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CAMBRIDGE

HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES FOR WESTERN AUSTRALIA

YEARS 7-10 Brighter thinking for a better future

A new series written for the Humanities and Social Sciences Curriculum for Western Australia.

Sally Davies Crystal Wieringa Anthony Lunt Emilie Ingate Nathan McKenzie Jessica Threlfo

cambridge.edu.au/wahass


Brighter thinking for a better future

ENGAGING OPPORTUNITIES TO MAKE CONNECTIONS

STUDENTS:

Wide range of carefully selected sources and case studies provide relevant evidence for students to engage with and analyse.

Engaging students in the study of the Humanities and Social Sciences Chapter opener stories hook students into each topic.

Timelines of key events in history chapters plus information on what came before and after provide added historical context.

CHAPTER 5 Investigating the ancient past 5.1 Setting the scene: investigating a historical mystery: the myth of Atlantis History is full of mysteries and controversies. They exist because history is not an exact science, and much of what we know about the past is fragmented and incomplete. Gaps in our evidence mean that the past can be interpreted in different ways, sometimes creating myths that continue for centuries. Some of the more extreme stories, such as the idea that the pyramids were built by aliens, can easily be dismissed by examining the evidence, which shows the pyramids were built by a human workforce around 4500 years ago. Other debated topics, such as whether King Arthur was a real person, or the purpose of ancient sites like Stonehenge, are impossible to determine with certainty because of a lack of evidence. Historians can make educated guesses, but they may not ever be able to fully resolve such mysteries.

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The story of Atlantis is an example of a myth that has persisted for thousands of years. It was first mentioned by Plato, an ancient Greek philosopher, writing more than 2300 years ago. He told of a glorious city which sank into the sea around 9000 years before his time. He wrote of an advanced civilisation that inhabited an enormous island located in the Atlantic Ocean. The civilisation was founded by the children of the Greek god of the sea and earthquakes, Poseidon. According to Plato’s description, Atlantis was a paradise. It had a series of canals,

◀ Source 5.1

A sculpture of Plato from ancient Greece

Impact of the myth

from fromhis his1948 1948play, play,Atalanta: Atalanta:AAStory StoryofofAtlantis: Atlantis:AA Fantasy Fantasywith withMusic Music , depicting , depictingthe themythical mythicalland landofof Atlantis Atlantisasasa aparadise paradise

Across much of the world, the Neolithic period (later Stone Age) saw the development of more settled societies. As people learned how to domesticate animals and plants, hunter-gatherer tribes gave way to larger communities, ultimately leading to the development of cities.

▲ Source 5.3

Map of the world, W. Scott-Elliott, Histoire de L’Atlantide (History of Atlantis), 1896. Circled is the supposed location of Atlantis, in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean between the American and African continents.

The myth has been the focus of comics, movies and TV shows. A hotel in Dubai named Atlantis has, according to its website, suites that look out over the breathtaking views ‘of the ancient ruins of the mythical lost city of Atlantis’.

chapteR 6 ancient egypt

laid out in a circle with bridges connecting the strips of land. The island was said to have had both hot and cold springs, and an abundance of food and exotic animals. The Atlanteans built beautiful temples and palaces out of coloured stone and gold. Despite living in a paradise, they sought to conquer the people of the Mediterranean and enslave them. They attacked Athens but were repelled and fell out of favour with the gods, who sent earthquakes that sunk their island into the sea.

6.2 Chapter overview

Different forms of farming evolved, depending on the types of animals and crops suited to the area. Different agricultural techniques also developed.

The search for Atlantis

People who thought Plato was writing actual history have looked for traces of this advanced society that fell into the ocean. They have scoured the sea and land for evidence, and a wide range of theories about who the Atlanteans were, and what happened to them, have developed. Some archaeologists have looked for a historical event or place that the story is based on.

Historians who study ancient societies often work alongside archaeologists and scientists who find and analyse sources for evidence about the development of ancient societies across the world. Because many organic everyday objects – including clothing, timber and paper – decay over time, the types of artefacts used by historians to learn about ancient societies are usually made of stone, pottery or metal.

Farming scene from an ancient Egyptian tomb

Farming

Ancient societies developed Stone Age barter systems between different groups into networks of trade across much of the world. From 130 BCE, China, India, Persia and Europe established the trade routes known as the Silk Road.

40 000 BCE

Activity: Historical overview 1 Using the map, list the two continents humans first settled in after they moved out of Africa. 2 Identify two examples of evidence supporting the idea that humans have lived in Australia for at least 40 000 years. 3 What challenges might historians face when analysing ancient written sources as evidence about the past? 4 Why might the rulers of ancient societies such as Sumer and Babylon have written down their laws and displayed them in public spaces?

10 000 BCE

Neolithic period begins (New Stone Age)

100 000 BCE

6500–4000 BCE

Homo sapiens have begun to migrate from Africa

Beginning of agriculture in Europe and Egypt

4000–2500 BCE

Farming and villages in western India

Have you ever wondered what is inside the pyramids or how people were mummified? These are among the many secrets of ancient Egypt. The ancient Egyptians were one of the world’s earliest human civilisations. They were among the first people to organise themselves into a large society that included a government, religious beliefs and unique cultural practices. 2 000 000 BCE

Palaeolithic period begins (Old Stone Age)

▶ Sources 5.4 and 5.5 Room of Lilies at Akrotiri, Thera, alongside an interior view of the site. Destroyed by a volcanic eruption in the sixteenth century BCE, the site has revealed a technologically advanced society that included three-storey buildings and a complex drainage system.

5000 BCE

Farmers in the Andes in South America begin to domesticate potatoes

8000–4000 BCE

63 000 BCE

Social classes

The wealth created by agriculture and trade led to specialised jobs such as craftspeople, artists, scribes and priests, as well as leaders. Most ancient societies were hierarchical, with their leaders at the top and warriors, priests, scholars and peasants below them.

‘Amazing but true’ breakout boxes give fascinating facts END OF SECTION Learning REVIEW 3.5 goals on the topic. After completing this chapter, you should be able to answer these questions:

Writing

Iconography

Art

Artworks, including statues, architecture and paintings on rock, papyrus and paper, can provide evidence of daily life, religious beliefs and the environments and politics of ancient societies.

2700–2200 BCE

Pyramids built in Egypt

Iconography refers to the symbols used to represent the beliefs and values of a society. Studying these symbols, such as the scarab beetle in Egyptian artefacts or the yin-yang from ancient China, provides historians with evidence about the values of ancient societies.

58–50 BCE

800–700 BCE

Roman conquest of Gaul, led by Julius Caesar

Rise of the Greek poleis (city-states)

15 000–10 000 BCE

Painting of the Lascaux caves in France

Rule of law

Written laws, such as the Code of Ur-Nammu (c. 2100–2050 BCE) and the Code of Hammurabi (c. 1700 BCE), developed in many ancient societies. In other societies, laws were remembered and taught via song, story and art.

Writing was first developed in ancient Sumer (cuneiform script) and Egypt (hieroglyphs), emerging from 3400 to 3200 BCE. Writing developed in India around 2600 BCE and in China between 1500 and 1000 BCE. Translating ancient texts and inscriptions can provide important evidence for historians.

166 CE

Development of agriculture and silk weaving in China

Humans living at Madjedbebe, Australia

There are a lot of things about Egypt that are similar to today, but there is also a lot that is very different and unique. Learning about ancient Egypt will help you to gain a better understanding about why Australia, and a lot of the world, works the way it WhY doesDoes today. 3.6 conclusion: iT maTTer? 151

A terracotta warrior from the tomb of Chinese emperor Qin Shi Huangdi

Trade

Construction of the Brewarrina fish traps, Australia

Introduction

Even though it was part of a philosophical work, the idea of Atlantis has fascinated people for centuries. It has had a major influence on art and literature, inspiring famous works such as Thomas More’s 1516 book Utopia, which describes a perfect society. A search for books on Atlantis today reveals thousands more titles, both historical and fictional. Atlantis has even been linked with the origins of the Mayan civilisation of Central America, although there is absolutely no evidence for these claims.

Evidence for the development of ancient societies

Key features of ancient societies ▲▲Source Source5.2 5.2AnAnillustration illustrationbybySirSirGerald GeraldHargreaves, Hargreaves,

Roman merchants reach China by sea

Religion

From the gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt and Greece to the Aboriginal Dreaming, detailed systems of belief developed in all ancient societies. These beliefs determined laws, social organisation, marriage and rituals associated with death, fertility and crop production.

Video Key features of

3180–1500 BCE

Neolithic settlements (e.g. Skara Brae) and megaliths (e.g. Stonehenge) built across Europe

Pottery

Ancient pottery has been found across Africa, Europe, Central and South America, and Asia. Pottery enabled humans to store or transport food, allowing them to remain in one place rather than following food sources. Ancient pottery gives evidence of the food eaten by people in ancient societies, as well as the goods traded between different settlements.

79 CE

The Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum are destroyed by a volcanic eruption

Tools

The earliest human tools were made from stone or animal bone. Metal tools were used from around 4000 BCE, made first from copper, then bronze and finally iron from around 1500 BCE. From tools, historians can learn about farming, hunting, housing and clothing, as well as weapons, used by ancient peoples across the world.

Video Evidence of ancient societies

ancient societies

Review questions

• HowTextbook, did geography the development Complete the quiz in the Interactive and answer affect the questions below

of ancient Egypt?

on paper or in the Interactive A visually appealing, uncluttered design is combined • Textbook. How was ancient Egyptian society organised? ‘Why does it matter?’ chapter conclusions wrap up the • What changes took place in ancient Egyptian society and what impact did these changes have? Recall with accessible language throughout. various threads of aneach topic for the students. Whatcivilisation were signifi cant beliefs, and practices of the ancient Egyptians? 1 Describe example of• an ancient having a spiritual or cultural values link with water. 2.4 hoW Businesses responD to the DeManDs of ConsuMers

• Why 2 Define the following terms: a water scarcity • How b physical water scarcity • Why c economic water scarcity From 1 July 2018, the supply of lightweight d drought. plastic bags was banned in Western 3Australia. List three impacts of a drought.

Amazing but true …

was Cleopatra a significant figure in 59 ancient Egypt? do archaeologists and historians uncover information about ancient Egypt? do we conserve the remains of ancient Egypt and how do we do it?

Historical skills

Every year billions of lightweight plastic shopping After completing this chapter, you should be able to: Interpret bags were supplied nationally, with around seven that leads to water scarcity. •factor Explain what cause and effect means in the study of history million littered in WA alone. 4 Outline and describe one 5 Explain how water scarcity impact both the and people in rural and • can Understand thenatural role environment of historians and archaeologists

Digital feature

in uncovering the past

While plastic shopping bags make up aareas. relatively urban small portion of solid waste and litter, they do not • Develop historical empathy with people in the past Argue impacts on break down and can have devastating • Interpret primary sources in both written and visual form marine wildlife and birds. 6 ‘The history of water management by Aboriginal and Torresof Strait Islandersources peoples is • Evaluate the reliability primary

The digital version of the book enhances the experience for students with QR code integration giving instant access to video sources. Audio content, a range of auto-marked and self-assessment opportunities and downloadable resources for tracking progress are also available in the digital resources.

valuable and should be a primary concern when managing water resources.’ Discuss whether

Since its announcement, WA’s plastic bag ban • Correctly use cspecial c to the topic under study you agree withhas this statement. Refer to specifi examplesterms to justifyspecifi your opinion. been widely supported by the community and industry, • Use factual evidence (dates, statistics, examples) to substantiate an argument ▲ Figure 2.10 It takes 500 (orHASS more) years for a plastic bag to Key concepts: environment, interconnection, skills: evaluating, communicating and reflecting including major retailers – some of sustainability the biggest degrade in a landfi ll. • Reflect on your findings and refine your learning. suppliers of lightweight plastic shopping bags.

Digital resources Visitwhy the Interactive to access: 3.6 Conclusion: does itTextbook matter?

The New South Wales Government announced in March 2020 that discussion would begin on banning plastic bags, which makes it the last state in Australia to do so.

• interactive Scorcher Quiz Water is a precious resource and is essential access it is going to increase. Geography END OF SECTION REVIEW 2.4 image galleries and is, other extra to life on our planet. It is so important• videos, is not just the study of what but also of materials. that scientists are looking for it on nearby what could be. How will you help address Review questions planets because where there is water, there water scarcity in your local area, in your is also theTextbook, possibility life. the questions below state on the Complete the quiz in the Interactive andofanswer on or paper or inEarth? the Water connects us all. The future of water resources is Interactive Textbook. As this chapter has explained, freshwater everyone’s problem. So be a part of the is not evenly distributed across the world solution! Recall and the number of people who struggle to

1 Define ‘demand’. 2 List some ways that Costco is different to traditional supermarkets. 3 List two issues that are a cause of concern for consumers.

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Interpret 4 Why do businesses want to be seen as a good place to work? 5 Discuss why WA’s plastic bag ban was widely supported by the community and industry. 6 Technology can assist businesses by capturing customer data. Describe some ways this has been achieved.

Video Five interesting facts about ancient Egypt

▶ Source 6.5

The Great Sphinx of Giza in front of the Great Pyramid


Making connections between subject areas A 'Making Connections' activity at the end of each topic encourages students to explore the relationships between the four HASS topics. For example, a 'Making Connections' activity for Year 9 looks at what students have learnt about the Industrial Revolution and World War I and the effect these events had on other subject areas.

Draws on Western Australian examples

Making Making connections: connections: History History andand thethe other other HASS HASS topics topics Economics and Business

History has many connections with other subjects in the Humanities. Have you considered how what you have learnt about the Industrial Revolution and World War I relates to the other topics you will cover this year? Here’s a sample:

Case studies, such as Perth’s changing work environment due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Economics and Business, Perth’s Black Lives Matter protests of 2020 in Civics and Citizenship, The West Australian Exhibition of 1886 in History, and environmental management such as the Quokka recovery program in Geography, will help students engage with the topic and relate what they are learning to their own lives.

The Industrial Revolution and the origins of a global economy How did the Industrial Revolution lead to a global economy? What happened to the economies of countries that were colonised – try a cost-benefit analysis based on the following: 1 2 3 4 5

World War I and Australia’s economic development How independent was Australia’s economy prior to World War I, and how did this change when the war broke out? Research the impact of the war on: • Shipping • The steel industry • Agriculture • Manufacturing. Use the example of the Australian economy in World War I to explain the dangers of an economy dependent on one key trading partner. What are the advantages of a diverse economy, and a range of trading partners?

Geography

Civics and Citizenship

The Industrial Revolution and interconnections In what ways did the Industrial Revolution break down barriers to international interconnection? Consider:

Workers’ rights in the Industrial Revolution What were the key values of the Chartists, and other campaigners for workers’ rights, in the Industrial Revolution? How have these ideas been incorporated into our democracy in Australia today?

• • • • • •

Research the Reform Bill of 1832. What features are now part of Australia’s political system? Key political players in the Industrial Revolution Who are the key players in a political system? Which of these were involved in improving conditions for people in Britain during the Industrial Revolution? Find out details about the following parties and people in Britain: • The Conservative Party (the ‘Tories’) • The Luddites • The Whig Party

Using Gallipoli and the sites of Australian battles at Beersheba and the Western Front, explain what is meant by a ‘cultural attachment to place’.

World War I conscription debates How did the Conscription debates of 1916 and 1917 affect politics in Australia? Follow the party membership of Billy Hughes as he tried unsuccessfully to introduce conscription in Australia. Who were the Nationalists, and how did they form? How did the Catholic/Protestant divide affect the Labor Party’s vote?

chapTer 5 environmenTal change anD managemenT

Railways Shipping The internal combustion engine Telephones and telegraph Undersea cables Trade of raw materials e.g. cotton, tobacco, enslaved persons.

World War I and connections to place – Gallipoli Travelling to Gallipoli on Anzac Day has been described as a ‘pilgrimage’ in recent times. Why have Australians formed such a deep attachment to this part of Turkey? What is the attitude of the Turkish people to this? Find out what has been done in Gallipoli to cater for these visitors.

• The Earl of Shaftsbury (Anthony Ashley Cooper) • Robert Owen

How would they compare to political parties, politicians and community leaders in Australia today?

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Impact on industry and employment Environmental implications – e.g. clearing of forests, mining and landforms Trade – goods, investment, slaves Education and training Resources – extraction, depletion and exploitation.

ACTIVITY 5.15 Interpretation activity 1 Using Figure 5.54, describe the change in distribution of quokka populations pre- and post-1980. Why is this data significant? Key concepts: place, space, change

Environmental management: Quokka Recovery Plan The Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) released a 10-year recovery plan for the Quokka. The plan was in response to the listing of the quokka as vulnerable under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. With consultation with the DEC Science Division,

HASS skills: analysing, evaluating

local interest groups, and the Aboriginal communities in the region. The plan aims to improve the conservation status of the quokka within the 10-year period of the project. In addition, the existing populations of quokka are to maintain the same extent of habitat. The final aim is to identify and place management strategies into place to remove or lesson current threats to known populations.

Amazing but true …

▲ Figure 5.54

Bald Island, located off the coast of Albany, is home to the second largest quokka population with numbers estimated between 600 to 1 000.

Developing skills for senior studies The end-of-chapter activities are designed to develop the skills students need to succeed in Humanities and Social Science courses at WACE levels, with a range of activities provided under the categories of reflection, inquiry, analysis and writing. 152

chaPTer 3 WaTer in The WorlD

3.7 enD of chaPTer acTiviTies

153

3.7 End of chapter activities Reflection

Problem-solving task

Self-assessment

Skills development integrated with content Key concepts and skills for Geography and History are introduced at the start of each Unit or Depth Study. ‘Developing Geographical/Historical concepts and skills’ activities are also embedded throughout the content allowing students to incrementally develop their understanding of key concepts and HASS skills. ‘Key concepts for your memory bank’ boxes are also included for all topics and a final activity – ‘Putting it all together: key concepts for your memory bank’ – at the end of each year level demonstrates to students the relationship between key concepts and the HASS subjects.

Putting it all together: key concepts for your memory bank Putting it all together: key concepts for your memory bank Summarising your studies of the Humanities and Social Sciences in Year 7

Making choices

The process of making a choice is not always easy. Because economist study how people satisfy unlimited wants with the use of scarce resources, they are concerned with strategies that will help us make the best choices. Every time a choice is made something is given up

Place

Sources

Evidence

ct colle urces to t ed to m so abou We ne tion fro cisions ma s ke de urce infor us ma the reso e help to us how le to us ab s avail urce e so the us y ed to justif We ne nce to ke ide as ev s we ma ion decis

Definition

Westminster Rights and system responsibilities

Sources are pieces of information about people events or ideas.

Concept

Step 3: Create a diagram that demonstrates how these concepts are interconnected. Use arrows to show what/how each concept connects to each other and write your reason for making this connection along each arrow. An example is shown for you below.

Evidence is information that helps us to support a claim or argument

Step 1: Go back through the chapters and identify what each of the concepts in the table below mean. Reread the definition of the concepts in this book first. Now copy and complete the table by defining each concept in the table in your own words (one has been done for you).

Making good economic choices depends on comparing the costs and benefits of using the available resources

Activity 1 – Create a summary of the concepts you’ve learned about this year connect to each other

Step 2: Identify links between concepts by grouping them into pairs or groups of three. For example: you might connect Sources and Evidence and Making Choices together because we need to use information from sources to help us make good economic choices. Write out your ideas as a series of brainstorms until you have used all of the concepts in the table. Share your brainstorms with a partner. How is your work the same and different to each other? Give your partner one piece of positive feedback and offer one idea that might help them improve their work.

All good claims or points made in an argument need evidence to support them

We hope the activities present another opportunity to see how the key concepts are related across the HASS subjects. We also hope the activities allow you to summarise your work in Humanities and Social Sciences in Year 7 and can be looked at again to revise your studies when you start Year 8!

Step 4: Repeat Steps 2 and 3 until you have connected all of the concepts into pairs or groups of three.

Writing

Making thinking visible

Extended-response question

Circle of viewpoints Turning wastewater into potable water is seen by some as a necessity and by others as an absolute last resort. Consider a situation where the Western Australian Government decided to start recycling Perth’s wastewater. Choose a perspective from the following list: • • • •

Claim: Water resources are renewable yet finite. Sustainable management of this environmental resource is needed to ensure that people, the environment and the economy are not negatively impacted. Discuss whether you agree with the above statement. In your response, refer to the types of water resources in specific places, the impacts associated with water supplies and the ways that water is managed in the area.

The premier of Western Australia A government authority, such as the Water Corporation The owner of a Perth business that needs a large water supply A local resident.

HASS skills: questioning and researching, analysing, evaluating, communicating and reflecting

Key concepts: place, space, environment, interconnection, sustainability, scale, change

Use the following sentence stems to explore this topic. I am thinking of turning wastewater into potable water from the point of view of … I think turning wastewater into potable water is … A question I have from this viewpoint is …

Inquiry Research tasks Choose one of the examples provided in this chapter to study water as an environmental resource more thoroughly. Develop a research question, and research additional detail and statistics to answer the question. Then, present your findings in a report. Some ideas are given here: • Is solar, wind, fossil fuel or nuclear energy a sustainable option for the future of energy production? • What are the impacts of salinity in Australia? Find out how much of Australia is affected, the main causes of the problem and the ways that Australians are trying to reduce the impacts. • To what extent are dams in Australia or elsewhere in the world impacting the environment, people and local economies? • What are some of the specific impacts of the management of the Mekong River in downstream communities? Is this likely to change in the future? How could the river 5.4 How Historians and system be managed more sustainably?

question their usefulness and reliability. This is because some sources might be misleading, lack detail or be incomplete. Historians must think critically about the sources they are using to ensure that the version of the past they are reporting is as accurate as possible.

▲ Figure 3.77 A dam built in Laos in 2019 reduced the flow of the Mekong River in downstream regions, which impacted the lives of local villagers and destroyed the river’s diverse ecosystems.

arcHaeologists investigate History

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since the discovery of his perspectives different tomb and many books have attitudes or ways of thinking about something, such as an been published about the issue, person or event cause of Tutankhamun’s death. Early theories argued that he was killed by a blow to the head, which were subsequently proven to be incorrect by medical scans. Later investigations suggested that he died as a result of a chariot accident which crushed his rib cage. More recently, it has been suggested that he had chronic diseases that weakened his immune system and he died of complications from a fractured bone in his leg. These changing theories show that no historical account is final and history will always be rewritten, in this case due 2.6 wHy and How ParticiPants in tHe gloBal econoMy are dePendent on eacH otHer to advances in technology and ongoing conversation around this famous historical figure. Historians may disagree about what MAKING THINKING VISIBLE 2.2 caused a war to happen or what the use was pair, for ashare particular artefact, but they need Think, to remain open to new points of view and Think about each stage represented in the supply chain diagram in Figure 2.19. Take a few minutes to identify and always support theirandversion of the past thinkmust about what happens at each stage find a partner to talk about each stage. Do you identify similar activities and with evidence. processes?

Making thinking visible After they have collected evidence from a range of different sources, historians use that

evidence to construct an account of the past. Drawing These accounts on are thenHarvard’s published in books, Project Zero's Visible Thinking textbooks, podcasts, newspapers, journals or documentaries. Once these accounts have includes ‘Making Thinking Visible’ Routines, this series been published, other historians respond to this view of the past and agree or disagree activities tosaid.get students thinking about how they learn with what has been The conversation about what happened in the past is an process, as new evidence andongoing encourage acomes deeper understanding of the content. to light, different ways of thinking about evidence occur, and perspectives change.

Sources can be used as pieces of evidence

Throughout your studies this year, we have asked you to take special notice of certain key concepts across the four HASS subjects. In the following activities, we would like you retrieve what you know from your memory bank about these six key concepts, and demonstrate your understanding of the concepts in writing.

As the global population continues to grow, domestic water use places an increased pressure on water supplies. Either research a modern technology that reduces domestic water use or design your own. Discuss how this technology works and how it could be incorporated into existing houses in Australia.

That just about wraps up this topic. How do you feel you went working through the chapter? Before you attempt the following activities, visit the Interactive Textbook to rate your confidence with this topic either online or via a downloadable checklist.

Let us look at an example of this process of how history is reported. Tutankhamun died more than 3000 years ago and his tomb was discovered in 1922. New evidence and theories about the pharaoh have developed

MAKING THINKING VISIBLE 5.3

Key concepts: scarcity, specialisation and trade, interdependence

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HASS skills: analysing, communicating and reflecting

Trade ultimately can allow for greater choice for consumers because trade increases the variety Compass points and availability of goods and services that can be imported. These are the products and services that If what happened in the past cannot change, we may ask: cannot be produced efficiently by the domestic Why does our understanding of history change? market. It is important to remember that we do not only import goods and services because they are cheaper, but also because they are unique and have On a large piece of paper or cardboard, or using a brand digitalvalue application, draw a compass with N, E, S and . Brand value means that consumers W around the edges. On each compass point respond to thetoquestions bybrand considering: are willing pay more forbelow a certain because of the reputation of the manufacturer and the Need to know: What else do you need to know orperceived access to help ofyou answerWe theimport question? prestige ownership. Maserati from Italy, Excited: What do you find exciting or interesting brand aboutvalue investigating idea?from France, the financial thisChanel value of having customers Adidas and Nike from willquestion? pay more for aHow might Stance: What is your current stance (position) onwho this you move the USA, to nameforward to particular brand ▲ Figure 2.21 Some of the best-known brands are up in lights. but a few. evaluate how accurate your position is?

Worrisome: What are you worried about when thinking about how to research this question? Brainstorm all of your ideas about the question. Key concepts: continuity and change, cause and effect, significance

ACTIVITY 2.5

Draw up a table similar to the one below and think about the brands and products you like from overseas. Write a list of your favourite brandsand in the first column. In the second column (country of origin) write the name HASS skills: questioning researching, communicating of the country where and refl ectingthis brand comes from, and in the third column, write why you like this brand. Share and discuss with a partner.

Extension challenge: can you interconnect all of these concepts in one diagram?

Product/brand

Country of origin

Why do you value this brand?

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A NEW LEVEL OF DIGITAL SUPPORT FOR STUDENTS

THE INTERACTIVE TEXTBOOK POWERED BY CAMBRIDGE EDJIN The online version of the student text delivers a host of interactive features to enhance the teaching and learning experience, and when connected to a class teacher account offers a powerful Learning Management System.

I n t e r a c t i ve f e a t u r e s Videos created for this series engage students and extend their knowledge. Image galleries including virtual tours of key locations in each chapter. Widgets such as image pop-ups. Auto-marked quizzes at the end of each chapter section allow students to quickly check their recall of the content. Workspaces for section review questions allow students to enter their answers directly into the Interactive Textbook. Students can self-assess using a four-point scale and use a red flag to alert their teacher if they had trouble with a question. Additional end-of-chapter activities include automarked and short-answer questions linked to a checklist for students to chart their progress towards the skills and knowledge needed for the year. Scorcher, our timed, online competition, allows students to check their recall of key concepts and other content, while competing against each other and other schools.

Roll-over glossary definitions. Downloadable worksheets are provided for all activities and can be used for homework or in class. Bookmark folders can be created by students with direct links to content they have marked. Links to external websites. Access to the Offline Textbook, a downloadable version of the student text with note-taking and bookmarking enabled.

The Interactive Textbook is available as a calendaryear subscription and is accessed online through Cambridge GO using a unique 16-character code supplied on purchase. The Interactive Textbook is provided with the printed text, or is available for purchase separately as a digital-only option. cambridge.edu.au/go

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TEACHERS: TEACHERS:

MEETING THE NEEDS OF WESTERN AUSTRALIAN TEACHERS 104

chaPTer 3 WaTer in The WorlD

Condensation Precipitation

Transpiration

Infiltration

Making connections An interdisciplinary approach consistent with the spirit of the WA Curriculum has been adopted across the series with explicit connections between the four topics, the key concepts and skills. ‘Making Connections’ activities at the end of each topic explicitly demonstrate the interconnectedness of the subject areas. The key concepts from the Humanities and Social Sciences Curriculum are covered across all year levels and are brought together at the end of each book by a ‘Putting it all together’ activity that demonstrates the relationship between the subject areas and specific concepts chosen per year by our expert author team. By the end of the four years all key concepts from the curriculum will have been developed across the series. Support for differentiation Teachers can use the end-of-section review activities to differentiate learning for individual students. The questions are divided into 'Recall', 'Interpret' and 'Argue' questions to help students build their skills for further studies and enable teachers to set tasks of varying challenge to suit the needs of individuals. The Year 9 and 10 books also include an 'Extension' question category for additional work to extend students.

Digital features

Downloadable worksheets, crosswords and literacy sheets can be utilitised in task differentiation. The online Task Manager allows teachers to create tasks (including custommade tests) that direct students on an activity sequence appropriate to their achievement level.

Runoff

Evaporation

Developmental approach to teaching key concepts and skills in context U nde

rgro

und

flow A range of activities are embedded throughout the course to help students make the connections between the skills and the subject matter. The corresponding skills and concepts ▲ Figure 3.12 The different processes involved in the natural water cycle being addressed in each activity are flagged with 'Key Amazing butskills' truesummaries … concepts' and 'HASS so that teachers can In the past,all Perth relied heavily on dams as a source of being water. But now with climate change, is ensure curriculum areas are covered. The Perth concepts receiving less rainfall, leading to lower dam water supplies. Today, most of Perth’s drinking water comes from skills the Indianare Oceandeveloped using the process of across desalination. the In simple terms, thisand is the removal of salts and with and series are taught other materials from sea-water to produce freshwater. increasing levels of challenge as students progress.

DEVELOPING GEOGRAPHICAL CONCEPTS AND SKILLS 3.2 Drawing a concept map Concept maps are a type of diagram used to show processes. They include terms inside boxes, with arrows linking the boxes to demonstrate the steps of a process.

Infiltration

Runoff

A concept map can be used to summarise the Groundwater processes within the water cycle and the different forms of water found in the cycle. Copy and complete the concept map here to summarise the water cycle. Key concepts: interconnection

HASS skills: communicating and reflecting

Provides essential depth of content Our series is not locked into a format that would compromise depth of content. Ample content and a wide range of activities are provided in each year level to ensure every curriculum dot point is well covered and students can gain the required knowledge and understanding for each topic. A broad range of sources in History, data in Geography, and case studies in Economics & Business and Civics & Citizenship have been carefully selected to provide relevant evidence for students to engage with.

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A NEW LEVEL OF DIGITAL SUPPORT FOR TEACHERS

THE ONLINE TEACHING SUITE POWERED BY CAMBRIDGE EDJIN The Online Teaching Suite combines the Interactive Textbook powered by Edjin and its rich digital resources with a suite of supplementary resources and a powerful Learning Management System (LMS).

Teacher support The Online Test Generator allows teachers to quickly create customised tests from a bank of questions. Teachers can also share their customised tests with others in the school, building a whole-school assessment bank. All tests can be printed or assigned online for auto-marking, and are suitable for assessment, homework tasks, and practice quizzes. The Task Manager can be used to direct students on a custom activity sequence based on their scores in measurable tasks such as quizzes or custom tests. The Online Teaching Suite records student scores on quizzes, self-assessment scores and red flags raised by students in all sections. Reports on individual and class progress are available for download. Data from student Interactive Textbooks will directly feed to the Online Teaching Suite. Access to student Workspace entries allows for efficient and time-saving monitoring of work and provides students with the opportunity to alert teachers to problems with specific questions. Teachers can choose to give students access to the suggested responses for the exercises online and also provide feedback to individuals on specific questions.

Additional teacher resources such as editable teaching programs, downloadable WA Curriculum General Capability Projects and assessment rubrics per chapter, curriculum grids, teaching tips for new teachers, marking rubrics and unit plans. Guided onboarding for teachers Clear instructions and immediate access to How-to support resources allow teachers and students to take advantage of the full interactive and online experience from Day 1, Term 1. School that adopt Cambridge Humanities and Social Sciences for Western Australia for whole class use will receive complimentary access to the Online Teaching Suite with its comprehensive teaching programs, easy class creation, differentiation of tasks and monitoring of progress.

The Online Teaching Suite is accessed online through Cambridge GO. Your Cambridge Education Resource Consultant will provide access to the Online Teaching Suite if your school has purchased or booklisted one or more year levels. The Online Teaching Suite is also available for purchase separately and can be activated using the unique 16-character code supplied on purchase.

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AUTHORS

S a l l y Dav i e s Sally Davies has been teaching Humanities, Ancient and Modern History and English for 22 years. She loves working with young people to engage them in the core skills of critical thinking and problem solving. Sally has worked extensively with the School Curriculum Standards Authority in roles such as ATAR Chief Examiner and Chief Marker and has written for ACARA. She has also written EST’s and developed ATAR and General Course syllabuses through her involvement with the Ancient History Course Advisory Committee, which she currently chairs. Sally is currently teaching at Living Waters Lutheran College, and is Vice President of the History Teachers Association of WA (HTAWA). Sally is also an elected Councillor for her Local Government, allowing her very valuable insight into civics and democracy in action. Sally currently teaches at Byford Secondary College.

C r y s t a l W i e ri n g a Crystal Wieringa is a passionate senior school Modern History and lower school HASS teacher. She has had experience teaching in both country and metropolitan schools and has taught a wide variety of student ability levels from gifted students through to low literacy and students identified to be at educational risk. Crystal was the HASS TDS Coordinator from 2015 to 2017 and has assisted many teachers with curriculum planning and delivery. She is currently teaching at Kelmscott Senior High School and is an active member of the HTAWA committee and has been in the role of Vice President since 2018.

A n t h o ny L u n t Anthony Lunt has taught History for 30 years, in Government, Independent and Catholic schools. He has postgraduate qualifications in Heritage Studies, and is currently completing a PhD in History at the University of Western Australia. Anthony has been a WACE marker for many years, and presented many seminars for both students and fellow teachers. He is a committee member of the HTAWA and is currently teaching History at Trinity College in East Perth.

E m i l i e I n ga t e Emilie Ingate has been teaching Humanities and Social Sciences for over 10 years after first achieving a Bachelor of Arts in Politics and International studies and working for government for a few years. She has always had an interest in Civics and Citizenship and the relationship between people, power and decisionmaking. She encourages students to ask why are things the way they are? Is it fair? And can we make it fair? She has experience teaching both ATAR and General subjects such as Politics and Law, Modern History and Psychology. Emilie is currently teaching at Comet Bay College.

Nathan McKenzie Nathan McKenzie is a Humanities and Social Sciences and Economics teacher with experience teaching Business Management and Enterprise. Before teaching, he had roles in business development, media and financial analysis. He has taught Economics at a WACE level and is passionate about improving economic and financial literacy among Western Australian students.

J e s s i c a T h re l f o Jessica Threlfo is a Senior Teacher in the Humanities and Social Sciences department at her current school. She has taught a range of Humanities subjects in Western Australian public secondary schools for more than 11 years, including ATAR Geography and General Career and Enterprise. Jessica is a passionate advocate for the inclusion of skills-based learning and ICT into geography education. Jessica currently teaches at Byford Secondary College.

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CONTENTS

YEAR 7

YEAR 8

Available July 2021

Available September 2021

Part 1: Civics and Citizenship

Part 1: Civics and Citizenship

1. Designing our political and legal system Making connections: Civics and Citizenship and the other HASS topics Part 2: Economics and Business 2. Producing and consuming Making connections: Economics and Business and the other HASS topics Part 3: Geography Unit 1: Water in the world 3. Water in the world Unit 2: Place and liveability 4. Place and liveability Making connections: Geography and the other HASS topics Part 4: History

1. Rights, freedoms, participation, laws and identity Making connections: Civics and Citizenship and the other HASS topics Part 2: Economics and Business Unit 1: Markets, producing and consuming and the future of work 2. The market economy 3. Rights and responsibilities of producers and consumers 4. Influences on work Making connections: Economics and Business and the other HASS topics Part 3: Geography Unit 1: Landforms and landscapes 5. Landforms and landscapes 6. Landforms and landscapes case study: coastal landscapes

Historical overview: the ancient world

7. Geomorphic hazards

Depth study 1: Investigating the ancient past

Unit 2: Changing Nations

5. Investigating the ancient past Depth study 2: Investigating an ancient society 6. Ancient Egypt 7. Ancient Greece 8. Ancient Rome

8. Urbanisation 9. Migration Making connections: Geography and the other HASS topics Part 4: History

9. Ancient India (digital only)

Historical overview: the ancient to the modern world

10. Ancient China (digital only)

Depth study 1: Investigating medieval Europe

Making connections: History and the other HASS topics

10. Medieval Europe (c.590 – c.1500 CE)

Putting it all together: Key concepts for your memory bank

Depth study 2: Investigating the Black Death in Asia, Europe and Africa: fourteenth-century plague 11. The Black Death Making connections: History and the other HASS topics Putting it all together: Key concepts for your memory bank

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YEAR 9

YEAR 10

Available September 2021

Available October 2021

Part 1: Civics and Citizenship

Part 1: Civics and Citizenship

1. Government, democracy and justice Making connections: Civics and Citizenship and the other HASS topics Part 2: Economics and Business Unit 1: Australia and the global economy

1. Safeguarding democracy and justice at home and overseas Making connections: Civics and Citizenship and the other HASS topics Part 2: Economics and Business

2. Going global

Unit 1: Economic performance, consumerism and business productivity

3. Money matters

2. Economic performance and living standards

4. The business environment: innovation and competitive advantage

3. Consumer financial decisions

5. Work and work futures Making connections: Economics and Business and the other HASS topics Part 3: Geography

4. Business productivity Making connections: Economics and Business and the other HASS topics Part 3: Geography Unit 1: Environmental change and management

Unit 1: Biomes and food security

5. Environmental change and management

6. Biomes and food security

Unit 2: Geographies of human wellbeing

Unit 2: Geographies of interconnection

6. Geographies of human wellbeing

7. Geographies of interconnection Making connections: Geography and the other HASS topics Part 4: History Historical overview: the making of the modern world Depth study 1: Investigating the Industrial Revolution (1750-1914) 8. The Industrial Revolution (1750-1914) Depth study 2: Investigating World War I (1914-1918)

Making connections: Geography and the other HASS topics Part 4: History Historical overview: the making of the modern world and Australia Depth study 1: Investigating World War II (1939-1945) 7. Australia’s involvement in World War II (1939-1945) Depth study 2: Investigating rights and freedoms (1945-the present) 8. Rights and freedoms and Australia (1945- the present)

9. ‘The war that changed us’: World War I (1914–1918) and

Making connections: History and the other HASS topics

the development of modern warfare

Putting it all together: Key concepts for your memory bank

Making connections: History and the other HASS topics Putting it all together: Key concepts for your memory bank

Contents are subject to change prior to publication.

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