoes, the eruptions of which have on occasion resulted in substantial loss of life.” 30 Devastating earthquakes have caused dramatic tremors and disasters such as the Armenia earthquake in 1999 resulting in numerous casualties. However, flooding has always caused the biggest damage. A more constant presence affecting larger numbers of people and occur due to the lack of infrastructure, geomorphological conditions, and overflowing water bodies during intense rainfall seasons.

84

30 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_issues_in_Colombia

Man-provoked deforestation in tropical rainforest has grown exponentially in different areas of national grounds, threatening natural habitats stability and endangering flora and fauna. “In urban areas, contamination of the local environment has been caused by human produced waste, and the use of fossil fuels. Participants in the country’s armed conflict have also contributed to the pollution of the environment. Illegally armed groups have deforested large areas of land to plant illegal crops, with an estimated 99,000 hectares used for the cultivation of coca in 2007.” 31 The illegal crops are in most cases camouflaged around dense lush vegetation that host enormous varieties of animals. Such areas have often been fumigated by the Government, using hazardous chemicals expelled from planes, in order to eradicate illegal crops. These fumigations have caused massive damage to local ecosystems. “Demand from rapidly expanding cities has placed increasing stress on the water supply as watersheds are affected and ground water tables fall. Nonetheless, Colombia is the fourth country in the world by magnitude of total freshwater supply, and still has large reserves of freshwater.” 32

Major infectious diseases Degree of risk: high R5 Food or water borne diseases: bacterial diarrhea R5 Vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever R5 Water contact disease: leptospirosis (2009) 31 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colombia 32 Ibid

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Biodiversity In Colombia

Colombia is the second most biologically diverse country on Earth, home to about 10 percent of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s species. This biodiversity results from Colombiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s varied ecosystemsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;from the rich tropical rainforest to the coastal cloud forests to the open savannas. More than 1,821 species of birds, 623 species of amphibians, 467 species of mammals, 518 species of reptiles, and 3,200 species of fish reside in Colombia. About 18 percent of these are endemic to the country. Colombia has around 51,220 species of plants, of which nearly 30 percent are endemic. While on paper nearly 10 percent of Colombia is under some form of protection, its rich biodiversity is increasingly threatened.

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More than half of the amphibian species found in the Colombian Andes (6 percent of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s diversity) are endangered.

With globally significant biodiversity levels, the Central and Western cordilleras of the Colombian Andes support several species that exist nowhere else.

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With about 1876 species, Colombia is the number one country in bird diversity in the world. Additionally, the country is number three in South America with almost 70 endemic species after Brazil and Peru respectively listing 203 and 105.

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Colombia is a paradise for birdwatchers with innumerable options in the cloud forest and p谩ramos of the Andes or the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, the jungles of the Amazon and Choc贸 regions, the Eastern Plains, the lowlands of the Caribbean region, and the inter-Andean valleys.

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Macaws are large colorful birds native to Central America, South America, and formerly the Caribbean. Most species are associated with forests, especially rainforests, but others prefer woodland or savannah-like habitats.

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Scarlet, blue, yellow, and green feathers. Large, dark beaks, and relatively bare, light coloured, medial (facial patch) areas distinguish macaws. A macawâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s facial feather pattern is as unique as a fingerprint.

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Bird watching in Colombia is an experience like no other, an astonishing array of colors and living nature. An ecotourism niche strategy not yet shared with the world and not properly preserved even though its high potential.

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Map Analysis General data, Colombia

Colombian Land Use Map. Light yellow stands for agriculture, tan stands for agroforestal, dark green stands for livestock land destination, bright green stands for forest area, and light orange stands for conservation area.

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Colombian Hidrographic Map.

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Colombian Natural Regions Map

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Colombian Cultural and Touristic Destination Map. Archeological sites and museums, colonial cities, religious architecture and pilgrimage centers. Arts and crafts, national monuments.

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Colombian Map of Flooding Threat Areas

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Bolivar Department, Political Map. Northern Colombia

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Bolivar Department, Geographical Map. Northern Colombia

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Bolivar Department, Hidrographic Map. Northern Colombia

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Bolivar Department, Flood Threat Areas Map. Northern Colombia

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Inequity Income and wealth is unevenly distributed amongst the Colombian population. “[…] Only 13.8% of total income is allocated to the poorest half of the population, while the wealthiest 10% of the population benefit from 46.5%.”33 Inequity in land ownership is one of the most significant problems. Right-wing insurgency emerges as a counterreaction to inequity effects, unraveling left-wing paramilitary counteraction due to insufficient performance from the State’s public order. “According to the 2011 United Nations report, Colombia was one of the seven most unequal countries in the world during 2010.”34

33 http://www.socialwatch.org/sites/default/files/colombia2012_eng.pdf 34 Human Rights Council, 2008

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Violence and Armed Conflict Through out long periods of history, tension between political parties, Liberal and Conservative have frequently erupted into violent conflicts, such as the Thousand Days War (1899-1902) and La Violencia, which began around 1948. “Since the 1960s, government forces, left-wing insurgents and right-wing paramilitaries have been engaged in the continent’s longest-running armed conflict.”35 The cocaine trade in the 1980s started gaining strength and added up to the national public order problem that put innocent civilians between war lines. However, since 2010 violence has decreased in comparison to previous

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35 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/1738963.stm

years when many drug cartels in Cali and Medellin had not yet been put to an end by the State. Paraphrasing Businessweek News, Colombia still faces problems with narco-traffic but in smaller percentages as before even though it is considered the world’s largest producer of cocaine.36

Internal Displacement in Colombia Colombia is one of the countries in the world with the highest displacement rates. According to the government, internal armed conflicts and human rights abuses has caused the numbers of displacement to rise to 3.4 million people in 2010. Another, more reliable source, the 36 http://www.businessweek.com/news/2011-10-12/gold-eclipses-cocaineas-rebels-tap-colombian-mining-wealth.html

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non-governmental Observatory on Human Rights and Displacement (CODHES) however estimates 4.9 million people to have been displaced in 2010. Intensification of political conflicts and the expansion of the conflicts into a vast majority of the Colombian territory have caused the numbers of displacement to increase significantly over the past years. Most vulnerable to displacement are women, children and ethnic minorities.

Context and causes of displacement Forced displacement in Colombia is the consequence of an internal armed conflict that has been going on for four decades. Most of the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s regions, including the pacific and Caribbean costs, central Andes and the Amazon region have been affected. Parties involved directly in the conflict are mainly the government forces and rebel terrorist groups such as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the National Liberation Army (ELN). These two rebel groups alone are violently active in 24 of the 32 departments of the country.37 According to the specific properties of the land (in terms of richness of soil or natural resources), some areas are more relevant in the war conflict between guerillas and the government, reason why it is possible to map statistics of displacement in predominant areas as well as their direction of flow to attractor points.

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37 Ibanez, A. M.; Velez, C. E., 2003

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Colombian Political Conflict Infography

the corporations

Characters Involved

the government

international financial aid

national defense

latifundium owners

social action committee

work syndicates

media

re-inserted community

The problem of Internal displacement involves the whole Colombian population directly and indirectly. Both, the inhabitants of rural areas and of urban areas are in some way or another affected with this situation. Drawing a more detailed overview, there are the local and international corporations that operate on Colombian territory and that are, most of the time, linked in some way to right wing parties and politicians. Continuing with this list, the Colombian government participates in the conflict through the action of national defense forces, this is done in many cases with international support, such as the U.S. army troops or weaponry sponsored by them. In some cases these have been backed up by informal armed forced, like the Paramilitary, which non-legally interfere against Guerillas.

rural working class

internally displaced people

urban working class

urban crime

paramilitary drug cartel

guerillas

connection / complicity seeking for help taking advantage of transformation

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However, Media, another character in some way involved in the conflict has consequently proven that the Paramilitaries, who intend to fight Rebel groups taking over rural land, have also been involved in illegal actions such as drug trafficking, kidnapping, and genocide of innocent rural inhabitants. The Rural working class constitutes the majority of the displaced population, as they are constantly in between Guerillas and Paramilitary gunfire and threats. These rural communities in most cases are referred to as so-called internally displaced people who suffer the most in this endless socio-political conundrum. Henceforth, rural inhabitants often become the constituents of rebel groups that sum up combat lines. In some cases the decision to join is taken because of a general discontent with the stateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s policies that involve the rural working class common needs. In many cases though, young land workers and their families are forced to join rebel troops with no possibility to contradict as their lives are in jeopardy. On the other hand, Latifundium owners address the conflict in different ways. In many cases, they administrate their business from elsewhere and pay/bribe both, Guerrillas and Paramilitaries, through protection taxes. These protection taxes have gradually enriched both groups, leading them to arm their troops and gain weapon power, and escalating the problematic to exponential levels. Furthermore, drug cartels have been deeply involved in the conflict, as Marihuana, Coca Leaf and Poppy plantations have violently expropriated other agricultural production areas. As the territory becomes a common denominator to all the above-mentioned characters, a constant interaction occurs amongst them, in many cases bellicose.

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In the meanwhile, reinserted communities are in most cases former rebel members of the war conflict who decide to hand in their weapons, pay their debts with the justice system and get a second chance to become part of

the civil population. This group has grown at a very slow rate. Sometimes IDPs reach cities seeking for help and protection, but the stateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s infrastructures for victimized communities is not vast enough to cover everybody. This happens due to the fact that the stateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tax money is distributed favoring other instances of the war conflict. Simultaneously, urban citizens are deprived of the possibility of visiting, investing and working on the countryside, as it becomes war territory. This affects the main sector of the national economy, agricultural export products and natural resource extractions, all located under war territory. Despite NGOs and International Financial Aid for Developing countries, Social Action Committees have been created and nominated by local and international actors to address the problematic of IDPs and other war victims in the urban territory. However, such entities are not big enough to cover the overall growing needs of IDPs, leaving many of them unsupported and to drift. In some cases, as a consequence of such lack of response by the government, IDPs are forced to solve their basic needs with no support from any organization. This has lead to an increase of the homeless population, urban crime and illegal settling on urban peripheries due to a lack of accommodation.

Effects of Internal Displacement Internal displacement is a long-term phenomenon that disrupts the lives of not only individuals and families concerned but also of whole communities and societies. The impact of large-scale displacement in Colombia extends well beyond the numbers counted as being displaced. Those left behind must continue their lives in the vacuum created by the departure of the displaced, while those in areas to which the displaced have moved find

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their lives altered by major new population inflows such as in Bogotรก. Entire communities or even regions may be depopulated. Certain ethnic or linguistic groups may depart and often it is the elderly and the very young that are left behind to tend to agricultural land and retain a claim on property. Furthermore homes, buildings and infrastructure may suffer enormous damage caused either by direct consequence of conflict but more often by the problem that the remaining are unable to carry out necessary maintenance. Also, displacement has a considerable impact on community organization. When populations disappear for more than a year or two, leadership patterns, mechanisms for resolving disputes, and property rights in home areas change drastically, especially in an atmosphere of lawlessness. Individuals may encroach on the land of those who are absent and combatant groups may formally or informally distribute vacant land to supporters. Another cause for concern is the environmental impact of displacement. When the displaced flee to rural areas, they may cause irreparable damage to ecosystems, especially if they have no other option but to strip surrounding forests and grasslands to satisfy their need for housing and fuel.

ers do not lose their skills, they do not longer have access to land. The effects of displacement on children in Colombia, and their development are significant problems caused by the lack of shelter, warmth, food, health care and educational opportunities. Displacement, lasting over a longer period of time, can produce an entire generation of uneducated children, many of whom may become combatants. Codes of normal social behavior that held society together before do not exist any longer. Confidence in the institutions of society disappears and post conflict reintegration and development become far more complicated than the mere rebuilding of the physical infrastructure.38 38 Deng, F. M.; Cohen, R. G., 1998

Further, the major urban centers suffer serious consequences due to displacement. Urban populations may double or triple and overload social services, water supplies, and sanitation facilities and thereby hasten the deterioration of the urban infrastructure. The presence of the internally displaced people, who move to urban environments, adds pressure on often already stretched infrastructure, housing, and public services. Displacement thus has ripple effects throughout entire societies.

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Displacement may also lead to people loosing their skills. Craftsmen often lose or sell their tools or find no use for their skills in new areas, particularly where the markets available for their products are limited. Although farm-

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02B. Weather Phenomena in Colombia

Over the past years Colombia has been struggling with an increase of rainfall attributed to the weather phenomenon called La NiĂąa. This weather phenomenon refers to the cooling of the central and eastern Pacific Ocean waters off the coasts of Peru, Ecuador and southern Colombia and brings with it an increase of rainfall throughout most of the country. Along with this the probability of floods and landslides in different areas of the country rises. So far floods have affected more than 2,000 families in the region and has forced most of these to evacuate to higher grounds. The effects of the La NiĂąa are worsened due to Colombiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s topographical configuration and geographical characteristics. The mountainous areas, large rivers and steep slopes combined with heavy rainfall easily create disastrous happenings such as flooding and landslides. Furthermore these occur mostly in inhabited areas putting communities and the worked lands in danger. In recent years Colombia has experienced widespread flooding affecting approximately 8% of the population (3,6 million people). Organizations have been evacuating people and livestock from disaster zones, combating landslides, building emergency bridges and delivering aid, however this has not been sufficient enough to cover all of the areas affected. Many communities remain unprotected and without solutions from the Government. Funds for the purpose of humanitarian relief for emergencies do exist. However, what is meant to be immediate monetary aid turns out to be difficult to access and slow due to contractual delays, bureaucratic obstacles, corruption, poor coordination etc.

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flood, avalanche 58,4% landslide, erosion 17% storm, strong wind 13,8% forest fire 4,1% others 4,5% tremor 1,2% drought 0,4% volcanic eruption 0,8% % Distribution of Natural Disasters in Colombia 1998 -2008

energy, electricity and heat manufacturing and construction transportation other fuel combustion fugitive emissions industrial processes agriculture land-use change and forestry waste % Distribution of GHG emissions from the energy, industrial, agriculture, waste and soil use change sectors in Colombia

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In 2010 Colombia was hit by the worst flooding in nearly 50 years. 93 % of municipalities and 3,2 million people in the country were affected by heavy rainfalls. An estimated 440,000 homes were destroyed in 2011. Thousands of Colombians remain in temporary shelters. After his election in August 2010 Santos recognized the urgency and established a campaign to raise flood aid â&#x20AC;&#x201C; administered by a joint public and private initiative called Colombia Humanitaria. Unfortunately the campaign did not succeed and had to be ended shortly after. However, the government has now started rehabilitation and reconstruction measures administered by the Adaptation Fund that finances projects to assist developing countries deal with climate change. While infrastructure is being reconstructed, humanitarian concerns continue. Many people remain displaced from their homes, some being displaced three or four times before given adequate shelter. Water sanitation remains an unsolved issue in most of the regions. Alone in 2011, floods caused economic damage worth 5.1 billion$. After 2010 the government set aside 1.65 trillion pesos meant for 4,250 public works projects destinated to mitigate the effects of the next rainy season. However, only 400 projects have been finished so far, another 680 are close to completion.39

39 http://www.economist.com

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02C. Caribbean Colombian Culture

The ZenĂş culture existed from about 200 BCE to about 1600 CE, on the fertile river basins of the northern Colombian territory. They developed an ingenious method for land cultivation, constructing major water works to control the extents of the river overflows and lagoons.

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Dykes and channels were man-made for hundreds of kilometers considering rain and drought seasons in order to improve the agriculture productivity throughout time. i088

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The inland delta formed by the San Jorge River, the Cauca River, the Magdalena River and the Nechí River, south-west of Santa Cruz de Mompox, frequently flooded during the rainy season in the mountains from April to November, causing great inconvenience to the residents of the plains. Therefore, from 200 BCE onwards these people built a system of channels that enabled them to control the flooding and make large areas practical for habitation and agriculture. The system was expanded continually. Covering 500,000 hectares between 200 BCE and 1000 CE, it was at its greatest extent in the San Jorge basin, but channels were also constructed in the lower reaches of the rivers Cauca and Sinú.40

The Zenú dug channels, sometimes as long as four kilometers, connected to the natural waterways. Perpendicular to these channels, smaller irrigation ditches were dug. The soil left by the excavations was used to build long artificial terraces, two to four meters high, on which they built their houses. During times of high water, the channels led the water to areas where crops were grown. When the water withdrew, the nutrient-rich sludge was used to enrich the land. This system of water management was used over a period of 1300 years.

40 Bowen, W. A.; Parsons, J. J. , 1966

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Arts and Crafts With the wide variety of climate, topography and geology, it is not surprising that Colombia has virtually all the materials, fibres, minerals and incentives to create useful and artistic products. Many of the techniques practised today have been inherited from the indigenous peoples who lived here before the conquest, some indeed have not changed in the intervening centuries and are as appropriate now as they were then. Numerous communities that were related culturally lived in the valleys of the Magdalena, SinĂş, San Jorge, lower Cauca and NechĂ­ rivers, and for centuries the artistic expressions of these peoples were similar, as were the way they managed the environment. Bellow some samples of ancient Pre-Colombian mask designs in burned clay.

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The styles and themes that were expressed in pottery objects show that the various communities living in these areas were politically and religiously related. Just like the canal system technology, which remained in use for more than a thousand years, these features lasted a long time and are part of what has been called the long ZenĂş tradition.

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Mochilas are hand-woven products using virgin wool crafted by Arhuaco indigenous women. As every part of the process is artisanal, this bag takes around 6 weeks to make. The Arhuaco people live in the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta, Northern Caribbean. Weaving is how they express their thoughts in the physical realm, depicting their close relationship with Mother Nature. Their designs and mystic patterns of spiritual and cosmological significance stem from the belief that we are all connected with Mother Nature and the Universe on multiple planes.

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Caña flecha de Tuchin is one of the best known and most iconic symbols of Colombia. Palm tree leaf handicrafts are the work of the Zenú ethnic group, who use natural colors, traditional designs and vernacular weaving techniques that date back over a thousand years. The Zenú use a complex traditional method to transform the natural caña flecha palm tree fiber into black and white fibers that they then weave into patterns representing the totemic elements of the Zenú culture. These carry traditional names, such as Heart of the Fan, Crocodile Flower, etc. 41 41 World Intellectual Property Organization. http://www.wipo.int/wipo_magazine/ en/2006/06/article_0002.html

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Different Ca単a flecha weaving patterns using natural organic fibers and pigments.

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San Jacinto Hammocks

San Jacinto Hammocks

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San Jacinto Hammocks

San Jacinto Hammocks

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Mompox jewelry is characterized by the use of the filigree technique; that is, work in miniature dimensions. Mompox filigree work produces handicrafts of very high quality with fine gold strands following the process of stretching, twisting, and flattening metal. The basis of the filigree is gold filament, a symbol of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity. Just about anything an artisan can imagine and conceive can be made from these strands of gold. It all depends on his or her creativity, sensitivity, and manual skills. Nowadays, Mompox filigree work is more geared to silver due to the scarcity of gold and the option of making the work more popular. 42

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03.

MESO SCALE

“Human beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable development, including adequate shelter for all and sustainable human settlements.”43  “Architecture is not only a question of technique or aesthetics, but the frame of a – at best reasonable – way of living.” 44 43 UN Habitat Agenda, Chapter 1

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44 Bernhard Rudofsky

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Local Song: El Pescador Author: Toto la Momposina Va subiendo la corriente Con chinchorro y atarraya La canoa de bareque Para llegar a la playa. El pescador... habla con la luna El pescador... habla con la playa El pescador... no tiene fortuna Sólo su atarraya. La luna espera sonriente Con su mágico esplendor La llegada del valiente Y del alegre pescador.

El Rio Magdalena Author: Gustavo Adolfo Rengifo El río Magdalena se pone triste Cuando Colombia llora por sus orillas Pero se pone alegre cuando Colombia Por sus orillas canta canciones verdes El río Magdalena por la mañana Conversa con los niños y con los peces Y por la noche sueña que los caimanes Son hermanos menores de las estrellas

El pescador... habla con la luna El pescador... habla con la playa El pescador... no tiene fortuna Sólo su atarraya. Regresan los pescadores Con su carga pa’ vender Al puerto de sus amores Donde tiene su querer. Y esta cumbia que se llama “el alegre pescador” La compuse una mañana Una mañana de sol.

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03A. Mompox Depression

The Mompox Depression or Region is located in the northeast of Colombia between the foot hills of the Central Andean range to south and west and of the Eastern Andean Range to the east. The climate in this area of the country is tropical and the average temperatures are over 25째C throughout the year.45 Annual rainfall decreases from 2.200 mm/year in the south and southeast to less than 1.000 in the north. Percipitation occurs in a bimodal pattern, around May there is a first moderate peak, a second, and more significant one in October. The dry season lasts from December to February in the South and until March in the North. There are four large rivers that meet in the Mompox Region: the Magdalena, the Cauca, the San Jorge and the Cesar, the Magdalena river being the largest. Slightly sloping terrain, large loads of carried sediments and the cyclic changes in water levels allow the formation of levees along the rivers and large shallow lakes. These store water and hold sediments, nutrients and contaminants. The flow pattern and water level fluctuations in the flood plains follow the bimodal regime of the precipitation with a month of delay. The first flood occurs towards the end of May, the second around the end of October, beginning of November. However, due to great yearly variations in magnitude, timing and duration of high and low water season the occurrence of floods fluctuates significantly as well. Due to climate, hydrology and geomorphology the area shows a very large spectrum of aquatic, amphibian and terrestrial habitats with great floral and faunal diversity. The biogeographical location of this area contributes

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45 Garcia Lozano, L. , 2001

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greately to the species richness. There are two major natural landscapes in this region both being associated to resource utilization:

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R5

Uplands that are either orogenic or alluvial terraces. A key ecological factor for this landscape type is the amount of precipitation, the duration of the dry seasons and the soil drainage. All settlements (rural and urban) are located in the uplands â&#x20AC;&#x201C; areas that were cleared of vegetation for the purpose of land use

R5

Flood plain (52% of area). This areas dynamic is defined by flood magnitude, duration and periodicity, geofluviomorphological processes associated to channel bed stability, sediment load and sediment size. Low lying areas feature very clayish soil and form shallow lakes that store runoff and overflow. i134 i135

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Bidirectional channels drain and flood the lakes and the surrounding areas. During the rainy season these bidirectional channels interconnect lakes that are normally isolated from eachother during low water periods. The navigation network of the Mompox Region is 2.257km long, 59% is made up of main river streams and arms. Additionally there are numerous large wetlands interconnected with the streams. Compared to the primary and secondary roads during dry season the fluvial network is at least 1,7 times longer. All settlements located on the banks of the rivers or arms have quays or docking facilities for canoes and boats. Larger towns and urban areas have wharves that permit mooring of tugboats and other large cargo ships for cattle, timber, cement etc. However docking facilities and wharves tend to have poorly maintained access roads. Aside from this the use of these is restricted during the dry season due to: R5

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Low water levels exposing sediment banks. This hinders the mobilization of even small boats and there-

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fore quays of many towns cannot be reached. R5

Type of boats and engines used for minor navitation require over 1 m water depth which does not apply during extreme dry seasons

R5

Increase of sediment load of the Mompox arm over the past decades

The Mompox Depression faces a number of regional problematics, which will be presented in the following text.

Simbiothic desequilibrium The interaction between the inhabitants of the Mompox Depression and the environment can be described to have been a constant extraction of natural resources. Improper care and control of environmental issues has led to a constant deterioration of natural ecosystems in the area. Settlements have been growing with almost no control and the densification of the population has brought with it higher natural resource consumption and higher amounts of contamination.

Socio-economic activities Socio-economic activities in the area generate the highest threats to the environment. Natural resouces such as fresh water, air, flora, fauna, soil, minerals, hydrocarbons, etc have been intensively exploited by the usage of inapropiate technological methods. The opportunity of environmental regeneration is minimized due to the intensity of extraction and pollution. Degradation, alteration and modification of the natural environment have become a reality throughout the area as a result of the human inadequate interaction.

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Geomorphological, hydrographic, climatologic, biotic sensitivity conditions and physic-chemical characteristics of the ground in the area could define the majority of the territory as a possible protected forest area. Nontheless, the majority of such land has been apropriated for decades and its ecosystems has been transformed to suit economic productivity.

Native forests Native forests in the area have diminished significantly, limiting these to areas such as Serrania San Lucas, Arenal, Morales and Rio Viejo. These areas have remained untouched due to the steepness of its topography, which can be considered as land not suitable for easy performance of activities such as livestock or agriculture. Inhabitants of the area, creating a clear ecological inbalance, have altered all other remaining native forests, which no longer extend as before human intervention.

Biodiversity Another consequence of alteration of natural flow of local ecosystems is the reduction of local biodiversity. By blocking water flows in wetland areas and swamps, diverse species may not be able to proliferate. As an example, natural cycles of fish mating and breeding have been obstuctred by the alteration of their habitat. The biological degradation has also been influenced by the introduction of new engineered-infrastructures such as road networks, which do not consider ecological impacts on and negative repercussions for nature.

Fertilisers Fertilisers and biocides for the management of agricultural land are hardly used in the Mompox Region, however

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water and sediments in the Loba arms of the Magdalena River and the swamp areas show high concentrations of heavy metals and other pollutants. The use of chemicals such as mercury and cyanide in mining and other agrochemicals have also affected diverse species due to their high toxicity. The levels are still under the critical mark but will likely increase due to population growth and industrial expansion in the upper Cauca and Magdalena watersheds.

Agriculture exploitation systems Deforestation for the purpose of agricultural use is the most harmful intervention for nature. In many cases, agrochemicals are applied to crops, which affect the composition balance of soil and a broad series of native specimens, i.e. pollinizer insects, birds and small vertebrates. Mono-cultivation generates fauna and flora displacement, limiting survival possibilities for species, isolating these and interrupting food chains and genetic flows. However, it is not the growing of crop that harms the nature the most but the illicit coca leaf plantation. The production of coca paste has taken over more than 15,000 hectars of former native forest in the area of southern Bolivar. The use of harmful chemicals for the process of coca paste production (ether, acetone, cement, gasoline, potassium permanganate, and detergents), affect the environment substantially. These illicit plantations normally take place in hidden areas or locations of difficult accessibility, which normally correspond to virgin forest. Furthermore the government has been attempting to eradicate the coca leaf plantations by spraying Glyphosate (a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide used to kill weeds, especially annual broadleaf weeds and grasses) from airplanes. This does not only damage the coca leaf plantations but also the surrounding vegetation.

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Livestock exploitation systems Over-pasturage of cattle in diverse steep areas compromises the fragility of the natural surface, generating erosion and reducing the porosity of the ground. Fertilizers, pesticides and other agrochemicals affect biodiversity as well as grounds and water sources. When livestock is allocated in flatlands, valleys and dry overflowing areas, the negative repercusions are even worse due to different compactation of the ground and factors such as the introduction of foreign animals, introduced to the territory. This creates a spatial competition that displaces and reduces other native species.

Mining and mineral extraction Ground excavation involves the usage of harmful chemicals, accumulation of debris in the proximity of pitheads, contamination and sterilization of soil, destabilization of slopes, acid runoffs and incrementation of solid particles in the air and water bodies leading to sedimentation and blockage of water flows, alteration of the landscape and fragmentation of neighboring ecosystems. Mining activities also involve construction of new settlements adjacent to extraction points, use of wood for tunnels and housing, and search for food supplies that are constantly extracted without environmental consciens.

Wood extraction, destruction of forestry resources Tree felling has taken place mostly in the areas near river basins. Activity as such happens regularly without control. This action has endangered species of flora and fauna as well as the behavior of ground absorbtion and ground stabilizing the area. After the 1960s, forests were completely felled in most cases as a strategy to demarcate

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private property.

as vectors of infectious diseases.

Wild life capturing and hunting

Dumps are arranged in areas that subsequently suffer from deterioration of the landscape. The refuse is burned occasionally releasing gases and solid particles into the atmosphere, which the wind transports great distances. In rural areas lower volumes of solid waste are produced in comparison to urbanized settlements. However, its effects are equally harmful. Wastes are normally scattered around courtyards and other living areas, affecting livable space.

Wild life capturing and hunting happens more often to satisfy alimentary needs. The most common act is artigianal fishing. However the usage of dynamite or net barriers is aslo applied, causing major damage. Ornamental capturing of exotic species is an illegal reality that affects the ecosystems of the area. Armadillos, iguanas, chiguiros, deer, dantas, capibaras, manaties, monkeys, crocodiles, and hundreds of different bird species amongst others animals are often hunted for illegal commercial purposes.

Informal settlements The densification of population, a way of invasion, encompasses air, water and earth quality transformation when the exisiting natural background is being modified. Changes in land uses correspond to one of the leading threats for the environment. Dwellings, transportation and communication infrastructures have been imposed on the existing territory with no future vision of a sustainable tomorrow.

Solid Wastes

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Inadequate solid waste disposal from households causes deterioration of grounds where wastes are deposited. Furthermore it contaminates surface water by runoff and subterrain water contamination by infiltration and leachates. All the towns in the area have informal open air garbage disposals without proper comprehensive treatment. The waste dumps are located along rivers, streams or swamps. No selective processes of separation and classification of waste is done, they are treated together regardless of their danger. This generates bad odors and is becoming attractor poles for rodents and insects that act

Biohazard Wastes Inadequate biohazard waste disposal from healthcare centers and hospitals are handled incorrectly. Some are placed in pits, where they are buried; others are incinerated (open burning) without the routine practice of strict compliance. In clinics and private laboratories, biologic wastes are disposed as household wastes without any pretreatment, finally reaching local dumps.

Inadequate animal slaughtering No proper locations exist for such purposes. Slaughtering activities take place in poor hygienic conditions. In most cases, animal guts and carcasses are thrown into the vicinity while blood and other body fluids area channeled directly to sewers if exisiting or immediate water bodies without any kind of pretreatment.

Road network openings

The construction of retaining walls and dykes provoke erosion and deterioration finally affecting the natural environment. The construction of roads contributes to

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the fragmentation of ecosystems, isolated populations of flora and fauna, physical space gets modified with cuts and fills, water channels are frequently interrupted, natural water flows are redirected or blocked, and water levels are disturbed. The present deficiency of environmental awareness in the majoritiy of the population, as well as the lack of ecological education, sense of community, social participation,

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and technologic developments in the area, have caused radical environmental repercusions, which today put many settlements in high risk. Some catalizers of degradation of social behaviors in the area are: the actual political conflict, social inequity, and absence of government actions.

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04. 176

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MICRO SCALE

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04A. Hatillo de Loba

with the precarious settlement conditions, which may be defined as a type of slum formation, conclude in constant disasters and situations of despair and misery.

Location

Hatillo de Loba is one of the townships most affected by extreme rainfall seasons. So far, the community has not found a reasonable solution to the problem they face, which over the past few years has worsened due to weather calamities. Most members of the community have lost their houses, crops, livestock and personal belongings due to the floods. How much of what the community manages to reconstruct is the next rainfall season going to affect or rather destroy? Is it possible to propose new affordable and sustainable ways of adaptation to the drastic weather changes they face currently and will face tomorrow?

Hatillo de Loba, Bolivar, Colombia

General Information Hatillo de Loba, part of the state of Bolivar, is made up of a series of recent urban settlements adjacent to the basin of branching water bodies of the Magdalena River. The Magdalena River is Colombiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s biggest and most import river as it operates as the main water transportation road. The area of the basin corresponds to 22.8% of the total surface of the national territory. People look to settle in the river floodplains as it is an optimal area, providing basic resources such as drinking water, wood for cooking and heating, abundant fishing and fertile land for agriculture. Many of the inhabitants in these settlements have moved from other previous locations running away from hostile environments. Some of them arrived homeless on the river floodplains, bringing with them complicated backgrounds and difficult future perspectives. Several of these displaced communities have lost their previous homes and land, that was located in the midst of the narcotraffic war between guerillas and paramilitaries, and have found a place for a new beginning in the river floodplains and swamps of the Mompox Depression. A large number of the settlements represent a high scarcity in many different aspects due to the political, economical and social situation combined with the environmental complexity of the habitat. Drastic weather behaviors, characterized mostly by intense floods, in combination

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Some catastrophic statistics: R5 More than 2,000,000 victims have been declared related to this humanity crisis that in recent years has affected a great part of the country R5 28 regions, out of the 32 total regions in Colombia, have presented damages on more than 52% of their composing townships due to the extreme rainfalls R5 More than 2000 homes have been destroyed by floods and landslides R5 More than 200,000 homes have been declared affected. Damages are estimated over $4.8 billion USD R5 More than 380 Ha of human settlements are inaccessible or have restricted transit, which complicates possible actions of rescue missions and humanity aid R5 More than 150.000 Ha of agricultural fields have been reported as highly compromised

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Population

Economic framework

Hatillo de Loba has 14,919 inhabitants of whom 7176 are women and 7743 men. 24% live in urban territories, 76% in rural areas.

The municipality of Hatillo de Loba has tried to revive the area by financially supporting the construction of fish and livestock farms, by training farmers and by encouraging startups of micro-enterprises with the support of organizations and loans from the municipal administration. However this initiative attracted large producers who in the end dominated. Farmers remain unprepared as they are forced to compete with large producers. Furthermore, they are hindered in their attempts, as they do not have access to suitable premises where they could develop fish or livestock breeding grounds.

The population is highly vulnerable as more than 50% present at least one unmet basic need. High unemployment, lack of education and difficult social circumstances are just some of the problems the inhabitants must face. Over the past years the population and with that the number of houses in the community have increased.

Productive Sector The main economic activity of the municipality is fishing. Main crops cultivated include sorghum, beans, cassava, rice, corn and bananas. Livestock farming is extensive however mostly reserved by large landowners. Mining activities in the area are currently limited to the extraction of sand and stones used for construction. Gold mining, over the years was discarded, as it wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t profitable enough anymore. Trade and industry in the area are not very wide spread as no ideal channel has been developed to allow a constant flow of goods and that produces a good income. A census carried out in 2005 states that 52% of all institutions devoted to the economic sector are commercial, 37,1% are services and 9,1% are single agribusinesses. Only 2,9% of these facilities generate more than 10 jobs indicating the high unemployment rate of the country. The industrial sector has shrunk over the past years and even tourism, a sector worth exploring for this region, has not been able to develop successfully.

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One of the main problems is the inequity of resource distribution. The Department, to which the Mompox Depression belongs to, assigned only 25% of their budget to 35% of the departmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s poorest people. Therefore departmental plans are underfunded and prone to fail. The Municipality of Hatillo de Loba has been suffering from a territorial isolation from the functional urban system of the country leading to a poor social and economical situation. Therefore the southern region of Bolivar has developed a proposal to form a new department and to split from the north in order to achieve an equal allocation of budget and resources. The past rainy season devastated the region and revealed the governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s neglect. The urgency of attention and resource allocation in the Hatillo de Loba Municipality is clearer than ever. However, an approval by the Congress for the formation of a new department remains pending.

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05. PROBLEMATICS

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05A. Defining Problematics Causes And Effects

Living conditions are neither healthy nor safe. Households are composed in an average of seven members and are always overcrowded. Most of these houses have one room, which serves for living, sleeping and cooking/eating. Almost none of these houses have electricity, gas or water supply and/or any sanitation. The houses are constructed mainly with wood and other local, available materials. When houses are flooded the inhabitants lift light structured slabs inside the house to create a higher elevated living space. As the water goes up they raise the structure in their houses up to a level where there is only 1 meter left between the slab and the roof, creating a very unpractical living space. Furthermore, if floods exceed 2 meters of height this method of survival is not sufficient enough.

Community and urban spaces The municipality has one public park however the area is not sufficient enough to accommodate larger numbers of visitors. Furthermore an area dedicated to events and other smaller areas used for soccer practices can be found in the village. However these spaces require substantial improvements. The community lacks urban facilities such as medical centers, as well as spaces dedicated to recreational and entertainment.

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Aqueduct The Aqueduct is under construction. There is potable water coverage of 59%. Some of the settlements in Hatillo de Loba, such as La Victoria, Pueblo Nuevo, Las Brisas, Las Palmas, use deep wells as a drinkable water resource. On the other hand, other settlements such as Juana Sanchez take their water from the Magdalena River without a water treatment plan. Their only method of water purification is the addition of aluminum sulfate. Other settlements such as Guali and Nueva Esperanza have a partial aqueduct presenting pumping problems due to irregularities on the piping network array.

Sewage System The sewage system is under construction. Settlements with a higher population have a more up to date condition regarding the construction of sewage. However, due to management, bureaucracy and weather conditions, such construction plans have been paused and are presently on hold, leaving 80% of the area in need and without coverage. Most of the served waters are presently being evacuated towards the Magdalena River, causing a serious negative environmental impact and proliferation of diseases. The usage of septic wells is common to the area. However, in many cases these are not managed properly, causing sub terrain resource contamination and increasing vulnerability of phreatic levels.

Waste management Trash collection, transportation and disposition is nonexistent. Wastes are not separated; there is no home recycling culture or environmental awareness. Wastes are disposed in rivers, streams and creeks causing major ecological damage.

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Land Fill Nonexistent. No waste management coverage program. Solid and leachate wastes are frequently disposed in water bodies and septic wells.

the dyke, present constant damages and are not transit able (17.2km). Roads such as the connector between La Victoria and Pueblo Nuevo, Las Brisas, Las Palmas, Las Cajitas, and El Pozon, are in the worst possible condition due to constant floods (36 km).

Telecommunications

Fluvial Transportation

Landline infrastructure is scarce. Mobile telecommunications have become an alternative for communication. There is partial coverage in rural areas.

The principal transportation source. The Loba River branch connects most of the settlements directly as they are all located on the river basin with direct access to the water. Small canoes offer the service of public transportation with capacity of 16 to 22 people, connecting all settlements on the Loba branch. Freight transportation is offered with motorized mid-capacity canoes. The Hatillo de Loba Port is under construction to improve public transportation accessibility and cargo management. There is no ferryboat service yet.

Electricity Energy service covers 90% of the urbanized areas of some of the main settlements. Nonetheless, constant blackouts occurr due to system overcharge. Settlements such as San Miguel, Juana Sanchez, La Victoria, La Ribona and Cerro de Aguadas count with limited electricity service while settlements such as Botonal, Las Cajitas, Las Palmas and Pueblo Nuevo have no energy service. Public space lighting is scarce in the main settlements and nonexistent in smaller settlements of the area.

Vehicular Transportation

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Under construction. Present limited coverage. The networks are constantly interrupted, as they require maintenance works due to erosion, landslides and deterioration. The majority of the road profiles belong to the local category. An incomplete arterial road partially connects the Hatillo central settlement to Mompox. In fact, the municipality of Hatillo relies on a cargo boat, which travels from Barranco de Loba to Hatillo. Some of the settlements have unpaved roads of small profile connecting San Miguel, Juana Sanchez, Cerro de las Aguadas and the municipality of Hatillo (13km). Other roads connecting Ca単o Mocho, Guali, and La Victoria, which run along

Train Transportation Nonexistent.

Market There is no proper market center for agricultural product trading. The space for selling, buying, exchanging goods is limited. The economical activities related to land productivity are not taking place in a specific location. Social interaction is affected due to the lack of public spaces like this.

Slaughter House Lacking. The municipality of Hatillo de Loba presents inadequate conditions for animal slaughtering throughout all its territory. There is no proper location for such performance. Slaughter wastes are thrown into septic

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wells or water bodies contaminating and increasing proliferation of mosquitoes, bad smells and health threats.

Police Headquarters Present only in bigger settlements and with a low number of active staff.

Cemetery Present only in bigger settlements. Currently under-sized and in bad condition.

Housing 1816 homes, 452 located in urban area and 1364 in rural area. 1564 homes have been affected by floods and require alternative solutions. There is an average of 6.2 persons per housing unit. Homes present problems of overcrowding and a lack of sheltered spaces. Many homes have been placed on high-risk zones and their inhabitants are in constant danger. The settlements with higher number of homes in imminent risk zone are San Miguel, La Victoria and Zona del Violo. Construction of lowincome housing and social housing has been very low during the last administrations. Nevertheless, the former administration showed a slight increase in social housing investment.

Social Aspects Several positive initiatives in ongoing processes. Social politics council in cooperation with ICBF, Defensoria del Pueblo and other government entities have developed programs that aim towards the strengthening of family core values and sense of community. In some of the settlements Familiy and Children Attention Centers have been present to support the afflicted individuals as well

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as taking care of cases of intra-familiar violence. Its range of coverage is low and insufficient. Instituto de Bienestar Familiar, a government entity, has started the Communitary Mothers movement, offering help to single mothers (family heads).

requested for government support.

Elderly Homes

Regarding economical activities in the municipality, Commercial Business corresponds to 52% of the totality. 37.1% correspond to Services and 9.1% correspond to Agro industrial activities. Only 2.9% of these businesses have more than 10 active employees. Microenterprises are slowly growing in the sector due to interventions of external entities that offer new microcredits.

The elder groups conform to 11% of the local population. Most of them have no pension plan or any sort of government financial support. There are no spaces for recreation or interaction between the elderly. The only program addressing such population is the Almuerzos Calientes by ICBF plan, which supports 100 adults in Hatilllo and 204 adults in the program Paquetes de Alimentos with alimentation. 224 adults receive an economic subsidy of US$80 per month. So far, the municipality has no Old Folks Home or any sort of solution for the elderly.

Employment The majority of the population live of jobs related to the river. Fishing, hunting, buying and reselling, transporting fish and other agricultural products are part of the most common activities in the area. Fishing is carried out using artisanal methods. Fishing control organizations are slowly starting to generate ecological awareness. Fish growing ponds are being promoted in order to extend fish population, which may face extinction threats due to excessive extraction. Agricultural activities are limited to dry seasons in lowlying areas taking into account that in rainfall seasons, such areas flood and crops are lost. Livestock is a business mostly performed by extensive landowners. The government favors extensive landowners with financial support. In most cases, smaller landowners present bigger financial problems and are not able to comply with conditions

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Other alternative activities such as mining have reduced significantly in the last years. Sand and pebble extraction are the most common related activities at the moment.

Unemployment in Hatillo de Loba is high with about 30%. Poverty is everywhere with most of the population depending on what the river gives them daily.

Families Amongst the inhabitants there are a lot of single mothers who struggle to manage their difficult economic situation. A lack of training, low levels of income or even unemployment does not allow for them to respond to their own needs or the needs of their children. Alcoholism, domestic violence and abuse against women are common amongst families. Governmental organizations have developed programs for families fighting such problems however many of the victims, especially women, remain quiet in most cases, as they are dependent on their partners. 78,35% of the population has at least one unsatisfied basic need. This demonstrates the urgency of implementing programs to combat poverty.

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Youth Youth in Hatillo de Loba represents 21% of the population. The main problem they face is the lack of institutions offering technical studies or higher education as well as the lack of employment opportunities for decent and well-paid jobs. Furthermore the abundance of recreational and sports areas makes them prone to alcoholism, drug abuse, vandalism and inadequate sex education. Many are victims of sexually transmitted diseases and/ or unwanted pregnancies at young age. The municipality does not have any sort of organizations for youth nor open spaces to promote involvement in any kind of formal activities.

Children Kids under the age of 14 constitute 94% of the underage population. Basic education has been one of the administrative priorities therefore 90% of the children in the area have access to a program of basic education. The lack of suitable playgrounds for children forces them to play in unsuitable areas such as public roads or courtyards of others. Children have access to subsidized basic health care however ignorance about body hygiene and poverty impair or affect the childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s health.

Education

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The level of education in the area has increased over the past years with the help of strategies implemented by the Ministry of Education e.g. providing transportation for students to schools and education night. However the quality of education remains low compared to the rest of the country.

Analphabetism rates are 30% in urban areas and 32.3% in rural areas. Adults present education statistics as follows: 27.1% of the adult population are not educated, 43% visited middle school, 19.9% visited High school, 0.5% attended technical schools and only 1.3% followed college studies. There are no college studies or technical education institutions in the area. The absence of higher education affects competitiveness numbers and the employment situation of the municipality in a direct way. In order to achieve an integral educational formation of the younger generations, new programs addressing environmental awareness, natural resource exploitation and territorial productivity must be applied in benefit of a sustainable future. Physical infrastructures (schools, libraries, school furniture, educational materials and sanitary batteries) are inadequate and insufficient. There is a lack of qualified personnel for educational purposes. The Hatillo municipality head settlement has 3 urban and 2 rural schools, La Victoria has 2 urban and 2 rural schools and Juana Sanchez 2 urban schools, San Miguel and La Ribona have 1 school. All these schools are undersized and lack didactic materials for proper education. Floods affect all above-mentioned schools mentioned on a regular basis. Most of the schools feature classrooms but do not have multi-purpose halls/auditoriums.

Health About 60% of the population has a basic health care plan. The number of Healthcare beneficiaries has increased in the last years. The Hatillo de Loba Hospital serves the municipality with a Level 1 infrastructure. Its performance is deficient due to its present unfinished status and its under-sized scale. Furthermore, on a local scale, the existence of pharmacies and the access to medical

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drugs in the municipality is limited. La Victoria and Juana Sanchez suffer of present inactivity at their healthcare centers.

cultural heritage and preserves local knowledge.

For Level 2 Healthcare assistance it is necessary to transfer patients to El Banco Hospital, which does not belong to the municipality. The hospital offers services of external consultation, prenatal control, odontology, clinical laboratories, growth and development control and an emergency room.

Many people suffer from unbalanced diets due to a lack of understanding as well as a lack of resources in general. Most households are short on food and this can be often seen in the children’s physics. What can be gathered from the river and the surrounding during dry season is not sufficient enough. During floods the possibilities of gathering nutritious food is narrowed down even further.

The most common health threats are respiratory infections, coronary diseases, urinary system infections, peptic acid diseases, bronchial asthma, tensional cefalea, dermathosis and rabies exposure. Many of these diseases affect the population because of ignorance about disease prevention topics and sanitary conditions in their environment.

Sport Activities Lack of scenarios for sport development; existing ones (polifunctional courts: soccer, volleyball, basketball) are in bad condition and require maintenance. Other alternative sports are not yet encouraged. Sport activities of recreational purposes are not presently sustained by administrations. Negative repercussions such as alcoholism, drug consumption, vandalism can result out of scarcity of enriching opportunities for the young.

Cultural events The most representative cultural event celebrates traditional dance and music, the Festival de la Tambora takes place from the 23rd to 25th of July. This event happens on the central public space in Hatilllo, which is not properly conditioned for the purpose. The municipality does not have a cultural center or any other entity that promotes

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Food Diet

Natural Resources Hatillo de Loba belongs to the Mompox Depression lowlying areas of the Magdalena and Cauca river branches. 80% of the territory is flat while the remaining 20% presents slight undulated topography. Altitude above sea level varies between 25 and 70 meters. The river basin has been highly contaminated mostly in areas near to San Miguel settlement. There are three recognizable subzones in the Hatillo municipality: (i) steep hills enclosing the settlements of San Miguel, La Ribona, Juana Sanchez and Hatilllo with areas reaching almost 100 meters above sea level. (ii) dry/wet terrains with abundant grasslands with altitudes between 10 and 20 meters above sea level. In dry season most of this area is still very fertile and surrounded by wetlands and swamps rich in biodiversity but frequently threatened by the every-day deterioration. In rainfall season they remain covered with water. (iii) all-year-round wetlands also known as “Cienagas” connected to the Loba river branch, Caño Mono and El Violo. It is a cradle for hundreds of species. These are extensively rich areas in flora and fauna. The most important wetlands are: Palenquillo, Estillero, Baul, El Palmar, El Roreo, Vara Santa, Cajitas, and Palmarito.

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There is no clear boundary setback from overflowing lagoons and river basins. Settlements have been growing with no planning or control, this causes many of the housing units to be located in high-risk areas. Illegal and/or informal settling generates a double negative repercussions for inhabitants and for the environment. Plans for reforestation, erosion control, native vegetation and biodiversity preservation are slowly starting to be taken in consideration by administrations but have not yet been established actively throughout the whole area. Flood prevention: previous administrations have carried out several constructions of dykes along river basins adjacent to the bigger settlements of Hatillo de Loba. Smaller settlements have been left behind with minimal intervention for flood prevention. Plastic sand bags are the most common method used to raise the border barrier in order to prevent overflows. Strategies as such have been insufficient and these settlements keep suffering due to the constant floods. The Municipality of Hatillo de Loba presents obvious financial problems along with a need for a well functioning, consolidated administrative structure. Administrative positions and their functions have not been formally defined and corrupt bureaucracy, have interfered with the development of the area. Although many institutes and organizations are aware of the situation they havenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t been able to present permanent solutions to the problems caused by the floods. Most organizations provide temporary help after the floods. However, support and ideas on how to prevent these disasters is distant. 46

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PROGNOSIS MITIGATION

The Ministry of Environment, Housing and Territory and regional autonomous corporation of South Bolivar drew up an action plan to improve the situation of the Municipality of Hatillo de Loba. Some of the goals set for the coming 10 years are as follows: R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5

integrate sustainable development principles into country policies and programs to prevent further loss of environmental resources by 2015 the percentage of people without access to clean water should be halved by 2020 the lives of at least 100million slum inhabitants are to be improved significantly halve the percentage of people whom income is less than 1$/day conserve of natural heritage reduce risk of water shortage risks reduce health effects associated with environmental problems optimizing use of renewable resources generate employment and income for the sustainable use of biodiversity and sustainable production systems reduce population at risk due to natural hazards integrated management of water resources knowledge, conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity promoting competitive and sustainable production processes prevention and control of environmental degradation

Further goals were formulated in more depth for the purpose of risk management

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Identifying risk R5 R5

Expansion and renovation of monitoring and early warning networks Knowledge generation

Reducing risk R5 R5

Incorporation of risk reduction in development planning Monitoring of public investments and drawing from experiences from others on risk management

Developing policies and strengthening institutions Reducing fiscal vulnerability and transferring risks

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R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5

05B. General Objective The general objective is to provide a set of strategies to addresses causes and effects of flooding in the Mompox depression, including infrastructure and urban planning. Furthermore the attempt is to provide an architectural alternative to the actual problematic of sheltering adaptability, spatial comfort and performance of the built-up environment in the community of Hatillo de Loba that may be replicable in other scenarios with similar climatic conditions.

05C. Specific Objectives R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5

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Involve the community in the process of designing and building of new weather bearing alternatives Improve life quality through new spatial conditions and configurations Take into account short and long term efficiency possibilities Produce a low cost / affordable scheme that caters to the needs of the communities Co-create a new visual idea of housing in synchrony with the communityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s imaginaries and ideals Use of simple constructive methods (vernacular

R5 R5 R5

R5 R5

building techniques and materials) Replicability of urban planning strategies and building typology schemes Variation/ customization of building schemes Low environmental impact design Self sufficient urban behavior and building schemes Off-grid utility performance for building schemes Offer a feasible urban and architectural strategy that may be adopted, promoted and aided by the government and other funding organizations Apply an open source code design strategy that permits information sharing, alterations and improvements to initial models Establish a water and natural resource management system Group, connect and coordinate neighboring urban settlements to work together in a co-habitation manifest that capitalizes on a more efficient way of respectful usage of common nature resources Offer a waterproof alternative for private housing that may replicate to primary need public buildings such as health and education facilities Promote alternative economies such as eco-education, eco-recreation and eco-tourism; cherishing the vast richness in biodiversity at the Magdalena river basin.

05D. Hypothesis By introducing a new weather-adaptable model of habitation, victims of excessive rainfall and floods may be able to face better present and future weather changes. Such a model shall be designed, built and tested with active participation of the community.

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06. CASE STUDIES 218

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Uros islands, lake titicaca. Peru Artificial floating islands built on several layers of a native reed, callled â&#x20AC;&#x153;totoroâ&#x20AC;?.

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Koh Panyee. Thailand Fishermen settlement built on Stilts. Local children built the floating soccer pitch from old scraps of wood and fishing rafts.

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Ha Long Bay. Vietnam A community of around 1,600 people live on Ha Long Bay in four fishing villages: Cua Van, Ba Hang, Cong Tàu and Vông Viêng in Hùng Thang commune, Ha Long city. They live on floating houses and are sustained through fishing and marine aquaculture.

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The floating village is a cultural heritage in Halong Bay, Vietnam. People have been living in these houses for hundred of years with fishing as the main income activity. Tourists get the chance to visit these floating villages and learn about the local fish farms where travellers can buy seafood and have a peek into the basic living of the villagers. The tourism boom in recent years brings an extra income for the villagers.

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Chong Khneas, Siem Reap. Cambodia

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Houses, temples and shops are constructed out of wood boards and stand a couple of metres above the water’s surface. The Tonle Sap lake stretches far and wide – it is actually the largest lake in all of Southeast Asia – and supplies the 1300 houseboats in the community with freshwater and fish. i190 i191

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Belen Iquitos, Peru Belen is a section of Iquitos located in lower areas of the Itaya River. It floods during the months of November to May. The houses are built on stilts and floats, the roads are on mud during dry times and become navigable with canoes when water levels rise.

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Inle, Burma (Myanmar)

The lake is the home of some 80,000 Inthars (native lake-dwellers) in 17 villages. Many Inthars live in their huts and wooden bungalows on floating islands, while some live by the lakeshore. Inle Lake, natural and unpolluted, is famous for their amazing lifestyle and its incomparable scenic beauty.

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Floating market. Bangkok Thailand. Locals gather in boats, filled with tropical fruits, vegetables, and local food cooked from floating kitchens located right on the boat. A public space for social interaction takes place, permiting people exchange goods and allow new dynamics.

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Victoria, BC. Canada Floating community in Canada, houseboats are gaining major popularity in British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec as there is an abundance of perfectly suited rivers and lakes. The town of Sicamous, on Shuswap Lake, British Columbia, is said to be the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Houseboat Capital of the Worldâ&#x20AC;?.

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Seattle, WA. USA

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This floating community at Union Lake is composed by houses on a raft semi-permanently moored to a dock. This community is always attached to city utilities, including the sewer. These features, and a slug of government regulations, distinguish floating homes from live-aboards and other kinds of boats. i225 i226

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Amsterdam. Netherlands Floating houses are modern and top of the art in all technologic matters. Floating villages such as IJburg, a brand new district in the eastern part of town, is completely surrounded by water. Artificial islands made of sand are created to build over 12.000 new dwellings.

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Water Platforms

Inhabitants of Bali, Indonesia transform the sloping environment in order to keep water terraces for agricultural purposes.

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Floating Agriculture.

Inhabitants of the Inle Lake in Myanmar build floating bamboo rafts that work as a platform for soil. This floating surface stands over water allowing vegetation to grow while extracting nutrients from water underneath.

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Floating Dining Room. Vancouver, Canada

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Architects: Goodweather Design & Loki Ocean. This temporary floating dining room was designed for a summer fundraiser by The School of Fish Foundation, a non-profit organization committed to promoting sustainable seafood. The semi-enclosed space floats on over 1700 recycled plastic bottles. The project intends to bring attention to the abundance of plastic litter floating in the oceans, but also suggests a possible use for such waste. Due to budget and time constraints the design of the structure remains a conventional post and beam assembly allowing the framing to serve as finish. i247 i248

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Bamboo Architecture in Colombia

Colombia has the second highest woody bamboo diversity in Latin America. At present, 9 genera and 70 species are reported, with 24 species being endemic and at least 12 species remaining to be described. The Andean region has the largest quantity and greatest diversity of woody species (89%) and the Eastern Cordillera is the richest with 55% of all woody bamboos reported until now. About 60% of the woody species are found from 2,000 to 3,500m altitude.

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Colombia is one of the few countries in Latin America where bamboo plays a notable role in the local economy and traditional culture. The genera Aulonemia, Chusquea, Elytrostachys, Guadua and Rhipidocladum include several species that are used by various native and rural mestizo communities to satisfy basic necessities. Even though only Guadua angustifolia has real economic value, there is a history of bamboo culture, processing and utilization in the country. There are population inventories as well as significant research on management, production, marketing and industrial uses for Guadua angustifolia. The impact of the rest of the species on the local economy is minimal. These are utilized only by people close to the source. Source: http://www.guaduabamboo.com/bamboo-species-of-colombia.html

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Kengo Kuma Japan A reinterpretation of traditional bamboo architecture with a modern language.

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Bamboo Fiber Woven Textures

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Natural Fiber Woven Textiles

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Palm Fiber Woven Textures

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Natural Wicker Woven Textures

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07. PROPOSAL

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Flood Resistant Masterplan and Housing Design for the Hatillo de Loba Community. Affordable and Sustainable. Built by the community for the community. Based on an analytical study of the geographical, economical, political and socio-cultural aspects of the community of Hatillo de Loba and their surrounding settlements, a new model of dwelling shall be proposed in order to shelter individual families and provide affordable long-term alternatives of protection towards future weather calamities. To start with, Hatillo de Loba counts with more than 10,000 urban and rural inhabitants in need of new sheltering alternatives. Subsequently, over 2,000,000 people in the neighboring communities face the same problems and require a similar housing floodresistant typology. Can new architectural design models applied to the Hatillo de Loba built-up environment mitigate future flooding threats?

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As stated by Architecture for Humanity, Bogota Division, devastating statistics show that disasters caused by the intense latest rainfalls have affected the grand majority of the country. At the same time this present situation calls for a national campaign that may trigger an environmental awakening for all the society, generating impact all over the national territory. There is a spark of hope that shines with the possibility of restructuring some of the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s policies concerning the environment, in order to become a developing nation pioneer in sustainability, while making of the reconstruction program not only a necessity but also becoming a conscious and sustainable community problem solving laboratory.

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Mompox Depression

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Mompox Depression / Hatillo de Loba

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Hatillo de Loba Settlements

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Corregimiento El Pozon

Corregimiento Pueblo Nuevo

Corregimiento La Victoria

Hatillo de Loba

Corregimiento Juana Sanchez

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Architecture is a tool to improve and enjoy life. Proper architecture models adapted to the specificities of the surroundings should reach all places around the world and aid communities with less opportunities. This architectural intervention shall try not to be uncontextualized by introducing new aesthetic languages but instead it shall gather and apply all local and traditional knowledges to strengthen cultural identities. Eco-Sustainable strategies shall be encouraged and applied throughout the whole proposal to capitalize on environmental synergy and a balanced productivity. Maslowâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Pyramid Hierarchy of Needs can be interpreted in terms of Quality of Life and human motivation. Livable environments must supply such needs in order to ensure a proper eco-sustainable, socio-cultural and economical development. The Maslowâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pyramid states that there is an order to be followed in terms of basic needs when environments are set for community living. It is not enough to comply with the satisfaction of physiological and safety needs, but other intrinsic needs such as love and belonging, esteem and self-actualization must be addressed when new environments or alterations to existing behavioural patterns are proposed.

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SELF - ACTUALIZATION ESTEEM LOVE / BELONGING SAFETY PHYSIOLOGICAL

morality creativity spontaneity problem solving lack of prejudice acceptance of facts self-esteem, confidence achievement, respect of others, respect by others friendship, family sexual intimacy security of: body, employment, resources, morality, the family, health, property breathing, food, water, sex, sleep, homeostasis, excretion

Architecture in rural areas must focus on the importance of social capital and their direct connection to nature, their source of life. For this reason, environmental preservation, self-suficiency and minimun enthropy are common denominators for any sort of foreign intervention. Spaces must permit and motivate adaptation and reinterpretation of local creativities and traditional artistic expressions. The people shall have the chance to define and co-create their living environment incorporating open source architectural tools and new eco-technologies.

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07A. Strategies R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5

Activators Common goals Self-management Caring about your neighbor Co-designing Co-constructing Co-producing Culture of sharing Culture of exchanging Diverse economies Micro-politics Broadcasting to the world Multiple mobility Real participation Recycling, reusing, reducing and restoring Local and trans-local acting

Urban Reactivation Programing R5 R5

Can new architectural design models applied to the Hatillo de Loba built-up environment mitigate future flooding threats?

R5 R5 R5 R5 R5

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Rethink misused and underutilized transportation systems such as railroads and rivers Relocate settlements in constant flood threat to safer areas were risks may decrease Equip new settlements with passive energy mechanisms that will lead towards possible self-sufficiency Build new spaces keeping vernacular identity and applying traditional constructive systems Innovate incorporating sustainable technologies Create employment opportunities for the flood victims through participation in reconstruction programs Search for new economical initiatives directed to micro-financing programs for agriculture to motivate farmers to return and invest on land productivity.

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Sustainable Floating Villages The idea is to propose the implementation and construction of off-grid villages capable of managing their own needs independently. New architecture models shall be capable of performing all their functions on dry land and above water, adapting to diverse possible weather transformations. Year-long weather fluctuations in the surrounding environment may happen while people continue their normal every-day life routines. In order to apply such sustainable floating villages, three basic spaces have been proposed. Private housing units, basic small-scale public buildings and basic small-scale public open spaces. The private units have been designed following social (low-income) priority interest housing standards in Colombia. Simultaneously, the core design cross references to local specific habitational characteristics, allowing a high degree of freedom in terms of spatial personalization. These housing units are thought as progressive constructions that permit individual customization and module alterations to fit specific needs, building growth and possible future extensions. At the same time, these housing units are delivered as a â&#x20AC;&#x153;white canvasâ&#x20AC;? intending to trigger social interaction and communal participation while catalyzing the highlighting process of visualizing local imaginaries, cultural identities and finally lead towards urban apprehension, creating a sense of belonging and neighbourhood heterogeneity.

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Public buildings, such as schools, community centers, and basic health care treatment centers are re-designed following a customizable module that permits amalgama-

tion, progressive growth or building use transformation if necessary. The idea is to deliver an amphibian model that can be modified and adapted based on requirements and scale necessities. Public open spaces, such as public squares, parks, markets, community gardens are adapted and/or re-designed as they are considered important meeting points that host community day-to-day dynamics and work as mediums that promote urban cohesiveness and social interaction. These spaces also should follow the amphibian model permitting spaces to perform in dry season and rainfall season regardless of the weather conditions. The new sutainable floating villages, comprising of all three basic spaces (private units, public buildings and public open spaces) intend to apply and profit from the following key design elements: R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5 R5

Flood adaptability Spatial flexibility Resourcefulness and low-impact components Off-grid performace and self-suficiency Use of local materials and building techniques Customization and heterogeneity Solar energy Rain water harvesting Waste management and biomass systems Wind flows for internal hygrothermal comfort Environmental awareness and protection

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The Principles of Universal Design Equitable Use

Tolerance For Error

The design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities. Provide the same means of use for all users: identical whenever possible; equivalent when not. Avoid segregating or stigmatizing any users. Provisions for privacy, security, and safety should be equally available to all users. Make the design appealing to all users.

The design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions. Arrange elements to minimize hazards and errors: most used elements, most accessible; hazardous elements eliminated, isolated, or shielded. Provide warnings of hazards and errors. Provide fail-safe features. Discourage unconscious action in tasks that require vigilance.

Flexibility In Use

Low Physical Effort

The design accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities. Provide choice in methods of use. Accommodate right- or left-handed access and use. Facilitate the user’s accuracy and precision. Provide adaptability to the user’s pace.

The design can be used efficiently and comfortably and with a minimum of fatigue. Allow user to maintain a neutral body position. Use reasonable operating forces. Minimize repetitive actions. Minimize sustained physical effort.

Simple And Intuitive Use Use of the design is easy to understand, regardless of the user’s experience, knowledge, language skills, or education level. Eliminate unnecessary complexity. Be consistent with user expectations and intuition. Accommodate a wide range of literacy and language skills. Arrange information consistent with its importance. Provide effective prompting and feedback during and after task completion.

Size And Space For Approach And Use Appropriate size and space is provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless of user’s body size, posture, or mobility. Provide a clear line of sight to important elements for any seated or standing user. Make reach to all components comfortable for any seated or standing user. Accommodate variations in hand and grip size. Provide adequate space for the use of assistive devices or personal assistance.47

Perceptible Information The design communicates necessary information effectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the user’s sensory abilities. Use different modes (pictorial, verbal, tactile) for redundant presentation of essential information. Provide adequate contrast between essential information and its surroundings. Maximize “legibility” of essential information. Differentiate elements in ways that can be described (i.e., make it easy to give instructions or directions). Provide compatibility with a variety of techniques or devices used by people with sensory limitations.

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47 http://www.ncsu.edu/project/design-projects/udi/2011/05/09/newprinciplesposters/

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common furniture typlogies. The hammock is a vernacular type of home furniture true to the region. Used for sleeping and resting both in private and social areas. The plastic RIMAX chair and tables are present in a great number of cases and constitute a common typology which may be taken into account for spatial modulation.

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Family Configuration Typologies

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2 pax:

Single Couple

3 pax:

Single Parent with children

4 pax:

Couple with children

5 pax:

Couple with children

6 pax:

Couple with children + Elder

8 pax:

2 Couples with children

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07B. Architectural Strategy

degree of customization; houses and streets will alternate in staccato rhythms. The ever-present water of the river branches and wetlands will offer sufficient counterbalance to the densely populated villages, creating the intimacy and tension of the rural caribbean towns. The floating model shall work through a set of guidelines. Key elements delivered in the house are: Floating Platform, Services Tech-Block, and Bamboo Structure. These elements permit owners to interpret and express their needs and imaginaries in their own ways. The building spatial configurations and distributions are infinite and permit progressive growth and building alterations. The possibilities of defining the building envelope (walls and roofs) is again infinite. In each house more than fifty percent of the surface is devoted to future expansion. Each house conceals a hidden world on its skins and adds up to the heterogeneity that defines a community-built settlement with a stronger sense of belonging.

These amphibian buildings are proposed for low-laying areas of the Mompox depression and Mid Magdalena flooding areas. This new housing development model intends to transform neighborhoods into weather-change resistant settlements. The intention is to realize high density, low rise housing as a first step of a sheltering strategy. The design is compelling and consistent, allowing high

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By minimizing public space intervention, a maximum of individual outdoor virgin space can be integrated. Private spaces are sharply divided from public spaces. There are no obstacles, obstructions or fences, only homes and connective streets. On a high tide each house is anchored, but eventually may transport itself to another location if necessary. Once out of the house, one is directly in contact with nature. Floating platforms for agriculture, fish breading ponds and floating community gardens are suggested spaces to increase productivity and social interaction. At several strategic locations, the urban rhythm is interrupted with public buildings. These buildings intend to become sculptural, representing local languages while acting as iconic beacons in the townscape. Public buildings stand in relation to other important infrastructures so they incorporate to the floating village fabric.

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07C. Building Design

housing unit distribution Unit Typology A

Family with 6-8 integrants

Unit Typology B

Family with 4 integrants

Floating platform Service Area

Customizable Area

future expansion possibilities

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housing unit distribution Unit Typology A

Family with 6-8 integrants

Unit Typology B

Family with 4 integrants

Unit Typology A

Family with 6-8 integrants

Unit Typology B

Family with 4 integrants

Floating platform

Floating platform

Private Area

Private Area

Service Area Social Area

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housing unit distribution

Service Area Social Area

Commercial Area

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07E. Environmental Technologies

330

In dry season the dwelling sits on the earth surface using leveling stilts adaptable to irregularities in the actual terrain.

Slanting overhangs on the roofs control the direct heat stroke while bringing refracted indirect lighting in the housing unit.

In rainy season the dwelling floats over the water surface using a buoyant platform while anchored to lateral poles.

The bigger surface of the sloping roof may be used for allocation of solar panels in order to supply the housing unit with enough energy for all housing electricity needs.

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07E. Environmental Technologies

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Cross Ventilation is applied throughout the whole unit in order to provide comfortable internal hygrothermic qualities.

The bigger slopping roof area is used for rain water harvesting, collected in an elevated water tak later used for diverse residential necessities.

Strategic openings in all facades permit natural flow of cold-hot wind circulation to cool down all spaces passively.

Composting + Dry toilet technolgies are proposed to provide a sustainable alternative for a closed biomass reuse cycle, suitable for gardening and agricultural purposes.

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Dry Toilet with Composting System

Composting Tank Dry Toilet + Access Hatch

Composting Tank

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housing unit distribution Unit Typology A

Family with 6-8 integrants

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housing unit distribution Unit Typology B

Family with 4 integrants

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housing unit distribution Unit Typology A

Family with 6-8 integrants

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housing unit distribution Unit Typology B

Family with 4 integrants

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housing unit distribution Unit Typology A

Family with 6-8 integrants

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housing unit distribution Unit Typology A

Family with 6-8 integrants + commercial space

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Public Building Unit Primary School classroom + Service GFA 80 m2 Net Area 160 m2

Public Building Unit Community Center + Service GFA 80 m2 Net Area 160 m2

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Public Building Unit Basic Healthcare Center + Service GFA 80 m2 Net Area 160 m2

Public Building Unit Place for Worship + Service GFA 80 m2 Net Area 160 m2

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Public Open Space Unit Park Net Area 165 m2

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Public Open Space Unit Market Net Area 165 m2

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Public Open Space Unit Square / Sports Arena Net Area 165 m2

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Private Housing Unit 1Bedroom + Living space + Future Extension Space GFA 36 m2

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Private Housing Unit 1Bedroom + Living space + Future Extension Space GFA 36 m2

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Public Building Unit Primary School classroom + Service GFA 80 m2 Net Area 160 m2

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Public Building Unit Primary School classroom + Service GFA 80 m2 Net Area 160 m2

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07D. Constructive Technologies

Roof Cover (Corrugated metal sheet + wood shading canopy)

Bamboo Roof Structure

Internal furnishing (Service Block Systems)

Bamboo Structure

Bamboo Skin framing

PET Bootles (Floatation System)

Bamboo Platform Surface

Galvanized Steel Platform Structure (Telescopic stilts)

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Bamboo Platform Surface

Hybrid Connection Joint. Axxis for insertionof Bamboo Column. Bolted Joint + Epoxy glue filling.

PET Bootles (Floatation System)

Adjustable Telescopic Steel Stilt Galvanized Steel Truss system

Galvanized Steel Telescopic stilts

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Typical Steel Platform Joint: Truss composed of double L profile extrusion beams and rod iron reinforcement bar for triangulation. Welding + bolted joint. Galvanized steel with powder coated water proof oil-based paint finish. Telescopic stilt permits easy height regulation to level the platform in order to adjust to irregularities on the basement surface.

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Bamboo Roof Structure

Bamboo Beams

04

02 03

01

Bamboo Columns

Isometric View of Bamboo Structure for a typical Private housing unit. Steel floating platform, load bearing bamboo beams and columns and bamboo roof structure.

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Bamboo Structure Joints Typical joints nylon string ties with transversal steel bolts Easy disassembly and reassembly

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01

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Private Housing Unit 1Bedroom + Living space + Future Extension Space GFA 36 m2

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Bamboo Structure Joints Typical joints nylon string ties with transversal steel bolts Easy disassembly and reassembly

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07F. Image and Identity

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Roof Typologies Corrugated Metal sheet roofing

Isometric View

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Roof Typologies Thatch/Straw roofing

Isometric View

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Roof Typologies Bamboo roofing + pergola

Isometric View

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Bamboo light and shadow effects.

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Skin Typologies Guadua Angustifolia

Isometric View

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Skin Typologies Ca単a Flecha Woven Palm

Isometric View

Traditional Weaving Patterns

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Skin Typologies Thatch Fibers

Isometric View

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Skin Typologies

Bahareque (Guadua framing with clay filling)

Isometric View

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Skin Typologies Cement Plastered Bahareque (Guadua framing with clay filling)

Isometric View

1 2 3 4

Cement Plastered Bahareque Constructive Detail 3 5 1 6

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Legend 1. Cement Plaster 2. Bamboo Structure 3. Aluminum Mesh 4. Bamboo mat 5. Clay + Straw filling 6. Oil based skirting paint

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Disasters and flood related events worldwide in the last 10 years i409

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Disasters and flood related events in Colombia in the last 10 years

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Forecast

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Weather phenomena, Disasters and flood related events in Colombia in the last 10 years wth a forecast projection taking into account new sustainable strategies. i411

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08. BIBLIOGRAPHY Print References AGRIFOR Consult (2009) Climate Change in Latin America, Les Isnes, Belgium: AGRIFOR Consult Bhatia, N.; Mayer H., J. (2010) Arium: Weather & Architecture, Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz Bowen, W. A.; Parsons, J. J. (1966) Ancient Ridged Fields of the San Jorge River Floodplain, Colombia: American Geographical Society Bridge, A.; Oliver, P. ; Vellinga, M. (2007) Atlas of vernacular architecture of the world, London: Routledge Comision Economica para America Latina y el Caribe (2011) Informacion para la Gestion del Riesgo de Desastres – Estudios de Caso de Cinco Paises, Bogota: Bango Interamericano de Desarrollo; Comision Economica para America Latina y el Caribe Corcoran, E.; Nellemann, C.; Baker, E.; Bos, R.; Osborn, D.; Savelli, H. (2010) Sick Water? The central role of wastewater management in sustainable development. A Rapid Response Assessment: United Nations Environment Programme Correa, E. (2011) Reasentamiento preventive de poblaciones en riesgo de desastre – Experiencias de America Latina, Washington, D.C.: The World Bank, GFDRR Deng, F. M.; Cohen, R. G. (1998) Masses in Flight: The Global Crisis of Internal Displacement, Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution

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Daza, R. (2012) Hatillo de Loba – Depresion Momposina Bolivar, Bogota: Architecture for Humanity Garcia Lozano, L. (2001) Mompox Region: synthesis of regional environmental evaluation studies for the transportation sector, Medellin: Instituto Nacional de Vias de Colombia Goddard, S. (2012) 2012 Global Warming Report Card, Haymarket (VA): Science & Public Policy Institute Hansen, J. (2006) Global Warming: Is there still time to avoid disastrous human-made climate change?, Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences Human Rights Council (2008) Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Colombia, Bogota: High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) Ibanez, A. M.; Velez, C. E. (2003) Forced Displacement in Colombia: Causality and Welfare Losses, Bogota/ Washington: Universidad de los Andes/ The World Bank iDMC (2009) Submission from the Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre of the Norwegian Refugee Council for consideration by the 42nd Pre-Sessional Working Group of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in the formulation of the List of Issues, Geneva: internal displacement monitoring center, Norwegian refugee council iDMC (2010) Colombia – Government response improves but still fairs to meet needs of growing IDP population, Geneva: internal displacement monitoring center,

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