SCIENCE FOR WESTERN AUSTRALIA
YEARS 7–10 Brighter thinking for a better future
Brodie Reid Victoria Shaw Kerrie Ardley Emma Bone Gemma Dale Christopher Humphreys Eddy de Jong Evan Roberts
Written specifically for Western Australian students, these engaging new resources draw on fresh local content, provide vital tools for differentiation, and integrate innovative digital capabilities.
ENGAGING AND RELEVANT FOR ALL
Specifically written for Western Australian students
Caters for every student The wide range of abilities and interests found in Western Australian classrooms is supported in several ways:
This NEW 7–10 resource draws on unique Western Australian examples of scientific principles in action to help students make connections in their science learning. There is also a focus on First Nations perspectives from the various Nations around the state and Australia. 189 Section 5.2 EarTh’S yEarly CyClE
Chapter map Simple machines 8.1 8.2
ak ur n u of an fert d w i li t y et M
D j il b a Se Te ason o f c o n c e ptio n mp era ture s t ar t s t o ri s e Se p te mb er t Augu s
Dec em be r
Sea Bi so r n Ho of t a th nd
A visual overview of the chapter content through concept maps
g an bar th Ka m b ir n of ason Seaso se dr y
Bunuru Season of adole sce nce Hottest
ril Ap ren Dje dulthood of a rature e on as emp sing Se T decrea rts sta
g un ak e yo y dr
• Ma rch
S t art of
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have different ways of mapping the seasons, depending on where they live. In the south-west of Western Australia, the Noongar people’s calendar shows six bonar (seasons). Birak is a dry and hot season and falls between December and January. Bunuru is the hottest time in Western Australia’s south west and falls between February and March. Djeren is when the temperature starts to decrease and falls between April and May. Makuru is the cold and wet season and falls between June and July. Djilba is when the temperature starts to rise and fall between August and September. Kambarang is the start of the dry seasons and falls between October and November. Other Aboriginal groups in Western Australia consider different numbers of seasons depending on the subtle changes in climate across Western Australia.
February ary nu Ja
Clear, student-friendly language and visually appealing design with carefully selected photos, illustrations and diagrams in an uncluttered layout
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander seasons
Figure 5.15 Noongar seasonal calendar
Tests mirror the question classification and marking scheme utilised in senior science.
Cognitive questioning verbs, as outlined by SCSA, are utilised throughout to familiarise students with these terms.
An extension section on Chemistry calculations in the Year 10 book prepares student for topics such as the Avogadro constant. Figure 5.16 Serpentine Falls in Whadjuk, Noongar boodja (Country)
Chapter 5 CHEMICAL REACTIONS
16 Your sugar cube is dissolving too slowly in your tea. Propose how you could make it dissolve faster and why. 17 You have two beakers of the same solution. They both have the same concentration. To increase the concentration of the solution, you pour them into the same beaker. Decide whether you have changed the concentration or not, giving reasons for your choice.
Now let us treat elementary entities as rice grains and one cup as a mole (n). Elementary entities can include small particles such as atoms, molecules and ions. One mole contains 6.022 × 1023 of these elementary entities, Did you know? 5.3
5.5 Extension: Chemistry calculations DOC
Learning goals 1 To be able to define the Avagadro constant. 2 To be able to calculate the molar mass for an atom or compound. 3 To be able to use the mole equation to solve problems including moles and mass.
In order to measure the efficiency of chemical reactions, scientists need to know how many particles are colliding and reacting in the chemical reaction. Take the following chemical reaction for example: 2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O By analysing the coefficients of the chemical species, we know that two hydrogen molecules will react with one oxygen molecule to produce two water molecules. However, it will be very difficult to measure exactly two hydrogen molecules and one oxygen molecule to complete this reaction! In fact, it will also be difficult on a larger scale to measure out 2 million hydrogen molecules and 1 million oxygen molecules. Scientists need an easier way to measure specific quantities of reacting particles.
the mole To make this next concept simpler, imagine that you have a bag of rice grains and you measure one cup of rice grains in a measuring cup. A measuring cup might contain 8612 rice grains; however, a recipe will not tell you to measure 8612 rice grains, but instead to measure one cup of rice. This makes measuring rice a lot easier than counting individual rice grains 8612 times!
The number of elementary entities in a mole, 6.022 × 1023, is also known as the Avagadro constant, NA, after the Italian scientist, Amadeo Avagadro. His work Figure 5.49 in the early 1800s on Amadeo Avagadro the number of atoms was born in 1776 in a given volume of in Turin, Italy. gas was an important foundation to the mole concept, which would be defined later that century. Another scientist, Jean Perrin, then named the constant after Avagadro in the early 1900s to celebrate his early influence on this field of chemistry. In 2019, the Avagadro constant was updated to be exactly 6.022 140 76 × 1023 elementary entities. However, for simplicity we will use the number 6.022 × 1023 in our calculations.
extenSion: ChemiStRy CalCulationS
also known as the Avagadro constant (NA). Therefore, if a scientist were to now measure one mole of oxygen gas (O2), they would have 6.022 × 1023 molecules to be exact, just as one cup of rice would contain 8612 rice grains in the previous example. This relationship between the mole and the Avagadro constant can be expressed mathematically: Number of moles =
mole 6.022 × 1023 elementary entities
Or n (mol) =
number of elementary entities −1 NA(mol )
number of elementary entities
Figure 5.50 The formula triangle for the number of elementary entities
Worked example 5.1 1 Calculate the number of moles of gold atoms if there are 3.011 × 1024 atoms. 2 Calculate the number of molecules of hydrogen gas, H2, in 0.5 moles. Working
1 Substitute values into the equation and solve. Figure 5.48 Imagine if recipes required you to count individual grains of rice!
number of elementary entities NA 24
3.011 × 10 atoms = 5 mol 6.022 × 1023 atoms mol−1
To solve for the number of moles, substitute the number of atoms as the number of elementary entities and the Avagadro constant, 6.022 × 1023, for NA.
2 Rearrange the equation to solve for number of molecules. number of elementary entities = n × NA = 0.5 mol × 6.022 × 1023 mol−1 = 3.011 × 1023 entities or molecules
elementary entity a small particle such as an atom, molecule or ion
number of elementary entities Avagadro constant
Rearrange the equation to solve for number of molecules (elementary entities). Substitute the number of moles and the Avagadro constant to solve.
In the previous chapter, you learned about how forces affect the world around us. Forces are necessary to carry out practically everything we need to do in our day to day lives! In this chapter, you will learn about how you can use simple machines to make some of your tasks easier to perform. You may not realise it, but we use simple machines every day, from door handles, taps and screwdrivers to the wheels of our car. You can make machines that use forces to perform a function. You will learn how to identify three different types of levers and find out how pulleys and ramps work.
Prepares students for WACE science studies •
Class 3 Speed multiplier
with rotating parts
Explore! activities in every chapter to extend students
Levelled questions in downloadable worksheets that suit different abilities
Lower ability students can complete the online quiz questions in each chapter and still cover the learning goals.
Students can track their progress
Hands-on activities reinforce concepts
Students can take charge of their progress through the clear learning intentions outlined at the start of each chapter and a success criteria checklist at the end of the chapter.
Over 50 hands-on activities per year level offer both classroom and laboratory activities as well as longer investigations.
Section 2.4 tHe aniMal kinGdoM
All practical activities not only help to engage students in science but continue to develop science inquiry skills. Did you know? Section 4.4 seParatIng hOMOgeneOus MIxtures 163 2.5
• In toxicology, gas chromatography is used to separate the components of a poison so that it can be identified and neutralised. • In pharmacology, chromatography allows for the testing of the purity of medicines and drugs.
• In fashion, chromatography helps break down the different components of the dyes in clothing. • In athletics and other sports, gas chromatography is used to check if the sportsperson has been using any prohibited substances.
Separating the pigments in water-soluble colour marker pens Aim To separate the pigments from water-soluble marker pen ink using chromatography.
In the Interactive Textbook, the success criteria are linked to the review questions and will be automatically ticked when answers are correct. Alternatively, you can download this checklist from the Interactive Textbook to complete it. Success criteria 4.1 4.1
I can identify and describe the differences between pure substances and mixtures. I can contrast homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures.
I can identify solvents, solutes and solutions. I am able to describe a range of physical separation techniques.
I am able to describe a range of separation techniques used by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.
I am able to describe a range of physical separation techniques to separate components of homogeneous mixtures.
Dissecting a squid Aim To explore the anatomy of the squid and observe its simple organ system.
Icy-pole stick and paperclips
Materials • 1 squid • dissecting tray (plastic chopping board) • dissecting scissors • probe • newspaper • 11 toothpicks • 11 sticky labels Tail
Less than 20 cm Heat and moisture from human detected
• • • •
Ensure that disposable gloves and a lab coat or apron are worn when the squid is being handled. gloves lab coat Optional: dissecting microscope Recommended: Laminated copies to Squid Internal and External Anatomy for reference during dissection. Eye
Filter paper strips with ink sample
Remembering 1 Define the following key words: a Solvent b Solute c Solution. 2 Recall a real world example of a homogeneous mixture and a heterogeneous mixture. 3 Recall the name of the piece of paper at the end of a chromatography experiment. 4 Select words from this list to complete the following paragraph. boiling temperatures condensed distillate evaporated liquids according to their . The Distillation is a method used to separate liquid is at a certain temperature, the vapour collected and then to form a liquid again. The liquid collected during this process is called the . The residue is the mixture that remains in the original container. 5 Select words from the list to complete the following paragraph (some words may be used more than once): filter filtrate funnel large residue small paper The apparatus used to separate the sand from the salt solution consists of inserted in a glass . The mixture of the salt solution and sand is poured into the . The paper acts as a sieve separating the particles by size. particles flow through the tiny holes of the filter paper and go into the beaker. These particles are called the . The particles become trapped in the filter paper and are called the .
Figure 2.63 External anatomy of the squid
5–10 m Human sighted
Method 1 Use a pencil to draw a line across each filter paper strip 1.5 cm from the bottom. Label the icy-pole sticks A, B and C – one position for each of three strips of filter paper. 2 Add enough water to the beaker so that the pencil lines will sit above the water line. 3 Using the water-soluble colour marker pen, draw a small dot on the filter paper in the middle of your pencil line.
10–50 m CO2 detected
Figure 2.62 Zones of human detection for mosquitoes
Materials • water • large beaker • long strips of filter paper • icy-pole sticks • paperclips • ruler • water-soluble colour marker pens
How mosquitoes hunt If you have ever been out on a warm summer night near water, you may have been bitten by a mosquito. Mosquitoes are found in the phylum Arthropoda. They have many specialised sensory organs that allow them to detect the presence of food, in your case, blood. In fact, it is only the female mosquito that feeds on blood as they need it to develop their eggs. You are an easy target as you do not have a thick layer of fur to protect your skin. Mosquitoes can sense the carbon dioxide that you breathe out from up to 50 metres away and will follow it, knowing that a human is nearby, until it leads to their target. When they are less than one metre away, they will then use both their vision and a special thermal sensor to detect their prey.
Figure 4.27 Experimental set-up
When the end-of-chapter questions are satisfactorily assessed in the Interactive Textbook, the success criteria checklist is ticked automatically to record achievement. The checklist is also available for download.
Fold the paper strips over the icy-pole stick, as shown, and clip them on using the paperclips. Repeat the first four steps this time using different coloured marker pens. continued…
Data questions at the end of each chapter also help students apply their understanding and challenge them to analyse and interpret data linked to the chapter content.
Auto-marked quizzes and self-assessed short-answer questions are also available for each section in the Interactive Textbook giving students immediate feedback on their progress.
Authentic STEM activities in each content chapter encourage student collaboration and engagement by taking a hands-on, practical approach to incorporating STEM in the science classroom. Each STEM activity can be completed in one or two lessons using readily available materials.
STEM activity: Designing and prototyping a ferry background information Ferries are used worldwide to connect two or more points (e.g. Elizabeth Quay Ferry in Perth). They carry passengers, goods, and sometimes vehicles and machinery. Ferries are vital for transport in many developing countries, since highways are expensive to build and most waterways come free. Without ferries, whole populations in the Amazon Forest would not be able to communicate, get access to food and goods or even have contact with the modern world.
Ferries, like boats, ships and canoes, float in water as a result of buoyancy. Any object placed in water will either sink or float, and that outcome is related to the density of that object (the amount of mass in a certain volume). If an object is denser than water, it will usually sink, and if it is less dense, it will float. But how can a steel ship, capable of carrying thousands of passengers and cars, float in the ocean when a metal ring or coin would sink in your bathtub? It is time to investigate how design can affect the buoyancy of a ferry!
DESIGNING AND PROTOTYPING A FERRY
Design brief: Design and construct a ferry boat.
Activity instructions In teams (maximum of 3 people), you will design and construct a ferry capable of transporting a payload between two points (return trip). Your team has been assigned the task of designing and constructing a ferry for riverside communities to transport people and goods on the water. As an engineer, you should investigate the science and technology of boats.
Suggested materials • • • • • • •
ruler and tape measure scissors cardboard bubble wrap plastic bags 5 × 100 g parcels of sugar/salt (payload) sticky tape (duct tape or gaffer tape would be good)
Research and feasibility 1 List the features that would make a useful boat. 2 Research the terms ‘density’ and ‘buoyancy’ and discuss in your group how these factors are important in boat design.
Design 3 List all the materials that you have available and that you plan to use for your ferry. 4 Design a ferry that is capable of transporting your payload (set mass) between two points and return. 5 Label and include measurements of your ferry.
Create 6 Build your ferry using the materials, checking as you progress that your ferry is capable of floating.
Evaluate and modify 7 Discuss the challenges you have encountered throughout this project with at least three of your peers. List the strategies or actions that allowed you to overcome it. 8 Create a list of improvements to your design that could be applied to this project to refine its performance.
Figure 7.59 Ferries are part of the public transport system in many places in the world.
A NEW LEVEL OF DIGITAL SUPPORT FOR STUDENTS
THE INTERACTIVE TEXTBOOK POWERED BY CAMBRIDGE EDJIN Powered by Cambridge Edjin, the trusted teaching and learning platform that also powers Cambridge HOTmaths, this new series offers a level of integrated digital support not available with any other science textbook for the Western Australian Curriculum.
I n t e r a c t i ve f e a t u r e s Auto-marked quizzes at the end of each section include multiple-choice, drag-and-drop and other interactive questions. Videos created in Australia help engage, summarise, clarify or extend student knowledge and are indicated by an icon in the print book. Interactive widgets demonstrate a concept and are accompanied by a downloadable question set. Success criteria checklist at the end of each chapter links questions to completion of checklist items – answer correctly to tick off criteria. Students can use the links in the checklist to review content they are unsure of before completing the questions. The checklist is also available for download. Scorcher, our timed, online competition, allows students to check their recall of key concepts and other content, while competing against each other and other schools. Workspaces allow students to enter their own working (including scientific notation) for all questions that are not auto-marked directly into the Interactive Textbook. Answers can be typed, drawn or uploaded on a computer or tablet device.
Self-assessment tools allow students to check their answers, self-assess their working using a four-point scale and use a red flag to alert their teacher if they had trouble with a question. Bookmark folders can be created by students with direct links to content they have marked. Roll-over glossary definitions of key terms are provided next to where the key term first appears in the chapter. Downloadable graded worksheets can be used for homework or in class. Access to the Offline Textbook, a downloadable version of the student text with note-taking and bookmarking enabled.
The Interactive Textbook is available as a calendaryear subscription and is accessed online through Cambridge GO using a unique 16-character code supplied on purchase. The Interactive Textbook is provided with the printed text, or is available for purchase separately as a digital-only option. cambridge.edu.au/go
MEETING THE NEEDS OF WA TEACHERS
Follows the Western Australian Curriculum
Section 6.2 sTars
Section 6.1 questions
The lead author for this series is an experienced Western Australian secondary school teacher. Other secondary teachers from Western Australia were also involved in reviewing and creating content for various aspects of the resource. The content follows the Western Australian Science Curriculum and elaborations outlined by SCSA from 2021 onwards so teachers can be confident they are teaching to the requirements.
Understanding 2 Explain why the Sun and stars follow a circular path across the sky each day. Applying 3 A radio telescope, like the Parkes telescope, focuses light in the same way as a concave mirror. Illustrate how radio waves are focused on the large dish on the Parkes radio telescope. Analysing 4 Contrast the geocentric and heliocentric models and state why the motion of the planets as observed on Earth supports the heliocentric model. Evaluating 5 Discuss the improvements in technology since early astronomers that have allowed us to look further and further into space. 6 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of having a telescope in space.
Teachers can tailor activities to suit the varied interests and abilities in their classroom in a number of ways: •
Blooms Taxonomy is utilised in the chapter review with question types divided into remember, understanding, applying, analysing and evaluating practical use of colour-coding throughout makes it easy for both students and teachers to locate different types of activities or other pedagogical features.
The Online Teaching Suite offers: Digital features
online quizzes covering the learning intentions, appropriate for lower ability students
downloadable tests and levelled questions in the Test Generator, so teachers can assign work to individuals and groups of students based on their ability
the Task Manager allowing teachers to create tasks (including custom-made tests) that direct students on an activity sequence appropriate to their achievement level.
Star temperature (kelvin) >30 000
10 000 to 30 000
7500 to 10 000
6000 to 7500
VIDEO Do small stars or large stars last longer?
It is amazing to think that all of the atoms that make up all of the molecules that make up all of the cells in your body were formed in distant stars well before the Earth, the Sun and our solar system even existed.
The Sun and other stars are often considered as big balls of burning gas. That is a rather oversimplified explanation of how they produce their energy. In reality, their energy comes nuclear fusion from a process called nuclear fusion. the process of joining two
Figure 6.9 One step in the fusion of hydrogen happens
spectral class a group into which stars are classified based on their spectra/colour
star colour and temperature
nuclei to produce energy
Nuclear fusion occurs when two atoms combine (or fuse) to create a new element. Because it is so hot inside the cores of stars, hydrogen nuclei have enough energy to overcome the electrostatic repulsion between their protons. They fuse together to form helium and an enormous amount of energy is released in the process.
Table 6.1 Temperatures and spectral classes of the star colours
originally classified alphabetically starting at A, but some letters were skipped, and others reordered as more was discovered about star surface temperatures. Our Sun is a relatively small yellow star with a surface temperature of around 6000 K, so is a G-type star.
Astronomers measure the brightness of B-V colour index the difference in brightness stars through different coloured filters. measured through blue and green filters, indicating the They subtract the amount of light that colour of a star comes through a green filter (called the visual filter) from the amount of light that comes through a blue filter. This is called the B‑V colour index. The lower (or more negative) the number, the bluer the star, and the higher (or more positive) the number, the redder the star. Rigel, a large blue star, has a B-V colour index of –0.03, for example. Betelgeuse, a large red star, has a B-V colour index of 1.85.
Explore! 6.2 Neutron
2400 to 3700
1 What is the name of the process that occurs inside stars? 2 Recall what the colour of a star tells us.
5200 to 6000 3700 to 5200
Quick check 6.3
1 To be able to determine a star’s spectral class from its colour and temperature. 2 To be able to compare the luminosity value of a star to that of the Sun. 3 To be able to list the different stages in a star’s life cycle.
B-V colour index
Most stars look white, but a few, such as Betelgeuse (642.5 light years from Earth), seem to have a very slight reddish tinge. So how do we know what the colours of stars actually are?
6.2 Stars DOC
Support for a wide range of learning abilities
Remembering 1 Recall the reason that most observatories are located in remote areas and at high altitudes.
Helium when the isotopes deuterium (one proton and one neutron) and tritium (one proton and two neutrons) fuse together. A neutron is released and a helium nucleus is formed (two protons and two neutrons).
When you look at stars in the night sky, you will notice that they vary in colour. The colour of a star is related to its temperature: blue stars are the hottest and red stars are the coolest. Stars are given a spectral class letter based on their temperature and colour. They were
Aldebaran is the brightest star in the Taurus constellation. It is classified as an orange K-type star and has a surface temperature of around 4000 kelvin. Research examples of stars that belong to each spectral class (O, B, A, F, G, K and M).
Light from stars All stars emit a full range of wavelengths from the visible spectrum (colours). This means you would observe a complete rainbow if you were to split the star’s light into different colours using a prism. However, a star’s spectrum peaks at a certain colour, and this is the colour that we observe the star to be. You will notice that there are no green stars listed in the spectral class system. There actually are stars whose spectrum peaks are in the green part of the spectrum, but their total combination of colours emitted appears white to our eyes.
Figure 6.10 White light consists of the full range of wavelengths (colours) from the visible spectrum.
Guided onboarding for teachers Clear instructions and immediate access to How-to support resources allow teachers and students to take advantage of the full interactive and online experience from Day 1, Term 1. Schools that adopt Cambridge Science for Western Australia for whole class use will receive complimentary access to the Online Teaching Suite with its comprehensive teaching programs, easy class creation, differentiation of tasks and monitoring of progress.
A NEW LEVEL OF DIGITAL SUPPORT FOR TEACHERS
THE ONLINE TEACHING SUITE POWERED BY CAMBRIDGE EDJIN The Online Teaching Suite combines the Interactive Textbook powered by Edjin and its rich digital resources with a suite of supplementary resources and a powerful Learning Management System (LMS).
Teacher support The Online Test Generator allows teachers to quickly create customised tests from a bank of levelled questions. Teachers can also share their customised tests with others in the school, building a whole-school assessment bank. All tests can be printed or assigned online for automarking, and are suitable for assessment, homework tasks, and practice quizzes. Teachers also have access to two ready-made, downloadable tests with levelled questions per chapter and accompanying answer sheets. The Task Manager can be used to create a Quick Task, or a Directed Task. The Directed Task option allows teachers to set an achievement benchmark for measurable activities that directs students on an activity sequence appropriate to their score. The Online Teaching Suite records results on quizzes, self-assessment scores and red flags raised by students in all sections, and end-of-chapter review questions. Reports on individual and class progress are available for download. Data from student Interactive Textbooks will directly feed to the Online Teaching Suite.
Access to student Workspaces entries allows for efficient and time-saving monitoring of work and provides students with the opportunity to alert teachers to problems with specific questions. Teachers can choose to give students access to suggested responses for the exercises online and also provide feedback to individuals on specific questions. A range of graded worksheets for developing both understanding and skills can be downloaded and used for homework or completed offline in class. Teachers also have access to the answers to the worksheet questions. Additional downloadable resources include: • • • •
a curriculum grid suggested teaching programs teacher notes for Try this, Explore! and Practical activities suggested responses to all activities and question sets.
The Online Teaching Suite is accessed online through Cambridge GO. Your Cambridge Education Resource Consultant will provide access to the Online Teaching Suite if your school has purchased or booklisted one or more year levels. The Online Teaching Suite is also available for purchase separately and can be activated using the unique 16-character code supplied on purchase.
Dr Brodie Reid teaches secondary science and Year 11 and 12 ATAR Chemistry at Perth Modern School. Brodie completed a PhD in Chemistry, followed by a Graduate Diploma in teaching at Curtin University in 2017, majoring in Science and Chemistry with a minor in Mathematics. He has over six years of experience teaching Chemistry at the tertiary level and is an author of over ten academic publications. He has presented his research internationally, winning several awards along the way.
Kerrie Ardley has taught a variety of junior and senior Sciences throughout her teaching career. Currently, she is the Head of Psychology at an independent school. Kerrie enjoys seeing students learn through the connections between theory, practical work and the world around us.
Emma Bone Emma Bone thrives on the dynamic and practical nature of science, which led her to a first-class honours degree in Biomedical Science. Her desire to enable students to maximise their potential brought about a career as a science teacher in Australia and in the UK where she was also a chemistry specialist teaching both GCSE and A level courses.
Evan Roberts Evan Roberts is a keen biologist and prior to teaching worked in conservation and environmental management. He has taught in both public and private schools and is dedicated to instilling his passion for science into his students. He believes that education, just like science, should be dynamic, exciting and forever changing to keep up with the world around us.
Christopher Humphreys Christopher Humphreys is currently Head of Mathematics and Physics at a tertiary college for international students. He graduated from Nottingham University in the UK and completed his MSc in Physics at the University of Waikato in New Zealand. He has over thirty years’ experience as a teacher in public and private schools in the UK, New Zealand and Australia.
Gemma Dale Gemma is a senior biology teacher at a Brisbane school who has also taught chemistry and physics in the UK. She has a tertiary background in ecology and a Masters of Science in Biodiversity and Conservation. She has worked with the Department of Environment and Heritage in Australia as a bat and gecko ecologist. She has also completed an Education Doctorate (EdD) specialising in scientific literacy.
Eddy de Jong Victoria Shaw Victoria Shaw has been committed to sharing her love for science with Year 7–12 students for the past 18 years and previously studied pharmacology. She was Head of Science at an independent school for several years and has also volunteered as an assessor for the VCAA and IBE. She also runs workshops in Biology and Psychology.
Eddy has been involved with Science and Physics education at the secondary and tertiary level for many years and is a successful author of numerous science and physics texts. He is passionate about seeing young minds engaging with science and physics and aims to instil in students a sense of curiosity whilst developing their critical thinking skills.
Available May, 2021
Available July, 2021
Interactions in ecosystems
Earth: Resources and management
States of matter
YEAR 9 Available September, 2021 1.
Science and data
2. Homeostasis 3.
Response and coordination
4. Ecosystems 5. Atoms 6.
Our changing Earth
Transfer of energy
YEAR 10 Available July, 2021 1.
Conducting effective investigations
2. Genetics 3. Evolution 4.
The periodic table
8. Energy 9. Motion
Contents are subject to change prior to publication.
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