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cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg

RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW© Ryb 2011

mnvqZvq: BDwb‡md  


cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg

                               

RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW©, XvKv

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 1


cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg Dbœqb: IqvwK©s KwgwU

1. cÖ‡dmi †gv: †gv¯Ídv KvgvjDwÏb, †Pqvig¨vb, RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW© 2. cÖ‡dmi G †K Gg w``vi, m`m¨, cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg DBs, RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW© 3. cÖ‡dmi Kwdj DwÏb Avnv¤§`, GWz‡Kkb †KvqvwjwU †UKwbK¨vj GWfvBRvi, wcBwWwc-2, cÖv_wgK wkÿv Awa`ßi 4. kwdK Avn‡g` wkejx, DcmwPe, DaŸ©Zb we‡klÁ, cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg DBs, RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW© 5. W. †gv: Avãyj gvbœvb, cÖavb m¤úv`K, RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW© 6. ˆmq` gvndzR Avjx, DaŸ©Zb we‡klÁ, RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW© 7. †gvL‡jm-Di ingvb, we‡klÁ, RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW© 8. †gv: gyikx` AvKZvi, M‡elYv Kg©KZ©v, RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW© 9. Avey †nbv gvïKzi ingvb, M‡elYv Kg©KZ©v, RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW© 10. †ivLmvbv cvifxb, M‡elYv Kg©KZ©v, BbK¬zwmf GWz‡Kkb †mj, cÖv_wgK wkÿv Awa`ßi 11. Wv: †gv: †Mvjvg †gv¯Ívdv, GWfvBRvi-BwmwW, AvMv Lvb dvD‡Ûkb evsjv‡`k I AemicÖvß DaŸ©Zb BwmwW we‡klÁ, BDwb‡md evsjv‡`k 12. g. nvweeyi ingvb, GWz‡Kkb GWfvBRvi, †mf `¨ wP‡ìªb 13. jvqjv dvinvbv Avcbvb evby, wkÿv Kg©KZ©v, BDwb‡md evsjv‡`k 14. BKevj †nv‡mb, wkÿv Kg©KZ©v - Aviwj jviwbs, BDwb‡md evsjv‡`k

       

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 2


gyLeÜ

                                  cÖ‡dmi †gv: †gv¯Ídv KvgvjDwÏb †Pqvig¨vb RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW©  

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 3


m~wPcÎ

welq

c„ôv

1. f~wgKv

05

2. jÿ¨

07

3. D‡Ïk¨

07

4. wkÿvµg cÖYq‡bi g~jbxwZmg~n

08

5. cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wk¶vµg Ges g~j¨‡eva I ˆbwZKZv

11

6. wkÿvµ‡g weKvk I wkLb m¤úwK©Z Z‡Ë¡i cÖfve Ges wkïi weKvk I wkL‡bi ˆewkó¨

12

7. weKv‡ki ‡ÿÎ I wkLb‡ÿÎ

17

8. cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg g¨vwUª·

19

9. wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqvi g~j w`Kmg~n

45

10. wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgMÖx, wkÿv DcKiY, †Ljbv I m¤ú~iK cVb mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv

49

11. g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

56

12. wkÿvµ‡gi mdj ev¯Íevq‡bi †KŠkjmg~n

63

13. cwievi †_‡K cÖvwZôvwbK wkÿv¯Í‡i DËiY

69

14. GKxf~Z wk¶v welqK wb‡`©kbv

73

15. wbN©È

83

16. MÖš’cÄx/†idv‡iÝ

84

17. mswkøó KwgwU

90

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg

c„ôv 4


1. f~wgKv cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv GKwU AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Kvh©µg hv wkïi e¨w³‡Z¡i c~Y© weKvk I AvRxeb wkL‡bi wfwË ˆZwi Ges AvbyôvwbK wkÿvi cÖ_g †mvcvb I cÖ¯‘wZ wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i| cÖv_wgK, gva¨wgK I D”Pwkÿvi GKwU we¯Í…Z cwim‡ii m~Pbvi Ask n‡jv cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv| hw`I AvbyôvwbK cÖv_wgK wkÿv ïiæi c~ee© Z©x GK eQi cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvi Rb¨ wba©vwiZ wKš‘ Gi e¨vwß I cwiwa ïay GB mg‡qi g‡a¨ mxgve× bq| wkï R‡b¥i ci cÖwZwbqZ †h AwfÁZv, AbvbyôvwbK wkLb I cwieZ©‡bi ga¨ w`‡q eo n‡Z _v‡K Zv Zvi e„w× I weKv‡ki Rb¨ LyeB ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| cwieZ©‡bi cÖwZwU av‡ci AwR©Z Ávb I `ÿZvi Dci wfwË K‡iB wkï ciewZ© av‡c †cuŠQvq| cÖviw¤¢K ˆkkeKv‡j wkïi G cwieZ©‡bi nvi Ab¨ mg‡qi Zzjbvq `ªæZ I e¨vcK weavq cÖv_wgK we`¨vj‡q fwZ©i c~e© ch©šÍ mg‡q wkï A‡bK¸‡jv ¸iæZ¡c~Y© avc AwZµg K‡i| cÖwZwU av‡c wkïi h_vh_fv‡e †e‡o DVv I wkLbB n‡”Q Zvi cÖv_wgK wkÿv ïiæ Kivi wfwË| evsjv‡`‡ki RvZxq wkÿvbxwZ - 2010, AvRxeb wkLb I mvgwMÖK e¨w³Z¡ weKv‡ki wfwË ¯’vcb Ges cÖv_wgK ch©v‡qi AvbyôvwbK wkÿvi cÖ¯‘wZ wn‡m‡e 5+ eQi eqmx wkï‡`i Rb¨ GK eQi †gqv`x cÖvKcÖv_wgK wkÿv mycvwik K‡i‡Q| wkÿvbxwZ‡Z cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv‡K cÖ¯‘wZg~jK wkÿv wn‡m‡e AwfwnZ K‡i wkïi cÖ‡qvRbxq gvbwmK I ˆ`wnK cÖ¯‘wZ MÖn‡Yi cwi‡ek ˆZwii Dci ¸iæZ¡v‡ivc Kiv n‡q‡Q| wkÿvbxwZ‡Z cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ch©v‡qi wkÿvµg m¤ú‡K© ejv n‡q‡Q, GB wkÿvµg n‡e:  wkÿv I we`¨vj‡qi cÖwZ wkïi AvMÖn m„wóg~jK Ges myKzgvi e„wËi Abykxjb;  Ab¨‡`i cÖwZ mnbkxjZv Ges cieZ©x AvbyôvwbK wkÿvi Rb¨ k„•Ljv‡eva m¤ú‡K© aviYv cvIqv| ev¯Íevqb cÖwµqvi e¨vcKZv we‡ePbv K‡i ch©vqµ‡g evsjv‡`‡ki mKj we`¨vj‡q cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv cÖeZ©b Kivi mycvwik Kiv n‡q‡Q| †KŠkj wn‡m‡e Ab¨vb¨ MÖnY‡hvM¨ Dcv‡qi m‡½ Qwe, is, bvbv ai‡bi mnR I AvKl©Yxq DcKiY, nv‡Zi KvR, Qov, Mí, Mvb BZ¨vw`i gva¨‡g wkïi ¯^vfvweK AbymwÜrmv I †KŠZ~n‡ji cÖwZ ¸iæZ¡ Av‡ivc K‡i Zv‡`i cÖvYkw³ I D”Q¦vm‡K e¨envi K‡i Avb›`gq cwi‡e‡k hZœ, †¯œn, ggZv I fv‡jvevmvi gva¨‡g wkÿv cÖ`v‡bi mycvwik Kiv n‡q‡Q| ZviI c~‡e© 2008 mv‡j Aby‡gvw`Z cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvi cwiPvjb KvVv‡gv‡Z cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvi cÖK…wZ, AvIZv I gv‡bi †hŠw³KZv I cÖ‡qvRbxqZv, D‡Ïk¨, wkLbdj, welqe¯‘, cÖvK-cÖv_wgK we`¨vj‡q cÖ¯ÍvweZ Kg©KvÐ, cÖ‡qvRbxq wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgwMÖ, wkÿv DcKiY I †mB mv‡_ cÖvK-cÖv_wgK we`¨vjq Kg©m~wP cwiPvjbv m¤ú‡K© ¸iæZ¡c~Y© w`K wb‡`©kbv †`Iqv n‡q‡Q| AvbyôvwbK wkÿvi RM‡Z cÖ‡e‡ki Av‡M AZ¨vek¨Kfv‡e wkïi †h cÖ¯‘wZi cÖ‡qvRb nq, †mwU c~i‡Yi j‡ÿ¨B cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv Kvh©µg mycvwik Kiv n‡q‡Q g‡g© cwiPvjb KvVv‡gv‡Z D‡jøL Kiv n‡q‡Q| RvZxq wkï bxwZ 2010 G wkïi cÖviw¤¢K weKvk I cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv‡K ¸iæ‡Z¡i ms‡M we‡ePbv Kiv n‡q‡Q|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 5


evsjv‡`‡k Avwki `kK †_‡K miKvwi-†emiKvwi wewfbœ D‡`¨v‡M cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv Kvh©µg ¸iæ‡Z¡i ms‡M ev¯ÍevwqZ n‡q Avm‡Q| RvZxqfv‡e †Kvb mywbw`©ó bxwZ-wb‡`©kbv bv _vKvq wew”Qbœfv‡e bvbv cÖwZôvb weMZ cÖvq wZb `kK a‡i wewfbœfv‡e cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv ev¯Íevqb K‡i Avm‡Q| wbR wbR cÖvwZôvwbK AMÖvwaKvi, Ae¯’vb, ¸iæZ¡, Kg© GjvKv BZ¨vw` we‡ePbv K‡i †hme wkÿv c¨v‡K‡Ri gva¨‡g cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv Kvh©µg ev¯Íevqb n‡”Q Zv ch©v‡jvPbv K‡i †`Lv hvq †h Gi D‡Ïk¨, wkÿvµg, wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgwMÖ I wkÿY c×wZ‡Z wfbœZv I mgš^‡qi h‡_ó NvUwZ i‡q‡Q| d‡j bxwZMZfv‡e AšÍe©Z©xKvjxb mg‡qi Rb¨ cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv Kvh©µg mKj miKvwi cÖv_wgK we`¨vj‡q cÖeZ©‡bi ci GKwU me©RbMÖvn¨, gvbm¤úbœ I ev¯Íevqb‡hvM¨ cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg AZ¨vek¨Kxq n‡q c‡o| G †cÖwÿ‡Z evsjv‡`‡k wkÿvµg cÖYq‡bi Rb¨ `vwqZ¡cÖvß cÖwZôvb RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW© Gi gva¨‡g cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg cÖYq‡bi D‡`¨vM MÖnY Kiv nq| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv cwiPvjb KvVv‡gv 2008 Gi wb‡`©kbv †gvZv‡eK wkÿvµg cÖYq‡bi Rb¨ cÖv_wgK I MYwkÿv gš¿Yvjq mywbw`©ófv‡e `vwqZ¡ wefvRbc~eK © GKwU mvsMVwbK iƒc‡iLv cÖYqb K‡i| iƒc‡iLv Abyhvqx cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg cÖYq‡bi Rb¨ MwVZ KvwiMwi KwgwU G msµvšÍ we`¨gvb bxwZ-KvVv‡gv, miKvwi-†emiKvwi cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv Kvh©µg I wkÿvµg, M‡elYvcÎ, wewfbœ AvšÍR©vwZK bxwZ I `wjj, wewfbœ DbœZ I Dbœqbkxj †`‡ki cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg ch©v‡jvPbv K‡i GKwU cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg iƒc‡iLv cÖYqbc~e©K RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †ev©W KZ©„K MwVZ wkÿvµg cÖYqb KwgwUi wbKU n¯ÍvšÍi K‡i| RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †ev©W B‡Zvc~‡e© cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvi eqmx wkï‡`i Rb¨ wkLb-mvgMÖx cÖYq‡bi AwfÁZv‡K Kv‡R jvwM‡q, Aby‡gvw`Z wkÿvµg iƒc‡iLv Abymi‡Y miKvwi-†emiKvwi ms¯’vi we‡klÁ‡`i mgš^‡q MwVZ IqvwK©s MÖæ‡ci gva¨‡g h_vh_ c×wZ I cÖwµqv AbymiY K‡i GB Lmov cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµgwU cÖYqb K‡i| wkÿvµg cÖYq‡b wb¤œwjwLZ welq I `wjjmg~n Mfxifv‡e ch©v‡jvPbv I we‡kølY Kiv n‡q‡Q| o RvZxq wkÿvbxwZ 2010 o cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv cwiPvjb KvVv‡gv 2008 o cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµ‡gi iƒc‡iLv o cÖviw¤¢K wkLb I weKv‡ki cÖwgZgvb (Early Learning and Development Standards) o AšÍ©eZ©xKvjxb cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv c¨v‡KR o wewfbœ miKvwi-†emiKvwi ms¯’v KZ…K cwiPvwjZ cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv c¨v‡KR o cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡ii wkÿvµg o wewfbœ DbœZ I Dbœqbkxj †`‡ki cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg I wkÿvµ‡gi iƒc‡iLv o wkLb-†kLv‡bvi wewfbœ ZË¡ I †KŠkj o cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg Dbœqb, we¯ÍiY I ev¯Íevqb m¤úwK©Z wewfbœ M‡elYv (we¯ÍvwiZ cwiwk‡ó `ªóe¨)

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 6


2. j¶¨ Avb›`gq I wkïevÜe cwi‡e‡k cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wk¶vi eqmx wkï‡`i (5+ eQi) eqm I mvg_¨© Abyhvqx kvixwiK, gvbwmK, Av‡ewMK, mvgvwRK, bv›`wbK, eyw×e„Ëxq I fvlve„Ëxq Z_v mvwe©K weKv‡k mnvqZv w`‡q AvRxeb wkL‡bi wfwË iPbv Kiv Ges cÖv_wgK wk¶vi A½‡b Zv‡`i mvb›` I ¯^Ztù~Z© Awf‡lK NUv‡bv| 3. D‡Ïk¨ K) L) M) N) O) P) Q) R) S) T) U) V) W) X) Y) Z) _)

Avb›`gq I wkïevÜe cwi‡e‡k wewfbœ †Ljv I Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g wkïi mwµq AskMÖn‡Yi my‡hvM m„wó Kiv; †kLvi cÖwZ BwZevPK g‡bvfve m„wó Kiv; wkïi †mŠ›`h©, bv›`wbKZv‡eva I myKzgvie„wË weKv‡k mnvqZv Kiv; wkï‡K cvwievwiK, mvgvwRK I cÖvK…wZK cwi‡ek m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb Kiv; wbR¯^ mvs¯‹…wZK AvPvi, K…wó, gyw³hy‡×i †PZbv I HwZ‡n¨i m‡½ cwiP‡qi cvkvcvwk Gi PP©vq DrmvwnZ Kiv; ˆbwZKZv, g~j¨‡eva I mvgvwRK ixwZbxwZ weKv‡k mnvqZv Kiv; wkïi ¯’~j I m~²‡ckx Z_v Pjbkw³i weKv‡k mnvqZv Kiv; ¯^v¯’¨ m‡PZbZv I wbivcËv weav‡b mnvqZv Kiv; wkïi fvlv I †hvMv‡hvM `¶Zv weKv‡k mnvqZv Kiv; cÖviw¤¢K MvwYwZK aviYv, †hŠw³K wPšÍv I mgm¨v mgvav‡bi †hvM¨Zv AR©‡b mnvqZv Kiv; cwi‡e‡ki wbZ¨‰bwgwËK NUbv ch©‡e¶‡Yi gva¨‡g KviY I djvdj m¤úK© Abyave‡b mnvqZv Kiv; wkïi ¯^Ztù~Z© Kíbv, m„RbkxjZv I D™¢vebx kw³ weKv‡k mnvqZv Kiv; wkïi AvZ¥wek¦vm I AvZ¥gh©v`v weKv‡k mnvqZv Kiv Ges wb‡Ri KvR wb‡R Ki‡Z DØy× Kiv; Av‡eM eyS‡Z cviv I Zvi h_vh_ cÖKv‡k mnvqZv Kiv; wkï‡K cvi¯úwiK mg‡SvZv, mn‡hvwMZv, mngwg©Zv I fvMvfvwM Ki‡Z mnvqZv I DØy× Kiv; wkï‡K cÖkœ Ki‡Z AvMÖnx K‡i †Zvjv I gZvgZ cÖKv‡k DrmvwnZ Kiv; wkï‡K weÁvbgb¯‹ K‡i M‡o †Zvjv|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 7


4. wk¶vµg cÖYq‡b g~jbxwZmg~n (Core principles of curriculum development) wkïi e„w×, weKvk I †kLv Zvi cwievi, Pvicv‡ki cwi‡ek I mgvR Øviv e¨vcKfv‡e cÖfvweZ nq| ZvQvov mvgvwRK, mvs¯‹…wZK I ag©xq g~j¨‡eva Ges wkïi weKvk I †kLvi Abb¨ ˆewkó¨mg~n G‡¶‡Î D‡jøL‡hvM¨ f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| wkï‡K cwic~Y©fv‡e ey‡S Ges Zvi ˆewkó¨mg~‡ni cÖwZ h_vh_ ¸iæZ¡ Av‡ivc K‡i mgwš^Zfv‡e cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wk¶vµg Dbœqb, we¯ÍiY, ev¯Íevqb I ˆ`bw›`b wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z n‡j e¨w³MZ I cÖvwZôvwbK ch©v‡q wKQz aviYv, bxwZ I wek¦vm AbymiY Ki‡Z n‡e Ges mKj Kvh©µ‡g Zvi cÖwZdjb _vK‡Z n‡e| Z‡eB wkïi myß m¤¢vebvi mvwe©K weKv‡k mnvqZv Kivi cvkvcvwk Zvi cieZ©x Rxe‡bi wk¶vi Rb¨ k³ wfZ iPbv Kiv m¤¢e n‡e| ZvB cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg cÖYq‡b wb‡gœv³ aviYv, bxwZ I wek¦vmmg~n‡K g~jbxwZgvjv wn‡m‡e AbymiY Kiv n‡q‡Q| 4.1 wkï‡Kw›`ªKZv (Child centeredness)  cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvi GKwU Ab¨Zg g~jbxwZ n‡jv wkï‡K †evSv, Zvi ÿgZvq Av¯’v ivLv Ges Zvi ¯^fve, cÖK…wZ, e¨w³Z¡ I gZvg‡Zi cÖwZ m¤§vb cÖ`k©b Kiv| wkïi e„w×, weKvk I †kLv cÖavbZ cwievi, we`¨vjq Ges mgvR Øviv cÖfvweZ nq| cwievi, we`¨vjq Ges mgvR - GB wZbwU ch©v‡qB mgwš^Zfv‡e Kvh©µg MÖnY Kiv n‡j Zv wkïi myß I AdzišÍ m¤¢vebv weKv‡k I GKwU mg„× Rxeb hvc‡bi w`‡K Zv‡K GwM‡q wb‡Z mnvqZv Ki‡e| d‡j †kLvi gvbwmKZv I †kLvi cÖwZ AvMÖn m„wói gva¨‡g wkï AvRxeb wkL‡bi (Life-long learning) Rb¨ cÖ¯‘Z nq| 4.2 mwµq wkLb (Children as active learner)  wkïiv mnRvZfv‡eB Rb¥ †_‡K AbvbyôvwbKfv‡e †k‡L| Rb¥ †_‡K cÖwZwbqZ †h AwfÁZv I cwieZ©‡bi ga¨ w`‡q wkï eo nq, †mLv‡b Zvi mwµq I mnRvZ AskMÖnYB Zvi wkL‡bi g~j wfwË| wkïi e„w× I weKv‡ki GKwU mywbw`©ó aib I ˆewkó¨ i‡q‡Q| wkïi weKvk m¤úwK©Z ZË¡¡ Ges cvwievwiK I mvgvwRK †cÖÿvcU †_‡K wkïi ˆewkó¨ Ges weKvk-mswkøó Pvwn`v m¤ú‡K© Rvbv hvq| Pvicv‡ki gvbyl I cwi‡ek m¤ú‡K© Rvbevi `ywb©evi AvMÖn I cixÿv-wbixÿv K‡i †`Lvi mnRvZ gvbwmKZvi Kvi‡Y wkïi cÖ_g Pvwn`v n‡”Q mwµq AskMÖn‡Yi my‡hvM| †Kbbv wkï ¯^fveMZfv‡eB mwµq wkÿv_©x| Avi Zv‡`i weKvk I wkLb-cÖwµqv †h‡nZz evwo, we`¨vjq I Pvicv‡ki mvgvwRK cwi‡ek Øviv cÖwZwbqZ cÖfvweZ nq †m‡nZz mKj chv©‡q Zvi mwµq wkL‡bi my‡hvM m„wóB wkïi weKvk I wkL‡bi g~jgš¿ |  4.3 cwiev‡ii m¤ú„³Zv (Family involvement)  cvwievwiK †cÖÿvcU I cwi‡ek h_vh_fv‡e wkïi M‡o DVvi Rb¨ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© †ÿÎ| wkïi e¨w³Z¡, wb‡Ri m¤ú‡K© aviYv, g~j¨‡eva I `„wóf½xi weKvk gvZvwcZv I cwiev‡ii Ab¨ m`m¨‡`i Øviv fxlYfv‡e cÖfvweZ nq| wkïi hZœ m¤ú‡K© gvZvwcZvi Ávb, cÖZ¨vkv I mšÍvb jvjb-cvj‡bi aib wkïi cieZ©x Rxe‡bi bvbv w`‡Ki Dci cÖfve †d‡j| Gi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q wkïi wb‡Ri hZœ †bqvi ÿgZv, mvgvwRK `„wóf½x, we`¨vj‡q Zvi †kLvi cÖwµqv Ges mgv‡R Ab¨vb¨‡`i mv‡_ wg‡jwg‡k _vKvi cÖeYZv BZ¨vw`| G†ÿ‡Î gvZvwcZv n‡jb GKvav‡i wkïi cÖ_g wkÿK Ges wkïi cwic~Y© weKvk mva‡b cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg   

c„ôv 8


we`¨vj‡qi ¸iæZ¡c~Y© AskxRb| myZivs wkïi weKv‡k cwievi GKwU AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© wbqvgK Ges cÖvKcÖv_wgK wkÿvq wkïi mvd‡j¨i Rb¨ cwiev‡ii m¤ú„³Zv AZ¨šÍ Riæwi| 4.4 ¯‹zj - mwµq mvgvwRK cÖwZôvb (School as responsive social institute)  we`¨vjq e„nËi mgv‡RiB GKwU ÿz`ª ms¯‹iY Ges GwU cwievi I mgv‡Ri †mZzeÜb wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv cÖ`v‡bi †ÿ‡Î ¯‹zj‡K Ggb wKQz wel‡q ¸iæZ¡ cÖ`vb Ki‡Z nq hv wkïi Rvbvi AvMÖ‡n DÏxcbv w`‡Z, bZzb cwi‡e‡ki ms‡M Lvc LvIqv‡Z I kvixwiK, gvbwmK, eyw×e„wËK, ˆbwZK I bv›`wbK weKvk Z_v mvwe©K weKvk wbwðZ Ki‡Z AZ¨šÍ Riæwi| welqmg~n n‡jv:  wkïi cvwievwiK †cÖÿvcU †evSv Ges evev-gv I cwiev‡ii Ab¨vb¨ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© m`‡m¨i mv‡_ Askx`vwiZ¡ I m¤úK© ¯’vcb Kiv;  mvgvwRK †cÖÿvcU I cÖ‡qvRb †evSv Ges h_vh_fv‡e mvgvwRK kw³ I m¤ú`‡K Kv‡R jvMv‡bv;  RvZxq I AvšÍR©vwZK cÖeYZv †evSv Ges †m Abyhvqx Kg©m~wP ev¯Íevqb Kiv| G‡ÿ‡Î ¯‹zj‡K mwµq mvgvwRK cÖwZôv‡bi f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z n‡e| wkïi cÖ¯‘wZi ms‡M †h‡nZz cwievi I ¯‹z‡ji cÖ¯‘wZ A½vw½fv‡e RwoZ †m‡nZz wkÿvµg cªYqb I ev¯Íevq‡b ¯‹z‡ji f~wgKv ¸iæ‡Z¡i ms‡M we‡ePbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| 4.5 GKxf~ZZv (Inclusiveness)  G‡ÿ‡Î GKxf~ZZv gv‡b wfbœZv‡K m¤§vb K‡i Ges †g‡b wb‡q mKj wkïi AskMÖn‡Yi my‡hvM I mdjZvi K_v wPšÍv K‡i h_vh_ D‡`¨vM MÖnY Kiv| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg Ges wkLb-†kLv‡bv c×wZ I DcKiY RvwZ, ag©, eY©, wj½, mÿgZv, A_©‰bwZK Ae¯’v wbwe©‡k‡l me ai‡bi wkï Ges Zv‡`i cwiev‡ii Pvwn`v I my‡hv‡Mi K_v g‡b †i‡L cÖYqb Kiv Riæwi| wkLb-†kLv‡bv c×wZ I cwi‡ek h‡_ó bgbxq Ges wkïi ¯^Zš¿ Pvwn`v I wkLb Dcv‡qi ms‡M mvgÄm¨c~Y© n‡Z n‡e †hb mKj wkïi †kLvi AvMÖn eRvq _v‡K Ges wkLb Pvwn`v c~i‡Yi my‡hvM _v‡K| ZvB wkÿvµg cÖYqb †_‡K ïiæ K‡i ¯‹zj I cwievi chv©‡q ev¯Íevq‡bi mKj av‡c GKxf~ZZv‡K g~jbxwZ wn‡m‡e AbymiY Kiv n‡q‡Q|   4.6 †`kxq ms¯‹…wZ, K…wó I HwZn¨wbf©i wkLb (Local culture and heritage)  AvZ¥m¤§vb I AvZ¥gh©v`v‡eva RvMÖZ Kivi Rb¨ wkï‡`i wbR¯^ ms¯‹…wZ, K…wó I HwZ‡n¨i ms‡M cwiPq Kwi‡q wb‡Ri ¯^KxqZv m¤ú‡K© AvZ¥wek¦vmx K‡i M‡o †Zvjv Riæwi| cvkvcvwk A‡b¨i ms¯‹…wZ I K…wó‡K m¤§vb Kivi Af¨vm M‡o †ZvjvI ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| wkL‡bi mKj †ÿ‡Î eo‡`i mnvqZvq evwo‡Z, ¯‹z‡j Ges mgv‡R ms¯‹…wZ, K…wó I HwZn¨wbf©i wkÿvcwi‡ek wbwðZ Ki‡Z wkÿvµg cÖYq‡b †`kxq ms¯‹…wZ I K…wówbf©i wkLb‡K g~jbxwZ wn‡m‡e AbymiY Kiv n‡q‡Q|   4.7 m¤úK© (Relationship)  wkïi weKvk I †kLv eû¸‡Y †e‡o hvq hw` Zvi ms‡M Ab¨ wkïi, wkÿ‡Ki wKsev eo‡`i mym¤úK© M‡o D‡V| Avevi hLb cwiev‡ii m`m¨ wKsev mgv‡Ri cÖwZwbwa‡`i ms‡M wkÿ‡Ki m¤úK© M‡o D‡V ZLb cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg   

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mvwe©Kfv‡e GKwU cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv D‡`¨v‡Mi gvbI †e‡o hvq A‡bKvs‡k| m¤úK© cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv e¨e¯’vq AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Dcv`vb| ciewZ©‡Z e„nËi cwim‡i mvgvwRK I gvbweK ¸Yvewjm¤úbœ gvbyl wn‡m‡e wkky‡`i M‡o Zzj‡Z AvbyôvwbK wkÿvi cÖ_g av‡c m¤úK© ˆZwii welqwU‡K ¸iæ‡Z¡i ms‡M we‡ePbvi D‡Ï‡k¨ g~jbxwZ wn‡m‡e AbymiY Kiv n‡q‡Q| 4.8 cvwicvwk¦©K cwi‡ek (Immediate environment)  cvwicvwk¦©K cwi‡ek wkïi weKvk I wkLb‡K cÖfvweZ K‡i| †Zgwb mvwe©K mvgvwRK cwi‡ek cÖvKcÖv_wgK wkÿvi bxwZ-wb‡`©kbv‡K cÖfvweZ K‡i| Avevi mvgvwRK K…wó I ms¯‹…wZ cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv m¤ú‡K© gvZvwcZvi cÖZ¨vkv‡K cÖfvweZ K‡i| wkïi mvwe©K weKvk I wkLb wbwðZ Ki‡Z ZvB cÖvKcÖv_wgK wkÿv‡K Aek¨B Zvi cvwicvwk¦©K I mvgvwRK cwi‡e‡ki cÖwZ ¸iæZ¡ w`‡Z n‡e| wbKU cwi‡ek I Pvicv‡k wkïi †kLvi ch©vß Dcv`vb i‡q‡Q| ZvB wkïi cwic~Y© weKv‡k cwievi, mgvR I we`¨vj‡qi mgwš^Z I mw¤§wjZ cÖ‡Póvi cÖ‡qvRb Acwinvh©|  4.9 cwi‡ek evÜeZv (Environment friendliness) cÖK…wZ I cwi‡ek gvby‡li AK…wÎg eÜz| cwiewZ©Z cwiw¯’wZ‡Z GB `k©‡bi weP¨ywZ cy‡iv c„w_ex‡K gnv wech©‡qi w`‡K †V‡j w`‡q‡Q| Avi Zvi wkKvi n‡”Q A‡cÿvK…Z myweavewÂZiv| GKwU cwi‡ek evÜe cÖRb¥ GB wech©q †VKv‡Z Abb¨ f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i| Avi GB aviYvi jvjb ïiæ Ki‡Z n‡e Rxe‡bi ïiæ †_‡KB| †mB j‡ÿ¨ cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµ‡g cwi‡ek evÜeZvi welqwU ¸iæ‡Z¡i ms‡M we‡ePbv K‡i Gi Dbœqb I ev¯Íevq‡bi mKj av‡c g~jbxwZ wn‡m‡e AbymiY Kiv n‡q‡Q|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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5. cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wk¶vµg Ges g~j¨‡eva I ˆbwZKZv †gav, gbb, Kg©¶gZvq mg„× RvwZ MV‡b g~j¨‡eva I ˆbwZKZvi f~wgKv Acwimxg| g~j¨‡eva n‡jv †Kv‡bv wel‡qi Dci e¨w³i †fZi Mfxifv‡e Rb¥ †bIqv wek¦vm hv e¨w³‡K mswkøó wel‡q h_vh_ AvPi‡Y DØy× K‡i| hyw³ I Av‡eM DfqB g~j¨‡ev‡ai Dcv`vb| †h †Kv‡bv mgv‡Ri g~j¨‡eva I ˆbwZKZv †mB mgv‡Ri ag©xq, mvs¯‹…wZK, ivR‰bwZK I A_©‰bwZK Kg©Kv‡Ði mswgkª‡Y M‡o I‡V| G Kvi‡Y wkÿv_©x‡`i g‡a¨ g~j¨‡eva I ˆbwZKZv RvMi‡Y mgv‡Ri ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Ask wn‡m‡e cwievi I we`¨vj‡qi f~wgKv A‡bK| g~j¨‡eva I ˆbwZKZv weKv‡ki Dchy³ mgq ˆkkeKvj| R‡b¥i ci wkïi eûgyLx weKvk msNwUZ nq| g~j¨‡eva wkïi fv‡jv-g›`, my›`i-Amy›`i, b¨vq-Ab¨vq m¤ú‡K© wek¦v‡mi A‡c¶vK…Z ¯’vwq GKwU wfwË cÖ¯‘wZ‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i _v‡K| Kv‡RB ˆkke †_‡K wkïi g‡a¨ ˆbwZKZv‡eva RvMÖZ Ki‡Z cvi‡j eo n‡qI Zvi Rvbv †eva¸wj Zv‡K A‡bK A‰bwZK KvR †_‡K weiZ ivL‡Z cv‡i| wkïi hvwcZ Rxe‡bi AwfÁZv Zvi ˆbwZKZv weKv‡k mnvqK| wkïi Pvicv‡ki e¨w³eM© †hgb wcZvgvZv, AwffveK, wkÿK I Ab¨vb¨ m`m¨‡`i mvnPh© I Zv‡`i mv‡_ wg_w®Œqv G‡¶‡Î ¸iyZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv iv‡L| mgmvgwqK mgv‡R cwiev‡ii cvkvcvwk wkïi g~j¨‡eva I ˆbwZKZv weKv‡k we`¨vj‡qi f~wgKvi cwimi e„w× †c‡q‡Q| wkïi g~j¨‡eva I ˆbwZKZv weKv‡k cwievi Ges mvgvwRK cÖwZôvb wn‡m‡e we`¨vj‡qi f~wgKvi Kvi‡Y ¯^vfvweKfv‡eB wk¶vµ‡gI welqwU ¸iæ‡Z¡i ms‡M we‡ePbv Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| wk¶vµ‡g g~j¨‡eva I ˆbwZKZv‡K welqwfwËKfv‡e bv †`‡L wkL‡bi cy‡iv cÖwµqvi gva¨‡g †KvgjgwZ wkï‡`i †hb G †eva RvMÖZ Kiv hvq Zv wbwðZ Kiv Riæwi| GKvi‡YB wkÿvµ‡g g~j¨‡eva I ˆbwZKZv weKv‡k wbw`©ó wkLbdj ivLvi cvkvcvwk †hb Ab¨vb¨ wkLbdjmg~n AR©‡bi cÖwµqv‡ZI welqwU we¯Í…Z _v‡K Zv ¸iæ‡Z¡i ms‡M we‡ePbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wk¶vµ‡g wkïi g~j¨‡eva I ˆbwZKZv weKv‡ki †h w`K¸‡jvi Dci ¸iæZ¡v‡ivc Kiv n‡q‡Q Zv n‡jv gyw³hy‡×i †PZbv, †`k‡cÖg, mvg¨, ggZv, kª×v‡eva, AvZ¥wbf©ikxjZv, åvZ…Z¡‡eva, mZZv, wkóvPvi, ag©xq g~j¨‡eva, cvi¯úwiK mg‡SvZv I mn‡hvwMZv, mngwg©Zv, `vwqZ¡kxjZv I k„sLjv‡eva| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wk¶vi gva¨‡g AwR©Ze¨ g~j¨‡eva I ˆbwZKZvi wfwË wkïi cieZ©x Rxebv`k© ˆZwi‡Z mnvqZv Ki‡i Ges †`kxq ms¯‹„wZ, K…wó, HwZn¨ i¶vi wel‡q †KvgjgwZ wkï‡`i g‡b Mfxi ggZv ˆZwi Ki‡e|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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6. wkÿvµ‡g weKvk I wkLb m¤úwK©Z Z‡Ë¡i cÖfve Ges wkïi weKvk I wkL‡bi ˆewkó¨ wk¶vµ‡gi msÁv, cÖK…wZ, aib I Gi wewfbœ Dcv`v‡bi Dci e¨vcK M‡elYv I we‡køl‡Yi gva¨‡g eZ©gv‡b wk¶vµg cÖYq‡bi GKwU me©Rbwew`Z iƒc‡iLv cÖwZwôZ n‡q‡Q| wk¶vµg cÖYqb I Dbœq‡bi GB avivevwnKZvq wk¶v M‡elYvi f~wgKv Acwimxg| weKvk I wkL‡bi M‡elYvjä wewfbœ ZË¡ I ZvwË¡K w`K wb‡`©kbv wkÿvµg I wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg‡K cÖfvweZ K‡i| ZvB wk¶vµg cÖYqb Ges weKvk I wkLb-Z‡Ë¡i gv‡S wbweo m¤úK© we`¨gvb| Z‡e ïay †Kvb GKwU wbw`©ó ZË¡ ev aviYvi Dci wfwË K‡i wkÿvµg cÖYqb Kiv hvqbv| †Kbbv weKvk I wkL‡bi aviYvMZ cwimi A‡bK e¨vcK Ges ZË¡mg~n AwaKvsk †ÿ‡ÎB M‡elYv, AwfÁZv I c~e©ewZ© Z‡Ë¡i wfwˇZ wfbœ wfbœ `„wófw½i Av‡jv‡K w`K wb‡`©kbv †`q| G‡ÿ‡Î mve©Rbxbfv‡e MÖnY‡hvM¨ wbw`©ó †Kv‡bv ZË¡ †bB eis A‡bK †ÿ‡Î mgwš^Zfv‡e ZË¡mg~n weKvk I wkL‡bi aviYvi wfwˇK gReyZ K‡i| ZvQvov RvwZMZ I mvs¯‹…wZK ˆewP‡Î¨i Kvi‡Y wfbœ wfbœ †cÖÿvc‡U ZË¡mg~‡ni cÖfveI wfbœ wfbœ nq| ewY©Z cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wk¶vµg cÖYqb cÖwµqv‡ZI weKvk I wkLb msµvšÍ wewfbœ Z‡Ë¡i cÖfve Mfxifv‡e chv©‡jvwPZ n‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`‡ki mvgvwRK I mvs¯‹…wZK †cÖÿvcU we‡ePbvq cÖYxZ wkÿvµgwU g~jZ †hme ZË¡ ev ZvwË¡K aviYvi Øviv cÖfvweZ n‡q‡Q Zvi mvims‡ÿc GLv‡b Zz‡j aiv n‡jv| cvkvcvwk M‡elYv I ZvwË¡K iƒc‡iLvi Av‡jv‡K wkïi weKvk I wkLb cÖwµqvi ‡h †gŠwjK ˆewkó¨, aviYv, c×wZ I avcmg~n GB wk¶vµg cÖYq‡bi mgq we‡ePbv Kiv n‡q‡Q ZvI Avjv`vfv‡e wee„Z Kiv n‡jv| 6.1 wkÿvµ‡g weKvk I wkLb m¤úwK©Z Z‡Ë¡i cÖfve wkïi weKvk I wkLb cÖwµqvq eskMwZi cÖfv‡ei ZxeªZv Ges eq‡mi ms‡M ms‡M ¯^qsµxqfv‡e Zvi cwiYZ n‡q hvIqv msµvšÍ †M‡mj Gi Maturationist theory aviYv cy‡iv‡bv n‡jI wkïi weKvk I wkL‡bi †ÿ‡Î Zvi eq‡mi ¸iæZ¡ Ab¨ me Z‡Ë¡i g‡Zv GB wkÿvµg cÖYq‡bI we‡ePbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| hw`I †M‡m‡ji Z‡Ë¡ wkïi weKv‡k cwi‡e‡ki f~wgKv‡K †MŠY wn‡m‡e aiv n‡q‡Q, wKš‘ Behaviourist theory Gi cÖ‡YZviv ( Skinner, Watson, Bandura) wkïi cvwicvwk©K cwi‡e‡k µgvš^‡q AwfÁZv AR©‡bi gva¨‡g weKvk‡K ¸iæZ¡ w`‡Z ïiæ K‡ib| cwi‡ek‡K ¸iæZ¡ w`‡jI wkïi eyw×e„wËK weKvk‡K GKvšÍB e¨w³MZ I Af¨šÍixb g‡b K‡i wcqvu‡R Gi Cognitive-developmental theory wkïi weKvk I wkLb cÖwµqv m¤ú‡©K †ekwKQz ¸iæZ¡c~Y© w`K D‡b¥vPb K‡i| GB ZË¡ wkïi B‡Zvg‡a¨ AwR©Z aviYv ciewZ© av‡c e¨envi Kiv (Assimilation) Ges AwR©Z aviYv I Áv‡bi Dci wfwË K‡i bZzb aviYv ˆZwi Kiv (Accommodation) m¤úw©KZ †h Z_¨ Avgv‡`i †`q Zv GB wkÿvµg cÖYq‡b ¸iæ‡Z¡i ms‡M we‡ewPZ n‡q‡Q| Piaget I Bandura Gi Z‡Ë¡ cwi‡ek I wkïi AwfÁZvi ¸iæZ¡ ewY©Z n‡jI wkïi weKvk I wkL‡b Zvi Pvicv‡ki gvbyl I cwi‡e‡ki mivmwi f~wgKv‡K ¸iæ‡Z¡i ms‡M we‡ePbv Kiv nqwb| hw`I Bandura wkïi AbyKiY Kivi ÿgZv I m¤¢vebvi K_v wPšÍv K‡i Zvi mvg‡b g‡Wj wn‡m‡e Dc¯’vcb (Modelling) Ges GKB welq wewfbœfv‡e cybive„wËi ( Reinforcement) Dci ¸iæZ¡ w`‡q‡Qb hv GB wkÿvµg cÖYq‡bI we‡ePbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| Z_vwc wkïi weKvk I wkL‡b Zvi cvwicwk©K cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 12


cwi‡ek I hZœKvixi mivmwi f~wgKv D‡jøL‡hvM¨fv‡e GB wkÿvµg‡K cÖfvweZ K‡i‡Q| Avi Gfv‡eB Vygotsky Gi Sociocultural theory GB wkÿvµg cÖYq‡b ¸iæ‡Z¡i ms‡M we‡ewPZ n‡q‡Q| wkky‡K wewfbœ cÖkœ Kiv, Zvi wPšÍv ev Rvbvi gvÎv‡K µgvMZ P¨v‡jÄ Kiv Ges P¨v‡jÄ †gvKv‡ejvq eo‡`i avivevwnK mnvqZv (Scaffolding) wkïi weKvk I wkLb‡K Z¡ivwš^Z K‡i| Sociocultural theory Gi gva¨‡g VygotskyÕi GB aviYv wkÿvµ‡gi wkLb-‡kLv‡bv cÖwµqv‡K A‡bKvs‡k cÖfvweZ K‡i‡Q| m‡ev©cwi wkïi weKvk I wkLb‡K ïay Zvi cvwicvwk¦©KZv †hgb ïay evwo wKsev we`¨vj‡qi g‡a¨ mxgve× bv †i‡L GKwU e„nËi mvgvwRK I ivR‰bwZK cwi‡e‡ki Ask wn‡m‡e †`Lv msµvšÍ Bronfenbrenner Gi Ecological systems theoryI GB wkÿvµg cÖYq‡b f~wgKv †i‡L‡Q| †h Kvi‡YB wkÿvµg ev¯Íevq‡bi wewfbœ chv©‡q evwo, we`¨vjq, mgvR Ges e„nËi wm‡÷‡gi g‡a¨ µgvMZ †hvMv‡hvM I wg_w®Œqv‡K cÖvavb¨ †`qv n‡q‡Q| DcwiD³ ZË¡mg~n QvovI wkÿvµ‡gi mdj ev¯Íevq‡b mvwe©Kfv‡e wKQz welq ev bxwZi Dci ¸iæZ¡ †`qvi Kvi‡Y Av‡iv wKQz Z‡Ë¡i Øviv GB wkÿvµg cÖfvweZ n‡q‡Q hvi g‡a¨ Schema theory (R.C. Anderson) , Psychoanalytic theory (Freud, Erikson) Ges Community of practice (Barbara Rogoff) Ab¨Zg| cÖwYZ wkÿvµ‡g wkïi weKvk I wkL‡bi Rb¨ wewfbœ Ávb, `ÿZv I AvPiY‡K Avjv`v Avjv`vfv‡e we‡ePbvq wb‡q wkLbdj I wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg MÖnY Kiv n‡jI mvwe©Kfv‡e wkïi Ávb ev aviYvi GKwU mvaviY wfwË ˆZwi K‡i Zvi AwR©Z `ÿZv I AvPi‡Yi mvgwóK PP©v I cÖKv‡ki Dci ¸iæZ¡ †`qv n‡q‡Q hv Schema theory Øviv cÖfvweZ| wkÿvµg cÖYq‡b g~jbxwZ wn‡m‡e wKQz Mfxi wek¦vm I g~j¨‡eva‡K cÖvavb¨ †`qv n‡q‡Q hv `xN©‡gqv‡` RvZxq g~j¨‡eva PP©vq Avgv‡`i DØy× Ki‡e| myw¯’i Av‡ewMK weKvk G‡ÿ‡Î ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| wkïi ¯^Ztù~Z© Av‡ewMK weKv‡k Zvi Pvicv‡ki cwi‡e‡ki Pvc ev Pvwn`v hLb Ø›Ø (Conflict) ˆZwi K‡i ZLb Zv `xN©‡gqvw` ev Mfxi wek¦vm MV‡b euvav ˆZwi K‡i| welqwU we‡ePbvq †i‡L wkÿvµ‡g wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg cwiKíbv Kiv n‡q‡Q hv Erikson Gi Psychoanalytic theory Øviv cÖfvweZ| GB wkÿvµgwU ev¯Íevq‡b wba©vwiZ wkLbdj AR©‡bi Rb¨ cwiKwíZ Kv‡R ¯’vbxq †Ljv, mvs¯‹…wZK Kg©KvÐ I DcKiY cÖf…wZ‡K cÖvavb¨ †`qv n‡q‡Q hv Barbara Rogoff Gi ‘Community of practice’ Z‡Ë¡i g~jK_v - Òwkï Zvi cwiwPZ A½b †_‡K wk¶vjvf K‡iÓ Gi ms‡M mvgÄm¨c~Y©| wewfbœ wkLbZ‡Ë¡i cvkvcvwk cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wk¶vµg cÖYq‡b DËi AvaywbK (Post Modern) gZev‡`i cÖwZdjb N‡U‡Q| DËi AvaywbK gZev` gy³ `„wó‡Z wk¶v Kvh©µ‡g wkïi e„w× Ges weKv‡ki mve©Rbxb ˆewk‡ó¨i cvkvcvwk wkïi cÖK…wZ, †cÖ¶vcU, wkLb-ˆewPΨ, cvwicvwk¦©KZv we‡ePbv K‡i wkLb-‡kLv‡bv cÖwµqv cwieZ©‡b cÖqvmx nq| ZvB AZ¨šÍ mnRvZ Ges Avek¨Kxqfv‡eB G‡ÿ‡Î DËi AvaywbK gZev` cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q| 6.2 wkïi weKvk I wkL‡bi ˆewkó¨ cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 13


Dc‡iv³ ZË¡ I Z‡_¨i Av‡jv‡K wkïi weKvk I wkL‡bi wKQz mvgwMÖK ˆewkó¨ hv wkÿvµg cÖYq‡b ¸iæ‡Z¡i ms‡M we‡ewPZ n‡q‡Q wb‡¤œ Zv Av‡jvwPZ n‡jv| 6.2.1 Kxfv‡e wkïi weKvk N‡U?   wkïi weKvk n‡”Q GKwU cÖvK…wZK, Ae¨vnZ I mgwóMZ cªwµqv| Rb¥MZfv‡e gvbekixi Zvi Bw›`ªq I A½-cÖZ¨‡½i gva¨‡g Pvicvk †_‡K bZzb wKQz MÖnY I AbymÜv‡bi Rb¨ cÖ¯‘Z _v‡K| d‡j gw¯Í®‹ I kixi µgvMZ cwiYZ n‡Z _v‡K| Pvicv‡ki cwi‡ek I hZœKvixi mv‡_ µgvMZ cvi¯úwiK wµqvi gva¨‡g wkïi cÂ-Bw›`ªq I A½-cÖZ¨½ e¨env‡i µgk `ÿ n‡q M‡o DVvi cÖwµqvB g~jZ weKvk| ZvB wkï Zvi hZœKvix I Pvicv‡ki cwi‡ek †_‡K eqm Dc‡hvMx cvi¯úwiK wµqvg~jK h‡Zœi gva¨‡g DÏxcbv †c‡j Zvi mvgwMÖK weKvk Z¡ivwš^Z nq| wkïi mylg I mgwš^Z weKvk wbwðZ Ki‡Z n‡j wewfbœ Dcv‡q, Zvi cÂ-Bw›`ªq I A½-cÖZ¨½ e¨env‡ii my‡hvM †i‡L Zvi ms‡M cvi¯úwiK wµqv Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| G‡ÿ‡Î cwi‡ek-cwiw¯’wZ Ges wkï‡`i g‡a¨ weivRgvb cv_©K¨ we‡ePbv K‡i h‡_ô bgbxq Dcv‡q wkïi ms‡M cvi¯úwiK †hvMv‡hvM Kivi wb‡`©kbv wkÿvµg ev¯Íevq‡b wbwðZ Kiv Riæwi| GKwU K‡Vvi iæwUb AbymiY bv K‡i wkï‡`i †kLvi Kg©KvÐ †hb Zvi wkLb-AwfÁZv I Pvwn`vi wfwˇZ weKv‡ki ¯Íi Abyhvqx cwiPvjbv Kiv hvq Giƒc my‡hvM m„wó KivB cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµ‡gi g~j D‡Ïk¨| GB wkÿvµg cÖYq‡bi †ÿ‡Î weKv‡ki wb¤œewY©Z ˆewkó¨mg~n we‡ePbv Kiv n‡q‡Q|  GKwU wkï Aci wkï †_‡K wfbœ MwZ‡Z weKwkZ nq Ges Zv‡`i AvMÖn I ÿgZv wfbœ nq| wkïi Ávb I `ÿZvi weKv‡k mnvqZv Ki‡Z n‡j Aek¨B cÖ‡Z¨KwU wkïi wbR¯^ weKv‡ki aib eyS‡Z Ges ¸iæZ¡ w`‡Z n‡e|  eskMZ ˆewkó¨, cwi‡ek I wkÿv - GB wZbwU wbqvgK Øviv wkïi weKvk cÖfvevwš^Z nq| eskMZ ˆewk‡ó¨i †ÿ‡Î †Zgb †Kv‡bv cwieZ©b mvab Kiv hvq bv, Z‡e Ab¨ `ywU wbqvgKB G‡ÿ‡Î ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Ges GRb¨ cwievi, we`¨vjq I e„nËi mgv‡Ri g‡a¨ mgš^‡qi cÖ‡qvRb hv wkï‡K cwic~Y©fv‡e †e‡o DV‡Z mnvqZv Ki‡e|  e„w×i nvi I weKv‡ki gvÎv wewfbœ n‡jI mKj wkïi e„w× I weKvk GKB wbq‡g N‡U| wkïi weKv‡ki GB cÖwµqv I wewfbœ eq‡m weKv‡ki wewfbœ ˆewkó¨ m¤ú‡K© Aek¨B ¯úó aviYv _vK‡Z n‡e hv‡Z wkïi Pvwn`v Avbyhvqx wkLb-D‡Ïk¨ I wkÿvµg wba©viY Kiv hvq|  wkïi weKvk GKwU avivewnK cÖwµqv| wkïi e„w× I weKvk Zvi eq‡mi mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z| Z_vwc, weKv‡ki gvÎv †h‡nZz wkï‡f‡` wewfbœ nq, †m‡nZz wkï wewfbœ †ÿ‡Î wewfbœ gvÎvi `ÿZv I mÿgZv AR©b K‡i| Z‡e weKv‡ki h_vh_ my‡hvM †c‡j wkïi †KŠZ~nj, AvMÖn I wkLb`ÿZv cÖZ¨vkv‡KI Qvwo‡q †h‡Z cv‡i| myZivs eq‡mi mv‡_ mv‡_ wkïi weKv‡ki gvBjdjK¸‡jv GKB n‡jI wfbœ wfbœ wkï wfbœ wfbœ gvÎvq G¸‡jv AR©b Ki‡Z cv‡i|  mgv‡Ri Pvwn`v, wcZvgvZvi cÖZ¨vkv I wkïi kvixwiK I gvbwmK weKv‡ki g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ _vK‡Z cv‡i| GB cv_©K¨ GKwU MÖnY‡hvM¨ gvÎvq bvwg‡q Avb‡Z cvi‡j, cÖviw¤¢K wkÿv wkïi weKv‡k Av‡iv ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv ivL‡Z cv‡i| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg   

c„ôv 14


6.2.2 wkï Kxfv‡e †k‡L? wkï ZLbB me‡P‡q †ewk †k‡L hLb †m AvMÖn wb‡q †Kv‡bv Kv‡R mwµqfv‡e AskMÖnY K‡i| cwiev‡i, we`¨vj‡q I mgv‡R wewfbœ ev¯Íe AwfÁZv Zv‡`i wkL‡bi g~j wfwË| †Kv‡bv aviYv ev Z_¨ hLb wkïi c~ee© Z©x AwR©Z Ávb ev aviYvi wfwˇZ Zvi Kv‡Q A_©c~Y© g‡b nq, ZLbB wkï Zvi wkL‡bi cieZ©x av‡c cÖ‡ek K‡i| wkïiv mgwš^Zfv‡e †k‡L Ges Zviv Zv‡`i wkLb‡K †Kv‡bv welq ev kvLvq wef³ K‡i bv| †h Kvi‡Y †Ljv n‡”Q wkïi †kLvi Ab¨Zg gva¨g| wkïiv wewfbœfv‡e †k‡L| cÖ‡Z¨K wkïiB †kLvi ai‡bi GKUv wbR¯^Zv _v‡K| Z‡e †Kv‡bv wkïB GKfv‡e †k‡L bv| wkïiv mvaviYZ †hfv‡e †k‡L Zv n‡jv:  †`‡L  MÜ wb‡q  Kíbv K‡i

 ï‡b  Abyfe K‡i  GKvKx wPšÍv K‡i

 ¯^v` wb‡q  Dcjwä K‡i  cÖkœ K‡i

     

     

     

Zzjbv K‡i AskMÖnY K‡i `‡j KvR K‡i M‡íi gva¨‡g eB c‡o ch©‡eÿY K‡i

wb‡`©kbv †_‡K Mvb K‡i AbymÜvb K‡i bv‡Pi gva¨‡g ï‡b AbyKiY K‡i

bvovPvov K‡i Qovi gva¨‡g MÜ wb‡q evi evi †Póv K‡i Awfb‡qi gva¨‡g Dcjwä K‡i

wkïi †kLvi †ÿ‡Î g~jgš¿ n‡”Q:  wkï Ki‡Z Ki‡Z Ges †Lj‡Z †Lj‡Z †k‡L;  AvMÖn n‡jv wkL‡bi g~j PvwjKvkw³;  †Ljv n‡jv myLKi wkLb-AwfÁZv;  Bw›`ªqMÖvn¨ wewfbœ KvR n‡jv wkL‡bi gva¨g;  ch©‡eÿY, AbymÜvb, wPšÍv I Kíbv n‡jv †kLvi KZ¸‡jv AZ¨vek¨Kxq Dcvq| wkïi †kLvi GB Dcvq I gyjgš¿mg~n g‡b †i‡L cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg cÖYq‡b wb¤œewY©Z ˆewkó¨mgyn we‡ePbv Kiv n‡q‡Q|  †Kv‡bv wKQz AR©‡bi AwfÁZv wkïi cieZ©x wkLb‡K gReyZ I Z¡ivwš^Z K‡i|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 15


 wkïiv mwµq wkÿv_©x, Zviv memgq †KŠZ~njx I AbymÜv‡b AvMÖnx| h‡_vchy³ DcKiY I eo‡`i mnvqZv †c‡j wkïiv wb‡RivB wb‡R‡`i g‡Zv K‡i †k‡L I ÁvbvR©b K‡i| GKwU wbivc`, Avivg`vqK, Dc‡fvM¨ I P¨v‡jwÄs cwi‡e‡k wkïiv `ªæZ †k‡L|  wkïi wkLb Zvi e„w× Øviv cÖfvweZ nq| wkï weKv‡ki †h ¯Í‡i i‡q‡Q Zvi mv‡_ wgwj‡q wkLb AwfÁZv w`‡j wkïi wkLb Z¡ivwš^Z nq| Zvi mÿgZvi evB‡ii †Kv‡bv wKQz †m wkL‡Z cv‡i bv|  wkïiv Zv‡`i Rxeb AwfÁZv, Bw›`ª‡qi DÏxcbv I we‡bv`bg~jK wewfbœ Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g †k‡L| †Ljvi gva¨‡g ZvB Zviv ¯^ZtcÖ‡Yvw`Z n‡q, Avb‡›`i mv‡_ I ¯^Zù~Z©fv‡e wkL‡Z DØy× nq|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 16


7. weKv‡ki †ÿÎ I wkLb‡ÿÎ evsjv‡`‡ki †cÖ¶vc‡U RvwZmsN KZ©…K AvšÍR©vwZK D‡`¨v‡Mi Ask wn‡m‡e gwnjv I wkï welqK gš¿Yvj‡qi gva¨‡g mswkøó miKvwi-†emiKvwi I KvwiMwi ms¯’v/e¨w³eM©‡K m¤ú„³ K‡i Lmov Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS) ev cÖviw¤¢K wkLb I weKv‡ki cÖwgZgvb cÖYqb Kiv n‡q‡Q| ELDS n‡”Q evsjv‡`‡ki †cÖÿvc‡U 0 †_‡K 8 eQi eqmx wkï‡`i Rb¨ Zvi eq‡mi wewfbœ av‡c weKv‡ki AR©b‡hvM¨ Ávb, AvPiY I `ÿZvi cÖwgZgvb hv GKwU wbweo cÖwµqvi gva¨‡g `xN© cÖvq `yB eQi a‡i Dbœqb Kiv n‡q‡Q| 0-8 eQi eqmx wkï‡`i Rb¨ †h †Kv‡bv Kg©m~wP cÖYqb, cwiexÿY Ges wkïi weKvk ev wkL‡bi AMÖMwZ cwigv‡ci †ÿ‡Î ELDS GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© wfwË `wjj| cÖvKcÖv_wgK wkÿvµg iƒc‡iLv Ges G msµvšÍ bxwZwb‡`©kbv Abyhvqx cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg cÖYq‡bi †¶‡Î cÖ¯ÍvweZ ELDS †K ¸iæ‡Z¡i mv‡_ we‡ePbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| cÖ¯ÍvweZ ELDS G wkïi mvwe©K weKvk‡K evsjv‡`‡ki †cÖ¶vc‡U 4wU Domain ev †ÿ‡Î fvM Kiv n‡q‡Q| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg cÖYq‡bi †ÿ‡Î wkÿvµ‡gi Pvwn`v Abyhvqx ELDS G ewY©Z 4wU weKv‡ki †ÿÎ we‡ePbvi cvkvcvwk Ab¨vb¨ miKvwi-†emiKvwi Ges AvšÍR©vwZK wkÿvµg, M‡elYv I `wjj chv©‡jvPbv K‡i weKv‡ki †¶Î‡K 8wU Learning Area ev wkLb‡ÿ‡Î wefvRb Kiv n‡q‡Q| cÖwZwU wkLb‡ÿ·K GKvwaK AR©‡bvc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv I cÖwZwU AR©‡bvc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv‡K GKvwaK wkLbd‡j wbw`ó Kiv n‡q‡Q| ciewZ©‡Z cÖwZwU wkLbd‡ji Rb¨ cwiKwíZ KvR ev wkLb-†kLv‡bv †KŠkj cÖYqb Kiv n‡q‡Q| Gfv‡e †K›`ªxq I RvZxqfv‡e cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ch©v‡qi wkï‡`i Rb¨ GKwU hy‡Mvc‡hvMx, mgwš^Z, Kv‡h©vc‡hvMx, mg„× I Awfbœ wkÿvµg cÖYqb Kiv n‡q‡Q|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 17


weKv‡ki ‡¶Î I wkLb‡¶Î

weKv‡ki †¶Î  kvixwiK I Pjb¶gZvi weKvk  mvgvwRK I Av‡ewMK `¶Zvi weKvk

 fvlv I †hvMv‡hvM `¶Zvi weKvk  eyw×e„wËK weKvk

cwi‡ek 10

Dc‡iv³ cÖwZwU wkLb‡ÿ‡Îi Rb¨ GKvwaK AR©‡bvc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv wba©viY Kiv n‡q‡Q| cÖwZwU AR©‡bvc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi wecix‡Z Avevi GKvwaK wkLbdj I wkLb-†kLv‡bv †KŠkj ev cwiKwíZ KvR wba©viY Kiv n‡q‡Q| GKwU cwiKwíZ Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g GKvwaK wkLbdj AwR©Z n‡Z cv‡i| Avevi GKwU wkLbdj GKvwaK cwiKwíZ Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g AwR©Z n‡Z cv‡i| cieZ©x c„ôvq †hvM¨Zv I wkLbd‡ji QKwU mwbœ‡ewkZ n‡jv|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 18


8. cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg g¨vwUª·

wkLb †ÿÎ

AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv 1. kvixwiK I 1.1 wbqwgZ PjbÿgZv nuvUvPjv, †`Šov‡bv, †Ljv, kvixwiK KmiZ I wewfbœ Kv‡R AskMÖnY Ki‡Z cviv|

wkLbdj

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj

1.1.1 fvimvg¨ iÿv K‡i nuvUvPjv (DuPz-wbPz w`‡q nuvUv, GK cv‡q nuvUv, †PvL euvav Ae¯’vq nvUv, jvdv‡bv, Ic‡i-wb‡P IVvbvgv, AuvKvevKv nuvUv, nVvr †_‡g hvIqv I w`K cwie©Zb Kiv), †`Šov‡Z cvi‡e| 1.1.2 ˆ`bw›`b wewfbœ Kv‡R (†hgb: eBLvZv/†Ljbv †MvQv‡bv, cv‡Î cvwb Xvjv, `uvZ gvRv, †Mvmj Kiv BZ¨vw`) AskMÖnY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 1.1.3 ¯’vbxq I Ab¨vb¨ †Ljv †Lj‡Z cvi‡e|

†Ljv - †kÖwYKÿ I †kÖwYK‡ÿi evB‡i, †hgb, G°v‡`v°v, †gviM jovB, e„Ë †_‡K e„‡Ë jvd, †mvRv `v‡M nuvUv BZ¨vw`

1.1.4 wewfbœ kvixwiK KmiZ Ki‡Z

B‡”QgZ KvR, †Ljv, f~wgKvwfbq BZ¨vw` cÖvmw½K wkÿvg~jK wfwWIwPÎ cÖ`k©b1

†hme ¯‹y‡j wfwWIwPÎ cÖ`k©‡bi e¨e¯’v Av‡Q, †m‡ÿ‡Î cÖ‡hvR¨

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

wkÿK mnvwqKv: B‡”QgZ KvR, †Ljv I f~wgKvwfb‡qi cÖwµqv

eDwP, `vwoqvevÜv, KvbvgvwQ, iægvj †LuvRv, wkÿK mnvwqKv: †Ljvi wPÎ, eid-cvwb, mvZPviv, jvwUg, †MvjøvQzU, weeiY I †KŠkj I‡cbwU evq‡¯‹vc, wgDwRK¨vj †Pqvi, `wojvd, wfZi-evwni, dzUej, wµ‡KU, †Uwbm ej BZ¨vw` wewfbœ ai‡bi wkï‡Zvl e¨vqvg - †kÖwYKÿ wkÿK mnvwqKv: e¨vqv‡gi

                                                            1

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv wkÿK mnvwqKv: †Ljvi weeiY, †KŠkj I wPÎ

c„ôv 19


wkLb †ÿÎ

AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv 1.2 wewfbœ wRwbm ai‡Z, AuvK‡Z I ˆZwi Ki‡Z cviv|

wkLbdj cvi‡e| 1.2.1 †cwÝj, kvc©bvi, ivevi, Zzwj, PK BZ¨vw` mwVKfv‡e ai‡Z cvi‡e| 1.2.2 †µqb, †cwÝj, Zzwji mvnv‡h¨ AuvK‡Z I is Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

1.2.3 †QvU cv_i, exwP, eøK, BZ¨vw` ai‡Z, evQvB Ki‡Z Ges cQ›`gZ mvRv‡Z cvi‡e| 1.2.4 Kv`v, gÐ, KvMR, cvZv BZ¨vw` mnRjf¨ DcKiY w`‡q B‡”QgZ †Ljbv ˆZwi Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 1.3 wewfbœ Bw›`ª‡qi 1.3.1 †PvL I nv‡Zi mgš^q K‡i wewfbœ e¨envi I mgš^q KvR Ki‡Z cvi‡e| K‡i KvR Ki‡Z cviv| 1.3.2 bv †`‡L ¯úk© K‡i wewfbœ e¯‘i ˆewkó¨ ej‡Z cvi‡e | 1.3.3 wewfbœ iKg MÜ ïu‡K Zv kbv³ cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj I †kÖwYK‡ÿi evB‡i AuvwKeywK Kiv, B‡”QgZ AuvKv Qwe AuvKv, is Kiv

msMÖn, evQvB, mvRv‡bv, †Ljv (cuvP¸wU)

B‡”QgZ - GKK I `jMZfv‡e e¨envwiK KvR (†hgb : KuvwP w`‡q KvUv, KvMR fvR Kiv BZ¨vw`) gvjv Muv_v, Quy‡o †`qv ej aiv, wbw`©ó cv‡Î ev ¯’v‡b ej †Qvov, cv w`‡q ej gviv, cvwb Xvjv, wb‡Ri nv‡Z LvIqv, Rvgvi †evZvg jvMv‡bv, RyZvi wdZv euvav BZ¨vw` Abykxjb gm„Y-Agm„Y, VvÐv-Mig, k³-big, ïK‡bv†fRv kbv³KiY †Ljv (_‡j †Mg) Av‡jvPbvi gva¨‡g I e¨envwiK KvR K‡i c„ôv 20

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv weeiY, †KŠkj I wPÎ IqvK©ey‡K B‡”QgZ AuvKv wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv IqvK©ey‡K bgybv wP‡Îi AvDUjvBb _vK‡e wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv †µqb, Zzwj, is, is †cwÝj †Ljvi mvgMÖx wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv KuvwP, KvMR wkÿK mnvwqKv: wPÎmn wb‡`©kbv

wkÿK mnvwqKv: †Ljvi weeiY I wb‡`©kbv wkÿK mnvwqKv: Kv‡Ri


wkLb †ÿÎ

AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv

wkLbdj Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 1.3.4 †Kv‡bv `„k¨, e¯‘ ev NUbv ch©‡eÿY K‡i cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 1.3.5 wewfbœ ¯^v‡`i Lvevi kbv³ Ki‡Z cvi‡e (wgwó, Svj, UK, †Z‡Zv, †bvb&Zv)

1.3.6 kã ï‡b Gi Drm wPb‡Z cvi‡e|

2. mvgvwRK I Av‡ewMK

2.1 mvgvwRK ixwZ †g‡b eo‡`i mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM I AvPiY Ki‡Z cviv|

2.2 eÜz I cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

2.1.1 eo‡`i mvjvg-Av`ve †`Iqvi Af¨vm MVb Ki‡e| 2.1.2 ï‡f”Qv wewbgq Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2.1.3 wkÿK I eo‡`i mv‡_ fve wewbgq (K_v ejv, Abyf~wZ cÖKvk Kiv) Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2.2.1 mncvVx I mgeqmx‡`i mv‡_

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv weeiY I wb‡`©kbv

dzj, dj, †jey cvZv, Avg cvZv BZ¨vw` MÜ kbv³ I †kÖwYKiY †kÖwYK‡ÿ I evB‡i ch©‡eÿY, †g‡gvwi †Mg wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv †g‡gvwi †M‡gi weeiY Av‡jvPbv, `jMZ KvR, KvW© †Mg, Kv‡W© wewfbœ ¯^v‡`i Lvev‡ii wPÎ/Qwe, ev¯Íe DcKiY †kÖwYKiY ev¯Íe DcKiY msMÖn Kiv (m¤¢e n‡j) wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv KvW© †M‡gi weeiY I DcKiY kã ï‡b ejvi †Ljv Ñ wb‡Riv kã ˆZwi wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv K‡i I cÖK…wZ †_‡K kã ï‡b (†kÖwYK‡ÿ I evB‡i) f~wgKvwfbq I Abykxjb wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv f~wgKvwfbq I ev¯Íe Abykxjb, †Rvovq †Rvovq KvR, †PBb wWªj ˆ`bw›`b Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g Abykxjb wewfbœ †Ljv, KvR (1.1.3) c„ôv 21

wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (wkÿK †ivj g‡Wj wn‡m‡e wb‡R‡K Dc¯’vcb Ki‡eb) wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (wkÿK †ivj g‡Wj wn‡m‡e wb‡R‡K Dc¯’vcb Ki‡eb) wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv


wkLb †ÿÎ

AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv mgeqmx‡`i mv‡_ †gjv‡gkv Ki‡Z cviv|

2.3 mvgvwRK ¸Yvewj AR©‡bi gva¨‡g wg‡jwg‡k _vK‡Z cviv|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

wkLbdj

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv wg‡jwg‡k †Lj‡Z cvi‡e| wewfbœ †Ljv I Kv‡Ri weeiY 2.2.2 mncvVx I mgeqmx‡`i cÖwZ wewfbœ †Ljv, KvR (1.1.3), ˆ`bw›`b wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv mn‡hvwMZvi g‡bvfve cÖ`k©b Ki‡Z cvi‡e| Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g Abykxjb (wkÿK †ivj g‡Wj wn‡m‡e wb‡R‡K Dc¯’vcb Ki‡eb) 2.2.3 wewfbœ ch©v‡q eÜz ˆZwi Ki‡Z cvi‡e †Rvovq KvR, `jMZ KvR, †kqvwis (Awfbœ wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv Askx`vwiZ¡/cvi¯úwiK wewbgq) (evwo‡Z, ¯‹z‡j, †Ljvi gv‡V) Ges `yB ev Z‡ZvwaK eÜzi m‡½ m¤úK© ivL‡Z cvi‡e| 2.3.1 †bZ…Z¡ †g‡b Pj‡Z cvi‡e| wewfbœ †Ljv (1.1.3), `jMZ KvR, †kÖwYi wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv Kv‡R cvjvµ‡g †bZ…Z¡ †`Iqv I †bZ…Z¡ (†kÖwY I `j‡bZv cvjvµ‡g †g‡b †bIqvi Abykxjb wbe©vwPZ n‡e) 2.3.2 †bZ…‡Z¡i ¸Yvewj AR©b I cÖ`k©b H wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2.3.3 †QvULvU Ø›Ø wbimb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| wewfbœ †Ljv I Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv 2.3.4 g‡Zi wfbœZv †g‡b †bIqvi g‡bvfve wewfbœ †Ljv I Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv †`Lv‡e| 2.3.5 mncvVx‡`i wfbœZv I ˆewPΨ †g‡b wewfbœ †Ljv, KvR I f~wgKvwfb‡qi gva¨‡g wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv †bIqvi gvbwmKZv AR©b Ki‡e| (wewfbœ Kv‡Ri Rb¨ `j wefvRb Kivi mgq wkÿK m‡PZbfv‡e Zv Ki‡eb) †bwZevPK †Kv‡bv D`vniY, †Ljv ev welq cwinvi Ki‡Z n‡e c„ôv 22


wkLb †ÿÎ

AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv

wkLbdj

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj

2.3.6 cQ›` I AcQ›` cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2.3.7 mn‡hvwMZv I fvMvfvwMi (†kqvwis) gva¨‡g wewfbœ KvR Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2.3.8 evwo, †kÖwY, we`¨vjq I Ab¨vb¨ cwi‡e‡k wb‡R‡K Lvc LvIqv‡Z cvi‡e|

Av‡jvPbv, PµvKv‡i Av‡jvPbv, †kÖwYKiY, KvW© †Mg BZ¨vw` 2.2.1, 2.2.2, 2.2.3

Ab¨ †kÖwYi wkÿv_©x, KwgDwbwU m`m¨, wewfbœ †ckvRxwe‡`i m¤ú‡K© Rvbv, Zv‡`i mv‡_ wg_w®Œqv I kª×v cÖ`k©b Kiv I wewfbœ cwi‡ek m¤ú‡K© Rvbv 2.3.9 Ac‡ii cÖwZ mnvbzf~wZ I mngwg©Zv wewfbœ †Ljv I KvR, f~wgKvwfbq, cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvi‡e| ZvrÿwYK cwiw¯’wZi e¨envi cÖvmw½K wfwWIwPÎ 2.3.10 cÖ‡qvR‡b Ab¨‡K mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡Z wewfbœ †Ljv I KvR, f~wgKvwfbq, I A‡b¨i mn‡hvwMZv PvB‡Z cvi‡e| ZvrÿwYK cwiw¯’wZi e¨envi cÖvmw½K wfwWIwPÎ 2.3.11 RvZxq m¤ú‡`i cÖwZ hZœkxj n‡e| we`¨vjq, iv¯ÍvNvU, MvQcvjv BZ¨vw`i cÖwZ hZœkxj nIqv (cvwb I we`y¨‡Zi AcPq bv Kiv) 2.4 AvZ¥m‡PZb 2.4.1 wb‡Ri Av‡eM Abyf~wZ (†hgb : f~wgKvwfbq, Mí ejv, Qov I Mvb, †Ljv, nIqv, AvZ¥ wbqš¿Y D”Q¡vm, D‡ØM, fq, fv‡jv jvMv, g›` jvMv, Qwe, K_v, A½-fw½ Kiv I Av‡eM fv‡jvevmv BZ¨vw`) ¯^vfvweKfv‡e A‡b¨i cÖKvk Ki‡Z Kv‡Q cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvi‡e| cviv| 2.4.2 wb‡Ri m¤ú‡K© Ab¨‡K ej‡Z †PBb wWªj, †Rvovq †Rvovq, `jMZ cvi‡e| Av‡jvPbv, I wbR I cwievi m¤ú‡K© ejv cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 23

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv KvW© †Mg wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv

wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv RvZxq m¤ú‡`i ZvwjKv ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e wkÿK mnvwqKv: wPÎmn wb‡`©kbv wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv


wkLb †ÿÎ

AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv

wkLbdj

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj

(bvg, eqm, wVKvbv, fvB‡evb, wcÖq †Ljv BZ¨vw`) I wP‡Îi gva¨‡g cÖKvk Kiv 2.4.3 wb‡Ri aviYv I gZvgZ cÖKvk †Rvovq †Rvovq, `jMZ Av‡jvPbv, Mí Ki‡Z cvi‡e| ejv, Qwe AuvKv 2.4.4 `vwqZ¡ wb‡Z AvMÖnx n‡e Ges Zv †kÖwYKÿ cwi®‹vi-cwi”Qbœ ivLv, wb‡R wb‡R cvjb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| †Ljbv, eB BZ¨vw` ¸Qv‡bv, Rvgvi †evZvg jvMv‡bv, `vwqZ¡‡eva _vKv, `vwqZ¡ wb‡Z AvMÖnx nIqvI ˆah© mnKv‡i Kv‡R g‡bvwb‡ek Kiv, cvjvµ‡g mKj wkï‡K fv‡jv I my›`i Kv‡Ri Rb¨ mK‡ji Dcw¯’wZ‡Z wewfbœfv‡e cÖksmv Kiv 2.4.5 AvZ¥m¤§vb‡eva AR©b Ki‡Z cvi‡e| wkï‡`i AuvKv Qwe I Ab¨vb¨ KvR †kÖwYK‡ÿ cÖ`k©b Kiv, cÖksmv Kiv, wewfbœ Kv‡R Drmvn †`Iqv, fzj Ki‡jI BwZevPKfv‡e †evSv‡bv, †kÖwYK‡ÿ wbivc` cwi‡ek ˆZwi Kiv, Mí †kvbv I ejv

2.4.6 †h‡Kv‡bv cwiw¯’wZ‡Z wb‡R‡K cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

†Ljvayjv, f~wgKvwfbq, †gwW‡Ukb/a¨vb, c„ôv 24

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv

wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (`vwq‡Z¡i GKwU ZvwjKv cÖYqb Ki‡Z n‡e)

wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (wkÿK cy‡iv eQi Ry‡o wkï‡`i †Kv‡bv Kvi‡Y fr©mbv Ki‡eb bv, GKRb‡K Av‡iKR‡bi mv‡_ Zzjbv Ki‡eb bv, Zvi KvR I m¤¢vebv¸‡jv‡K DrmvwnZ Ki‡eb, cÖksmv Ki‡eb, wkï‡`i AwZw_‡`i m‡½ cwiPq Kwi‡q w`‡eb|) Mí msMÖn/ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv


wkLb †ÿÎ

AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv

wkLbdj mshZfv‡e cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvi‡e | 2.4.7 †Kv‡bv KvR ïiæ Kivi c~‡e© g‡bv‡hvM I ˆah© mnKv‡i cy‡iv wb‡`©kbv ïb‡e|

2.5 ˆbwZKZv I g~j¨‡eva m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb nIqv|

2.5.1 fzj Ki‡j ev KvD‡K Kó w`‡j `ytL cÖKvk Ki‡e|

2.5.2 fv‡jv-g‡›`i cv_©K¨ Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj ZvrÿwYK cwiw¯’wZ‡K e¨envi Kiv (†hgb, ivM n‡j ev `ytL †c‡j SMov I gvivgvwi bv Kiv) wb‡`©kbv cvjb †Ljv - GKK I `jMZ (†÷wcs †Mg, cvwL D‡o-gvQ D‡o, nvZ DuPz-wbPz) iæwUb †g‡b wba©vwiZ mg‡qi g‡a¨ wewfbœ KvR m¤úbœ Kiv f~wgKvwfbq, Mí, ZvrÿwYK cwiw¯’wZ e¨envi Kiv cÖvmw½K wfwWIwPÎ Mí, †kÖwYKiY Kiv, KvW©/wd¬c †Mg (†hLv‡b †mLv‡b _yZz ev gqjv †djv, Kjvi †Lvmv †djv, Mv‡Qi cvZv I dzj †Quov, wbw`©ó cv‡Î gqjv †djv)

2.5.3 fv‡jv Kv‡Ri cÖksmv Ki‡Z cvi‡e| f~wgKvwfbq, Mí, ZvrÿwYK cwiw¯’wZ e¨envi Kiv (†hgb: cÖksmv Kiv, Drmvn †`Iqv, fyj Ki‡jI BwZevPKfv‡e †evSv‡bv) cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 25

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv

wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (wb‡`©kbv cvjb Kivi †hvM¨Zvi mv‡_ wjsK Ki‡Z n‡e) wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (ZvrÿwYK cwiw¯’wZ e¨envi Kiv) Mí msMÖn/ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e ZvwjKv ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv KvW©, wd¬c †Mg ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e| Mí msMÖn/ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e ZvwjKv ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e| wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (ZvrÿwYK cwiw¯’wZ e¨envi Kiv) Mí msMÖn/ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e ZvwjKv ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e


wkLb †ÿÎ

AR©b Dc‡hvMx wkLbdj †hvM¨Zv 2.6 evsjv‡`‡ki 2.6.1 gyw³hy× m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡e Ges RvwZi ms¯‹…wZ I HwZ‡n¨i Rb‡Ki cÖwZ kª×v I m¤§vb cÖ`k©b Ki‡e| PP©v Kiv| 2.6.2 RvZxq cZvKvi cÖwZ m¤§vb I fv‡jvevmv cÖ`k©b Ki‡e|

ˆ`wbK mgv‡e‡k RvZxq cZvKv‡K Awfev`b Rvbv‡bv, RvZxq cZvKv AuvKv I is Kiv ˆ`wbK mgv‡e‡k RvZxq msMxZ MvIqv

2.6.4 RvZxq w`emmg~n D`hvc‡b mwµqfv‡e AskMÖnY Ki‡e|

we`¨vj‡q RvZxq w`em D`&hvcb Kiv (Qwe AuvKv, Qwei cÖ`k©bx, mvs¯‹„wZK Kg©Kv‡Ð AskMÖnY) m¤¢e n‡j wkï‡Zvl wfwWI cÖvgvY¨wPÎ/Pjw”PÎ cÖ`k©b Kiv mvgvwRK I †jvKR Drm‡e AskMÖn‡Yi AwfÁZv wewbgq Kiv, Qwe AuvKv (RvZxq I ¯’vbxq mvgvwRK Drme D`hvcb Kiv, Qwe AuvKv, Qwei cÖ`k©bx, mvs¯‹„wZK Kg©Kv‡Ð AskMÖnY) m¤¢e n‡j wkï‡Zvl wfwWI cÖvgvY¨wPÎ/Pjw”PÎ cÖ`k©b Kiv Mí, f~wgKvwfbq, PvU©, ev¯Íe DcKiY

2.6.6 RvZxq I ¯’vbxq †cvkvK-cwi”Q`,

Mí, Qwe I wfwWI wPÎ

2.6.3 RvZxq msMx‡Zi cÖwZ kª×v I fv‡jvevmv cÖ`k©b Ki‡e|

2.6.5 mvgvwRK I †jvKR wewfbœ Drm‡e mwµqfv‡e AskMÖnY Ki‡e|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj

c„ôv 26

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv IqvK© eyK wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (ˆ`wbK KvR) IqvK©ey‡K AuvKv I is Kivi KvR Ki‡e| wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (ˆ`wbK KvR) IqvK© eyK: RvZxq msMxZ RvZxq msMx‡Zi AwWI wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv

wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv

wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv


wkLb †ÿÎ

3. fvlv I †hvMv‡hvM

AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv

3.1 fve MÖnY (†`Lv Ges †kvbv) I cÖKvk (ejv ev kvixwiK A½fw½) Ki‡Z cviv|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

wkLbdj

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj

Lvevi-`vevi, dj-g~j wPb‡e I G m¤ú‡K© AvMÖn cÖKvk Ki‡e|

(†hgb Lywk †Zgb mv‡Rv)

2.6.7 ¯’vbxq †Ljvq Drmv‡ni m‡½ AskMÖnY Ki‡e| 2.6.8 ¯’vbxq/†jvKR wkï‡Zvl Qov, Mvb I bv‡P ¯^Ztù~Z©fv‡e AskMÖnY Ki‡e| 3.1.1 †gŠwLK wb‡`©kbv (Av‡`k, Aby‡iva, Dc‡`k) AbymiY Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

AskMÖnY I Av‡jvPbv

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv AwffveK mfv wd¬c PvU©, dj-g~‡ji g‡Wj IqvK© eyK: Qwe/wPÎ wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv

¯’vbxq Qov, Mvb, bv‡P AskMÖnY

wkÿK mnvwqKv : wb‡`©kbv

wb‡`©k cvjb Kivi †Ljv - GKK I `jMZ wkÿK mnvwqKv : wb‡`©kbv (wb‡`©kbv cvjb Kivi (†÷wcs †Mg, cvwL D‡o-gvQ D‡o, nvZ †hvM¨Zvi mv‡_ wjsK Ki‡Z DuPz-wbPz) n‡e) 2.4.7 3.1.2 cÖkœ Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges cÖ‡kœi DËi Mí, eY©bv, Qwe, wPÎ †_‡K cÖ‡kœvËi wkÿK mnvwqKv : wb‡`©kbv w`‡Z cvi‡e| (gy³ cÖkœ/Agy³ cÖkœ) IqvK© eyK: Qwe I Mí 3.1.3 †QvU †QvU Mí ï‡b wb‡Ri g‡Zv K‡i Mí †kvbv I ejv wkÿK mnvwqKv : wb‡`©kbv ej‡Z cvi‡e| IqvK© eyK, M‡íi eB †Ljv, gyKvwfbq †`‡L ejv wkÿK mnvwqKv : wb‡`©kbv 3.1.4 †`‡L ev ï‡b †Kv‡bv wKQz kbv³ Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3.1.5 AcwiwPZ kã ï‡b kbv³ Ki‡Z I Mí, Qov, Mvb I eY©bvi AcwiwPZ kã wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv Gi A_© eyS‡Z cvi‡e| †Kvb Mí , eY©bv, Qov (kãfvÐvi e„w×) 3.1.6 cwiwPZ e¯‘, Qwe ev `„k¨cU m¤ú‡K© †kÖwYKÿ ev †kÖwYK‡ÿi evB‡i cwiwPZ e¯‘, wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv ej‡Z cvi‡e| Qwe ev `„k¨cU cÖ`k©b, Lei msMÖn I cvV IqvK© eyK c„ôv 27


wkLb †ÿÎ

AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv

3.2 co‡Z cviv (cÖvK-cVb)| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

wkLbdj

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj

3.1.7 Qov, Mvb, Mí ej‡Z cvi‡e|

Qov, Mvb I Mí Abykxjb

3.1.8 ¯úó I kÖeY‡hvM¨fv‡e K_v ej‡Z cvi‡e| 3.1.9 Kvj (AZxZ, eZ©gvb I fwel¨r) Abyhvqx fve cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3.1.10 K‡_vcK_b I `jxq Av‡jvPbvq mwµqfv‡e AskMÖnY Ki‡e|

3.1.2 †_‡K 3.1.7 AZx‡Zi AwfÁZvi wewbgq, eZ©gv‡bi eY©bv, fwel¨‡Z wK Ki‡e Zv ejv †Rvovq †Rvovq I `jMZ Av‡jvPbv

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv IqvK© eyK (gyL¯’ Kiv‡bv †hb GKgvÎ D‡Ïk¨ bv nq|) wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv 3.1.2 †_‡K 3.1.7 wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv

wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (ewY©Z wewfbœ †Ljv I Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g Zz‡j aiv) 3.1.11 bZzb cwiwPZ kã w`‡q evK¨ ej‡Z evK¨ ˆZwii †Ljv, 3.1.5 (GKK, †Rvov I wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv cvi‡e| `jMZ) wewfbœ ai‡bi evK¨ ˆZwii †Ljvi Abykxjb 3.1.12 Am¤ú~Y© Mí wb‡R m¤ú~Y© K‡i Mí ˆZwii †Ljv (GKK, †Rvov I `jMZ) wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv ej‡Z cvi‡e| †Mg, Qov, Mí, `jMZ KvR - ev‡ii bvg wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv 3.1.13 mßv‡ni mvZ w`‡bi bvg ej‡Z cvi‡e| w`‡q `j, ˆ`bw›`b wWªj M‡íi eB (AvR Kx evi? AvR‡Ki w`bwU †Kgb? KvW© w`‡q A_ev †ev‡W© wj‡L †`Lv‡e) 3.2.1 cwi‡e‡ki wewfbœ kã kbv³ Ki‡Z k‡ãi †Ljv (mvDÛ) (GKK, †Rvov I wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv cvi‡e| `jMZ) c„ôv 28


wkLb †ÿÎ

AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv

wkLbdj 3.2.2 evK¨ †_‡K kã Avjv`v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3.2.3 GKB iKg kã kbv³ Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3.2.4 GKB iKg kã e¨envi K‡i wewfbœ evK¨ ˆZwi Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3.2.5 kã †_‡K aŸwb Avjv`v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3.2.6 GKB iKg aŸwb kbv³ Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3.2.7 GKB iKg aŸwb e¨envi K‡i wfbœ wfbœ kã ˆZwi Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3.2.8 aŸwbi cÖZxK (eY©) kbv³ Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3.2.9 kã †_‡K eY© kbv³ Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj cwiwPZ evK¨ †_‡K Abykxjb (GKK, †Rvov I `jMZ) cwiwPZ evK¨ †_‡K Abykxjb (GKK, †Rvov I `jMZ) cwiwPZ kã wb‡q Abykxjb (GKK, †Rvov I `jMZ) kã PvKvi †Ljv cwiwPZ kã †_‡K Abykxjb (GKK, †Rvov I `jMZ) cwiwPZ kã †_‡K Abykxjb (GKK, †Rvov I `jMZ) cwiwPZ aŸwb †_‡K Abykxjb (GKK, †Rvov I `jMZ) KvW© †Mg, wgjKiY (GKK, †Rvov I `jMZ) KvW© †Mg, wgjKiY (GKK, †Rvov I `jMZ) kã ˆZwi †Ljv (GKK, †Rvov I `jMZ)

3.2.10 `yB ev wZb e‡Y©i †QvU †QvU mij kã co‡Z cvi‡e| 3.2.11 Qwe/wPÎwfwËK avivevwnK Kvwnbx ev GKK, †Rvov I `jMZ KvR Mí ej‡Z (co‡Z) cvi‡e| 3.2.12 eB e¨envi Ki‡Z (eB ai‡Z, eyK KY©vi e¨envi (GKKfv‡e, †Rvovq) cvZv Dëv‡Z, evg †_‡K Wv‡b †h‡Z, Dci cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 29

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv IqvK© eyK, PvU© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv IqvK© eyK wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv IqvK© eyK kã PvKv wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv IqvK© eyK, PvU© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv IqvK© eyK, PvU© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv IqvK© eyK, PvU© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv IqvK© eyK, PvU©, e‡Y©i KvW© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv IqvK© eyK, PvU©, e‡Y©i KvW© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv IqvK© eyK, PvU©, e‡Y©i KvW© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv Qwei KvW©, IqvK© eyK wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv M‡íi eB, Qwei eB, IqvK©


wkLb †ÿÎ

AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv

wkLbdj

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj

†_‡K wb‡P †h‡Z) cvi‡e| 3.2.13 wb‡Ri †jLv bvg wPb‡Z cvi‡e|

3.3 wjL‡Z cviv (cÖvK- wjLb)|

wkÿK Qwe‡Z, eB‡q, †bg Kv‡W© wkÿv_©xi bvg wj‡L w`‡eb 3.2.14 wewfbœ ms‡KZ/cÖZxK wPb‡Z/co‡Z KvW© w`‡q †Ljv (Zxi wPý, †Reªv cvi‡e| µwms/iv¯Ív cvivcvi, UªvwdK wmMb¨vj, wec¾bK wPý, mvg‡b nvmcvZvj, mvg‡b ¯‹zj), f~wgKvwfbq, †Ljv cvm `¨ cv‡k©j †Mg 3.3.1 B‡”QgZ AuvwKeywK Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 1.2.1 3.3.2 c¨vUvb©/AvK…wZ AuvK‡Z cvi‡e| 3.3.3 B‡”QgZ Qwe AuvK‡Z I is Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3.3.4 Qwe/wPÎ/e¯‘/`„k¨ †`‡L AuvK‡Z cvi‡e| 3.3.5 wb‡Ri bvg †`‡L wjL‡Z cvi‡e| 3.3.6 aŸwbi cÖZxK (eY©) wjL‡Z cvi‡e| 3.3.7 `yB ev wZb e‡Y©i cwiwPZ mij kã wjL‡Z cvi‡e|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv eyK wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (†jLv bvg Qwe wn‡m‡e) wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv IqvK© eyK PvU©, KvW©

wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv IqvK©eyK, IqvK© kxU IqvK©ey‡Ki e¨envi, PK‡evW©, †¯øU-†cwÝj wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv IqvK©eyK, 1.2.2 wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv IqvK©eyK, †µqb, is †cwÝj †`‡L AuvKv wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv IqvK©eK y , IqvK© eyK †`‡L †`‡L †jLv (cÖZxK wn‡m‡e AuvKv) wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv IqvK©eyK 3.2.8 IqvK©ey‡Ki e¨envi, PK‡evW©, †¯øU- wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv †cwÝj PvU©, e‡Y©i KvW©, IqvK©eyK 3.2.10 e‡Y©i KvW©, †jLvi †Ljv wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv IqvK©ey‡Ki e¨envi, PK‡evW©, †¯øU-†cwÝj IqvK© eyK, PvU©, e‡Y©i KvW© c„ôv 30


wkLb †ÿÎ 4. cÖviw¤¢K MwYZ

AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv 4.1 cÖvK-MvwYwZK aviYv AR©b Kiv

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

wkLbdj

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj

4.1.1 Wvb-evg, †QvU-eo, Kg-†ewk, j¤^vLv‡Uv, †gvUv-wPKb, fvix-nvj&Kv wPwýZ Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

DcKi‡Yi gva¨‡g GKK, †Rvovq I `jMZfv‡e †Ljv I KvR

4.1.2 evwni-wfZi, Dci-wbP, mvg‡bwcQ‡b, DuP-z wbPz, Kv‡Q-`~‡i wPwýZ Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

DcKi‡Yi gva¨‡g GKK, †Rvovq I `jMZfv‡e †Ljv I KvR

4.1.3 wewfbœ AvKvi-AvK…wZ (eo, †QvU, gvSvwi) †QvU †_‡K eo ev eo †_‡K †QvU mvRv‡Z cvi‡e|

IqvK© kxU, eøK/g‡Wj, KvW© BZ¨vw` DcKi‡Yi gva¨‡g GKK, †Rvovq I `jMZfv‡e †Ljv I KvR

4.1.4 is, AvKvi-AvK…wZ (†Mvj, wZb‡Kvbv, Pvi‡Kvbv) Abyhvqx wewfbœ e¯‘ †kÖwYKiY Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

DcKi‡Yi gva¨‡g GKK, †Rvovq I `jMZfv‡e †Ljv I KvR

4.1.5 ev¯Íe DcKiY e¨envi K‡i Abygvb I cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

DcKi‡Yi gva¨‡g GKK, †Rvovq I `jMZfv‡e †Ljv I KvR c„ôv 31

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (ev¯Íe D`vniY/DcKiY e¨envi K‡i) IqvK© eyK wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (ev¯Íe D`vniY/DcKiY e¨envi K‡i) IqvK© eyK wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (ev¯Íe D`vniY/DcKiY e¨envi K‡i) IqvK© eyK, wewfbœ is I AvKvi AvK…wZi eøK, KvW© Ges Ab¨vb¨ †Ljvi DcKiY wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (ev¯Íe D`vniY/DcKiY e¨envi K‡i) IqvK© eyK, wewfbœ is I AvKvi AvK…wZi eøK, KvW© Ges Ab¨vb¨ †Ljvi DcKiY wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (ev¯Íe D`vniY/DcKiY e¨envi K‡i, cvÎ)


wkLb †ÿÎ

AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv

4.2 msL¨vi aviYv AR©b Kiv

wkLbdj

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj

4.1.6 ev¯Íe DcKiY e¨envi K‡i eÈb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

DcKi‡Yi gva¨‡g GKK, †Rvovq I `jMZfv‡e †Ljv I KvR

4.2.1 Ô1 - 20Õ ch©šÍ ev¯Íe DcKiY MYbv Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

DcKi‡Yi gva¨‡g GKK, †Rvovq I `jMZfv‡e †Ljv I KvR

4.2.2 Ô1 - 20Õ ch©šÍ Qwe †`‡L MYbv Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

eB, IqvK© kxU, PvU©©, †Ljv

4.2.3 Ô1 - 20Õ ch©šÍ msL¨v MYbv Ki‡Z cvi‡e (†QvU †_‡K eo, eo †_‡K †QvU)|

eB, IqvK© kxU, PvU©, †Ljv (msL¨vi `j evbv‡bvi †Ljv, †÷c †Ljv)

4.2.4 Ô1 - 9Õ ch©šÍ msL¨v cÖZxK wPb‡Z I ej‡Z cvi‡e|

msL¨vi KvW©, eB, wgjKiY †Ljv

4.2.5 Ô1 - 9Õ ch©šÍ †h‡Kv‡bv msL¨K ev¯Íe ev¯Íe DcKiY, msL¨vi KvW©, eB, wgjKiY †Ljv DcKi‡Yi m‡½ Zvi msL¨v cÖZxK wgjv‡Z cvi‡e| 4.2.6 Ô1 - 9Õ ch©šÍ †h‡Kv‡bv msL¨K wPÎ, PvU©, msL¨vi KvW©, eB, wgjKiY †Ljv cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 32

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv IqvK© eyK wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (ev¯Íe D`vniY/DcKiY e¨envi K‡i) IqvK© eyK wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv ev¯Íe DcKiY (wewfbœ cÖKvi wewP, bwyo cv_i, kl¨`vbv BZ¨vw`) wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (†Ljv) IqvK© eyK, Aa©ev¯Íe DcKiY, PvU©©, msL¨vi Qov wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (†Ljv ) IqvK© eyK, PvU©© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (†Ljv) IqvK© eyK, PvU©©, msL¨v KvW© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (†Ljv) IqvK© eyK, PvU©©, msL¨v KvW© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv


wkLb †ÿÎ

AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv

wkLbdj

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj

Aa©ev¯Íe DcKi‡Yi (Qwei) m‡½ Zvi msL¨v cÖZxK wgjv‡Z cvi‡e| 4.2.7 k~‡b¨i mnR aviYv w`‡Z cvi‡e I ev¯Íe DcKiY, Qwe, Pv‡U©i mvnv‡h¨ †Ljv cÖZxK wPb‡Z I ej‡Z cvi‡e|

4.3 msL¨v wjL‡Z cviv

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

4.2.8 Ô10 - 20Õ ch©šÍ msL¨v wPb‡Z I ej‡Z cvi‡e|

msL¨vi KvW©, eB, wgjKiY †Ljv

4.2.9 Ô10 - 20Õ ch©šÍ †h‡Kv‡bv msL¨K ev¯Íe DcKi‡Yi m‡½ Zvi msL¨v wgjv‡Z cvi‡e| 4.2.10 Ô10 - 20Õ ch©šÍ †h‡Kv‡bv msL¨K Aa©ev¯Íe DcKi‡Yi (Qwei) m‡½ Zvi msL¨v wgjv‡Z cvi‡e| 4.3.1 Ô1 - 20Õ ch©šÍ msL¨v wjL‡Z cvi‡e|

ev¯Íe DcKiY, msL¨vi KvW©, eB, wgjKiY †Ljv

4.3.2 Ô1 - 20Õ ch©šÍ †h‡Kv‡bv msL¨v wjL‡Z cvi‡e|

DcKiY e¨envi K‡i †Ljv

wPÎ, PvU©, msL¨vi KvW©, eB, wgjKiY †Ljv IqvK©eyK, †¯øU-†cwÝj

c„ôv 33

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv (†Ljv) IqvK© eyK, PvU©©, msL¨v KvW© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (†Ljv) IqvK© eyK, PvU©©, msL¨v KvW© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (†Ljv) IqvK© eyK, PvU©©, msL¨v KvW© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (†Ljv - UvKvi †Ljv) IqvK© eyK, PvU©©, msL¨v KvW© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (†Ljv) IqvK© eyK, PvU©©, msL¨v KvW© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (AuvwKeywK I c¨vUv‡b©i KvR Abykxjb Kivi Av‡M GB cvV Avm‡e bv) IqvK© eyK, IqvK©eyK, PvU©©, msL¨v KvW© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (†Ljv)


wkLb †ÿÎ

AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv

4.4 msL¨vi Zzjbv Ki‡Z cviv

4.5 †hv‡Mi aviYv AR©b Kiv

wkLbdj

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj

4.4.1 Ô1 - 20Õ ch©šÍ ev¯Íe I Aa©ev¯Íe DcKiY MYbv K‡i Kg-†ewk wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

DcKiY e¨envi K‡i †Ljv

4.4.2 Ô1 - 20Õ ch©šÍ `yBwU msL¨vi g‡a¨ Zzjbv Ki‡Z cvi‡e

DcKiY e¨envi K‡i †Ljv

4.4.3 Ô1 - 20Õ ch©šÍ †h‡Kv‡bv 5wU msL¨v msL¨v Kv‡W©i †Ljv †QvU †_‡K eo, eo †_‡K †QvU mvRv‡Z cvi‡e| 4.5.1 ev¯Íe I Aa©ev¯Íe DcKi‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ ev¯Íe DcKiY, msL¨v KvW©, wPÎ, †÷wcs †Mg, `jMZ †Ljv †hvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e (†hvMdj 9 Gi †ewk n‡e bv)| 4.5.2 GK A‡¼i `yBwU msL¨vi †hvM Ki‡Z msL¨v Kv‡W©i †Ljv, †¯øU-†cwÝj cvi‡e (†hvMdj 9 Gi †ewk n‡e bv)| 4.5.3 †hvM msµvšÍ mnR mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e (†hvMdj 9 Gi †ewk n‡e bv)|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

`jMZ †Ljv, mgm¨v mgm¨v †Ljv

c„ôv 34

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv IqvK© eyK, IqvK©eyK, PvU©©, msL¨v KvW© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (†Ljv) IqvK© eyK, PvU©©, msL¨v KvW©, ev¯Íe DcKiY, Qwei KvW© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (†Ljv) IqvK© eyK, PvU©©, msL¨v KvW© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (†Ljv) IqvK© eyK, PvU©©, msL¨v KvW© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (†Ljv) IqvK© eyK, ev¯Íe DcKiY, msL¨v KvW© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (†Ljv) IqvK© eyK, ev¯Íe DcKiY, msL¨v KvW© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (†Ljv) IqvK© eyK, ev¯Íe DcKiY,


wkLb †ÿÎ

AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv 4.6 we‡qv‡Mi aviYv AR©b Kiv

wkLbdj

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj

4.6.1 ev¯Íe I Aa©ev¯Íe DcKi‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ ev¯Íe DcKiY, msL¨v KvW©, wPÎ, †÷wcs we‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e (†Kv‡bv msL¨vB 9 Gi †Mg, `jMZ †Ljv †ewk n‡e bv)| 4.6.2 GK A‡¼i `yBwU msL¨vi (†Kv‡bv msL¨vB 9 Gi †ewk n‡e bv) we‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

msL¨v Kv‡W©i †Ljv, †¯øU-†cwÝj

`jMZ †Ljv, mgm¨v mgm¨v †Ljv 4.6.3 we‡qvM msµvšÍ ev¯Íe mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e (†Kv‡bv msL¨vB 9 Gi †ewk n‡e bv)| 5.1 Pviæ I 5. 5.1.1 cwi‡e‡ki wewfbœ Dcv`v‡bi m„RbkxjZv I KviæKv‡Ri gva¨‡g `„k¨cUmn Qwe AuvK‡Z I is Ki‡Z cvi‡e| m„RbkxjZv I bv›`wbKZv bv›`wbKZv cÖKvk Ki‡Z cviv| 5.1.2 cwi‡e‡ki mnRjf¨ Dcv`vb w`‡q wewfbœ wRwbm (†hgb: cyZzj, dj, dzj, ej, gv‡e©j, euvwk BZ¨vw`) ˆZwi Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5.1.3 RvZxq cZvKv AuvK‡Z cvi‡e| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

Qwe AuvKv I is Kiv 1.2.1, 1.2.2, 3.3.1, 3.3.3, 3.3.4 †kÖwYK‡ÿi evB‡i wbKU cwi‡ek ch©‡eÿY, cwievi-evwo-we`¨vjq-cwi‡ek, †KvjvR 1.2.4, KvMR, Kvco, †kvjv, KvwV, Kv`vgvwU, cvZv BZ¨vw` w`‡q ˆZwi, Dc¯’vcb I cÖ`k©b cv‡cU ˆZwi I cÖ`k©b 2.6.1 c„ôv 35

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv msL¨v KvW© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (†Ljv I is Kivi mv‡_ mgš^q Kiv) IqvK© eyK, ev¯Íe DcKiY, msL¨v KvW© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (†Ljv) IqvK© eyK, ev¯Íe DcKiY, msL¨v KvW© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (†Ljv) IqvK© eyK, ev¯Íe DcKiY, msL¨v KvW© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv

wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (1.2.4) KuvwP, KvMR, AvVv, eøy †UK, †µqb, is †cwÝj wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv


wkLb †ÿÎ

AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv 5.2 Qov, bvP, Mvb, Mí I Awfb‡qi gva¨‡g m„RbkxjZv I bv›`wbKZv cÖKvk Ki‡Z cviv|

wkLbdj

5.2.1 `‡j avivevwnK Mí ˆZwi Ki‡Z I ej‡Z cvi‡e| 5.2.2 Awfbq I A½fw½i gva¨‡g Qov, KweZv, Mí Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5.2.3 Q‡›`i Zv‡j Zv‡j ¯’vbxq/†jvKR I Ab¨vb¨ wkï‡Zvl Mvb MvB‡Z cvi‡e| 5.2.4 Q‡›`i Zv‡j Zv‡j ¯’vbxq/†jvKR I Ab¨vb¨ bvP bvP‡Z cvi‡e| 5.2.5 ¯’vbxq/†jvKR I Ab¨vb¨ wkï‡Zvl Qov I KweZv Ave„wË Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5.2.6 RvZxq m½xZ MvB‡Z cvi‡e| 5.2.7 ¯’vbxq mvaviY ev`¨hš¿ wPb‡Z I ej‡Z cvi‡e|

6. cwi‡ek

5.3 ˆ`bw›`b wewfbœ Kv‡R bv›`wbKZvi cÖKvk Ki‡Z cviv|

5.3.1 wb‡R‡K cwicvwU K‡i ivL‡Z cvi‡e (cwi®‹vi-cwi”Qbœ, mvR-m¾v I †cvkvK)| 5.3.2 wb‡Ri e¨envh© wRwbm ¸wQ‡q ivL‡Z cvi‡e|

6.1 cwi‡e‡ki

6.1.1 Pvicv‡ki cwi‡e‡ki wewfbœ Dcv`vb

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv (2.6.1) 3.1.12, 3.2.11, †QvU `‡j I `jMZfv‡e wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv †PBb wWªj (3.1.12, 3.2.11) 3.1.7 wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (3.1.7) IqvK© eyK 2.6.7, 3.1.7 wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (2.6.7, 3.1.7) 2.6.7, 3.1.7 wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (2.6.7, 3.1.7) 2.6.7, 3.1.7 wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (2.6.7, 3.1.7) 2.6.2, 3.1.7 wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (2.6.2, 3.1.7) ev`¨h‡š¿i Qwe, m¤¢e n‡j ev¯Í‡e †`Lv‡bv wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv mvs¯‹…wZK Abyôvb, ¯’vbxq ev`¨hš¿x‡`i Avnevb 1.1.2, f~wgKvwfbq, evwo‡Z Abykxjb wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv Awffve‡Ki m¤ú„³Zv 1.1.2, †kÖwYK‡ÿ I evwo‡Z Abykxjb, wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv Av‡jvPbv Awffve‡Ki m¤ú„³Zv †Ljbv †kÖwYK‡ÿ ev †kÖwYK‡ÿi evB‡i cwi‡e‡ki wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv c„ôv 36


wkLb †ÿÎ

AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv wewfbœ e¯‘ I NUbv m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z cviv|

wkLbdj (†hgb: dzj, dj, gvQ, cvwL, cï, m~h©, Puv`, MvQ, hvbevnb, gvwU, cvwb BZ¨vw`) wPb‡Z I bvg ej‡Z cvi‡e| 6.1.2 dm‡ji †ÿZ, b`x, cvnvo, eb, mgy`ª wPb‡Z cvi‡e| 6.1.3 cÖvK…wZK cwi‡e‡ki wewfbœ NUbv †hgb e„wó, So, eb¨v, f~wgK¤ú BZ¨vw` m¤ú‡K© ej‡Z cvi‡e|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj wewfbœ Dcv`vb ch©‡eÿY, msMÖn, AwfÁZv wewbgq wd¬c PvU© AuvKv I ejvi gva¨‡g AwfÁZvi cÖKvk, wbKU cwi‡ek, Qwe/wPÎ, cvR&j&, cÖ‡R± IqvK©, M‡íi eB (weM eyK - evW©m AvB wfD), cÖvmw½K wfwWIwPÎ AuvKv I ejvi gva¨‡g AwfÁZvi cÖKvk, NUbvi ZvrÿwYK ev mgmvgwqK eY©bv, cÖvmw½K wfwWIwPÎ

6.1.4 wb‡Ri, evwoi Ges we`¨vj‡qi wRwbmcÎ wPb‡e Ges G¸‡jvi cÖwZ hZœkxj n‡e|

1.1.2, 5.3.2, ch©‡eÿ‡Yi gva¨‡g AwR©Z AwfÁZv wewbgq I Av‡jvPbv, f~wgKvwfbq

6.1.5 cwiev‡ii m`m¨ I wbKU AvZ¥xq‡`i (gv-evev, fvB-†evb, `v`v-`vw`, bvbv-bvwb, gvgv-gvwg, PvPv-PvwP, Lvjv-Lvjy, dzcy-dzcv) m¤ú‡K© ej‡Z cvi‡e|

AwfÁZv wewbgq, wPÎ AuvKv

6.1.6 wbKU cwi‡e‡ki wewfbœ cÖvYxi (3wU)

ch©‡eÿY, †kÖwYKiY, Dc¯’vcb, cvR&j& c„ôv 37

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv wd¬c PvU©, IqvK© eyK wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv M‡íi eB, IqvK© eyK, IqvK©eyK, cvR&j& wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (m¤¢e n‡j hLb NUbv NU‡e, wkÿK †mB mg‡q AwfÁZv wb‡q Av‡jvPbv Ki‡eb) IqvK© eyK: Qwe _vK‡e wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv cwiev‡ii m¤ú„³Zv Mí IqvK© eyK: wPÎ/Qwe _vK‡e wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv cwiev‡ii m¤ú„³Zv Mí IqvK© eyK: wPÎ/Qwe _vK‡e wd¬c PvU©, d¨vwgwj wUª/esk jwZKv wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv


wkLb †ÿÎ

AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv

wkLbdj mvaviY ˆewkó¨ D‡jøL Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 6.1.7 ˆewk‡ó¨i Av‡jv‡K MÖx®§, el©v Ges kxZKv‡ji cv_©K¨ Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

6.2 cwi‡ek msiÿY Ki‡Z cviv

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj

AwfÁZv wewbgq, f~wgKvwfbq, wPÎ wgjKiY

6.1.8 w`‡bi wewfbœ Ask (mKvj, `ycyi, weKvj, mܨv, ivZ) Avjv`vfv‡e wPwýZ Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

AwfÁZv wewbgq, f~wgKvwfbq, wPÎ wgjKiY

6.2.1 evwo I we`¨vj‡qi cwi‡ek cwi”Qbœ ivL‡e|

AwfÁZv wewbgq, evwo I we`¨vj‡q Abykxjb

6.2.2 cwi‡ek msiÿY Kvh©µ‡g AskMÖnY Ki‡e| 6.2.3 MvQ-cvjv I cï-cvwLi cÖwZ hZœkxj n‡e|

AwfÁZv wewbgq, cÖ‡R± IqvK© e„ÿ‡ivcY I cwiPh©v AwfÁZv wewbgq, Mí †kvbv, cÖ‡R± IqvK© - e„ÿ †ivcY I cwiPh©v

c„ôv 38

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (Pjgvb FZzi mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z Ki‡e) IqvK© eyK MÖx®§, el©v Ges kxZKv‡ji wPÎ wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (Pjgvb mg‡qi mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z Ki‡e) IqvK© eyK w`‡bi wewfbœ As‡ki wPÎ wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv cwiev‡ii m¤ú„³Zv †kÖwY‡Z Abykxjb ˆ`bw›`b Kv‡R AskMÖnY AveR©bv †djvi cvÎ wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv cwiev‡ii m¤ú„³Zv wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv MvQcvjv I cïcvwL wb‡q M‡íi eB cwiev‡ii m¤ú„³Zv


wkLb †ÿÎ 7. weÁvb I cÖhyw³

AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv 7.1 weÁvbgb¯‹ nIqv

wkLbdj 7.1.1 ch©‡eÿY I K‡_vcK_‡bi gva¨‡g Z_¨ msMÖn Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 7.1.2 wewfbœ ˆewk‡ó¨i wfwˇZ msM„nxZ Z_¨mg~‡ni †kÖwYKiY, Zzjbv I Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 7.1.3 AwfÁZvi Av‡jv‡K Abygvb, e¨vL¨v I wm×všÍ MÖnY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 7.1.4 †QvULvU wewfbœ NUbvi Kvh©KviY e¨L¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 7.1.5 †QvULvU mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

7.2 Ro, Rxe, Dw™¢` I cÖvYx m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z cviv

7.2.1 Ro I Rx‡ei cv_©K¨ Ki‡Z cvi‡e

7.3 ˆ`bw›`b

7.3.1 †`‡ki me©Î cÖPwjZ I cwiwPZ

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

7.2.2 Dw™¢` I cÖvYx cv_©K¨ Ki‡Z cvi‡e

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj cÖ‡R± IqvK© cÖ‡R± IqvK© cÖ‡R± IqvK©, †Ljv, cÖvmw½K wfwWIwPÎ cÖ`k©b Wzev‡bv, fvmv‡bv I Mjv‡bv †Ljv (†iv`-Qvqvi †Ljv, Abygvb Kivi †Ljv), ch©‡eÿY, AwfÁZv wewbgq (†gN †_‡K e„wó nq, evZv‡m cvZv b‡o, myBP wUc‡j evwZ R¡‡j BZ¨vw`) cvR&j&, my‡WvKz, KvUvKzwU †Ljv GKK, †Rvovq, †QvU`j I `jMZ KvR

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv avivevwnK cÖ‡R± IqvK© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv avivevwnK cÖ‡R± IqvK© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv avivevwnK cÖ‡R± IqvK© AvZk KvuP, Pz¤^K wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv

wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (mgm¨vi ZvwjKv ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e mgm¨vwU n‡e Kg©wfwËK) cÖ‡R± IqvK©, f~wgKvwfbq, cÖK…wZ wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv ch©‡eÿY, AbymÜvb, Kv‡W©i †Ljv (7.1.1 - A¨vwb‡gj †mU, PvU©, KvW© 7.1.3) wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv cÖ‡R± IqvK©, f~wgKvwfbq, cÖK…wZ ch©‡eÿY, AbymÜvb, Kv‡W©i †Ljv (7.1.1 - A¨vwb‡gj †mU, PvU©, KvW© 7.1.3) ch©‡eÿY, AwfÁZv wewbgq, Qwe ev wPÎ wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv c„ôv 39


wkLb †ÿÎ

AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv cÖhyw³ m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z cviv

7.4 Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³ m¤ú‡K© cÖv_wgK aviYv jvf Kiv 7.5 wewfbœ cÖKvi hvbevnb m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z cviv

wkLbdj

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj

e¨envi K‡i Av‡jvPbv cÖhyw³i (Nwo, BwÄbPvwjZ †bŠKv, avb gvovB‡qi Kj, †mP hš¿, Uªv±i) bvg I KvR ej‡Z cvi‡e| 7.3.2 cÖvZ¨wnK Rxe‡b e¨eüZ nq Ggb ch©‡eÿY, AwfÁZv wewbgq, Qwe ev wPÎ mvaviY hš¿cvwZ/miÄvgvw` wPb‡Z cvi‡e| e¨envi K‡i Av‡jvPbv

7.4.1 Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³ (†iwWI, †Uwjwfkb, Kw¤úDUvi, †gvevBj †dvb) bvg Rvb‡e I kbv³ Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 7.4.2 Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hv‡Mi wewfbœ cÖhyw³i e¨envi ej‡Z cvi‡e| 7.5.1 ¯’jc‡_i hvbevnb m¤ú‡K© ej‡Z cvi‡e|

Av‡jvPbv, wgjKiY

7.5.2 Rjc‡_i hvbevnb m¤ú‡K© ej‡Z cvi‡e|

ch©‡eÿY, Qwe/wPÎ, wgjKiY, ågY AwfÁZv wewbgq

Av‡jvPbv, wgjKiY ch©‡eÿY, Qwe/wPÎ, wgjKiY, ågY AwfÁZv wewbgq

7.5.3 AvKvkc‡_i hvbevnb m¤ú‡K© ej‡Z ch©‡eÿY, Qwe/wPÎ, wgjKiY, ågY cvi‡e| AwfÁZv wewbgq 8. ¯^v¯’¨ I

8.1 ¯^v¯’¨ m¤úwK©Z 8.1.1 kix‡ii wewfbœ As‡ki bvg I KvR

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

AwfÁZv wewbgq, wPÎ AuvKv, Qov c„ôv 40

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv IqvK© eyK: wewfbœ h‡š¿i Qwe ev wPÎ wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv PvU©: bjK~c, nvwi‡Kb, UP©jvBU, QvZv, ˆe`y¨wZK evwZ I cvLv, Bw¯¿, gvBK,¯úxKvi wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv g‡Wj, wd¬c PvU©, Qwei KvW© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv g‡Wj, wd¬c PvU©, Qwei KvW© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv g‡Wj, wd¬c PvU©, Qwei KvW©, IqvK© eyK wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv g‡Wj, wd¬c PvU©, Qwei KvW©, IqvK© eyK wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv g‡Wj, wd¬c PvU©, Qwei KvW©, IqvK© eyK wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv


wkLb †ÿÎ wbivcËv

AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv ˆ`bw›`b KvR Ki‡Z Ges Lvevi I wekÖv‡gi Af¨vm M‡o Zzj‡Z cviv|

wkLbdj ej‡Z cvi‡e| 8.1.2 wbqwgZ `uvZ gvR‡Z, nvZ ay‡Z, Pzj AuvPov‡Z, nuvwP-Kvwki mgq gyL XvK‡Z I Uq‡jU e¨env‡ii ci mvevb ev QvB w`‡q nvZ †avqvi Af¨vm MVb Ki‡e| 8.1.3 wewfbœ cÖKvi cywóKi Lvevi wPwýZ Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

8.1.4 wewfbœ cÖKvi Lvevi (fvZ/iæwU/cvDiæwU, gvQ-gvsm/Wvj, kvKme&wR, dj-g~j) Avjv`v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 8.1.5 LvIqvi Av‡M I c‡i mvevb w`‡q nvZ ay‡q wbqwgZ wb‡R wb‡R Lvevi †L‡Z cvi‡e|

8.1.6 Lvev‡ii Av‡M I c‡i †cøU wb‡R cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv Abykxjb, †Ljv, cÖvmw½K wkÿvg~jK wfwWI Qov msMÖn IqvK© eyK f~wgKvwfbq, e¨envwiK KvR, Qov, †Ljv wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv `vZ eªvk cÖ`k©b, bL KvUv cwiev‡ii m¤ú„³Zv, IqvK© eyK wPiæwb, Uz_eªvk, Uz_‡c÷, mvevb, QvB, wUmy¨ †ccvi 1.3.5 AwfÁZv wewbgq, wgjKiY, wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv bvgKiY Lv`¨`ª‡e¨i wPÎ/Qwe (KvW©) cwiwgZ Lvevi LvIqv, chv©ß cvwb cvb Kiv AwfÁZv wewbgq, wgjKiY, †kÖwYKiY wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv KvW© f~wgKvwfbq, e¨envwiK KvR

f~wgKvwfbq, e¨envwiK KvR (†cøU/ wUwdb c„ôv 41

wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv cwiev‡ii m¤ú„³Zv IqvK© eyK wd¬c PvU©, mvevb cvwb, wUmy¨ †ccvi wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv


wkLb †ÿÎ

AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

wkLbdj

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj

ay‡e|

e· †avqv)

8.1.7 cwi®‹vi cv‡Î Lvevi †X‡K ivL‡e|

Av‡jvPbv, f~wgKvwfbq, e¨envwiK KvR

8.1.8 djg~j ay‡q Lv‡e|

Av‡jvPbv, f~wgKvwfbq, e¨envwiK KvR

8.1.9 wbw`©ó mg‡qi Rb¨ wekÖvg †b‡e|

Nyg Nyg †Ljv, ˆ`bw›`b Abykxjb, †Kv‡bv KvR †k‡l cwikªvšÍ n‡j wekªv‡gi my‡hvM

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv cwiev‡ii m¤ú„³Zv IqvK© eyK wd¬c PvU© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv cwiev‡ii m¤ú„³Zv nvwo-cvwZj †mU g‡Wj, PvU© wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv cwiev‡ii m¤ú„³Zv g‡Wj wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv cwiev‡ii m¤ú„³Zv

8.1.10 mvaviY †ivM (R¡i, VvÐv jvMv, †c‡U Av‡jvPbv, f~wgKvwfbq, ZvrÿwYK e¨_v, gv_v e¨_v, Wvqwiqv BZ¨vw`) m¤ú‡K© cwiw¯’wZi e¨envi, Qwe Rvb‡e|

_v‡gv©wgUvi, ¯^v¯’¨ KvW© cÖv_wgK wPwKrmv KxU cÖv_wgK wPwKrmv †Ljbv

8.1.11 Amy¯’‡eva Ki‡j Zv ej‡Z cvi‡e| 8.1.12 wbivc` cvwbi Drm ej‡Z cvi‡e| ch©‡eÿY, Av‡jvPbv, †kªwYKiY, AwfÁZv wewbgq

wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv IqvK© eyK , PvU©

c„ôv 42


wkLb †ÿÎ

AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv 8.2 wbivc` I SuywKgy³ _vKvi Af¨vm M‡o Zzj‡Z cviv|

wkLbdj 8.2.1 wec¾bK e¯‘ ev wec‡`i Drm wPwýZ Ki‡Z cvi‡e, †hgb, Av¸b, ˆe`y¨wZK miÄvg, Jla, KxUbvkK, fv½v Møvm, Qzwi, KuvwP, `v, †`qvkjvB, †Wvev, cyKzi, b`x-bvjv, Mv‡Q DVv BZ¨vw`| 8.2.2 wbqgKvbyb †R‡b wbivc‡` muvZvi KvU‡Z DrmvwnZ n‡e| 8.2.3 wbivcËvRwbZ mvaviY wbqg-Kvbyb AbymiY Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges iv¯Ív, Mvwo ev evB‡i PjvP‡ji mgq Zv †g‡b Pj‡Z cvi‡e| 8.2.4 wec¾bK cwiw¯’wZ‡Z Kvi KvQ †_‡K mnvqZv PvIqv †h‡Z cv‡i Zv kbv³ Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges mnvqZv PvB‡Z cvi‡e| 8.2.5 AcwiwPZ Kv‡iv KvQ †_‡K †Kv‡bv wKQz (PK‡jU, †Ljbv, UvKv BZ¨vw`) MÖnY Ki‡e bv I AcwiwPZ Kv‡iv mv‡_ hv‡e bv| 8.2.6 cÖwZK~j cwiw¯’wZ ey‡S †m Abyhvqx mZK©Zv Aej¤^b Ki‡e|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv wd¬c PvU©, wgjKiY, Av‡jvPbv, f~wgKvwfbq, wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv wbKU cwi‡e‡ki mv¤úªwZK `yN©Ubv m¤ú‡K© wd¬cPvU© Av‡jvPbv cwiev‡ii m¤ú„³Zv AwfÁZv wewbgq, f~wgKvwfbq, m¤¢e n‡j ev¯Íe AwfÁZv Av‡jvPbv, †Ljv, f~wgKvwfbq 3.2.14 Av‡jvPbv, †Ljv, f~wgKvwfbq, Mí ejv, ev¯Íe NUbvi eY©bv

wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv cwiev‡ii m¤ú„³Zv wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv cwiev‡ii m¤ú„³Zv wmMb¨vj KvW©, PvU©

wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (wec¾bK cwiw¯’wZi ZvwjKv: nvwi‡q hvIqv) cwiev‡ii m¤ú„³Zv Av‡jvPbv, †Ljv, f~wgKvwfbq, Qwe/wPÎ, Mí wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv ejv, ev¯Íe NUbvi eY©bv cwiev‡ii m¤ú„³Zv cÖvmw½K wfwWIwPÎ 6.1.3, 8.2.4 Av‡jvPbv, †Ljv, wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv f~wgKvwfbq, Qwe/wPÎ, Mí ejv, ev¯Íe (cÖwZK~j cwiw¯’wZi ZvwjKv, NUbvi eY©bv †hgb: So, f~wgK¤ú, Av¸b cÖvmw½K wfwWIwPÎ jvMv, mvc BZ¨vw`) c„ôv 43


wkLb †ÿÎ

AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv

wkLbdj

8.2.7 nqivwb I wbh©vZbg~jK AvPiY eyS‡Z cvi‡e Ges gv-evev/ AwffveK/ wkÿK‡K Rvbv‡Z cvi‡e|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

cwiKwíZ KvR/wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj

Av‡jvPbv, Mí ejv, ev¯Íe NUbvi eY©bv

c„ôv 44

wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv cwiev‡ii m¤ú„³Zv wkÿK mnvwqKv: wb‡`©kbv (nqivwb I wbh©vZbg~jK AvPi‡Yi ZvwjKv) cwiev‡ii m¤ú„³Zv


9. wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqvi g~j w`Kmg~n (Key factors of teaching learning) †h‡Kvb wkÿvµ‡gi Ab¨Zg ¸iæZ¡c~Y© GKwU Ask n‡jv Gi wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqv| wkÿvµ‡gi wba©vwiZ wkLbdjmg~n AR©‡b wewfbœ †cÖwÿZ we‡ePbvq †h KvR I cªwµqv wbav©iY Kiv nq g~jZ Zvi h_vh_ ev¯Íevq‡bi gva¨‡gB wkï wkÿvµ‡gi Kvw•LZ †hvM¨Zvmg~n/wkLbdj AR©b K‡i| wkÿvµ‡gi mdj ev¯Íevq‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ GB KvR I cÖwµqvmg~‡ni h_vh_ cÖ‡qvM wbwðZ Ki‡Z wewfbœ D‡`¨vM MÖnY Kiv nq hv g~jZ BbcyU (Input) †hgb wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx, wkÿv DcKiY, †Ljbv, wkÿK cÖwkÿY, †kÖwYKÿ, AvmevecÎ BZ¨vw`| GB BbcyUmg~‡ni gvb I Kvh©Ki e¨envi Kvw•LZ djvdj ev AvDUcyU (Output) AR©‡bi Rb¨ ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| GKwU wkÿve¨e¯’vq hZiKg BbcyUB †`Iqv †nvK bv †Kb, Zv hw` mwVKfv‡e e¨eüZ ev Kvh©Kifv‡e cÖ‡qvM bv nq Z‡e Kvw•LZ djvdj ev AvDUcyU KL‡bvB cvIqv m¤¢e bq| †mKvi‡Y wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqvq Gi cÖwZwU Dcv`v‡bi Kvh©Ki I mwVK e¨envi wbwðZ Ki‡Z n‡e| wKš‘ wkÿvµ‡gi jÿ¨ AR©‡b G QvovI Av‡iv wKQz ¸iæZ¡c~Y© w`K i‡q‡Q hv wkïi wkLb Ges wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqv‡K Mfxifv‡e cÖfvweZ K‡i| wkÿvµg ev¯Íevq‡b welqwUi ¸iæZ¡ Abyaveb K‡i wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqvi ¸iæZ¡c~Y© w`Kmg~n wb‡¤œ wee„Z Kiv n‡jv|

BbcyU

cÖwµqv

AvDUcyU

wkÿK cÖwkÿY wkÿv_©x IqvK©eyK

wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqv

wkÿv_©xi wkLb

Ab¨vb¨ DcKiY †Ljvi mvgMÖx wPÎ: wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqv

9.1 wkLb cwi‡ek (Learning environment) Rb¥jMœ †_‡KB wkkyi wkLb cÖwµqvi m~Pbv nq| wkïi wkLb cÖwµqvq †h Dcv`vbwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv iv‡L †mwU n‡jv wkïi Pvicv‡ki cwi‡ek| hw`I AvbyôvwbK A‡_© wkïi wkLb cwi‡ek wk¶v cÖwZôv‡bi †kªwYK‡¶i Pvi‡`qv‡ji g‡a¨B mxgve×, wKš‘ mwZ¨Kvi A‡_© GB wkLb cwi‡ek †kªwYK‡¶i MwÐ Qvwo‡q eû`~i we¯Í…Z| evwo ev wkïi cvwievwiK cwi‡ek n‡”Q cÖ_g RvqMv †hLv‡b wkï mK‡ji mv‡_ cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 45


†gjv‡gkvi my‡hv‡Mi ga¨ w`‡q Zvi Pvicv‡ki RM‡Zi m¤ú‡K© Rvbvi I AbvbyôvwbKfv‡e †kLvi my‡hvM cvq| †mB A‡_© cwievi n‡jv wkïi Rxe‡bi cª_g I Ab¨Zg ¸iæZ¡c~Y© cwi‡ek| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ch©v‡qi wkLb cwi‡ek 5+ eq‡mi wkïi wkLb I gb¯Í‡Ë¡ Mfxi cÖfve †d‡j| ZvB wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqv †h wkLb cwi‡e‡k AbywôZ n‡”Q Zvi f~wgKv Acwimxg| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK †kÖwYi cwi‡ek wVK evwoi gZ cy‡ivcywi AbvbyôvwbK bv n‡jI, cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡ii Ab¨vb¨ †kÖwYi gZ cy‡ivcywi AvbyôvwbK nIqvI evÃbxq bq| †kÖwYi cwi‡ek Ggbfv‡e cwiKíbv Kiv DwPr hv wkï‡K h_vh_fv‡e evwo †_‡K we`¨vj‡qi AvbyôvwbK cwi‡e‡k ax‡i ax‡i Awf‡hvwRZ n‡Z mnvqZv Ki‡Z cv‡i| GB cwi‡ek ZvB n‡Z n‡e Avb›`gq, Avivg`vqK I Dò †hLv‡b wkï wbivc` †eva Ki‡e, ¯^Ztù~Z©fv‡e wewfbœ Kg©Kv‡Ð AskMÖnY Ki‡Z cvi‡e, kvixwiK I gvbwmKfv‡e m¤ú„³ nIqvi my‡hvM cv‡e Ges †Kvbfv‡eB cwievi †_‡K wb‡R‡K wew”Qbœ †eva Ki‡e bv| m‡e©vcwi cwi‡ekwU n‡Z n‡e wkïevÜe, A_©vr wkï‡K †K›`ª K‡i cwiKwíZ †hLv‡b wkï B‡”QgZ †Ljvayjv, Qz‡UvQzwU I Kíbv Kivi my‡hvM cvq| GRb¨ cÖvK-cÖv_wgK †kÖwYi †`qv‡ji is n‡Z n‡e D¾¡j I ewY©j, cwimi n‡Z n‡e h_vm¤¢e eo hv‡Z mK‡j B‡”QgZ Pjv‡div Kivi my‡hvM cvq, †`qv‡j bvbv ai‡bi Qwe msewjZ †cv÷vi †Svjv‡bv _vK‡Z cv‡i, Avmevecθ‡jv n‡Z n‡e wkïi Rb¨ Avivg`vqK I wbivc`, ch©vß †Ljvi mvgwMÖ I Ab¨vb¨ wkÿvg~jK DcKiY cÖPzi cwigv‡Y _vK‡e hv‡Z wkï wbqwgZ G¸‡jvi mv‡_ wg_w®Œqv (interaction) Kivi my‡hvM cvq| †kÖwYK‡ÿ wkï‡`i ¯^Ë¡vwaKvi (Ownership) cÖwZôv Kivi Rb¨ Zv‡`i AuvKv wewfbœ wPÎ, Qwe I Ab¨vb¨ KvR cÖ`k©‡bi (Display) my‡hvM _vK‡Z n‡e, hv‡Z Zviv g‡b K‡i GwU Zv‡`i GKvšÍB wb‡Ri RvqMv| †gvUK_v †kÖwYK‡ÿi cwi‡ek n‡e wkïi GKvšÍ wbR¯^ RM‡Zi mv‡_ msMwZc~b© hv Zv‡K Avb›` I wbivcËvi Abyf~wZ Ges m¤ú„³ nIqvi Drmvn †hvMv‡e I Kíbvi iv‡R¨ wePiY Ki‡Z DrmvwnZ Ki‡e| 9.2 wkÿ‡Ki f~wgKv cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvi wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqvq me‡P‡q D‡jøL‡hvM¨ f~wgKv iv‡Lb wkÿK| G‡ÿ‡Î cÖwkÿ‡Yi gva¨‡g wkÿK‡K cÖ¯‘Z Kiv nq| wKš‘ wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqvq wkÿ‡Ki cÖwkÿ‡Yi gva¨‡g AwR©Z `ÿZvi h_vh_ cÖwZdjbB †kl K_v bq| GKwU wkïevÜe cwi‡ek ˆZwi I eRvq †i‡L h_vh_fv‡e wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqv cwiPvjbv Kiv A‡bK MyiæZ¡c~Y©| wkÿK‡K ZvB n‡Z n‡e wkïi eÜz| wkïi mv‡_ wZwb Ggbfv‡e wg‡k hv‡eb, K_v ej‡eb A_ev †hvMv‡hvM I wg_w®Œqv Ki‡eb hv‡Z wkï cig Av¯’vi mv‡_ Zvi Ici wbf©i Ki‡Z cv‡i, †hgbfv‡e †m wbf©i K‡i Zvi evev-gv ev cwiev‡ii Ab¨vb¨ wbKUvZ¥x‡qi Dci| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡ii wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqvq wkÿ‡Ki f~wgKv n‡e ZvB mnvqZvKvixi (Facilitator) whwb GKwU wkï I wkLbevÜe cwi‡ek ˆZwi K‡i c‡` c‡` wkï‡K bvbv Kv‡R m¤ú„³ nIqvi my‡hvM K‡i w`‡q Zv‡K bvbvfv‡e wkL‡Z mnvqZv Ki‡eb|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 46


9.3 wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx, wkÿv DcKiY, †Ljbv I m¤ú~iK cVb mvgMÖx cÖvK-cÖv_wgK †kÖwY‡Z wkï‡`i wewfbœ ai‡bi KvR I †Ljvq mwµq AskMÖn‡Yi my‡hvM ˆZwi Kiv nq hv Zv‡`i e„w× I weKv‡ki bvbv †ÿ‡Î mnvqZv K‡i| GB †kªwY‡Z ZvB bvbv ai‡bi wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx, wkÿv DcKiY, †Ljbv I m¤ú~iK cVb mvgMÖxi cÖ‡qvRb c‡o| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK †kÖwY‡Z wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqv ïay †jLvcovi gv‡SB mxgve× bq, eis GLv‡b wkï‡`i bvbv ai‡bi Kv‡RI m¤ú„³ Kiv nq hv Zvi weKvk I wkL‡bi wfwË iPbvq ¸iæZ¡c~Y© fzwgKv iv‡L| wkïiv GB †kÖwY‡Z bvbv ai‡bi †Ljbv I DcKiY †b‡o‡P‡o, D‡ë-cv‡ë, cixÿv-bxwiÿv K‡i cvi¯úwiK wg_w®Œqvi (Interaction) gva¨‡g wb‡Riv wb‡RivB †k‡L| myZivs Gme Kv‡R h‡_vchy³ wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx, wkÿv DcKiY, †Ljbv I m¤ú~iK cVb mvgMÖxi we‡kl f~wgKv _v‡K| 9.4 wkïi f~wgKv cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡ii wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqvi †K›`ªwe›`y n‡jv wkïiv| wkÿv_©x wn‡m‡e Zvi f~wgKv GLv‡b cÖ_vMZ wkÿv_©xi gZ bq| GLv‡b wkï B‡”QgZ †Lj‡e , nvm‡e, nvZ-cv Quy‡o kvixwiK KmiZ Ki‡e I †QvUvQywU Ki‡e, Qwe AuvK‡e, AuvKv Qwe‡K Zvi Kíbvi i‡O ivOv‡e, co‡e, wkÿ‡Ki wb‡`©kbvbyhvqx bvbv KvR Ki‡e, AvMÖn I Drmvn wb‡q wewfbœ wRwbm †b‡o‡P‡o †`L‡e, wewfbœ NUbvi KviY I djvdj (Cause-effect relation) AbymÜvb Ki‡e BZ¨vw`| †gvU K_v cÖvK-cÖv_wgK †kÖwYi wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqvq m¤ú„³ n‡q wkï cÖwZwU gyn~‡Z© wKQz bv wKQz Ki‡e, Avwe®‹vi Ki‡e I cÖwZwbqZ wkL‡e| AvMÖn I Avb›` wb‡q †kLvi KvRwU Ki‡Z wM‡q wkï n‡q DV‡e GKRb mwµq wkÿv_©x (Active learner) †h wkL‡Z Avb›` cvq (Love for learning)| 9.5 cwiev‡ii f~wgKv cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvq wkïi weKvk I wkL‡b we`¨vj‡qi cvkvcvwk cwiev‡ii f~wgKv AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| wkï R‡b¥i ci †_‡K 5 eQi eqm ch©šÍ wkLb I weKv‡ki GKwU AZxe ¸iæZ¡c~Y© ¯Íi AwZevwnZ K‡i cwiev‡i| Avevi wkï hLb cÖvK-cÖv_wgK †kÖwY‡Z Avm‡Z ïiæ K‡i, ZLbI †m †Kej GKwU wbw`©ó mgq (2.5 N›Uv) Qvov Aewkó mgqUzKz cwiev‡ii mv‡_B _v‡K| myZivs wkïi wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqvq cwiev‡ii GKwU wekvj f~wgKv i‡q‡Q| G‡¶‡Î, wkïi gvZvwcZv ev cwiev‡ii Ab¨vb¨ m`m¨MY wk¶K‡K wkïi m¤ú‡K© Ggb A‡bK Z_¨ (†hgb, wkïi cQ›`-AcQ›`, †Kvb we‡kl `¶Zv ev `ye©jZv BZ¨vw`) w`‡Z cv‡ib hv wk¶K‡K wkïi m¤ú‡K© GKwU cwic~Y© wPÎ †c‡Z Ges wkïi wkLb cÖwµqv‡Z m‡e©vËg Dcv‡q mnvqZv Ki‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i| d‡j †kªwYK‡¶i wfZi wkïi wkLb cÖwµqv AviI A_©c~Y© n‡q D‡V, wkï-wk¶K I cwiev‡ii ga¨Kvi m¤úK© `„p nq Ges wkï we`¨vj‡q evwoi g‡ZvB wbivc` †eva K‡i| ZvB wkÿ‡Ki cvkvcvwk gvZvwcZv Ges cwiev‡ii Ab¨vb¨ m`m¨‡`i wkïi wkL‡b µgvMZ mnvqZv w`‡q †h‡Z n‡e| ZvQvov cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµ‡g A‡bK Kvh©µg i‡q‡Q hv wkïiv evwo‡Z gvZvwcZv ev Ab¨vb¨‡`i mnvqZvq Abykxjb K‡i Kvw•LZ †hvM¨Zv/wkLbdj AR©‡bi gva¨‡g mvwe©K weKvk wbwðZ Ki‡Z cvi‡e| cwievi I we`¨vjq GKwU cvi¯úwiK cwic~iK f~wgKvq †_‡K G mnvqZv †`‡eb| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 47


9.6 mgv‡Ri f~wgKv wkïi wkLb I weKvk wbwðZ Ki‡Z wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqvq gvZvwcZv, cwievi I we`¨vj‡qi cvkvcvwk mgv‡RiI ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv i‡q‡Q| GKwU we`¨vjq mgv‡Ri GKwU Awe‡”Q`¨ Ask wn‡m‡eB Pjgvb _v‡K| we`¨vjq †hgb GKwU mgv‡Ri wkï‡`i wkLb I weKvk wbwðZ Kivi gva¨‡g mgvR‡K †mev cÖ`vb (Serve) K‡i, †Zgwb mgv‡RiI we`¨vjq‡K Gi bvbvwea Kv‡R I Gi mvwe©K Dbœq‡b mnvqZv Kiv AZ¨vek¨K| GRb¨ we`¨vjq‡K mgvR wewfbœfv‡e mnvqZv Ki‡Z cv‡i, †hgb, c¨viv wkÿK wn‡m‡e †kÖwYi ev we`¨vj‡qi wewfbœ Kv‡R mnvqZv Kiv, †Ljbv I wkÿv DcKiY cÖ`vb, †gjv, evrmwiK †Ljvayjvi Drme BZ¨vw` AvDU‡Wvi B‡f›U Ki‡Z mnvqZv Kiv, gvZvwcZv I mgv‡Ri Ab¨vb¨‡`i wb‡q Drme Av‡qvRb Kiv, we`¨vjq GjvKvi mvgvwRK-mvs¯‹…wZK e¨w³Z¡‡`i wb‡q wkï‡`i ms‡M cwiPq Kiv‡bv BZ¨vw`| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK we`¨vjq¸‡jviI DwPr e„nËi mgv‡Ri wewfbœ mvgvwRK-mvs¯‹…wZK cÖwZôv‡bi mv‡_ GKwU mn‡hvwMZvg~jK m¤úK© ¯’vc‡bi gva¨‡g wkïi wkL‡b mgv‡R we`¨gvb ¸Yx e¨w³‡`i m¤ú„³ Kiv I mvgvwRK m¤ú‡`i (Community resource) e¨envi wbwðZ Kiv|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 48


10.

wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgMÖx, wkÿv DcKiY, †Ljbv I m¤ú~iK cVb mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbv

wk¶vµ‡gi mdj ev¯Íevqb wbwðZ Kivi Rb¨ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© `ywU welq n‡jv wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgMÖx I wk¶K| wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgMÖx n‡jv wk¶vµ‡gi g~j evnb| wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgMÖx e¨envi K‡i wk¶K †kªwYK‡¶ †h wkLb AwfÁZvi Av‡qvRb/wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg cwiPvjbv K‡ib ZvB n‡jv ev¯ÍevwqZ wk¶vµg (Implemented Curriculum)|  

wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgMÖx cÖYqb

wkÿvµg g¨vwUª·

GKxf~Z wk¶vi wb‡`©kbv

wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgMÖx (wk¶K mnvwqKv, IqvK© eyK, †Ljbv, wk¶v DcKiY I wWwRUvj mvgMÖx

Kg©wfwËK cwiKíbv

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgMÖx cÖYq‡bi cÖavb D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv wkÿvµg g¨vwUª‡· DwjøwLZ wkLbdj wk¶v_©x‡`i Øviv AR©b Kiv‡bv Ges GR‡b¨ h_vh_ wkLb-†kLv‡bv †KŠkj D™¢veb Ges welqe¯‘ wba©viY| wkLb†kLv‡bv mvgMÖxi Dbœqb g~jZ †hme wel‡qi Dci wbf©ikxj Zv Dc‡ii QK Abyhvqx    

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg g¨vwU· Kg©wfwËK cwiKíbv g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv GKxf~Z wk¶vi wb‡`©kbv

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 49


cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg g¨vwUª·: cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg g¨vwUª‡· 8wU wkLb‡¶‡Îi cÖwZwU wkLb‡¶Î‡K GKvwaK AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv Ges cÖwZwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv‡K †f‡½ GKvwaK wkLbd‡j wPwýZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| cÖwZwU wkLbd‡ji wecix‡Z wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgMÖx Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ wb‡`©kbv D‡jøL Kiv n‡q‡Q| DwjøwLZ wb‡`©kbv Abyhvqx wkLb-†kLv‡bv †KŠkj wba©viY, cÖ‡hvR¨‡¶‡Î wkLbdj AR©‡b wk¶v DcKiY, †Ljbv I m¤ú~iK cVb mvgMÖx ˆZwi Kiv n‡e| †Kvb †Kvb mgq GKB wkLb‡¶Î ev wfbœ wfbœ wkLb‡¶‡Îi GKvwaK wkLbdj GKwU Ab¨wUi mv‡_ m¤úK©hy³ n‡Z cv‡i| Avevi †Kvb †Kvb wkLbdj ¯^Zš¿| myZivs cvV cwiKíbv Kivi mgq cÖwZwU wkLbdj‡K Avjv`v Avjv`vfv‡e we‡ePbv Kivi cÖ‡qvRb bvI n‡Z cv‡i| Avevi GKwU wbw`©ó wkLbdj‡K GKvwaK cv‡V fvM KiviI cÖ‡qvRb n‡Z cv‡i| wkLbdj¸‡jv Avjv`v Avjv`vfv‡e we‡ePbv bv K‡i mvgwMÖKfv‡e wkLb-†kLv‡bv †KŠkj I Kg©wfwËK cwiKíbvi ˆewk‡ó¨i Dci wfwË K‡i cvV wefvRb Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| Kg©wfwËK cwiKíbv (Planned Activity): mvgwMÖKfv‡e wkLbdj AR©‡bi Rb¨ Kg©wfwËK cwiKíbvq KZ¸‡jv wkLb KvR (Learning activity) wba©viY Kiv n‡q‡Q| wkLbdjmg~n wewfbœ K¬v÷vi K‡i wba©vwiZ wkLb Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g AR©b Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| Avevi wba©vwiZ wkLb KvR Abyhvqx wkLbdj¸‡jv‡K K¬v÷v‡i fvM Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| Kg©wfwËK cwiKíbvq DwjøwLZ wkLb KvR Abyhvqx wkLbdjmg~n K¬v÷vi Kivi ci, ev¯Íevqb †KŠkj we‡ePbv K‡i cÖwZwU Kv‡Ri Rb¨ ˆ`wbK, mvßvwnK, gvwmK I evrmwiK wn‡m‡e KZUzKz mgq cÖ‡qvRb Ñ Zv wba©viY Ki‡Z n‡e| Activity ev wkLb Kv‡Ri Dci wfwË K‡i wk¶K mnvwqKvq cÖ‡qvRbxq wb‡`©kbv cÖ`vb, cÖ‡hvR¨ †¶‡Î

IqvK© ey‡K welqe¯‘ cÖYqb Ges wk¶v DcKiY I †Ljbv ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e| g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv: g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbvq cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ch©v‡qi g~j¨vqb †KŠkj I c×wZ ewY©Z i‡q‡Q| wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgMÖx cÖYq‡b we‡klZ wk¶K mnvwqKvq cÖwZwU wkLbd‡ji Ôg~j¨vqb †KŠkjÕ g~j¨vq‡bi wb‡`©kbv Abyhvqx wba©viY Ki‡Z n‡e| GKxf~Z wk¶vi wb‡`©kbv: cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ch©v‡qi wk¶vµ‡g GKxf~Z wk¶vi Ici we‡kl ¸iæZ¡ cÖ`vb Kiv n‡q‡Q| GKxf~Z wk¶v welqK wb‡`©kbvq GKxf~Z wk¶vq evsjv‡`‡ki †cÖ¶vc‡U †h 4wU †¶Î wba©viY Kiv n‡q‡Q †m wel‡q cÖ‡qvRbxq w`K wb‡`©kbv cÖYqb Kiv n‡q‡Q| D³ w`K wb‡`©kbv Abyhvqx wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgMÖx cÖYq‡bi m‡½ mswkøó wb‡`©kbv we‡ePbvc~e©K wk¶K mnvwqKv I IqvK© eyK cÖYqb Ges wk¶v DcKiY ˆZwi Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 50


wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgMÖxi ¸iæZ¡ cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ch©v‡qi wk¶v e¨e¯’v Ab¨vb¨ wk¶v¯Í‡ii e¨e¯’vi †P‡q wfbœ cÖK…wZi| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ch©v‡qi wkkyiv mvaviYZ cVb ev wjL‡bi `¶Zv wb‡q we`¨vj‡q cÖ‡ek K‡i bv| wk¶v_©xiv wewfbœ wkLb KvR †hgb- †Ljv, Mvb, Pviæ I Kviæ KvR Ges wewfbœ eq‡mvc‡hvMx GmvBb‡g‡›Ui gva¨‡g wkLbdj AR©b Ki‡Z cv‡i| G‡¶‡Î ïaygvÎ IqvK© eyK wbf©i cVb I wjL‡bi cwigvY Zzjbvg~jKfv‡e A‡bK Kg| ZvB Kxfv‡e wewfbœ wkLb Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g wkïiv Kvw•LZ wkLbdjmg~n AR©b Ki‡e Zv wk¶K mnvwqKvq e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z n‡e| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ch©v‡qi AwaKvsk wkLbdj wkïiv wewfbœ wkLb Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g AR©b Ki‡e, ZvB GB ch©v‡q wk¶K mnvwqKv n‡e wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg cwiPvjbvi ¸iæZ¡c~Y© mvgMÖx| wk¶vµg Kxfv‡e †kªwYK‡¶ ev¯ÍevwqZ n‡e Zvi w`K wb‡`©kbv _vK‡e wk¶K mnvwqKvq| wewfbœ wkLb Kv‡Ri Dci wfwË K‡i cÖ‡hvR¨ †¶‡Î wkLb-†kLv‡bv c×wZi Pvwn`v Abyhvqx IqvK© ey‡K welqe¯‘i mvnvh¨ †bIqv †h‡Z cv‡i Ges wk¶v DcKiY, †Ljvi mvgMÖx ˆZwi ev msMÖn K‡i e¨envi Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| cÖwZwU wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgMÖx cÖYq‡bi †¶‡Î my®úó wb‡`©kbv cieZ©x‡Z kbv³ Kiv n‡q‡Q| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿK mnvwqKv cÖYq‡bi Rb¨ wb‡`©kbv: cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ch©v‡qi wkÿvµ‡g wkïi mvwe©K weKvk I weKv‡ki Dcvqmg~n, wkïi wkLb Pvwn`v, wkïi †kLvi cÖK…wZ ev aib, wkïi †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Dcvqmg~n †h †hŠw³K µgcywćZ web¨¯Í Kiv n‡q‡Q Zv wkÿK mswkøó mnvwqKvi gva¨‡g wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µ‡g h_vh_ cÖwZdjb NUv‡eb| Kv‡RB wkÿµ‡gi mdj ev¯Íevq‡b wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg cwiPvjbvq wkÿK‡K mnvqZv`v‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ wkÿK mnvwqKvi ¸iæZ¡ Acwimxg| ZvB wkÿ‡Ki Rb¨ cÖYxZ wkÿK mnvwqKv iPbvq wb‡gœv³ welq¸‡jv ¸iæZ¡c~Y© wbqvgK wn‡m‡e we‡ePbv Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| wk¶K mnvwqKv cÖYq‡bi wb‡`©kbvmg~n: - †kÖwYK‡¶ I †kÖwYK‡ÿi evB‡i Kvh©Ki wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg cwiPvjbvq wk¶K‡K mnvqZv `vb I Zuvi †ckvMZ `¶Zv e„w×i my‡hvM ivLv| - AR©‡bvc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv AR©‡b mnvqK c×wZ‡Z wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg cwiPvjbvq aviYv `vb| - wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg h_vm¤¢e Kg©‡Kw›`ªK Ges wkL‡b wkïi mwµq AskMÖnY wbwðZKiY| - wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µ‡g eûgyLx wkLb †KŠkj cÖ‡qv‡Mi my‡hvM ivLv| - wkïweKvk I wkLb m¤ú‡K© †gŠwjK aviYv ms‡hvRb| - †Ljv, Awfbq, Mvb, bvP, Qov I M‡íi gva¨‡g wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg cwiPvjbvi my‡hvM ivLv| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 51


- cwiKwíZ Kv‡Ri m‡½ wkÿv_©xi jäÁvb I `¶Zvi †hvMm~Î ¯’vcb| - cwiKwíZ Kv‡Ri m‡½ AwR©Ze¨ wkLbdj ev wkLbdjmg~‡ni m¤úK© ¯’vcb| - cwiKwíZ Kv‡Ri g‡a¨ wkïi m„RbkxjZv I bv›`wbKZv weKv‡ki my‡hvM ivLv| - wkïi wkLb Kvh©µ‡g Zvi wbKU cwi‡ek I cÖK…wZ †_‡K h_vm¤¢e D`vnviY †`Iqv| - h_vm¤¢e ev¯Íe DcKiY e¨envi K‡i ev¯Íe †_‡K Aa©ev¯Íe I weg~Z© aviYv weKv‡k my‡hvM m„wó| - wkÿv DcKiY e¨env‡ii †ÿ‡Î ¯’vbxq I wbKU cwi‡ek †_‡K DcKiY msMÖn I wkÿ‡Ki D™¢vebx kw³ cÖ‡qv‡Mi my‡hvM ivLv| - h_vh_ g~j¨vq‡bi Dcvq I †KŠkj wbi~cY Kiv| - wkLb `ye©jZv wPwýZ K‡i wcwQ‡q cov wkï‡`i wbivgqg~jK e¨e¯’v cÖ`vb I cyb: g~j¨vq‡bi gva¨‡g cy‡ivcywi wkLb wbwðZKi‡Yi Dcvq m¤ú‡K© aviYv cÖ`vb| - †`‡ki mKj we`¨vj‡q wkLb-†kLv‡bv gv‡bi mgZv weavbmsewjZ aviYv cÖ`vb| -

wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg cwiPvjbv AvKl©Yxq I Avb›``vqK Kivi my‡hvM m„wó|

- wkÿK mnvwqKvq AšÍfz©³ cÖwZwU welq I Kvh©µ‡g bvix-cyiæl/†Q‡j‡g‡qi mgZv weav‡bi wel‡q ¸iæZ¡ cÖ`vb| - GKxf~Z wkÿv ev¯Íevq‡bi Kvh©Kwi my‡hvM m„wó Kiv| - wkÿvµ‡g wba©vwiZ cwiKwíZ Kv‡Ri AvIZvaxb wkLbdjmg~n AR©‡bi h‡_ó my‡hvM ivLv| - wkLbd‡j cÖ‡hvR¨ †ÿ‡Î mswkøó g~j¨‡eva weKvk I PP©vq D¾xweZ Kivi †KŠkj we‡ePbvq ivLv| - wkÿK mnvwqKvq me©Î PwjZ fvlv e¨envi Kiv| - evbv‡bi †¶‡Î evsjv GKv‡Wgxi evbvbixwZ AbymiY Kiv| IqvK© eyK I m¤ú~iK cVb mvgMÖx cÖYq‡bi Rb¨ wb‡`©kbv: mvaviYZ mKj wk¶v¯Í‡i cvV¨cy¯ÍK cÖavb wk¶vmvgMÖx n‡jI cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ch©v‡q Zv wfbœ| cÖvKcÖv_wgK ch©vq †h‡nZz wkïi mvwe©K Dbœqb I weKv‡ki mv‡_ m¤ú„³ ZvB Zvi wkLb †Kej Ávb wbf©i bq, wbKU cwi‡ek wbf©i| wkï Pvicvk †_‡K cÖwZwbqZ Bw›`ª‡qi gva¨‡g DÏxcbv MÖnY K‡i Zvi wkLb Kvh©µg wbišÍifv‡e cÖevngvb iv‡L| wkïiv wewfbœfv‡e †k‡L| †KD †`‡L †k‡L, †KD ï‡b †k‡L, †KD K‡i †k‡L, †KD Avevi K_vi gva¨‡g †k‡L| Avevi †h †`‡L †k‡L, †m †h ï‡b ev Ab¨fv‡e †k‡L bv Zv wKš‘ bq| cÖ‡Z¨K wkïi †kLvi ai‡b wbR¯^Zv _v‡K| wkïi †kLvi G wbR¯^Zv we‡ePbvq †i‡L wewfbœ cwiKwíZ KvR I wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg AbymiY Kiv n‡q _v‡K| G cwiKwíZ KvR I wkLb†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg‡K cwiPvwjZ Ki‡Z ev ev¯Íevqb Ki‡Z wkÿ‡Ki mnvqZvi cvkvcvwk cvV¨cy¯Í‡Ki cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 52


ms‡hvM ¯’vc‡bi cwic~iK n‡q †`Lv †`q| d‡j wkïi wkLb Z¡ivwš^Z nq| ZvB cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ch©v‡q wkÿK mnvwqKvi cvkvcvwk IqvK© ey‡Ki cÖYqb I e¨envi ¸iæZ¡c~Y©|

IqvK© eyK I m¤ú~iK cVb mvgMÖx cÖYq‡b we‡eP¨ welq¸‡jv wb¤œiƒc: 1. IqvK© eyK cÖYq‡b wk¶vµg wb‡`©wkZ wkLb‡ÿÎ, AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv I wkLbd‡ji h_vh_ cÖwZdjb; 2. welqe¯‘‡Z hv‡Z wk¶v_©xi Kvw•¶Z Ávb, `¶Zv I `„wófw½ AR©b wbwðZ nq Zv we‡ePbvq ivLv; 3. wkïi ˆbwZK, gvbweK I mvgvwRK g~j¨‡eva D¾xe‡bi cÖ‡Yv`bv hv‡Z _v‡K †mw`‡K †Lqvj ivLv; 4. welqe¯‘ Dc¯’vcb hv‡Z h_vm¤¢e RxebNwbô I Kg©‡Kw›`ªK nq †mw`‡K ¸yiæZ¡ Av‡ivc Kiv; 5. welqe¯‘ Dc¯’vcbKv‡j Rvbv †_‡K ARvbv, mnR †_‡K A‡c¶vK…Z KwVb, wbKU cwi‡ek †_‡K `~i cwi‡ek Ges ev¯Íe I Aa©ev¯Íe †_‡K weg~Z© - Giƒc ixwZ AbymiY Kiv; 6. wkïi eqm, MÖnY¶gZv, mvg_¨©, AvMÖn I gvbwmK cwic°Zv we‡ePbv K‡i cvV msKjb I iPbv; 7. gvbyl, cÖK…wZ I cwi‡ek m¤ú‡K© wk¶v_©xi cÖZ¨vwkZ AvPiY I `„wófw½ MV‡b mnvqZv cÖ`vb; 8. IqvK© eyK Ggbfv‡e cÖYqb Kiv hv‡Z wkï wkLbdj AR©‡bi m‡½ m‡½ D³ wkLbdj mswkøó g~j¨‡ev‡a D¾xweZ n‡Z cv‡i; 9. wk¶v_©xi †KŠZ‚nj I AvMÖ‡ni be be w`MšÍ D‡b¥vPb Kiv; 10. wbg©j Avb›` jv‡fi Rb¨ nvm¨im I Kíbv weKv‡ki Dc‡hvMx gRvi Mí cwi‡ekb; 11. wk¶v_©xi myKzgvi e„wË, hyw³‡eva, bv›`wbKZv‡eva I m„RbkxjZv‡K cÖ‡Yv`bv `vb; 12. wk¶v_©xi fvlv-`¶Zv e„wׇZ mnvqZv cÖ`vb; 13. wkïg‡bi Kíbv weKv‡ki Dc‡hvMx gRvi Mí cwi‡ekb; 14. wkïi Kv‡Q cxov`vqK nq Ggb NUbv/welq cwinvi; 15. evK¨ MVbixwZ I kãPqb µgvš^‡q mnR †_‡K KwVb n‡e| AcÖPwjZ kã I `xN© evK¨ h_vm¤¢e cwinvi Ki‡Z n‡e| wewfbœ cv‡Vi gva¨‡g µgvš^‡q bZzb bZzb kã, welq I Kv‡Ri m‡½ wk¶v_©xi cwiPq wbwðZ Kiv; 16. cÖviw¤¢K Dc¯’vc‡b Aa©ev¯Íe ch©v‡q mKj welqe¯‘ Dc¯’vcb Kiv; 17. cÖwZwU aviYv wewfbœfv‡e Dc¯’vcb; †hgb, Qwei mvnv‡h¨ msL¨v †gjv‡bv, Qwe ¸‡Y msL¨v ejv, A‡bK DËi †_‡K mwVK DËi Lyu‡R †ei Kiv BZ¨vw`| 18. ev¯Íevqb ch©v‡q wkïi mwµq I mvwe©K AskMÖnY‡K cÖvavb¨ w`‡q nv‡Z Kj‡g KvR Kivi my‡hvM m„wó; 19. ch©vß Abykxj‡bi my‡hvM; 20. wkLb welqe¯‘ Ggbfv‡e Dc¯’vcb Kiv †hb b~¨bZg mnvqZvq wk¶v_©xiv wb‡R wb‡R wkL‡Z cv‡i| 21. IqvK© ey‡K welqe¯‘, PwiÎ I Qwe/wPÎ Dc¯’vc‡b bvix-cyiæl, †Q‡j-†g‡q mgZv weavb; 22. GKxf~Z wkÿv ev¯Íevq‡bi my‡hvM m„wó; 23. welqe¯‘‡K mnR I mvejxjfv‡e Dc¯’vc‡bi Rb¨ ch©vß msL¨K AvKl©Yxq Qwe/wPÎ ms‡hvRb; cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 53


24. ¯’vbxqfv‡e webvg~‡j¨ msMÖn Kiv hvq Giƒc DcKi‡Yi AšÍfz©w³ I e¨env‡ii welqwU we‡ePbvq wb‡q IqvK© eyK cÖYqb Ki‡Z n‡e| wkïi m„Rbkxj AskMÖn‡Yi my‡hvM m„wó K‡i Giƒc DcKiY I KvR we‡ePbvq ivLv Riæwi| 25. RvZxq cZvKvi gvc I is m¤ú‡K© m‡PZb _vK‡Z n‡e; 26. RvZxq chv©‡q cwiwPZ I me©Rbwew`Z wkï‡Zvl †jvKR Qov, Mvb, Mí, †Ljv BZ¨vw` AMÖvwaKvi wfwˇZ we‡ePbvq wb‡q Ges ¯’vbxq chv©‡q cÖPwjZ wkï‡Zvl Qov, Mvb, Mí, †Ljv BZ¨vw` AšÍf©~w³i my‡hvM †i‡L IqvK© eyK cÖYq‡bi welqwU we‡ePbvq ivLv; 27. IqvK© eyK cÖYq‡bi mgq Gi ev¯Íevq‡b gvZvwcZv, cwievi cÖv_wgK wkÿvq RwoZ wkÿK, Gm Gg wm m`m¨ I mgv‡Ri Ab¨vb¨‡`i m¤ú„³Zvi welqwU we‡ePbvq ivLv; 28. miKvwi-†emiKvwi wewfbœ ms¯’v KZ©„K cÖYxZ cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvq e¨eüZ IqvK© eyK I m¤ú~iK cVb-mvgMÖx we‡ePbvq ivLv; 29. m¤ú~iK cVb mvgMÖx msMÖn I cÖYq‡bi †ÿ‡Î wkïi eqm (5+), MÖnY¶gZv, mvg_¨©, AvMÖn I gvbwmK cwic°Zv we‡ePbvq Avbv; 30. IqvK© eyK I m¤ú~iK cVb mvgMÖx‡Z PwjZ fvlv e¨envi; 31. evbv‡bi †¶‡Î evsjv GKv‡Wgxi evbvbixwZ AbymiY| wkÿv DcKiY I †Ljvi mvgMÖx Dbœq‡b wb‡`©kbv: wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg cwiPvjbvq h_vh_ wkÿv DcKiY e¨envi AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© GKwU welq| wkÿv DcKi‡Yi h_vh_ I myôz e¨envi wkLbdj AR©b‡K mnR, AvKl©Yxq I Z¡ivwš^Z K‡i| ZvB Dc¯’vwcZ wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µ‡gi mv‡_ wkÿv DcKi‡Yi h_vh_ ms‡hvM ¯’vcb AZ¨šÍ Kvh©Ki GKwU c`‡ÿc| G‡Z wkïi wkLb `xN©¯’vqx nq| ZvB IqvK© eyK cÖYqb, wkÿK mnvwqKv iPbv I wkÿv DcKiY wbe©vPb GKwU Awfbœ cwiKíbv I mgwš^Zfv‡e ev¯Íevq‡bi welq| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ch©v‡q wkïi Rb¨ cvV-mswkøó I AvKl©Yxq DcKiY ˆZwi, msMÖn, D™¢veb I wbe©vPb GKwU AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© welq| G‡ÿ‡Î wbgœewY©Z welqmg~n we‡ePbvq ivL‡Z n‡e: 1. wkïi wbKU-cwi‡ek (Immediate environment) 2. ev¯Íe DcKiY 3. DcKiY †hb mnRfv‡e e¨envi Dc‡hvMx I wbivc` nq 4. DcKiY †hb webvg~‡j¨ msMÖn ev e¨q mvkªqx nq 5. AvKl©Yxq I iwOb nq 6. ¯’vbxq ch©v‡q msMÖn Kiv hvq Ggb 7. wkÿ‡Ki D™¢vebxkw³ e¨envi K‡i cÖ¯‘ZK…Z 8. welqe¯‘ I wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©vewji g‡a¨ h_vh_fv‡e m¤úK© ¯’vc‡b mÿg 9. wj½ mgZvi welq (Gender sensitive) 10. we‡kl Pvwn`v m¤úbœ wkï‡`i e¨envi Dc‡hvMx 11. wkïiv ˆ`bw›`b Kvh©µ‡g e¨envi K‡i Ggb DcKiY 12. wewfbœ †Ljvayjvi mvgMÖx 13. Qwe/wPÎ, PvU©, eøK, Kviæ g‡Wj BZ¨vw` 14. DcKiY¸‡jvi eûgvwÎK e¨envi 15. mnR mvaviY Kvh©KviY m¤úK© mswkøó nq cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg   

c„ôv 54


16. DcKiY¸‡jv †hb †hŠw³K I wPšÍb `ÿZv‡K DrmvwnZ K‡i 17. DcKiY¸‡jv †hb m„wókxjZv‡K DrmvwnZ K‡i| 18. miKvwi-†emiKvwi wewfbœ ms¯’v KZ©„K cÖYxZ cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvq e¨eüZ wkÿv DcKiY I †Ljvi mvgMÖx we‡ePbvq ivLv|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

c„ôv 55


11. g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv g~j¨vqb wk¶vµ‡gi GKwU Awe‡”Q`¨ Ask| cÖvK cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡ii wk¶vµg g~j¨vq‡bi †¶‡Î wkïi wkLb AMÖMwZ g~j¨vq‡bi cvkvcvwk wkLb cwi‡ek Ges wk¶vµ‡gi mvwe©K ev¯Íevqb cwiw¯’wZ g~j¨vqb Acwinvh©| KviY h_v_© Ges h‡_v‡cvhy³ wkLb cwi‡ek Ges wk¶vµg ev¯Íevqb †KŠkj wbwðZ Kiv bv †M‡j wkïi Kvw•LZ wkLb AMÖMwZ wbwðZ Kiv m¤¢e bq - hv wk¶vµ‡gi g~j j¶¨| wk¶vµ‡gi mdj ev¯Íevqb g~jZ wZbwU wel‡qi Dci wbf©ikxj| cÖ_gZ

:

wkïi Kvw•LZ †hvM¨Zv ev wkLbdj AR©b wbwðZKiY|

wØZxqZ

:

wkL‡bi h_vh_ cwi‡ek wbwðZKiY|

Z…ZxqZ

:

wk¶vµg, wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgMÖx, wkLb-†kLv‡bv †KŠkj Ges wk¶K-`¶Zvi h_v_©Zv wbwðZ Kiv|

DcwiD³ wZbwU welq GKwU AciwUi cwic~iK| wkï‡`i Øviv Kvw•LZ wkLbdj AR©‡bi Rb¨ wkL‡bi cwi‡ek AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| wkLb cwi‡e‡ki cÖavb wZbwU welq n‡jv Ñ †fŠZ myweavw`, wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqv I AvšÍte¨w³K g~j¨vqb| wkLb cwi‡e‡ki GB wZbwU welq Kvw•LZ wkLbdj AR©b‡K mivmwi cÖfvweZ K‡i| wk¶vµgmn wkLb-†kLv‡bv †KŠkj, wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgMÖx I wk¶‡Ki `¶Zv cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡ii wk¶v e¨e¯’vi Rb¨ ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| wk¶vµ‡g DwjøwLZ Kvw•LZ †hvM¨Zv ev wkLbdj GB eq‡mi wkï‡`i Rb¨ KZUv h‡_vchy³ I wkïi weKv‡ki Rb¨ KZUv ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Zv we‡ePbv Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| wk¶vµg ev wk¶K mnvwqKvq cÖ¯ÍvweZ wkLb-†kLv‡bv †KŠkj wk¶v_©xi AR©b‡K cÖfvweZ K‡i| wk¶‡Ki cvV cwiPvjb `¶Zvi mv‡_ wkïi wkLb mivmwi wbf©ikxj| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wk¶vi mdj ev¯Íevq‡bi Rb¨ mvgwMÖK cwiKíbv I e¨e¯’vcbvi h_v_©Zv wbwðZ Kiv ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| DcwiD³ welq‡K we‡ePbvc~e©K cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ch©v‡qi g~j¨vqb e¨e¯’v wba©viY Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| g~j¨vq‡bi D‡Ïk¨: cÖvK cÖv_wgK ch©v‡qi wkïi eqm 5+| G eq‡mi wkïi wbKU wbivc` wkLb cwi‡ek Ges Avb›`Nb wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj Zvi wkLb AMÖMwZ Ges mvwe©K weKv‡ki c~e©kZ©| ZvB wkLb AMªMwZi cvkvcvwk we`¨vj‡qi wbivc` cwi‡e‡k wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj I wk¶vµ‡gi mvwe©K ev¯Íevqb KZUzKz mdj n‡”Q Zv wbiƒcY Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| G welq¸‡jvi Av‡jv‡KB cÖvK cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡ii wk¶vµg g~j¨vq‡bi wZbwU cÖavb D‡Ïk¨ n‡jv:  wkïi wkLb AMÖMwZ I mvwe©K weKvk hvPvB Ges Z`byhvqx cÖ‡qvRbxq e¨e¯’v MÖnY Kivo wkïi wkLb AMÖMwZ I mvwe©K weKvk hvPvB Kiv; cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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o we‡kl Pvwn`vm¤úbœ wkï‡`i wPwýZ Kiv Ges Zv‡`i Rb¨ h_vh_ hZœ I cwiPh©vi e¨e¯’v MÖnY Kiv; o wcZvgvZv‡K wkïi wkLb AMÖMwZ m¤ú‡K© AewnZ Kiv hv‡Z K‡i we`¨vjq I evwoi cvi¯úwiK †hvMv‡hvM I mgš^q AviI kw³kvjx I AUzU nq; o wkïi wkLb Pvwn`v h_vh_fv‡e c~i‡Yi Rb¨ wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqv-c×wZ I †KŠkj ch©v‡jvPbv I cwigvR©b Kiv|  we`¨vj‡qi mvwe©K wkLb cwi‡e‡ki h_v_©Zv wbiƒcY Kivo we`¨vj‡qi wkLb cwi‡ek wbiƒcY; o h_vh_ wkLb cwi‡ek wbwðZKiY|  wk¶vµ‡gi mvwe©K ev¯Íevqb ch©v‡jvPbv Kiv o wk¶vµg ev¯Íevq‡bi AMÖMwZ I Kvh©KvwiZv m¤ú‡K© Rvbv; o wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg cwiPvjbvi mgq wk¶K †hme Amyweavi m¤§yLxb nb †m¸‡jvi mgvav‡b mnvqZv Kiv; o wkÿY cÖwµqv, c×wZ I wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgwMÖi h_v_©Zv hvPvB; o wk¶vµg ev¯Íevq‡bi mv‡_ mswkøó AskxR‡bi Kv‡Ri g‡a¨ mgš^q mvab Kiv; o wk¶vµg I ev¯Íevqb †KŠk‡ji cª‡qvRbxq cwigvR©b Ges ms‡kvab Kiv| m‡e©vcwi mKj ch©v‡q g~j¨vq‡bi g~j jÿ¨ n‡”Q wkïi Kvw•LZ weKvk I wkLb wbwðZ Ki‡Z mvwe©K mnvqZv Kiv, †Kv‡bvfv‡eB †Kej wkïi m‡½ wkïi ev we`¨vj‡qi m‡½ we`¨vj‡qi Zzjbv Kiv bq|

wkïi wkLb AMªMwZ I mvwe©K weKvk g~j¨vqb: cÖvK cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡i 8wU wkLb‡¶‡Îi Av‡jv‡K AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv wbiƒcYc~e©K wkLbdj cÖYqb Kiv n‡q‡Q| wkLbdj¸‡jv‡Z wkïi cÖZ¨vwkZ AvPiwYK cwieZ©b mywPwšÍZfv‡e wPwýZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| Avkv Kiv hvq wkLbdj¸‡jv AR©‡bi gva¨‡g wkïiv mswkøó †¶‡Î wkLb AMÖMwZ I mvwe©K weKvk jvf Ki‡e| h_vh_ cvV cwiKíbvi gva¨‡g Kvh©Ki wkLb †kLv‡bv c×wZ I †KŠkj cwiPvjbv Ki‡j wkïiv wkLbdj¸‡jv AR©b K‡i _v‡K| Avi cvV cwiKíbviB GKwU Awe‡”Q`¨ Ask n‡”Q g~j¨vqb - hvi Øviv wkï wbav©wiZ wkLbdj AR©b K‡i‡Q wKbv Zv hvPvB Kiv nq A_©vr wkïi wkLb AMÖMwZ cwigvc Kiv nq, hv‡K Avgiv wkïi wkLb AMÖMwZi g~j¨vqb ej‡Z cvwi| Gfv‡e wkïi wkLb AMÖMwZ cÖwZwbqZ hvPvBc~e©K wkïi NvUwZ c~i‡Yi cÖ‡qvRbxq e¨e¯’v MÖn‡Yi gva¨‡g wkïi Øviv Kvw•LZ wkLbdj cy‡ivcywi AR©b Kiv‡bv wkïi g~j¨vq‡bi cÖavb D‡Ïk¨|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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g~j¨vqb bxwZgvjv D‡Ï‡k¨i Dci wfwË K‡i g~j¨vqb‡K `ywU fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq- wkL‡bi Rb¨ g~j¨vqb (Assessment for Learning) Ges wkL‡bi g~j¨vqb (Assessment of Learning)| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡ii wkïi g~j¨vq‡bi †¶‡Î wkL‡bi Rb¨ g~j¨vqb‡K †ewk ¸iæZ¡ cÖ`vb Kiv n‡q‡Q| wkL‡bi Rb¨ g~j¨vq‡bi wfwˇZ wkL‡bi g~j¨vqb Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡i wkïi g~j¨vqb n‡e cy‡ivcywi AbvbyôvwbK Ges avivevwnKfv‡e Zv cwiPvwjZ n‡e| †Kvb ai‡bi AvbyôvwbK g~j¨vqb c×wZ Zv †gŠwLK ev wjwLZ †hiKgB †nvK bv †Kb, †mwU mwZ¨Kvi A‡_© cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡ii wkï‡`i me©v½xb weKvk cwigvc Ki‡Z e¨_© nq| wkïi mÿgZv I weKvk m¤ú‡K© GKwU cwic~Y© wPÎ Zz‡j aivi cwie‡Z© GwU †Kej wkïi Dci cÖPÐ Pvc m„wó K‡i| Avi GB AbvKvw•LZ Pvc wkïi ¯^vfvweK weKvk‡K iæ× K‡i| myZivs cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡i AvbyôvwbK cixÿv GKwU AcÖ‡qvRbxq I Abyc‡hvMx c×wZ| †Kvbfv‡eB cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡ii wkï‡`i Rb¨ AvbyôvwbK cixÿv c×wZ Kvg¨ bq| G ¯Í‡ii wkï‡`i AbvbyôvwbK I avivevwnKfv‡e g~j¨vqb Ki‡Z n‡e| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡i wkï‡`i g~j¨vqb Aek¨B GKwU ev¯Íe wkLb cwi‡e‡k wkï-evÜe Dcv‡q nIqv evÃbxq| ch©‡eÿY I Z_¨ msiÿ‡Yi gva¨‡g wkLbd‡ji wfwˇZ wkïi mvg_¨© I wkLb `¶Zv (Performance) we‡kølY Kiv DwPr| Giƒc we‡køwlZ Z_¨ ïay †h wkïi eZ©gvb wkLb cÖwµqv I AMÖMwZi cÖwZdjb Ki‡e ZvB bq, eis GwU wk¶K‡K Zvi wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠkj AviI DbœZ Ki‡Z Ges fwel¨‡Z wkÿvµg cwigvR©‡b civgk© w`‡Z mnvqZv Ki‡e| wkïi wkLb I Ab¨vb¨ AR©b AMÖMwZ m¤úwK©Z †h Z_¨ msMªn Kiv nq Zv †hb AviI e¨vcK I mwVK nq, †mRb¨ m¤¢ve¨ mKj Drm †_‡K Z_¨ msMÖn Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| Giƒc Z‡_¨i Drm n‡Z cv‡i wcZvgvZv, wkÿK, wkïi mncvVx, eÜz, fvB‡evb wKsev Ab¨vb¨ mswkøó e¨w³eM©| wewfbœ mg‡q wkïi mv‡_ Av‡jvPbv, KvR, †Ljv ev fve wewbg‡qi gva¨‡g Giƒc Z_¨ msM„nxZ n‡Z cv‡i| wkï g~j¨vq‡bi bxwZgvjv  g~j¨vq‡bi wfwË n‡e Criterion referenced assessment  ïay g~j¨vq‡bi Rb¨ g~j¨vqb bv K‡i wkLbd‡ji wfwˇZ wkïi gyj¨vqb Ki‡Z n‡e  g~j¨vqb‡K cÖwZw`‡bi cwiKwíZ wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kv‡Ri m‡½ A½xf~Z Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|  cy‡iv wkÿvel© Ry‡o AbvbyôvwbK I avivewnK g~j¨vqb Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|  g~j¨vqb m¤úwK©Z Z_¨ mymsMwVZfv‡e msMÖn I msiÿ‡Yi e¨e¯’v Ki‡Z n‡e|  †kÖwYK‡ÿ I †kÖwYK‡ÿi evB‡i wkïi wewfbœ AR©b‡K ¯^xK…wZ †`qv I cÖksmv Kivi cvkvcvwk Zvi cwic~Y© m¤¢vebvi weKvk I `~e©jZvmg~n `~ixKi‡Yi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq civgk© I mnvqZv cÖ`vb Ki‡Z n‡e|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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 wkïi AMÖMwZ m¤ú‡K© AwffveK‡K cwic~Y© I my¯úó aviYv †`qvi Rb¨ wkÿK‡K Aek¨B GKwU mye¨ew¯’Z I BwZevPK Dcv‡q wkïi g~j¨vq‡bi djvdj AewnZ Ki‡Z n‡e|  wkLbd‡ji cÖK…wZ I cwimi Abyhvqx g~j¨vqb †KŠkj wba©viY Ki‡Z n‡e|

g~j¨vqb †KŠkj I c×wZ: †KŠkjMZ w`K †_‡K g~j¨vqb‡K `ywU fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq| MvVwbK (Formative) g~j¨vqb I mvgwóK (Summative) g~j¨vqb| cªvK-cªv_wgK ¯Í‡i MvVwbK I mvgwóK Dfq †KŠkjB bgbxqfv‡e cÖ‡qvM Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| cÖwZwbqZ wk¶v_x©‡`i GB g~j¨vq‡bi AvIZvq ivL‡Z n‡e Ges cÖZ¨vwkZ wkLb AMÖMwZ hvPvB Ki‡Z n‡e| G‡¶‡Î g~j¨vq‡bi wKQy Zvrch©c~Y© Z_¨ msi¶Y Kiv Riæwi hv wk¶v_x©i wkLb AMÖMwZ m¤ú‡K© my¯úó aviYv †`‡e| g~j¨vqb `yBfv‡e n‡Z cv‡i 1. AbvbyôvwbK I 2. avivevwnK| AbvbyôvwbK g~j¨vqb: wk¶vµ‡g DwjøwLZ wkLbdj¸‡jv AwRZ© n‡”Q wK bv Zv cÖwZwbqZ hvPvB Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| wk¶K wbR¯^ mvg_©©¨ I †KŠkj Ges wk¶K mnvwqKv e¨envi K‡i cvV PjvKvjxb ev cvV †k‡l wkï‡`i wkLb AMÖMwZ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb Ges †m Abyhvqx djveZ©b (Feedback) cÖ`vb Ki‡eb| G ai‡bi g~j¨vq‡b Z_¨ msi¶Y Kivi cÖ‡qvRb †bB| wk¶K Zvi aviYv I wePvi‡eva †_‡K wkïi AMÖMwZ wel‡q wm×všÍ MÖnY Ki‡eb| avivevwnK g~j¨vqb: avivevwnK g~j¨vq‡bi †¶‡Î wkïi wkLb AMÖMwZ msi¶Y Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| G‡¶‡Î KZK¸‡jv mywbw`©ó m~P‡Ki Av‡jv‡K g~j¨vqb Uzj ˆZwi K‡i g~j¨vqb Kvh©µg MÖnY Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| avivevwnK g~j¨vq‡b wb‡¤œ DwjøwLZ †KŠkjmgyn e¨envi Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i: ch©‡e¶Y: cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡i g~j¨vq‡bi me‡P‡q Dc‡hvMx †KŠkj n‡jv ch©‡e¶Y| GB ¯Í‡i wkïiv †kªwYK‡¶ wewfbœ ai‡bi Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g wkLbdj AR©‡bi Rb¨ PP©v K‡i, †h¸‡jv A‡bK mgq †gŠwLK ev wjwLZ †Kv‡bvfv‡eB hvPvB Kiv hvq bv, G‡¶‡Î wk¶K ch©‡e¶‡Yi gva¨‡g wkïi wkLb AMÖMwZ hvPvB Ki‡Z cv‡ib| cÖwZ gyû‡Z© wk¶K wkLbdj¸‡jv AR©‡b Zuvi ch©‡e¶Y‡K Kv‡R jvMv‡eb Ges wkïi wkLb-¯Íi Ges kvixwiK I gvbwmK mvg_©¨ hvPvB Ki‡eb| ch©‡e¶‡Yi Rb¨ ch©‡e¶Y-QK cÖYqb Ki‡Z n‡e| †gŠwLK: wKQy wkLb †hvM¨Zv Av‡Q †h¸‡jv wjwLZfv‡e g~j¨vqb Kiv hvq bv, †hgb, Qov Ave„wË, f~wgKvwfbq, wb‡`©kbv AbymiY K‡i KvR Kiv, Mvb BZ¨vw`| G ai‡bi KvR¸‡jv wk¶K †gŠwLKfv‡e g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb| G‡¶‡Î mwVK DËi †`qv, ï× D”PviY, ¯úóZv, kªeY‡hvM¨Zv, †evaMg¨Zv, AvZ¥wek¦vm BZ¨vw` m~PK we‡ePbvq ivLv †h‡Z cv‡i| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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wjwLZ: wKQy wkLb †hvM¨Zv i‡q‡Q †h¸‡jv †gŠwLKfv‡e hvPvB Kiv hvq bv, †hgb Qwe AvuKv, AvuwKeywK AvuKv, eY© ev kã wjL‡Z cviv BZ¨vw`| G¸‡jv wjwLZfv‡e hvPvB Ki‡Z n‡e| G‡¶‡Î ¸iæZ¡c~Y© welq n‡jv mswkøó KvRwUi ¯úóZv, cwi”QbœZv I †evaMg¨Zv| †cvU©‡dvwjI: †cvU©‡dvwjI n‡jv wewfbœ mgq wkï ‡hme KvR ev wRwbm ˆZwi K‡i Zvi msMÖn| Gi gva¨‡g wkï‡`i avivevwnKfv‡e wkL‡bi AMÖMwZ chv©‡jvPbv Kiv hvq| GmvBb‡g›U: wKQz wKQz wkLbdj AR©‡bi Rb¨ wkky‡`i GmvBb‡g›U cÖ`v‡bi e¨e¯’v Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| G‡¶‡Î wkÿvµg g¨vwUª· G DwjøwLZ 7.1.1-7.1.3 bs wkLbdj¸‡jv‡K we‡ePbv Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| GmvBb‡g›U cÖ`v‡bi gva¨‡g wkïi wkLb AwfÁZv AR©b I Zvi wkLb AMÖMwZ cwigvc Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|

†K g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb: g~j¨vq‡bi g~j `vwqZ¡ Aek¨B wk¶‡Ki| wk¶K wewfbœ †KŠkj cÖ‡qvM K‡i wkLbd‡ji wfwˇZ wkï‡`i wkLb AMÖMwZ cwigvc K‡ib| wKšÍy cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡ii wkLbdjmg~n we‡kølY Ki‡j †`Lv hvq †h, †ek wKQz wkLbdj ïaygvÎ wk¶‡Ki c‡¶ GKKfv‡e g~j¨vqb Kiv m¤¢e bq| D`vniY wnmv‡e wkÿvµg g¨vwUª· G 1.1.2, 2.4.4, 2.6.5 cÖf„wZ wkLbd‡ji wkLb AMÖMwZ cwigv‡ci †KŠkj we‡ePbv Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| wkïi cwievi ev Awffve‡Ki mivmwi mn‡hvwMZv e¨wZZ DwjøwLZ wkLbd‡ji h_vh_ g~j¨vqb m¤¢e bq| ZvB cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wk¶vi g~j¨vqb Kg©Kv‡Û wk¶‡Ki mv‡_ cwiev‡iiI f~wgKv i‡q‡Q| K) wk¶‡Ki f~wgKv: wkïi chv©qµwgK weKvk I wkLb AMÖMwZ ch©‡e¶Y I g~j¨vq‡bi cy‡ivfv‡M _v‡Kb wk¶K| we`¨vj‡qi wkLb-wkLv‡bv cwi‡ekI Gi m‡½ IZ‡cÖvZfv‡e RwoZ| wk¶vµ‡gi wb‡`©kbv I wk¶K Zvi e¨w³MZ mvg_¨© cÖ‡qvM K‡i myôy wkLb-wkLv‡bv cwi‡ek wbwðZ Ki‡eb| GKwU wbweo AskMÖnYg~jK wkLb-cwiw¯’wZi wfZi w`‡q wk¶K wkïi wkLb AMÖMwZ Ges Zv‡`i kvixwiK I gvbwmK mvg_¨© hvPvB K‡i cÖ‡qvRbxq wbivg‡qi e¨e¯’v Ki‡eb| L) gvZvwcZv/Awffve‡Ki f~wgKv: wkïi wkLb-cÖwµqv Ges kvixwiK I gvbwmK weKvk‡K wbwðZ I wb¯‹›UK Kivi Rb¨ gvZvwcZv‡K wkïi cÖviw¤¢K wkLb I g~j¨vq‡bi m‡½ m¤úwK©Z Ki‡Z n‡e| †Kbbv gvZvwcZvB n‡jb wkïi cÖ_g wk¶K, Zuv‡`i nvZ a‡iB wkïi evwo †_‡K we`¨vj‡q Awf‡lK N‡U| ZvB we`¨vjq I evwoi m¤ú©K wbwðZ Kiv †M‡j cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wk¶v AwaKZi djcÖm~ n‡e| †mB mv‡_ gvZvwcZv I Awffve‡Ki g~j¨vqb m¤ú‡K© MZvbyMwZK aviYvi cwieZ©b Avbvi gva¨‡g cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡ii g~j¨vqb †KŠkj h_vh_fv‡e ev¯Íevqb Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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wi‡cvwU©s wkïi e„w× I weKvk GKwU Ae¨vnZ cÖwµqv| e‡qve„w×i wewfbœ ch©v‡q wkï‡K weKv‡ki ¸iæZ¡c~Y© gvBjdjK AR©b Ki‡Z nq| wkïiv GB Dbœqb gvBjdjK¸‡jv h_v mg‡q AR©b Ki‡Z cvi‡Q wK bv Ges Zv‡`i kvixwiK I gvbwmK mvg‡_¨©i Dbœqb NU‡Q wKbv Zv Rvbvi Rb¨ me wkïi ¯^Zš¿ Z_¨msiÿY Kiv Riæwi| msiw¶Z Z‡_¨i Dci wfwË K‡i wkï‡`i wi‡cvU© KvW© cÖ¯ÍZ Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| wi‡cvU© Kv‡W©i fvlv n‡Z n‡e mnR, mij Ges h_vm¤¢e mywbw`©ó| wi‡cvU© Kv‡W© 8 wU wkLb‡¶‡Îi cÖwZwU †¶‡Î wkïi wkLb AMÖMwZ hZUzKz m¤¢e mywbw`©ó Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| wkLb‡¶‡Îi wkLb AMÖMwZ AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv I wkLbdj †K cjøweZ K‡i wba©viY Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| g~j¨vqb bxwZgvjvq mywbw`©ófv‡e D‡jøL Kiv n‡q‡Q †h, g~j¨vq‡bi wfwË n‡e Criterion referenced assessment| myZivs cÖwZwU wkï‡K Kvw•LZ wkLbdj AR©b Kiv‡bv n‡jv GB wk¶vµg Ges gyj¨vq‡bi g~j D‡Ïk¨| ZvB wi‡cvU© Kv‡W© b¤^i cÖ`v‡bi †Kv‡bv my‡hvM †bB A_ev GK wkïi mv‡_ Ab¨ wkïi Zzjbv Kivi e¨e¯’v ivLvI wVK n‡e bv| we`¨vj‡qi mvwe©K wkLb cwi‡e‡ki h_v_©Zv wbiƒcY Kiv wkïi wkLb AMÖMwZ ïaygvÎ wk¶K Ges wkLb †kLv‡bv †KŠk‡ji Dci wbf©i K‡i bv| †Kvb cwi‡e‡k wkLb Kvh©µg cwiPvwjZ n‡”Q ZvI G‡ÿ‡Î AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| ZvB wkLb AMÖMwZi cvkvcvwk wkLb cwi‡ek g~j¨vqbI G ¯Í‡ii Rb¨ Acwinvh©| G‡¶‡Î ÔcÖvK-ˆkke wkLb cwi‡ek cwigvcKÕ (Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale) e¨envi Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| GwU cÖavbZ GKwU mvwe©K g~j¨vqb †KŠkj| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wk¶v¯Í‡i wkïi ev¯Íe wkLb cwi‡ek g~j¨vqb Kivi Rb¨ GwU cªYxZ n‡q‡Q| ECERS G cÖavbZ wkLb cwi‡e‡ki wZbwU welq †hgb: †fŠZ cwimi, wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqv I AvšÍte¨w³K m¤úK© g~j¨vwqZ n‡q _v‡K| wkïi ev¯Íe wkLb-cwi‡e‡ki GB Îqx welqmg~n wkïi wkLb I mvwe©K weKvk‡K mivmwi cÖfvweZ K‡i| ECERS G mvZwU cwigvcK welq cÖ¯Íve Kiv n‡q‡Q| G¸‡jv n‡jv: 1. †fŠZ cwimi I †kÖwYK‡ÿi e¨e¯’vcbv: 2. e¨w³MZ hZœ I iæwUb: 3. fvlv I †hŠw³K wPšÍb: 4. cwiKwíZ KvR: 5. wg_w®Œqv: 6. Kvh©µg KvVv‡gv: 7. wcZvgvZv I wkÿK: evsjv‡`‡ki cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wk¶v e¨e¯’vi Dci wfwË K‡i ÔcÖvK-ˆkke wkLb cwi‡ek cwigvcKÕ (ECERS) †K †`kxqKiY Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wk¶vi wewfbœ AswkRb †hgb- wk¶K, cÖavb wk¶K, AUEO, UEO, DPEO, GbwmwUwe Ges cÖv_wgK wk¶v Awa`߇ii mvwe©K mgš^‡qi gva¨‡g we`¨vj‡qi mvwe©K wkLb cwi‡e‡ki h_v_©Zv wbi“cb Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i, †mB m‡½ cÖ‡qvRwbq djveZ©b cÖ`vb Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wk¶vµg g~j¨vqb: wk¶vµg Dbœqb GKwU avivevwnK cÖwµqv| cÖwZwbqZ e¨w³, mgvR, ivóª I wek¦ e¨e¯’vq cwieZ©b n‡”Q| †mB mv‡_ wkïi weKvk I Dbœqb welqK aviYviI cwieZ©b n‡”Q| cwiewZ©Z we‡k¦i mv‡_ Zvj wgwj‡q wk¶vµ‡gi cwigvR©b Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| GKwU wbw`©ó mg‡q GKwU wk¶vµg wkïi h_vh_ weKvk I Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ KZUv Kvh©Ki Zv cwigv‡ci Rb¨ wk¶vµg g~j¨vqb Kiv nq| wk¶vµg g~j¨vq‡bi gva¨‡g wkÿvµg I wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgMÖxi Kvh©KvwiZv, djcÖm~Zv hvPvB I ev¯Íevq‡bi `ye©jZv cwigvc Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| mvaviYZ wk¶vµg g~j¨vqb cÖwµqv ïiæ nq Zvi ev¯Íevq‡bi w`b †_‡KB| wk¶vµg cÖYq‡bi g~j `vwqZ¡ ÔRvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW©Õ Gi| myZivs RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW© G g~j¨vq‡b mgš^q‡Ki f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡Z cv‡i Ges cÖv_wgK wkÿv Awa`ßi GB g~j¨vq‡b AZ¨šÍ wbweofv‡e Ask †b‡e| ZvQvov Ab¨vb¨ AskxRb‡`iI wk¶vµg g~j¨vq‡bi mv‡_ hy³ Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †ev©W (GbwmwUwe) ciewZ©‡Z gyj¨vqb I wk¶vµg Dbœq‡bi mv‡_ mswkøó e¨w³-eM©‡`i wb‡q gyj¨vq‡bi Rb¨ we¯ÍvwiZ cwiKíbv (Design), gyj¨vqb c×wZ Ges Uzjm (Tools) Dbœqb Ki‡e|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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12. wkÿvµ‡gi mdj ev¯Íevq‡bi †KŠkjmg~n GKwU wkÿvµ‡gi Zzjbvg~jK mvdj¨ wbf©i K‡i Gi mdj ev¯Íevq‡bi Dci| GKwU wkÿvµg hZ DËgfv‡eB Dbœqb ev cÖYqb Kiv nDK bv †Kb, GwU h_vh_fv‡e ev¯ÍevwqZ bv n‡j wKsev LwÐZfv‡e ev¯ÍevwqZ n‡j Kvw•LZ jÿ¨ AR©b m¤¢e bq| myZivs wkÿvµg Dbœqb ev cÖYq‡bi cvkvcvwk wb‡`©wkZ c×wZ‡Z Gi mdj ev¯Íevqb KivI mgvb ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| wkÿvµg GKwU DrK…ó `wjj wn‡m‡e nv‡Z _vK‡jB Pj‡e bv, †kÖwYKÿ ch©v‡q Kvh©Ki wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqvq Gi cÖ‡qvM wbwðZ Ki‡Z n‡e| GRb¨ cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµ‡gi mdj ev¯Íevqb wbwðZ Ki‡Z wkÿvi mswkøó cÖwZwU ¯Í‡i cÖ‡qvRbxq mvg_¨© I `ÿZvi Dbœqb Ki‡Z n‡e| GRb¨ Dchy³ cÖwkÿY I avivevwnK †ckvMZ `ÿZv e„w×i GKwU †K›`ªxq cwiKíbv cÖYqb K‡i av‡c av‡c Gi ev¯Íevqb Ki‡Z n‡e| wkÿvµg cÖYqb I ev¯Íevq‡bi KvR GKwU mgqmv‡cÿ I Kó mwnòz cÖwµqv| ivZvivwZ †Kvb eo cwieZ©b G‡ÿ‡Î Avkv Kiv hvq bv| wkÿvµg cÖYqb †_‡K ïiæ K‡i †kÖwYK‡ÿ Gi ev¯Íevqb ch©šÍ bvbv ¯Í‡i eûwea Kg©KvÐ i‡q‡Q †h¸‡jv m¤úbœ Ki‡Z bvbviKg euvav/mgm¨vi m¤§yLxb n‡Z nq| wek¦e¨vcx AwaKvsk wkÿvµg Dbœqb Kv‡Ri AwfÁZv †_‡K †`Lv hvq †h †ewkifvM †ÿ‡ÎB wkÿvµg cwiKíbv Abyhvqx ev¯Íevqb Kiv m¤¢e nq wb| GgbwK †Kvb †Kvb †ÿ‡Î wkÿKiv Rv‡bb bv †h Zuviv A‡bK‡ÿ‡Î Kvw•LZ wkÿvµg jÿ¨‡K Zuv‡`i PP©vq j•Nb K‡i _v‡Kb| †kÖwYK‡ÿ beZi PP©vi m~Pbv Ki‡Z n‡j wkÿvµg‡K ïay `wjj wn‡m‡e bv †`‡L mvwe©Kfv‡e Gi ev¯Íevq‡b Kx Kx c`‡ÿc wb‡Z n‡e Zv mywPwšÍZfv‡e wba©viY K‡i mvgwMÖK cwiKíbv MÖnY Ki‡Z n‡e| wkÿvµg ev¯Íevqb ej‡Z †kÖwYK‡ÿ wkÿvµg `wjj GKkfvM AbymiY Kiv eySvq bv eis wbw`©ó †cÖÿvcU I ev¯ÍeZvq wbw`©ó †ÿÎ Abyhvqx †h cÖ‡qvRbxq Awf‡hvRb, cwieZ©b, cwiea©b Ges ev¯Íevq‡bi wb‡`©kbv i‡q‡Q Zv ey‡S ev¯Íevq‡bi mKj av‡c m‡PZbfv‡e Gi cª‡qvM‡K eySvq| GRb¨ cÖvK-cÖv_wgK chv©‡qi wkï‡`i Rb¨ cÖ¯ÍvweZ wkÿvµ‡gi ev¯Íevqb †KŠkj, cÖ‡qvRbxqZv I ¸iæZ¡ m¤ú‡K© wkÿKmn mswkøó AskxRb‡K h_vh_fv‡e AewnZ Ki‡Z n‡e| cÖ¯ÍvweZ wkÿvµ‡g Kx bZzbZ¡ i‡q‡Q, †Kv_vq †Kv_vq cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡ii mv‡_ cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµ‡gi wfbœZv i‡q‡Q, †Kv_vq †hvMm~Î i‡q‡Q wKsev wKfv‡e wkÿvi jÿ¨ AR©‡b cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv f~wgKv ivL‡Q Zv wkÿKmn mK‡ji Kv‡Q ¯úó bv n‡j GwUi mdj ev¯Íevqb m¤¢e n‡e bv| Gfv‡e wkÿvµg cÖYqY †_‡K ïiæ K‡i Gi we¯ÍiY, ev¯Íevqb I g~j¨vq‡bi cÖwZwU av‡c D‡Ï‡k¨i ¯úóZv (Clarity) I Kg©cwiKíbv mywba©vwiZ ivL‡Z n‡e| wkÿvµg g~j¨vqb

wkÿvµg cÖYqb

wkÿvµg ev¯Íevqb

wkÿvµg we¯ÍiY

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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12.1 wkÿvµg we¯ÍiY: cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv †h‡nZz cÖv_wgK wkÿv¯Í‡ii GKwU AwefvR¨ Ask, †m‡nZz cÖv_wgK wkÿv mswkøó mKj ch©v‡q GB wkÿvµ‡gi we¯ÍiY NUv‡Z n‡e| wkÿvµg we¯ÍiY cÖwµqvq wkÿve¨e¯’vi bvbv ch©v‡q wb‡qvwRZ mKj wkÿK, wkÿv ZË¡veavqK, wkÿK cÖwkÿK I †K›`ª †_‡K gvV ch©v‡qi wkÿv cÖkvmK/ e¨e¯’vcK‡`i cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg we¯ÍiY cÖwkÿY wbweofv‡e cÖ`vb Ki‡Z n‡e hv‡Z Zuviv Zuv‡`i Dci Awc©Z `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ myôzfv‡e I `ÿZvi mv‡_ cvjb K‡i mdjfv‡e wkÿvµg ev¯Íevqb Ki‡Z cv‡ib| GRb¨ †K›`ªxq ch©v‡q cÖv_wgK wkÿv Awa`߇ii mn‡hvwMZvq RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW© GKwU †K›`ªxq cÖwkÿK cyj ˆZwi Ki‡eb hviv cieZ©x‡Z RvZxq ch©v‡qi mswkøó Kg©KZ©v‡`i cÖwkÿY/Iwi‡q‡›Ukb cÖ`vb Ki‡eb| RvZxq ch©v‡q cÖwkwÿZ gyL¨ cÖwkÿKMY ciewZ©‡Z †Rjv, Dc‡Rjv I we`¨vjq ch©v‡q wkÿK I mswkøó mKj Kg©KZ©v‡`i cÖwkÿY/Iwi‡q‡›Ukb cÖ`vb Ki‡Z cv‡ib| bvbv ch©v‡qi G mKj cÖwkÿ‡Yi †gqv` AskMÖnYKvix I Zv‡`i `vwqZ¡ †f‡` wfbœ wfbœ n‡Z cv‡i| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿK Ges †hmKj wkÿv Kg©KZ©v mivmwi GKv‡WwgK mycviwfk‡b RwoZ Zuv‡`i wbweo cÖwkÿ‡Yi cÖ‡qvRb n‡e| Avi hviv e¨e¯’vcK wn‡m‡e wkÿv e¨e¯’vcbvq wb‡qvwRZ Zuviv cy‡iv cÖwµqv m¤ú‡K© my¯úó Iwi‡q‡›Ukb cv‡eb|

12.2 wkÿK cÖwkÿY I wkÿ‡Ki †ckvMZ `ÿZv e„w×: †h‡Kvb wkÿvµg ev¯Íevq‡bi g~j `vwqZ¡ wkÿ‡Ki| wkÿ‡Ki wkÿvMZ †hvM¨Zv, mvg_¨©, wkÿvMZ †hvM¨Zv, `ÿZv, AvšÍwiKZv I cÖÁv G‡ÿ‡Î AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| wkÿv M‡elK, wkÿvµg we‡klÁ I cÖwkÿKMY †Kej G cÖwµqvq mnvqZv Ki‡Z cv‡ib| ZvB GKwU AZ¨šÍ mywPwšÍZ wkÿK cÖwkÿY cwiKíbv GKwU mdj wkÿvµg ev¯Íevq‡bi AZ¨vek¨Kxq c~e©kZ©| wkÿvµg we¯ÍiY cÖwkÿ‡Yi me©‡kl ¯Í‡i wkÿKMY wbweo cÖwkÿY jvf Ki‡eb| wKš‘ wbw`©ó †gqv‡`i GKwU gvÎ cÖwkÿY wkÿK‡`i †ckvMZ `ÿZv e„w×i Rb¨ h‡_ó bq| GRb¨ `xN© †gqv`x wkÿK Dbœqb cwiKíbvi cÖ‡qvRb| wkÿ‡Ki †ckvMZ `ÿZv e„w×i Rb¨ ZvB cÖvwZôvwbK ch©v‡qi mywbw`©ó c×wZ I †KŠkj _vK‡Z n‡e †hLv‡b wkÿKMY Zv‡`i mgm¨v I wbR¯^ D™¢vebv gZwewbgq K‡i cvi¯úwiK mgvavb I w`K wb‡`©kbv †c‡Z cv‡ib| GRb¨ wbw`©ó †gqv` AšÍi AšÍi wkÿK‡`i Rb¨ wi‡dªkvm© cÖwkÿ‡Yi e¨e¯’v _vK‡Z cv‡i| wi‡d«kv‡m©i cvkvcvwk mve-K¬v÷vi ch©v‡q wkÿK‡`i Rb¨ cvi¯úwiK Av‡jvPbv I gZ wewbg‡qi my‡hvM K‡i †`qv †h‡Z cv‡i| wkÿ‡Ki `ÿZv Dbœq‡b wewfbœ AbvbyôvwbK my‡hvM I mnRjf¨ Z_¨ cÖhyw³i e¨envi Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i †hgb, wkÿK g¨vMvwRb cÖKvk, †gvevBj †dv‡bi gva¨‡g †QvU †QvU ‡KŠkj ev wUcm wkÿK‡`i Kv‡Q †cuŠ‡Q †`Iqv BZ¨vw`| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿK‡`i GKKvjxb wkÿvµg we¯ÍiY cÖwkÿY Ges wi‡d«kvm© cÖwkÿ‡Yi AvIZvq Avbvi cvkvcvwk wkÿK‡`i Rb¨ wbav©wiZ cÖvwZôvwbK cÖwkÿY †hgb, Diploma in Education G cÖvK-cÖv_wgK cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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wkÿv welqK gwWDj AšÍf©y³ Kiv n‡q‡Q| ZvQvov welqwfwËK cÖwkÿ‡Yi gZ gvV chv©‡q wbqwgZ cÖvKcÖv_wgK cÖwkÿ‡YiI Av‡qvRb Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| Gfv‡e wkÿvµg we¯Íi‡Yi cÖwµqvwU `xN© †gqv‡` cÖvwZôvwbKxKiY (Institutionalization) Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| GQvov cÖwZwbqZ †hme bZzb cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿK wkÿve¨e¯’vq mswkøó I wb‡qvwRZ n‡eb, Zv‡`i‡KI wbqwgZ cÖwkÿ‡Yi AvIZvq Avb‡Z n‡e| Gfv‡e GKwU `xN© †gqv`x cwiKíbvi AvIZvq wkÿK cÖwkÿY I Dbœq‡bi welqwU we‡ePbvaxb ivL‡Z n‡e| 12.3 wkÿvµg ev¯Íevq‡b †fŠZ myweavw` I Ab¨vb¨ welqmgyn wkÿvµg cwiKíbv I Dbœq‡bi mgq Gi h_vh_ ev¯Íevq‡bi ¯^v‡_© wbw`©ó wKQz †fŠZ myweavw` Ges ¸iæZ¡c~Y© welqmg~n we‡ePbv Kiv n‡q‡Q hv GB wkÿvµg ev¯Íevq‡bi Rb¨ AZ¨vek¨Kxq| ev¯Íevq‡bi ¸bMZ gvb‡K GKwU Kvw•LZ j‡ÿ¨ wb‡q †h‡Z Ges eZ©gvb ‡cÖÿvcU we‡ePbvq Ggbfv‡e GB myweavw` I wel‡qi K_v wPšÍv Kiv n‡q‡Q †hb eZ©gv‡b mgfv‡e wbwðZ Kiv bv †M‡jI mg‡qi ms‡M ms‡M Zv chv©qµ‡g AR©b Kiv hvq| wb‡¤œ myweavw` I Ab¨b¨ welqmgy‡ni mswÿß weeiY Zz‡j aiv n‡jv| †kÖwY‡Z wkïi msL¨v: GKwU cÖvK-cÖv_wgK †kÖwY‡Z m‡e©v”P 30 Rb wkïi Dcw¯’wZ wPšÍv K‡i wkÿvµ‡gi jÿ¨ AR©‡b wba©vwiZ wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqv wba©viY Kiv n‡q‡Q| G‡ÿ‡Î 30 R‡bi AwaK wkï GKwU †kÖwY‡Z _vK‡j wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqv cwiPvjbvq †hgb wkÿK cÖwZeÜKZvi m¤§yLxb n‡eb, †Zgwb cÖ‡qvRbxq DcKi‡Yi ¯^íZv wkïi h_vh_ wkL‡bi AšÍivq n‡e| myZivs GKwU cÖvK-cªv_wgK †kÖwY‡Z m‡ev©”P 30 Rb wkï _vKv evÃbxq| hw` 30 Rb wkïi AwaK †Kvb we`¨vj‡q fwZ© nq †m‡ÿ‡Î Aek¨B AviI GKwU kvLv †Lvjvi cÖ‡qvRb n‡e| †kÖwY‡Z wkÿ‡Ki msL¨v: 30 Rb wkïi GKwU cÖvK-cÖv_wgK †kÖwY‡Z Kgc‡ÿ GKRb wkÿK mve©ÿwYK Dcw¯’Z _vK‡eb| Z‡e h_vh_fv‡e wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqv cwiPvjbv Ges wkL‡bi ¸YMZ gv‡bi Dbœqb NUv‡Z GK †_‡K `yB Rb †¯^”Qv‡mex wkÿK/AwffveK Gi mnvqZv †bIqv †h‡Z cv‡i| G‡ÿ‡Î †¯^”Qv‡mex wkÿK/AwffveK‡`i Dchy³ cÖwkÿ‡Yi cÖ‡hvRbxqZv i‡q‡Q| †kÖYxKÿ: 30 Rb wkï wb‡q by¨bZg gvb eRvq †i‡L wkÿvµ‡gi wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ AšÍZ 250 eM©dzU gv‡ci GKwU †kÖwYK‡ÿi cÖ‡qvRb| †kÖwYKÿwU †Lvjv‡gjv I Av‡jv-evZvmc~Y© nIqv evÃbxq| †kÖwYKÿ wKsev †kªwYKÿ msjMœ nvZ †avqvi RvqMv Ges wkï‡`i e¨envi Dc‡hvMx Uq‡jU _vK‡Z n‡e| wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µ‡gi Ask wn‡m‡e KvR I †Ljv cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ †kÖwYK‡ÿi evB‡i †Lvjv RvqMv _vKv AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| cÖ‡qvRbxq AvmevecÎ I wbqwgZ †ókbvwi mieivn: cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvi †kªwYKÿ h_vm¤¢e †Lvjv ev Db¥y³ ivLv cÖ‡qvRb †hb wkïiv Pjv‡divi h‡_ó RvqMv cvq| wkï‡`i emvi Rb¨ gv`yi _vK‡Z cv‡i †hb wkï B‡”QgZ wb‡Ri Ae¯’vb cwieZ©b Ki‡Z cv‡i Ges Avivg K‡i em‡Z cv‡i| †W¯‹ Iqv‡K©i Rb¨ m¤¢e n‡j wkï‡`i emvi Dc‡hvwM wKQy †QvU †QvU †Pqvi I †Uwej _vK‡Z cv‡i| GQvov wkï‡`i D”PZvi mv‡_ wgj †i‡L GKwU PK‡evW© Ges wkï‡`i cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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KvR, AuvKv Qwe Ges †jLv cÖ`k©‡bi Rb¨ wWm‡cø †evW©, †kjd, ZvK I n¨v½vi ivLv †h‡Z cv‡i| †kÖwYK‡ÿi Rb¨ G mKj ¯’vqx m¤ú` QvovI wKQz wbqwgZ e¨envh© wRwb‡mi (†ókbvwi) cÖ‡qvRb c‡o hv wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µ‡gi Rb¨ LyeB ¸iæZ¡c~Y© †hgb, iwOb KvMR, PK, Wv÷vi, KuvwP, AvVv, †cv÷vi †ccvi, eøy U¨vK BZ¨vw`| GQvov wewfbœ wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgwMÖ †h¸‡jv e¨env‡ii ci wKsev bó n‡q †M‡j cwieZ©‡bi cÖ‡qvRb c‡o †m¸‡jv wbqwgZ cwieZ©‡bi e¨e¯’v _vKv Riæwi| wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgMxª I DcKiY: wkÿvµ‡gi Pvwn`v Abyhvqx †h mg¯Í wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgMÖx I DcKiY †kÖwY chv©‡q †cuŠQv‡bv cÖ‡qvRb h_vmg‡q h_vh_fv‡e Zvi mieivn wbwðZ Kiv Riywi| wkÿvµ‡gi mdj ev¯Íevq‡bi Rb¨ Abycy•L we‡kølYc~e©K G mvgwMÖ I DcKiYmg~n Dbœqb Kiv n‡q‡Q weavq G¸‡jvi h_vmg‡q mieivn I Kvh©Ki e¨envi wewNœZ n‡j Kvw•LZ djvdj AR©b m¤¢e bq| GQvov wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µ‡gi wb‡`©kbv †gvZv‡eK wewfbœ mg‡q †h ai‡bi mvgwMÖ/DcKiY ¯’vbxqfv‡e ˆZwi, msMÖn, e¨envi I msiÿ‡Yi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q †kÖwY chv©‡q ZvI wbwðZ Kiv Riæwi| wkLb mgq: cÖwZw`b †kÖwYK‡ÿ wkLb-†kLv‡bv mgq n‡e AvovB N›Uv| mßv‡n 6 Kvh©w`em a‡i mKj ai‡bi miKvwi QzwU, AbvKvw•LZ QzwU, wewfbœ Drme Ges cÖvK…wZK wech©‡qi †cÖÿvcU we‡ePbv K‡i †kÖwYK‡ÿi Rb¨ eQ‡i †gvU 185 Kvh©w`em a‡i GB wkÿvµgwU web¨¯Í Kiv n‡q‡Q| D‡jøL¨ †h wkÿvµ‡gi mdj ev¯Íevq‡b GLv‡b ïay †kÖwYK‡ÿi mgq‡KB we‡ePbv Kiv nqwb eis A‡bK‡ÿ‡Î wkïi evwo‡Z KvUv‡bv mgq‡KI ev¯Íevq‡bi AvIZvq Avbv n‡q‡Q| myZivs †kÖwYi Rb¨ wba©vwiZ 185wU Kvh©w`e‡m cÖwZw`b AvovB N›Uv K‡i †kÖwY Kvh©µg cwiPvjbv Ki‡j GB wkÿvµ‡gi mKj cwiKwíZ Kvh©µg h_vmg‡q m¤úbœ Kiv hv‡e|

12.4 GKv‡WwgK ZË¡veavb I cwiexÿY wkÿvµ‡gi mdj ev¯Íevqb wbwðZ Ki‡Z n‡j Kvh©Ki cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv ev¯Íevqb e¨e¯’vmn †kÖwYKÿ ch©v‡q cÖ¯ÍvweZ mKj wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg h_vh_fv‡e m¤úbœ Ges wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgwMÖi Kvh©Ki e¨envi wbwðZ Kiv Riæwi| GRb¨ ev¯Íevqb e¨e¯’vi `„k¨cUmn †kÖwYK‡ÿ GKwU wbweo cwiexÿY I GKv‡WwgK ZË¡veav‡bi cwi‡ek m„wó Ki‡Z n‡e †hLv‡b wkÿK GKKvjxb I Pjgvb cÖwkÿ‡Yi cvkvcvwk wbweo ZË¡veav‡bi AvIZvq cwiPvwjZ n‡eb| GKv‡WwgK ZË¡veav‡bi `vwqZ¡ cÖavbZ cÖavb wkÿK I mnKvix Dc‡Rjv/_vbv wkÿv Kg©KZ©v‡`i Dci b¨¯Í Ges Dc‡Rjv/_vbv wkÿv Kg©KZ©v‡`i `vwqZ¡ n‡”Q ¸YMZ gvb wbwðZKiY cwi`k©b (Quality Assurance Inspection)| cÖv_wgK wkÿv Awa`ßi gvV ch©v‡q we`¨gvb e¨e¯’v I Rbej‡K Zv‡`i Dci Awc©Z `vwq‡Z¡i K_v we‡ePbvq †i‡L cwiexÿY I ZË¡veav‡bi Kv‡R m¤ú„³ Ki‡eb| cwiexÿY I ZË¡veav‡bi D‡Ïk¨ I †dvKvm my¯úófv‡e wba©viY K‡i wbw`©ó QK ev Uzj I c×wZ e¨envi K‡i G cÖwµqv m¤úbœ Ki‡Z n‡e| cwiexÿY I ZË¡veavb †_‡K cÖvß djvdjmgyn h_vh_fv‡e cÖ‡Z¨KwU ch©v‡q cvwV‡q G msµvšÍ Kvh©Ki cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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e¨e¯’v MÖn‡Yi welqwU wbwðZ Ki‡Z n‡e| †gvUK_v cwiexÿY I ZË¡veav‡bi D‡Ïk¨ †hb nq wkïi weKvk I wkLb‡K Z¡ivwš^Z Kiv, †Kvb fv‡eB ev¯ÍevqbKvix AskxR‡bi †`vl ev MvwdjwZ aiv bq| GRb¨ mKj ai‡bi cwiexÿY I ZË¡veavqbKvix Kg©x‡`i h_vh_ cÖwkÿY w`‡Z n‡e Ges wbweo †kÖwYKÿ ZË¡veavq‡bi GKwU ms¯‹…wZ ˆZwi K‡i Zzj‡Z n‡e †hLv‡b †kÖwYK‡ÿ wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqv Ges cÖwµqvi bvbv ch©v‡q mKj ai‡bi wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgwMÖi Kvh©Ki e¨envi wbwðZ Kiv hvq| G‡ÿ‡Î GKwU cwiexÿY I mycviwfkb wb‡`©wkKv cÖYqb Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i †hLv‡b D‡Ïk¨, †dvKvm, wbw`©ó QK ev Uzj I c×wZ m¤ú‡K© cÖ‡qvRbxq wb‡`©kbv _vK‡e| 12.5 by¨bZg gvb wba©viY I AbymiY wkÿvµg h_vh_fv‡e ev¯Íevq‡bi Rb¨ mvgwMÖKfv‡e GKwU wkÿvµg ev¯Íevqb cwiKíbv i‡q‡Q| ev¯ÍeZvi wbwi‡L we`¨gvb wewfbœ cÖwZeÜKZv †hb wkÿvµg ev¯Íevqb‡K gvivZœKfv‡e SzuwK‡Z bv †dj‡Z cv‡i †mRb¨ wkÿvµ‡g wb‡`©wkZ cÖwµqv I c×wZ Abymi‡Y cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv ev¯Íevq‡bi Rb¨ GKwU by¨bZg gvb wba©viY I AbymiY Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| GB by¨bZg gvb wba©viY I ev¯Íevq‡bi D‡Ïk¨ _vK‡e by¨bZg Pvwn`v c~iY K‡i wkÿvµg ev¯Íevq‡bi cvkvcvwk chv©qµ‡g ev¯Íevq‡bi Kvw•LZ gv‡b †cuŠQv‡bv| by¨bZg gvb wba©vi‡Y †h welqmg~n‡K we‡ePbvq ivL‡Z n‡e Zv n‡”Q †kÖwYKÿ, wkïi msL¨v, wkÿ‡Ki msL¨v, K¬vm cwiPvjbvi †gvU mgq, AvmevecÎ I wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgwMÖ I DcKiY, wkÿK cÖwkÿY, wbqwgZ gwbUwis, GKv‡WwgK mycviwfkb, cwiev‡ii m¤ú„³Zv, ¯‹z‡ji Ges cÖavb wkÿ‡Ki f~wgKv, GmGgwmi f~wgKv BZ¨vw`| 12.6 cwievi‡K AvbyôvwbKfv‡e wkLb-†kL‡bv Kv‡R m¤ú„³KiY cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvi jÿ¨ AR‡©b wkÿvµg cÖYq‡bi mgq wbw`©ó wkLb dj AR©‡b ïaygvÎ †kÖwYK‡ÿi wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kv‡Ri DciB ïay wbf©i Kiv nqwb eis evwo ev cwiev‡ii ms‡M wbweo †hvMv‡hvM ¯’vc‡bi gva¨‡g wkïi weKvk I wkLb Z¡ivwš^Z Kivi Dci ¸iæZ¡ Av‡ivc Kiv n‡q‡Q| G‡ÿ‡Î wkÿvµ‡gi Kvw•LZ jÿ¨ AR©‡b ¯‹zj chv©‡q ev¯Íevq‡bi †ÿ‡Î AvbyôvwbKfv‡e cwievi‡K m¤ú„³ Kiv Riæwi| †h‡nZz weKvk I wkL‡bi †ekwKQz †ÿ‡Î cwiev‡ii Dci wbf©iZv i‡q‡Q †m‡nZz cwievi‡K h_vh_fv‡e m¤ú„³ bv Ki‡j wkÿvµ‡gi mdj ev¯Íevqb wbwðZ Kiv hv‡e bv| 12.7 mvgvwRK ixwZ I PP©vq cwieZ©b wkÿv-mswkøó mKj Kg©x I e¨w³eM©‡`i hZ cÖwkÿYB †`Iqv †nvK bv †Kb, wkÿv m¤úwK©Z mvgvwRK ixwZ, wek¦vm I cÖPwjZ a¨vb-aviYvq cwieZ©b bv Avb‡Z cvi‡j wkÿv‡ÿ‡Î eo ai‡bi †Kvb cwieZ©b Avkv Kiv hvq bv| GKwU bZzb wkÿvµg cÖPwjZ I MZvbyMwZK wkÿv e¨e¯’v wfbœ cÖwµqvq ev¯Íevqb Kivi GKwU ewjô c`‡ÿc| wkÿvµg cwieZ©‡bi GB c`‡ÿ‡c a‡i †bIqv nq †h, wkÿK I Ab¨vb¨ wkÿv †ckvRxexiv wkÿvµ‡gi cÖ¯ÍvweZ cÖwµqv-c×wZ I mycvwikgvjv wek¦vm I AvZ¥¯’ Ki‡eb Ges †m Abyhvqx Zuv‡`i wkLb-†kLv‡bv PP©v cwieZ©b Ki‡eb| GRb¨ bZzb wkÿvµg ev¯Íevq‡bi †ÿ‡Î AZ¨šÍ Riæwi welq n‡jv wkÿvi mKj AskxRb‡`i g‡a¨ GKwU wek¦vm I †evSvcov (understanding) ˆZwi cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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Kiv †hLv‡b cwieZ©‡bi wb‡`©wkZ w`‡K †cuŠQv‡bv m¤¢e| ïay wkÿvµg `wj‡ji ZvwË¡K aviYvq cwieZ©b Avb‡jB †h PP©vq cwieZ©b Avm‡e Zv bq| ZvwË¡K aviYv †_‡K ïiæ K‡i †kÖwYKÿ ch©v‡qi wkLb†kLv‡bv cÖwµqvq Avg~j cwieZ©b Avb‡Z n‡j mswkøó mKj AskxRb‡K wkÿvµ‡gi AšÍwb©wnZ †PZbvq D¾xweZ n‡Z n‡e| Z‡eB †h jÿ¨‡K mvg‡b †i‡L G wkÿvµg cÖYxZ n‡q‡Q Zv AR©b Kiv m¤¢e n‡e| 12.8 wkÿvµg g~j¨vqb wkÿvµg †Kvb w¯’i `wjj ev welq bq| wkÿvµg Dbœqb I cwigvR©b GKwU Ae¨vnZ cªwµqv| hw`I h‡_ó cixÿv-wbixÿvi ci e¨vcK AvKv‡i wkÿvµg ev¯Íevq‡bi D‡`¨vM MÖnY Kiv nq ZeyI mg‡qi ms‡M ms‡M wkÿvµg ev¯Íevqb cwiexÿY I Gi h_v_©Zv g~j¨vqb Kiv Riæwi| Kvw•LZ wkÿvµg †kÖwYK‡ÿ KZUv ev¯Íevqb n‡”Q ev AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv I wkLbdj wkïiv AR©b Ki‡Z mÿg n‡”Q wKbv Zv hvPvB Ges †m Abyhvqx e¨e¯’v MÖnY wkÿvµ‡gi mdj ev¯Íevq‡b LyeB ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| G‡ÿ‡Î RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW© ev¯Íevq‡bi ïiæ †_‡KB ev¯ÍevqbKvix ms¯’v cÖv_wgK wkÿv Awa`߇ii ms‡M wbweo †hvMv‡hvM I m¤ú„³Zvi gva¨‡g wkÿvµg g~j¨vq‡bi D‡`¨vM MÖnY Ki‡e| wkÿvµg g~j¨vqb‡K LÛKvjxb KvR wn‡m‡e bv †`‡L avivevwnK cÖwµqvi gva¨‡g GKwU ¯’vqx e¨e¯’v MV‡b RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW© cÖ‡qvRbxq D‡`¨vM MÖnY Ki‡e| g~j¨vqb †_‡K cÖvß djvdj h_vh_fv‡e e¨envi K‡i wkÿvµg Ges Gi ev¯Íevqb‡K Av‡iv †eMevb I A_©c~Y© Kivi GKwU c~e© wba©vwiZ †KŠkjI †mB e¨e¯’vq _vK‡Z n‡e|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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13. cwievi †_‡K cÖvwZôvwbK wkÿv¯Í‡i DËiY (Transition) cwievi †_‡K cÖvK-cÖv_wgK we`¨vjq, Zvici cÖvK-cÖv_wgK †_‡K cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡ii wkÿvq DËi‡Yi wewfbœ ch©v‡q wkï‡K bvbv ai‡bi P¨v‡j‡Äi gy‡LvgywL n‡Z nq| G‡ÿ‡Î wkï‡K µgvMZ bZzb cwi‡e‡ki mv‡_ Lvc LvIqv‡Z nq Ges bZzb bZzb gvby‡li mv‡_ wg_w®Œqv Ki‡Z nq, hv Zvi eq‡mi Zzjbvq h‡_ó P¨v‡jwÄs| cwiev‡ii cwi‡ek †_‡K we`¨vj‡qi AvbyôvwbK cwi‡ek h‡_óB wfbœZi nq| Avevi cÖvKcÖv_wgK wkÿvi wkLb-cwi‡ek †_‡K cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡ii wkLb-†kLv‡bv cwi‡e‡kiI h‡_ó cv_©K¨ i‡q‡Q| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvi GKwU Ab¨Zg D‡Ïk¨ n‡”Q wkï‡K GB P¨v‡jÄ †gvKv‡ejvq h_vh_fv‡e cÖ¯‘Z K‡i GK avc †_‡K Ab¨ av‡c DËi‡Y mnvqZv Kiv| gvZvwcZv Ges wkÿK hw` GB DËi‡Y h_vh_ mnvqZv Ki‡Z bv cv‡ib, Z‡e Zv wkïi cieZ©x Rxe‡bi wkL‡b †bwZevPK cÖfve †dj‡Z cv‡i| we‡klZ cÖ_g cÖR‡b¥i wkÿv_x©, hviv evwo‡Z gvZvwcZvi KvQ †_‡K wkLb-m¤úwK©Z †Zgb †Kv‡bv mnvqZv †c‡q Av‡m bv, Zviv nVvr K‡i we`¨vj‡qi AvbyôvwbK cwi‡e‡k wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqvi †fZ‡i G‡m wb‡R‡K avZ¯’ Ki‡Z Aÿg n‡q A‡bK mgq S‡i c‡o| GB bZzb cwi‡e‡ki mv‡_ mwVKfv‡e Awf‡hvwRZ n‡Z bv cvi‡j wkïi wewfbœ ai‡bi AvPiwYK mgm¨vI †`Lv w`‡Z cv‡i| †hgb- fq cvIqv, KvbœvKvwU Kiv, DwØMœZv cÖ`k©b, we`¨vj‡q bv hvIqvi g‡bvfve I bZzb †Kv‡bv cwi‡ek cwiw¯’wZ ev wKQz‡K †g‡b bv †bIqvi gvbwmKZv BZ¨vw`| Dc‡iv³ welqmgyn we‡ePbvq mKj chv©‡qi cÖwZwU av‡c hw` wkïi weKv‡ki Dc‡hvMx GKwU mnR I wkï evÜe DËiY cwi‡ek ˆZwi Kiv bv hvq, Zvn‡j wkïi weKvk I wkL‡bi m¤¢vebv wewNœZ n‡e| Z‡e g‡b ivL‡Z n‡e G DËi‡Yi cÖ¯‘wZ gv‡b ïay wkï‡K cÖ¯‘Z Kiv bq eis gvZvwcZv, cwievi, we`¨vjq Ges mgvR‡KI wkï‡K MÖnY Kivi Rb¨ h_vh_fv‡e cÖ¯‘Z n‡Z n‡e| GRb¨ wewfbœ ch©v‡q †h mKj D‡`¨vM †bqv cÖ‡qvRb †m¸‡jv wbgœiƒc| 13.1 gvZvwcZvi cÖ¯‘wZ: GB cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg cªYq‡bi bxwZgvjvi Ab¨Zg GKwU bxwZ n‡jv cwiev‡ii m¤ú„³Zv| wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg cwiPvjbvmn wkÿvµg ev¯Íevq‡bi wewfbœ chv©‡q ZvB wewfbœfv‡e cwiev‡ii m¤ú„³Zv I gvZvwcZvi f~wgKvi welqwU G‡m‡Q| GB m¤ú„³Zvi GKwU Ab¨Zg D‡Ïk¨ n‡”Q evwoi AbvbyôvwbK cwi‡ek †_‡K we`¨vj‡qi AvbyôvwbK cwi‡e‡k DËi‡Y wcZvgvZv †hb h‡_ó cÖ¯ÍyZ n‡q f~wgKv ivLvi cvkvcvwk wkïi weKvk I wkL‡b mnvqZv Ki‡Z cv‡ib| wkïi evwo †_‡K cÖvK-cªv_wgK wkÿv Ges †mLvb †_‡K cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡i DËi‡Yi AvbyôvwbK ce©wU hv‡Z Avb›`Nb I myLKi AwfÁZvi wfZi w`‡q AwZevwnZ nq †mRb¨ cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvi wewfbœ avc I Kvh©µ‡g gvZvwcZvi f~wgKv AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© †Kbbv wkïi ¯^í cwiP‡qi MwЇZ Zvi me‡P‡q Kv‡Qi I wbf©iZvi gvbyl n‡jv Zvi gvZvwcZv| GRb¨ wkïi we`¨vj‡q Awf‡l‡Ki cÖ_g w`‡b gvZvwcZv‡`i wb‡q †Kv‡bv Abyôvb Av‡qvRb Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i †hLv‡b gvZvwcZv wkï‡K we`¨vj‡q wb‡q Avm‡eb I Zv‡`i mv‡_ wKQz mgq KvUv‡eb| Gmgq we`¨vj‡q wkïi mvb›` Awf‡l‡K cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvq gvZvwcZvi f~wgKv Av‡jvPbv K‡i eywS‡q †`qv †h‡Z cv‡i| G‡ÿ‡Î g‡b ivL‡Z n‡e evsjv‡`‡ki †cÖÿvcU we‡ePbvq cwiev‡ii m¤ú„³Zv ev gvZvwcZvi h_vh_ f~wgKv ivLvi welqwU wbwðZ Kiv mnR bq| †h‡nZz cÖwZwbqZ cwieZ©bkxj mvgvwRK †cÖÿvc‡U we`¨vjq I cwiev‡ii m¤ú„³Zv fwel¨Z cÖRb¥‡K mwVKfv‡e cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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M‡o †Zvjvi P¨v‡jÄ †gvKv‡ejvq ¸iæZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv iv‡L †m‡nZz wkÿvµg cwiKíbvq G welqwU‡K h‡_ó ¸iæZ¡ †`qv n‡q‡Q| m¤ú~Y© we`¨vjq‡Kw›`ªK GKwU aviYv †_‡K cwievi-we`¨vjq Askx`vwi‡Z¡i aviYvi w`‡K µgk GwM‡q hvIqv n‡q‡Q| GB cwiewZ©Z aviYvi mydj †c‡Z cwievi I gvZvwcZv‡K cÖ¯‘Z Kivi D‡`¨vM wkÿvµg ev¯Íevqb cwiKíbvq _vK‡Z n‡e| cwievi I gvZvwcZv‡K cÖ¯‘Z K‡i mvwe©Kfv‡e wkÿvµg ev¯Íevq‡b Zv‡`i AskMÖnY wbwðZ Ki‡Z wb¤œewY©Z welqmgy‡ni Av‡jv‡K evwo-we`¨vjq mn‡hvwMZvi GKwU iƒc‡iLv cÖYqb K‡i ev¯Íevqb Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|  wb‡R‡`i cvi¯úwiK mg‡SvZv e„w× Ges evwo I we`¨vjq Dfq †ÿ‡Î wkïi weKvk I wkLb m¤ú‡©K Z_¨ Av`vb cÖ`v‡bi Rb¨ wbqwgZ AvbyôvwbK †mk‡bi e¨e¯’v ivLv;  †cÖÿvcU I ev¯ÍeZv we‡ePbvq gvZvwcZvi Ávb, `ÿZv I Kibxq m¤ú‡©K c¨v‡iw›Us GWz‡Kkb Gi e¨e¯’v ivLv;  ev¯ÍeZvi Av‡jv‡K m¤¢e n‡j gvZvwcZv‡K †¯^”Qv‡mex wn‡m‡e †kÖwYi ev we`¨vj‡qi wewfbœ Kv‡R AskMÖnY Kiv‡bv;  wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqvi ms‡M wgj †i‡L evwo‡Z wkï‡`i mnvqZv Kivi †KŠkj iß Kiv‡bv;  we`¨vjq I †kÖwYKÿ e¨e¯’vcbvq gvZvwcZvi gZvgZ I AskMÖnY| †h‡nZz evsjv‡`‡ki †cÖÿvcU I ev¯ÍeZvq GB aviYvi ev¯Íevqb mnR bq †m‡nZz G‡ÿ‡Î wb¤œewY©Z †KŠkjmgyn AbymiY Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i:  cwiev‡ii ms‡M †hvMv‡hv‡Mi aiY, mgq, c×wZ, msL¨v BZ¨vw` n‡e wfbœ wfbœ, bgbxq Ges cwievi ev gvZvwcZv‡Kw›`ªK| we`¨vj‡qi cÖ‡qvR‡bi †P‡q G‡ÿ‡Î cwiev‡ii cÖ‡qvRb Ges Zv‡`i gZvgZ‡K †ewk ¸iæZ¡ w`‡Z n‡e|  g‡b ivL‡Z n‡e cÖwZwU wkï †hgb Avjv`v †Zgwb cÖwZwU cwiev‡iiI Avjv`v Avjv`v ˆewkó¨ _vK‡Z cv‡i †hgb, gvZvwcZv Df‡qB Kg©Rxex, MÖvg †_‡K kn‡i Avmv, cÖ_g cÖRb¥ wkwÿZ, weevn we‡”Q` ev GKK cwievi BZ¨vw`| wfbœ wfbœ cwiev‡i wkïi cÖwZ wfbœ wfbœ cÖZ¨vkv, `„wófw½ ev wek¦vm _vK‡Z cv‡i| we`¨vj‡qi Kv‡QI Zv‡`i cÖZ¨vkv _vK‡Z cv‡i wfbœ| gvZvwcZvi wkÿv ev †ckvi aib mivmwi Zv‡`i m¤ú„³ nevi aib‡K cÖfvweZ Ki‡Z cv‡i| GRb¨ we`¨vjq‡K bvbv ai‡Yi Kg©KvÐ cwiKíbv Ki‡Z n‡e †hb gvZvwcZv‡`i eûwea cÖZ¨vkv c~iY Kiv hvq|  wkïi Kv‡Q gvZvwcZvi cÖZ¨vkv A‡bKUvB e¨w³K (Subjective) hv memgq hyw³wbf©i bq A_P wkÿ‡Ki cÖZ¨vkv Avevi nIqv DwPZ †hŠw³K| wkïi cÖwZ gvZvwcZvi cQ›` I cÖZ¨vkv wb‡q wkÿ‡Ki ms‡M †hb †Kvb mvsNwl©K `„wófw½i D™¢e bv N‡U Zv m‡PZbfv‡e jÿ¨ †i‡L †hvMv‡hvM Ki‡Z n‡e|  AMÖvwaKvi wfwˇZ mn‡hvwMZvi †ÿÎ I gvÎv µgvš^‡q evov‡bvi cwiKíbv Ki‡Z n‡e| G‡ÿ‡Î mgv‡R cÖ‡hvR¨ †ÿ‡Î mn‡hvwMZvi Av‡iv †h Dcv`vbmg~n Av‡Q Zvi h_vh_ e¨envi wbwðZ Ki‡Z n‡e| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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12.2 we`¨vj‡qi cÖ¯‘wZ: g‡b ivL‡Z n‡e, cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvq GKwU wkïi Awf‡lK n‡jv Zvi AvbyyôvwbK wkÿvi ïiæ| GKB mv‡_ cwievi I cwiev‡ii m`m¨‡`i mv‡_ GUvB wkïi wfbœ cwi‡e‡k m¤ú„³Zvi AwfÁZv I AcwiwPZ cwi‡e‡k AvMgb Ges AcwiwPZ Acivci wkï I wkÿ‡Ki mv‡_ Zvi †gjv‡gkv I wg_w¯Œqvi cÖ_g ce©| ZvB GB cwi‡e‡k wkï Lvc LvIqv‡bvi evav DËi‡Yi †ÿ‡Î we`¨vjq I gvZvwcZvi †hŠ_ D‡`¨vM, mn‡hvwMZv Ges wbweo mgš^q cÖ‡qvRb| we`¨vjq G‡ÿ‡Î wkï‡`i Rb¨ Avo¤^ic~Y© Awf‡lK Abyôvb, Dò Af¨_©bv Av‡qvRb Kivi cvkvcvwk cÖ_g chv©‡q gvZvwcZvi wbweo mnvqZv wb‡Z cv‡i| †kÖwY Kvh©µg ïiæ Kivi cÖ_g chv©‡q †kÖwYKÿ, we`¨vjq I Pvicv‡ki cwi‡ek I †fŠZmyweavw` †hgb, wkïevÜe Avmeve, Uq‡jU, nvZ †avqvi RvqMv, cvwb BZ¨vw` m¤ú‡K© wkï‡`i AewnZKiY we`¨vj‡qi Ab¨Zg `vwqZ¡| ˆ`bw›`b †kÖwYi Kv‡Ri Ask wn‡m‡e wkï‡`i µgvš^‡q G AewnZKiY, ch©‡eÿY I ¯‹zj ågY Kvh©µg Zv‡`i `ªæZ bZzb cwi‡e‡ki mv‡_ Lvc LvB‡q wb‡Z mnvqZv K‡i| †h‡Kvb cÖ‡qvR‡b ev cwiw¯’wZ‡Z wkï ZvrÿwbKfv‡e †hb Zvi cÖ‡qvR‡bi K_v ej‡Z cv‡i †kÖwY‡Z †miKg GKwU AbyK~j cwi‡ek ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvq wkïi ˆ`bw›`b AvPiwYK Awfe¨w³‡K ¸iæZ¡ w`‡q Zv‡`i Rb¨ Lye mnbkxj Kvh©µg MÖnY K‡i cÖwZôvb‡K Zvi Kv‡Q MÖnY‡hvM¨, AvMÖn I Av¯’vi †K›`ª wn‡m‡e M‡o †Zvjv hvq| GKwU wbivc`, mn‡hvMx, eÜzZ¡c~Y© cwi‡e‡k we`¨vj‡qi wkÿKmn mKj Kg©x© wkï‡`i cÖwZ †mœn I gg‡Z¡i GKwU gvbwmKZv wb‡q mnvqZvi nvZ evwo‡q w`‡j wkïiv Zv‡`i AwgZ m¤¢vebvi weKv‡ki w`‡K GwM‡q †h‡Z cv‡i| ïay ZvB bq,GB AwfÁZv wkïi we`¨vj‡qi cÖwZ AvKl©Y, Rxebe¨vcx wkÿvq AvMÖn m„wó Ges Zvi AvRxeb wkLb gvbwmKZv ˆZwi‡Z D‡jøL‡hvM¨ f~wgKv ivL‡e| 13.3 Dchy³ I h_vh_ wkÿvµg: evwo ev cwievi †_‡K cÖvwZôvwbK wkLb cwi‡e‡k DËi‡Y GKwU Dchy³ I ms‡e`bkxj wkÿvµ‡gi ¸iæZ¡ Acwimxg| evwo I we`¨vj‡qi g‡a¨ mn‡hvMx m¤úK© eRvq ivL‡Z †cÖÿvcU I cÖZ¨vkvi ms‡M mvgÄm¨c~Y© wkÿvµg ¸iæZ¡c~Y© fzwgKv cvjb K‡i| ZvQvov wkïi Rb¨ GKwU mnvqK wkLb cwi‡e‡ki Acwinvh© Ask n‡jv Zvi weKvk Dc‡hvMx I mvs¯‹„wZKfv‡e Dchy³ (Developmentally & culturally appropriate) wkÿvµg I wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqv| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg cÖYq‡bi mgq GwU‡K wkïi Rb¨ weKvk Dc‡hvMx I mvs¯‹„wZKfv‡e Dchy³ I MÖnY‡hvM¨ Ki‡Z we`¨vj‡qi AvbyôvwbK cwiw¯’wZi mv‡_ wkïi Lvc LvIqv‡bvi welq‡K ¸iæZ¡ †`qv n‡q‡Q| Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS) †K wfwË wnmv‡e MÖnY K‡i wkïi weKv‡ki †ÿÎ Abyhvqx cªvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg‡K web¨¯Í Kiv n‡q‡Q †hb wkïi cÖwZ mK‡ji cÖZ¨vkv GKwU mvaviY gvÎvq _v‡K| G‡ÿ‡Î wkïi wkL‡bi ms‡M ms‡M weKvk‡K AwaKZi m‡PZbZvi mv‡_ jvjb Kivi my‡hvM ivLv n‡q‡Q †hb cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡ii wkÿvq cÖ‡e‡ki j‡ÿ¨ cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg mvwe©Kfv‡e wkï‡K cÖ¯‘Z Ki‡Z cv‡i| G‡ÿ‡Î Av‡iKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© welq n‡jv cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg I cÖv_wgK wkÿvµ‡gi ch©vß I h_vh_ mgš^q hv‡Z wkï GK ¯Íi †_‡K Av‡iK ¯Í‡i DËi‡Y wkL‡bi †ÿ‡Î †Kv‡bv euvavi m¤§yLxb bv nq| GRb¨ cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµ‡g wba©vwiZ welq I †ÿÎwfwËK ARb©‡hvM¨ `ÿZv †hgb fvlv, kvixie„Ëxq, MvwYwZK, m„RbkxjZv, ˆeÁvwbK I cÖhyw³MZ Ávb BZ¨vw`i mv‡_ cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡ii cÖ_g †kÖwYi mswkøó `ÿZvmg~‡ni mgš^q K‡i Dj¤^ m¤úªmviY (Vertical expansion) Kiv cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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cÖ‡qvRb| A_©vr cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµ‡gi mv‡_ cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡ii wkÿvµ‡gi h_vh_ mgš^q mvab Ki‡Z n‡e †hb cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvq AwR©Z AwfÁZvmg~‡ni mv‡_ cÖv_wgK wkÿvi ARb©‡hvM¨ `ÿZvi †mZzeÜb ˆZwi K‡i wkÿK wkïi fwel¨Z wkL‡bi Øvi Db¥y³ Ki‡Z cv‡ib Ges cÖv_wgK wkÿvq wkïi mvejxj DËiY NUv‡Z cv‡ib|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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14. GKxf~Z wk¶v welqK wb‡`©kbv c„w_exi wewfbœ †`k eZ©gv‡b wk¶vi bxwZ wb‡`©kbvq GKxf~Z wk¶v cÖwµqvi Dci cÖvavb¨ w`‡q Avm‡Q| wk¶vi g~j †mªvZaviv †_‡K wew”Qbœ wkï‡`i Dci M‡elYvjä Ávb GKxf~Z wk¶v cÖwµqvi mycvwik K‡i| GKxf~Z wk¶vq mKj wkïi wbR¯^ ˆewkó¨ Ges wfbœZv‡K we‡ePbv K‡i wk¶v cÖwµqvq Zv‡`i AskMÖn‡Yi my‡hvM m„wó Kiv nq| GB cÖwµqvi gva¨‡g wk¶v‡¶‡Îi †hgb Dbœqb nq †Zgwb mKj wkïi AskMÖn‡Y mvgvwRK, mvs¯‹…wZK I A_©‰bwZK wewfbœ ai‡bi mydj cvIqv hvq| m¤cÖwZ evsjv‡`k miKviI cÖv_wgK wk¶v †¶‡Î GKxf~Z wk¶v Kvh©µg ev¯Íevq‡bi D‡`¨vM MÖnY K‡i‡Q| evsjv‡`‡ki cÖwZwU wkïi Rb¨ gvbm¤§Z cÖv_wgK wkÿv Z_v cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wk¶vi my‡hvM m„wó Kivi wel‡q miKvi A½xKvive×| 1990 mv‡ji eva¨Zvg~jK cÖv_wgK wk¶v AvBb Abyhvqx wj½, eqm, Avq, cwievi, ms¯‹…wZ I ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi wewfbœZv Abyhvqx †Kvb wkïB cÖv_wgK wk¶vi AvIZvi evB‡i _vKvi K_v bv| RvZxq A½xKv‡ii GB avivevwnKZvq evsjv‡`k miKvi AvšÍR©vwZK wewfbœ mb`, †NvlYv I bxwZgvjv †hgb, mevi Rb¨ wk¶v, mnmªv‡ãi Dbœqb j¶¨gvÎv, RvwZms‡Ni wkï AwaKvi mb`, 1990 cÖf„wZi mv‡_ wewfbœ mg‡q GKvZ¥Zv †NvlYv K‡i| wkïi gvbwmK, mvgvwRK, A_©‰bwZK, RvwZwfwËK, fvlvMZ, Av‡eM-Abyf~wZ I wek¦vm ev Ab¨ †Kv‡bv wewfbœZvi Kvi‡Y wk¶vi my‡hvM †_‡K †hb ewÂZ bv nq Zv wbwðZ KivB GKxf~Z wk¶vi g~j cÖwZcv`¨ welq| evsjv‡`k miKv‡ii wewfbœ RvZxq I AvšÍR©vwZK mb`, †NvlYv I bxwZgvjvi m‡½ GKvZ¥Zv cÖKv‡ki welqwU ev¯Íevq‡bi j‡¶¨ cÖv_wgK I MYwk¶v gš¿Yvjq, wØZxq cÖv_wgK wk¶v Dbœqb Kg©m~wP‡Z GKxf~Z wk¶vi GKwU Kg©cwiKíbv I cwiKvVv‡gv (Strategies and Action Plans for Inclusive Education) cÖYqb K‡ib| GB cwiKvVv‡gv‡Z GKxf~Z wk¶vi PviwU †¶‡Îi wPwýZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| G¸‡jv n‡jv: 1. †RÛvi mgZv I mvg¨: bvix cyiæl mg`wk©Zvi welqwU‡K GKwU me©e¨vcx (Cross-Cutting) †¶Î wn‡m‡e we‡ePbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| 2. SuywKMÖ¯’ wkï: †hme wkïiv bvbv ˆelg¨g~jK cwiw¯’wZ †hgb, mvgvwRK, A_©‰bwZK I †fŠ‡MvwjK, cÖwZŸÜKZvi Kvi‡Y wk¶vi my‡hvM †_‡K ewÂZ ZvivB SuywKMÖ¯’ wkï| 3. ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi wkï: evsjv‡`‡ki e„nËi evsjv fvlvfvwl wkï‡`i cvkvcvwk 40wU A‡c¶vK…Z ¶z`ª fvlvfvwl Rb‡Mvôxi wkï i‡q‡Q| Gme wkïi cwi‡ek, ms¯‹…wZ, ag©vPvimn RxeYvPiY ˆewPΨc~Y©| G‡`i RvwZmËvi ˆewkó¨, fvlv I b„-†fŠ‡MvwjK cwiw¯’wZi Kvi‡Y Giv ¯^Zš¿ ¶z`ª RvwZmËv wn‡m‡e AwfwnZ n‡q‡Q| 4. we‡kl Pvwn`v m¤úbœ wkï: wkï‡`i gvbwmK I kvixwiK, eyw×e„wËK I evPwbK cwiw¯’wZ wba©viY K‡i we‡kl Pvwn`vi cÖK…wZ| Avevi we‡kl Pvwn`vi cÖK…wZ, Zv c~i‡Yi †KŠkj Ges Zv Abykxj‡bi my‡hvM-myweavi Ici wbf©i K‡i| wkL‡bi Rb¨ we‡kl mnvqZvi cÖ‡qvRb i‡q‡Q Ggb wkïivB n‡jv we‡kl Pvwn`v m¤úbœ wkï| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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14.1 †RÛvi mgZv (Equality) I mvg¨ (Equity): Ô†RÛviÕ kãwUi AvwfavwbK A_© n‡jv bvix-cyiæ‡li mg`wk©Zv| A_v©r bvix I cyiæl‡K mgvR Kxfv‡e †`‡L A_ev mgvR bvix-cyiæl‡K Kxfv‡e Dc¯’vcb K‡i g~jZ ZvB-B †RÛvi| mywbw`©ófv‡e †RÛvi ej‡Z †evSvq :  mvgvwRKfv‡e M‡o IVv bvix-cyiæ‡li cwiPq ;  mvgvwRKfv‡e wbav©wiZ bvix-cyiæ‡li m¤úK© Ges  mgvR KZ…©K Av‡ivwcZ bvix-cyiæ‡li f~wgKv, `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨| mgv‡Ri wewfbœ †¶‡Î bvix-cyiæ‡li mgvb Ae¯’v I Ae¯’v‡bi wPÎ cvIqv †M‡jI DfqB GKB Ávb, `¶Zv, `„wóf½x I g‡bvfve wb‡q M‡o DV‡Q wKbv †mUv ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| wj½‡f‡`i Kvi‡Y bvix I cyiæ‡li g‡a¨ my‡hvM, m¤ú` ev myweav A_ev †mev cvIqvi †¶‡Î †Kv‡bv iKg ˆelg¨ m„wó bv nIqvi cÖwµqvB n‡jv †RÛvi mvg¨| RvZxq wk¶v bxwZ-2010 Gi g~j cÖwZcv‡`¨i m‡½ m½wZ †i‡L eZ©gvb cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµ‡g †RÛvi welqwUi Dci ¸iæZ¡ †`Iqv n‡q‡Q| †RÛvi mgZv I mv‡g¨i cÖwZdjb wk¶vµ‡gi AvUwU wkLb †¶‡Îi cÖwZwU‡Z me©e¨vcx welq wn‡m‡e (cross-cutting issue) AšÍfy©³ Kiv n‡q‡Q| wk¶v_x©‡`i Kvw•¶Z wkLbdj AR©‡bi Rb¨ †Q‡j I †g‡q wkïi g‡a¨ †hb GKB ai‡bi Ávb, `¶Zv, AvPiwYK †mŠRb¨‡eva, `„wóf½x I g‡bvfve M‡o D‡V Zvi Rb¨ wb‡¤œi welq¸‡jv we‡ePbv Kiv ‡h‡Z cv‡i : K. wkLb-wkLv‡bv †KŠkj Ggbfv‡e wba©viY Kiv DwPZ hv‡Z Zv †RÛvi wbi‡c¶ nq| A_v©r wbev©wPZe¨ †KŠkj¸‡jv †Q‡j ev †g‡q wkï - Df‡qi Rb¨ †hb h_vh_ nq, †KD †hb Zvi †fŠ‡MvwjK, b„ZvwË¡K, A_©‰bwZK, kvixwiK ev g‡bv-mvgvwRK Ae¯’v I Ae¯’v‡bi Kvi‡Y wb‡R‡K Aa¯Íb ev D‡cw¶Z fvevi my‡hvM bv cvq| L. cwiKwíZ †h †Kv‡bv ZrciZv ev KvR Zv `jxq RywUe× ev GKKfv‡e Kiv †nvK bv †Kb Zv †hb †RÛvi-evÜe nq| A_v©r †Ljv wbev©Pb, Mí I Qov wbav©iY f~wgKvwfb‡qi welqe¯‘ Pqb, wkï‡Zvl e¨vqvg, cvR&j& ev KvR cQ‡›`i mgq †RÛvi-evÜeZvi welq we‡ePbvq ivLv| M. wkLb-†kLv‡bv †KŠkj Awf‡hvRb ev cwiKwíZ ZrciZv ev¯Íevq‡bi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb nq bvbv iK‡gi wk¶v DcKiY| wk¶v DcKiY ˆZwii †¶‡Î Zv †RÛvi evÜe Kivi wel‡q mswkøó mK‡ji m‡PZb nIqv cÖ‡qvRb|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgMÖx‡Z †RÛvi mgZv I mv‡g¨i cÖwZdjb : †Q‡j ev †g‡q wkï Df‡qi Kv‡QB IqvK© eyK GKwU AwZ Av`ibxq cvV-DcKiY| †m Rb¨ GwU †hb Df‡qi Kv‡QB mgfv‡e MÖnYxq nq Zvi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb GKwU †RÛvi-evÜe IqvK© eyK| GKBfv‡e bvix ev cyiæl Dfq wk¶‡Ki Rb¨ cÖYxZe¨ wk¶K mnvwqKv GKBfv‡e ¸iæZ¡c~©Y| IqvK© eyK Ges wk¶K-mnvwqKv †RÛvi-evÜe K‡i mKj wk¶‡Ki Rb¨ Dc‡hvMx, mnvqK I ¯^w¯ÍKi n‡Z n‡e| Gme wk¶v-mvgMÖx †RÛvi-evÜe Kivi Rb¨ wb‡Pi cÖ¯Ívebvmg~n we‡ePbv Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i: K. wewfbœ wk¶v mvgMªx‡Z e¨eüZ fvlv n‡e †RÛvi wbi‡c¶| wk¶v mvgMÖxi fvlvq c¶cvZg~jK †Kvb kã, D`vniY ev Dcgv e¨envi Kiv DwPZ bq| L. IqvK© eyKmn Ab¨vb¨ mvgMÖxi welqe¯‘ n‡e †RÛvi-wbi‡c¶| welqe¯‘ iPbv, Dc¯’vcbv I e¨vL¨v we‡køl‡Yi mgq †RÛvi m‡PZb n‡Z n‡e| bvix ev †g‡q wkïi ghv©`v mgybœZ iv‡L Ges †mB m‡½ cvi¯úwiK m¤§vb‡eva D¾xweZ K‡i Ggb welq wk¶v mvgMÖx‡Z cÖwZdwjZ nIqv Riæwi| M. wewfbœ cvV¨ mvgMÖx‡Z ÔbvgÕ e¨env‡ii mgq †hb ïay †g‡q wkï A_ev †Q‡j wkïi ÔbvgÕ bv Av‡m †m w`‡K †Lqvj ivL‡Z n‡e| ÔbvgÕ e¨envi mgZvwfwËK n‡j Zv mK‡ji Kv‡Q MÖnYxq n‡e| N. wk¶v mvgMÖx‡Z e¨eüZe¨ Av‡jvKwPÎ I AjsKi‡Yi gva¨‡g †hb †g‡q wkï ev bvix‡K †nq bv Kiv nq ev c¶cvZg~jK wPÎvewj cÖwZdwjZ bv nq †m wel‡q mKj‡K m‡PZb n‡Z n‡e| A_v©r †h †Kv‡bv wPÎvqb †RÛvi wbi‡c¶ nIqv evÃbxq| wk¶vµg we¯Íi‡Y †RÛvi mgZv I mv‡g¨i cÖwZdjb: wk¶vµg we¯ÍiY g~jZ wk¶vµg ev¯Íevq‡bi GKwU AewnZKiY cÖwµqv| GwU wk¶vµg ev¯Íevq‡bi m~Pbv c‡e©i GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Abyl½| GB cÖwk¶Y cwiPvj‡bi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb nq GKwU cÖwk¶Y g¨vbyqvj| g¨vbyqvjwU Aek¨B c~‡e© wb‡`©wkZ †RÛvi-evÜe bxwZgvjvi wfwˇZ cÖYxZ n‡e| ZvQvov wk¶vµg ev¯Íevq‡bi Avi GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© w`K n‡jv cÖwk¶YKv‡j cÖwk¶K (wk¶K, wk¶K-cÖwk¶K I gvV chv©‡qi Kg©KZv©e„›`) hv Dc¯’vcb Ki‡eb †mLv‡b e¨eüZe¨ welqe¯‘,& D`vniY Dcgv, cÖwk¶Y mswkøó AvPiY I bxwZgvjv BZ¨vw` †RÛvi wbi‡c¶ nIqv AZ¨vek¨K| g~j¨vq‡b †RÛvi mgZv I mv‡g¨i cÖwZdjb: g~j¨vq‡b †RÛvi mgZv I mv‡g¨i cÖwZdjb wbwðZ Ki‡Z g~j¨vqb †KŠkj I cwigvcK (Uzjm) †hb †RÛvi-wbi‡c¶ nq †m w`‡K j¶ ivLv cÖ‡qvRb| ZvQvov wkLbdj cwigv‡c †Q‡j I †g‡q wkïi g‡a¨ †RÛvi m‡PZbZvi ev¯ÍeZv Kx Zvi cwigvYMZ I ¸YMZ gvb wbiƒc‡Yi Rb¨ Av‡M †_‡KB †RÛvi m~PK wbav©iY Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| G ai‡bi g~j¨vqb †KŠkj †RÛvi mgZv I mvg¨ZvwfwËK wkï weKv‡k mnvqK n‡e|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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we`¨vj‡q †RÛvi mgZv I mv‡g¨i cÖwZdjb: wk¶vµ‡gi mdj ev¯Íevq‡bi GKwU gvcKvwV n‡jv †RÛvi-evÜe we`¨vjq| ¯‹zj¸‡jv KZUzKz †RÛvi-evÜe wn‡m‡e M‡o DV‡Q Zv wbf©i K‡i gvevev/AwffveK, cwievi I mgv‡Ri Ici A_v©r e„nËi Rbmgv‡Ri †RÛvi m‡PZbZvi Ici| †RÛvi-evÜe we`¨vjq ej‡Z hv †evSvq Zv n‡jv: K. we`¨vjq wbivc` wKbv: we`¨vj‡q †Q‡j I †g‡q wkï‡`i Rb¨, we‡kl K‡i †g‡q wkïi myyi¶v, wbivcËv Ges DÏxcbvgq cwi‡ek weivR Ki‡Q; L. †g‡q wkï‡`i we`¨vj‡q Avmvi †¶‡Î †h me evav i‡q‡Q Zv wPwýZ K‡i hZ`~i m¤¢e `~ixKi‡Yi Kvh©Ki c`‡¶c †bIqv n‡q‡Q; M. †MvUv we`¨vjq‡K Ggbfv‡e AvKlYx©qfv‡e mvwR‡q-¸wQ‡q ivLv, wbqg Kvbyb †g‡b Pjv, wk¶K, we‡kl K‡i cyiæl wk¶K‡`i mnvqK-AvPiY, wkï-evÜe cvqLvbv I PvcKj cÖwZôv BZ¨vw` †hb †g‡q wkïi Rb¨ Kvw•¶Z nq †m welq e¨e¯’v †bIqv n‡q‡Q; N. †Q‡j I †g‡q wkïi mgAsk MÖn‡Yi cÖwZeÜKZv Lyu‡R †ei Kiv Ges G me cÖwZeÜKZv Acmvi‡Y AwffveK I mgv‡Ri mnvqZv wbwðZ Kiv; O. Pvwn`vi wfwˇZ †Q‡j I †g‡q wkïi Rb¨ mvg¨Zvi bxwZ‡Z m¤ú` eivÏ Kiv |

14.2 SzuwKMÖ¯’ wkï : SzuwKMÖ¯’ wkïiv Ôwe‡kl cwiw¯’wZi wkKviÕ| †fŠ‡MvwjK, A_©‰bwZK I mvgvwRK cÖwZeÜKZvi Kvi‡Y GB cwiw¯’wZi m„wó nq| Gme wkïiv cvwievwiKfv‡eI SzuwKMÖ¯’| wk¶v ewnf~©Z †_‡K hvIqvB myweav ewÂZ nIqvi me‡P‡q DrK…ó `„óvšÍ| wk¶v-ewnf~©Z wkï‡`i g‡a¨ wewfbœ ai‡bi wkï i‡q‡Q hv‡`i mvgwMÖKfv‡e myweav-ewÂZ wkï ev SzuwKMÖ¯’ wkï ejv nq| G ai‡bi wkïiv n‡”Q Pig `wi`ª¨Zvi g‡a¨ wbgw¾Z wkï, mvgvwRK ev mvs¯‹…wZK w`K †_‡K cÖvwšÍK wkï, †fŠ‡MvwjK Kvi‡Y wew”Qbœ A‡j ev `yM©g GjvKvq emevmKvix wkï, Kg©Rxex wkï, †R‡j AvUK wkï, cwievi †_‡K wew”Qbœ wkï, cwiZ¨³ wkï, ÿz`ª RvwZmËvi wkï, GBPAvBwf AvµvšÍ wkï, †MvÎ ev †RÛvi ˆel‡g¨i wkKvi Ggb wkï| fvlv, wj½, †ckv, Avq, cwievi, ms¯‹…wZ, ¶z`ª RvwZMZ ˆewPÎ AvÂwjKZv ev `yM©g GjvKvq Ae¯’vb Kivi Kvi‡Y †Kv‡bv wkï‡K cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wk¶vq AskMÖnY Kiv †_‡K ewÂZ bv Kiv Ges cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wk¶vi ¸YMZ gvb, Dc‡hvwMZv Ges GKB mv‡_ wkï‡`i wk¶vi my‡hvM m¤cÖmvwiZ Kiv| evsjv‡`‡k cÖwZwU wkïi wk¶vi AwaKvi wbwðZ Kivi j‡¶¨ eva¨ZvgyjK cÖv_wgK wk¶vi AvB‡bi K_v c~‡e©B D‡jøL Kiv n‡q‡Q| ZvQvov evsjv‡`k 1990 mv‡j wkï AwaKvi mb‡` (wmAviwm) ¯^v¶iKvix GKwU †`k| G mb‡`i g~j cÖwZcv`¨ welq n‡”Q mKj wkïi Rb¨ wk¶v wbwðZ Kiv| ïay myweav-ewÂZ cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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bq eis mKj wkï‡K cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡ii cÖYqbK…Z wk¶vµ‡gi Av‡jv‡K wk¶v`vb Kiv, hv‡Z K‡i †Kv‡bv wkï LwÐZ gvbwmKZvq ev LwÐZ aviYvq weKwkZ bv nq| GQvov RvZxq wk¶v bxwZ 2010-G SzuwKMÖ¯’ wkï‡K wk¶vq AšÍ©fyw³i wel‡q AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡v‡ivc Kiv n‡q‡Q| wk¶vµ‡g SzuwKc~Y© wkïi cÖwZdjb: Ômevi Rb¨ wk¶vÕ - GB j¶¨ AR©‡bi Ab¨Zg A½xKvi n‡jv me wkïi wk¶vi my‡hvM m„wó Kiv| †m Av‡jv‡K cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wk¶vµ‡g mgZvi Avek¨KZv Acwinvh© Ges cÖYqbK…Z wk¶vµ‡g mgZvi welqwU Mfxi ch©‡e¶‡Yi gva¨‡g AšÍ©fy³ Kiv n‡q‡Q| we‡kl K‡i GB wk¶vµ‡g cÖvwšÍK Rb‡Mvôx †_‡K AvMZ wkï‡`i AvK…ó Kiv I a‡i ivLvi Rb¨ we‡kl wb‡`©kbvi mycvwik Kiv n‡q‡Q| SzuwKMÖ¯’ wkï‡`i Rxeb, RxweKv, ms¯‹…wZ I †jLvcov m¤^‡Ü Ab¨vb¨ wkï‡`i Awfbœ I BwZevPK g‡bvfve I `„wóf½x M‡o †Zvjvi Rb¨ wb‡Pi welq¸‡jv we‡ePbv Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i: K. wkLb-†kLv‡bv †KŠkj wbev©P‡bi mgq Ggb me †KŠkj wbe©vPb Kiv cÖ‡qvRb †h¸‡jv SzuwKMÖ¯’ wkï‡`i m¤^‡Ü BwZevPK aviYv M‡o Zzj‡Z mnvqK nq| GQvov †KŠk‡ji gva¨‡g Ggb †Kv‡bv KvR bv Kiv hv SzuwKMÖ¯’ wkï‡`i g‡b AvNvZ K‡i, Zv‡`i nxbgb¨Zvq †fvMvq ev gvbwmK Kó †`q| cwiKwíZ †h †Kv‡bv KvR Zv GKK, RywUe× ev `jxq †nvK bv †Kb Zv †hb SzuwKMÖ¯’ wkï-evÜe nq| cwiKwíZ Kv‡Ri wewfbœ welq †hgb: †Ljv, Mí, Qov wbev©Pb, f~wgKvwfb‡qi welqe¯‘ Pqb BZ¨vw` wbav©i‡Y LyeB m‡PZb n‡Z n‡e| L. wkLb-†kLv‡bv †KŠkj wbe©vPb ev cwiKwíZ KvR ev¯Íevq‡bi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb bvbv iK‡gi DcKiY| wk¶v DcKiY ˆZwii †¶‡Î Zv SzuwKMÖ¯’ wkï evÜe Kivi wel‡q mswkøó mK‡ji m‡PZb nIqv cÖ‡qvRb| M. wk¶vµg we¯ÍiY cÖwk¶‡Y SzuwKMÖ¯’ wkï‡`i wel‡q wk¶Kmn GKv‡WwgK mycviwfk‡bi mv‡_ mswkøó e¨w³‡`i m‡PZb Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i, †mB m‡½ SzuwKMÖ¯’ wkï‡`i Rb¨ h_vh_ wkLb cwi‡ek ˆZwii welqwU cÖwk¶‡Y AšÍf©y³ Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|

14.3 ¶z`ª RvwZmËv wewfbœ mvs¯‹…wZK ˆewk‡ó¨i mgš^‡q mg„× GKwU †`k evsjv‡`k| evsjv‡`‡ki kZKiv 98 fvM RbMY ev½vwj Ges Zv‡`i fvlv evsjv| evsjv fvlvfvwl gvby‡li cvkvcvwk evsjv‡`‡ki cÖvq 40 wU ¶z`ª ¶z`ª RvwZmËv Zv‡`i ¯^Kxq mvs¯‹…wZK ˆewkó¨ A¶zbœ †i‡L I m¤úªxwZ eRvq †i‡L cvkvcvwk Ae¯’vb Ki‡Q| ¯^Z¯¿ Av_©-mvgvwRK, mvs¯‹…wZK, ag©xq m‡e©vcwi fvlvMZ ˆewk‡ói mgš^‡q engvb ¶z`ª ¶z`ª Rb‡Mvôx‡K ¶z`ª RvwZmËv ejv nq| wkïiv †k‡L Zvi wb‡Ri fvlvq| †h fvlvq Zvi wb‡Ri `Lj †bB †mB fvlvq wk¶vMÖnY Kiv wkï‡`i Rb¨ Kómva¨ welq| evsjv‡`‡ki AwaKvsk gvby‡li fvlv evsjv| G †`‡ki cÖv_wgK we`¨vjq¸‡jv‡Z cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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wk¶vi gva¨gI evsjv| wKš‘ evsjv GKwU ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi wkïi Rb¨ wØZxq fvlv| ZvB G mKj wkïiv hLb we`¨vj‡q cÖ‡ek K‡i ZLb †h fvlvq Zvi wb‡Ri `Lj †bB †mB fvlvq wk¶vMÖnY Kiv Kómva¨ n‡q `uvovq| †h‡nZz Zv‡`i gvZ…fvlv evsjv bq, GmKj ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi wkïiv hLb we`¨vj‡q cÖ‡ek K‡i ZLb Zv‡`i cÖavb euvav n‡q `uvovq fvlv| GRb¨ ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi wkï‡`i wk¶vq S‡i covi nvi Ges GKB †kÖwY‡Z cybive„wËi nvi evsjv‡`‡ki Ab¨vb¨ As‡ki †P‡q †ewk| gvZ…fvlvq wk¶v MÖnY cÖwZwU wkïi AwaKvi| MY cÖRvZš¿x evsjv‡`k msweav‡bi 28(3) Aby‡”Q` Abyhvqx Ô†Kej ag©, †Mvôx, eY©, bvix-cyiæl‡f‡` ev Rb¥ ¯’v‡bi Kvi‡Y Rbmvavi‡Yi †Kvb we‡bv`b ev wekÖv‡gi ¯’v‡b cÖ‡e‡ki wKsev †Kvb wk¶v cÖwZôv‡b fwZ©i wel‡q †Kvb bvMwiK‡K †Kvbiƒc A¶gZv, eva¨evaKZv, evav ev k‡Z©i Aaxb Kiv hv‡e bv|Õ GQvovI ¶`yª RvwZmËvi wkï‡`i AwaKvi mgybœZ ivL‡Z iv‡óªi `vwqZ¡ m¤ú‡K© B‡Zvg‡a¨ evsjv‡`k wewfbœ RvZxq I AvšÍR©vwZK †NvlYv I Pyw³‡Z ¯^vÿi K‡i‡Q| GQvov RvZxq wk¶vbxwZ-2010 G ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi wkï‡`i gvZ…fvlvq wk¶vi Dci ¸iæZ¡v‡ivc Kiv n‡q‡Q| GLv‡b ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi wkï‡`i cÖv_wgK wk¶vi m~Pbv ce© †_‡K gvZ…fvlvq cov‡jLvi my‡hvM m„wó Kivi K_v ejv n‡q‡Q| ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi wkï‡`i wk¶vi cwi‡ek DbœZ I hyZmB Kivi Rb¨ gvZ…fvlvq wk¶v Avi¤¢ Kivi my‡hvM wbwðZ Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| †mB m‡½ msL¨v Mwiô RbM‡Yi fvlv evsjvq `¶Zv AR©b I wk¶v MÖn‡Yi Rb¨ ÔgvZ…fvlv wfwËK eûfvwlK wk¶vÕ Kvh©µg (Mother Tongue based Multi Llingual EducationMTbMLE) MÖnY Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ch©v‡q gvZ…fvlvq wk¶v MÖnY Avi¤¢ K‡i avivevwnK I mye¨ew¯’Zfv‡e 2q fvlvq cwiwPZ n‡q wk¶v e¨e¯’vq cÖ‡ek Ki‡j ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi bZzb wk¶v_©xiv cÖvKcÖv_wgK ch©vq †_‡K gvZ…fvlvq wk¶vi gReyZ wfwË Ges wb‡Ri cÖwZ Av¯’v ˆZwi n‡e| GB kw³kvjx wfwËi Dci wk¶v_©xiv 2q Ges Av‡iv fvlvq wb‡R‡`i `¶Zv AR©b Ki‡Z cvi‡e| GBfv‡e GB wk¶v_©xiv Rxebe¨vwc eûfvlvq wk¶vMÖnY wbwðZ Ki‡e| eû fvlv I ms¯‹…wZi cÖwZ Zv‡`i cÖxwZ I AvMÖn ˆZwi n‡e| wk¶vµ‡g ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi cÖwZdjb: cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wk¶vµ‡g wkï‡`i 4 wU weKv‡ki †¶Î‡K 8 wU wkLb‡¶‡Î fvM Kiv n‡q‡Q| cÖwZwU wkLb‡¶Î‡K GKvwaK AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv I cÖwZwU AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv‡K GKvwaK wkLbd‡j mywbw`©ó Kiv n‡q‡Q| wkLbdj n‡jv wk¶vµ‡gi Kvw•LZ `¶Zv ev †hvM¨Zvi GKK| cÖwZwU wkLb‡¶Î‡K AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv I wkLbd‡j Ggbfv‡e †f‡½ †f‡½ †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q †hLv‡b wkï‡`i Dci †Kvb wKQz Pvcv‡bv nqwb| wk¶v_©xiv hv‡Z cÖ_‡g Zvi Av‡kcv‡ki cwi‡ek †_‡K †k‡L Zvi Dci ¸iæZ¡ Av‡ivc Kiv n‡q‡Q| wkLbdj cÖYq‡bi †¶‡Î ¯^ ¯^ AÂj Ges ms¯‹…wZi Dci †Rvi †`qv n‡q‡Q| wkïiv hv‡Z wb‡R‡`i ms¯‹…wZ I cwi‡e‡ki Dci hZœkxj n‡Z cv‡i Ges Zv PP©v K‡i †m wel‡q we‡kl ¸iæZ¡ cÖ`vb Kiv n‡q‡Q| wk¶vµ‡g wPwýZ 8wU wkLb‡¶‡Îi g‡a¨ Ôfvlv I †hvMv‡hvMÕ Ges ÔcÖviw¤¢K-MwYZÕ e¨wZZ Ab¨vb¨ 6wU †¶‡Î ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi wk¶vw_©iv mn mKj wk¶vw_©iv wb‡R‡`i cwievi, cwi‡ek, ms¯‹…wZ Ges cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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¯’vwbqfv‡e cÖPwjZ †Ljv I †fŠ‡MvwjK Ae¯’v‡bi welq Rvb‡e Ges Gi gva¨‡g wkLb‡¶‡Î DwjøwLZ wkLbdj AR©b Ki‡e| ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi wk¶v_©xiv gvZ…fvlvq wkLbdj AR©‡bi cvkvcvwk wkLbd‡ji mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z D‡jøL‡hvM¨ k㸇jv cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ch©v‡q evsjvq Rvb‡e| ÔgvZ…fvlv wfwËK eûfvwlK wk¶vÕ Kvh©µ‡g wkLb-†kLv‡bv †KŠkj: cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡i ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi wk¶v_©xiv Zv‡`i wb‡R‡`i fvlvq wkLb AwfÁZv AR©b Ki‡e| †kÖwYK‡¶ wkLb †kLv‡bvi fvlv n‡e gvZ…fvlv| wk¶K wk¶vw_©‡`i gvZ…fvlvq wkLb †kLv‡bv Kvh©µg cwiPvjbv Ki‡eb| IqvK© eyK I wk¶K mnvwqKv evsjvq cÖYqb Kiv n‡jI ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi wkï‡`i wbKU Zv Zv‡`i gvZ…fvlvq Dc¯’vcb Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| wkLb †kLv‡bv mvgMÖx‡Z ¶z`ª RvwZmËv: IqvK©eyK I wk¶K mnvwqKv cÖYqb I Ab¨vb¨ wkLb-†kLv‡bv mvgwMÖ Dbœq‡bi †¶‡Î we‡klfv‡e j¶¨ ivL‡Z n‡e hv‡Z ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi h_vh_ BwZevPK cÖwZdjb _v‡K| IqvK© ey‡Ki welqe¯‘, cwiKwíZ KvR, PwiÎ wPÎb Ges wPÎv¼‡b ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi mylg cÖwZdjb _vK‡Z n‡e| welqe¯‘ Pq‡bi wKQz wKQz †¶‡Î cÖvK-cÖv_wgK ¯Í‡ii ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi wkï mn mKj wkï‡`i ¶z`ª RvwZmËv wel‡q m‡PZbZv I AvMÖn m„wói j‡¶¨ ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi ms¯‹…wZi cÖwZdjb cvV¨cy¯Í‡K ivLv †h‡Z cv‡i| wPÎv¼‡b ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi †fŠ‡MvwjK PwiÎ Ges BwZevPK wPÎ ivLv †h‡Z cv‡i| wP‡Îi g‡a¨ w`‡q mwVKfv‡e ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi gvby‡li †Pnviv, AvKvi-AvK…wZ, †cvkvK-cwi”Q`, evwoNi, †ckv I cÖK…wZi cÖKvk _vK‡Z cv‡i| wk¶K mnvwqKvq ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi wkï‡`i wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq †¶‡Î we‡kl wb‡`©kbv ms‡hvRb Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| we‡klZ Ôfvlv I †hvMv‡hvMÕ Ges ÔcÖviw¤¢K-MwYZÕ wkLb‡¶‡Î wkï‡`i cÖvK-cVb, cÖvK-wjLb Ges ÔmsL¨vi aviYv AR©bÕ AR©b Dc‡hvMx †hvM¨Zvi wkLb †kLv‡bv AwfÁZvi wel‡q we‡kl wb‡`©kbv ms‡hvRb Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| wk¶vµg we¯ÍiY: wk¶vµg we¯Íib Gi gva¨‡g wk¶vµ‡gi g~j welqe¯‘, wk¶vµg ev¯Íevq‡bi †KŠkj Ges cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wk¶v ev¯Íevq‡b wb‡qvwRZ mKj e¨w³ I cÖwZôv‡bi `vwqZ¡ wel‡q mswkøó mKj‡K AewnZ Kiv nq| wk¶vµg we¯Íi‡bi Rb¨ cÖwYZe¨ cÖwk¶Y g¨vbyqv‡j wk¶vµ‡g ¶z`ª RvwZmËv wel‡q †h me mycvwik ev cÖ¯Íve cÖYqb Kiv n‡q‡Q Zvi wel‡q my¯úó wb‡`©kbv mn †KŠk‡ji D`vniY _vKv Riæwi| †h mKj wk¶K Ges ZË¡veavqK ÔgvZ…fvlv wfwËK eûfvwlK wk¶vÕ Kvh©µg ev¯Íevq‡bi m‡½ mswkøó _vK‡eb Zv‡`i Rb¨ c„_K cÖwk¶‡Yi e¨e¯’v Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| ÔgvZ…fvlv wfwËK eûfvwlK wk¶vÕ Kvh©µ‡gi ev¯Íevqb: ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi wkï‡`i mnR, ¯^vfvweK I wbivc` AvbyôvwbK wk¶vq cÖ‡e‡ki wel‡q myôz ev¯Íevq‡bi Rb¨ wk¶Kmn mswkøó mKj ms¯’vmg~‡ni we‡kl/wbw`©ó wKQz `vq `vwqZ¡ i‡q‡Q|  ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi wkï‡`i wk¶v Kvh©µg cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ mswkøó wk¶K‡K †mB me RvwZmËvi fvlvq cvi`k©x n‡Z n‡e|  mswkøó wk¶K/cÖavb wk¶K/ZË¡veavqK‡K eûfvlv wk¶vq cÖ‡qvRbxq `¶Zv _vK‡Z n‡e| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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 mswkøó cÖavb wk¶K‡K ÔgvZ…fvlv wfwËK eûfvwlK wk¶vÕ Kvh©µg ev¯Íevq‡bi Rb¨ we`¨vj‡q h_vh_ cwi‡ek eRvq evL‡Z n‡e Ges Zv wbweofv‡e cwiex¶Y I cÖ‡qvRbxq wb‡`©kbv cÖ`vb Ki‡Z n‡e|  Dip in Ed mn Ab¨vb¨ wk¶K cÖwk¶‡Y ÔgvZ…fvlv wfwËK eûfvwlK wk¶vÕ Kvh©µg welq c„_Kfv‡e mshy³ Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|  ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi wkïiv †h me cÖvK-cÖv_wgK we`¨vj‡q wk¶vMÖnY K‡i †m me we`¨vj‡q mswkøó ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi fvlvq cvi`k©x ev D³ RvwZmËv †_‡K wk¶K wb‡qvM †`Iqvi e¨e¯’v MÖnY Ki‡Z n‡e| cÖv_wgK I MYwkÿv gš¿Yvjq, cve©Z¨ PÆMÖvg welqK gš¿Yvjq, cÖv_wgK wkÿv Awa`ßi, Regional Council - CHT, Hill District Council G wel‡q cÖ‡qvRb n‡j bZzb bxwZgvjv cÖYqb Gi e¨e¯’v MÖnY g~j¨vqb: ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi wkï‡`i g~j¨vq‡bi fvlv n‡jv Zv‡`i gvZ…fvlv| g~j¨vqb n‡Z n‡e wkLbd‡ji wfwˇZ| †mB m‡½ wkLbd‡ji wfwˇZ wba©vwiZ D‡jøL‡hvM¨ k㸇jv evsjvfvlvq KZUzKz `¶Zv AR©b Ki‡Q Zv g~j¨vqb Ki‡Z n‡e Z‡e we‡klfv‡e †Lqvj ivL‡Z n‡e †h GUv ¶z`ª RvwZmËvi wkï‡`i 2q fvlv, gvZ…fvlv bq|

14.4 we‡kl Pvwn`vm¤úbœ wkï: wk¶v GKwU †gŠwjK gvbevwaKvi wn‡m‡e G †`‡ki msweav‡b ¯^xK…Z| cÖwZwU wkïi wk¶vi AwaKvi wbwðZ Kivi j‡¶¨ miKv‡ii AvBb I wk¶v msµvšÍ bxwZ wb‡`©kbv i‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`k GKwU Rbeûj Dbœqbkxj †`k Ges wk¶vi j¶¨ ev¯Íevq‡b miKv‡ii eûwea ev¯ÍeZv _vKv m‡Ë¡I cÖv_wgK wk¶v †¶‡Î D‡jøL‡hvM¨ AR©b G hver n‡q‡Q| Z‡e evsjv‡`‡ki we‡kl Pvwn`v m¤úbœ wkï‡`i wk¶vi AwaKvi wbwðZ Kivi wel‡q GL‡bv D‡jøL‡hvM¨ AMÖMwZ AR©b Kiv m¤¢e nqwb| miKvi G wel‡q D‡`¨vM MÖnY K‡i Ôevsjv‡`k cÖwZeÜx Kj¨vY AvBb 2001Õ Aby‡gv`b K‡i| m¤cÖwZ RvZxq wk¶vbxwZ 2010 G we‡kl Pvwn`v m¤úbœ wkï‡`i wk¶vi wel‡q ¸iæZ¡v‡ivc Kiv n‡q‡Q| GQvov wewfbœ RvZxq A½xKv‡ii cvkvcvwk 1994 mv‡j †¯ú‡bi mvjvgbKvq BD‡b‡¯‹v KZ…©K Av‡qvwRZ ‘World Conference on Special Needs Education: Access and Quality’ Gi mv‡_I evsjv‡`k miKvi GKvZ¥Zv ‡NvlYv K‡i| wkL‡bi Rb¨ we‡kl mnvqZvi cÖ‡qvRb i‡q‡Q Ggb wkïivB n‡jv we‡kl Pvwn`v m¤úbœ wkï| Gme wkï‡`i wk¶vi †¶‡Î AwZwi³ †Kvb we‡kl w`‡K †hgb, kvixwiK, gvbwmK, eyw×, `„wó, kªeYRwbZ Amyweav _vK‡Z cv‡i hv we‡kl mnvqZv cÖ`v‡bi gva¨‡g Zvi wk¶v Kvh©µg Ae¨vnZ ivL‡Z cv‡i| GLv‡b D‡jøL¨ †h, cÖv_wgK wk¶vi g~j †mªvZavivi we`¨vj‡q g„`y I ga¨g chv©‡qi we‡kl Pvwn`v m¤úbœ wkï‡`i wk¶v Kvh©µ‡g AskMÖn‡Yi wel‡q DrmvwnZ Kiv nq| cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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we‡kl Pvwn`v m¤úbœ wkï‡`i wel‡q wb‡`©kbv: cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wk¶vµg cÖYq‡bi †¶‡Î we‡kl Pvwn`v m¤úbœ wkï‡`i wk¶vi welqwU ¸iæ‡Z¡i mv‡_ we‡ePbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| hw`I wk¶vµ‡gi wk¶v †¶Î, wkLbdj GKwU mvaviY wkï‡K we‡ePbv K‡i wbav©iY Kiv n‡q‡Q Z_vwc IqvK© eyK, wk¶K mnvwqKv, wk¶v DcKiY, †Ljvi DcKiY cÖYqb I wbe©vP‡bi †¶‡Î mKj wkïi gv‡S mgZv i¶vi wel‡q we‡klfv‡e ¸iæZ¡v‡ivc Kivi wel‡q GB wb‡`©kbv| we`¨vj‡q we‡kl Pvwn`v m¤úbœ wkï‡`i mnRfv‡e AšÍf©yw³Ki‡Yi D‡Ï‡k¨ wb‡Pi wb‡`©kbv¸‡jv we‡ePbv Kiv cª‡qvRb :  hw`I G wk¶vµg GKwU mvaviY wkï‡K we‡ePbv K‡i cÖYqb Kiv n‡q‡Q Z_vwc wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg wbev©P‡bi gva¨‡g wk¶‡Ki we‡kl Pvwn`v m¤úbœ wkï‡`i †kªwY Kvh©µ‡g AšÍf©y³Ki‡Yi h‡_ó my‡hvM i‡q‡Q| `„óvšÍ ¯^iƒc, †Kvb wkïi hw` kvixwiK Pjb¶gZv weKv‡ki AR©‡bv‡cv‡hvMx †hvM¨Zv nq‡Zv we‡kl Pvwn`v m¤úbœ wkïwU‡K Ab¨vb¨ mvaviY wkïi gZ mgvbfv‡e AR©b Ki‡Z cvi‡e bv Z‡e wk¶K Ab¨ wkLb †¶‡Î †hgb, avivevwnK Mí ˆZwi Kiv †kªwY KvRwU‡Z we‡kl Pvwn`v m¤úbœ wkï‡K AwaKZi ¸iæZ¡ †`qvi cwiKíbv Ki‡Z cv‡ib| wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg, wkLbd‡ji cwiKwíZ Kv‡Ri myôz e¨env‡ii wb‡`©kbv wk¶K wb‡`©kbvq w`‡Z n‡e|  wk¶v mvgMÖx cÖ¯‘wZ, wk¶v DcKiY wbev©P‡b we‡kl Pvwn`v m¤úbœ wkï‡`i cÖwZ mgZvi `„wó‡KvY †_‡K wb‡`©kbv cÖ`vb Ki‡Z n‡e| IqvK©ey‡Ki welqe¯‘ wbev©Pb I PwiÎ wP·Y we‡kl Pvwn`v m¤úbœ wkï‡`i cÖwZ †kªwYi Ab¨vb¨ wkï‡`i mv‡_ mnvbyf~wZ I eÜzZ¡c~Y© Abyf~wZ ˆZwi nq †m wel‡q †jLK, wPÎKi‡`i m‡PZb _vK‡Z n‡e| IqvK©ey‡Ki g‡Zv Ab¨vb¨ wk¶v mvgMÖxi fvlv, Dc¯’vcb, wP‡Îi Dc¯’vcbv BwZ evPK nIqv mgxPxb †hb we‡kl Pvwn`v m¤úbœ wkïi cÖv_wgK wk¶vi g~j †mªvZavivq AšÍf©yw³KiY mnRZi nq| IqvK©ey‡K †bwZevPK †Kvb fvlv e¨envi Kiv mgxPxb bq| hviv wk¶v DcKiY cÖ¯‘Z Ki‡eb, µq Ki‡eb Zv‡`i †fZi †hb we‡kl Pvwn`v m¤úbœ wkï‡`i wel‡q aviYv my¯úó _v‡K|  g~j¨vq‡bi wfwË ‡h‡nZz Criterion referenced assessment myZivs we‡kl Pvwn`v m¤úbœ wkï‡`i gyj¨vqb †KŠkj we‡kl‡¶‡Î wfbœ n‡Z cv‡i| Gme wkï‡`i mvwe©K Ae¯’v we‡ePbv K‡i gyj¨vqb †KŠkj wbe©vPb Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| wk¶vµg ev¯Íevq‡bi wb‡`©kbv: we`¨vjq GKxf~Z wk¶vi cwi‡ek I ms¯‹…wZ ˆZwii j‡¶¨ wk¶vµg ev¯Íevq‡bi welqwU AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| we`¨vj‡q AeKvVv‡gvMZ welq †_‡K ïiæ K‡i †kªwY Kvh©µg, wk¶v DcKiY, wkLb-†kLv‡bv †KŠkj Ggb nIqv cÖ‡qvRb †hb we‡kl Pvwn`v m¤úbœ wkïi we`¨vj‡q mvgvwRKxKiY mnR nq| we`¨vj‡q GKxf~Z wk¶v ev¯Íevq‡bi †¶‡Î cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wk¶vµ‡gi w`K cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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wb‡`©kbv wk¶vµg ev¯Íevq‡bi m‡½ mswkøó me AskxRb‡`i †hgb, wk¶K‡`i cvkvcvwk wk¶K cÖwk¶K, GmGgwmi m`m¨, gvZv wcZv, AwffveK, cwievi, mgvR‡K w`‡Z n‡e| we`¨vjq chv©‡q me ai‡Yi we‡kl Pvwn`vm¤úbœ wkïi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbvbymv‡i we`¨vjq¸‡jv‡Z we‡kl Pvwn`v m¤úbœ wkïevÜe my‡hvM-myweav, †hgb, †kŠPvMvi, †Ljvi gvV e¨envimn PjvPj Kiv I Ab¨vb¨ my‡hvM myweav wbwðZ Kiv n‡e| we‡kl Pvwn`vm¤úbœ wkï‡`i wel‡q cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wk¶vi wk¶K cÖwk¶K‡`i cÖwk¶Y w`‡Z n‡e| K. †h mKj we‡kl Pvwn`vm¤úbœ wk¶v_x©‡`i cÖv_wgK we`¨vj‡q cÖvK-cÖv_wgK †kªwY‡Z wkLb†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg cwiPvjbv Kiv m¤¢e Zv‡`i G mKj cÖwZôv‡b fwZ©i my‡hvM cª`vb Ki‡Z n‡e; L. G ai‡bi wk¶v_x©‡`i‡K hv‡Z mvaviY wk¶v_x©iv eÜz I mncvVx wn‡m‡e MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i †m Rb¨ wk¶K‡`i we‡klfv‡e D‡`¨vM MÖnY Ki‡Z n‡e; M. wk¶v cÖwZôv‡bi mnwkÿvµwgK Kvh©µg h_v †Ljvayjv I mvs¯‹…wZK Kg©Kv‡Ð hv‡Z we‡kl Pvwn`vm¤úbœ wk¶v_x©MY mvaviY wk¶v_x©‡`i mv‡_ Ask wb‡Z cv‡i G Rb¨ Kvh©Ki D‡`¨vM MªnY Ki‡Z n‡e; N. we‡kl Pvwn`vm¤úbœ wk¶v_x©iv hv‡Z Dce„wË cÖvw߇Z AMÖvwaKvi cvq †mw`‡K we‡kl bRi w`‡Z n‡e| we`¨vj‡q GKxf~Z wk¶vi Kv‡R wb‡qvwRZ g~L¨ e¨w³ (Focal person), AwffveK, GmGgwm, mnKvix †Rjv cÖv_wgK wk¶v Kg©KZ©MY we‡kl Pvwn`vm¤úbœ wkï‡`i wel‡q cÖ‡qvRbxq e¨e¯’v MÖnY Ki‡eb| g~j¨vq‡bi mgZv: we‡kl Pvwn`vm¤úbœ wkï‡`i wk¶vi wel‡q mgZv weav‡bi Ab¨Zg GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© welq g~j¨vqb| we‡kl Pvwn`vm¤úbœ wkï‡`i hw` cÖPwjZ c×wZ‡Z g~j¨vqb Kiv nq Z‡e G mKj wkï‡`i g~j †mªvZavivq we`¨vj‡q wk¶v Kvh©µg Ae¨vnZ ivLv `~in n‡q co‡e| we‡kl Pvwn`vm¤úbœ wkïiv hv‡Z wk¶v Kvh©µg myôzfv‡e Ab¨vb¨ wkï‡`i mv‡_ Pvwj‡q †h‡Z cv‡i GRb¨ wk¶vµ‡gi g~j¨vqb Kvh©µ‡g wewfbœ ai‡bi g~j¨vqb c×wZi my‡hvM ivLvi wel‡q wb‡`©kbv w`‡Z n‡e| RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †ev©W (GbwmwUwe) ciewZ©‡Z GKxf~Z wkÿvi mv‡_ mswkøó e¨w³eM©‡`i wb‡q GKwU KwgwU MVb K‡i GKxf~Z wkÿvi we¯ÍvwiZ wb‡`©kbv I cwiKíbv cÖYqb Ki‡e|

cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg  

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15. wbN©È (Glossary)

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16. MÖš’cÄx/†idv‡iÝ wkÿv gš¿Yvjq (2010) RvZxq wkÿvbxwZ 2010, XvKv: MYcÖRvZš¿x evsjv‡`k miKvi cÖv_wgK I MYwkÿv gš¿Yvjq (2008) cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿvi cwiPvjb KvVv‡gv, XvKv: MYcÖRvZš¿x evsjv‡`k miKvi, cÖv_wgK wkÿv Awa`ßi (2010) AšÍe©Z©xKvjxb cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv c¨v‡KR, XvKv: cÖv_wgK wkÿv Awa`ßi eª¨vK wkÿv Kg©m~wP (2007) wRwcwc g¨vbyqvj, eª¨vK, gnvLvwj, XvKv eª¨vK wkÿv Kg©m~wP (1999) wkwÿKv mnvwqKv: wkï †kÖwY, eª¨vK, gnvLvwj, XvKv cø¨vb evsjv‡`k (2005) wkÿvµg I cvV¨m~wP, wcÖ-¯‹zj Kvh©µg, BwmwmwW Kg©m~wP, cø¨vb evsjv‡`k, ¸jkvb, XvKv cø¨vb evsjv‡`k (2005) wkÿK cÖwkÿY mnvwqKv, wcÖ-¯‹zj Kvh©µg, BwmwmwW Kg©m~wP, cø¨vb evsjv‡`k, ¸jkvb, XvKv evsjv‡`k wkï GKv‡Wgx (2004) wkÿK mnvwqKv, cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv Kvh©µg, wkïi weKv‡k cÖviw¤¢K wkÿv cÖKí, gwnjv I wkï welqK gš¿Yvjq, XvKv mgwš^Z mgvR Dbœqb cÖKí (2007) cvovKg©x mnvwqKv, cvovKg©x †gŠwjK cÖwkÿY, wkï weKvk I cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wkÿv Kvh©µg, cve©Z¨ PÆMÖvg Dbœqb †evW© Lv‡j`, Gm. (1990), ˆbwZKZv I Avgiv, LvZzb, K. kZcy®úv (c„ôv 174-182) XvKv: evsjv GKv‡Wgx gvngy`, k. b. (1990), wkïi wkÿv m¤ú‡K© K‡qKwU K_v, LvZzb, K. kZcy®úv (c„ôv 7-14) XvKv: evsjv GKv‡Wgx Curriculum Development Centre (2008). Primary Education Curriculum, Ministry of Education and Sports, Government of Nepal

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Curriculum Development Division (2008). Pre-primary Curriculum Framework, Botswana: Ministry of Education. Department of Education and Training (2008). K - 10 Scope and Sequence, Western Australia Directorate of Primary Education (2007). Approved Strategies and Action Plans: Gender, Special Needs Children’s Education, Tribal Children’s Education, Vulnerable Group Children’s Education, Access and Inclusive Education, PEDPII, Ministry of Primary and Mass Education, Bangladesh Early Childhood Development Resource Centre (2008). Curriculum & Syllabus: PrePrimary, Institute of Educational Development, BRAC University Fiji Islands Ministry of Education (2008). Na Noda Mataniciva: Kindergarten Curriculum Guidelines for the Fiji Islands, Ministry of Education, National Heritage, Culture and Arts, Republic of the Fiji Islands National Institute for Educational Development (2008). Pre-primary Syllabus, Namivia: Ministry of Education. New Zealand Ministry of Education (1996). Te Whariki: Early Childhood Curriculum, Wellington: Learning Media Pre-school Curriculum Evaluation Research Consortium (2008). Effects of Pre-school Curriculum Programs on School Readiness, Institute of Education Science, National Centre for Education Research, US Department of Education Rich-Orloff, W. (2010). Mainstreaming Pre-primary Education in Bangladesh: Bringing It Together, Adding PPE into the PROG3 Arrangement, Final Report for Department for Primary Education, Ministry of Primary and Mass Education, Bangladesh Save the Children - USA (Not dated). Bringing Early Learning Best Practices to Children Everywhere, SUCCEED Preschool Currculum Guide, Early Childhood Development Program, Save the Children - USA, Bangladesh The Curriculum Development Council (2006). Guide to the Pre-primary Curriculum, Wan Chai, Hong Kong Trawick-Smith, J. (2006). Early Childhood Development: A multicultural perspective, Prentice Hall

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Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority (2008). Analysis of Curriculum/Learning Frameworks for the Early Years (Birth to Age 8), Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, Victoria, Australia Walsh, G., Sproule, Liz , McGuinness, Carol , Trew, Karen , Rafferty, Harry andSheehy, Noel (2006). 'An appropriate curriculum for 4-5-year-old children in Northern Ireland: comparing play-based and formal approaches', Early Years, 26: 2, 201 — 221 available at URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09575140600760003 Kelly, A.V. (2009). The Curriculum: Theory and practice. Los Angeles: SAGE. McLachlan, C., Fleer, M., & Edwards, S. (2010). Early Childhood Curriculum Planning, Assessment, and Implementation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Null, J.W. (2008). ‘Curriculum Development in Historical Perspective’. In Connelly et al., The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction, pp.478-490. Rogoff, B. (2003). The Cultural Nature of Human Development. New York: Oxford University Press. Rogoff, B. (1998). ‘Cognition as a collaborative process’. In Handbook of Child Psychology, v-2 pp.679-744. Sarker, P., & Deva., G. (2009). ‘Exclusion of indigenous children from primary education in the Rajshahi Division of northwestern Bangladesh’. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 13(1):1-11. Slattery, P. (2006). Curriculum Development in the Postmodern Era. New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. Smith, A.B. (1993). ‘Early Childhood Educare: Seeking a theoretical framework in Vygotsky’s Work’. International Journal of Early Years Education, 1(1):47-62. Tanner, D., & Tanner, L.N. (2007). Curriculum Development: Theory into practice. New Jersey: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall. Wiles, J., & Bondy, J. (1998). Curriculum Development A Guide to Practice. New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall. (List incomplete)

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mswkøó KwgwUmg~n

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pre-primary-curriculum  
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