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RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯ZK †evW© KZ…©K 2013 wk¶vel© †_‡K Aóg †kªwYi cvV¨cy¯ZKi~‡c wba©vwiZ

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ Aóg †kªwY

iPbv Aa¨vcK W. †mŠwgÎ †kLi wgjb ivq

m¤úv`bv Aa¨vcK W. nvqvr gvgy`

RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯—K, †evW©


RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯—K †evW© 69-70, gwZwSj evwYwR¨K GjvKv, XvKv-1000 KZ…©K cÖKvwkZ|

[cÖKvkK KZ…©K me©¯^Z¡ msiw¶Z] cix¶vg~jK ms¯‹iY cÖ_g cÖKvk : A‡±vei, 2012

Kw¤úDUvi K‡¤úvR cvidg© Kvjvi MÖvwd· (cÖvt) wjt

cÖ”Q` my`k©b evQvi myRvDj Av‡e`xb

wWRvBb RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯—K †evW©

miKvi KZ…©K webvg~‡j¨ weZi‡Yi Rb¨|

gy`ª‡Y :


cÖm•M-K_v wk¶v RvZxq Rxe‡bi me©‡ZvgyLx Dbœq‡bi c~e©kZ©| Avi `ªyZ cwieZ©bkxj we‡k¦i P¨v‡jÄ †gvKv‡ejv K‡i evsjv‡`k‡K Dbœqb I mg„w×i w`‡K wb‡q hvIqvi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb mywkw¶Z Rbkw³| fvlv Av‡›`vjb I gyw³hy‡×i †PZbvq †`k Movi Rb¨ wk¶v_©xi Aš—wb©wnZ †gav I m¤¢vebvi cwic~Y© weKv‡k mvnvh¨ Kiv gva¨wgK wk¶vi Ab¨Zg j¶¨| GQvov cÖv_wgK ¯—‡i AwR©Z wk¶vi †gŠwjK Ávb I `¶Zv m¤cÖmvwiZ I mymsnZ Kivi gva¨‡g D”PZi wk¶vi †hvM¨ K‡i †ZvjvI G ¯—‡ii wk¶vi D‡Ïk¨| ÁvbvR©‡bi GB cÖwµqvi wfZi w`‡q wk¶v_©x‡K †`‡ki A_©‰bwZK, mvgvwRK, mvs¯‹…wZK I cwi‡ekMZ cUf~wgi †cÖw¶‡Z `¶ I †hvM¨ bvMwiK K‡i †ZvjvI gva¨wgK wk¶vi Ab¨Zg we‡eP¨ welq| RvZxq wk¶vbxwZ-2010 Gi j¶¨ I D‡Ïk¨‡K mvg‡b †i‡L cwigvwR©Z n‡q‡Q gva¨wgK ¯—‡ii wk¶vµg| cwigvwR©Z GB wk¶vµ‡g RvZxq Av`k©, j¶¨, D‡Ïk¨ I mgKvjxb Pvwn`vi cÖwZdjb NUv‡bv n‡q‡Q, †mB mv‡_ wk¶v_©x‡`i eqm, †gav I MÖnY ¶gZv Abyhvqx wkLbdj wba©viY Kiv n‡q‡Q| GQvov wk¶v_©xi ˆbwZK I gvbweK g~j¨‡eva †_‡K ïiy K‡i BwZnvm I HwZn¨ †PZbv, gnvb gyw³hy‡×i †PZbv, wkí-mvwnZ¨-ms¯‹…wZ‡eva, †`k‡cÖg‡eva, cÖK…wZ-†PZbv Ges ag©-eY©-†MvÎ I bvix-cyiyl wbwe©‡k‡l mevi cÖwZ mggh©v`v‡eva RvMÖZ Kivi †Póv Kiv n‡q‡Q| GKwU weÁvbgb¯‹ RvwZ MV‡bi Rb¨ Rxe‡bi cÖwZwU †¶‡Î weÁv‡bi ¯^Ztù~Z© cÖ‡qvM I wWwRUvj evsjv‡`‡ki iƒcKí-2021 Gi j¶¨ ev¯—evq‡b wk¶v_©x‡`i m¶g K‡i †Zvjvi †Póv Kiv n‡q‡Q| bZzb GB wk¶vµ‡gi Av‡jv‡K cÖYxZ n‡q‡Q gva¨wgK ¯—‡ii cÖvq mKj cvV¨cy¯—K| D³ cvV¨cy¯—K cÖYq‡b wk¶v_©x‡`i mvg_©¨, cÖeYZv I c~e© AwfÁZv‡K ¸iy‡Z¡i m‡½ we‡ePbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| cvV¨cy¯—K¸‡jvi welq wbe©vPb I Dc¯’vc‡bi †¶‡Î wk¶v_©xi m„Rbkxj cÖwZfvi weKvk mva‡bi w`‡K we‡klfv‡e ¸iyZ¡ †`Iqv n‡q‡Q| evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ cvV¨cy¯ÍKwU GKwesk kZ‡Ki m~Pbvj‡Mœ cwiewZ©Z mg‡qi †cÖ¶vc‡U wk¶v_©x‡`i Pvwn`v I `„wófw½ e¨vcK cwieZ©‡bi cUf‚wg‡Z cwigvwR©Z KvwiKzjv‡gi Av‡jv‡K Aóg †kªwYi Rb¨ iPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| GKwesk kZ‡Ki A½xKvi I cÖZ¨q‡K mvg‡b †i‡L cwigvwR©Z wk¶vµ‡gi Av‡jv‡K cvV¨cy¯ÍKwU iwPZ n‡q‡Q| Kv‡RB cvV¨cy¯ÍKwUi AviI mg„w×mva‡bi Rb¨ †h †Kv‡bv MVbg~jK I hyw³m½Z civgk© ¸iy‡Z¡i m‡½ we‡ewPZ n‡e| cvV¨cy¯ÍK cÖYq‡bi wecyj Kg©h‡Ái g‡a¨ AwZ ¯^í mg‡q cy¯ÍKwU iwPZ n‡q‡Q| d‡j wKQy fyjÎywU †_‡K †h‡Z cv‡i| cieZ©x ms¯‹iY¸‡jv‡Z cvV¨cy¯ÍKwU‡K AviI my›`i, †kvfb I ÎywUgy³ Kivi †Póv Ae¨vnZ _vK‡e| evbv‡bi †¶‡Î Abym„Z n‡q‡Q evsjv GKv‡Wgx KZ…©K cÖYxZ evbvbixwZ| cvV¨cy¯ÍKwU iPbv, m¤úv`bv, bgybv cÖkœvw` cÖYqb I cÖKvkbvi Kv‡R hviv AvšÍwiKfv‡e †gav I kªg w`‡q‡Qb Zuv‡`i ab¨ev` Ávcb KiwQ| cvV¨cy¯ÍKwU wk¶v_©x‡`i Avbw›`Z cvV I cÖZ¨vwkZ `¶Zv AR©b wbwðZ Ki‡e e‡j Avkv Kwi| cÖ‡dmi †gvt †gv¯—dv KvgvjDwÏb †Pqvig¨vb RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯—K †evW©, XvKv


m~wPcÎ µwgK bs 1.1 1.2 1.3 2.1 2.2 3.1 3.2 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 5. 5.1 5.2 6. 6.1 6.2 6.3 7. 7.1 8. 8.1 9.

cvV wk‡ivbvg

c„ôv

fvlv gvZ…fvlv I ivóªfvlv mvay I PwjZ ixwZi cv_©K¨ aŸwb I eY© g-djv I e-djvi D”PviY mwÜ wemM© mwÜ kã I c` wj½všÍ‡ii wbqg I D`vniY eûePb MV‡bi wbqg I D`vniY we‡k‡l¨i †kªwYwefvM wb‡`©kK me©bv‡gi iƒc avZz I wµqvc` †gŠwjK I mvwaZ avZz mKg©K I AKg©K wµqv wµqvi Kvj kã MVb aŸb¨vZ¥K kã, AbyKvi kã I kã‰ØZ kã MVb : cÖv_wgK aviYv evK¨ evK¨ MV‡bi kZ© LÊ evK¨, ¯^vaxb I Aaxb LÊevK¨ mij, RwUj I †hŠwMK ev‡K¨i MVb weivgwPý Kgv, †mwg‡Kvjb, †Kvjb I nvB‡d‡bi e¨envi evbvb evbv‡bi K‡qKwU mvaviY wbqg Awfavb

1 2 3 9 14 16 21 25 26 29 33 36 38 40 42 42 48 48 52 55 56 57 58 61 62 66 66 71

µwgK bs 9.1 9.2 10. 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14

cvV wk‡ivbvg

c„ôv

eY©vbyµg fzw³ I kxl© kã kãv_© GKB kã wewfbœ A‡_© cÖ‡qvM K‡i evK¨ iPbv mgv_©K kã cÖ‡qv‡M evK¨ iPbv wecixZv_©K kã cÖ‡qv‡M evK¨ iPbv evMaviv wbwg©wZ I Abyaveb kw³ mvivsk I mvigg© fvem¤cÖmviY cÎ iPbv : e¨w³MZ cÎ Av‡e`b cÎ wbgš¿Y cÎ cÖeÜ iPbv evsjv‡`‡ki loFZy evsjv beel© weRq w`em †Uª‡b ågY gyw³hy× hv`yNi Avgvi †Q‡j‡ejv evsjv‡`‡ki K…lK ˆ`bw›`b Rxeb I weÁvb QvÎ Rxe‡bi `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ kª‡gi gh©v`v cvVvMv‡ii cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Kg©gyLx wk¶v Aa¨emvq ¯^‡`k †cÖg

71 72 74 74 81 87 88 92 93 97 102 106 110 112 114 115 117 119 122 123 125 126 128 130 131 133 135


cÖ_g cwi‡”Q`

fvlv 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3

fvlv fvlv gvZ…fvlv I ivóªfvlv mvay I PwjZ ixwZi cv_©K¨ Kg©-Abykxjb

1. fvlv 1.1 fvlv gvbyl m„wói †miv Rxe| Zvi g‡bi g‡a¨ me mgqB bvbv eyw× ev fv‡ei Avbv‡Mvbv P‡j| †mB eyw× ev fve Bkvivq, bvbv A½fw½ K‡i, Qwe I bv‡Pi gva¨‡g cÖKvwkZ n‡Z cv‡i| wKšÍy gy‡Li aŸwbi mvnv‡h¨ e¨vcK cwim‡i Zv cÖKvk Kiv hvq| †hfv‡eB g‡bi fve cÖKvk †nvK bv †Kb, Gi meB fvlv| Z‡e Ab¨vb¨ gva¨‡gi Zzjbvq gvby‡li gy‡Li aŸwb A‡bK †ewk A_©c~Y© nq I A‡b¨ eyS‡Z cv‡i| myZivs mvaviY K_vq ÔfvlvÕ ej‡Z †evSvq, gvby‡li gyL †_‡K †ewi‡q Avmv A_©c~Y© KZK¸‡jv AvIqvR ev aŸwbi mgwó| GB A_©c~Y© aŸwbB n‡jv fvlvi cÖvY| fvlvi msÁv w`‡Z wM‡q W. mybxwZKzgvi P‡Ævcva¨vq wj‡L‡Qb: Òg‡bi fve-cÖKv‡ki Rb¨, evM&-h‡š¿i mvnv‡h¨ D”PvwiZ aŸwb Øviv wb®úbœ, †Kv‡bv we‡kl Rbmgv‡R e¨eüZ, ¯^Zš¿fv‡e Aew¯’Z, Z_v ev‡K¨ cÖhy³, kãmgwó‡K fvlv e‡j|Ó A_©vr, wbw`©ó Rbmgv‡Ri gvbyl g‡bi fve cÖKv‡ki Rb¨ gyL w`‡q A‡b¨i †evaMg¨ A_©c~Y© †h aŸwb ev aŸwbmgwó D”PviY K‡i Zv‡K fvlv e‡j| ¯’vb, Kvj I mgvR‡f‡` fvlvi i~c‡f` †`Lv hvq| aŸwbi m„wó nq evMh‡š¿i mvnv‡h¨| gvby‡li Mjbvwj, `uvZ, gyLweei, KÉ, wRnŸv, Zvjy, bvwmKv BZ¨vw`i mn‡hvM n‡jv evMhš¿| †h †Kv‡bv aŸwb ev AvIqvRB fvlv bq| †mLv‡b A_© Ges A‡_©i avivevwnKZv _vKv PvB| aŸwbi A_©c~Y© wgj‡b MwVZ nq kã| Avi GKvwaK k‡ãi mgš^‡q A‡_©i avivevwnKZvq ˆZwi nq evK¨|


2

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

cï-cvwLi WvK I gvby‡li fvlvi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ GLv‡bB| gvbyl G‡Ki ci GK A_©‡evaK kãRy‡o evK¨ ˆZwi K‡i| ev‡K¨i ci evK¨ mvwR‡q G‡Ki g‡bi fve A‡b¨i Kv‡Q cÖKvk K‡i| GB ÿgZv cï-cvwLi g‡a¨ †bB| cï-cvwL bvbv AvIqvR K‡i wVKB, wKšÍy Zv fvlvi aŸwb, kã I ev‡K¨i g‡Zv †Kv‡bv welq ev aviYv‡K avivevwnKfv‡e ¯úó Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| †mRb¨ cï-cvwLi WvK fvlv bq| ¯’vb, Kvj I mgvR‡f‡` fvlvi i~c‡f` nq e‡j c„w_exi me †`‡ki me Rb‡Mvôxi gvby‡li fvlv GK bq| Avevi GKB fvlvi GK nvRvi eQi Av‡Mi i~c Avi AvR‡Ki i~c ûeû †g‡j bv| †hgb, evsjv‡`‡ki AwaKvsk gvby‡li fvlv evsjv, wKšÍy Bsj¨v‡Ûi gvby‡li fvlv Bs‡iwR, d«v‡Ýi gvby‡li fvlv divwm, Pxb †`‡ki AwaKvsk gvby‡li fvlv g¨vÛvwib BZ¨vw`| Avevi evsjv‡`‡k evsjvi cvkvcvwk PvKgv Rb‡Mvôx wbR¯^ Pvsgv fvlvq, Mv‡iv Rb‡Mvôx Zv‡`i AvwPK fvlvq K_v e‡j| cuvP kZ eQi Av‡Mi evsjv fvlv Ges AvR‡Ki evsjv fvlvI ûeû GK bq| mgq AwZevwnZ nIqvi Kvi‡Y fvlvi~‡ci GB cwieZ©b nq| GB cwieZ©bkxjZvi Kvi‡Y fvlv‡K cÖengvb b`xi m‡½ Zzjbv Kiv nq| cÖK…Zc‡ÿ g‡bi fve‡K cÖKv‡ki Rb¨ wewfbœ gvbemgv‡R wfbœ wfbœ †`‡k bvbv iK‡gi kã e¨envi K‡i| G¸‡jvB G‡KK †`‡k G‡KK iKg fvlvi Rb¥ w`‡q‡Q| c„w_exi †Kv‡bv fvlvB w¯’i _v‡K bv| fvlv w¯’i n‡q †M‡j Zv g„Zfvlvq cwiYZ nq| c„w_ex‡Z mv‡o wZb nvRv‡ii KvQvKvwQ fvlv cÖPwjZ Av‡Q|

1.2 gvZ…fvlv I ivóªfvlv K. gvZ…fvlv : gvbyl R‡b¥i ci mvaviYZ cÖ_‡g Zvi gv‡qi Kv‡Q cÖwZcvwjZ nq, ZviB K_v †k‡L| ZvB Rb¥jMœ †_‡K ¯^vfvweKfv‡e gvbyl wb‡Ri gv‡qi Kv‡Q †h-fvlvwU wkÿv cvq, Zv‡KB Zvi ÔgvZ…fvlvÕ e‡j| GwU GKwU aviYvi cÖKvkgvÎ| ZvB †h wkïi gv Zvi Rb¥-gyn~‡Z©B g„Zz¨eiY K‡i, †mB wkï hLb eo nq, †m wcZv ev Ab¨ †Kv‡bv Awffve‡Ki ZË¡veav‡b eo n‡jI Zvi gy‡Li mvaviY fvlv‡K ÔgvZ…fvlvÕB e‡j| evsjv‡`‡ki AwaKvsk gvbyl R‡b¥i ci gv‡qi †Kv‡j Ges gv‡qi evsjv †ev‡j eo nq| evOvwj gv‡qi GB eywj evsjv| ZvB evOvwj RvwZi gvZ…fvlv evsjv| Avevi evsjv‡`‡k A‡bK ¶z`ª RvwZ‡Mvôx evm K‡i| Zv‡`iI c„_K gvZ…fvlv Av‡Q| evsjv‡`k QvovI fvi‡Zi cwðge½, wÎcyiv, Avmvg, wenvi, Dwol¨v, SvoLÊ ivR¨; gvqvbgv‡ii ivLvBb ivR¨ BZ¨vw` ¯’v‡b evsjv fvlvi cÖPjb i‡q‡Q| Gme A‡j A‡b‡KiB gvZ…fvlv evsjv| Zv QvovI hy³ivR¨, hy³ivóª, d«vÝ, Rvcvb, A‡÷ªwjqv, KvbvWvmn we‡k¦i eû †`‡kB evsjvfvlx RbMY i‡q‡Q| †mme ¯’v‡bI evsjv A‡b‡Ki gvZ…fvlv| c„w_exi cÖvq wÎk †KvwU †jv‡Ki gvZ…fvlv evsjv| gvZ…fvlvi we‡ePbvq mviv we‡k¦ evsjv fvlvi ¯’vb PZz_©|


fvlv

3

L. ivóªfvlv : ivóªxq Kv‡R e¨env‡ii Rb¨ †Kv‡bv †`‡ki msweavb¯^xK…Z fvlv‡K H †`‡ki ivóªfvlv e‡j| GKwU iv‡óªi wewfbœ A‡j wfbœ wfbœ Rb‡Mvôxi g‡a¨ wfbœ fvlvi e¨envi _vK‡Z cv‡i| †hgb : evsjv‡`‡k evsjv, Pvsgv, AvwPK, gwYcyix fvlv BZ¨vw`; fvi‡Z evsjv, ¸RivwU, wnw›`, cvÄvwe, Kvbvwo fvlv BZ¨vw`; cvwK¯Ív‡b cvÄvwe, evjyP, wmwÜ fvlv BZ¨vw`| G‡Z iv‡óªi †K›`ªxq cªkvmwbK KvR †Kvb fvlv‡Z cwiPvwjZ n‡eÑ GB cÖkœ Av‡m| G cÖkœ mgvavbK‡í †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv ivóª wbw`©ó GK ev GKvwaK fvlv‡K ivóªfvlv wn‡m‡e ¯^xK…wZ †`q| evsjv‡`‡ki msweav‡bi cÖ_g fv‡Mi Z…Zxq Aby‡”Q‡` wjwce× Av‡Q : cÖRvZ‡š¿i ivóªfvlv evsjv| iv‡óªi me©vwaK gvby‡li †evaMg¨ fvlv wn‡m‡e mvaviYZ ivóªfvlv ¯^xK…Z n‡q _v‡K| G fvlvq iv‡óªi Af¨šÍixY ¸iyZ¡c~Y© Kg©KvÊ, †hgb : wkÿvcÖ`vb, cvV¨MÖš’ cÖYqb, mvwnZ¨iPbv, msev`cÎ cÖKvk, mvgvwRK AvPvi-Abyôvb cwiPvjbv, `wjj-`¯Ív‡eR wjLb, ivóªxq bw_cÎ wjwce×KiY BZ¨vw` m¤úbœ nq| cvwK¯Ív‡bi ivóªfvlv fvlv D`©y wKšÍy `vßwiK fvlv wn‡m‡e D`©yi cv‡k Bs‡iwR‡KI ¯^xK…wZ †`Iqv n‡q‡Q| fviZ cÖRvZ‡š¿i msweavb¯^xK…Z †Kv‡bv ivóªfvlv ev RvZxq fvlv bv _vK‡jI `vßwiK KvRK‡g©i fvlv wn‡m‡e wnw›`i cvkvcvwk Bs‡iwR ¯^xK…Z| fvi‡Zi ivR¨¸‡jv‡Z cÖkvmwbK K‡g© AvÂwjK fvlvmg~n e¨envi nq| cwðge½, wÎcyiv, SvoLÊ ivR¨ Ges Avmvg iv‡R¨i eivK DcZ¨Kvi Ab¨Zg cÖkvmwbK fvlv evsjv|

1.3 mvay I PwjZ ixwZi cv_©K¨ c„w_exi me DbœZ fvlvi g‡Zv evsjv fvlviI GKvwaK Avjv`v i~c Av‡Q : GKwU ejvi fvlv ev †gŠwLK i~c, AciwU †jLvi fvlv ev ˆjwLK i~c| fvlvi †gŠwLK i~‡ci Avevi `y‡Uv ixwZ i‡q‡Q, h_v : AvÂwjK ixwZ I cÖwgZ ixwZ| Aci w`‡K ˆjwLK i~‡ciI `y‡Uv Avjv`v ixwZ Av‡Q, †hgb : PwjZ ixwZ I mvay ixwZ| evsjv fvlvi G cÖKvi ev ixwZ-†f` wb‡Pi Q‡Ki mvnv‡h¨ †`Lvb n‡jv : evsjv fvlv †gŠwLK AvÂwjK

ˆjwLK cÖwgZ

PwjZ

mvay

AvÂwjK fvlvixwZ : evsjv‡`‡ki wewfbœ A‡ji evOvwj Rb‡Mvôx gy‡L gy‡L †h fvlvixwZ‡Z g‡bvfve e¨³ K‡i †m fvlvixwZB evsjvi ÔAvÂwjK fvlvixwZÕ bv‡g AwfwnZ| A_©vr AÂj‡f‡` evsjv fvlvi cÖPwjZ K_¨i~c‡KB AvÂwjK fvlvixwZ e‡j|


4

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

†hgbÑ evsjv‡`‡ki PÆMÖvg A‡ji AvÂwjK fvlvixwZ: ÔJM&‡Mvqv gvBb&‡l¨i `yqv †cvqv AvwQj&|Õ A_©vr GKRb †jv‡Ki `ywU †Q‡j wQj| AvÂwjK fvlv‡K Dcfvlv e‡j| AvÂwjK fvlvq k‡ãi eûwewPÎ i~c †`Lv hvq| †hgb: Ô†Q‡jÕ kãwU AÂj‡f‡` †Qvqvj, QvIqvj, Qvevj, †QB‡j, †cvjv, †cvqv, cyiv, e¨vUv, e¨vWv, cyZ, ûZ BZ¨vw` D”PvwiZ nq| cÖwgZ fvlvixwZ : wewfbœ fvlvixwZ Kvjµ‡g cwigvwR©Z n‡q mevi MÖnY‡hvM¨ GKwU i~c jvf K‡i| GB fvlvixwZ mvaviYZ wkwÿZ †jv‡Ki K_vevZ©v I wbZ¨e¨env‡i Av‡iv AvKl©Yxq nq| fvlvI †h kªgmva¨, cÖhZœjä Ges †kLvi †Kv‡bv welqÑ cÖwgZ fvlvixwZ Zvi cÖgvY| GK K_vq, fvlvi me©RbMÖvn¨ I mgKv‡ji m‡e©v”P gvwR©Z i~c‡KB cÖwgZ fvlvixwZ e‡j| †hgb: ÔGKR‡bi `y‡Uv †Q‡j wQj|Õ mvay fvlvixwZ : †h fvlvixwZ AwaKZi Mv¤¢xh©c~Y©, Zrmg kãeûj, wµqvc‡`i i~c cÖvPxbixwZ Abymvix Ges AvÂwjKZvgy³ Zv-B mvay fvlvixwZ| †hgb: ÔGK e¨w³i `yBwU cyÎ wQj|Õ GB ixwZ GLb ïay wjwLZ M‡`¨ cwi`„ó nq| PwjZ fvlvixwZ : fvMxi_x b`xi ZxieZ©x ¯’vbmg~‡ni †gŠwLK fvlvixwZ gvby‡li gy‡L gy‡L i~cvšÍi jvf K‡i cÖv‡`wkK kãvewj MÖnY Ges PgrKvi evK&fw½i mn‡hv‡M M‡o I‡V| GB fvlvixwZ‡KB PwjZ fvlvixwZ e‡j| GB ixwZ †gŠwLK I wjwLZ Dfq †ÿ‡ÎB AvKl©Yxq I Av`iYxq| †hgb: ÔGKRb †jv‡Ki `ywU †Q‡j wQj|Õ

mvay fvlvixwZi ˆewkó¨ K. mvay fvlvi i~c AcwieZ©bxq| AÂj‡f‡` ev Kvjµ‡g Gi †Kv‡bv cwieZ©b nq bv| L. G fvlvixwZ e¨vKi‡Yi mywba©vwiZ wbqg AbymiY K‡i P‡j| Gi c`web¨vm mywbqwš¿Z I mywbw`©ó| M. mvay fvlvixwZ‡Z Zrmg ev ms¯‹…Z k‡ãi e¨envi †ewk e‡j G fvlvq GK cÖKvi AvwfRvZ¨ I Mv¤¢xh© Av‡Q| N. mvay fvlvixwZ ïay †jLvq e¨envi nq| ZvB K_vevZ©v, e³…Zv, fvlY BZ¨vw`i Dc‡hvMx bq| O. mvay fvlvixwZ‡Z me©bvg I wµqvc‡`i c~Y©i~c e¨eüZ nq|

PwjZ fvlvixwZi ˆewkó¨ K. PwjZ fvlv me©RbMÖvn¨ gvwR©Z I MwZkxj fvlv| ZvB GwU gvby‡li K_vevZ©v I †jLvi fvlv wn‡m‡e M„nxZ n‡q‡Q| GwU cwiZ©bkxj|


fvlv

5

L. G fvlvixwZ e¨vKi‡Yi cÖvPxb wbqgKvbyb w`‡q me©`v e¨vL¨v Kiv hvq bv| M. PwjZ fvlvixwZ‡Z A‡cÿvK…Z mnR-mij k‡ãi e¨envi †ewk e‡j GwU †ek mvejxj, PUzj I RxešÍ| N. ejvi I †jLvi fvlv e‡jB G fvlv e³…Zv, fvlY, bvU‡Ki msjvc I mvgvwRK Avjvc-Av‡jvPbvi Rb¨ AZ¨šÍ Dc‡hvMx| O. PwjZ fvlvixwZ‡Z me©bvg I wµqvc‡`i mswÿßi~c e¨eüZ nq| mvay I PwjZ fvlvixwZi g‡a¨ bvbvw`K †_‡K †ek wKQz cv_©K¨I i‡q‡Q| G `yB fvlvixwZi ˆewkó¨ †_‡KB Zvi aviYv cvIqv hvq| wb‡P mvay I PwjZ fvlvixwZi K‡qKwU cv_©K¨ †`Lvb n‡jv : mvay fvlvixwZ

PwjZ fvlvixwZ

1. mvay fvlvixwZ me©RbMÖvn¨ †jLvi fvlv|

1. PwjZ fvlvixwZ me©Rb‡eva¨ gy‡Li I †jLvi fvlv|

2. mvay fvlvixwZ me mgq e¨vKi‡Yi wbqg †g‡b P‡j|

2. PwjZ fvlv me mgq e¨vKi‡Yi cÖvPxb wbqg †g‡b P‡j bv|

3. mvay fvlvq c`web¨vm ixwZ mywbw`©ó|

3. PwjZ fvlvq c`web¨vmixwZ A‡bK mgq cwiewZ©Z nq|

4. mvay fvlvq Zrmg ev ms¯‹…Z k‡ãi e¨envi †ewk|

4. PwjZ fvlvq Zrmg ev ms¯‹…Z k‡ãi e¨envi Kg|

5. mvay fvlv e³…Zv I fvl‡Yi Dc‡hvMx bq|

5. PwjZ fvlv e³…Zv, fvlY I bvU‡Ki msjv‡ci Dc‡hvMx|

6. mvay fvlvq me©bvg, wµqv I Ae¨q c‡`i c~Y©i~c e¨eüZ nq|

6. PwjZ fvlvq me©bvg, wµqv I Ae¨qc‡`i mswÿßi~c e¨eüZ nq|

7 .mvay fvlv ¸iyM¤¢xi, `y‡e©va¨ I gš’i|

7. PwjZ fvlv PUzj, mij I mvejxj|

8. mvay fvlvixwZ AcwieZ©bxq, ZvB K…wÎg|

8. PwjZ fvlvixwZ cwieZ©bkxj, ZvB RxešÍ|

wb‡Pi K‡qKwU †ÿ‡Î mvay I PwjZ fvlvixwZi cv_©K¨ †`Lv hvq| h_v : 1. we‡kl¨c‡`i i~‡c 2. me©bvgc‡`i i~‡c 3. wµqvc‡`i i~‡c 4. Ae¨qc‡`i i~‡c


6

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

1. we‡kl¨c‡`i i~‡ci cv_©K¨ mvay

PwjZ

AwMœ

Av¸b

KY©

Kvb

P›`ª

Puv`

`šÍ

`uvZ

cÿx

cvwL

e¨vNª

evN

grm¨

gvQ

n¯Íx

nvwZ

2. me©bvgc‡`i i~‡ci cv_©K¨ mvay

PwjZ

GB

G

Bnv

G

Bnv‡K

G‡K

Bnv‡`i

G‡`i

Dnv

I

Dnvw`‡Mi

I‡`i

Kvnv‡K

Kv‡K

†Kn

†KD

Zvnv

Zv

Zvnvi

Zvi

hvnv

hv

hvnv‡`i

hv‡`i


fvlv

7

3. wµqvc‡`i i~‡ci cv_©K¨ mvay

PwjZ

Avwmqv

G‡m

Kwiqv

K‡i

Kwiqv‡Q

K‡i‡Q

LvB‡ZwQj

Lvw”Qj

wMqvwQj

†MwQj

NygvB‡Z‡Q

Nygv‡”Q

Pwjj

Pjj

Pvwnqv

†P‡q

R¡vjvBqv

†R¡‡j

WvwK‡Z‡Q

WvK‡Q

wb`ªv hvIqv

Nygv‡bv

cwoe

coe

cvi nBqv

†cwi‡q

dzwUqv DwVqv‡Q

dz‡U D‡V‡Q

ewjqvwQ‡jb

e‡jwQ‡jb

ewjqv

e‡j

ewj‡Z _vwK‡e

ej‡Z _vK‡e

fvwOqv hvB‡Z jvwMj

†f‡O †h‡Z jvMj

jç cÖ`vb Kwij

jvd w`j

ïwbj

ïbj

ïwbqvwQj

ï‡bwQj

kqb Kwi‡jb

ï‡jb

kªeY Kwijvg

ïbjvg


8

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

4. Ae¨qc‡`i i~‡ci cv_©K¨ mvay

PwjZ

A`¨

AvR

A`¨vwc

AvRI

K`vP

KL‡bv

Z_vwc

ZeyI

b‡Pr

bB‡j

bZzev

bB‡j

cÖvqk

cÖvqB

h`¨vwc

hw`I

mvay I PwjZ fvlvixwZi D`vniY mvay fvlvixwZ ÒDcb¨v‡mi Abyi~c †Kv‡bv e¯‘ Avgv‡`i cªvPxb mvwn‡Z¨ LuywRqv cvIqv hvq bv| ïay Avgv‡`i †`k ewjqv b‡n, c„w_exi †Kv‡bv †`‡kiB cyivZb mvwn‡Z¨ Dcb¨v‡mi `k©b wg‡j bv| Dcb¨v‡mi cÖavb we‡klZ¡B GB †h, Bnv m¤ú~Y© AvaywbK mvgMÖx|Ó

PwjZ fvlvixwZ ÒG‡K G‡K Mvwo¸‡jv †Q‡o w`‡j, Avgvi MvwoUvI Pj‡Z ïiy Ki‡j| †÷kb `~‡i bq, †mLv‡b †cuŠ‡Q bvg‡Z wM‡q †`wL AwZw_ `uvwo‡q| wK‡i, GLv‡bI G‡mwQm? †m †jR †b‡o Zvi Reve w`‡j, ÑKx Rvwb gv‡b Zvi Kx!Ó

Kg©-Abykxjb 1. gvbyl fvlvi mvnv‡h¨ g‡bi Kx Kx fve cÖKvk Ki‡Z cv‡i Zvi GKUv ZvwjKv ˆZwi Ki| 2. GKRb fvlvwe‡`i bvg D‡jøL K‡i fvlv m¤ú‡K© wZwb †h msÁv w`‡q‡Qb Zv †jL| 3. ÔAvgvi Kvh© Avwg KwiqvwQ| GÿY Zvnvw`‡Mi B”Qv nB‡j Avgv‡K cyi¯‹vi cÖ`vb Kwi‡e|Õ Ñ GB iKg K‡i mvay fvlvq `kwU evK¨ ˆZwi Ki| Zvici †m¸‡jv‡K PwjZ fvlvq i~cvšÍi K‡i †`LvI| 4. †Zvgvi cwVZ GKwU Mí †_‡K wewfbœ c‡`i GKwU ZvwjKv ˆZwi Ki| Zvici †m¸‡jvi mvayi~‡ci mvnv‡h¨ `kwU evK¨ iPbv Ki|


wØZxq cwi‡”Q`

aŸwb I eY© 2. aŸwb I eY© 2.1 aŸwb I eY© 2.2 g-djv I e-djvi D”PviY Kg©-Abykxjb

2. aŸwb I eY© 1.1 aŸwb I eY© K. aŸwb

†Kv‡bv fvlvi D”PvwiZ kã‡K we‡kølY Ki‡j †h Dcv`vbmg~n cvIqv hvq †m¸‡jv‡K c„_Kfv‡e aŸwb e‡j| aŸwbi m‡½ mvaviYZ A‡_©i mswkøóZv _v‡K bv| aŸwb ˆZwi nq evMh‡š¿i mvnv‡h¨| aŸwb ˆZwi‡Z †hme evK&-cÖZ¨½ mnvqZv K‡i †m¸‡jv n‡jvÑ dzmdzm, Mjbvwj, wRnŸv, Zvjy, gvwo, `uvZ, †VuvU, bvK BZ¨vw`| gvbyl dzmdz‡mi mvnv‡h¨ k¦vm MÖnY I Z¨vM K‡i| dzmdzm †_‡K evZvm evB‡i Avmvi mgq gy‡Li wewfbœ RvqMvq evav cvq| d‡j gy‡L bvbv ai‡bi aŸwbi m„wó nq| Z‡e me aŸwbB mefvlv MÖnY K‡i bv| evsjv fvlvq e¨eüZ aŸwb¸‡jv‡K cÖavbZ `yfv‡M fvM Kiv nq : 1. ¯^iaŸwb 2. e¨ÄbaŸwb| 1. ¯^iaŸwb : †h aŸwb Ab¨ aŸwbi mvnvh¨ Qvov wb‡RB m¤ú~Y©fv‡e D”PvwiZ nq Ges hv‡K Avkªq K‡i Ab¨ aŸwbi m„Rb nq Zv‡K ¯^iaŸwb e‡j| evsjv fvlvq †gŠwjK ¯^iaŸwb 7wU| h_v : A, Av, B, D, G, I, A¨v| 2. e¨ÄbaŸwb : †h aŸwb ¯^iaŸwbi mvnvh¨ Qvov ¯úói~‡c D”PvwiZ n‡Z cv‡i bv Ges †h aŸwb mvaviYZ Ab¨ aŸwb‡K Avkªq K‡i D”PvwiZ nq, Zv‡K e¨ÄbaŸwb e‡j| †hgb : K& , L& , M& , N& , c& , m& BZ¨vw`| GB aŸwb¸‡jv‡K cÖK…ófv‡e kÖywZ‡hvM¨ K‡i D”PviY Ki‡Z n‡j ¯^iaŸwbi Avkªq wb‡Z nq| †hgb : (K&+A=) K; (M&+A=) M; (c&+A=) c BZ¨vw`|


10

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

L. eY© aŸwb gvby‡li gyLwbtm„Z evqy †_‡K m„ó, ZvB Gi †Kv‡bv AvKvi †bB| G¸‡jv gvbyl gy‡L D”PviY K‡i Ges Kv‡b †kv‡b| fvlv wj‡L cÖKvk Kivi myweav‡_© aŸwb¸‡jvi cÖwZwbwa wn‡m‡e wKQz cÖZxK ˆZwi Kiv n‡q‡Q| GB cÖZx‡Ki bvg eY©| A_©vr †Kv‡bv fvlv wjL‡Z †hme aŸwb-†`¨vZK cÖZxK ev wPý e¨eüZ nq Zv‡K eY© e‡j| GB eY©mg~‡ni mgwóB n‡jv eY©gvjv| evsjv aŸwbi g‡Zv eY©I ZvB `ycÖKvi : 1. ¯^ieY©, 2. e¨ÄbeY©| 1. ¯^ieY© : ¯^iaŸwbi wjwLZ wPý ev cÖZxK‡K ejv nq ¯^ieY©| evsjv fvlvq †gŠwjK ¯^iaŸwb 7wU| wKšÍy ¯^ieY© 11wU| h_v : A, Av, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J| 2. e¨ÄbeY© : e¨ÄbaŸwbi wjwLZ wPý ev cÖZxK‡K e¨ÄbeY© ejv nq| evsjv fvlvq e¨ÄbeY© 39wU| h_v : K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

_

`

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

m

o

p

q

s

t

u

S

T

n r

eY©gvjv : †Kv‡bv fvlv wjL‡Z †h aŸwb-†`¨vZK cÖZxK ev wPýmg~n e¨eüZ nq Zvi mgwóB n‡jv eY©gvjv| evsjv fvlvq e¨eüZ eY©mg~n‡K GK‡Î evsjv eY©gvjv e‡j| evsjv eY©gvjvq †gvU 50wU eY© Av‡Q| evsjv eY©gvjvq ¯^ie‡Y©i wjwLZ i~c `ywU : 1. c~Y©i~c 2. mswÿß i~c| 1. ¯^ie‡Y©i c~Y©i~c : evsjv fvlv †jLvi mgq †Kv‡bv k‡ã ¯^vaxbfv‡e ¯^ieY© em‡j Zvi c~Y©i~c e¨eüZ nq| †hgb : k‡ãi cÖ_‡g : A‡bK, AvKvk, Bwjk, DwKj, FY, GK | k‡ãi g‡a¨ : †e`yBb, evDj, cvDiywU, AvenvIqv| k‡ãi †k‡l : eB, eD, hvI|


aŸwb I eY©

11

2. ¯^ie‡Y©i mswÿß i~c : A-wfbœ Ab¨ ¯^ieY©¸‡jv e¨Äbe‡Y©i m‡½ mshy³ n‡j c~Y©i~‡ci e`‡j mswÿß i~c cwiMÖn K‡i| ¯^ie‡Y©i G ai‡bi mswÿßi~c‡K ÔKviÕ e‡j| ¯^ie‡Y©i ÔKviÕ-wPý 10wU| h_v : Av-Kvi ( v ) Ñ gv, evev, XvKv| B-Kvi ( w ) Ñ wKwb, wPwb, wgwb| C-Kvi ( x ) Ñ kkx, mxgvbv, ixwZ| D-Kvi ( y ) Ñ KzKzi, cyKzi, `ycyi| E-Kvi ( ~ ) Ñ f~Z, g~j¨, m~wP| F-Kvi ( „ ) Ñ K…lK, Z…Y, c„w_ex| G-Kvi ( † ) Ñ †Pqvi, †Uwej, †g‡q| H-Kvi ( ˆ ) Ñ ˆZwi, ˆeix, ˆbFZ| I-Kvi ( † v ) Ñ †LvKv, †cvKv, †evKv| J-Kvi ( † Š ) Ñ †bŠKv, †gŠmywg, †cŠl| evsjv eY©gvjvq e¨Äbe‡Y©iI `ywU wjwLZ i~c i‡q‡Q : 1. c~Y©i~c 2. mswÿß i~c| 1. e¨Äbe‡Y©i c~Y©i~c : e¨Äbe‡Y©i c~Y©i~c k‡ãi cÖ_‡g, g‡a¨ ev †k‡l ¯^vaxbfv‡e e‡m| k‡ãi cÖ_‡g : KweZv, cov‡kvbv, UMi| k‡ãi g‡a¨ : KvKwj, Lyjbv, dzUej| k‡ãi †k‡l : Avg, kxZj, wm‡jU| 2. e¨Äbe‡Y©i mswÿß i~c : A‡bK mgq ¯^ieY© ev e¨Äbe‡Y©i m‡½ mshy³ nIqvi Rb¨ e¨Äbe‡Y©i AvKvi mswÿß n‡q hvq| e¨Äbe‡Y©i GB mswÿß i~c‡K ÔdjvÕ e‡j| e¨Äbe‡Y©i ÔdjvÕ-wPý 6wU| h_v : b / Y-djv ( b / Y ) Ñ wPý, wewfbœ, hZœ; / c~e©vnè, Acivnè| e-djv ( e ) Ñ cK¡, wek¦, aŸwb| g-djv ( g ) Ñ cÙv, gyn¤§`, Zb¥q, wPb¥q| h-djv ( ¨ ) Ñ L¨vwZ, U¨vsiv, e¨vsK| i-djv ( ª ) Ñ µq, MÖn, †id ( © ) - KK©, eY©| j-djv (j ) Ñ K¬všÍ, cøxnv, Agøvb|


12

evsjv e¨vKiY wbwg©wZ

evsjv eY©gvjvi ¯^i I e¨ÄbeY© D”PviY¯’vb I aŸwbcÖK…wZ Abyhvqx web¨¯Z|

e‡Y©i D”PviY ¯’vb D”PviY¯’vb Abymv‡i ¯^i I e¨ÄbeY©¸‡jvi bvg wb‡Pi Q‡K †`Lv‡bv n‡jv :

eY©

D”PviY¯’vb

D”PviY¯’vb Abymv‡i e‡Y©i bvg

A, Av, K, L, M, N, O, n

KÉ ev wRnŸvg~j

Kɨ ev wRnŸvg~jxq eY©

B, C, P, Q, R, S, T, h, q, k

Zvjy

Zvje¨ eY©

D, E, c, d, e, f, g

Iô¨ eY©

F, U, V, W, X, Y, i, o, p, l

g~a©v

g~a©b¨ eY©

G, H

KÉ I Zvjy

KÉZvje¨ eY©

I, J

KÉ I Iô

K‡ÉŠô¨ eY©

Z, _, `, a, b, j, m

`šÍ

`šÍ¨ eY©

AšÍt¯’ e

`šÍ I Iô

`‡šÍŠô¨ eY©

e‡Y©i D”PviY cÖK…wZ A : A-Gi D”PviY `y iKg : ¯^vfvweK (A-Gi g‡Zv) : AR (A‡Rv), AKvj (AKvj&), K_v (K_v), kc_ (kc_&) , ÿY (Lb&), RÄvj (Rb&Rvj&), Mqbv (Mq&bv), Ni (Ni&)| weK…Z (I-Gi g‡Zv) : AwZ (IwZ), b`x (†bvw`), Awfavb (Iwfavb&), AZby (A‡Zvby), mygwZ (my‡gvwZ), †gŠb (†gŠ‡bv), g„M (g„‡Mv)| Av : Av-Gi D”PviYI `y iKg : ¯^vfvweK (Av-Gi g‡Zv) : AvMvgx (AvMvwg), Avgiv (Avg&iv), Avkv (Avkv), AvKvk (AvKvk&), Av‡jv (Av‡jv)| weK…Z (A¨v-Gi g‡Zv) : Ávb (Mu¨vb&), weL¨vZ (weK&L¨v‡Zv)|


aŸwb I eY©

13

G : G-Gi `y iKg D”PviY nq : ¯^vfvweK (G-Gi g‡Zv) : GKwU (GK&wU), †KK (†KK&), †KUwj (†KU&wj), †g‡q (†g‡q), †e¸b (†e¸b&), †gl (†gk&)| weK…Z (A¨v-Gi g‡Zv) : GK (A¨vK&), †Ljv (L¨vjv), †ejv (e¨vjv), †Kb (K¨v‡bv), †hb (h¨v‡bv)| O : O Ges s (Aby¯^vi)-Gi D”PviY As nq : e¨vO (e¨vs), evOvwj (evsAvwj), ew¼g (eswKg&), iO (is)| T : T-Gi D”PviY wZb iKg nq : ¯^Zš¿ T : BuA-Gi g‡Zv : wgT (wgu‡qv), wgTv (wguqv)| hy³ T + P/Q/R/S : b-Gi g‡Zv : AÂj (Ab&Pj&), evÃv (evb&Qv), e¨Äb (e¨vb&‡Rvb&), SÅv (Sb&Sv)| hy³ R +T : Mu& ev M&Mu-Gi g‡Zv : Ávb (Mu¨vb&), hÁ (†hvM&‡Muv)| k, l, m : G¸‡jvi K‡qK iKg D”PviY nq : ¯^Zš¿ k-Gi g‡Zv : kw³ (†kvK&wZ), gkv (gkv), kvmb (kv‡kvb&), mwPe ( †kvwPe&), mvwnZ¨ ( kvwnZ&‡Zv), luvo (kuvo&), lô (kk&‡Vv)| hy³ k + P/Q : k-Gi g‡Zv : wbðq (wbk&Pq&), wki‡ñ` (wk‡ivk&‡Q`)| hy³ k + b/i : Bs‡iwR s-Gi g‡Zv : cÖkœ (†cÖvm&‡bv), kªg (†mªvg&)| hy³ k + F/j : Bs‡iwR s-Gi g‡Zv : k„Mvj (m„Mvj&), †køvK (†møvK&)| hy³ k + e/g/h : k‡ãi cÖ_‡g k/ku : k¦vm (kvk&), †k¦Z (†kZ&), k¥kvb (kukvb&), k¥kÖ~ (†kuvm&iy)| k‡ãi g‡a¨/†k‡l k&k : wbtk¦vm (wbk&kvk&), wek¦ (wek&‡kv), iwk¥ (†ivk&wku), `„k¨ (`„k&‡kv)| hy³ l + U/V : k-Gi g‡Zv : wgóvbœ (wgk&Uvb&‡bv), Abyôvb (Ibyk&Vvb&), lôx (†kvk&wV)| hy³ m + Z/_ : Bs‡iwR s-Gi g‡Zv : wb¯Zvi (wbm&Zvi), `y¯’ (`ym&‡_v)| hy³ m + b/i : k‡ãi cÖ_‡g Bs‡iwR s : mœvb& (snvb), †mœn (†sn‡nv), mªóv (†mªvk&Uv), †mªvZ ( †mªvZ&)| k‡ãi g‡a¨/†k‡l m&m : m‡mœn (km&‡mœ‡nv)|


14

evsjv e¨vKiY wbwg©Z

hy³ m + e/g : k‡ãi cÖ_‡g k/ku : ¯^Y© (ki&b&‡bv), ¯§iY (ku‡ivb&)| k‡ãi g‡a¨/†k‡l kk&/m&m : me©¯^ (ki&&‡evk&‡kv), mw¯§Z (km&wg‡Zv)|

2.2 g-djv I e-djvi D”PviY g-djvi D”PviY K. c‡`i cÖ_‡g g-djv _vK‡j †m e‡Y©i D”Pvi‡Y wKQzUv †SuvK c‡o Ges mvgvb¨ bvwmK¨¯^i nq| †hgb : k¥kvb ( kukvb&), ¯§iY (ku‡ivb&)| KL‡bv KL‡bv ÔgÕ Aby”PvwiZ _vK‡Z I cv‡i| †hgb : ¯§„wZ (m„wZ ev m„uwZ)| L. c‡`i g‡a¨ ev †k‡l g-djv hy³ n‡j D”Pvi‡Y †m e‡Y©i wØZ¡ nq Ges mvgvb¨ bvwmK¨¯^i nq| †hgb : AvZ¥xq (AvZ&wZuq), cÙ (c`&‡`uv), we¯§q (wek&kuq), f¯§¯Í~c (fk&‡kuvm&Zzc&), f¯§ (fk&‡kuv), iwk¥ (†ivk&wku)| M. M, O, U, Y, b, ev j e‡Y©i m‡½ g-djv hy³ n‡j, g-Gi D”PviY eRvq _v‡K| hy³ e¨Ä‡bi cÖ_g e‡Y©i ¯^i jyß nq| †hgb : evM¥x (evM&wg), g„b¥q (g„b&gq), Rb¥ (Rb&‡gv), ¸j¥ (¸j&‡gv)|

e-djvi D”PviY K. k‡ãi cÖ_‡g e-djv hy³ n‡j D”Pvi‡Y ïay †m e‡Y©i Dci AwZwi³ †SuvK c‡o| †hgb : K¡wPr (†KvwPr), wØZ¡ (w`Z&‡Zv), k¦vm (kvk&), ¯^Rb (k‡Rvb), Ø›Ø (`b&‡`v)| L. k‡ãi g‡a¨ ev †k‡l e-djv hy³ n‡j hy³ e¨ÄbwUi wØZ¡ D”PviY nq| †hgb : wek¦vm (wek&kvk&), cK¡ (cK&‡Kv), Ak¦ (Ak&‡kv), wej¦ (wej&‡jv)| M. mwÜRvZ k‡ã hy³ e-djvq e-Gi D”PviY eRvq _v‡K| †hgb : w`wM¦Rq (w`M&weRq), w`M¦jq (w`M&ejq)| N. k‡ãi g‡a¨ ev †k‡l ÔeÕ ev ÔgÕ-Gi m‡½ e-djv hy³ n‡j e-Gi D”PviY eRvq _v‡K| †hgb : wZeŸZ (wZe&eZ). j¤^ (jg&‡ev)| O. Dr Dcm‡M©i m‡½ e-djv hy³ n‡j e-Gi D”PviY envj _v‡K| †hgb : DØv¯‘ (D`&evm&Zz), D‡Øj (D`&‡ej&)|


aŸwb I eY©

15

Kg©-Abykxjb 1. †Zvgvi `yB eÜzi Avjvc gb w`‡q †kvb| Zvici Zv‡`i †h D”PviY¸‡jv †Zvgvi Kv‡Q Aï× g‡b nq Zv LvZvq wj‡L †Zvgvi wkÿK‡K †`wL‡q wb‡R‡K hvPvB Ki| 2. e-djvhy³ evbv‡b e-Gi D”PviY KLb envj _v‡K? m~Îmn 10wU kã †jL| 3. ÒGKw`b we‡K‡j nšÍ`šÍ mvey evwoi DVvb †_‡K Ôgv gvÕ e‡j wPrKvi Ki‡Z Ki‡Z N‡i XzKj| wPrKvi ï‡b ˆRZzb wewe nKPwK‡q I‡V| †m ivbœvN‡i wQj| `ªyZ cvKkvjv †_‡K †ewi‡q G‡m mvey‡K wR‡Ám K‡i: ÔKx †iÑ ? G‡Zv wP°i cvom& K¨vb?Ó Ñ DׄZvs‡k †hme ÔKviÕ-Gi e¨envi Av‡Q, †m¸‡jvi avivevwnK ZvwjKv cÖ¯‘Z Ki| ÑÔKviÕ¸‡jvi cÖ‡Z¨KwU w`‡q `y‡Uv bZzb kã ˆZwi Ki| 4. Òk¥kv‡b †cuŠ‡Q k¦ïigkvB‡qi ˆkk‡ei ¯§„wZ ¯§iY n‡jv| wM‡qwQ‡jb wek¦bv_eveyi mrKvi m¤úbœ Ki‡Z cÙv b`xi cv‡o| wd‡i G‡jb f¯§ve„Z n‡q, k¥kÖy gyÊb K‡i|Ó ÑGLv‡b †Kvb †Kvb ÔdjvÕ e¨envi Kiv n‡q‡Q, †m¸‡jv D‡jøL Ki| Ñ DׄZvsk Aej¤^‡b Ôk¥kvbÕ, Ôk¦ïiÕ, Ô¯§iYÕ, Ôm¤úbœÕ, Ôk¥kÖæÕ kãvewji D”PviY †jL|


Z…Zxq cwi‡”Q`

mwÜ 3. mwÜ 3.1 mwÜ 3.2 wemM© mwÜ Kg©-Abykxjb 3. mwÜ 3.1 mwÜ gvbyl K_v ejvi mgq K_vi MwZ e„w× cvq| `ªyZ K_v ejvi mgq KL‡bv KL‡bv KvQvKvwQ _vKv `y‡Uv aŸwbi D”PviY GKwÎZ n‡q hvq| e¨vKi‡Y G‡K mwÜ ejv nq| †hgb : ÔAvwg we`¨v Avj‡q hve|Õ evK¨wU ejvi mgq ÔAvwg we`¨vj‡q hveÕ n‡q hvq| GLv‡b Ôwe`¨vÕ-Gi ÔAvÕ-aŸwb Ges ÔAvjqÕ-Gi ÔAvÕ-aŸwb wg‡j †M‡Q| W. gyn¤§` knx`yjøvn& wj‡L‡Qb : `ywU eY© AZ¨šÍ wbKUeZ©x n‡j D”Pvi‡Yi myweavi Rb¨ Df‡qi wgjb n‡q GK eY© ev G‡Ki i~cvšÍi ev G‡Ki †jvc ev Df‡qi i~cvšÍi n‡jÑ Gi~c wgjb‡K mwÜ e‡j| GB msÁvi Av‡jv‡K ejv P‡j : cvkvcvwk Aew¯’Z `y‡Uv aŸwbi wgj‡bi d‡j hw` GK aŸwb m„wó nq, Z‡e Zv‡K mwÜ e‡j| mwÜ k‡ãi A_© wgjb| `y‡Uv aŸwbi mw܇Z cÖ_g k‡ãi †kl aŸwb Ges c‡ii k‡ãi cÖ_g aŸwbi wgjb N‡U| mwÜi d‡j bZzb bZzb k‡ãi m„wó nq| K_v ejvi mgq k‡ãi D”PviY mnR nq| fvlv mswÿß nq Ges ïb‡Z fv‡jv jv‡M| mw܇Z aŸwbi Pvi ai‡bi wgjb nq : 1. Dfq aŸwb wg‡j GKwU aŸwb nq| 2. GKwU aŸwb e`‡j hvq| 3. GKwU aŸwb †jvc cvq| 4. Dfq aŸwbi e`‡j bZzb aŸwbi m„wó nq|


mwÜ

17

evsjv mwÜ `y cÖKvi : 1. ¯^imwÜ, 2. e¨ÄbmwÜ| 1.

¯^imwÜ : ¯^iaŸwbi m‡½ ¯^iaŸwbi wgj‡b †h mwÜ nq, Zv‡K ¯^imwÜ e‡j| †hgb : †mvbv + Avwj = †mvbvwj iycv + Avwj = iycvwj wg_¨v + DK = wg_y¨K Kzwo + GK = KzwoK b`x + Gi = b`xi gv + Gi = gv‡qi

2. e¨ÄbmwÜ : ¯^iaŸwbi m‡½ e¨ÄbaŸwb wKsev e¨ÄbaŸwbi m‡½ e¨ÄbaŸwb wgwjZ n‡q †h mwÜ nq, Zv‡K e¨ÄbmwÜ e‡j| †hgb : KuvPv + Kjv = KuvPKjv bvwZ + †eŠ = bvZ‡eŠ †QvU + `v = †Qvo`v Dr + PviY = D”PviY Avi + bv = Avbœv Pvi + wU = PvwÆ evsjv fvlvq A‡bK ms¯‹…Z kã †Kv‡bv iKg cwieZ©b Qvov e¨eüZ nq| G¸‡jv‡K Zrmg kã e‡j| Gme Zrmg k‡ãi mwÜ ms¯‹…‡Zi wbq‡gB nq| ZvB ms¯‹…‡Zi wbqg †g‡b evsjv fvlvq e¨eüZ Zrmg k‡ãi mwÜ 3 cÖKvi| h_v : K. ¯^imwÜ L. e¨ÄbmwÜ 3. wemM©mwÜ

K. ¯^imwÜ : mnRm~Î I D`vniY 1. A, Av aŸwbi mwÜ m~Î A + A = Av ( v )

D`vniY be + Abœ = bevbœ

D`vniY cig + AYy = cigvYy

A + Av = Av ( v )

Rj + Avkq = Rjvkq

cvV + AvMvi = cvVvMvi

Av + A = Av ( v )

K_v + Ag„Z = K_vg„Z

Avkv + AZxZ = AvkvZxZ

Av + Av = Av ( v )

we`¨v + Avjq = we`¨vjq

gnv + Avkq = gnvkq

B+B=C(x)

AwZ + BZ = AZxZ

iwe + B›`ª = iex›`ª

B+C=C(x)

cwi + Cÿv = cixÿv

Awa + Ck¦i = Aaxk¦i

C+B=C(x)

kPx + B›`ª = kPx›`ª

gnx + B›`ª = gnx›`ª

C+C=C(x)

kªx + Ck = kªxk

c„w_ex + Ck¦i = c„w_exk¦i

KUz + Dw³ = KU~w³ jNy + Ewg© = jN~wg©

giy + D`¨vb = gi~`¨vb eû + EaŸ© = en~aŸ©

2. B, C aŸwbi mwÜ

3. D, E aŸwbi mwÜ D+D=E(~) D+E=E(~)


18

evsjv e¨vKiY wbwg©wZ

E+D=E(~) E+E=E(~) 2. A/Av, B/C aŸwbi mwÜ A/Av + B/C = G (†)

3. A/Av, D/E aŸwbi mwÜ A/Av + D/E = I († v)

4. A/Av, F aŸwbi mwÜ A/Av + F = Ai ( ©) A/Av + FZ = Avi 5. A/Av, G/H aŸwbi mwÜ A/Av + G/H = H (ˆ)

ea~ + Drme = ea~rme f~ + Ea٩ = f~a٩

ea~ + Dw³ = ea~w³

¯^ + B”Qv = †¯^”Qv Ac + Cÿv = A‡cÿv

h_v + Bó = h‡_ó gnv + Ck¦i = g‡nk¦i

m~h© + D`q = m~‡h©v`q Pj + Ewg© = P‡jvwg©

K_v + DcK_b = K‡_vcK_b gnv + Ewg© = g‡nvwg©

†`e + Fwl = †`ewl© kxZ + FZ = kxZvZ©

ivRv + Fwl = ivRwl© ÿzav + FZ = ÿzavZ©

Rb + GK = R‰bK Z_v + Ge = Z‰_e

gZ + HK¨ = g‰ZK¨ gnv + Hk¦h© = g‰nk¦h©

Rj + IKv = R‡jŠKv

gnv + Ilwa = g‡nŠlwa

wPË + J`vh© = wP‡ËŠ`vh©

gnv + Jla = g‡nŠla

6. A/Av, I/J aŸwbi mwÜ A/Av + I/ J = J († Š)

7. B/C-Gi ci wfbœ aŸwbi mwÜ B/C + A/Av = h (¨/¨v) AwZ + AšÍ = AZ¨šÍ b`x + A¤^y = b`¨¤^y B/C + D/E = h (¨y/¨~) AwZ + Dw³ = AZy¨w³ B/C + G = h († ¨) cÖwZ + GK = cÖ‡Z¨K

BwZ + Avw` = BZ¨vw` gmx + Avavi = gm¨vavi cÖwZ + El = cÖZz¨l

8. D/E-Gi ci wfbœ aŸwbi mwÜ E/E + A/Av = e/ev my + Aí = ¯^í D/E + B/C = we/ex Aby + BZ = Awš^Z D/E + G = †e Aby + GlY =A‡š¦lY

my + AvMZ = ¯^vMZ Zby + C = Zš^x


mwÜ

19

9.

G/H-Gi ci wfbœ aŸwbi mwÜ G/H + A/ Av = Aq/ Avq †b + Ab = bqb

10.I/J-Gi ci wfbœ aŸwbi mwÜ I/J + A/Av = Ae/Ave †cv + Ab = ceb †cŠ + AK = cveK I/J + B = Awe/Avwe †cv + BÎ = cweÎ I/J + D = Avey †fŠ + DK = fveyK I/J + G = A‡e †Mv + GlYv = M‡elYv

ˆb + AK = bvqK

†Mv + Avw` = Mevw` †bŠ + BK = bvweK

L. e¨ÄbmwÜ : cwiwPZ m~Î I D`vniY 1. ¯^iaŸwb + e¨ÄbaŸwbi mwÜ A + Q = ”Q Av + Q =”Q B + Q = ”Q D + Q = ”Q 2.

e¨ÄbaŸwb + ¯^iaŸwbi mwÜ K+A=M U + Av = W> o Z+A=` c+A=e

cÖ + Q` = cÖ”Q` K_v + Q‡j = K_v”Q‡j cwi + Q` = cwi”Q` Ziy + Qvqv = Ziy”Qvqv

w`K& + AšÍ = w`MšÍ lU& + Avbb = lovbb Zr + AšÍ = Z`šÍ myc& + AšÍ = myešÍ

3. e¨ÄbaŸwb + e¨ÄbaŸwbi mwÜ Z + P/Q = ”P/”Q Dr + PviY = D”PviY ` + P/Q = ���P/”Q wec` + Pq = wec”Pq Z + R/S = ¾/À hver + Rxeb = hve¾xeb `+R=¾ wec` + RbK = wec¾bK Z+W=Ç Dr + Wxb = DÇxb Z + j = jø Dr + wjwLZ = DwjøwLZ Z + k = ”Q Pjr + kw³ = Pj”Qw³ Z+n=× Zr + wnZ = Zw×Z `+n=× c` + nwZ = c×wZ

Dr + †Q` = D‡”Q` wec` + Qvqv = wec”Qvqv Kzr + SwUKv = KzÀwUKv


20

evsjv e¨vKiY wbwg©wZ

K& + ` = M& + `

evK& + `vb = evM&`vb

K& + e = M& + e

w`K& + weRq = w`wM¦Rq

U& + h = W& >o + h

lU& + hš¿ = lohš¿

Z& + M = `& + M

Dr + wMiY = D`&wMiY

Z& + N = `& + N

Dr + NvUb = D`&NvUb

Z& + e = `& +e

Dr + eÜb = DØÜb

Z& + f = `& + f

Dr + fe = D™¢e

Z& + i = `& + i

Zr + i~c = Z`ª~c

K& + b = O + b

w`K& + wbY©q = w`KwbY©q

Z& + g = b + g

Zr + g‡a¨ = Zb¥‡a¨

Z& + b = bœ

Dr + bwZ = DbœwZ

RMr + bv_ = RMbœv_

Z& + g = b¥

Zr + gq = Zb¥q

g„r + gq = g„b¥q

g& + K = O/s + K

kg& + Kv = k¼v

mg& + KxY© = msKxY©

g& + L = s + L

mg& + L¨v = msL¨v

g& + M = s + M

mg& + MxZ = msMxZ

g& + N = s + N

mg& + NvZ = msNvZ

g& + P = Â

mg& + Pq = mÂq

g& + Z = šÍ

mg& + Zvc = mšÍvc

g& + ` = ›`

mg& + `k©b = m›`k©b

g& + a = Ü

mg& + avb = mÜvb

g& + b = bœ

wKg& + bi = wKbœi

g& + h = s + h

mg& + hg = mshg

g& + i = s + i

mg& + iÿY = msiÿY

g& + k = s + k

mg& + kq = mskq

g& + n = s + n

mg& + nvi = msnvi


mwÜ

21

3.2 wemM©mwÜ wemM© (t )-Gi m‡½ ¯^iaŸwb wKsev e¨ÄbaŸwbi †h mwÜ nq, Zv‡K wemM©mwÜ e‡j| D”Pvi‡Yi w`K †_‡K wemM© `y iKg : 1. i&-RvZ wemM© : k‡ãi †k‡l i& _vK‡j D”Pvi‡Yi mgq i& †jvc cvq Ges i&-Gi RvqMvq wemM© (t) nq| D”Pvi‡Y i& eRvq _v‡K| †hgb : AšÍi > AšÍt + MZ = AšÍM©Z ( Ab&‡Zvi&M‡Zv )| 6. m&-RvZ wemM© : k‡ãi †k‡l m& _vK‡j mwÜi mgq m& †jvc cvq Ges m&-Gi RvqMvq wemM© ( t ) nq| D”Pvi‡Y m& eRvq _v‡K| †hgb : bgm& > bgt + Kvi = bg¯‹vi ( b‡gvk&Kvi& )| wemM©mwÜ `y fv‡e mvwaZ nq :

1. wemM© ( t ) I ¯^iaŸwb wg‡j 2. wemM© ( t ) I e¨ÄbaŸwb wg‡j|

1. wemM© I ¯^iaŸwbi mwÜ K. A-aŸwbi m‡½ wemM© Ges c‡i A-aŸwb _vK‡j wemM© I A-aŸwb ¯’‡j I-Kvi nq| †hgb : ZZt + AwaK = Z‡ZvwaK

hkt + Awfjvl = h‡kvwfjvl

eqt + AwaK = e‡qvwaK L. A-aŸwbi m‡½ wemM© Ges c‡i A, Av, D-aŸwb _vK‡j wemM© I A-aŸwb wg‡j i nq| †hgb : cybt + AwaKvi = cybiwaKvi

cÖvZt + Avk = cÖvZivk

cybt + Ave„wË = cybive„wË

cybt + D³ = cybiy³

2. wemM© I e¨ÄbaŸwbi mwÜ K. A-aŸwbi m‡½ wemM© Ges c‡i e‡M©i 3q/ 4_©/ 5g aŸwb A_ev h, i, j, n _vK‡j wemM© I A-aŸwb ¯’‡j i-RvZ wem‡M© i/ †id ( © ) Ges m-RvZ wem‡M© I-Kvi nq| †hgb : i-RvZ wemM© : i AšÍt + MZ = AšÍM©Z

cybt + Rb¥ = cybR©b¥

AšÍt + avb = AšÍa©vb

cybt + evi = cybe©vi

AšÍt + fz³ = AšÍfz©³

cybt + wgjb = cybwg©jb


22

evsjv e¨vKiY wbwg©wZ

m-RvZ wemM© : I gbt + MZ = g‡bvMZ

m`¨t + RvZ = m‡`¨vRvZ

wZit + avb = wZ‡ivavb

Zct + eb = Z‡cveb

Aat + gyL = A‡avgyL

gbt + †hvM = g‡bv‡hvM

gbt + ig = g‡bvig

gbt + †jvfv = g‡bv‡jvfv

gbt + ni = g‡bvni L. wem‡M©i c‡i P/Q _vK‡j wem‡M©i ¯’‡j k; U/V _vK‡j l Ges Z/_ _vK‡j m nq| †hgb : wbt + Pq = wbðq

wkit + †Q` = wki‡ñ`

`yt + PwiÎ = `yðwiÎ

wbt + wQ`ª = wbwñ`ª

abyt + U¼vi = abyó¼vi

wbt + Vzi = wbôzi

PZzt + Uq = PZzóq `yt + Zi = `y¯Íi

wbt + †ZR = wb‡¯ÍR

BZt + ZZ = BZ¯ÍZ

`yt + _ = `y¯’

M. A/Av wfbœ Ab¨ ¯^‡ii m‡½ wemM© Ges c‡i ¯^iaŸwb, e‡M©i 3q / 4_© / 5g aŸwb A_ev h, i, j, n _vK‡j wemM© ¯’‡j i nq| †hgb : wbt + Aewa = wbiewa

wbt + Avc` = wbivc`

wbt + MZ = wbM©Z

wbt + NÈ = wbN©È

wbt + evK = wbe©vK

wbt + fq = wbf©q

Avwet + fve = Avwef©ve

Avkxt + ev` = Avkxe©v`

`yt + Ae¯’v = `yie¯’v

`yt + AvPvi = `yivPvi

`yt + MwZ = `yM©wZ

`yt + †eva = `y‡e©va

cÖv`yt + fve = cÖv`yf©ve

`yt + gi = `yg©i

`yt + †hvM = `y‡h©vM

`yt + jf = `yj©f


mwÜ

23

N. i-RvZ wem‡M©i c‡i i _vK‡j wemM© †jvc cvq Ges cÖ_g ¯^i `xN© nq| †hgb : wbt + ie = bxie

wbt + im = bxim

wbt + †ivM = bx‡ivM O. A/Av aŸwbi m‡½ wemM© Ges c‡i K, L, c, d _vK‡j wemM© ¯’‡j m nq| †hgb : bgt + Kvi = bg¯‹vi

wZit + Kvi = wZi¯‹vi

cyit + Kvi = cyi¯‹vi

fvt + Ki = fv¯‹i

P. B/D aŸwbi m‡½ wemM© Ges c‡i K, L, c, d _vK‡j wemM© ¯’‡j l nq| †hgb : wbt + Kvg = wb®‹vg

wbt + cvc = wb®úvc

wbt + dj = wbõj

ewnt + Kvi = ewn®‹vi

PZzt + c` = PZz®ú`

PZzt + †KvY = PZz‡®‹vY

Q. †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv †ÿ‡Î mwÜi wemM© †jvc cvq bv| †hgb : cÖvZt + Kvj = cÖvZtKvj

gbt + Kó = gbtKó

wkit + cxov = wkitcxov

AšÍt + KiY = AšÍtKiY

R. †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv †ÿ‡Î wemM© †jvc †c‡jI mwÜ nq bv| †hgb : AZt + Ge = AZGe


24

evsjv e¨vKiY wbwg©wZ

Kg©-Abykxjb 1. mZx Ck evey gva¨wgK we`¨v Avj‡qi wkÿK| Zvi Ang& Kvi †bB, wZwb mg& MxZ fv‡jvev‡mb| Ñ DׄZvs‡k †gvUv `vM †`qv k㸇jvi mwÜ Ki| †Zvgvi cQ›` g‡Zv GiKg Av‡iv K‡qKwU k‡ãi evK¨ †jL| 2. Zzwg AvR mviv w`b hv‡`i K_vevZ©v ï‡bQ, †mme K_vi g‡a¨ †_‡K g‡b K‡i 10wU mwÜe× kã †ei Ki| Zvici †m¸‡jv‡K Avjv`v K‡i †Kvb cÖKvi mwÜ Zv †jL| †hgb: †Zvgvi evev ej‡jb, Ò†`vKvb †_‡K cuvk‡mi Avjy, †MvUv cuv‡PK KuvPKjv Avi GK †KŠUv Me¨-N„Z wb‡q Gm ZvovZvwo| †`L, †hb †ekKg bv nq|Ó Ñ GLv‡b mwÜe× k㸇jv n‡”QÑ cuvk‡mi, cuv‡PK, KuvPKjv, Me¨, †ekKg| cuvk‡mi = cuvP + †mi = e¨ÄbmwÜ cuv‡PK = cuvP + GK = e¨ÄbmwÜ KuvPKjv = KuvPv + Kjv = e¨ÄbmwÜ Me¨

= †Mv + h

= e¨ÄbmwÜ

†ekKg = †ewk + Kg = e¨ÄbmwÜ 3. ewn®‹vi, Avwe®‹vi, bg¯‹vi, cyi¯‹vi k㸇jv mwÜi †Kvb wbqg †g‡b MwVZ n‡q‡Q? wbqg¸‡jv †jL Ges †m wbqg Abyhvqx †Zvgvi cvV¨ eB †_‡K Av‡iv K‡qKwU kã Luy‡R wb‡q GKwU ZvwjKv ˆZwi Ki|


PZz_© cwi‡”Q`

kã I c` 4. 4.1 4.2 3.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8

kã I c` wj½všÍ‡ii wbqg I D`vniY eûePb MV‡bi wbqg I D`vniY we‡k‡l¨i †kªwYwefvM : msÁvevPK, †kªwYevPK, mgwóevPK, fveevPK I wµqvevPK wb‡`©kK me©bv‡gi i~c (PwjZ ixwZ) : ÔGÕ, ÔIÕ avZz I wµqvc` †gŠwjK I mvwaZ avZz mKg©K I AKg©K wµqv wµqvi Kvj : eZ©gvb, AZxZ, fwel¨r I AbyÁv Kg©-Abykxjb

4. kã I c` A_© n‡jv k‡ãi cÖvY| GK ev GKvwaK aŸwbi mw¤§j‡b hw` †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó A_© cÖKvk cvq Z‡e Zv‡K kã e‡j| †hgb : K, j, g Ñ GB wZbwU aŸwb GKmv‡_ Ry‡o w`‡j nq : Kjg (K+j+g)| ÔKjgÕ †jLvi GKwU DcKiY‡K †evSvq| myZivs GwU GKwU kã| G iKg : Avwg, evRvi, hvB BZ¨vw`I kã| G¸‡jvi Avjv`v Avjv`v A_© Av‡Q| wKšÍy G iKg Avjv`v Avjv`v kã g‡bi fve m¤ú~Y© cÖKvk Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| ZvB A_©c~Y© kã Ry‡o Ry‡o gvbyl Zvi g‡bi fve m¤ú~Y©fv‡e cÖKvk K‡i _v‡K| †hgb : ÔAvwg evRv‡i hvB|ÕÑ GwU GKwU evK¨| GLv‡b e³vi g‡bvfve m¤ú~Y© cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q| KZ¸‡jv A_©c~Y© kã hLb GKwÎZ n‡q e³vi g‡bi fve m¤ú~Y© cÖKvk K‡i, ZLb Zv‡K evK¨ e‡j| Gevi jÿ Kwi : Avwg, evRvi , hvB Ñ wZbwU A_©c~Y© kã| Avwg evRv‡i hvB Ñ GKwU g‡bi fve cÖKvkK evK¨| GLv‡b ÔevRviÕ kãwU ev‡K¨ e¨eüZ nevi mgq wKQzUv (evRvi+G) e`‡j †M‡Q | ev‡K¨ e¨eüZ nevi mgq k‡ãi †k‡l GB ai‡bi wKQz eY© †hvM nq| G¸‡jv‡K e‡j wefw³| k‡ã wefw³ hy³ n‡jB Zv‡K


26

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

c` ejv nq| Zvn‡j ejv hvq: wefw³ hy³ kã‡K A_ev ev‡K¨ e¨eüZ cÖwZwU kã‡K c` e‡j| c` cuvP cÖKvi : 1. we‡kl¨ 2. we‡klY 3. me©bvg 4. Ae¨q I 5. wµqv| 4.1 wj½všÍ‡ii wbqg I D`vniY wj½ k‡ãi A_© wPý ev jÿY| evsjv fvlvq Ggb A‡bK kã Av‡Q †h¸‡jv †Kv‡bvwU cyiyl RvZxq, †Kv‡bvwU ¯¿x RvZxq, †Kv‡bvwU Avevi ¯¿x-cyiyl Dfq‡KB †evSvq| ZvB †hme wPý ev jÿY Øviv kã‡K cyiyl, ¯¿x ev Ab¨ RvZxq wn‡m‡e Avjv`v Kiv hvq, Zv‡K wj½ e‡j| wj½ Pvi cÖKvi| h_v : 1. cyswj½ ev cyiylevPK kã| †hgb : evev, †Q‡j, weØvb, my›`i| 2. ¯¿xwj½ ev ¯¿xevPK kã| †hgb : gv, †g‡q, we`ylx, my›`ix| 3. Dfqwj½evPK kã| †hgb : gvbyl, wkï, mšÍvb, evOvwj| 4. K¬xewj½ ev Awj½evPK kã| †hgb : eB, LvZv, †Pqvi, †Uwej| cyswj½ ev cyiylevPK kã‡K ¯¿xwj½ ev ¯¿xevPK k‡ã i~cvšÍi Kiv‡K wj½všÍi ev wj½ cwieZ©b e‡j| wj½ cwieZ©‡bi wKQz mvaviY wbqg Av‡Q| †hgb : 1. cyiylevPK k‡ãi †k‡l -Av (v), -C (x), -bx, -Avbx, -Bwb BZ¨vw` ¯¿xcÖZ¨q Ry‡o cyswj½ kã‡K ¯¿xwj‡½ i~cvšÍi Kiv hvq| †hgb : cÖ_g > cÖ_gv, evjK > evwjKv, QvÎ > QvÎx, †R‡j > †R‡jwb| 2. KL‡bv KL‡bv wfbœ kã‡hv‡MI cyswj½ kã ¯¿xwj½evPK k‡ã cwieZ©b nq| †hgb : evev > gv, †Q‡j > †g‡q, cyiyl> bvix, mv‡ne > wewe, ¯^vgx > ¯¿x, KZ©v > wMwbœ, fvB > †evb, cyÎ > Kb¨v, ei > K‡b| 3. k‡ãi Av‡M cyily evPK ev ¯¿xevPK kã Ry‡o w`‡qI k‡ãi wj½všÍi n‡q _v‡K| †hgb : cyily gvbyl > †g‡q gvbyl, û‡jv weovj > †gwb weovj, gÏv †Nvo > gvw` †Nvov, e¨vUv‡Q‡j > †g‡q‡Q‡j, Gu‡o evQzi > eKbv evQzi, ej` Miy > MvB Miy| 4. KZK¸‡jv cyiylevPK k‡ãi Av‡M gwnjv, bvix BZ¨vw` ¯¿xevPK kã cÖ‡qvM K‡i k‡ãi wj½všÍi nq| †hgb : Kwe > gwnjv Kwe, Wv³vi > gwnjv Wv³vi, mf¨ > bvix mf¨, ˆmb¨ > bvix ˆmb¨| 5. †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv k‡ãi †k‡l cyiyl I ¯¿xevPK kã †hvM K‡i cyswj½ kã ¯¿xwj½evPK k‡ã cwieZ©b nq| †hgb : Mqjv > Mqjv eD, †evb †cv > †evb wS, VvKzi †cv > VvKzi wS|


k&ã I c`

27

6. KZK¸‡jv k‡ã †Kej cyiyl †evSvq| †hgb : KweivR, K…Z`vi, AK…Z`vi, wecZœxK, ˆ¯¿Y| 7. KZK¸‡jv kã ïay ¯¿xevPK nq| †hgb : mZxb, mrgv, maev, G‡qv, `vB| wb‡P cyswj½ kã‡K ¯¿xwj‡½ cwieZ©‡bi wKQz wbqg I D`vniY †`Iqv n‡jv : 1. k‡ãi †k‡l Ô-AvÕ cÖZ¨q †hvM K‡i : cyswj½

¯¿xwj½

cyswj½

¯¿xwj½

AR

ARv

wcÖq

wcªqv

AvaywbK

AvaywbKv

cÖexY

cÖexYv

†KvwKj

†KvwKjv

e„×

e„×v

PZzi

PZziv

gvbbxq

gvbbxqv

PÂj

PÂjv

wkl¨

wkl¨v

bexb

bexbv

mij

mijv

2. k‡ãi †k‡l ÔAvÕ-Gi RvMvq Ô-BÕ cÖZ¨q ewm‡q : cyswj½

¯¿xwj½

cyswj½

¯¿xwj½

KvKv

KvwK

eyov

eywo

PvPv

PvwP

bvbv

bvwb

`v`v

`vw`

gvgv

gvwg

3. k‡ãi †k‡l Ô-CÕ cÖZ¨q †hvM K‡i : cyswj½

¯¿xwj½

cyswj½

¯¿xwj½

wK‡kvi

wK‡kvix

gvbe

gvbex

QvÎ

QvÎx

gq~i

gq~ix

ZiyY

ZiyYx

ivÿm

ivÿmx

`vm

`vmx

wmsn

wmsnx

bi

bvix

my›`i

my›`ix

cvÎ

cvÎx

nwiY

nwiYx


28

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

4. k‡ãi †k‡l Ô-wb / -bxÕ cÖZ¨q †hvM K‡i : cyswj½ Kvgvi Kzgvi

¯¿xwj½ Kvgvibx Kzgvibx

cyswj½ †R‡j †avcv

¯¿xwj½ †R‡jwb †avcvwb

5. k‡ãi †k‡l Ô-AvwbÕ / ÔAvbxÕ cÖZ¨q †hvM K‡i : cyswj½ PvKi VvKzi AiY¨ B›`ª

¯¿xwj½ PvKivwb VvKzivwb AiY¨vYx B›`ªvbx

cyswj½ †g_i bvwcZ wng k~`ª

¯¿xwj½ †g_ivwb bvwcZvwb wngvbx k~`ªvbx

6. k‡ãi †k‡l ÔBbxÕ cÖZ¨q †hvM K‡i : cyswj½ KvOvj Abv_ bvM gvbx Zc¯^x †k¦Zv½

¯¿xwj½ KvOvwjbx Abvw_bx bvwMbx gvwbbx Zcw¯^bx †k¦Zvw½bx

cyswj½ †Mvqvjv evN we‡`wk ¸Yx abx my‡Kk

¯¿xwj½ †Mvqvwjbx evwNbx we‡`wkbx ¸wYbx awbbx my‡Kwkbx

7. k‡ãi †k‡l Ô-BKvÕ cÖZ¨q †hvM K‡i : cyswj½ evjK †jLK MvqK †meK

¯¿xwj½ evwjKv †jwLKv MvwqKv †mweKv

cyswj½ cvVK Aa¨vcK bvqK wkÿK

¯¿xwj½ cvwVKv Aa¨vwcKv bvwqKv wkwÿKv

8. cyiylevPK k‡ãi †k‡l ÔZvÕ _vK‡j ÔÎxÕ nq : cyswj½ †bZv †kªvZv

¯¿xwj½ †bÎx †kªvÎx

cyswj½ KZ©v avZv

¯¿xwj½ KΩx avÎx


fvlv

29

9. cyiylevPK k‡ãi †k‡l ÔAZÕ, ÔevbÕ, ÔgvbÕ, ÔCqvbÕ _vK‡j ÔAZxÕ, ÔeZxÕ, ÔgwZÕ, ÔCqmxÕ nq : cyswj½

¯¿xwj½

cyswj½

¯¿xwj½

mr ¸Yevb kªxgvb Mixqvb

mZx ¸YeZx kªxgZx Mixqmx

gnr i~cevb eyw×gvb gnxqvb

gnZx ¸YeZx eyw×gwZ gnxqmx

4.2 eûePb MV‡bi wbqg I D`vniY e¨vKi‡Y ePb A_© msL¨vi aviYv| ZvB, †h kã w`‡q e¨vKi‡Y †Kv‡bv wKQzi aviYv cÖKvk Kiv nq, Zv‡K ePb e‡j| evsjv fvlvq ePb `y cÖKvi | h_v : 1. GKePb 2. eûePb| 1. GKePb : †h kã w`‡q †Kv‡bv e¯‘, cÖvYx ev e¨w³i GKwUgvÎ msL¨vi aviYv nq, Zv‡K GKePb e‡j| †hgb : cvLvwU Luy‡R cvw”Q bv| MvgQvLvbv †Kv_vq ivL‡j? KvRj wK evwo wd‡i‡Q? wkÿK ej‡jb, Ò`yB Avi `yB Pvi nq|Ó GKePb cÖKv‡ki Dcvq evsjv fvlvq GKePb cÖKv‡ki wKQz Dcvq Av‡Q| †hgb : K. k‡ãi g~j i~‡ci mv‡_ wKQz †hvM bv K‡i : ÔAvgvi evwo †hI ågi, em‡Z †`e wcu‡o|Õ AvR ¯‹zj QzwU| ixZv Mvb wkL‡Z †M‡Q| evm XvKv †Q‡o‡Q| L. k‡ãi †k‡l wU, Uv, Lvb, Lvbv, Lvwb, MvQ, MvQv, MvwQ BZ¨vw` wb‡`©kK †hvM K‡i : †g‡qwU Lye PvjvK| †Zvgvi KjgUv `vI †Zv|


30

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

†bŠKvLvwb †ek my›`i n‡q‡Q| eBLvbv Avwg c‡owQ| `woMvQ w`‡q hv †Zv gv| `v`yi nv‡Z jvwVMvQv †ek gvwb‡q‡Q| M. k‡ãi Av‡M GK, GKUv, GKwU, GKLvbv, GKRb BZ¨vw` msL¨vevPK kã ewm‡q : GK †`‡k wQj GK ivRv| †Zvgvi mv‡_ GKUv K_v wQj| GKwU Kjg wb‡q `yfvB‡qi g‡a¨ UvbvUvwb ïiy n‡q‡Q| GKLvbv Bs‡iwR Le‡ii KvMR G‡bv †Zv| GKRb QvÎ G‡mwQj †Zvgvi Kv‡Q| 2. eûePb : †h kã w`‡q G‡Ki AwaK msL¨K e¯‘, e¨w³ ev cÖvYxi aviYv cvIqv hvq, Zv‡K eûePb e‡j| †hgb : Avgiv †mLv‡b wM‡qwQjvg| †Q‡jiv gv‡V †Lj‡Q| ÔwkïMY †`q gb wbR wbR cv‡V|Õ ÔivLvj Miyi cvj j‡q hvq gv‡V|Õ eûePb MV‡bi wbqg I D`vniY evsjv fvlvq eûePb MV‡bi bvbv Dcvq Av‡Q| cÖvwYevPK I AcÖvwYevPK Ges DbœZ cªvwYevPK I BZi cÖvwYevPK kã‡f‡` wewfbœ ai‡bi eûePb‡evaK wefw³, cÖZ¨q I mgwóevPK kã‡hv‡M eûePb MVb Kiv n‡q _v‡K| †hgb : 1. k‡ãi †k‡l iv, Giv, ¸‡jv, ¸wj, †`i wefw³ †hvM K‡i : iv Ñ †Q‡jiv ej †Lj‡Q| Zviv AvR Avi Avm‡e bv| Giv Ñ ÒfvB‡qiv Avgvi, Ôi³ hLb w`‡qwQ, Av‡iv †`eÕ|ÕÕ kªwg‡Kiv ag©NU †W‡K‡Q| ¸‡jv Ñ Avg¸‡jv ivRkvnx †_‡K G‡m‡Q| †Q‡j¸‡jv Lye ˆn‰P Ki‡Q|


fvlv

31

¸wj Ñ eB¸wj RvqMv g‡Zv Zz‡j ivL| †`i Ñ gyw³‡hv×v‡`i Avgiv kª×v Kwi| 2. k‡ãi †k‡l MY, e„›`, eM©, Kzj, gÊjx, gvjv, ¸”Q, cvj, `j, `vg, SuvK, Avewj, me, mg~n, ivwR, ivwk, cyÄ, †kªwY BZ¨vw` mgwóevPK kã †hvM K‡i : MY Ñ ÔwkïMY †`q gb wbR wbR cv‡V|Õ e„›` Ñ myKvšÍmvwn‡Z¨i f³e„›` mgv‡jvPbvI cQ›` K‡ib| Kzj Ñ mܨvq cÿxKzj Kzjvq wd‡i G‡m‡Q| gÐjx Ñ wkÿKgÊjx bexb Qv·`i eiY K‡i wb‡jb| gvjv Ñ Ô†`wL‡Z wMqvwQ ce©Zgvjv, †`wL‡Z wMqvwQ wmÜy|Õ ¸”Q Ñ Avwg iex›`ªbv‡_i ÔMí¸”QÕ c‡owQ| cvj Ñ ÔivLvj Miyi cvj j‡q hvq gv‡V|Õ `j Ñ RvZxq wµ‡KU`‡j Zvi RvqMv n‡q‡Q| `vg Ñ ˆkevj`v‡g cyKzi f‡i‡Q | SuvK Ñ cvqivi SuvK evKzg evKzg Ki‡Q| Avewj Ñ AvR iv‡Z c`vewj KxZ©b ïb‡Z hve| me Ñ ÔcvwLme K‡i ie ivwZ †cvnvBj|Õ mg~n Ñ AwZwi³ e„ÿwba‡bi d‡j ebmg~n DRvo n‡q hv‡”Q| ivwR Ñ jvB‡eªwii MÖš’ivwRi g‡a¨ i‡q‡Q mg„× Áv‡bi fvÊvi| ivwk Ñ evRv‡i wb‡q hvevi Rb¨ cy®úivwk Pqb Kiv n‡q‡Q| cyÄ Ñ †gNcy‡Äi Ae¯’vb †`‡L g‡b n‡”Q e„wó n‡e| †kªwY Ñ awbK‡kªwY me mgq wbgœ‡kªwYi Dci Lei`vwi K‡i _v‡K| 3. k‡ãi Av‡M A‡bK, ARmª, AmsL¨, cÖPzi, eû, we¯Íi, bvbv, †Xi, me, mKj, mg¯Í, n‡iK BZ¨vw` kã e¨envi K‡i : A‡bK Ñ Gevi cixÿvq A‡bK QvÎ †dj K‡i‡Q| ARmª Ñ Zvi ARmª UvKv-cqmv n‡q‡Q| AmsL¨ Ñ evsjv‡`‡ki AmsL¨ gvbyl GL‡bv AwkwÿZ| cÖPzi Ñ evRv‡i cÖPzi Avg D‡V‡Q| eû Ñ wZwb eû m¤úwËi gvwjK| we¯Íi Ñ Ô†m K‡n we¯Íi wgQv, †h K‡n we¯Íi|Õ bvbv Ñ Ôbvbv gywbi bvbv gZ|Õ


32

†Xi Ñ e„wó Avm‡Z GL‡bv †Xi evwK| me Ñ evRv‡i wM‡q me UvKv LiP n‡q †Mj| mKj Ñ c„w_exi mKj gvbyl Avgvi fvB| mg¯Í Ñ Zvi mg¯Í KvwnwbB wQj ev‡bvqvU| n‡iK Ñ †gjvq n‡iK iKg wRwbm cvIqv hvq| 4. GKB kã ci ci `yevi ewm‡q : dy‡j Ñ evMvbUv dz‡j dz‡j f‡i †M‡Q| nuvwo Ñ eihvÎxiv nuvwo nuvwo m‡›`k wb‡q G‡m‡Q| Kuvwo Ñ †g‡qi we‡q‡Z Kuvwo Kuvwo UvKv LiPv n‡q †Mj| e‡j Ñ †Zvgv‡K e‡j e‡j Avi cvijvg bv| †L‡U Ñ Avwg †L‡U †L‡U mviv njvg| Øv‡i Ñ Øv‡i Øv‡i Ny‡iI AvR wfÿv RyUj bv| †QvU Ñ ÔAvgv‡`i †QvU Muv‡q †QvU †QvU Ni|Õ eo Ñ evev eo eo Avg wK‡b G‡b‡Qb| N‡i Ñ AvR N‡i N‡i weR‡qi Avb›`| we›`y Ñ Ôwe›`y we›`y Rj, M‡o †Zv‡j mvMi AZj|Õ fv‡jv Ñ K¬v‡mi fv‡jv fv‡jv †Q‡j‡K cyi¯‹vi †`Iqv n‡e| hviv - Zviv Ñ hviv hviv hv‡e Zviv Zviv j‡Â wM‡q I‡Vv| 5. Av‡M msL¨vevPK kã ewm‡q : Kv‡bi we‡q‡Z k cuv‡PK AwZw_ Lv‡e| mßvn `yB c‡i gv‡Qi `vg K‡g hv‡e| wkqvj Zvi mvZ †Q‡j‡K Kzwg‡ii Kv‡Q co‡Z w`j| `k †KwR im‡Mvjøv w`b †Zv|

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ


kã I c`

33

6. KL‡bv KL‡bv GKeP‡bi i~c w`‡q : gvbyl giYkxj| evOvwj me cv‡i| evMv‡b dzj dz‡U‡Q| evRv‡i †jvK R‡g‡Q| †cvKvi Avµg‡Y dmj bó nq| e‡b evN _v‡K| Miy Avgv‡`i `ya †`q|

* we‡kl `ªóe¨ ePb g~jZ we‡kl¨ I me©bvg c‡`i GK ev GKvwaK msL¨vi aviYv wb‡`©k K‡i| †m-Kvi‡Y ïay we‡kl¨ I me©bvg c‡`i ePb‡f` nq| DbœZ cªvwYevPK k‡ãi eûeP‡b MY, e„›`, gÊjx, eM© Ges AcÖvwYevPK k‡ãi eûeP‡b Avewj, ¸”Q, `vg, wbKi, cyÄ, gvjv, ivwR, ivwk e¨eüZ nq| iv, Giv, MY, ¸‡jv, Kzj, mKj, me, mg~n cÖvwYevPK I AcÖvwYevPK Dfq k‡ãi eûeP‡b e¨eüZ n‡q _v‡K| evsjv ev‡K¨ GKB m‡½ GKvwaK eûePbevPK kã e¨eüZ nq bv| †hgb : mKj Qv·`i eywS‡q †`Iqv n‡q‡Q| (fzj) mKj Qv·K eywS‡q †`Iqv n‡q‡Q| (ï×) Qv·`i eywS‡q †`Iqv n‡q‡Q| (ï×)

4.3 we‡k‡l¨i †kªwYwefvM Av‡MB ejv n‡q‡Q: c` cuvP cÖKvi : we‡kl¨ ; we‡klY ; me©bvg ; Ae¨q ; wµqv|

we‡kl¨c` ev‡K¨ e¨eüZ †h c` Øviv †Kv‡bv e¨w³, e¯‘, mgwó, ¯’vb, Kvj, fve, KvR ev ¸‡Yi bvg †evSvq, Zv‡K we‡kl¨c` e‡j| GK K_vq, †Kv‡bv wKQzi bvg‡K we‡kl¨c` e‡j| †hgb : bRiyj, gvbyl, eB, LvZv, †jLvcov, cï, mfv, mwgwZ, XvKv, Lyjbv, kqb, †fvRb BZ¨vw`|


34

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

we‡kl¨c‡`i bvbv †kªwYwefvM i‡q‡Q| †hgb : 1. msÁvevPK we‡kl¨ : †h we‡kl¨c` Øviv †Kv‡bv e¨w³, cÖvYx, ¯’vb, b`x, mgy`ª, ce©Z, MÖš’ BZ¨vw`i wbw`©ó bvg †evSvq, Zv‡K msÁvevPK we‡kl¨ e‡j| G‡K bvgevPK we‡kl¨I ejv nq| †hgb : e¨w³i bvg : AvjvIj, ew¼g, bRiyj, myKvšÍ, †iv‡Kqv, mgxiY eo–qv, ievU©, wgëb, n¨vwi| cÖvYxi bvg : Miy, QvMj, †fov, wmsn, evN, nuvm, gyiwM, gqbv, wUqv, kvwjK, wnc‡cv‡Ugvm| ¯’v‡bi bvg : Lyjbv, XvKv, PÆMÖvg, kªxcyi, †kicyi, †MvcvjMÄ, w`wjø, g‡¯‹v, jÛb, c¨vwim| b`-b`xi bvg : eªþcyÎ, eywoM½v, cÙv, †gNbv, hgybv, bxjb`, AvgvRvb, †nvqvs‡nv| mgy‡`ªi bvg : e‡½vcmvMi, fviZ gnvmvMi, cÖkvšÍ gnvmvMi, Avie mvMi| cvnvo-ce©‡Zi bvg : Mv‡iv cvnvo, wngvjq, jvjgvB, †KIµvWvs, wn›`yKzk, K‡Kkvm, Avw›`R| MÖ‡š’i bvg : MxZvÄwj, AwMœexYv, wngy Agwbevm, †eovj gvbex, euva †f‡O `vI|

ev‡K¨ cÖ‡qvM KvRx bRiyj Bmjvg Avgv‡`i RvZxq Kwe| my›`ieb Lyjbv †Rjvq Aew¯’Z| Avgv‡`i evwo a‡jk¦ix b`xi cv‡o| Avwg ÔAwMœexYvÕ c‡owQ| Miy M„ncvwjZ cï| Avwg wngvjq †`wLwb| jÛ‡b bwR‡ei gvgv _v‡Kb| `yejviPi e‡½vcmvM‡ii GKwU Pi| 2. †kªwYevPK we‡kl¨ : †h we‡kl¨c` Øviv e¨w³, cÖvYx, ¯’vb, b`x, ce©Z BZ¨vw`i mvaviY bvg †evSvq, Zv‡K †kªwYevPK we‡kl¨ e‡j| †hgb : gvbyl, cvwL, ce©Z, Kwe, kni, eB, MvQ, evOvwj, gvQ, mvMi BZ¨vw`| msÁvevPK we‡k‡l¨i mv‡_ †kªwYevPK we‡k‡l¨i AvcvZ wgj jÿ Kiv †M‡jI †ek wKQz cv_©K¨ i‡q‡Q| msÁvevPK we‡k‡l¨i Øviv mywbw`©ó †Kv‡bv e¨w³, e¯‘, cÖvYx ev ¯’v‡bi bvg †evSvq|


kã I c`

35

wKšÍy †kªwYevPK we‡kl¨c` Gm‡ei mvaviY ev Awbw`©ó bvg cÖKvk K‡i| †hgb : msÁvevPK we‡kl¨ (wbw`©ó)

†kªwYevPK we‡kl¨ (Awbw`©ó)

1. iex›`ªbv_ wek¦Kwe|

1. Kwe wPiKvj eiYxq|

2. gvbylwU ÿyavq KvZi|

2. gvbyl giYkxj|

3. †cvovevwoi PgPg Lye wgwó|

3. wgwó mevB cQ›` K‡i bv|

4. Avwg Bwjk gvQ †L‡Z fv‡jvevwm|

4. mevB gvQ †L‡Z fv‡jvev‡m|

5. Avgiv XvKv kn‡i _vwK|

5. Avgiv kn‡i _vwK|

6. Avwg ÔAwMœexYvÕ cowQ|

6. Avwg eB cowQ|

7. wngvjq we‡k¦i m‡e©v”P ce©Z|

7. ce©‡Z IVv Lye wec¾bK|

8. gqbv cvwL K_v e‡j|

8. cvwL AvKv‡k I‡o|

9. cÙv evsjv‡`‡ki eo b`x|

9. b`x mvM‡i wM‡q †g‡k|

10. my›`ixMvQ my›`ie‡b cIqv hvq|

10. MvQ Avgv‡`i cÖvY euvPvq|

3. mgwóevPK we‡kl¨ : †h we‡kl¨c` Øviv GKRvZxq e¨w³, e¯‘ ev cªvYxi mgwó †evSvq, Zv‡K mgwóevPK we‡kl¨ e‡j| †hgb : RbZv, mfv, mwgwZ, †kªwY, `j, msN, cvj, SuvK, ¸”Q, gvjv, mvwi BZ¨vw`|

ev‡K¨ cÖ‡qvM RbZv †ÿ‡c †M‡j Kv‡iv iÿv †bB| mfv bqUvq ïiy n‡q‡Q| GLv‡b GKUv eûgyLx mgevq mwgwZ M‡o D‡V‡Q| we‡kl¨c‡`i bvbv †kªwYwefvM i‡q‡Q| `j e`j K‡i Avi KZw`b Pj‡e? GKcvj nwiY Avgv‡`i mvg‡b w`‡q P‡j †Mj| Bs‡iR‡`i †bŠeni wek¦L¨vZ| Avwg †mbvevwnbxi KzPKvIqvR †`‡LwQ| 4. fveevPK we‡kl¨ : †h we‡kl¨c` Øviv wµqvi fve ev Kv‡Ri bvg †evSvq, Zv‡K fveevPK ev wµqvevPK we‡kl¨ e‡j| †hgb : †fvRb, kqb, `k©b, Mgb, kªeY, Kiv, †`Lv, †kvbv BZ¨vw`|


36

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

fveevPK we‡kl¨ I wµqvc` GK bq| †hgb : fveevPK we‡kl¨

wµqvc`

1. †KvUevwo `k©b K‡i Gjvg|

1. Avwg †KvUevwo †`‡LwQ|

2. gnviv‡Ri †fvRb-ce© †kl n‡q‡Q|

2. Avgiv †L‡qwQ|

3. evevi kqb GL‡bv m¤úbœ nqwb|

3. evev ï‡q‡Qb|

4. LyKzi bvPb †`‡L hv|

4. LyKz bvP‡Q|

5. Zvi †evanq †div n‡e bv|

5. †m wd‡i‡Q|

4.4 wb‡`©kK me©bv‡gi i~c (PwjZ ixwZ) : ÔGÕ, ÔIÕ ev‡K¨ we‡kl¨c‡`i cwie‡Z© †h c` e¨eüZ nq, Zv‡K me©bvgc` e‡j| †hgb : we‡kl¨ : eKzj fv‡jv †Q‡j| me©bvg : †m cÖwZw`b ¯‹z‡j hvq| Zvi ¯^v¯’¨ fv‡jv| Zv‡K mevB fv‡jvev‡m| GLv‡b we‡kl¨ ÔeKzjÕ-Gi cwie‡Z© Ô†mÕ, ÔZviÕ, ÔZv‡KÕ cÖf…wZ c` e¨envi Kivq evK¨¸‡jv kÖywZgayi n‡q‡Q| evsjv fvlvq me©bvgc` bvbviKg nq| †hgb : 1.e¨w³evPK me©bvg : Avwg, Avgiv, Zzwg, †Zvgiv, †m, Zviv, wZwb, Giv, Iiv BZ¨vw`| 2. wb‡`©kK me©bvg : G, GwU, †mwU, †m¸‡jv BZ¨vw`| 3. mvKj¨evPK me©bvg : mKj, me, mgy`q BZ¨vw`| 4. mv‡cÿ me©bvg : †h-†m, hv-Zv, whwb-wZwb BZ¨vw`| 5. cÖkœm~PK me©bvg : Kx, Kvi, Kv‡`i, wK‡m BZ¨vw`| 6. Awb‡`©kK me©bvg : †KD, †Kvb, †Kn, wKQz BZ¨vw`| 7. AvZ¥evPK me©bvg : ¯^qs, wbR, †Lv`, Avcwb BZ¨vw`| 8. Ab¨vw`evPK me©bvg : Ab¨, Aci, ci BZ¨vw`|


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wb‡`©kK me©bv‡gi i~c : ÔGÕ, ÔIÕ †h me©bvgc` mvaviYZ we‡kl¨‡K wbw`©ó K‡i †`q, Zv‡K wb‡`©kK me©bvgc` e‡j| †hgb : G, GB, Giv, Bnviv, Bnv, Guiv, Bnv‡`i, Gu‡`i, I, Iiv, I‡`i, Iu‡`i, H, Dwb, Dnv, Dnv‡`i BZ¨vw`| we‡kl¨c‡`i mv‡_ †hgb wefw³ †hvM n‡q kãMVb K‡i, †Zgwb wefw³, cÖZ¨q I Kg©cÖePbxq hy³ n‡q me©bv‡gi i~c nq| wb‡P wb‡`©kK me©bvg ÔGÕ Ges ÔIÕ-Gi PwjZ i~c †`Lv‡bv n‡jv|

G-Gi i~c 1. cÖvwYevPK i~c :

GKePb G, Gi, Bwb, Gui

eûePb Giv, G‡`i, Guiv, Gu‡`i

ev‡K¨ cÖ‡qvM : G Avgvi fvB; Gi bvg D¾¡j| Bwb Avgvi PvPv; Guiv KivwP _v‡Kb| Gu‡`i †jvnvj°‡oi eo e¨emv Av‡Q| 2. AcÖvwYevPK i~c :

ev‡K¨ cÖ‡qvM :

GKePb GUv, GwU, GLvbv

eûePb Gme, G¸‡jv, Gmg¯Í

GUv GLvb †_‡K mivI| GwU Avcbvi eB| G¸‡jv †Uwe‡j ivL| Gm‡ei Rb¨ Zzwg `vqx| Gmg¯Í K_v Avgv‡K †Kb †kvbv‡”Qb?

I-Gi i~c 1. cÖvwYevPK i~c :

ev‡K¨ cÖ‡qvM :

GKePb I, Ii, Iu, Dwb, I‡`i, I‡K

eûePb Iiv, I‡`i, Iuiv, Iu‡`i, I‡`i‡K

I †hb wd‡i Av‡m| Dwb m¤ú‡K© Avgvi gvgv nb| Iu‡`i evwo gqgbwmsn| I‡K GLb WvKvi `iKvi †bB| I‡`i †h‡Z ej|


38

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

2. AcÖvwYevPK i~c :

ev‡K¨ cÖ‡qvM :

GKePb IB, IwU, ILvbv

eûePb Ime, I¸‡jv, Img¯Í

Z‡e IB K_vB iBj| IwU wK‡mi eB? ILvbv Avevi K‡e wKb‡j? Ime K_v Qv‡ov †Zv| †Zvgvi I¸‡jv Kvj †`‡L †`e| Img¯Í ¸jevwR Gevi eÜ K‡iv|

4.5 avZz I wµqvc` wµqvc` †h c` Øviv †Kv‡bv wKQz Kiv ev †Kv‡bv KvR Kiv †evSvq, Zv‡K wµqvc` e‡j| †hgb : evev G‡m‡Qb| Nwo‡Z `kUv ev‡R| Avwg A¼ KiwQ|

wµqvc` bvbv iKg nq : 1. mgvwcKv wµqv : †h wµqv Øviv ev‡K¨i A_© m¤ú~Y© cÖKvwkZ nq, Zv‡K mgvwcKv wµqv e‡j| †hgb : †mZz ¯‹z‡j hvq| we_y Mvb Mvq| 2. AmgvwcKv wµqv : †h wµqv Øviv ev‡K¨i A_© m¤ú~Y© nq bv, Zv‡K AmgvwcKv wµqv e‡j| †hgb : Avwg evwo wM‡q ....... †m eB wb‡q ........ GLv‡b ÔwM‡qÕ, Ôwb‡qÕ wµqvi Øviv K_v †kl nqwb| ev‡K¨i A_© Am¤ú~Y© i‡q‡Q| ev‡K¨i A_© m¤ú~Y© Kivi Rb¨ Av‡iv wµqv PvB| †hgb : Avwg evwo wM‡q Lve| †m eB wb‡q co‡Z e‡m‡Q| myZivs, ÔwM‡qÕ, Ôwb‡qÕ n‡”Q AmgvwcKv wµqv| Avi ÔLveÕ, Ôe‡m‡QÕ G¸‡jv mgvwcKv wµqv|


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39

3. mKg©K wµqv : †h wµqvi †Kv‡bv Kg© _v‡K, Zv‡K mKg©K wµqv e‡j| †hgb : ¯^cb wPwV wjL‡Q| KvÂb eB co‡Q| 4. AKg©K wµqv : †h wµqvi †Kv‡bv Kg© _v‡K bv, Zv‡K AKg©K wµqv e‡j| †hgb : †mwjgv †eMg evwo hvq| gwY gvigv fvZ Lvq| 5. wØKg©K wµqv : †h wµqvi `ywU Kg© _v‡K Zv‡K wØKg©K wµqv e‡j| †hgb : wkÿK Qv·`i evsjv cov‡”Qb| gv wkï‡K `ya LvIqv‡”Qb| 6. cÖ‡hvRK wµqv : †h wµqv A‡b¨i Øviv PvwjZ nq,Zv‡K cÖ‡hvRK wµqv e‡j| †hgb : gv †LvKv‡K Puv` †`Lv‡”Qb| mvcy‡o mvc †Ljvq| 7. †hŠwMK wµqv : GKwU mgvwcKv wµqv I GKwU AmgvwcKv wµqv wgwjZ n‡q †h wµqvc` MwVZ nq, Zv‡K †hŠwMK wµqv e‡j| †hgb : †m cvk K‡i †Mj| mvB‡ib †e‡R DVj|

avZz wµqvi g~j Ask‡K avZz e‡j| wµqvc`‡K we‡kølY Ki‡j `y‡Uv Ask cvIqv hvq : 1. avZz ev wµqvg~j : Ki&, hv, Lv, cv, ej&, †`L&, †Lj&, †` BZ¨vw`| 2. wµqvwefw³ : Av, B, wQ, †Q, †e, †Z, †j, jvg BZ¨vw`| avZz wZb cÖKvi| h_v : 1. †gŠwjK avZz 2. mvwaZ avZz 3. †hŠwMK ev ms‡hvMg~jK avZz| 1. †gŠwjK avZz : †hme avZz we‡kølY Kiv hvq bv, Zv‡K †gŠwjK avZz e‡j| †hgb : Ki&, Pj&, co&, eo&, cv, hv, †`, Lv, n& BZ¨vw`| 2. mvwaZ avZz : †gŠwjK avZz ev bvg-k‡ãi c‡i Av-cÖZ¨q‡hv‡M †h avZz MwVZ nq, Zv‡K mvwaZ avZz e‡j| †hgb:


40

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

Ki& + Av = Kiv †`L& + Av = †`Lv ej& + Av = ejv 5. †hŠwMK avZz : we‡kl¨, we‡klY ev aŸb¨vZ¥K Ae¨‡qi mv‡_ Ki&, †`, n, cv, Lv BZ¨vw` †gŠwjK avZz wgwjZ n‡q †h bZzb avZz MwVZ nq, Zv‡K †hŠwMK ev ms‡hvMg~jK avZz e‡j| †hgb : fq Ki&, fv‡jv n&, DËi †`, gvi Lv, `ytL cv BZ¨vw`|

4.6 †gŠwjK I mvwaZ avZz †gŠwjK avZz : †gŠwjK avZz‡K fvOv ev we‡kølY Kiv hvq bv| G¸‡jv‡K wm× ev ¯^qswm× avZzI ejv n‡q _v‡K| evsjv fvlvq †gŠwjK avZz wZb cÖKvi| h_v : 1. ms¯‹…Z avZz 2. evsjv avZz 3. we‡`kvMZ avZz 1. ms¯‹…Z avZz : Zrmg wµqvc‡`i avZz‡K ms¯‹…Z avZz e‡j| †hgb : A¼& + Ab = A¼b : †QvU‡`i wPÎv¼b cÖwZ‡hvwMZvq we_y cÖ_g n‡q‡Q| `„k& + h = `„k¨ : `yN©Ubvi gg©vwšÍK `„k¨ eY©bv Kiv hvq bv| K… + Ze¨ = KZ©e¨ : Qv·`i KZ©e¨ †jLvcov Kiv| nm& + h = nvm¨ : AKviY nvm¨cwinvm Z¨vM Ki| 2. evsjv avZz : †hme avZz ms¯‹…Z †_‡K cÖvK…‡Zi gva¨‡g cwiewZ©Z n‡q evsjvq e¨eüZ nq, Zv‡K evsjv avZz ev LuvwU evsjv avZz e‡j| †hgb : AuvK& + Av = AuvKv : Kxme AuvKvAuvwK KiQ? †`L& + Av = †`Lv : Rv`yNi Avgvi K‡qKevi †`Lv| Ki& + A = Ki : Zzwg Kx Ki? nvm& + B = nvwm : †Zvgvi nvwmwU Lye my›`i| 3. we‡`kvMZ avZz : we‡`wk fvlv †_‡K AvMZ †hme avZz evsjv fvlvq e¨eüZ nq, Zv‡K we‡`kvMZ avZz ev we‡`wk avZz e‡j| †hgb :


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LvU& + †e = LvU‡e : hZ †ewk LvU‡e ZZB mydj cv‡e| weMo& + Av‡bv : †Zvgvi weMov‡bv †Q‡j‡K fv‡jv Kivi mva¨ Avgvi †bB| Uvb& + Av : Avgv‡K wb‡q UvbvUvwb K‡iv bv, Avwg hve bv| Rg& + AvU = RgvU : AÜKvi †ek RgvU †eu‡a‡Q| mvwaZ avZz : †gŠwjK avZz ev bvg k‡ãi c‡i Av-cÖZ¨q‡hv‡M mvwaZ avZz MwVZ n‡q _v‡K| mvwaZ avZz wZb cÖKvi| h_v : 1. cÖ‡hvRK avZz 2. bvg avZz 3. Kg©ev‡P¨i avZz 1. cÖ‡hvRK avZz : †gŠwjK avZzi c‡i ( Aci‡K wb‡qvwRZ Kiv A‡_©) Av-cÖZ¨q‡hv‡M †h avZz MwVZ nq, Zv‡K cÖ‡hvRK avZz ev wYRšÍ avZz e‡j| †hgb : co& + Av = wkÿK Qv·`i cov‡”Qb| Ki& + Av = †m wb‡R K‡i bv, Ab¨‡K w`‡q Kivq| bvP& + Av = bvPv : ÔI‡i †fuv`o wd‡i Pv, LyKzi bvPb †`‡L hv|Õ 2. bvg avZz : we‡kl¨, we‡klY I AbyKvi Ae¨‡qi c‡i Av-cÖZ¨q‡hv‡M MwVZ avZz‡K bvg avZz e‡j| †hgb : Nyg& + Av : evev Nygv‡”Qb| agK& +Av : Avgv‡K hZB agKvI, Avwg G KvR Kie bv| nvZ& + Av : A‡b¨i c‡KU nvZv‡bv Avgvi ¯^fve bq| 3. Kg©ev‡P¨i avZz : ev‡K¨ KZ©vi †P‡q K‡g©i mv‡_ hLb wµqvi m¤úK© cÖavb n‡q I‡V, ZLb †m wµqv‡K Kg©ev‡P¨i wµqv e‡j| Kg©ev‡P¨i wµqvi g~j‡K Kg©ev‡P¨i avZz e‡j| †gŠwjK avZzi mv‡_ Av-cÖZ¨q‡hv‡M Kg©ev‡P¨i avZz MwVZ nq| †hgb : Ki& + Av = Kiv : Avwg †Zvgv‡K A¼wU Ki‡Z e‡jwQ| nvi& + Av = nviv : eBwU nvwi‡q †d‡jwQ| Lv + Iqv = LvIqv : †Zvgvi LvIqv n‡j Avgv‡K e‡jv|


42

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

4.7 mKg©K I AKg©K wµqv mKg©K wµqv : †h wµqvc‡`i Kg© _v‡K Zv‡K mKg©K wµqv e‡j| ev‡K¨i wµqv‡K Kx? ev Kv‡K? cÖkœ Ki‡j †h DËi cvIqv hvq, ZvB Kg©c`| Kg©hy³ wµqvB mKg©K wµqv| †hgb : gv ivbœv Ki‡Qb| G ev‡K¨ wµqvc` n‡”Q ÔKi‡QbÕ| cÖkœ : Kx Ki‡Qb? DËi : ivbœv| AZGe ÔKi‡QbÕ wµqvc`wUi Kg© n‡”Q ÔivbœvÕ| ÔKi‡QbÕ mKg©K wµqv| AKg©K wµqv : †h wµqvi Kg© †bB, Zv‡K AKg©K wµqv e‡j| †hgb : †mŠif c‡o| †mŠif Kx c‡o? Ñ G cÖ‡kœi DËi †bB| A_©vr G ev‡K¨ Ôc‡oÕ wµqvc‡`i †Kv‡bv Kg© †bB| ZvB Ôc‡oÕ AKg©K wµqv| cÖ‡qvM-ˆewk‡ó¨ mKg©K wµqv AKg©K wµqv n‡Z cv‡i| †hgb : mKg©K wµqv

AKg©K wµqv

1. Avwg wUwdb †L‡qwQ|

1. Avwg wUwd‡b †L‡qwQ|

2. mwjgDwÏb mv‡ne RvKvZ w`‡q‡Qb|

2. mwjgDwÏb mv‡ne RvKv‡Z w`‡q‡Qb|

3. gvLb ivq Mvb Mv‡”Q|

3. gvLb ivq Mv‡b g‡R‡Q|

4.8 wµqvi Kvj : eZ©gvb, AZxZ, fwel¨r I AbyÁv jÿ Ki : 1. AvR ¯‹zj †Lvjv| 2. MZKvj ¯‹zj eÜ wQj| 3. AvMvgxKvj †_‡K cixÿv ïiy| Ic‡ii evK¨ wZbwU‡Z wµqvc`¸‡jv wb®úbœ nevi wewfbœ mgq †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q| cÖ_g ev‡K¨ Ô†LvjvÕ wµqvwU eZ©gvb mg‡q wb®úbœ nq| wØZxq ev‡K¨ ÔwQjÕ wµqvwU c~‡e© ev AZx‡Z m¤úbœ n‡q‡Q| Z…Zxq


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ev‡K¨ Ôn‡eÕ wµqvwU Øviv KvRwU c‡i ev fwel¨‡Z m¤úbœ n‡e Ggb fve cÖKvk †c‡q‡Q| †`Lv hv‡”Q, g‡bvfve cÖKv‡ki Rb¨ ev‡K¨i wµqvc` wewfbœ mgq ev Kv‡j m¤úbœ nIqv wb‡`©k K‡i _v‡K| wµqv m¤úbœ nIqvi GB mgq ev Kvj‡K wµqvi Kvj e‡j| wµqvi Kvj wZb cÖKvi| h_v : 1. eZ©gvb Kvj 2. AZxZ Kvj 3. fwel¨r Kvj 1. eZ©gvbKvj : †h wµqv GLb m¤úbœ nq ev n‡”Q eySvq, Zv‡K eZ©gvbKvj e‡j| †hgb : Avwg cwo| †m hvq| KvKwj †`Šovq| AvBDe Mvb Mvq| 2. AZxZKvj : †h wµqv Av‡MB m¤úbœ n‡q‡Q, Zvi Kvj‡K AZxZKvj e‡j| †hgb : Avwg Zv‡K †`‡LwQjvg| MZKvj XvKv wM‡qwQjvg| gv ivbœv KiwQ‡jb| 3. fwel¨rKvj : †h wµqv AvMvgx‡Z ev fwel¨‡Z m¤úbœ n‡e Ggb †evSvq, Zvi Kvj‡K fwel¨rKvj e‡j| †hgb : e„wó Avm‡e| mxgv Kvj Mvb MvB‡e| cv_© bvP‡e| cÖ‡Z¨KwU Kvj Avevi K‡qK fv‡M wef³| h_v : 1. eZ©gvbKvj : K. mvaviY eZ©gvb L. NUgvb eZ©gvb M. cyivNwUZ eZ©gvb 2. AZxZKvj : K. mvaviY AZxZ L. NUgvb AZxZ

M. cyivNwUZ AZxZ

3. fwel¨rKvj : K. mvaviY fwel¨r L. NUgvb fwel¨r M. cyivNwUZ fwel¨r

N. wbZ¨e„Ë AZxZ


44

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

1. eZ©gvbKvj K. mvaviY eZ©gvb : †h wµqvi KvRwU eZ©gv‡b mvaviYfv‡e N‡U ev nq, Zv‡K mvaviY eZ©gvb ev wbZ¨e„Ë eZ©gvbKvj e‡j| †hgb : mKv‡j m~h© I‡V| `yB Avi `yB‡q Pvi nq| Avwg †ivR we`¨vj‡q co‡Z hvB| L. NUgvb eZ©gvb : †h wµqvi KvR eZ©gv‡b NU‡Q ev Pj‡Q, GL‡bv †kl n‡q hvqwb, Zv‡K NUgvb eZ©gvbKvj e‡j| †hgb : Avgvi †QvU fvB wjL‡Q| †Q‡jiv GL‡bv dzUej †Lj‡Q| †Uwjwfk‡b iex›`ªbv‡_i †jLv bvUK †`Lv‡”Q| M. cyivNwUZ eZ©gvb : †h wµqv wKQz Av‡M †kl n‡q‡Q wKšÍy Zvi dj GL‡bv i‡q‡Q, Zv‡K cyivNwUZ eZ©gvbKvj e‡j| †hgb : GLb evev Awdm †_‡K wd‡i‡Qb| Gevi gv †L‡Z †W‡K‡Qb| Ae‡k‡l Avwg Bs‡iwR cov †kl K‡iwQ|

2. AZxZKvj K. mvaviY AZxZ : †h wµqv AZxZKv‡j mvaviYfv‡e msNwUZ n‡q‡Q, Zv‡K mvaviY AZxZKvj e‡j| †hgb : wZwb Lyjbv †_‡K G‡jb| evsjv‡`k wµ‡KU `‡ji AwabvqK Lye fv‡jv e¨vU Ki‡jb| Avwg †Ljv †`‡L Gjvg| L. NUgvb AZxZ: †h wµqv AZxZKv‡j P‡jwQj, ZL‡bv †kl nqwb †evSvq, Zv‡K NUgvb AZxZKvj e‡j| †hgb : wiZv Nygvw”Qj| mygb eB cowQj| Avwg †Q‡j‡ejvi K_v fvewQjvg|


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M. cyivNwUZ AZxZ : †h wµqv A‡bK Av‡MB †kl n‡q †M‡Q, Zvi Kvj‡K cyivNwUZ AZxZKvj e‡j| †hgb : Avgiv ivRkvnx wM‡qwQjvg| Zzwg wK Zvi cixÿv wb‡qwQ‡j? Avwg Zv‡K fvZ †L‡Z †`‡LwQjvg| N. wbZ¨e„Ë AZxZ : †h wµqv AZx‡Z cÖvqB NUZ Ggb †evSvq, Zv‡K wbZ¨e„Ë AZxZKvj e‡j| †hgb : evev cÖwZw`b evRvi Ki‡Zb| ¯‹zj QzwUi ci eÜz‡`i m‡½ †ivR cov wb‡q Avjvc KiZvg| QywU‡Z cÖwZ eQi MÖv‡gi evwo‡Z †eov‡Z †hZvg|

3. fwel¨rKvj K. mvaviY fwel¨r : †h wµqv c‡i ev AvMvgx‡Z mvaviYfv‡e msNwUZ n‡e, Zvi Kvj‡K mvaviY fwel¨rKvj e‡j| †hgb : evev AvR Avm‡eb| ÔAvwg ne mKvj‡ejvi cvwL|Õ Zzwg nq‡Zv myKvšÍ fÆvPv‡h©i ÔQvocÎÕ c‡o _vK‡e| L. NUgvb fwel¨r : †h wµqvi KvR fwel¨‡Z ïiy n‡q Pj‡Z _vK‡e, Zvi Kvj‡K NUgvb fwel¨rKvj e‡j| †hgb : mygb nq‡Zv ZLb †`L‡Z _vK‡e| gbxlv †`Šov‡Z _vK‡e| Avwgbv K_v ej‡Z _vK‡e| M. cyivNwUZ fwel¨r : †h wµqv m¤¢eZ N‡U wM‡q‡Q Ges †mwU †evSv‡Z mvaviY fwel¨rKvj‡evaK kã e¨envi Kiv nq, Ggb n‡j Zvi Kvj‡K cyivNwUZ fwel¨rKvj e‡j| †hgb : Zzwg nq‡Zv Avgv‡K G K_v e‡j _vK‡e| m¤¢eZ AvMvgxKvj cixÿvi dj †ei n‡e| KvÂb †evanq KwVb A¼Uv ey‡S _vK‡e|


46

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

4. AbyÁv Av‡`k, Aby‡iva, AbygwZ, cÖv_©bv BZ¨vw` †evSv‡Z eZ©gvb I fwel¨rKv‡ji ga¨gcyiy‡l wµqvc‡`i †h i~c nq, Zv‡K AbyÁv e‡j| †hgb : 1. eZ©gvbKv‡ji AbyÁv : †Zvgiv KvR K‡iv| †ivnvb wjLyK| wg_¨v K_v e‡jv bv| A¼Uv eywS‡q †`‡eb? Avgv‡K Zzwg iÿv K‡iv, cÖfz| Av‡`k Kiyb Ruvnvcbv| eZ©gvbKv‡ji AbyÁvi ga¨g I bvgcyiy‡li i~c : aib

me©bvg

wefw³

wµqvc`

Zz”Qv_©K

ZzB, †Zviv

-0 k~b¨

Ki&, hv, cv, Lv, †`

mvaviY

Zzwg, †Zvgiv, †m, Zviv

-A, -I, -DK

K‡iv, hvI, LvI, †`I

m¤£gvZ¥K

Avcwb, Avcbviv, Zuviv, wZwb

-Db, -b, -Gb

hvDb, hvb, Kiyb, K‡ib

2. fwel¨rKv‡ji AbyÁv :

me mgq mwZ¨ ej‡e| eo nI, eyS‡Z cvi‡e| Amy¯’ n‡j Ilya Lv‡e|

fwel¨rKv‡ji AbyÁvi ga¨g I bvgcyiy‡li i~c : aib Zz”Qv_©K

me©bvg ZzB, †Zviv

wefw³ -m

wµqvc` Kwim, hvm, Lvm

mvaviY

Zzwg, †Zvgiv, †m, Zviv

-I, -†e

K‡iv, Ki‡e, †LI, hv‡e

m¤£gvZ¥K

Avcwb, Avcbviv, Zuviv, wZwb

-†eb

Ki‡eb, †`L‡eb, hv‡eb, †`‡eb


kã I c`

47

Kg©-Abykxjb 1. evey‡`i evwoi †Q‡j¸‡jv Lye fv‡jv| Zviv we¯Íi †jLvcov K‡i| mKj †jvK Zv‡`i fv‡jvev‡m| ¯‹z‡j Iiv wkÿKgÊjxi bqbgwY| Zviv eÜzgn‡jI A‡bK RbwcÖq| ¸iyR‡biv I‡`i iex›`ªbv‡_i ÔMí¸”QÕ cwo‡q‡Qb| ÑDc‡ii Aby‡”Q`wU‡Z †gvUv `v‡Mi k㸇jv eûePb cÖKvkK cÖZ¨q I kã| G¸‡jv †Zvgvi LvZvq †jL| Zvici G¸‡jvi †KvbwU cÖvwYevPK †KvbwU AcÖvwYevPK ev †KvbwU Dfq‡ÿ‡Î e¨eüZ nq Zv GKwU Q‡Ki g‡a¨ cÖKvk Ki| 2. Avgvi evev GKRb wkÿK| PvPv miKvwi nvmcvZv‡ji Wv³vi| Avgvi gvgv GKRb cywjk Awdmvi| Avgvi `vw` I bvwb Avgv‡K Lye fv‡jvev‡mb| Avgv‡`i GKRb M„nKg©x Av‡Q, Zv‡K mevB e‡j Avqv| Avwg I¯Ív‡`i Kv‡Q Mvb wkwL| Avgvi I¯Ív` GKRb eo MvqK| Avgv‡`i gvjx Avgv‡K dzj Mv‡Qi hZœ Ki‡Z †kLvq| ivRv-ev`kvn, ivÿm-`vbe-f~Z-wckv‡Pi Mí †kvbvq| Avgvi eÜz gvjvI Gme Mí †kv‡b| Zvi GKwU †gwb †eovj Av‡Q, †mwUI †kv‡b| ÑDc‡ii Aby‡”Q` †_‡K wewfbœ wj½evPK k㸇jv Luy‡R †ei Ki Ges †m¸‡jvi †KvbwU †Kvb †kªwYi wj‡½i AšÍM©Z ZvwjKvKv‡i †jL| 3. b`x cvi n‡q, Icv‡o Kz‡gvi‡`i GKUv MÖv‡gi †fZ‡i mvivw`b †`LwQ I‡`i gvwUi KvR| nuvwo cvwZj miv mvbwK ˆZwi Ki‡Q Iiv| †ewk †KŠZ~nj wb‡q †`‡LwQ cvUvi KvR| gvwUi cvUvq dz‡ji bKkv, iex›`ªbv_, †eYxeÜbiZ hyeZxi wPÎ, Rqby‡ji AuvKv Miyi PvKv †V‡j †Zvjvi cÖwZwjwc, DošÍ cix, gq~icw•L †bŠ‡Kvi wPÎ, †PvL ey‡R bRiyj †h euvwk evRv‡”Qb, †mB d‡UvMÖv‡di bKj| euvke‡b Av”Qbœ kxZj GKwU MÖv‡g, Awek¦vm¨ wSg aiv bxieZvi †fZ‡i, meyR k¨vIjv aiv Kz‡gvi‡`i cÖv½‡Y mvi w`‡q mvRv‡bv iex›`ªbv_, bRiyj, Rqbyj| ÑDc‡ii Aby‡”Q` †_‡K we‡kl¨ (msÁvevPK, †kªwYevPK, mgwóevPK), wµqv (mgvwcKv, AmgvwcKv) c`¸‡jv Luy‡R †ei K‡i GKwU QK ˆZwi Ki| 4. mvaviY eZ©gvb Kv‡ji wewkó cÖ‡qvM †`wL‡q K‡qKwU evK¨ evbvI| †hgb : K. PÊx`vm e‡jb, Ômevi Dci gvbyl mZ¨ Zvnvi Dc‡i bvB|Õ [ AZxZ Kv‡ji A‡_©, cÖvPxb †jL‡Ki DׄwZ w`‡Z ] L. GLb Z‡e Avwm| [ fwel¨rKv‡ji A‡_©, AbygwZ cÖv_©bvq ]


cÂg cwi‡”Q`

kãMVb 5. kãMVb 5.1 aŸb¨vZ¥K kã, AbyKvi kã I kã‰ØZ 5.2 kã MVb : cÖv_wgK aviYv 5. kãMVb 5.1 aŸb¨vZ¥K kã, AbyKvi kã I kã‰ØZ aŸb¨vZ¥K kã †Kv‡bv wKQzi ¯^vfvweK ev KvíwbK AbyK…wZwewkó k‡ãi i~c‡K aŸb¨vZ¥K kã e‡j| †hgb : †ND †ND (KzKz‡ii WvK ev aŸwb) go go (MvQ †f‡O covi kã) Vv Vv (†iv‡`i ZxeªZvi Abyfe) aŸb¨vZ¥K kã KZ¸‡jv aŸwbi wgwjZ i~c| GB mw¤§wjZ aŸwb GKw`‡K Kv‡b †kvbv aŸwbi AbyKi‡Y m„ó, Ab¨w`‡K gvby‡li bvbv m~² Abyf~wZi cÖZxK| evsjv fvlvq aŸb¨vZ¥K k㸇jvi wbR¯^ †Kv‡bv A_© †bB| wKšÍy ev‡K¨ e¨eüZ n‡j G¸‡jv we‡kl Zvrch©c~Y© A_© cÖKvk K‡i _v‡K| †hgb :

1. gvby‡li aŸwbi AbyK…wZ : †fD †fD : †jvKwU †fD †fD K‡i Kvbœv ïiy Kij| wn wn : GZ wn wn K‡i nvmvi KviY Kx? U¨v U¨v : Kv‡bi Kv‡Q GZ U¨v U¨v K‡iv bv †Zv, gv_v a‡i †Mj| ¸Y¸Y : †g‡qwU ¸Y¸Y K‡i Mvb MvB‡Q| LK LK : ey‡ov †jvKwU LKLK K‡i Kvk‡Q|


kã I c`

49

2. RxeRšÍyi aŸwbi AbyK…wZ : †ND †ND : KzKziwU †ND †ND K‡i wPrKvi Ki‡Q| wgD wgD : weovjwU wgD wgD K‡i †W‡K †Kv‡j G‡m emj| Kzû Kzû : em‡šÍ †KvwKj †W‡K I‡V Kzû Kzû i‡e| Kv Kv : KvK¸‡jv GKmv‡_ Kv Kv K‡i †W‡K DVj| Mi Mi : ZLb evNwU iv‡M Mi Mi Ki‡Z jvMj| 3. e¯‘i aŸwbi AbyK…wZ : NPNP : K…l‡Kiv NPNP K‡i avb †K‡U P‡j‡Q| gogo : MvQUv gogo K‡i †f‡O coj| ¸o¸o : ¸o¸o K‡i †gN WvK‡Q| KjKj : KjKj K‡i b`x e‡q P‡j‡Q| SgSg : SgSg K‡i e„wó bvgj| 4. Abyf~wZi KvíwbK AbyK…wZ : wSwKwgwK : ÔPuv‡`i wKiY †j‡M K‡i wSwKwgwK|Õ Vv Vv : Vv Vv †iv‡` Ny‡i †ewoI bv| KzU KzU : gkvq KzU KzU K‡i Kvgov‡”Q| Qg Qg : f‡q Mv Qg Qg Ki‡Q| †Puv †Puv : wÿ‡aq †cU †Puv †Puv Ki‡Q|

AbyKvi kã k‡ãi AbyKi‡Y ev weKv‡i †hme k‡ãi m„wó nq, Zv‡K AbyKvi kã e‡j| AbyKvi kã aŸb¨vZ¥K k‡ãiB iKg‡di gvÎ| †hgb : Av‡evjZv‡evj : †bvgvb mKvj †_‡K Av‡evjZv‡evj e‡K P‡j‡Q| Kvco‡Pvco : gv evB‡i hvevi Rb¨ Kvco‡Pvco c‡i ˆZwi n‡q e‡m Av‡Qb| Lvevi`vevi

: GBgvÎ Lvevi`vevi †kl n‡q‡Q|

†MvQMvQ

: wRwbmcÎ †MvQMvQ K‡i bvI, GÿzwY †eiye|

†PvUcvU

: Avgv‡K †PvUcvU K‡i †Kv‡bv jvf n‡e bv|

Romo

: f‡q †Q‡jUv Romo n‡q Av‡Q|


50

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

†U‡bUz‡b : †g‡qwU †U‡bUz‡b cvm K‡i‡Q| wdUdvU : nxiv me mgq wdUdvU _v‡K| e‡KS‡K : ïay e‡KS‡K Kx †Q‡j‡g‡q gvbyl Kiv hvq? wgUgvU : mgm¨vUv wgUgvU n‡q †M‡Q| ivbœvevbœv : ivbœvevbœv †kl, Gevi Lvevi cvjv| †kl‡gk : NUbvwU †kl‡gk eo KZ©vi Kv‡b wM‡q DVj| nvev‡Mvev : nvejy GL‡bv nvev‡MvevB †_‡K †Mj|

kã‰ØZ evsjv fvlvq †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv kã, c` ev AbyKvi kã GKevi e¨envi Ki‡j †h A_© cÖKvk K‡i, †m¸‡jv `yevi e¨envi Ki‡j Zvi A‡_©i m¤cÖmviY N‡U ev we‡klfv‡e †Rviv‡jv Awfe¨w³ cÖKvk cvq| G¸‡jv‡K wØiy³ kã e‡j| †hgb : R¡i (†ivM we‡kl) : Avgvi R¡i n‡q‡Q| R¡i R¡i (R¡‡ii fve, R¡i bq) : Avgvi R¡i R¡i †eva n‡”Q| gvby‡li ˆ`bw›`b K_vevZ©vq G iKg cÖPzi wØiy³ kã e¨eüZ nq| G ai‡bi wØiy³ kã‡K wZb fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq| h_v : 1. k‡ãi wØiyw³ ev kã‰ØZ 2. c‡`i wØiyw³ ev c`‰ØZ 3. aŸb¨vZ¥K wØiyw³ kã‰ØZ : GKB kã ci ci `yevi e¨eüZ n‡q wewkó A_© cÖKvk Ki‡j Zv‡K k‡ãi wØiyw³ ev kã‰ØZ e‡j| kã‰ØZ bvbvfv‡e MwVZ n‡Z cv‡i| †hgb: 1. GKB kã `yevi e¨envi K‡i : eQi eQi

: eQi eQi cixÿvq fvj dj Ki‡Qv, G‡Z Avgiv mevB Lywk|

e¯Ív e¯Ív

: e¯Ív e¯Ív avb f‡i wb‡q UªvKwU P‡j †Mj|

†duvUv †duvUv : eviv›`vi Qv` †_‡K †duvUv †duvUv cvwb co‡Q| Av‡¯Í Av‡¯Í : GKUz Av‡¯Í Av‡¯Í Pj, Avgvi cv‡q e¨_v| Pj‡Z Pj‡Z : Pj‡Z Pj‡Z K_v e‡jv|


kã I c`

51

g‡b g‡b

: g‡b g‡b covi †P‡q AvIqvR K‡i cov fvj|

R‡b R‡b

: mKv‡j m~h© I‡V GK_v R‡b R‡b wR‡Ám K‡i Rvbvi cÖ‡qvRb nq bv|

K_vq K_vq : K_vq K_vq †Zvgvi K_v G‡m †Mj| †L‡q †L‡q : G mgv‡R A‡b‡KB †L‡q †L‡q †`nUv Avjyi e¯Ívi g‡Zv K‡i †d‡j‡Q| e‡j e‡j

: Ô†Zv‡K w`‡q wKQyB n‡e bvÕÑ GK_v e‡j e‡j meyR‡K g‡bvejnxb Kiv n‡q‡Q|

2. GKB k‡ãi mgv_©K (cÖvq) Avi-GKwU kã e¨envi K‡i : Avkv-fimv AvZ¥xq-¯^Rb K_v-evZ©v Pvj-Pjb XvK‡Xvj ab‡`ŠjZ fqWi gv_vgyÊz myLkvwšÍ

: : : : : : : : :

GKgvÎ †Q‡jwU evev-gv‡qi Avkv-fimvi ¯’j| evwo‡Z A‡bK AvZ¥xq-¯^Rb G‡m‡Q| Zvi mv‡_ Avgvi K_v-evZ©v n‡q‡Q| †jvKwUi Pvj-Pjb inm¨RbK| e¨vcviUv XvK‡Xvj wcwU‡q bv Rvbv‡j wK PjZ bv? KzZzeywÏb mv‡ne A‡bK ab‡`Šj‡Zi gvwjK| †Q‡jwUi fqWi e‡j wKQz †bB| †Zvgvi K_vi gv_vgyÊy wKQzB eySjvg bv| †bkvMÖ¯Í †Q‡j‡g‡qi Kvi‡Y msmv‡i myLkvwšÍ bó nq|

3. †Rvo k‡ãi ci-Ask AvswkK cwieZ©b K‡i : KvQvKvwQ †P‡qwP‡šÍ WvKvWvwK gviai ivMvivwM

: : : : :

K_vmvwnwZ¨K nvmvb AvwRRyj n‡Ki evwoi KvQvKvwQ Avgiv _vwK| A‡bK †P‡qwP‡šÍ Zvi KvQ †_‡K wKQz UvKv avi K‡i G‡bwQ| Avgv‡K WvKvWvwK Kivi `iKvi n‡e bv, mgq g‡Zv P‡j hve| GZ gviai †L‡qI †PviwU Pzwi Kiv gvjvgvj †diZ w`j bv| G‡mv ivMvivwM bv K‡i e¨vcviUv wgwU‡q †dwj|

4. wecixZ kã‡hv‡M : Avmj-bKj Avmv-hvIqv B”Qv-Awb”Qv †ePv-†Kbv Rb¥-g„Zz¨ †`bv-cvIbv

: : : : : :

GLb Avmj-bKj †Pbv eo `vq| Avgv‡`i evwo‡Z Zvi Avmv-hvIqv Av‡Q| †Zvgvi B”Qv-Awb”Qvq wKQz hvq-Av‡m bv| Drm‡ei evRv‡i †ePv-†Kbv †ek R‡g D‡V‡Q| Rb¥-g„Zz¨ m„wóKZ©vi nv‡Z| †`bv-cvIbv wgwU‡q w`‡q nuvd †Q‡o euvPjvg|


52

fv‡jv-g›` nvi-wRZ

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

: gvby‡li Pwi‡Î fv‡jv-g›` `yw`KB _v‡K| : †Ljvq nvi-wRZ _vK‡eB|

5. AbyKvi aŸwb‡hv‡M : UzcUvc UzsUvs wPKwPK kbkb QjQj UbUb

: : : : : :

UzcUvc K‡i e„wó co‡Q| Pzwo ev‡R UzsUvs| ÔwPKwPK K‡i evwj †Kv_vI bvB Kv`v|Õ kbkb K‡i evqy eq| Zvi †PvL QjQj Ki‡Q| nvZUv e¨_vq UbUb Ki‡Q|

5.2 kãMVb : cÖv_wgK aviYv GK ev GKvwaK A_©c~Y© aŸwbi mgwó‡K kã e‡j| A_©B k‡ãi cÖvY| kãB ev‡K¨ e¨env‡ii gva¨‡g gvbyl g‡bi fve cwic~Y©fv‡e cÖKvk K‡i| GRb¨ bZzb bZzb kãMVb Ki‡Z nq| bvbv Dcv‡q kãMVb n‡Z cv‡i| †hgb : 1. e¨Äbe‡Y©i mv‡_ ÔKviÕ †hvM K‡i : e& + v + o& + w = evwo Z& + „ + Y = Z…Y GiKg : Mvwo, evev, wel, †bŠKv, KvKwj, ivRkvnx BZ¨vw`| 2. e¨Äbe‡Y©i mv‡_ ÔdjvÕ †hvM K‡i : K& + i = µ : eµ K& + j = K¬ : K¬všÍ GiKg : Pµ, evK¨,cÙ, ivbœv BZ¨vw`| G¸‡jv n‡”Q kãMV‡bi cÖv_wgK Dcvq| evsjv fvlvq Ggb wKQz kã Av‡Q †h¸‡jv‡K we‡kølY Kiv ev fvOv hvq bv, †m¸‡jv‡K †gŠwjK kã e‡j| †hgb : nvZ, cv, gyL, dzj, cvwL, MvQ BZ¨vw`| Avevi wKQz kã Av‡Q hv wewfbœ Dcv‡q ev cÖwµqvq MwVZ n‡q‡Q| †m¸‡jv‡K ejv nq mvwaZ kã| †hgb : Wze& + Dwi = Wzeywi Ni + Avwg = Nivwg †gN + G = †g‡N BZ¨vw`|


kã I c`

53

mvwaZ kã bvbv Dcv‡q MwVZ n‡Z cv‡i : 1. †gŠwjK kã‡hv‡M : cvMj + Avwg = cvMjvwg eB + cÎ = eBcÎ 2. k‡ãi †k‡l wefw³ †hvM K‡i : Avgv + †K = Avgv‡K evwo + i = evwoi PÆMÖvg + G = PÆMÖv‡g 3. k‡ãi Av‡M DcmM© †hvM K‡i : A Ñ AKvR, Afve, Abxj, A‡Pbv, A‰_| Av Ñ Av‡avqv, Avjywb, AvMvQv, AvMgb, AvKÉ, Avmgy`ª| wb Ñ wbLuyZ, wbjvR, wb‡iU, wbY©q, wbeviY, wb®‹jyl| we Ñ wefuyB, wedj, wec_, weÁvb, weï×, weeY©, wek„•Lj| my Ñ mybRi, myLei, myw`b, mybvg, myKÉ, mybxj, myPZzi| 4. k‡ãi c‡i cÖZ¨q †hvM K‡i : AvB DK BK Ab Lvbv Abxq

: XvKvB, wbgvB, RMvB, wgVvB| : fveyK, wgïK, wg_y¨K, jvRyK| : mvwnwZ¨K, ˆew`K, ˆ`wbK, gvwmK| : Kuv`b, euvab, fvOb, R¡jb| : wPwoqvLvbv, ˆeVKLvbv, QvcvLvbv| : KiYxq, eiYxq, ¯§iYxq|

5. mwÜi mvnv‡h¨ : we`¨v + Avjq = we`¨vjq kxZ + FZ = kxZvZ© mg + Zvc = mšÍvc w`K& + AšÍ = w`MšÍ 6. mgv‡mi mvnv‡h¨ : em‡Zi Rb¨ evwo = emZevwo gyL P‡›`ªi b¨vq = gyLP›`ª b`x gvZv hvi = b`xgvZ…K

ïf + B”Qv = ï‡f”Qv c` + nwZ = c×wZ mg + ev` = msev` cwi + Q` = cwi”Q`


54

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

`yB w`‡K Ac hvi = Øxc ixwZ‡K AwZµg bv K‡i = h_vixwZ 7. kã‰Ø‡Zi gva¨‡g : evwo > evwo evwo N‡i > N‡i N‡i Xs > Xs Xs jvj > jvj jvj `‡j > `‡j `‡j

Kg©-Abykxjb 1. Òg‡b Ki, Zzwg iv¯Ív w`‡q nuvUQ nbnwb‡q| †Zvgvi cv‡qi KvQ w`‡q momo K‡i P‡j †Mj GKUv mvc! f‡q †Zvgvi Mv QgQg K‡i DVj| gv_v Ny‡i DVj ebeb K‡i| Zzwg †fD †fD K‡i bv †Ku‡` LuvLuv †ivÏy‡iB kuvkuv K‡i †`Š‡o evwo P‡j G‡j|Ó Ñ GB Aby‡”Q‡` aŸb¨vZ¥K k‡ãi e¨envi Kiv n‡q‡Q| Zzwg †m¸‡jv wb‡`©k Ki Ges G RvZxq kã e¨envi K‡i ZzwgI GKwU Aby‡”Q` †jL| 2. Òw`b w`b Pv‡li Rwg-Rgv Kg‡Q| eb-Ub DRvo n‡q hv‡”Q| gv‡V-gv‡V dmj †bB| e‡be‡b Rxe-RšÍy †bB| eQi-eQi †jvKRb evo‡Q| evwo-Ni, †`vKvbcvU, Kj-KviLvbv n‡”Q| Lvj-wej, cyKzi-UzKzi `Lj I fivU n‡q hv‡”Q| Avgv‡`i cwi‡ek I fwel¨‡Zi R‡b¨ GwU gvivZ¥K ûgwK ¯^i~c|Ó Ñ Dc‡ii Aby‡”Q‡` wewfbœ iKg wØiy³ kã e¨envi Kiv n‡q‡Q| †KvbwU †Kvb ai‡bi wØiy³ kã cÖ‡qvM jÿ K‡i A_©mn Zvi GKwU ZvwjKv ˆZwi Ki|


lô cwi‡”Q`

evK¨ 6. 6.1 6.2 6.3

evK¨ evK¨ MV‡bi kZ© : AvKv•ÿv, AvmwË I †hvM¨Zv LÊevK¨, ¯^vaxb I Aaxb LÊevK¨ mij, RwUj I †hŠwMK ev‡K¨i MVb

6. evK¨ GK ev GKvwaK c‡`i Øviv hLb e³vi g‡bvfve m¤ú~Y©i~‡c cÖKvk cvq, ZLb Zv‡K evK¨ e‡j| †hgb : †jL| Avwg LvB| KvRx me¨mvPx eB c‡ob| ev‡K¨i c`¸‡jvi g‡a¨ cvi¯úwiK GKwU m¤úK© ev Aš^q _vK‡Z nq, hvi Kvi‡Y e³vi g‡bvfve ev e³e¨ ¯úófv‡e dz‡U I‡V| jÿ Ki : wM‡q cyKz‡i eo a‡iwQ GKUv gvQ| Luv Luv Acy hvIqvq P‡j Ki‡Q evwoUv| evK¨ `y‡Uv‡Z e³vi g‡bvfve cwi®‹vi bq| †Kbbv, c`¸‡jvi g‡a¨ cvi¯úwiK Aš^q †bB| c`¸‡jv myweb¨¯Í bq| ZvB G¸‡jv‡K evK¨ ejv hvq bv| evK¨ n‡Z n‡j c`¸‡jv myweb¨¯Ífv‡e mvRv‡Z n‡e| †hgb : cyKz‡i wM‡q eo GKUv gvQ a‡iwQ| Acy P‡j hvIqvq evwoUv Luv Luv Ki‡Q| mvaviYZ KZ©v, Kg© I wµqvc` wb‡q evK¨ MwVZ nq| Z‡e GKwU evK¨‡K mv_©K K‡i Zzj‡Z Av‡iv KZK¸‡jv ¸Y ev kZ© gvb‡Z nq|


56

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

6.1 evK¨MV‡bi kZ© : AvKv•ÿv, AvmwË, †hvM¨Zv GKwU Av`k© ev mv_©K evK¨ ZLbB MwVZ n‡e hLb evK¨wUi wZbwU ¸Y ev ˆewkó¨ _vK‡e| G ¸Y¸‡jv n‡”Q: 1. AvKv•ÿv

2. AvmwË

3. †hvM¨Zv

1. AvKv•ÿv : ev‡K¨i A_© cy‡ivcywi †evSvi Rb¨ GK c` †kvbvi ci Ab¨ c` †kvbvi B”Qv ev AvMÖn‡K AvKv•ÿv e‡j| †hgb : cjvk gb w`‡q †jLvcov ... ej‡j e³vi g‡bi fve m¤ú~Y© †evSv hvq bv| Av‡iv wKQz ejvi evwK _v‡K| Av‡iv wKQz †kvbvi B”Qv Rv‡M| hw` ejv nqÑ cjvk gb w`‡q †jLvcov K‡i| A_ev cjvk gb w`‡q †jLvcov K‡iv| A_ev cjvk gb w`‡q †jLvcov Ki‡e| Z‡e †kvbvi B”QvwU c~Y© nq| Avi Gfv‡e evK¨I m¤ú~Y© nq| 2. AvmwË : ev‡K¨i A_©msMwZ iÿv K‡i c`¸‡jv‡K h_vh_fv‡e mvwR‡q ivLvi bvg AvmwË| †hgb : evev evRvi Bwjk †_‡K G‡b‡Qb| ÑGLv‡b e³v hv ej‡Z †P‡q‡Qb Zvi me DcKiY Av‡Q| wKšÍy c`¸‡jv h_vh_fv‡e mvRv‡bv nqwb| d‡j my¯úó †Kv‡bv A_©I cÖKvk cvqwb| wKšÍyÑ evev evRvi †_‡K Bwjk G‡b‡Qb| Gfv‡e †jLv n‡j e³e¨wUi A_© cy‡ivcywi cwi®‹vi n‡q GKwU myMwVZ evK¨ n‡Zv| ZvB mv_©K ev‡K¨ e¨eüZ c`¸‡jvi h_vh_ Ae¯’v‡b _vKv Avek¨K| 3. †hvM¨Zv : ev‡K¨i AšÍM©Z c`¸‡jvi g‡a¨ A‡_©i msMwZ I fv‡ei wgjeÜb‡K †hvM¨Zv e‡j| †hgb : Avgiv eowk w`‡q gvQ awi| GwU GKwU mv_©K evK¨| †Kbbv GLv‡b c`¸‡jvi A_©MZ I fveMZ wgj iwÿZ n‡q Zv wek¦v‡mi Rb¥ w`‡q‡Q| wKšÍyÑ Avgiv eowk w`‡q bvi‡Kj cvwo|


evK¨

57

ej‡j e³e¨wU‡Z A_© I fv‡ei AmsMwZ cÖKvk cvq| Zv wek¦vm‡hvM¨I nq bv| KviY eowk w`‡q †KD bvi‡Kj cv‡o bv| myZivs ev‡K¨ c`¸‡jvi g‡a¨ A‡_©i msMwZ I fv‡ei wgj iÿv Kiv Avek¨K| bq‡Zv †hvM¨Zvi Afv‡e Zv evK¨ n‡e bv|

6.2 LÊevK¨, ¯^vaxb I Aaxb LÊevK¨ LÊevK¨ cÖwZwU ev‡K¨i `ywU Ask _v‡K : 1. D‡Ïk¨ : ev‡K¨ hvi m¤ú‡K© wKQz ejv nq, Zv‡K D‡Ïk¨ e‡j| †hgb : wkgyj gv‡V †Lj‡Z †Mj| 2. we‡aq : ev‡K¨ D‡Ïk¨ m¤ú‡K© hv ejv nq, Zv‡K we‡aq e‡j| †hgb : wkgyj gv‡V †Lj‡Z †Mj| GKwU D‡Ïk¨ I GKwU we‡aq wµqvi (mgvwcKv) mgwó hw` wb‡R GKwU ¯^vaxb evK¨ wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ bv n‡q Ab¨ †Kv‡bv e„nËi ev‡K¨i Aski~‡c e¨eüZ nq, Zv‡K LÊevK¨ e‡j| †hgb : hviv fv‡jv †Q‡j, Zviv wkÿ‡Ki Av‡`k cvjb K‡i| ÑG ev‡K¨ `ywU LÊevK¨ Av‡Q : 1. hviv fv‡jv †Q‡j 2. Zviv wkÿ‡Ki Av‡`k cvjb K‡i| `ywU evK¨B †h‡nZz GKwU eo ev‡K¨i Ask, †m‡nZz evK¨vsk `ywU eo ev‡K¨i LÊevK¨| LÊev‡K¨ GKwUgvÎ mgvwcKv wµqv _v‡K Ges Zv Ab¨ GKwU ev‡K¨i Aski~‡c e¨eüZ nq| LÊevK¨ `y iK‡gi nq| h_v : 1. ¯^vaxb LÊevK¨ 2. Aaxb LÊevK¨ 1. ¯^vaxb LÊevK¨ : GKwU eo ev‡K¨i AšÍM©Z †h LÊevK¨ Zvi wb‡Ri A_© cÖKv‡ki Rb¨ Ab¨ †Kv‡bv LÊev‡K¨i Ici wbf©ikxj bq, Zv‡K ¯^vaxb ev cÖavb LÊevK¨ e‡j| †hgb : hviv fv‡jv †Q‡j, Zviv wkÿ‡Ki Av‡`k cvjb K‡i| G ev‡K¨i ÔZviv wkÿ‡Ki Av‡`k cvjb K‡iÕÑ G LÊevK¨wU‡K Avjv`v evK¨ wn‡m‡eI †jLv †h‡Z cv‡i| ¯^vaxb LÊevK¨‡K m¤ú~Y© evK¨ †_‡K Zz‡j wb‡q Avjv`vfv‡e wjL‡jI Zvi c~Y© A_© cÖKvk cvq|


58

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

2. Aaxb LÊevK¨ : GKwU eo ev‡K¨i AšÍM©Z †h LÊevK¨wU Zvi A_© m¤ú~Y©i~‡c cÖKvk Kivi Rb¨ ¯^vaxb LÊev‡K¨i Ici wbf©ikxj, Zv‡K Aaxb LÊevK¨ ev AvwkªZ ev AcÖavb LÊevK¨ e‡j| Aaxb LÊevK¨‡K m¤ú~Y© evK¨ †_‡K Zz‡j wb‡q Avjv`vfv‡e wjL‡j Zvi cwic~Y© A_© cÖKvk cvq bv, AvKv•ÿv †_‡K hvq| †hgb : hviv fv‡jv †Q‡j, Zviv wkÿ‡Ki Av‡`k cvjb K‡i| G ev‡K¨i Ôhviv fv‡jv †Q‡jÕ LÊevK¨‡K Avjv`v K‡i wjL‡j ÔAvKv•ÿvÕ ¸‡Yi weNœ N‡U|

Aaxb LÊevK¨ wZb iK‡gi : K. we‡kl¨¯’vbxq Aaxb LÊevK¨ : †h Aaxb LÊevK¨ ¯^vaxb LÊev‡K¨i †h-†Kv‡bv c‡`i Aaxb †_‡K we‡k‡l¨i KvR K‡i, Zv‡K we‡kl¨¯’vbxq Aaxb LÊevK¨ e‡j| †hgb : Avwg evwo wM‡q †`Ljvg, mevi LvIqv n‡q †M‡Q| L. we‡klY¯’vbxq Aaxb LÊevK¨ : †h Aaxb LÊevK¨ ¯^vaxb LÊev‡K¨i AšÍM©Z †Kv‡bv we‡kl¨ ev me©bv‡gi †`vl, ¸Y, Ae¯’v cÖKvk K‡i, Zv‡K we‡klY¯’vbxq Aaxb LÊevK¨ e‡j| †hgb : †h cwikªg K‡i, †m-B myL jvf K‡i| (Aaxb LÊevK¨wU Ô†m-BÕ me©bv‡gi Ae¯’v cÖKvk Ki‡Q) M. wµqv-we‡klY¯’vbxq Aaxb LÊevK¨ : †h Aaxb LÊevK¨ wµqvc‡`i ¯’vb, Kvj I KviY wb‡`©kK A‡_© e¨eüZ nq, Zv‡K wµqv-we‡klY¯’vbxq Aaxb LÊevK¨ e‡j| †hgb : Ôhw` †Zvi WvK ï‡b †KD bv Av‡m, Z‡e GKjv P‡jv †i|Õ

6.3 mij, RwUj I †hŠwMK ev‡K¨i MVb MVb Abymv‡i evK¨ wZb cÖKvi| h_v : 1. mij evK¨ 2. RwUj evK¨ 3. †hŠwMK evK¨ 1. mij evK¨ : †h ev‡K¨ GKwU KZ©v ev D‡Ïk¨ I GKwUB mgvwcKv wµqv ev we‡aq _v‡K, Zv‡K mij evK¨ e‡j| †hgb : †LvKb eB co‡Q| Avwg eû K‡ó muvZvi wk‡LwQ| RM‡Z Am¤¢e e‡j wKQz †bB|


evK¨

59

2. RwUj evK¨ : †h ev‡K¨ GKwU ¯^vaxb evK¨ Ges GK ev GKvwaK Aaxb evK¨ ci¯úi mv‡cÿfv‡e e¨eüZ nq, Zv‡K RwUj evK¨ ev wgkª evK¨ e‡j| †hgb : whwb c‡ii DcKvi K‡ib, Zuv‡K mevB kª×v K‡i| †Kv_vI c_ bv †c‡q †Zvgvi Kv‡Q G‡mwQ| Zzwg Avm‡e e‡j Avwg A‡cÿv K‡i AvwQ| 3. †hŠwMK evK¨ : `yB ev Zvi AwaK mij ev RwUj evK¨ wgwjZ n‡q hw` GKwU m¤ú~Y© evK¨ MVb K‡i, Z‡e Zv‡K †hŠwMK evK¨ e‡j| †hgb : †Q‡jwU Mwie wKšÍy †gavex| `ytL Ges wec` GK mv‡_ Av‡m| GZÿY A‡cÿv Kijvg wKšÍy Mvwo †cjvg bv| RwUj I †hŠwMK evK¨ GKvwaK evK¨vsk ev evK¨ w`‡q MwVZ| RwUj ev‡K¨i AšÍM©Z evK¨vsk¸‡jv ci¯úi mv‡cÿ, GKwU AciwUi Ici wbf©ikxj| †hŠwMK ev‡K¨i AšÍM©Z evK¨¸‡jv cÖvq ¯^Zš¿| I, Ges, Avi, A_P, wKsev, eis BZ¨vw` Ae¨q‡hv‡M †hŠwMK ev‡K¨i AšÍM©Z LÊevK¨¸‡jv hy³ nq| †hgb : RwUj : hw`I †jvKwU abx, ZeyI †m K…cY| †hŠwMK : †jvKwU abx wKšÍy K…cY| RwUj : hw`I Zuvi UvKv Av‡Q, Zey wZwb `vb K‡ib bv| †hŠwMK : Zuvi UvKv Av‡Q wKšÍy wZwb `vb K‡ib bv| RwUj : hLb wec` Av‡m, ZLb `ytLI Av‡m| †hŠwMK : wec` Ges `ytL GKB mv‡_ Av‡m|


60

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

Kg©-Abykxjb 1. †Zvgvi evwo‡Z 3/4 eQi eq‡mi †Kv‡bv wkï Av‡Q? _vK‡j (bv _vK‡j Ab¨ evwoi) Zvi Av‡av-Av‡av K_v¸‡jv gb w`‡q †kvbvi I †evSvi †Póv Ki| †`L‡e †m Aí K‡qKwU kã e¨envi K‡i Zvi g‡bi mKj fve cÖKvk Kivi †Póv Ki‡Q| †m¸‡jv †Zvgvi Kv‡Q AmsjMœ ev G‡jv‡g‡jv I nvm¨Ki g‡b n‡e| Zvi GB G‡jv‡g‡jv K_v¸‡jv †Zvgvi we‡ePbvq ev‡K¨i †Kvb ¸Y ev jÿY e¨vnZ K‡i‡Q? Av‡av-Av‡av K_v ejv †Kv‡bv wkïi wKQz AmsjMœ nvm¨Ki K_vi D‡jøL K‡i GKwU cÖwZ‡e`b cÖ¯‘Z Ki| (GwU GKwU `je× KvRI n‡Z cv‡i|) 2. GKwU KZ©v I GKwU mgvwcKv wµqv Av‡Q Ggb `kwU evK¨ †jL| Gici mgvwcKv wµqv‡K AcwiewZ©Z †i‡L evK¨wUi †Kv‡bv Ask‡K RwUj ev‡K¨ i~cvšÍi Ki| Zvici h_vm¤¢e ms‡hvRK ev we‡qvRK Ae¨‡qi cÖ‡qv‡M evK¨wU‡K †hŠwMK ev‡K¨ i~cvšÍi Ki| †hgb : Zvi eqm n‡jI eyw× nqwb| RwUj evK¨ : Zvi eqm n‡q‡Q, eyw× nqwb| †hŠwMK evK¨ : Zvi eqm n‡q‡Q wKšÍy eyw× nqwb| 3. wb‡Pi evK¨¸‡jv‡Z MVbMZ w`K †_‡K †Kvb †Kvb ¸‡Yi Afve N‡U‡Q LvZvq †jL: K. Kvj Avwg hv‡ev †Uª‡b evwo K‡i| L. m~h© cwðg w`‡K Dw`Z nq| M. gb w`‡q Ki m‡e...|


mßg cwi‡”Q`

weivg-wPý 7. weivg-wPý 7.1 weivg-wPý 7.2 Kgv, †mwg‡Kvjb, †Kvjb I nvB‡d‡bi e¨envi Kg©-Abykxjb 7. weivg-wPý 7.1 weivg-wPý gvbyl GKUvbv K_v ej‡Z cv‡i bv| ZvB Zv‡K gv‡S gv‡S _vg‡Z nq| ZvQvov Ab¨‡K K_v¸‡jv †evSvi mgqI w`‡Z nq| †jLvi †ejvqI †Zgwb gv‡S gv‡S weiwZ w`‡Z nq| K_v _vgv‡Z nq k¦vm †bevi Rb¨| †jLv _vgv‡Z ev‡K¨ e¨eüZ nq bvbv iKg wPý ev ms‡KZ| GB wPý ev ms‡KZB weivg-wPý| G‡K hwZ ev †Q`-wPýI ejv n‡q _v‡K| weivg-wPý e¨env‡ii d‡j ev‡K¨i A_© my¯úó nq| wjwLZ ev‡K¨ A_© my¯úófv‡e cÖKvk K‡i gvby‡li Av‡eM, Abyf~wZ BZ¨vw` e¨³ Kivi Rb¨ †h wQýmg~n e¨envi Kiv nq Zv‡K weivg-wPý e‡j| wb‡P ev‡K¨ e¨eüZ wewfbœ cÖKvi weivg wP‡ýi bvg, AvK…wZ wb‡`©k Kiv n‡jv: weivg wP‡ýi bvg

AvK…wZ

Kgv

,

†mwg‡Kvjb

;

`uvwo

|

wRÁvmvwPý

?

we¯§qwPý

!

†Kvjb

:

†Kvjb W¨vm

:-

W¨vm

Ñ


62

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

nvB‡db

-

D×iYwPý / DׄwZwPý

ÒÓ

eÜbx wPý

( ), { }, [ ]

weKí wPý

/

B‡jK / †jvcwPý / EaŸ©Kgv

Õ

DwjøwLZ weivg wPý¸‡jvi g‡a¨ wKQz wPý e³vi g‡bvfv‡ei mgvwß †evSv‡Z ev‡K¨i †k‡l e‡m| wKQz wPý e³vi g‡bvfv‡ei A_© my¯úófv‡e †evSv‡Z ev‡K¨i g‡a¨ e‡m| ev‡K¨i †k‡l e¨eüZ weivgwPý¸‡jv n‡”Q : `uvwo (| ), wRÁvmvwPý ( ? ) I we¯§qwPý ( ! )|

`uvwo (| ) e³vi ev †jL‡Ki g‡bvfv‡ei mgvwß †evSv‡Z ev‡K¨i †k‡l `uvwo ev c~Y©‡”Q` e‡m| †hgb : Avgiv evsjv‡`‡k evm Kwi|

wRÁvmvwPý ( ? ) e³vi g‡b †Kv‡bv wKQz Rvbvi AvMÖn Rb¥v‡j Zv Rvb‡Z ev‡K¨i †k‡l wRÁvmvwPý ev cÖkœwPý e‡m| †hgb : †Zvgvi bvg Kx?

we¯§qwPý ( ! ) e³vi g‡bi wewfbœ Av‡eM †hgb : Avb›`, †e`bv, `ytL, fq, N„Yv BZ¨vw` cÖKvk Ki‡Z Ges m‡¤^vab c‡`i c‡i we¯§qwPý ev m‡¤^vabwPý e‡m| †hgb : 1. Avnv! Kx my›`i `„k¨! 2. gv‡Mv! Zzwg KLb G‡j! ev‡K¨i g‡a¨ e¨eüZ weivg-wPý¸‡jv n‡”Q : Kgv ( , ), †mwg‡Kvjb ( ; ), †Kvjb ( : ), nvB‡db (- ), W¨vm ( Ñ ), EaŸ©Kgv ( Õ ), DׄwZwPý ( Ò Ó ), weKí wPý ( / )|

7.2 Kgv, †mwg‡Kvjb, †Kvjb I nvB‡d‡bi e¨envi Kgv ( , ) ev‡K¨ Aí weiwZ †evSv‡Z Kgv e‡m| bvbv cÖ‡qvR‡b ev‡K¨ KgvwPý e¨eüZ nq| †hgb :


weivg-wPý

63

1. ev‡K¨i A_© ¯úó Kivi Rb¨ Kgv e‡m| †hgb : Zzwg hv‡e, bv hv‡e bv? myL PvI, myL cv‡e cwikª‡g| 2. ev‡K¨ m‡¤^va‡bi ci Kgv e‡m| †hgb : †mZz, co‡Z e‡mv| we_y, Lv‡e G‡mv| 3. GKB c‡`i GKvwaK kã cvkvcvwk e¨eüZ n‡j Kgv e‡m| †hgb : we‡kl¨ : cÙv, †gNbv, hgybv evsjv‡`‡ki cÖavb cÖavb b`x| we‡klY : myL, `ytL, Avkv, wbivkv GKB gvjvi dzj| me©bvg : Zzwg, Avwg I iweb evRv‡i hve| 4. GKB ai‡bi GKvwaK evK¨ ev evK¨vsk‡K Avjv`v Ki‡Z Kgv e‡m| †hgb : †kªôv K¬v‡m XzKj, eB ivLj, Zvici †ewi‡q †Mj| Avgv‡`i Kv‡Q ¯^vaxbZv w`em, weRq w`em, c‡njv ˆekvL LyeB Avb‡›`i w`b | 5. ev‡K¨ D×viwP‡ýi Av‡M Kgv e‡m| †hgb : gv ej‡jb, ÒA¼ Ki‡Z e‡mv|Ó Avwg ejjvg, ÒM‡íi eB co‡ZB fv‡jv jvM‡Q|Ó

†mwg‡Kvjb ( ; ) GKvwaK ev‡K¨i g‡a¨ wbKU m¤úK© _vK‡j Zv‡`i gv‡S †hvMm~Î iÿvi Rb¨ †mwg‡Kvjb e¨envi Kiv nq| †mwg‡KvjbwPý Kgvi †P‡q wظY mgq weiwZ †bq| †hgb : 1. `y‡Uv ev‡K¨i g‡a¨ fve ev A‡_©i m¤^Ü _vK‡j †mwg‡Kvjb e‡m| †hgb : w`bUv fv‡jv bq; gv‡S gv‡S e„wó co‡Q| K_vUv ejv mnR; Kiv KwVb| 2. GKvwaK evK¨ ms‡hvRK Ae¨‡qi Øviv hy³ bv n‡j †mwg‡Kvjb e‡m| †hgb : Av‡M ¯‹z‡ji cov; c‡i M‡íi eB| 3. †hme Ae¨q ˆecixZ¨ ev Abygvb cÖKvk K‡i, Zv‡`i Av‡M †mwg‡Kvjb e‡m| †hgb : g‡bv‡hvM w`‡q co; Zvn‡jB fvj dj Ki‡e| †Q‡jwU †gavex; wKšÍy fvwi Ajm|


64

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

†Kvjb ( : ) ev‡K¨ bvbv Kvi‡Y †KvjbwPý e¨eüZ nq| †hgb : 1. D`vniY ev `„óvšÍ †evSv‡Z : evsjv mwÜ `y cÖKvi : ¯^imwÜ I e¨ÄbmwÜ| 2. DׄwZi Av‡M : iex›`ªbv_ e‡j‡Qb : gwi‡Z Pvwn bv Avwg my›`i fze‡b| 3. bvU‡Ki msjv‡ci Av‡M : `yKwo : Kx PvB? KvOvwj : Av‡Á, gnvkq n‡”Qb †`kwn‰Zlx| `yKwo : Zv †Zv mK‡jB Rv‡b wKšÍy Avmj e¨vcviUv Kx? KvOvwj : Avcwb mvavi‡Yi wn‡Zi Rb¨ cÖvYcYÑ

nvB‡db ( - ) nvB‡db‡K evsjvq ms‡hvMwPý ejv nq| wewfbœ Kvi‡Y ev‡K¨ nvB‡d‡bi e¨envi nq| †hgb : 1. `y‡Uv k‡ãi ms‡hvM †evSv‡Z nvB‡db e‡m| †hgb : Avgvi gv-evev †eov‡Z †M‡Qb| cvc-cyY¨, fv‡jv-g›` we‡eK w`‡q eyS‡Z nq| 2. mgvme× c‡`i Ask¸‡jv wew”Qbœ K‡i †`Lvevi Rb¨ nvB‡db e‡m| †hgb : Avgv‡`i cÖxwZ-Dcnvi MÖnY Kiyb| Zv‡`i g‡a¨ Awn-bKzj m¤úK©| 3. GKB ai‡bi kã cÖKv‡ki †ÿ‡Î nvB‡db e‡m| †hgb : evsjv‡`k b`-b`xi †`k| XvKv-Lyjbv-ewikvj G †`‡ki eo kni|


weivg-wPý

65

Kg©-Abykxjbx 1. wb‡Pi Aby‡”Q`¸‡jv‡Z weivgwPý emvI : K. Avgv‡`i MÖv‡gi N‡i N‡i †h wkKv nvZcvLv dzjwcVv ˆZwi Kiv nq Zv †gv‡UB Ae‡njvi mvgMÖx bq L. hyeK ewjj wK †m KvR Avwg wK Zvnv Rvwb‡Z cvwi bv K…cv Kwiqv Avgv‡K Zvnv Rvwb‡Z `vI Awfbœü`q myü‡`i b¨vq cÖvY w`qvI Avwg †m Kv‡h© †Zvgvi mnvqZv Kwie M. gyw³ ejj m¨vi e‡j‡Qb AvR K¬v‡m wZwb iex›`ªbv‡_i †Q‡j‡ejv wb‡q Mí †kvbv‡eb| Avwg ejjvg wZwb wK †Kvb eB c‡o Avm‡Z e‡jwQ‡jb gyw³ ejj Zzwg MZ K¬v‡m Av‡mvwb †Kb K¬vm bv Ki‡j KZ K_v Rvbv hvq bv ey‡S‡Qv Avwg DËi w`jvg †m w`b Avwg LyeB Amy¯’ wQjvg| Gevi gyw³ ejj m¨vi AvR Avgv‡`i †Kv‡bv eB c‡o Avmvi K_v e‡j †`bwb| 2. ev‡K¨ †Kv_vq †Kv_vq W¨vk I nvB‡db e‡m `„óvšÍmn Dc¯’vcb Ki|


Aóg cwi‡”Q`

evbvb 8. evbvb 8.1 evbv‡bi K‡qKwU mvaviY wbqg 8. evbvb fvlv ï×i~‡c wjL‡Z n‡j †m fvlvi evbvb Rvbv Lye Riywi| cÖ‡Z¨K fvlviB evbv‡bi wbqg Av‡Q| evsjv fvlvi evbv‡biI we‡kl wKQz wbqg i‡q‡Q| GB wbqg mgq e`‡ji m‡½ m‡½ wKQyUv AvaywbK Kiv nq| evsjv‡`‡k mvaviYfv‡e gvb¨ Kiv nq evsjv GKv‡Wgx Aby‡gvw`Z evbvbixwZ| wb‡P evsjv evbv‡bi K‡qKwU mvaviY wbqg †`Lv‡bv n‡jv|

8.1 evbv‡bi K‡qKwU mvaviY wbqg K. evbv‡b B C, D E-Gi e¨envi 1. †hme Zrmg k‡ãi evbv‡b n«¯^ I `xN© Dfq ¯^i ( B C, D E ) Awfavbwm×, †m †ÿ‡Î Ges AZrmg ( Z™¢e, †`wk, we‡`wk, wgkª ) k‡ãi evbv‡b ïay nª¯^¯^i ( B w, D y ) n‡e| †hgb :

Zrmg k‡ã : A½ywi, AUwe, Avwei, Avwkm&, Dlv, wKse`wšÍ, KzwUi, MwÊ, MÖš’vewj, wPrKvi, ZiwY, Zwi, †`wk, c`we, we‡`wk, åy, †kªwY, mviwY|

AZrmg k‡ã : Av`wg, Avwcj, Avwgb, Avjgvwi, DwKj, D`y©, KvwR, Kvievwi, KvwiMwi, Kzwgi, †Kivwb, wLªó, wLªóvã, Mwie, MvwR, Mvwo, wMwbœ, PvKwi, Riywi, Rvbyqvwi, wWwMÖ, `iKvwi, `vwe, w`wN, ay‡jv, bvm©vwi, cowk, c`we, evwo, euvwk, evOvwj, †e-AvBwb, fzZz‡o, wgw¯¿, gy‡jv, †g‡qwj, whï, †ikwg, jUvwi, jvB‡eªwi, kvïwo, wkKvwi, mewR, miKvwi, mywbœ, nvwR, wnRwi|


evbvb

67

2. K‡qKwU ¯¿xevPK k‡ãi †k‡l C-Kvi n‡e| †hgb : Awf‡bÎx, KΩx, Kj¨vYx, wK‡kvix, Mvfx, ¸YeZx, PÊx, PZz`©kx, QvÎx, Rbbx, ZiyYx, `vmx, `ytwLbx, †`ex, bvix, cZœx, wckvPx, we`ylx, eyw×gZx, gvZvgnx, gvbex, hyeZx, j²x, kªxgZx, mZx, mi¯^Zx, nwiYx, ˆngšÍx| 3. fvlv I RvwZi bv‡gi †k‡l B-Kvi n‡e| †hgb : AvdMvwb, Aviwe, Bs‡iwR, BivwK, Bivwb, Bûw`, Kvwk¥wi, Rvcvwb, ZzwK©, †bcvwj, cvwK¯Ívwb, cvÄvwe, divwm, evOvwj, muvIZvwj, wmwÜ, wnw›`| 4. we‡klYevPK ÔAvwjÕ-cÖZ¨qhy³ k‡ã B-Kvi n‡e| †hgb : ˆPZvwj, cyevwj, eY©vwj, wgZvwj, †g‡qwj, iycvwj, †mvbvwj|

L. evbv‡b I-Gi e¨envi 1. wµqvc‡`i evbv‡b c`v‡šÍ I-Kvi ( † v ) Acwinvh© bq| †hgb : Avbe, KiZ, †Lje, Pje, †`LZ, aie, bvPe, coe, ejZ, gie, give, joe, wjLe| 2. eZ©gvb AbyÁvi mvgvb¨i~‡c c`v‡šÍ I-Kvi cÖ`vb Kiv hvq| †hgb : Av‡bv, K‡iv, †L‡jv, P‡jv, †`‡Lv, a‡iv, bv‡Pv, c‡ov, e‡jv, gv‡iv, j‡ov, †j‡Lv| 3. ÔAv‡bvÕ cÖZ¨qvšÍ k‡ãi †k‡l I-Kvi n‡e| †hgb : Kiv‡bv, LvIqv‡bv, V¨vOv‡bv, †`Lv‡bv, bvgv‡bv, cvVv‡bv, †kvqv‡bv| 4. A_© ev D”PviY weåvwšÍi my‡hvM _vK‡j wKQz we‡kl¨, we‡klY I Ae¨q k‡ã I-Kvi †`Iqv Avek¨K| †hgb : Kvj (mgq), Kv‡jv (K…ò eY©); †Kvb (Kx, †K, †KvbwU), †Kv‡bv (eûi g‡a¨ GK); fvj (Kcvj), fv‡jv (DËg)|

M. evbv‡b wemM© ( t )-Gi e¨envi 1. c`v‡šÍ wemM© ( t ) _vK‡e bv| †hgb : µgk, wØZxqZ, cÖ_gZ, cÖavbZ, e¯‘Z, g~jZ| 2. c`ga¨¯’ wemM© _vK‡e| †hgb : AšÍt¯’, `ytL, `ytmn, wbtkã, cybtcyb, ¯^Ztù~Z©|


68

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

3. Awfavbwm× n‡j c`ga¨¯’ wemM© eR©bxq| †hgb : `y¯’, wbk¦vm, wb¯ú„n, ewn¯’, gb¯’|

N. evbv‡b g~a©b¨-Y I `šÍ¨-b-Gi e¨envi 1. hy³e¨Ä‡b (Zrmg k‡ã) U-eM©xq e‡Y©i (U V W X) c~e©eZ©x cÖhy³ ¯’‡j g~a©b¨-Y nq| †hgb : KÈK, NÈv, wbN©È, eÈb, AKzÉ, AvKÉ, DrKÉv, DcKÉ, KÉ, KÉbvwj, jyÉb, AKvjKz®§vÊ, AÊ, KvÊ, KvÊvix, KzÊj, LÊ, PÊx, `Ê, cwÊZ, fÊ, fÊvwg| 2. Zrmg k‡ã F,F-Kvi ( „ ), i, i-djv ( ª ), †id ( © ), l, ÿ-Gi ci g~a©b¨-Y nq| †hgb : FY, Z…Y, AiY¨, ÎvY, eY©, we`~lY, we‡klY, ÿY, ÿwYK| 3. GKB k‡ãi g‡a¨ F, F-Kvi, i, i-djv, †id, l, ÿ-Gi †h †Kv‡bvwUi c‡i ¯^ieY©, K-eM©, c-eM© Ges h, q, n, Aby¯^vi ( s ), Ñ GB eY©¸‡jvi GKwU ev GKvwaK eY© _vK‡jI cieZ©x g~a©b¨-Y nq| †hgb : K…cY, wbi~cY, AMÖnvqY, AKg©Y¨, wbe©vY, me©v½xY, A‡cÿgvY, eÿgvY| 4. cÖ, civ, cwi, wbi- GB PviwU Dcm‡M©i ci bg&, bk&, bx, by, Ab&, nb& cÖf…wZ avZzi `šÍ¨-b ¯’‡j g~a©b¨-Y nq| †hgb : cÖ : cÖYvg, cÖYe, cÖYxZ, cÖwYcvZ; civ : civqY, civnè; cwi : cwiYwZ, cwiYvg, cwiYq; wbi : wbY©xZ, wbY©q, wbY©vqK| 5. hy³e¨Äb MV‡b (AZrmg k‡ã) U-e‡M©i c~‡e© `šÍ¨-b nq| †hgb : B›Uvi, DB›Uvi, Kv‡i›U, MÖ¨vÛ, †UÛvi, c¨v›U, e¨vÛ, jÛb, †m›Uªvj| 6. hy³e¨Äb MV‡b (Zrmg, AZrmg mKj k‡ã) Z-e‡M©i c~‡e© `šÍ¨-b nq| †hgb : AbšÍ, AšÍi½, GKvšÍ, K¬všÍ, R¡jšÍ, gš¿x, MÖš’, cvš’, Awb›`¨, civbœ, cÖ”Qbœ, ivbœv, mvwbœa¨| 7. mwÜ I mgvm‡hv‡M MwVZ k‡ãi evbv‡b `šÍ¨-b envj _v‡K| †hgb : AMÖbvqK, Anwb©k, ÿzwbœe„wË, wPÎv¼b, `yb©vg, `ywb©evi, `yb©xwZ, wbwb©‡gl , wkÿv½b| 8. Z™¢e, †`wk I we‡`wk k‡ã me©Î `šÍ¨-b n‡e| †hgb : Avcb, Avqib, Kzwb©k, †Kvivb, wMÖb, wPiywb, Sibv, aib, evwb©k, †giyb, jÚb, wknib, nb©|


evbvb

69

O. evbv‡b g~a©b¨-l-Gi e¨envi 1. F wKsev F-Kvi ( „ )-Gi c‡i g~a©b¨-l nq| †hgb : Fwl, K…wl, K…lK, K…ò, Z…òv, Z…wlZ, `„wó, m„wó, üówPË| 2. i-aŸwb †id ( © )-Gi i~c wb‡q †Kv‡bv e¨Äbe‡Y©i gv_vq em‡j H e¨Ä‡bi ci g~a©b¨-l nq| †hgb : AvKl©Y, Cl©v, DrKl©, el©v, el©Y, wegl©, gyg~l©y, kxl©, mßwl©, nl©| 3. A, Av Qvov Ab¨ †Kv‡bv ¯^ieY© Ges K&, i& e‡Y©i cieZ©x `šÍ¨-m g~a©b¨-l nq| †hgb : Clr, Dlv, GlYv, †Kvl, wRMxlv, welg, fwel¨r, †ivl, mylgv| 4. B-KvivšÍ I D-KvivšÍ Dcm‡M©i ci KZK¸‡jv avZz‡Z g~a©b¨-l nq| †hgb : m½> Abyl½, †mK> Awf‡lK, ¯’vb> Awaôvb, myß> mylyß| 5. hy³e¨Äb MV‡b (Zrmg k‡ã) U-e‡M©i c~‡e© g~a©b¨-l nq| †hgb : Awbó, Aóg, Avoó, Dw”Qó, Dc‡`óv, Kó, †Póv, †Mvôx, cÖwZôv, f~wgô, †kªô, myôz| 6. hy³e¨Äb MV‡b (Zrmg, AZrmg mKj k‡ã) Z-e‡M©i c~‡e© `šÍ¨-m nq| †hgb : Aa¯Íb, B¯Ídv, DØv¯‘, I¯Ív`, K¯‘wi, Kv‡¯Í, Rei`w¯Í, ¯’vb, ¯’vbxq, ¯^v¯’¨| 7. hy³e¨Äb MV‡b (Zrmg, AZrmg mKj k‡ã) P-e‡M©i c~‡e© Zvje¨-k nq| †hgb : Avðh©, `yðwiÎ, wbðq, cðvr, cÖvqwðË, e„wðK, wbwñ`ª|

P. evbv‡b †id ( © )-Gi e¨envi †id-Gi ci †Kv_vI ( Zrmg, AZrmg mKj k‡ã ) e¨Äbe‡Y©i wØZ¡ n‡e bv| †hgb : KR©, Kg©, Kvh©, c~e©, d`©, gg©i, kZ©, m~h©|

Q. evbv‡b O / s-Gi e¨envi 1. mw܇Z (Zrmg k‡ã) cÖ_g c‡`i †k‡l g& _vK‡j K-e‡M©i c~‡e© g& ¯’v‡b s (Aby¯^vi) n‡e| †hgb : AnsKvi (Ang& +Kvi), wKsKi, wKse`wšÍ, SsKvi, fqsKi, msKí, msKxY©, msMxZ, msN, msNvZ, ûsKvi| 2. Dch©y³ wbq‡g mwÜRvZ bv n‡j, hy³e¨Ä‡b K-e‡M©i c~‡e© g& ¯’v‡b O (D‡quv)) n‡e| †hgb : AvKv•ÿv, A¼zi, A½, Bw½Z, D”Q…•Lj, K¼vj, Kvw•ÿZ, M½v, Rw½, `v½v, c¼R, c½y, e½, fw½, j•Nb, wkÿv½b, m½x|


70

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

3. cÖZ¨q I wefw³nxb k‡ãi †k‡l s (Aby¯^vi) e¨eüZ nq| †hgb : Avos, B`vbxs, Ges, V¨vs, Xs, cvjs, dwos, eis, is, wks| 4. Z‡e Aby¯^vihy³ k‡ã cÖZ¨q, wefw³ ev ¯^ieY© hy³ n‡j s ¯’‡j O †jLv n‡e| †hgb : Avo‡O, U‡O, X‡O, dwo‡Oi, iwOb, ivwO‡q, m‡Oi|

Kg©-Abykxjb

1. Avmv‡p e„wó nq| AwZ e„wói cvwY cwibv‡g e‡q Av‡b eb¨v| †jv‡Ki K÷ ev‡o| †`Lv †`q wewfbœ †iv‡Mi cÖ`ytfve| PjvPj `y¯‹i n‡q c‡o| ÑGB evK¨¸‡jv †_‡K fzj evbvb¸‡jv Luy‡R †ei Ki| †m¸‡jv †Kvb Kvi‡Y fzj Zv D‡jøL Ki| 2. †Zvgvi cvV¨eB‡qi †h-†Kv‡bv GKwU Mí Lye fv‡jv K‡i co| Zvici MíwU †_‡K †hme evbv‡b B, D-Kvi Ges †h-me ¯¿xevPK k‡ã C-Kvi cvIqv hvq †m¸‡jvi GKwU ZvwjKv ˆZwi Ki| (GwU Zzwg GKwU MÖyc ˆZwi K‡iI Ki‡Z cvi|)


beg cwi‡”Q`

Awfavb 9. Awfavb 9.1 eY©vbyµg 9.2 fzw³ I kxl© kã Kg©-Abykxjb 9. Awfavb Bs‡iwR Dictionary kãwUi evsjv A_© ÔAwfavbÕ| Awfavb n‡jv fvlvi †mB MÖš’, hv †_‡K H fvlvi kãmg~n, k‡ãi A_©, Drm, ey¨rcwË, c` wbY©q BZ¨vw` welq m¤ú‡K© wek`fv‡e Rvbv hvq| Awfavb Rvwb‡q †`q k‡ãi ï× i~c †KvbwU, ï× evbvb †KvbwU, ï× A_© †KvbwU| Awfavb gv‡bB n‡”Q ï×Zvi cªZxK| c„w_exi me DbœZ fvlviB Awfavb ev kã‡Kvl Av‡Q| evsjv fvlvqI msKwjZ n‡q‡Q mg„× Awfavb|

9.1 eY©vbyµg Awfav‡b k‡ãi ci kã mvRv‡bv _v‡K eY©vbyµwgKfv‡e| cÖ_‡g A w`‡q †hme k‡ãi evbvb ïiy, †m¸‡jv| Zvici Av w`‡q, Zvici B w`‡q; Gfv‡e e‡Y©i µg Abymv‡i mvRv‡bv _v‡K Awfavb| Z‡e mvaviYfv‡e e‡Y©i †h µg gvb¨ Kiv nq Zv †_‡K Awfav‡b mvgvb¨ e¨wZµg †`Lv hvq| wb‡P Awfav‡b AšÍf©y³ k‡ãi eY©vbyµg †`Lv‡bv n‡jv|

mvaviY eY©vbyµg A K U c n

Av B C D E F G H L M N O P Q R S V W X Y Z _ ` a d e f g h i j k ÿ o p q r s t u

I J T b l m

Awfav‡b e¨eüZ eY©vbyµg A Av B C D E F G H I J s t u K ÿ L M N O P Q R S T


72

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

U V W o X p Y Z (r) _ ` a b c d e f g h q i j k l m n hy³vÿ‡ii eY©vbyµg ° ± ³ ÿ · M&Y » ¼ •¶ •L ½ •N ”P ”Q ”T ¾ À Á Â Ã Ä Å Æ Ç oM È É Ê Y&X Yœ Y&g Ë Ì ˜M ˜N Ï × Ø ™¢ aŸ ›U Ú Û b&X šÍ š’ ›` Ü bœ b¥ Þ ß à á â ã ä eŸ ef ¤ú ç ¤^ ¤¢ ¤§ é ê ë ì í j¥ jø ð ñ ®‹ ó ô ò ®ú õ ®§ ¯‹ ÷ ¯Í ¯’ ¯ú ù nè ý þ Kvi wPý

v w x

djvwPý Y g ¨

y ~ „ † ˆ †v

†Š

ª j e

¯^ieY©, KviwPý, Aby¯^vi, wemM© I P›`ªwe›`yi web¨v‡mi bgybv K KA KAv KB KC KD KE KF KG KH KI KJ Ks Kt Ku KuK KuL ... Kv KvA KvAv KvB KvC KvD KvE KvF KvG KvH KvI KvJ Kvs Kvt Kuv KuvK KuvL...

9.2 fzw³ I kxl© kã Awfav‡b †h k‡ã A_© †`Iqv nq, †mwU †evì UvB‡c ev †gvUv ni‡d gyw`ªZ _v‡K| GwU‡K kxl© kã e‡j| †hgb : AFYx [Awiwb] weY FYgy³; FYk~b¨| {m. A+FY+Bb(Bwb); m. Ab&Yx} ÑGLv‡b ÔAFYxÕ kãwU n‡”Q kxl© kã| Awfav‡b kxl© k‡ãi A_©, e¨vL¨v I e¨envi †hfv‡e wea„Z _v‡K Zv‡K ejv nq fzw³| kxl© k㸇jv hv‡Z mn‡R Luy‡R cvIqv hvq, †mR‡b¨ Awfav‡b k㸇jv‡K eY©vbyµwgefv‡e mvRv‡bv _v‡K| evsjv GKv‡Wgx †h ÒAwfavb e¨envi wb‡`©wkKvÓ cÖYqb K‡i‡Q Zv GiKg : Awfavb e¨envi wb‡`©wkKv G Awfav‡b k‡ãi D”PviY, A_©, c` cwiPq, A_©všÍi, cÖ‡qvM, ey¨rcwË cÖf…wZ wKfv‡e wb‡`©k Kiv n‡q‡Q wbgœwjwLZ wb‡`©wkKvq Zv cwiùzU Kivi †Póv Kiv n‡jv:


Awfavb

73

kxl©kã D”PviY Aewkó [A‡evwkk‡Uv] weY 1 evwK| 2DØ„Ë| 3 AwZwi³| {m. Ae+ wkh&+Z(³)}

mvaviY A_©

weKí kxh©kã c` cwiPq

†LZ, †ÿZ [†LZ] we gvV; Pv‡li Rwg; k‡m¨vrcv`‡bi gvV (Pvq Zviv, dm‡ji †LZ, `xwN I LvgviDcfzw³ we‡`)|~цLvjv,~ÑLvgvi we Avevw` Rwg; Pvwli Kg©‡ÿÎ (GK †Mjvm PvDj- cvwb LvBqv †LZ- Ñ cÖ‡qvMevK¨ †Lvjv †`wL‡Z evwn‡i nBqv Imgvb miKv‡ii A‡bK w`‡bi Af¨vmÑAvgAv)| †LZvwj, †LwZ, †ÿwZ we 1 Pvl-Avev` (...wewea †ÿZ †ÿwZ †kvfqÑ †`Šev)|2 †ÿZ Kl©‡Yi ev PvlÑAvev‡`i KvR| {m. †ÿÎ>cÖv. †LË>†LZ}

Zi1 [Zi] weY 1 we‡fvi; wbgMœ; Pzi (GB kiv‡ei wcqvjv w`‡q Zi Kwi w`j&----bB)|2 Rjwm³; wf‡R hvIqv (wf‡R Zi n‡q hvIqv)| {dv. Zi& } Zi2 [Zi] we wej¤^; †`wi; A‡cÿv (Zi m‡nbvK GKwU wZj---- Av‡gvKv; Zi mq bv ei, w`‡qB weqv Ki----Qov)| {m. Z¡iv>} Zi2 Z‡iv [Z‡iv], weY cÖKv‡ii; ai‡Yi; †kªwYi (†KgbZi †jvK)| Z‡iv--†eZ‡iv weY wewfbœ; cÖKv‡ii; bvbv ai‡Yi; n‡iK iKg (Av‡jvi wb‡kb Szj‡Q-ÑцPŠ‡Kv j¤^v PIov miy Z‡ivцeZ‡ivÑÑ AVv)| †e~ weY Lvivc ai‡bi; Lvivc; `yó †eqvo| {Av. Zin }

Awfbœ evbv‡bi GKvwaK fzw³

ey¨rcwË

Aaxb [Iwab] weY 1 AvqË; ekxf‚Z (AvÁvi Aaxb)| 2 AšÍM©Z; AšÍfz©³ (kvm‡bi Aaxb)| 3 AbyMZ; A_©všÍi msL¨v eva¨ (Aaxb Rb)| K we 1 Aaxb e¨w³ (Aax‡bi c`všÍi ms‡KZ webxZ wb‡e`b)| 2 wbqš¿Y; ZË¡veavb (Zvui Aax‡b Avwg KvR Kwb)| AaxbZv we AvÁvbyewZ©Zv; civaxbZv| Aaxbv, Awabx, Awabx weY AvwkªZv; ekxf~Zv; AbyMZv (Zzwg be Rjai G Ze AwabxÑÑ gÏ, ZvB‡Zv Kuv`vq wbwkw`bB G AaxbxÑÑbB)| cÖZ¨q { m. Awa + Bb(L) } Drm- fvlv wb‡`©k

`wR©

`iwR `ªóe¨

wb` = wb`ªv

AwfbœZv wb‡`©kK

evbv‡bv [evbv‡bv] wµ 1 ˆZwi Kiv; Mov; cÖ¯ÍyZ Kiv (evwo evbv‡bv †kl n‡q‡Q)| 2 ivuav ( iæwU evbv‡bv; †Kvg©v evbv‡bv)| 3 iuvaevi Rb¨ †Kv‡bv wKQz †KvUv (gvsm evbv‡bv, ZiKvwi evbv‡bv)| 4 †Kv‡bv wKQzi m‡½ Zzj¨ Ávb Kiv (†fov evbv‡bv)| 5 wKQz‡Z cwiYZ Kiv (†evKv evbv‡bv)| K weY K…wÎg; wg_¨v| {Zzj.wn.ebvbv; wµqvi iƒcÑÑÑevbvB, evbvI, evbvb, evbv‡e, evwb‡qv BZ¨vw`; AmgvwcKvi iƒcÑÑÑevwb‡q wµqvi iƒc evbv‡Z BZ¨vw`} cic` [c‡ivc`] we 1 †kªô ¯’vb; cig ev me©‡kªô c`| welq wb‡`©k 2 †gvÿ| 3 (e¨v.) mgv‡m mgm¨gvb c``y‡Uvi g‡a¨ c‡iiwU ev wØZxqwU (†kªôabÑÑGLv‡b ÔabÕ wØZxq e¨vKiY wb‡`©k c`)| {m. ci+c`; 6Zr }

Kg©-Abykxjb 1. †Zvgvi nv‡Zi Kv‡Q †h Awfavb Av‡Q †mwU †`‡L ÔwKsKZ©e¨weg~pÕ, Ô†`DwjqvÕ, ÔiKgvwiÕ I ÔmitÕ kxl© k‡ãi A_©, e¨vL¨v I e¨envi †jL| 2. wnmve, wnm&mv, AvQvo, Av”Qv`K, LvwK, LuvwU, Wªcvi, W¨vk, Drcv`b, DZivB, wPiywb, wPivqy, mvg¨, mvgvb¨, djR, djvi, Bÿz, Bu`yi, cÖmvab, cÖkvLv Ñ k㸇jv‡K Awfav‡bi g‡Zv eY©bvbyµwgKfv‡e mvRvI|


`kg cwi‡”Q`

kãv_© 10. 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4

kãv_© GKB kã wewfbœ A‡_© cÖ‡qvM K‡i evK¨ iPbv mgv_©K k‡ãi cÖ‡qv‡M evK¨ iPbv wecixZv_©K kã cÖ‡qv‡M evK¨ iPbv evMaviv

10. kãv_© A_©c~Y© k‡ãi Øviv gvbyl cvi¯úwiK fv‡ei Av`vb-cÖ`vb K‡i| Avi A_© n‡”Q k‡ãi cÖvY| fvlvi fve (evK¨, evK¨vsk, i~c, kã, evMaviv BZ¨vw`) hLb Bw›`ªq (cÖavbZ †PvL, Kvb) MÖnY K‡i Ges Zvi Dc‡i †h gvbwmK aviYv Rb¥vq, ZLb Zv‡K kãv_© e‡j| bvbv Kvi‡Y k‡ãi A‡_©i cwieZ©b N‡U| wb‡P k‡ãi A_© cwieZ©‡bi wKQz bgybv Zz‡j aiv n‡jv|

10.1 GKB kã wewfbœ A‡_© cÖ‡qvM K‡i evK¨ iPbv evsjv fvlvq KZ¸‡jv kã wfbœ A‡_© e¨eüZ nq| we‡kl¨, we‡klY I wµqv RvZxq GB c`¸‡jv ev‡K¨ e¨eüZ n‡q we‡kl we‡kl Zvrch©c~Y© A_© cÖKvk K‡i| G¸‡jv GKw`‡K †hgb GKwU k‡ãi wfbœ wfbœ A_© cÖKvk K‡i, Aciw`‡K †Zgwb ev‡K¨i †mŠ›`h© mvab K‡i _v‡K| †hgb :

1. K_v Dw³ : iex›`ªbv‡_i K_v, Ôgwi‡Z Pvwn bv Avwg my›`i fze‡b|Õ ZK© : GB e¨vcv‡i c‡ÿ-wec‡ÿ A‡bK K_v n‡q‡Q| cÖwZkÖywZ : †Zvgv‡K Avwg K_v w`jvg| cÖ¯Íve : †Zvgvi K_vq Avwg ivwR| wZi¯‹vi : cov bv civq m¨v‡ii Kv‡Q K_v ïb‡Z n‡jv| cÖm½µ‡g : K_vq K_vq †Zvgvi bvgwU G‡m †Mj|


kãv_©

75

2. Kvb kªeY A½ ewai KY©‡MvPi g‡bv‡hvM cÖKvk wbj©¾

: †bvfv Kv‡b `yj c‡i‡Q| : †jvKwU Kv‡b †kv‡b bv| : K_vUv e‡ov mv‡n‡ei Kv‡b †cuŠ‡Q‡Q| : Avgvi K_vq Kvb `vI| : K_vUv cuvP Kvb K‡iv bv| : mv‡bi g‡Zv `yKvb KvUv †jvK Avi †`wLwb|

3. KuvPv AcK¡

: AvgwU KuvPv n‡jI †ek wgwó|

Awm×

: KuvPv `ya mevi nRg nq bv|

Ac~Y©

: Avgvi KuvPv NygwU fvOv‡j †Kb?

A`ÿ

: KuvPv †jvK w`‡q evwo evwb‡qv bv|

Aﮋ

: KuvPv Kv‡V Av¸b R¡‡j bv|

AcwiYZ : GB k³ Kv‡Ri Rb¨ †Q‡jwU eÇ KuvPv| `ye©j

: †Q‡jwU A‡¼ KuvPv|

4. KvUv ÿZ bó Pzwi †Qvej Q›`cZb

: KvUv Nv‡q Avi by‡bi wQUv w`I bv| : †cvKvq KvUv eB¸‡jv Avi covi g‡Zv †bB| : c‡ii MuvU KvUv Ii ¯^fve| : mv‡c KvUv †jvKwU‡K mevB †`L‡Z G‡m‡Q| : ZvjKvUv Mvb ïb‡Z fv‡jv jv‡M bvwK?

5. LvIqv †fvRb : Avgvi LvIqv n‡q‡Q| Nyl : gwbi mv‡ne‡K mevB UvKv LvIqv Awdmvi wn‡m‡eB †P‡b| evav : Kv‡Ri ïiy‡ZB av°v LvIqv fv‡jv jÿY bq| w`we¨ : gv_v LvI, GLb †hI bv| wZi¯‹vi : wkÿ‡Ki Kv‡Q agK LvIqv we_yi wbZ¨w`‡bi Af¨vm| gvwb‡q Pjv : msmv‡i mevi mv‡_ Lvc LvB‡q Pj‡Z nq|


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6. Mig Dò

: GK Kvc Lye Mig Pv `vI|

MÖx®§

: ˆekvL-ˆR¨ô MigKvj|

DMÖ

: †Zvgvi Mig †gRvR‡K Avwg fq cvB bv|

AnsKvi : `y b¤^wi UvKvi Mi‡g iwn‡gi cv †hb gvwU‡Z c‡o bv| Pov

: mieivn Kg _vK‡j evRvi Mig _v‡K|

kxZ wbeviK : kxZKv‡j Mig Kvco bv n‡j P‡j bv|

7. Mv kixi

: †ivgvbvi Mv‡qi is dm©v|

MÖvn¨

: Zvi †Kv‡bv K_vB Avwg Mv‡q gvwL bv|

Cl©v

: c‡ii fv‡jv †`L‡j †ivwRbvi Mv R¡‡j|

cwiavb

: Mv‡q bZzb Rvgv †`LwQ, K‡e wKb‡j?

AvZ¥‡Mvcb : cywjk †`‡L †PviwU Mv-XvKv w`j| Af¨¯Í

: gv¯Ívb‡`i †`ŠivZ¥¨ GLb Mv mIqv n‡q †M‡Q|

8. Mjv MÖxev

: wPwoqvLvbvq j¤^v Mjvi wRivd †`‡LwQ|

: Zvi my‡ijv Mjvi Mvb †fvjv hvq bv|

cÖxwZi fve : I‡`i `yR‡bi †ek Mjvq Mjvq fve| AwZ webq : Mje¯¿ n‡q iZbevey mvnvh¨ PvB‡jb| †evSv

: c‡ii MjMÖn n‡q _vKvi B‡”Q Avgvi †bB|

Acgvb

: †jvKUv‡K Mjvav°v w`‡q †ei K‡i `vI|

9. Pvj ZÊzzj

: N‡i Pvj evošÍ, Lv‡e Kx?

N‡ii Qv` : dz‡Uv Pvj w`‡q e„wói cvwb c‡o| AvPvi-e¨envi : Zvi Pvj-Pjb †gv‡UB fv‡jv bq| gZje

: †mwjg Lye Mfxi R‡ji gvQ, Zvi Pvj †evSv KwVb|

Avo¤^i : iwn‡gi evB‡iB hZ Pvj, †fZ‡i G‡Kev‡iB duvcv| Ni-msmvi : Pvj-Pz‡jvi wVK †bB, †Zvgv‡K †g‡q †`‡e †K?


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10. †PvL AuvwL : Avgiv †PvL w`‡q †`wL| `„wó : cywj‡ki †PvL Avmvwgi w`‡K| duvwK : †PviwU cywj‡ki †PvL Gwo‡q cvwj‡q †Mj| †ivM : iwd‡Ki †PvL D‡V‡Q e‡j fxlY K‡ó Av‡Q| fq †`Lv‡bv : Avgv‡K †PvL ivwO‡q jvf n‡e| j¾v : †Zvgvi †Pv‡Li Pvgov _vK‡j Avi Avgvi mvg‡b Avm‡Z bv|

11. †QvU Kwbô bxP nxb webxZ †nq Kiv

: iweb Avgvi †QvU fvB| : †Zvgvi g‡Zv †QvU g‡bi gvbyl Avwg Avi `y‡Uv †`wLwb| : †QvU KvR e‡j wKQz †bB| : e‡ov hw` n‡Z PvI, †QvU nI Z‡e| : Rv‡Zi K_v e‡j KvD‡K †QvU Kiv wVK bv|

12. Qvov Z¨vM gyw³ kªxnxb D”P¯^‡i e¨ZxZ

: Zvi g‡Zv msmvi Qvov †jvK Avwg Avi †`wLwb| : gvmyg AvRB †Rj †_‡K Qvov †c‡q‡Q| : j²xQvov msmv‡i fv‡jv wKQz wPšÍv KivB fzj| : Mvb wkL‡Z n‡j Qvov Mjvq cÖwZw`b †iIqvR Ki‡Z n‡e| : m‡Z¨i c_ Qvov gyw³ †bB|

13. Zvj Zejvi †evj: Zejvq Zvj †e‡R‡Q ZvM wabv wab wab| Q›`nxb : Zvj KvUv Mvb fv‡jv jv‡M bv| dj we‡kl : ÔZvjMvQ GK cv‡q `uvwo‡q, me MvQ Qvwo‡q, DuwK gv‡i AvKv‡k|Õ ax‡i : evwo ˆZwii KvR wXgv Zv‡j Pj‡Q| gvwb‡q Pjv : mevi mv‡_ Zvj wgwj‡q Pjvi †g‡q wgwb bq|

14. †Zvjv D‡Ëvjb DÌvcb msMÖn †Quov MÖvn¨ Kiv

: e¨vsK †_‡K UvKv †Zvjv n‡q‡Q| : K_vUv Avgvi †Zvjvi K_v bv, Zzwg ej| : miKvi †h-†Kv‡bv ai‡bi Puv`v †Zvjv wbwl× K‡i‡Q| : MvQ †_‡K dzj Zz‡jv bv| : †m Avgvi K_v Kv‡bB Zzjj bv|


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evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

15. aiv AvUK : †PviUv‡K nv‡Zbv‡Z aiv n‡q‡Q| ¯úk© : †Zvgvi nvZLvbv GKevi ai‡Z PvB| fv‡jv jvMv : Zvi MíwU Avgvi g‡b a‡i‡Q| wba©viY : Zzwg wb‡R †_‡K GKUv `vg a‡i `vI| †Zvlvgy‡` : msmv‡i avgvaiv †jv‡Ki Afve †bB| hš¿Yv : gv_vUv eÇ a‡i‡Q|

16. bvK bvwmKv : wZmv bv‡K b_ c‡i‡Q| kã Kiv : Ny‡gi g‡a¨ A‡b‡KB bvK Wv‡K| wbwðšÍ : cixÿv †kl, Gevi bv‡K †Zj w`‡q NygvI| ÿwZ : wb‡Ri bvK †K‡U c‡ii hvÎv f½ K‡i †Zvgvi Kx jvf n‡jv? AbwaKvi PP©v : Avgvi e¨vcv‡i bvK Mjv‡Z G‡mv bv|

17. bvg cwiPq L¨vwZ L¨vwZgvb ¯§iY ¯^íg~j¨ D‡jøL

: †Zvgvi bvg Kx? : wµ‡KU †L‡j ivRb †ek bvg K‡i‡Q| : wZwb GKRb bvgKiv DwKj| : me mgq m„wóKZ©vi bvg †b‡e| : bvggvÎ `v‡g evwowU wewµ n‡q †Mj| : GKUv b`xi bvg ej|

18. cvKv cwicK¡ AKvjcK¡ wbcyY `ÿ ¯’vqx cy‡ivcywi

: AvgwU cvKv| : †Q‡jwUi eqm Aí, wKšÍy K_vq cvKv| : wgbv Bs‡iwR‡Z cvKv| : cvKv wgw¯¿ w`‡q evwo evwb‡qwQ| : KvcowUi is cvKv| : cvKv Pwjøk w`b ¯‹zj QzwU|

19. eo AMÖR `xN©

: ivg Avgvi eo fvB| : cÙv evsjv‡`‡ki eo b`x|


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79

: †jvKgvb mv‡ne eo †jvK| : eo wec‡` c‡o †Zvgvi Kv‡Q G‡mwQ| : eo nI wb‡Ri †Póvq| : evwo‡Z eo KzUzg G‡m‡Q|

20. eyK eÿ : evevi ey‡K nVvr e¨_v D‡V‡Q| mvnm : †Zvgvi †`LwQ Lye ey‡Ki cvUv! Me© : †Zvgvi K…wZ‡Z¡ Avgv‡`i eyK dz‡j D‡V‡Q| kvwšÍ : Gwmi evZv‡m eyKUv Rywo‡q †Mj| nZvk : wiZv †dj K‡i‡Q ï‡b Zvi evevi eyKUv †hb †f‡O †Mj| fxlY Kó : eÜzi g„Zz¨i Le‡i Avgvi eyK †d‡U Kvbœv AvmwQj|

21. fv‡jv Kzkj g½j mr my›`i wnZevK¨ myLei

: fv‡jv AvQ †Zv? : Ck¦i mevi fv‡jv Kiyb| : †PŠayix mv‡ne Lye fv‡jv †jvK| : †g‡qwUi †Pnviv GZ fv‡jv †h Kx eje! : fv‡jv K_v ïb‡j †ZvgviB g½j| : †Zvgvi Rb¨ GKUv fv‡jv Lei Av‡Q|

22. g›` Lvivc : g›` †jv‡Ki mv‡_ wgk‡Z †bB| Amr : g›` Kv‡Ri cwiYvg fv‡jv nq bv| Aïf : †jvKwU g›`fvM¨ wb‡qB R‡b¥‡Q| ax‡i ax‡i : RvnvRwU g›` g›` G¸‡”Q| `vg Kgv : †kqvi evRvi GLb g›`v|

23. gv_v g¯ÍK : Zvi gv_vq A‡bK Pzj| cÖavb : wZwb G Muv‡qi gv_v| cÖYvg : ÔI Avgvi †`‡ki gvwU, †Zvgvi Ôc‡i †VKvB gv_v|Õ ms‡hvM¯’‡j : iv¯Ívi †PŠgv_vq Avgv‡`i evwo| cwikª‡g : kªwgKiv gv_vi Nvg cv‡q †d‡j †ivRMvi K‡i| eyS‡Z cviv : A¼wU Avgvi gv_vq XzK‡Q bv|


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evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

24. gyL kix‡ii A½ : †Zvgvi gyLUv fxlY my›`i| K_v

: Ôgy‡L gay AšÍ‡i wel|Õ

mshZ

: gyL mvg‡j K_v e‡jv|

ÿgZv

: ÔhZ eo gyL bq, ZZ eo K_v|Õ

cÖ‡ekc_

: Mwji gy‡LB Avgv‡`i evwo|

mvnm

: gyL dz‡U K_vUv e‡j †dj|

25. gvwU ayjv / Kv`v : †Q‡jwU gvwU‡Z MovMwo w`‡q Kuv`‡Q| kvšÍ / mij : iwdK mv‡ne GKRb gvwUi gvbyl| †evKvwg

: †kqv‡ii e¨emvq †b‡g G‡Kev‡i gvwU †L‡qwQ|

Kei

: Zv‡K †Kv_vq gvwU †`Iqv n‡e Avwg Rvwb bv|

: covïbv bv K‡i RxebUv gvwU K‡iv bv|

bv‡Qvoev›`v : miKvwi KvR †c‡Z n‡j gvwU Kvg‡o c‡o _vK‡Z nq|

26. ivLv ¯’vcb

: eB¸‡jv RvqMv g‡Zv iv‡Lv|

Mw”QZ

: UvKv¸‡jv e¨vs‡K †i‡L G‡mv|

Avkªq

: Avgv‡K †Zvgvi cv‡q iv‡Lv cÖfz|

bvgKiY

: Ôbvg †i‡LwQ ebjZv|Õ

m¤§vb

: †Q‡jwU evevi bvg †i‡L‡Q|

†d‡j Avmv : UvKvi _wjwU †i‡L G‡mwQ|

27. jvMv ¯úk©

: †Zvgvi kix‡i wK Avgvi nvZ †j���M‡Q|

_vgv

: †bŠKvwU Nv‡U †j‡M‡Q|

wbhy³

: mygb PvKwi‡Z †j‡M‡Q|

ïiy

: m~h©MÖnY jvMvi mgq n‡q G‡m‡Q|

kÎyZv

: Kv‡iv wcQ‡b jvMv wVK bv|


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28. jvj is

: jvj Rvgv‡Z †Zvgv‡K †ek gvwb‡q‡Q|

†RjLvbv : g¯Zvwb Ki‡j jvj`vjv‡b cvwV‡q †`e| eÜ nIqv : Amr eÜzi cvjøvq c‡o Zvi e¨emvq jvjevwZ R¡‡j‡Q| †µva

: Avgv‡K jvj‡PvL †`wLI bv, Avwg fq cvB bv|

cyÎ

: ÒAv¤§v jvj †Zwi Lyb wKqv Lywbqv|Ó

29. †jvK gvbyl

: iwng mv‡ne fv‡jv †jvK|

RbmvaviY : Lvivc KvR Ki‡j †jvKwb›`v ïb‡Z nq| g„Zz¨

: Rwmg mv‡ne MZKvj ci‡jvKMgb K‡i‡Qb|

gRyi

: †jvK w`‡q KvR Kiv‡j bRi ivL‡Z nq|

: wkïiv †jvK-Kvwnwb ïb‡Z fv‡jvev‡m|

30. mviv mgMÖ / me : mviv MÖvg Ry‡o ˆn‰P c‡o †M‡Q| AvKzj

: wkïwU gv‡K Luy‡R bv †c‡q †Ku‡` mviv n‡jv|

†givgZ : †bŠKvi dz‡Uv mviv n‡q‡Q| mgvß

: hvK&, GZÿ‡Y KvRwU mviv n‡q‡Q|

nqivb / K¬všÍ : †iŠ‡`ª Ny‡i Ny‡i mviv n‡qwQ|

10.2 mgv_©K k‡ãi cÖ‡qv‡M evK¨ iPbv evsjv fvlvi kãfvÊv‡i Ggb KZK¸‡jv kã Av‡Q †h¸‡jv GKB A_© enb K‡i| GiKg mg-A_©ÁvcK wfbœ kã‡K mgv_©Kkã, mgv_©kã, weKíkã ev cÖwZkã e‡j| GKB A_©en k‡ãi g‡a¨ ˆewPΨ _v‡K| AvK…wZ, e¨Äbv I Mv¤¢x‡h©i w`K †_‡K Gme k‡ãi cv_©K¨ _v‡K| mgv_©Kkã Rvbv _vK‡j †jLvi ev ejvi mgq GKB kã evi evi e¨envi Ki‡Z nq bv| d‡j e³vi ev †jL‡Ki g‡bi fve A‡bK my›`i I AvKl©Yxqfv‡e cÖKvwkZ nq| wb‡P mgv_©Kkã ev cÖwZk‡ãi KwZcq `„óvšÍ ev‡K¨ cÖ‡qvM K‡i †`Lv‡bv n‡jv :


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evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

1. AwMœ : N‡i Av¸b †j‡M AwMœ`» n‡q wZbRb gviv †M‡Q| Abj : Ômy‡Li jvwMqv G Ni euvwaby Ab‡j cywoqv †Mj|Õ AvMyb : ÔAv¸‡bi cikgwY †QuvqvI cÖv‡Y|Õ ewý : ÔRv‡Mv bvix Rv‡Mv ewýwkLv|Õ me©fyK : †`L‡Z †`L‡Z wbgZwj ˆek¦vb‡ii D`‡i P‡j †Mj| 2. Ak¦ †NvUK †Nvov Zzi½ evwR

: Ak¦Ly‡i ayjv Dwo‡q Ak¦v‡ivnx Qz‡U P‡j †Mj| : RMv †avcvi †NvUK Zvi g‡ZvB `ye©j Avi nvo wRiwR‡i| : Ô†Nvovq Pwoqv g`© nuvwUqv Pwjj|Õ : `yišÍ MwZ‡Z Zzi½ Qz‡U P‡j‡Q| : bev‡ei Av‡`‡k evwRcvj evwR wb‡q nvwRi n‡jv|

3. AbygwZ : Avgvi N‡i XzK‡Z †Zvgv‡K AbygwZ wb‡Z n‡e bv| AvÁv : Avm‡Z AvÁv †nvK| Av‡`k : ÔAv‡`k K‡ib hvnv †gvi ¸iyR‡b, Avwg †hb †mB KvR Kwi fv‡jv g‡b|Õ wb‡`©k : ¯‹z‡ji †eZb cwi‡kva Kivi Rb¨ cÖavb wkÿK Qv·`i wb‡`©k w`‡jb| ûKzg : g¨vwR‡÷ª‡Ui ûKz‡g cywjk Avmvwg‡K KvVMovq DVvj| 4. AvKvk : AvKv‡k AvR †gN †bB| Avmgvb : Ôbxj wmqv Avmgvb jv‡j jvj `ywbqv|Õ MMb : ÔMM‡b Mi‡R †gN Nb eilv|Õ `y¨‡jvK: Òf~‡jvK `y¨‡jvK †MvjK †fw`qv †Lv`vi Avmb ÔAvikÕ †Qw`qv, DwVqvwQ wPiwe¯§q Avwg wek¦weavZ…i|Ó bf : Ô†n_v k¨vgj `~e©v`j, bebxj bf¯Íj|Õ 5. AvKv•ÿv: gvby‡li AvKv•ÿvi †kl †bB| B”Qv : B”Qv _vK‡j Dcvq nq| Kvgbv : evsjv‡`‡ki Kj¨vY Kvgbv Kwi| evÃv : Ck¦i †Zvgvi g‡bvevÃv c~iY Kiyb| mva : ÔAvgvi mva bv wgwUj, Avkv bv cywij mKjB dziv‡q hvq gv|Õ 6. DËg : ÔDËg wbwð‡Z P‡j Aa‡gi mv‡_|Õ Dcv‡`q: eûw`b Ggb Dcv‡`q Lvevi LvBwb| e‡iY¨ : kvgmyi ivngvb GKRb †`ke‡iY¨ Kwe| fv‡jv : eKzj Lye fv‡jv †Q‡j| †kªô : iex›`ªbv‡_i †kªô Kve¨MÖš’ †KvbwU Zv ejv KwVb|


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7. Kzj †MvÎ RvZ RvwZ eY©

: eiy‡Yi wZb Kz‡j †KD †bB| : †Zvgvi †MvÎ cwiPq `vI| : Ôme †jv‡K Kq jvjb Kx RvZ msmv‡i|Õ : ÔRMr Rywoqv Av‡Q GK RvwZ, †m RvwZi bvg gvbyl RvwZ|Õ : gvby‡l gvby‡l eY©‡f` _vKv fv‡jv bv|

8. Avjq M„n Ni avg evwo

: wkÿvi Rb¨ we`¨vj‡q †h‡Z nq| : ÔM„nnx‡b M„n w`‡j Avwg _vwK N‡i|Õ : ÔAvgvi G Ni fvwOqv‡Q †hev, Avwg Zvi Ni euvwa|Õ : G aivavg †Q‡o GKw`b mKj‡KB P‡j †h‡Z n‡e| : ÔAvgvi evwo †hI ågi em‡Z †`e wcu‡o|Õ

9. P›`ª : AvR P›`ªMÖnY n‡e| Puv` : Ôc~wY©gvi Puv` †hb Sjmv‡bv iywU|Õ kkv¼ : kkv‡¼ Kj¼‡iLv †K w`‡q‡Q Gu‡K? kkai : kka‡ii c~Y© Av‡jvq c„w_ex Sjgj Ki‡Q| kkx : ÔGKjv kkx RvwM‡j AvKv‡k evZvqb Ly‡j w`‡qv|Õ 10. Rj cqt cvwb evwi mwjj

: ÔRj c‡o cvZv b‡o|Õ : G kn‡ii cqtwb®‹vkb e¨e¯’v fv‡jv bq| : weï× cvwbi Aci bvg Rxeb| : el©vi evwiavivq c„w_ex mRxe n‡q D‡V‡Q| : S‡o j Wy‡e hvIqvq A‡bK †jv‡Ki mwjj-mgvwa n‡jv|

11. A_© Kwo UvKv †`ŠjZ ab

: RM‡Z A_©B mKj Ab‡_©i g~j| : cvi Nv‡U‡Z G‡m †`wL cv‡ii Kwo bvB| : UvKv n‡j ev‡Ni `yaI †g‡j| : Ô†`ŠjZ cvwb‡Z †d‡j †bwK Ki|Õ : Ôa‡bi gvbyl eo bq, g‡bi gvbyl eo|Õ

12. MvO : giv Mv‡O evb G‡m‡Q| ZwUbx : ZwUbxi Zi‡½ fvmvjvg Gevi †fjv| Ziw½Yx: Ni †eu‡awQ †kwi bvgK Ziw½Yxi Zx‡i| b`x : ÔAvgv‡`i †QvU b`x P‡j euv‡K euv‡K|Õ cÖevwnYx: cÖevwnYx Qz‡U P‡j mvM‡ii cv‡b|


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13. Rb bi gvbe gvbyl †jvK

: RbMY mKj ÿgZvi Drm| : bi-evb‡ii hy‡× iveY wbnZ nq| : weÁvbxiv gvbe RvwZi Kj¨v‡Y wbijm M‡elYv K‡i P‡j‡Qb| : gvbyl m„wói †miv Rxe| : Ô†jv‡K e‡j e‡j‡i Ni-evwo fvjv bv Avgvi|Õ

14. ce©Z wMwi cvnvo f~ai ˆkj

: Ôce©Zgvjv AvKv‡ki cv‡b Pvwnqv bv K‡n K_v|Õ : Ô`yM©g-wMwi KvšÍvi giy `y¯Íi cvivevi|Õ : ÔAvKv‡k †njvb w`‡q cvnvo Nygvq IB|Õ : ÔAvQ Abj-Awb‡j, wPi-bfbx‡j f~ai mwj‡j Mn‡b|Õ : ˆkjk„½ Zzlv‡i XvKv c‡o‡Q|

15. cvwL LM †LPi cw•L wen½

: ÔcvwLme K‡i ie, ivwZ †cvnvBj|Õ : Ôgq~i-gq~ix mvix-ïK Avw` LM|Õ : †LPi P‡j‡Q D‡o ˆbFZ †Kv‡Y| : ÔDBov hvq‡i nsmcw•L, cBov iq‡i Qvqv|Õ : Ôhvevi mgq n‡jv wen‡½i|Õ

16. c„w_ex : c„w_exi cÖvq cuwPk †KvwU †jvK evsjv fvlvq K_v e‡j| RMr : GB RM‡Z Avgvi Avcb ej‡Z †KD †bB| aiv : Ôki‡Z aivZj wkwk‡i Sjgj|Õ emyÜiv: Ôab a‡b¨ cy‡®ú fiv, Avgv‡`i GB emyÜiv| wek¦ : Ôwek¦ †Rvov cvVkvjv †gvi mevi Avwg QvÎ|Õ fzeb : Ôgwi‡Z Pvwn bv Avwg my›`i fze‡b|Õ 17. dzj Kzmyg cy®ú cÖm~b

: mevB dzj cQ›` K‡i| : ÔKvb‡b Kzmyg-Kwj mKjB dzwUj|Õ : Ôcy®ú Avcbvi Rb¨ †dv‡U bv|Õ : gwi gwi! G Kx cÖm~b †kvfvq †m‡R‡Q Avgvi M„n!

18 : eb AUwe AiY¨ R½j ebvbx

: e‡b¨iv e‡b my›`i| : ÔAUwe evqye‡k DwVZ †m DQwm|Õ : Ô`vI wd‡i †m AiY¨, jI G bMi|Õ : R½‡j evN _v‡K| : Ô¯Íä kir `ycy‡i Nb ebvbxi g‡a¨ NyNyi WvK ïwbqv‡Q|Õ


kãv_©

85

19. evZvm : S‡ov evZv‡m me jÊfÊ K‡i w`j| ceb : ceb‡e‡M †m Mvwo Pvwj‡q w`j| evq : Ô`wLbv evq gvwM‡Q we`vq kvj exw_Kvi Kv‡Q|Õ evqy : Wv³vi Zv‡K evqy cwieZ©b Ki‡Z e‡j‡Qb| mgxi : ÔM½vi Zxi wmœ» mgxi Rxeb Ryov‡j Zzwg|Õ 20. we`y¨r : we`y¨r Qvov gvby‡li ˆ`bw›`b Rxeb GLb AKíbxq| ÿYcÖfv : ÿwY‡Ki ÿYcÖfvq Zv‡K GK SjK †`Ljvg| Zwor : †jvKwU ZwoZvnZ n‡q gviv †Mj| weRwj : weRwjevwZ‡Z cy‡iv kniUv †hb PgKv‡”Q| weRywi : ÔweRywi Sj‡m †hb g‡b|Õ 21. ivZ : w`bivZ cwikªg K‡i P‡jwQ, my‡Li bvMvj cvB bv| wbwk : wbwk †fvi n‡q‡Q, Gevi AuvwL †Lvj| wbkx_ : Ôwbkx‡_ hvBI dzj e‡b|Õ wbkxw_bx: Ôgayi n‡jv weayi n‡jv gvaex wbkxw_bx|Õ hvwgbx : Ô†Kb hvwgbx bv †h‡Z RvMv‡j bv|Õ 22. ivRv : GK †`‡k wQj GK ivRv| AwacwZ: evei wQ‡jb fvi‡Zi cÖ_g gyNj AwacwZ| b„cwZ : Av‡jKRvÛv‡ii g‡Zv exi b„cwZ we‡k¦ weij| f~cwZ : f~cwZ‡K †`‡L gwš¿eM© D‡V `uvov‡jb| mgªvU : mgªvU A‡kvK wQ‡jb RMwØL¨vZ exi| 23. mvMi Rjwa cv_vi mgy`ª wmÜz

: GK mvMi i‡³i wewbg‡q AwR©Z n‡q‡Q Avgv‡`i ¯^vaxbZv| : DËvj Rjwa e‡ÿ Kvi ÿy`ª ZixLvwb wbwe©‡Nœ P‡j‡Q cv‡i? : AK~j cv_v‡i Avwg fvwm‡qwQ Avgvi Zix| : mvZ mgy`ª †Zi b`xi cv‡i Av‡Q GK i~cK_vi †`k| : ÔIB gnvwmÜzi Icvi †_‡K Kx msMxZ †f‡m Av‡m!Õ

24. my›`i : Avgv‡`i †`kwU Lye my›`i| g‡bvig: g‡bvig aiYxi Zzjbv nq bv| g‡bvni: Zvi g‡bvni †Pnviv †`‡L mevB gy» nq| igYxq : evn! Kx igYxq ¯’vb! †kvfb : Zvi †cvkvK-AvkvK Pvj-Pjb †ek †kvfb|


86

25. †mvbv KbK KvÂb ¯^Y© wniY

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

: †mvbv AZ¨šÍ g~j¨evb avZz| : ÔKbKKwlZ KvwšÍ Kgbxq Kvq|Õ : ÔiÄb KvÂb Avi gvaex eKzj|Õ : ¯^‡Y©i `vg AvKvkPz¤^x| : ÔwniY Rwii Iobv Mvq|Õ

26. m~h© : Ôc~e©w`M‡šÍ m~h© D‡V‡Q i³jvj|Õ AiyY : AiyY wKiY †`q ga¨MM‡b| w`evKi: †g‡N †g‡N †X‡K †M‡Q w`evKi| fvby : fvbyi K…cvq kx‡Zi cÖ‡Kvc †_‡K Dj½ †Q‡jwU iÿv †cj| iwe : iwei wKiY †j‡M K‡i wSwKwgwK| 27. mc© : Ômc© n‡q `skb K‡iv, ISv n‡q Sv‡ov|Õ Awn : Awn-bKz‡ji hy× †j‡M‡Q| Avkxwel: ÔwK hvZbv we‡l eywS‡e †m wK‡m, Kfz Avkxwe‡l `s‡kwb hv‡i|Õ bvM : Ôme©v‡½ `swkj †gv‡i bvM bvMevjv|Õ dYx : cÖev` Av‡QÑ dYxi gv_vq gwY _v‡K| mvc : evc‡i evc! K‡Ëv e‡ov mvc! 28. gv_v g¯ÍK gyÊy gy‡ov wki

: Zvi gv_vq A‡bK Pzj| : gw¯Í®‹ Av‡Q e‡jB g¯Í‡Ki `vg| : K_vq K_vq †m †Kb †Zvgvi gyÊzcvZ K‡i? : ey‡ov eq‡m Zvi gv‡Qi gy‡ov Lvevi mva n‡q‡Q| : Ôwki †bnvwi Avgvwi bZwki IB wkLi wngvw`ªi|Õ

29. †PvL AuvwL Pÿz bqb †bÎ

: †Zvgvi †PvL `ywU Lye my›`i| : †Zvgvi AuvwLi g‡Zv AvKv‡ki `ywU Zviv| : Pÿz _vK‡Z A‡Üi g‡Zv P‡jv †Kb? : Ôbqb fiv Rj †Mv †Zvgvi AuvPj fiv dzj|Õ : Zvi †bÎ †_‡K UcUc K‡i AkÖy co‡Z jvMj|

30. Kvb : Kvb Uvb‡j gv_v Av‡m| KY© : Zvi K_vq KY©cvZ K‡iv bv| kÖywZ : †Zvgvi K_v evevi KY©‡MvPi nq wb| kÖywZc_ : wPrKvi K‡i e‡jv bq‡Zv Zvi kÖywZc‡_ XzK‡e bv|


kãv_©

87

10.3 wecixZv_©K kã cÖ‡qv‡M evK¨ iPbv evsjv fvlvq Ggb KZK¸‡jv kã Av‡Q †h¸‡jv ci¯ú‡ii wecixZ A_© cÖKvk K‡i| ci¯ú‡ii m¤ú~Y© wecixZ A_© cÖKvkK Gme kã‡K wecixZv_©K kã e‡j| fvlvi †mŠ›`h© m„wó Ges fve-cÖKv‡ki e¨vcKZvi Rb¨ G RvZxq kã Rvbv Riywi| wb‡P K‡qKwU wecixZv_©K k‡ãi bgybv evK¨ mn‡hv‡M Zz‡j aiv n‡jv| Aag Ñ DËg

: Zzwg Aag e‡jB Avgv‡K DËg n‡Z n‡e|

Avq Ñ e¨q

: Avq ey‡S e¨q Ki|

DcKvi Ñ AcKvi : Kv‡iv DcKvi Ki‡Z bv cv‡iv, AcKvi K‡iv bv| EaŸ© Ñ wbgœ

: ÒEaŸ© MM‡b ev‡R gv`j, wb‡gœ DZjv aiYx Zj|Ó

KzrwmZ Ñ my›`i : †Zvgiv Zvi evB‡ii my›`i †PnvivwU †`‡LQ, †fZ‡ii KzrwmZ gbwU †`Lwb| L¨vwZ Ñ AL¨vwZ : †mwj‡gi L¨vwZi mv‡_ mv‡_ wKQz AL¨vwZI Av‡Q| M`¨ Ñ c`¨

: Avwg M`¨ wjwL, c`¨ wjL‡Z cvwi bv|

NUb Ñ ANUb

: †jLKiv ANUbNUbcUxqmx cÖwZfv wb‡q Rb¥vb|

Pjv Ñ _vgv

: Pj‡Z Pj‡Z _vg‡j †Kb?

Rb¥ Ñ g„Zz¨

: Rb¥ hLb wb‡qwQ g„Zz¨ †Zv AeavwiZ|

UK Ñ wgwó

: †eYy UK †L‡Z cQ›` K‡i, wgwó †gv‡UB Lvq bv|

VvÊv Ñ Mig

: Mi‡g Mjv ïwK‡q †M‡Q, GKUz VvÊv cvwb LvIqv‡e?

Wvb Ñ evg

: iv¯Ívq Pjvi mgq evgw`K w`‡q Pj‡e, Wvbw`K w`‡q bq|

XvKv Ñ †Lvjv

: Lvevi XvKv w`‡q bv †i‡L †Lvjv †i‡LQ †Kb?

Zij Ñ KwVb

: Zij cvwb R‡g KwVb ei‡d cwiYZ nq|

w`b Ñ ivZ

: Ôiv‡Z gkv w`‡b gvwQ, GB wb‡q KjKvZvq AvwQ|Õ

aŸsm Ñ m„wó

: ÒAvwg m„wó, Avwg aŸsm, Avwg †jvKvjq, Avwg k¥kvb, Avwg Aemvb, wbkvemvb|Ó

wbixn Ñ `y`©všÍ : Zv‡K †`‡L hZUv wbixn fveQ, I ZZUvB `y`©všÍ| cUz Ñ AcUz

: cÖKvk Kv‡R hZ AcUz, LvIqvq ZZLvwbB cUz|

cÖKvk Ñ †Mvcb : mwZ¨ KL‡bv †Mvcb _v‡K bv, GKw`b bv GKw`b cÖKvk cv‡eB|


88

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

dm©v Ñ Kv‡jv

: dm©-Kv‡jvq wKQz hvq-Av‡m bv, Avwg GKRb mr I wek¦vmx eÜz PvB|

eo Ñ †QvU

: Ôeo hw` n‡Z PvI, †QvU nI Z‡e|Õ

†fRv Ñ ïK‡bv : †Zvgvi †fRv gv_vUv ïK‡bv †Zvqv‡j w`‡q gy‡Q bvI| hZ Ñ ZZ

: ÔhZ eo gyL bq, ZZ eo K_v!Õ

k~b¨ Ñ c~Y©

: Òk~‡b¨‡i Kwie c~Y©, GB eªZ ewne m`vB|Ó

10.4 evMaviv fvlvq Ggb wKQz kã ev evK¨vsk _v‡K, hv mvaviY A‡_©i evB‡i wewkó A_© cÖKvk K‡i _v‡K| GB me kã ev evK¨vsk‡K evMaviv ev evwM¦wa e‡j| evMaviv evsjv fvlvq wewkó m¤ú`| evMavivi gva¨‡g e³vi g‡bi Mfxi fve‡K Aí K_vq my›`ifv‡e cÖKvk Kiv hvq| G¸‡jv fvlv‡K kw³kvjx e¨Äbvgq I Zvrch©c~Y© K‡i †Zv‡j| ZvB me fvlv‡ZB evMavivi we‡kl cÖ‡qvM jÿ Kiv hvq| wb‡P evMavivi wKQy bgybv †`Iqv n‡jv| A Av K L

: (cÖv_wgK Ávb) : †Zvgvi †Zv †`LwQ A Av K L Ávb †bB, PvKwiUv †c‡j wKfv‡e?

AKvjKz®§vÊ

: (Ac`v_©) : AKvjKz®§vÊ †Q‡j‡K w`‡q †Kv‡bv KvR n‡e bv|

AvgovMvwQ Kiv : (†Zvlvgy‡`) : AvRKvj AvgovMvwQ bv Ki‡j †Kv‡bv KvR nvwmj nq bv| Bu`yi Kcv‡j

: (g›`fvM¨) : GZ eo PvKwi †c‡qI a‡i ivL‡Z cvi‡j bv, †Zvgvi g‡Zv Bu`yi Kcv‡j Avi †K Av‡Q!

DRv‡bi KB

: (mnRjf¨) : †gvevBj †dvb GLb DRv‡bi KB‡qi g‡Zv, †hLv‡b †mLv‡b cvIqv hvq|

Kvcy‡o evey

: (evwn¨K mf¨) : AvRKvj mwZ¨Kvi A‡_© f`ª‡jvK †bB, mevB Kvcy‡o evey|

wLPzwo cvKv‡bv : (RwUj Kiv) : hv ej‡e mnR K‡i ej, Ah_v wLPzwo cvwK‡qv bv| MiR eo evjvB : (cÖ‡qvR‡b ¸iyZ¡ ) : cixÿv Nv‡oi Ici, ZvB eB wKb‡Z n‡e, MiR eo evjvB| Ni _vK‡Z eveyB wfRv : (my‡hvM _vK‡Z Kó) : evevi AMva UvKv, A_P Zzwg wKbv wUDkwb K‡i P‡jv, Ni _vK‡Z eveyB †fRv †Kb? †Pv‡L muvZvi cvwb : (AwZwi³ gvqvKvbœv) : e¨v‡Oi †kv‡K mv‡ci †Pv‡L †`wL muvZvi cvwb|


kãv_©

89

†Quov Pz‡j †Luvcv euvav : (e„_v †Póv) : evevi mvgvb¨ Av‡q msmviB P‡j bv, †mLv‡b Avgvi cÖvB‡fU covi kL †Quov Pz‡j †Luvcv euvavi g‡ZvB nvm¨Ki| Suv‡Ki ˆK

: (`jfz³) : ivRbxwZ‡Z cÖwZØ›Øx, wKšÍy ¯^v‡_©i †ejvq me GKB Suv‡Ki KB|

UvKvi Mig

: (A‡_©i AnsKvi) : UvKvi Mi‡g †gvn‡bi cv gvwU‡Z c‡o bv|

Zvgvi wel

: (A‡_©i Kz-cÖfve) : †gavex †Q‡j‡K Zvgvi we‡l aivq †m Gevi cixÿvq †dj K‡i‡Q|

Zzjmx e‡bi evN : (fÊ) : iwb w`‡b †h evwo‡Z KvR K‡i, iv‡Z †mB evwo‡ZB Pzwi Ki‡Z hvq; I n‡”Q Zzjmx e‡bi evN| `y‡a-fv‡Z _vKv : ( my‡L _vKv ) : ÔAvgvi mšÍvb †hb _v‡K `y‡a-fv‡Z|Õ bvwoi Uvb

: (Mfxi ggZ¡‡eva) : we‡`‡k wM‡qI A‡b‡K †`‡ki cÖwZ bvwoi Uvb Abyfe K‡ib|

cv‡ji †Mv`v

: (`jcwZ) : cv‡ji †Mv`v aiv c‡o‡Q, Gevi evwKivI aiv co‡e|

†c‡U †c‡U eyw× : (`yózeyw×) : †g‡qwUi †c‡U †c‡U GZ eyw× RvbZvg bv †Zv! e¨v‡Oi Avaywj

: (mvgvb¨ A_©) : e¨v‡Oi Avaywj m¤^j K‡i e¨emv Kiv hvq bv|

wfUvq NyNy Piv‡bv : (me©¯^všÍ) : †Zvgvi wfUvq NyNy Pwi‡q Qvoe| gv‡Qi gv‡qi cy·kvK : (wg_¨v †kvK) : Mwi‡ei Rb¨ eo‡jv‡Ki `i`Uv gv‡Qi gv‡qi cy·kv‡Ki g‡ZvB| wkeivwÎi mj‡Z : (GKgvÎ mšÍvb) : ARy©b Zvi evev-gv‡qi wkeivwÎi mj‡Z, ZvB mevB Zv‡K me mgq †Pv‡L †Pv‡L iv‡L| †mvbvi cv_i evwU : (Am¤¢e e¯‘) : mv‡ci cv †`Lv Avi †mvbvi cv_i evwU‡Z my¨c LvIqv Ñ `y‡UvB Avgvi Kv‡Q Avlv‡p M‡íi g‡Zv| n-h-e-i-j

: (wek„•Lj) : evevi g„Zz¨‡Z †MvQv‡bv msmviUv †Kgb †hb n-h-e-i-j n‡q †Mj|


90

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

Kg©-Abykxjb 1. evRv‡i Av¸b †j‡M‡Q| S‡ov evZvm eB‡Q| cvwb w`‡Z n‡e | `gKj-evwnbxi †jvKRb G‡m‡Q| Av¸b jKjwK‡q AvKv‡ki w`‡K DV‡Q| D¾¡j Av¸‡b A™¢yZfv‡e mewKQz cyo‡Q| ÑDc‡ii Aby‡”Q`UzKz fv‡jv K‡i co| Aby‡”Q‡` †hme k‡ãi mgv_©K kã †Zvgvi Rvbv Av‡Q †m¸‡jvi mgv_©K kã †jL Ges `ywU K‡i evK¨ evbvI| 2. gvbyl-Gi gv_v †_‡KB me wb‡`©k Av‡m| †PvL †`‡L, Kvb †kv‡b Avi †VuvU b‡o b‡o K_v e‡j| me B”Qv-Awb”Qv, `ytL I Avb›`-Gi evZ©v Av‡m gv_v †_‡K| ÑAby‡”Q`wU‡Z †gvUv`v‡Mi †hme kã Av‡Q, †m¸‡jvi cÖwZkã wj‡L g‡bi g‡Zv evK¨ ˆZwi Ki| 3. †gNgy³ iv‡Zi AvKvk| kxZj evZv‡m dz‡ji myMÜ| wbg©j cweÎ G ivZ ïayB wgj‡bi| cÖmbœ wPË ZvB †hb Db¥yL n‡q KweZvi wgj Luy‡R †d‡i| ÑDc‡ii Aby‡”Q‡`i †gvUv `v‡Mi k㸇jvi A_©mn wecixZv_©K kã †jL| 4. Zzwg wb‡R GiKg GKwU Aby‡”Q` iPbv Ki Ges †mLvb †_‡K GKwU ev `ywU kã †e‡Q wb‡q †mwUi wewfbœ A‡_© cÖ‡qvM †`wL‡q evK¨ ˆZwi Ki|

..............


wbwg©wZ

1.

Abyaveb kw³

1.1

Abyaveb kw³ cixÿv

2.

mvivsk I mvigg©

3.

fvem¤cÖmviY

4.

cÎ iPbv : e¨w³MZ cÎ, Av‡e`b cÎ, wbgš¿Y cÎ

5.

cÖeÜ iPbv


92

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

1. Abyaveb kw³ wjwLZ †h †Kv‡bv wel‡q †Kv‡bv bv †Kv‡bv gvbyl cvV K‡i _v‡K wKšÍy †h AskUzKz c‡o Zvi g~jfve mwVKfv‡e Dcjwä Ki‡Z cv‡i Zv‡K ejv nq Zvi Abyaveb `ÿZv| GKwU cv‡V wKQz kã _v‡K, wKQz bZzb welq _vK‡Z cv‡i hvi A_© ev aviYv Rvbv bv _vK‡j cvVwUi c~Y© aviYv jvf mnR nq bv| ZvB GKwU cvV m¤ú~Y©i~‡c eyS‡Z n‡j cvV mswkøó wKQz welqI Rvb‡Z Ges eyS‡Z nq| Avevi Zv †Kej gyL¯Í Ki‡j †mwU †ewkw`b g‡b bvI _vK‡Z cv‡i| †mB Rvbv Ávb Ab¨ †Kv‡bv cv‡Vi mv‡_ ev Áv‡bi mv‡_ †gjv‡Z cvivi ÿgZvI _vK‡Z nq| G fv‡eB Abyaveb `ÿZv cwic~Y©fv‡e AwR©Z nq|

Abyaveb kw³ cixÿv : ¯ú›`b, cÖZxwZ, cÖvšÍ, wn‡gj, eY©, cÖvwß kx‡Zi QywU‡Z RMrcwƇZ †eov‡Z wM‡q‡Q| Iiv mevB GjvKvwU Ny‡i Ny‡i †`Lj| ILv‡b GKwU cÖv_wgK we`¨vjq, GKwU D”P we`¨vjq I GKwU evRvi Av‡Q| GjvKvi AwaKvsk gvbylB wkwÿZ| K…wlRxex, PvKwiRxex, e¨emvqxmn bvbv †ckvi gvbyl †mLv‡b emevm K‡i| †ekwKQz †jvK RxweKvi ZvwM‡` ga¨cÖvP¨ I BD‡ivcmn bvbv †`‡k PvKwi wb‡q †M‡Q| GjvKvi RbMY †gvUvgywU m”Qj| ˆe‡`wkK A_© †jb-†`‡bi Rb¨ ILv‡b †ekwKQz e¨vsK cÖwZwôZ n‡q‡Q| †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv evwo‡Z dz‡ji evMvb i‡q‡Q| RMrcwÆ evsjv‡`‡ki GKwU Av`k© MÖvgxY GjvKv|

Kg© Abykxjb : 1. ÔcÖZxwZÕ k‡ãi A_© Kx? 2. K…wlRxex Kviv? 3. Ô¯ú›`bÕ k‡ãi wZbwU cÖwZkã w`‡q evK¨ ˆZwi Ki| 4. †Zvgvi GjvKvi m‡½ RMrcwÆi mv`„k¨ I ˆekv`„k¨¸‡jv †jL|


wbwg©wZ

93

2. mvivsk I mvigg© mvivsk 2.1

†Kv_v †_‡K G‡m‡Q Avgv‡`i evsjv fvlv? fvlv wK Rb¥ †bq gvby‡li g‡Zv? ev †hgb exR †_‡K MvQ R‡b¥ †Zgbfv‡e Rb¥ †bq fvlv? bv, fvlv gvbyl ev Ziyi g‡Zv Rb¥ †bq bv| evsjv fvlvI gvbyl ev Ziyi g‡Zv Rb¥ †bqwb, †Kv‡bv KwíZ ¯^M© †_‡KI Av‡mwb| GLb Avgiv †h evsjv fvlv ewj GK nvRvi eQi Av‡M Zv wVK Ggb wQj bv| †m-fvlvq G-†`‡ki gvbyl K_v ejZ, Mvb MvBZ, KweZv evbvZ| gvby‡li gy‡L gy‡L e`‡j hvq fvlvi aŸwb| i~c e`‡j hvq k‡ãi, e`j N‡U A‡_©i| A‡bKw`b †K‡U †M‡j g‡b nq fvlvwU GKwU bZzb fvlv n‡q D‡V‡Q| Avi †m-fvlvi e`j N‡UB Rb¥ n‡q‡Q evsjv fvlvi|

mvivsk : fvlvi ag©B n‡”Q e`‡j hvIqv| gvby‡li gy‡L gy‡L e`‡j hvq fvlvi aŸwb| k‡ãiI e`j N‡U Ges †m m‡½ k‡ãi A‡_©iI| nvRvi eQ‡ii cwieZ©‡bi avivevwnKZvq Ggwb fv‡eB Avgv‡`i evsjv fvlvi Rb¥ n‡q‡Q| 2.2

Avb›` cÖKvk Rxebxkw³i cÖejZviB cÖKvk| Avb›`‡K Avgiv eywS i~c-im-kã-¯úk©-MÜ BZ¨vw`i mvnv‡h¨, Bw›`ªqmK‡ji mvnv‡h¨| gvbyl hLb Avb›` cvq ZLb †m Zvi gb‡K cÖKvk Ki‡Z Pvq Ñ bvbv i~‡c| ZvB m„wó n‡jv wPÎwkíx, b„Z¨wkíx, msMxZwkíx, Kwe, mvwnwZ¨K| cyivKv‡ji ¸nvgvbyl †_‡K ïiy K‡i eZ©gvb hyM ch©šÍ gvbyl wb‡Ri cvIqv Avb›`‡K my›`i‡K Ab¨ gvby‡li g‡a¨ we¯Ívi Ki‡Z †P‡q‡Q| ZvB m„wó n‡q‡Q bvbvb Avw½‡Ki wkíKjv|

mvivsk : gvby‡li Rxebxkw³i cÖKvk N‡U Avb‡›`| Zvi mg¯Í Bw›`ªq w`‡q Avb›`‡K †m Dcjwä K‡i| †mB Avb›`vbyf~wZ mevi Kv‡Q Rvbv‡Z Pvq| ZvB Qwe, Mvb, KweZv, bvP, fv®‹h© BZ¨vw` wkíKjvi gva¨‡g gvbyl Zvi Avb›`‡K cÖKvk K‡i| GB Avb›` I my›`i †eva gvby‡li gb‡K Z…ß K‡i| 2.3

evOvwj †hw`b HK¨e× n‡q ej‡Z cvi‡e Ñ ÔevOvwji evsjvÕ †mw`b Zviv Amva¨ mvab Ki‡e| evOvwji g‡Zv Ávb-kw³ I †cÖg-kw³ (†eªb †m›Uvi I nvU© †m›Uvi) Gwkqvq †Kb, eywS c„w_ex‡Z †Kv‡bv RvwZi †bB| wKšÍy Kg©-kw³ G‡Kev‡i †bB e‡jB Zv‡`i GB w`e¨kw³ Zgmv”Qbœ n‡q Av‡Q| Zv‡`i Kg©-wegyLZv, RoZv, g„Zz¨fq, Avjm¨, Z›`ªv, wb`ªv, e¨emvevwY‡R¨ Awb”Qvi KviY| Zviv ZvgwmKZvq Av”Qbœ n‡q †PZbv-kw³‡K nvwi‡q †d‡j‡Q| GB Zgt, GB wZwgi, GB RoZvB Awe`¨v| Awe`¨v †Kej AÜKvi c‡_ åvwšÍi c‡_ wb‡q hvq; w`e¨kw³‡K wb‡¯ÍR, g„ZcÖvq K‡i iv‡L|


94

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

mvivsk : evOvwj †cÖg-kw³ I Ávb-kw³‡Z c„w_exL¨vZ| wKšÍy Avjm¨ Zv‡`i `ye©j K‡i †i‡L‡Q| AjmZv Avi Kv‡Ri cÖwZ Abxnvi Rb¨ Zviv RM‡Zi mewKQz †_‡K wcwQ‡q Av‡Q| GB Avjm¨ I Kg©-wegyLZv‡K D‡cÿv K‡i evOvwj‡K †R‡M DV‡Z n‡e| Z‡eB GB evsjv cÖK…Z A‡_© evOvwji n‡e| 2.4

GKRb gvbyl fv‡jv wK g›` Avgiv Zv eyS‡Z cvwi Zvi e¨envi w`‡q| †m f`ª wK Af`ª ZvI eyS‡Z cvwi Zvi e¨envi w`‡q| e¨envi fv‡jv n‡j †jv‡K Zv‡K fv‡jv e‡j| Zv‡K cQ›` K‡i| e¨envi Lvivc n‡j †jv‡K Zv‡K Lvivc e‡j| Zv‡K AcQ›` K‡i| Zvi m‡½ wgk‡Z Pvq bv| Zvi m‡½ KvR Ki‡Z Pvq bv| Zv‡K Kv‡Q WvK‡Z Pvq bv| †Zvgvi e¨envi w`‡qB †Zvgvi gbyl¨‡Z¡i cwiPq|

mvivsk : my›`i e¨env‡ii g‡a¨B gbyl¨‡Z¡i cwiPq wbwnZ| gvby‡li K_vevZ©v, g‡bvfve I Av`e-Kvq`vi g‡a¨ w`‡qB my›`i e¨env‡ii cÖKvk N‡U| fv‡jv e¨envi w`‡q mn‡RB Ac‡ii fv‡jvevmv cvIqv hvq| my›`i ¯^fv‡ei g‡a¨B gvby‡li †mŠ›`h© dz‡U I‡V| 2.5

m~‡h©i Av‡jv‡Z iv‡Zi AÜKvi †K‡U hvq| wkÿvi Av‡jv Avgv‡`i AÁvbZvi AÜKvi `~i K‡i| Avgv‡`i `„wó‡Z Pvicv‡ki RMr Av‡iv my›`i n‡q I‡V| Avgiv Rxe‡bi bZzb A_© Luy‡R cvB; wkÿvi Av‡jv †c‡q Avgv‡`i wfZ‡ii gvbylwU †R‡M I‡V| Avgiv eo n‡Z PvB, eo nIqvi Rb¨ †Póv Kwi| Avgiv my›`i K‡i euvP‡Z PvB, euvPvi g‡Zv euvP‡Z PvB| Avi my›`i K‡i euvP‡Z n‡j PvB Ávb| †mB Ávb‡K Kv‡RI jvMv‡bv PvB| wkÿvi d‡j Avgv‡`i wfZi †h kw³ jyKv‡bv _v‡K Zv ax‡i ax‡i †R‡M I‡V| Avgiv gvbyl n‡q DwV|

mvivsk : m~‡h©i Av‡jv †hgb AÜKvi `~i K‡i, †Zgwb wkÿvi Av‡jv g‡bi AÜKvi `~i K‡i †`q| Avgv‡`i cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki †fZ‡i kw³ jyKv‡bv Av‡Q| wkÿv G kw³i weKv‡k mvnvh¨ K‡i| wkÿvi d‡j Avgiv Ávb I `ÿZv jvf K‡i wb‡Ri kw³‡K Kv‡R jvMvB| h_v_© gvbyl n‡q DwV| 2.6

bgt bgt bgt my›`ix gg Rbbx e½f~wg! M½vi Zxi, wmœ» mgxi, Rxeb Ryov‡j Zzwg| AevwiZ gvV, MMbjjvU Pz‡g Ze c`a~wj Qvqvmywbweo kvwšÍi bxo †Qv‡Uv †Qv‡Uv MÖvg¸wj| cjøeNb AvgªKvbb ivLv‡ji †Ljv‡Mn, ¯Zä AZj w`wN Kv‡jvRjÑ wbkx_kxZj †mœn| eyKfiv gay e‡½i ea~ Rj j‡q hvq N‡i Ñ gv ewj‡Z cÖvY K‡i AvbPvb, †Pv‡L Av‡m Rj f‡i|


wbwg©wZ

95

mvigg© : gv I gvZ…f~wg mevi Kv‡Q wcÖq| evsjv‡`k Avgv‡`i gvZ…f~wgÑGi AvKvk-evZvm, b`x, gvV, cÖK…wZ-wbmM©, gvbyl meB Avgv‡`i fv‡jvevmvi ab| evsjvi Avengvb Aci~c i~‡c cÖwZwU evOvwjB †gvngy»| 2.7 f`ª †gviv, kvšÍ e‡ov, †cvl-gvbv G cÖvY †evZvg-AuvUv Rvgvi wb‡P kvwšÍ‡Z kqvb| †`Lv n‡jB wgó AwZ, gy‡Li fve wkó AwZ, Ajm †`n wK¬ó MwZ, M„‡ni cÖwZ UvbÑ ˆZj-Xvjv wmœ» Zby wb`ªv i‡m fiv gv_vq †Qv‡Uv en‡i eo evOvwj mšÍvb| Bnvi †P‡q nZvg hw` Avie †e`yBb. PiYZ‡j wekvj giy w`M‡šÍ wejxb| QzU‡Q †Nvov D‡o‡Q evwj, Rxeb‡mªvZ AvKv‡k Xvwj ü`q-Z‡j ewý R¡vwj P‡jwQ wbwkw`bÑ eikv nv‡Z, fimv cÖv‡Y, m`vB wbiy‡Ïk giyi So †hgb e‡n mKj evav-nxb|

mvigg© : evOvwj kvšÍwkó, Kg©nxb, AvivgwcÖq I Ajm RvwZ| G Rxeb Kv‡iv Kvg¨ n‡Z cv‡i bv| Zvi †P‡q mvnmx, Kg©x I PÂjZv-gyLi Rxe‡bi AwaKvix nIqv A‡bK †ewk m¤§v‡bi| 8.8 GB †h weUwc-†kªwY †nwi mvwi mvwiÑ wK Avðh© †kvfvgq hvB ewjnvwi! †Kn ev mij mvay-ü`q †hgb, dj-f‡i bZ †Kn ¸Yxi gZb| G‡`i ¯^fve fv‡jv gvb‡ei †P‡q, B”Qv hvi †`L †`L ÁvbP‡ÿ †P‡q|


96

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

hLb gvbeKzj abevb nq, ZLb Zv‡`i wki mgybœZ iq| wKšÍy djkvjx n‡j GB ZiyMY, AnsKv‡i D”Pwki bv K‡i KLb| djk~b¨ n‡j m`v _v‡K mgybœZ, bxP cÖvq Kvi VuvB b‡n AebZ|

mvigg© : MvQ d‡j cwic~Y© n‡q bZ nq| Zv‡Z Zvi †MŠie _vK‡jI AnsKvi _v‡K bv| wKšÍy gvby‡li A_© n‡jB AnsKvi, A_© dzwi‡q †M‡jB gv_v wbPz nq| MvQ djk~b¨ n‡jI wKšÍy gv_v †mvRv K‡i `uvwo‡q _v‡K| bxP ¯^fv‡ei gvby‡li g‡Zv †m Kv‡iv Kv‡Q AebZ nq bv| 2.9

mv‡g¨i Mvb MvBÑ Avgvi P‡ÿ cyiyl-igYx †Kv‡bv †f`v‡f` bvB| we‡k¦i hv-wKQy gnvb m„wó wPi-Kj¨vYKi A‡a©K Zvi Kwiqv‡Q bvix, A‡a©K Zvi bi| we‡k¦ hv-wKQz Gj cvc-Zvc †e`bv AkÖyevwi A‡a©K Zvi Avwbqv‡Q bi, A‡a©K Zvi bvix| RM‡Zi hZ eo eo Rq eo eo Awfhvb gvZv fMœx I ea~‡`i Z¨v‡M nBqv‡Q gnxqvb| †Kvb i‡Y KZ Lyb w`j bi, †jLv Av‡Q BwZnv‡m, KZ bvix w`j wmuw_i wmu`yi, †jLv bvB Zvi cv‡k| KZ gvZv w`j ü`q Dcvwo KZ †evb w`j †mev, ex‡ii ¯§„wZ-¯Z‡¤¢i Mv‡q wjwLqv †i‡L‡Q †Kev? †Kv‡bv Kv‡j GKv nqwb †Kv Rqx cyiy‡li Zievwi, †cÖiYv w`qv‡Q, kw³ w`qv‡Q weRq-j²x bvix|

mvigg© : gvbemf¨Zv wbg©v‡Y bvix I cyiy‡li mgvb Ae`vb i‡q‡Q| wKšÍy BwZnv‡m cyiy‡li K_v hZUv †jLv n‡q‡Q, bvixi ZZUv nqwb| bvix‡K Zvi Kg©-¯^xK…wZ †_‡K ewÂZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| GLb w`b G‡m‡Q mg-AwaKv‡ii| bvix-cyiyl mevB‡K my›`i I D¾¡j fwel¨‡Zi Rb¨ mw¤§wjZfv‡e KvR Ki‡Z n‡e|


wbwg©wZ

2.10

97

†n m~h©! kx‡Zi m~h©! wngkxZj my`xN© ivZ †Zvgvi cÖZxÿvq Avgiv _vwK †hgb cÖZxÿv K‡i _v‡K K…l‡Ki PÂj †PvL avbKvUvi †ivgvÂKi w`b¸wji R‡b¨|

†n m~h©, Zzwg †Zv Rv‡bv, Avgv‡`i Mig Kvc‡oi KZ Afve! mvivivZ LoKz‡Uv R¡vwj‡q GK UzK‡iv Kvc‡o Kvb †X‡K, KZK‡ó Avgiv kxZ AvUKvB! mKv‡ji GK UzK‡iv †ivÏyiÑ GK UzK‡iv †mvbvi †P‡qI g‡b nq `vwg|

mvigg© : m~‡h©i kw³‡Z f~-c„‡ô MvQcvjv, Rxe-RšÍy I gvbyl RxebaviY K‡i| cÖPÊ kx‡Z m~‡h©i GKUz DËv‡ci Rb¨ mvivivZ A‡cÿv K‡i e¯¿nxb, Avkªqnxb kxZvZ© gvbyl| mgv‡Ri Ae‡nwjZ I myweavewÂZ Gme gvby‡li Kv‡Q m~‡h©i DòZv †mvbvi †P‡qI `vwg|

3. fve-m¤úªmviY 3.1

G RM‡Z, nvq, †mB †ewk Pvq Av‡Q hvi f~wi f~wi ivRvi n¯Í K‡i mg¯Í KvOv‡ji ab Pzwi|

fve-m¤cÖmviY : gvbyl ¯^fveZB hZ cvq, ZZ Pvq| Zvi PvIqvi †kl †bB| G RM‡Z hvi hZ †ewk Av‡Q, †m ZZ Av‡iv †ewk Pvq| †h jvL UvKvi gvwjK, †m †KvwUcwZ n‡Z Pvq| hvi †KvwU Av‡Q, †m nvRvi †KvwU †c‡Z Pvq| ivRvi wecyj m¤ú` Av‡Q| ZeyI Zvi ivR¨ R‡qi cÖej AvKv•Lv| †Kbbv Zvi Av‡iv m¤ú` PvB| Av‡iv †fvM, Av‡iv wejvwmZv cÖ‡qvRb Zvi| GB Av‡iv cvIqvi B”Qv gvbyl‡K Agvbyl K‡i †Zv‡j| wb‡Ri gvbeZv‡K wemR©b w`‡q, wg_¨vi Avkªq wb‡q Zviv Mwi‡ei me©¯^ †K‡o †bq| Zviv Zv‡`i †fvM-jvjmv †gUv‡Z Mwi‡ei mvgvb¨ m¤ú` AvZ¥mvr K‡i wb‡Riv dz‡j-†du‡c I‡V| abx‡`i GB †jv‡f mgv‡Ri `xbnxb Mwie gvbyl¸‡jv cÖwZwbqZ n‡”Q cÖZvwiZ; mnvq-m¤^jnxb c‡_i dwKi| G‡Z abx‡`i g‡b mvgvb¨Zg KiyYvI nq bv|


98

3.2

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

Kwi‡Z cvwi bv KvR m`v fq, m`v jvR msk‡q msK‡í m`v U‡j cv‡Q †jv‡K wKQz e‡j|

fve-m¤cÖmviY : gvby‡li Rxeb Kg©gyLi| Kv‡Ri gva¨‡gB gvbeRxe‡bi mdjZv Av‡m| KvR Ki‡Z †M‡j fzj nq Ges fzj †_‡K wkÿv MÖnY K‡i gvbyl Zvi Rxeb‡K GwM‡q wb‡q hvq| wKšÍy G c„w_ex‡Z mevB Kg©x bq| wKQz Ajm-AKg©Y¨ gvbyl Av‡Q, hviv me mgq A‡b¨i †cQ‡b †j‡M _v‡K| Zv‡`i Kv‡Ri LuyZ a‡i, Ab¨vq mgv‡jvPbv K‡i| d‡j A‡bK mgq †Kv‡bv KvR Ki‡Z †M‡j †KD †KD wØavMÖ¯Í nq| †K Kx g‡b Ki‡e, †K Kx mgv‡jvPbv Ki‡e GB me †f‡e Zviv e‡m _v‡K| hvi Rb¨ KvR G‡Mvq bv| ZvB hviv mgv‡R Ae`vb ivL‡Z Pvq Zv‡`i wØav Ki‡j Pj‡e bv| `„p g‡bvej wb‡q †jvKj¾v I mgv‡jvPK‡K D‡cÿv Ki‡Z n‡e| gvby‡li Kj¨v‡Y gnr KvR Ki‡Z n‡j fqfxwZ ms‡KvP‡K cvk KvwU‡q GwM‡q †h‡Z n‡e| 3.3

we‡k¦i hv wKQy gnvb m„wó wPi-Kj¨vYKi A‡a©K Zvi Kwiqv‡Q bvix, A‡a©K Zvi bi|

fve-m¤cÖmviY : gvbe-mf¨Zv weKv‡k bvix I cyiy‡li mgvb Ae`vb i‡q‡Q| bvix-cyiy‡li mw¤§wjZ cÖ‡Póv‡ZB M‡o D‡V‡Q Avgv‡`i mgvR, mf¨Zv I ms¯‹…wZ| m„wóKZ©v bvix I cyiyl‡K m„wó K‡i‡Qb G‡K Ac‡ii cwic~iK wn‡m‡e| ZvB bvix I cyiyl wPiKv‡ji mv_©K m½x| GKB gy`ªvi GwcV-IwcV| m„wói Avw`gKvj †_‡K bvix cyiyl‡K RywM‡q‡Q †cÖiYv, kw³ I mvnm| Avi cyiyl ex‡ii g‡Zv me Kv‡R AR©b K‡i‡Q mvdj¨| AvR ch©šÍ we‡k¦ hZ Awfhvb msNwUZ n‡q‡Q, Zvi AšÍiv‡j bvixi f~wgKvB gyL¨| m½Z Kvi‡YB bvix I cyiy‡li Kvh©‡ÿ‡Î wfbœZv Av‡Q| ZeyI bvix †hgb cyiy‡li Dci wbf©ikxj, cyiylI †Zgwb bvixi gyLv‡cÿx| bvix‡K ev` w`‡q cyiy‡li Rxeb Am¤ú~Y©, A_©nxb| bvix I cyiy‡li wgj‡bi g‡a¨B i‡q‡Q RM‡Zi mg¯Í Kj¨vY| Df‡qi `v‡b cyó n‡q‡Q Avgv‡`i c„w_ex| 3.4

Avgvi fvB‡qi i‡³ ivOv‡bv GKz‡k †deªyqvwi Avwg wK fzwj‡Z cvwi|

fve-m¤cÖmviY : c„w_exi mKj †`‡kiB RvZxq Rxe‡b Ggb `y-GKwU w`b Av‡m hv ¯^gwngvq D¾¡j| Avgv‡`i RvZxq Rxe‡b Ggwb ¯§„wZ-weRwoZ gwngv-D¾¡j GKwU w`b GKz‡k †deªyqvwi| mviv we‡k¦i evsjv fvlx‡`i Kv‡Q G w`bwU wPi-¯§iYxq| GKz‡k †deªyqvwii BwZnvm GKw`‡K Avb‡›`i, Ab¨w`‡K †e`bvi| cvwK¯Ívwb ˆ¯^i-kvmKiv evOvwji gyL †_‡K evsjv fvlv †K‡o wb‡Z †P‡qwQj 1948 mv‡j| evsjvi gvbyl


wbwg©wZ

99

†m Ab¨vq †g‡b †bqwb| evsjvi `vgvj †Q‡jiv Zzgyj we‡ivwaZv K‡i ivRc‡_ †b‡g Av‡m| Ôivóªfvlv evsjv PvBÕ `vwe‡Z evsjvi AvKvk-evZvm cÖKw¤úZ K‡i †Zv‡j| ˆ¯^ivPvix cvK-miKvi Av‡›`vjb `g‡bi Rb¨ ïiy K‡i †MÖdZvi, Ryjyg, wbh©vZb| G‡ZI evsjvi `yišÍ †Q‡j‡`i `gv‡Z bv †c‡i 1952 mv‡ji 21†k †deªyqvwi Zv‡`i wgwQ‡j wbg©gfv‡e ¸wjel©Y K‡i| iwdK, kwdK, eiKZ, ReŸvi, mvjv‡gi i‡³ XvKvi ivRc_ iwÄZ nq| evsjv cvq ivóªfvlvi gh©v`v| Avi mgMÖ evOvwji †PZbvq wPi¯§iYxq I eiYxq _v‡K fvlv-kwn`‡`i bvg| Zuv‡`i FY Avgiv †Kv‡bvw`b fyje bv| 3.5

Rwb¥‡j gwi‡Z n‡e wPiw¯’i K‡e bxi

Agi †K †Kv_v K‡e nq †i Rxeb b‡`?

fve-m¤cÖmviY : gvbyl giYkxj| gvbyl Agi bq| GKw`b mevB‡KB g„Zz¨i ¯^v` MÖnY Ki‡Z n‡e| g„Zz¨B Rxe‡bi Awbevh© cwiYwZ| g„Zz¨‡K †VKv‡bvi ÿgZv †Kv‡bv gvby‡li †bB| gvbeRxeb b`xi R‡ji g‡Zv cÖengvb| b`xi †Rvqvi-fvUvi g‡Zv gvby‡li Rxe‡bI myL-`ytL, DÌvb-cZb Av‡Q| RvMwZK wbq‡gB Rxeb P‡j| GUvB cÖK…wZi weavb| ZvB g„Zz¨‡K Ah_v fq cvevi wKQz †bB| eis GB mZ¨‡K †g‡b wb‡q gvbeRxeb‡K mv_©K K‡i Zzj‡Z n‡e| Kg©¸‡Y mgvR-mf¨Zvq wb‡Ri KxwZ©i wPý †i‡L †h‡Z n‡e| wbõj Rxe‡bi AwaKvix gvbyl‡K †KD g‡b iv‡L bv| wKšÍy K…Zx †jv‡Ki †MŠie Rxe‡bi mxgv AwZµg K‡i AgiZv †NvlYv K‡i| gvby‡liI kix‡ii g„Zz¨ nq| wKšÍy Zvi Rxe‡bi cyY¨Kg© c„w_ex‡Z wPi¯§iYxq n‡q _v‡K| bk¦i g„Zz¨I gvby‡li Rxe‡b ZLb Awebk¦i n‡q I‡V| 3.6

evsjvi BwZnvm G †`‡ki gvby‡li i³ w`‡q ivRc_ iwÄZ Kivi BwZnvm|

fve-m¤cÖmviY : evOvwj RvwZi me‡P‡q †MŠi‡ei BwZnvm A‡bK i‡³i wewbg‡q AwR©Z ¯^vaxbZvi BwZnvm| evOvwj RvwZ Kv‡iv AaxbZv †Kv‡bvw`b †g‡b †bqwb| Ab¨vq I †kvl‡Yi weiy‡× evOvwji Ae¯’vb wPiKvjB wQj eRªKwVb| ZvB GLv‡b evievi we‡`ªv‡ni Av¸b R¡‡j‡Q| Jcwb‡ewkK weªwUk kvm‡bi RuvZvK‡j cÖvq `y‡kv eQi a‡i wb‡®úwlZ n‡q‡Q G RvwZ| 1947-G †mB RuvZvKj †_‡K G Dcgnv‡`‡ki gvbyl gyw³ †c‡jI evOvwji gyw³ †g‡jwb| G eÜb evOvwj †g‡bI †bqwb| 1952 mv‡ji i³Siv fvlv-Av‡›`vj‡bi ga¨ w`‡q evOvwj ax‡i ax‡i GwM‡q hvq gyw³-msMÖv‡gi w`‡K| 1958 I 1966 mv‡j cvwK¯Ívwb mvgwiK kvmK evsjvi `vgvj †Q‡j‡`i Ici ¸wj Pvjvq| ¸wj K‡i 1969-Gi MYAfy¨Ìv‡bI| evievi evOvwji ey‡Ki i‡³ iwÄZ nq ivRc_| ZeyI Zv‡`i ¯^vaxbZvi `vwe‡K †VKv‡Z e¨_© nq cvwK¯Ívwb RvšÍv-evwnbx| ZvB Zviv 1971-G evOvwji Ici P~ovšÍ AvNvZ nv‡b| ZLb evsjvi gvbyl Suvwc‡q c‡o gyw³-msMÖv‡g| jÿ jÿ gvby‡li ey‡Ki i‡³ evsjvi gvwU jvj nq| Ae‡k‡l AwR©Z nq ¯^vaxb mve©‡fŠg evsjv‡`k|


100

3.7

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

m½‡`v‡l †jvnv fv‡m|

fve-m¤cÖmviY : cÖ‡Z¨K gvbylB Zvi Rxeb cwiPvjbvi †ÿ‡Î GKwU ¯^vaxb mËv enb K‡i| †m GKvB Zvi we‡eK‡K wbqš¿Y K‡i| Z‡e G‡ÿ‡Î Zvi m‡½i cÖfve we‡klfv‡e jÿYxq| fwel¨‡Zi my›`i ev Lviv‡ci welqwU wbf©i K‡i e¨w³i B”Qv ev m½ wbe©vP‡bi Ici| †hme gvbyl DbœZ PwiÎ ev mr-¯^fv‡ei †jv‡Ki m‡½ †gjv‡gkv K‡i, Zv‡`i ¯^fve-PwiÎI my›`i I weKwkZ n‡q I‡V| Ab¨w`‡K hviv Kzm‡½ ev Kzmsm‡M© †_‡K wb‡R‡`i Pwi‡Îi AatcZb NwU‡q‡Q, mgv‡R Zv‡`i wech©q Awbevh©| ZvB gvbeRxe‡b m½ wbe©vPb AZ¨šÍ ¸iyZ¡c~Y© welq| cÖK…wZ‡ZI †hme e¯‘ my›`i I igYxq, †m¸‡jvi ms¯ú‡k© †hme e¯‘ _v‡K ZvivI my›`i I AvKl©Yxq n‡q I‡V| Lvivc e¯‘wU my›`i e¯‘wUi ¸Y wb‡Ri g‡a¨ aviY K‡i A‡b¨i Kv‡Q wb‡R‡K gh©v`vevb I MÖnY‡hvM¨ K‡i †Zv‡j| cÖK…Zc‡ÿ, m½B m„wó‡K gwngvwš^Z K‡i †Zv‡j| Avi GRb¨ m½B n‡jv mewKQzi mvdj¨ I wedjZvi PvweKvwV| 3.8

†jv‡f cvc, cv‡c g„Zz¨|

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102

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cÖvcK: gygZvwnbv cÖh‡Zœ : †gv. wdi`vDm ZvivewbqvQiv K·evRvi|


104

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†cÖiK: euvab wmw×iMÄ bvivqYMÄ|

WvK wUwKU cÖvcK: gy» cÖh‡Zœ : eyjeyj Anv‡g` MÖvg : KzjwUqv WvKNi : KzwjqviPi †Rjv : mybvgMÄ


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N. Kw¤úDUvi wkÿvi ¸iyZ¡ eY©bv K‡i †Zvgvi †QvU †evb ebvbx‡K GKwU wPwV †jL| Avnmvb †ivW, Lyjbv| 17.07.2012

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webxZÑ Aóg †kªwYi wkÿv_©x‡`i c‡ÿ Afq †Nvl miKvwi wf‡±vwiqv GKv‡Wwg, †kicyi| ZvwiL : 11. 08. 2013


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M. g‡b Ki, †Zvgvi evev GKwU e¨vs‡K PvKwi K‡ib| m¤cÖwZ †Zvgvi evevi e`wj n‡q‡Q| ZvB †Zvgv‡KI Zvi mv‡_ P‡j †h‡Z n‡e| GRb¨ †Zvgvi ¯‹z‡ji cÖavb wkÿ‡Ki Kv‡Q QvocÎ †P‡q Av‡e`b Ki|

eivei, cÖavb wkÿK, ivOvgvwU gva¨wgK we`¨vjq, ivOvgvwU| welq : we`¨vjq †_‡K QvocÎ cvIqvi Rb¨ Av‡e`b| g‡nv`q, webxZ wb‡e`b GB †h, Avwg Avcbvi we`¨vj‡qi Aóg †kªwYi GKRb QvÎ| Avgvi evev GKRb e¨vsKKg©KZ©v| m¤cÖwZ Zv‡K K·evRvi †Rjv kn‡i e`wj Kiv n‡q‡Q| ZvB cwiev‡ii mevi m‡½ Avgv‡KI K·evRvi †h‡Z n‡”Q| †mLv‡b bZzb K‡i fwZ©i Rb¨ GB we`¨vj‡qi QvocÎ cÖ‡qvRb| AZGe, AbyMÖnc~e©K Avgv‡K we`¨vjq Z¨v‡Mi QvocÎ w`‡q evwaZ Ki‡eb|

wb‡e`K, cÖZ¨q PvKgv †ivj bs Ñ 12, 8g †kªwY ivOvgvwU gva¨wgK we`¨vjq, ivOvgvwU| ZvwiL : 14. 06. 2012


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N. ai, Zzwg cvZvevnvi D”P we`¨vjq, `wbqv, XvKvi Aóg †kªwYi QvÎ| †Zvgv‡`i ¯‹z‡j GKwU ÔweÁvb K¬veÕ MV‡bi AbygwZ †P‡q cÖavb wkÿ‡Ki wbKU GKLvbv Av‡e`b cÎ iPbv Ki| 18-07-2012 eivei, cÖavb wkÿK, cvZvevnvi D”P we`¨vjq, `wbqv, XvKv| welq : ÔweÁvb K¬veÕ MV‡bi AbygwZi Rb¨ Av‡e`b| g‡nv`q, mwebq wb‡e`b GB †h, Avgiv Avcbvi we`¨vj‡qi Aóg †kªwYi QvÎ-QvÎx| †ek wKQzw`b †_‡K Avgiv ¯‹z‡j weÁvbPP©vi Rb¨ GKwU weÁvb K¬v‡ei cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Abyfe KiwQ| weÁvb I cÖhyw³i GB Pig DrK‡l©i hy‡M weÁvbPP©v Qvov wkÿv m¤ú~Y© nq bv| Avi weÁvb K¬ve MVb Kiv n‡j weÁvb wel‡q Av‡jvPbv, Z_¨ Av`vb-cÖ`vb, cÎ-cwÎKv cÖKvk Kiv m¤¢e n‡e| weÁvb wel‡q cov‡kvbv I M‡elYv K‡i Avgiv bZzb bZzb weÁvb cÖ‡R± ˆZwi‡ZI `ªyZ mdjZv AR©b Kie| AZGe, g‡nv`‡qi wbKU webxZ cÖv_©bv, Avgv‡`i we`¨vj‡q GKwU ÔweÁvb K¬veÕ MV‡bi AbygwZ I cÖ‡qvRbxq w`Kwb‡`©kbv cÖ`vb K‡i evwaZ Ki‡eb| wb‡e`KÑ Aóg †kªwYi wkÿv_©x‡`i c‡ÿ Ave`ym mvjvg cvZvevnvi D”P we`¨vjq, `wbqv, XvKv|


110

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evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

wbgš¿Y cÎ :

K. †Zvgvi ¯‹z‡j ÔbRiyj Rb¥RqšÍxÕ D`&hvcb Dcj‡ÿ GKwU Avgš¿Y cÎ iPbv Ki| myax, AvMvgx 11B ˆR¨ô, 1419 / 25‡k †g, 2012, ïµevi weKvj PviUvq we‡`ªvnx I Avgv‡`i RvZxq Kwe KvRx bRiyj Bmjv‡gi 113Zg Rb¥RqšÍx Dcj‡ÿ wR.†K D”P we`¨vjq wgjbvqZ‡b GK Av‡jvPbv mfv I mvs¯‹…wZK Abyôv‡bi Av‡qvRb Kiv n‡q‡Q| Abyôv‡b cÖavb AwZw_i Avmb AjsK…Z Ki‡eb e‡iY¨ K_vmvwnwZ¨K nvmvb AvwRRyj nK| mfvcwZZ¡ Ki‡eb cÖavb wkÿK m‡ivR Kzgvi PµeZ©x| Abyôv‡b Avcbvi Dcw¯’wZ GKvšÍfv‡e Kvgbv Kwi|

ZvwiL : 15.05.2012

Abyôvbm~wP 04. 05 : AwZw_e„‡›`i Avmb MÖnY 04. 20 : cweÎ ag©MÖš’mg~n †_‡K cvV 04. 30 : we‡kl Av‡jvPbv 05. 00 : mfvcwZi fvlY 05. 30 : mvs¯‹…wZK Abyôvb|

webxZÑ dwi` Avng` mwjj AvnŸvqK bRiyj Rb¥RqšÍx D`&hvcb cwil` wR. †K. D”P we`¨vjq, Lyjbv|


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L. ai, †Zvgvi cvovq ÒAvÂwjK ˆgÎx msNÓ bv‡g GKwU K¬ve Av‡Q| K¬v‡ei cÿ †_‡K evsjv beel© D`&hvcb Dcj‡ÿ GKwU wbgš¿Y cÎ iPbv Ki| wcÖq myax, ïf Ôbeel©Õ D`&hvcb Dcj‡ÿ AvMvgx 1jv ˆekvL, 1419 / 14B GwcÖj, 2012, kwbevi mKvj 07Uvq AvÂwjK ˆgÎx ms‡Ni cÿ †_‡K GK eY©vX¨ g½j †kvfvhvÎv I mvs¯‹…wZK Abyôv‡bi Av‡qvRb Kiv n‡q‡Q|

D³ Abyôv‡b Avcwb mevÜe Avgwš¿Z|

ZvwiL : 25.3.2012

Abyôvbm~wP 06.30 : g½j †kvfvhvÎvi cÖ¯‘wZ 07.30 : msN-cÖv½Y †_‡K †kvfvhvÎv ïiy; GjvKv cwiågY 09.00 : ms‡Ni wgjbvqZ‡b cÖxwZ‡fvR 10.00 : g‡bvÁ mvs¯‹…wZK Abyôvb 12.00 : mgvwß|

webxZÑ Awi›`g Lv‡jK mvs¯‹…wZK m¤úv`K AvÂwjK ˆgÎx msN, wm‡jU|


112

5.

evsjv e¨vKiY I wbwg©wZ

cÖeÜ iPbv 5.1 evsjv‡`‡ki loFZz

m~Pbv : evsjv‡`k FZz-ˆewP‡Î¨i †`k| GLv‡b GK GK FZzi GK GK i~c| FZz‡Z FZz‡Z GLv‡b P‡j mvR e`‡ji cvjv| bZzb bZzb iO-†iLvq cÖK„wZ Avjcbv Auv‡K gvwUi ey‡K, AvKv‡ki Mv‡q, gvby‡li g‡b| ZvB FZz e`‡ji mv‡_ mv‡_ GLv‡b Rxe‡biI iO e`j nq| †m-Kvi‡YB eywS Kwe iex›`ªbv_ VvKz‡ii K‡É aŸwbZ nqÑ RM‡Zi gv‡S KZ wewPÎ Zzwg †nÑ Zzwg wewPÎ i~wcYx| loFZzi cwiPq : c„w_exi AwaKvsk †`‡k FZzi msL¨v PviwU n‡jI evsjv‡`k Qq FZzi †`k| GLv‡b cÖwZ `yB gvm AšÍi GKwU bZzb FZzi Avwef©ve N‡U| FZz¸‡jv n‡”QÑ MÖx®§, el©v, kir, †ngšÍ, kxZ I emšÍ| Giv PµvKv‡i AvewZ©Z nq| Avi cÖ‡Z¨K FZzi Avwef©v‡e evsjv‡`‡ki cÖK…wZi i~c I †mŠ›`h© ˆewPΨgq n‡q I‡V| MÖx®§Kvj : FZzP‡µi ïiy‡ZB Av‡m MÖx®§| ˆekvL-ˆR¨ô `yB gvm MÖx®§Kvj| Av¸‡bi gkvj nv‡Z gvV-NvU †cvov‡Z †cvov‡Z MÖx®§iv‡Ri AvMgb| ZLb AvKvk-evZvm ayjvq a~mwiZ n‡q I‡V| cÖK…wZi k¨vgj-wmœ» i~c nvwi‡q hvq| Lvj-wej, b`x-bvjv ïwK‡q hvq| Amn¨ Mi‡g mg¯Í cªvwYKyj GKUz kxZj cvwb I Qvqvi Rb¨ KvZi n‡q c‡o| GiB g‡a¨ KL‡bv nVvr ïiy nq Kvj‡ev‡kwLi `yišÍ ZvÊe| †f‡OPz‡i mewKQz ZQbQ K‡i w`‡q hvq| Z‡e MÖx®§ ïay †cvovq bv, AK…cY nv‡Z `vb K‡i Avg, Rvg, Rvgiyj, wjPz, ZigyR I bvi‡K‡ji g‡Zv Ag„Z dj| el©vKvj : MÖx‡®§i c‡iB gnvmgv‡iv‡n el©v Av‡m| Avlvp-kªveY `yB gvm el©vKvj| w`wM¦Rqx †hv×vi †e‡k el©vi Avwef©ve| †g‡Ni ¸iyM¤¢xi MR©‡b cÖK…wZ †_‡g †_‡g wkD‡i I‡V| ïiy nq gyljavivq e„wó| gvV-NvU cvwb‡Z cwic~Y© n‡q hvq| cÖK…wZ‡Z †`Lv †`q g‡bvig mRxeZv| RbRxe‡b wd‡i Av‡m cÖkvwšÍ| K…l‡Kiv Rwg‡Z avb-cv‡Ui exR †ivcY K‡i| Mv‡Q Mv‡Q †dv‡U K`g, †Kqv, RuyB| el©vq cvIqv hvq Avbvim, †cqviv cÖf…wZ dj| kirKvj : evZv‡m wkDwj dz‡ji myevm Qwo‡q Av‡m kir| fv`ª-Avwk¦b `yB gvm kirKvj| G mgq el©vi Kv‡jv †gN mv`v n‡q ¯^”Q bxj AvKv‡k Zz‡jvi g‡Zv †f‡m †eovq| b`xi Zx‡i Zx‡i e‡m mv`v Kvkdz‡ji †gjv| we‡Kj †ejv gvjv †Mu‡_ D‡o P‡j mv`v e‡Ki mvwi| meyR †XD‡qi †`vjvq `y‡j I‡V av‡bi †LZ| iv‡Zi AvKv‡k R¡jR¡j K‡i ARmª Zvivi †gjv| kvcjvi nvwm‡Z we‡ji Rj Sjgj Sjgj K‡i |


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ZvB †Zv Kwe †M‡q‡QbÑ AvwR‡K †Zvgvi gayi gyiwZ †nwiby kvi` cÖfv‡Z| †n gvZt e½, k¨vgj A½ Swj‡Q Agj †kvfv‡Z| ki‡Zi GB Aci~c i~‡ci Rb¨B kir‡K ejv nq FZzi ivwb| †ngšÍKvj : N‡i N‡i bev‡bœi Drm‡ei Avb›` wb‡q AvMgb N‡U †ng‡šÍi| KvwZ©K-AMÖnvqY `yB gvm †ngšÍKvj| cÖK„wZ‡Z †ng‡šÍi i~c njy`| m‡l© dz‡j †Q‡q hvq gv‡Vi eyK| gv‡V gv‡V cvKv avb| K…lK e¨¯Í n‡q c‡o dmj KvUvi Kv‡R| †mvbvwj av‡b K…l‡Ki †Mvjv f‡i I‡V, gy‡L †dv‡U Avb‡›`i nvwm| ïiy nq bev‡bœi Drme| †ngšÍ Av‡m bxi‡e; Avevi kx‡Zi Kzqvkvi Avov‡j †Mvc‡b nvwi‡q hvq| kxZKvj : Kzqvkvi gwjb Pv`i Mv‡q DËy‡i nvIqv mv‡_ wb‡q Av‡m kxZ| †cŠl-gvN `yB gvm kxZKvj| kxZ wi³Zvi FZz| KbK‡b kx‡Zi `vc‡U gvbyl I cÖK…wZ Amnvq n‡q c‡o| Z‡e iKgvwi kvK-mewR, dj I dz‡ji mgv‡iv‡n welYœ cÖK…wZ f‡i I‡V| evZv‡m fv‡m †LRyi i‡mi NÖvY| ÿxi, cv‡qm Avi wcVvcywji Drm‡e gv‡Zvqviv nq MÖvgevsjv| emšÍKvj : me‡k‡l emšÍ Av‡m ivR‡e‡k| dvêyb-ˆPÎ `yB gvm emšÍKvj| emšÍ wb‡q Av‡m mey‡Ri mgv‡ivn| evZv‡m †gŠ †gŠ dz‡ji myevm| Mv‡Q Mv‡Q †KvwKj-cvwcqvi mygayi Mvb| `wLbv evZvm eywj‡q †`q kxZj cik| gvby‡li cªv‡Y †e‡R I‡V wgj‡bi myi| Avb‡›` AvZ¥nviv Kwe †M‡q I‡VbÑ Avnv AvwR G em‡šÍ GZ dzj †dv‡U, GZ euvwk ev‡R GZ cvwL Mvq| FZzivR emšÍ mevi Lye wcÖq FZz| Dcmsnvi : evsjv‡`‡k loFZzi GB jxjv Aweivg Pj‡Q| wewfbœ FZz cÖK…wZ‡Z i~c-i‡mi wewfbœ m¤¢vi wb‡q Av‡m| Zvi cÖfve c‡o evsjvi gvby‡li g‡b| wewPÎ loFZzi cÖfv‡eB evsjv‡`‡ki gvby‡li gb D`vi I fv‡jvevmvq cwic~Y©|


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5.2 evsjv beel© m~Pbv : evsjv beel© evOvwji Rxe‡b we‡kl GK Zvrch© enb K‡i| MZvbyMwZK Rxebavivi g‡a¨ beel© wb‡q Av‡m bZzb myi, bZzb DÏxcbv| weMZ eQ‡ii me `ytL-†e`bv‡K GKivk nvwm, Avb›` Avi Mvb w`‡q fzwj‡q w`‡q hvq beel©| cÖvPxbKvj †_‡K RvwZ-ag©-eY© wbwe©‡k‡l GwU evOvwji Avb›`gq Drme wn‡m‡e mycwiwPZ| evsjv beel© ZvB evOvwji RvZxq Drme| e½vã ev evsjv m‡bi BwZnvm : e½vã ev evsjv mb cÖPj‡bi BwZnvm in‡m¨ †Niv| †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv BwZnvmwe` g‡b K‡ib, evsjvi myjZvb †nv‡mb kvn evsjv m‡bi cÖeZ©K| Kv‡iv Kv‡iv g‡Z, w`wjøi mgªvU AvKei evsjv m‡bi cÖPjb K‡ib| Zuvi wb‡`©‡k Avwgi d‡ZDjøvn wmivwR c~‡e© cÖPwjZ wnRwi I Pv›`ª eQ‡ii mgš^‡q †mŠi eQ‡ii cÖPjb K‡ib| Z‡e myjZvb †nv‡mb kv‡ni mg‡q (903 wnRwi) evsjv m‡bi cÖPjb n‡jI mgªvU AvKe‡ii mgq (963 wnRwi) †_‡KB GwU me©fviZxq i~c jvf K‡i| ZLb †_‡KB GwU evOvwj ms¯‹…wZi mv‡_ wbweofv‡e m¤úwK©Z| evsjv mb Avcvgi evOvwj RvwZi GKvšÍ wbR¯^ Aã| bee‡l©i Drme : evOvwjiv cÖvPxbKvj †_‡KB beel© D`&hvcb K‡i Avm‡Q| ZLb eQi ïiy n‡Zv AMÖnvqY gvm †_‡K| GwU wQj dmj KvUvi mgq| miKvwi ivR¯^ I FY Av`v‡qi GwUB wQj h_v_© mgq| c‡i e½vã ev evsjv m‡bi cÖPjb n‡j ˆekvL gvm †_‡K el© MYbv ïiy nq| Avi evOvwjiv c‡njv ˆekv‡L evsjv beel© D`&hvcb K‡i| evsjv‡`‡k beel© D`&hvc‡b G‡m‡Q bZzb gvÎv| eZ©gv‡b Avgv‡`i †`‡k ivóªxqfv‡e beel© cvjb Kiv nq| c‡njv ˆekvL : weMZ w`‡bi mg¯Í Møvwb gy‡Q w`‡q, cvIqv bv cvIqvi me wn‡me PzwK‡q cÖwZ eQi Av‡m c‡njv ˆekvL| evsjv beel©| gnvaygav‡g ïiy nq el©eiY| mevB †M‡q I‡V iex›`ªbv‡_i GB Mvb : G‡mv, G‡mv, G‡mv †n ˆekvL, Zvc wbtk¦vm ev‡q gyg~l©y‡i `vI Dov‡q, erm‡ii AveR©bvÑ `~i n‡q hvK| evsjv bee‡l©i Ab¨Zg AvKl©Y n‡”Q c‡njv ˆekv‡L AbywôZ ˆekvLx †gjv| ˆekvLx †gjvB n‡”Q evsjv‡`‡ki me‡P‡q eo mve©Rbxb Drme| RvwZ-ag©-eY© wbwe©‡k‡l me gvby‡li gnvwgjb †ÿÎ GB †gjv| G †gjvq Avengvb MÖvg-evsjvi mvs¯‹…wZK Kg©Kv‡Êi GKwU cwiwPwZ dz‡U I‡V| evDj, gvidwZ, gywk©w`, fvwUqvwjmn evsjv‡`‡ki wewfbœ A‡ji †jvKMv‡b †gjvi AvKvk-evZvm gyLwiZ nq| hvÎv, bvUK, cyZzj bvP, mvK©vm, bvMi‡`vjv BZ¨vw` †gjvq we‡kl AvKl©Y m„wó K‡i| †gjvq cvIqv hvq gvwUi nuvwo, evmb‡Kvmb, cyZzj; †eZ I euv‡ki ˆZwi M„n¯’vwji mvgMÖx, ZvjcvLv, KzwUi wkíRvZ wewfbœ mvgMÖx, wkï-wK‡kvi‡`i †Ljbv, gwnjv‡`i mvR-m¾v BZ¨vw`| GQvov wPuov, gywo, ˆL, evZvmvmn bvbv iK‡gi wgwói ˆewPΨgq mgv‡ivn _v‡K ˆekvLx †gjvq| MÖv‡gi gvby‡li wek¦vm, c‡njv ˆekv‡L fv‡jv †L‡j,


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bZzb †cvkK ci‡j mvivwU eQiB Zv‡`i my‡L KvU‡e| ZvB MÖv‡g c‡njv ˆekv‡L cvšÍv Lvq bv| hv‡`i mvg_©¨ Av‡Q Zviv bZzb †cvkK c‡i| evsjv bee‡l©i Av‡iKwU AvKl©Y nvjLvZv| MÖv‡g-M‡Ä-kn‡i e¨emvqxiv bee‡l©i w`b Zv‡`i cyi‡bv wnmve-wbKvk †kl K‡i bZzb LvZv †Lv‡jb| G Dcj‡ÿ Zviv bZzb-cyi‡bv L‡Ïi‡`i Avgš¿Y Rvwb‡q wgwó LvIqvb| cªvPxbKvj †_‡K GL‡bv G AbyôvbwU †ek RuvKRgKfv‡e cvwjZ n‡q Avm‡Q| bee‡l©i cÖfve : Avgv‡`i Rxe‡b beel© Drm‡ei Av‡gR wb‡q Av‡m| bee‡l©i w`b QzwU _v‡K| cvwievwiKfv‡e we‡kl Lvev‡ii Av‡qvRb Kiv nq| eÜz-evÜe, AvZ¥xq-¯^Rb‡K wbgš¿Y Rvbv‡bv nq| me wKQz‡Z Avb‡›`i †Quvqv jv‡M| AvaywbK ixwZ Abyhvqx †QvU-eo mevB bee‡l©i ï‡f”Qv KvW© wewbgq K‡i| AZx‡Zi jvf-ÿwZ fz‡j wM‡q Gw`b mevB fwel¨‡Zi m¤¢vebvi ¯^cœ †ev‡b| beel© Avgv‡`i mvg‡bi w`‡K GwM‡q Pjvi †cÖiYv †hvMvq| ZvB Avgv‡`i Rxe‡b bee‡l©i cÖfve Mfxi I e¨vcK| bee‡l©i Zvrch© : evOvwji bee‡l©i Drme wbg©j Avb‡›`i Drmaviv| ag©-eY© wbwe©‡k‡l GwU AvR Avgv‡`i RvZxq Drme| bee‡l©i mvgvwRK I mvs¯‹…wZK Kg©Kv‡Ê Avgiv Avgv‡`i Rxebev`x I Kj¨vYag©x i~cwUB Luy‡R cvB| Avgv‡`i HwZn¨ I mvs¯‹…wZK †PZbv‡K cÖZ¨ÿ Kwi| Avgv‡`i beel© D`&hvc‡b Avb‡›`i we¯Ívi Av‡Q, wKšÍy KL‡bv Zv cwiwgZ‡eva‡K Qvwo‡q hvq bv| evsjv beel© ZvB evOvwji mviv eQ‡ii Avb‡›`i cmiv-evnK| Dcmsnvi : evsjv bee‡l©i cÖ_g w`bwU Av‡m m‡MŠi‡e Ñ wb‡R‡K wPwb‡q, mevB‡K Rvwb‡q| Avgv‡`i Rxe‡b be‡PZbvi mÂvi K‡i, cwieZ©‡bi GKUv evZ©v wb‡q Av‡m beel©| cyivZb‡K †S‡o †d‡j †m Avgv‡`i Rxe‡b bZzb nvjLvZvi cÖeZ©b K‡i| Avgv‡`i gvbweK g~j¨‡eva‡K RvMÖZ K‡i; RvZxq Rxe‡b ¯^Kxq †PZbv weKv‡k DØy× K‡i| gvby‡l gvby‡l M‡o †Zv‡j m¤cÖxwZi †Kvgj eÜb| ZvB evsjv beel© Avgv‡`i Rxe‡b GZ Avb›` I †MŠi‡ei|

5.3 weRq w`em m~Pbv : Avgv‡`i RvZxq Rxe‡b 16B wW‡m¤^i me‡P‡q Avb›` I †MŠi‡ei GKwU w`b| 1971 mv‡j `xN© bq gvm i³ÿqx hy‡×i ci GB w`‡b Avgv‡`i wcÖq ¯^‡`k `Lj`vigy³ n‡qwQj| jv‡Lv knx‡`i i‡³i wewbg‡q Avgiv weRq AR©b K‡iwQjvg| c„w_exi gvbwP‡Î ¯^vaxb-mve©‡fŠg evsjv‡`k jvf K‡iwQjvg| GB w`bwU ZvB Avgv‡`i RvZxq Rxe‡b me‡P‡q ¯§iYxq w`b| GwU Avgv‡`i ÔweRq w`emÕ| weRq w`e‡mi BwZnvm : weRq gnvb, wKšÍy weR‡qi Rb¨ msMÖvg gnËi| cÖwZwU weR‡qi Rb¨ K‡Vvi msMÖvg cÖ‡qvRb| Avgv‡`i weRq w`e‡mi gnvb AR©‡bi †cQ‡bI exi evOvwji my`xN© msMÖvg I AvZ¥`v‡bi


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5.6 Avgvi †Q‡j‡ejv Avgiv wZbwU evjK GKm‡½ gvbyl nB‡ZwQjvg| Avgvi m½x`ywU Avgvi †P‡q `yB eQ‡ii eo| Zuvnviv hLb ¸iygnvk‡qi Kv‡Q cov Avi¤¢ Kwi‡jb AvgviI wkÿv †mB mg‡q ïiy nBj, wKšÍy †m-K_v Avgvi g‡bI bvB| †Kej g‡b c‡o, ÔRj c‡o cvZ b‡o|Õ ZLb ÔKi LjÕ cÖf…wZ evbv‡bi Zzdvb KvUvBqv m‡egvÎ K‚j cvBqvwQ| †mw`b cwo‡ZwQ, ÔRj c‡o cvZv b‡o|Õ Avgvi Rxe‡b GB‡UB Avw`Kwei cÖ_g KweZv| †mw`‡bi Avb›` AvRI hLb g‡b c‡o ZLb eywS‡Z cvwi, KweZvi g‡a¨ wgj wRwbmUvi GZ cÖ‡qvRb †Kb| wgj Av‡Q ewjqvB K_vUv †kl nBqvI †kl nq bvÑ Zvnvi e³e¨ hLb dzivq ZL‡bv Zvnvi SsKviUv dzivq bv, wgjUv‡K jBqv Kv‡bi m‡½ g‡bi m‡½ †Ljv Pwj‡Z _v‡K| Ggwb Kwiqv wdwiqv †mw`b Avgvi mg¯Í ˆPZ‡b¨i g‡a¨ Rj cwi‡Z I cvZv bwo‡Z jvwMj| GB wkïKv‡ji Avi-GKUv K_v g‡bi g‡a¨ euvav cwoqv †M‡Q| Avgv‡`i GKwU A‡bK Kv‡ji LvRvw wQj, ˆKjvm gyLy‡R¨ Zvnvi bvg| †m Avgv‡`i N‡ii AvZ¥x‡qiB g‡Zv| †jvKwU fvwi iwmK| mK‡ji m‡½B Zvnvi nvwm-Zvgvkv| evwo‡Z b~ZbmgvMZ RvgvZvw`M‡K †m we`ªy‡c †KŠZz‡K wecbœ Kwiqv ZzwjZ| †mB ˆKjvm gyLy‡R¨ Avgvi wkïKv‡j AwZ `ªyZ‡e‡M g¯Í GKUv Qovi g‡Zv ewjqv Avgvi g‡bviÄb KwiZ| †mB QovUvi cÖavb bvqK wQjvg Avwg Ges Zvnvi g‡a¨ GKwU fvex bvwqKvi wbtmskq mgvM‡gi Avkv AwZkq D¾¡jfv‡e ewY©Z wQj| GB †h fzeb‡gvwnbx ea~wU fweZe¨Zvi †Kvj Av‡jv Kwiqv weivR Kwi‡ZwQj, Qov ïwb‡Z ïwb‡Z Zvnvi wPÎwU‡Z gb fvwi DrmM© nBqv DwVZ| Avcv`g¯ÍK Zvnvi †h eûg~j¨ AjsKv‡ii ZvwjKv cvIqv wMqvwQj Ges wgj‡bvrm‡ei †h Af‚Zc~e© mgv‡iv‡ni eY©bv kybv hvBZ, Zvnv‡Z A‡bK cÖexYeq¯‹ mywe‡ePK e¨w³i gb PÂj nB‡Z cvwiZÑ wKšÍy, evj‡Ki gb †h gvwZqv DwVZ Ges †Pv‡Li mvg‡b bvbve‡Y© wewPÎ Avðh©-myL”Qwe †`wL‡Z cvBZ, Zvnvi g~j KviY wQj †mB `ªyZD”PvwiZ AbM©j kã”QUv Ges Q‡›`i †`vjv| wkïKv‡ji mvwnZ¨im‡fv‡Mi GB `y‡Uv ¯§„wZ GL‡bv RvwMqv Av‡Q; Avi g‡b c‡o Ôe„wó c‡o Uvcyi Uzcyi, b‡`q Gj evb|Õ IB QovUv †h ˆkk‡ei †gN`~Z| Zvnvi c‡i †h-K_vUv g‡b cwo‡Z‡Q Zvnv ¯‹z‡j hvIqvi m~Pbv| GKw`b †`wLjvg, `v`v Ges Avgvi e‡qv‡R¨ô fvwM‡bq mZ¨ ¯‹z‡j †M‡jb, wKšÍy Avwg ¯‹z‡j hvBevi †hvM¨ ewjqv MY¨ nBjvg bv| D‰”Pt¯^‡i Kvbœv Qvov †hvM¨Zv cÖPvi Kivi Avi-†Kv‡bv Dcvq Avgvi nv‡Z wQj bv| Bnvi c~‡e© †Kv‡bvw`b MvwoI Pwo bvB evwoi evwniI nB bvB, ZvB mZ¨ hLb ¯‹zj-c‡_i ågYe„ËvšÍwU‡K AwZk‡qvw³-AjsKv‡i cÖZ¨nB AZz¨¾¡j Kwiqv Zzwj‡Z jvwMj ZLb N‡i Avi gb wKQz‡ZB wUwK‡Z Pvwnj bv| whwb Avgv‡`i wkÿK wQ‡jb wZwb Avgvi †gvn webvk Kwievi Rb¨ cÖej P‡cUvNvZmn GB mviMf© K_vwU ewjqvwQ‡jb, ÒGLb ¯‹z‡j hvevi Rb¨ †hgb Kuvw`‡ZQ, bv hvevi Rb¨ Bnvi †P‡q A‡bK †ewk Kuvw`‡Z nB‡e|Ó †mB wkÿ‡Ki


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bvgavg AvK…wZcÖK…wZ Avgvi wKQzB g‡b bvB| wKšÍy †mB ¸iyevK¨ I ¸iyZi P‡cUvNvZ ¯úó g‡b RvwM‡Z‡Q| GZe‡ov Ae¨_© fwel¨`&evYx Rxe‡b Avi-†Kvbw`b KY©‡MvPi nq bvB| Kvbœvi †Rv‡i Iwi‡q›Uvj †mwgbvwi‡Z AKv‡j fiwZ nBjvg| †mLv‡b Kx wkÿvjvf Kwijvg g‡b bvB wKšÍy GKUv kvmbcÖYvjxi K_v g‡b Av‡Q| cov ewj‡Z bv cvwi‡j †Q‡j‡K †e‡Â `uvo KivBqv Zvnvi `yB cÖmvwiZ nv‡Zi Dci K¬v‡mi A‡bK¸wj †møU GKÎ Kwiqv PvcvBqv †`Iqv nBZ| Gi~‡c aviYvkw³i Af¨vm evwni nB‡Z AšÍ‡i mÂvwiZ nB‡Z cv‡i wK bv Zvnv gb¯ÍË¡we`&w`‡Mi Av‡jvP¨| Ggwb Kwiqv wbZvšÍ wkkyeq‡mB Avgvi cov Avi¤¢ nBj| PvKi‡`i gn‡j †h-mKj eB cÖPwjZ wQj Zvnv jBqvB Avgvi mvwnZ¨PP©vi m~ÎcvZ nq| Zvnvi g‡a¨ PvYK¨‡køv‡Ki evsjv Abyev` I K…wËevmivgvqYB cÖavb| †mB ivgvqY covi GKUv w`‡bi Qwe g‡b ¯úó RvwM‡Z‡Q| †mw`b †gNjv Kwiqv‡Q; evwnievwo‡Z iv¯Ívi av‡ii j¤^v eviv›`vUv‡Z †Lwj‡ZwQ| g‡b bvB, mZ¨ Kx Kvi‡Y Avgv‡K fq †`LvBevi Rb¨ nVvr Ôcywjkg¨vbÕ Ôcywjkg¨vbÕ Kwiqv WvwK‡Z jvwMj| cywjkg¨v‡bi KZ©e¨ m¤^‡Ü AZ¨šÍ †gvUvgywU iK‡gi GKUv aiYv Avgvi wQj| Avwg RvwbZvg GKUv †jvK‡K Acivax ewjqv Zvnv‡`i nv‡Z w`evgvÎB, Kzwgi †hgb LuvR-KvUv `uv‡Zi g‡a¨ wkKvi‡K we× Kwiqv R‡ji Z‡j A`„k¨ nBqv hvq, †Zgb Kwiqv nZfvM¨‡K Pvwcqv awiqv AZj¯úk© _vbvi g‡a¨ AšÍwn©Z nIqvB cywjkKg©Pvixi ¯^vfvweK ag©| Gi~c wbg©g kvmbwewa nB‡Z wbiciva evj‡Ki cwiÎvY †Kv_vq, Zvnv fvweqv bv cvBqv G‡Kev‡i AšÍtcy‡i †`Šo w`jvg; cðv‡Z Zvnviv AbymiY Kwi‡Z‡Q GB AÜfq Avgvi mg¯Í c„ô‡`k‡K KzwÉZ Kwiqv Zzwjj| gv‡K wMqv Avgvi Avmbœ wec‡`i msev` RvbvBjvg; Zvnv‡Z Zuvnvi we‡kl DrKÉvi jÿY cÖKvk cvBj bv| wKšÍy, Avwg evwn‡i hvIqv wbivc` †eva Kwijvg bv| w`w`gv, Avgvi gvZvi †Kv‡bv GK m¤ú‡K© Lywo, †h K…wËev‡mi ivgvqY cwo‡Zb †mB gv‡e©jKvMR-gwÊZ †KvY‡Quov-gjvU-Iqvjv gwjb eBLvwb †Kv‡j jBqv gv‡qi N‡ii Øv‡ii Kv‡Q cwo‡Z ewmqv †Mjvg| m¤§y‡L AšÍtcy‡ii AvwObv †Nwiqv †PŠ‡Kvb eviv›`v; †mB eviv›`vq †gNv”Qbœ AvKvk nB‡Z Aciv‡nèi ¤øvb Av‡jv Avwmqv cwoqv‡Q| ivgvq‡Yi †Kv‡bv-GKUv KiyY eY©bvq Avgvi †PvL w`qv Rj cwo‡Z‡Q †`wLqv, w`w`gv †Rvi Kwiqv Avgvi nvZ nB‡Z eBUv Kvwoqv jBqv †M‡jb| (-iex›`ªbv_ VvKzi)

5.7 evsjv‡`‡ki K…lK m~Pbv : evsjv‡`k K…wlcÖavb †`k| G‡`‡ki kZKiv cÖvq 50 fvM †jvK K…lK| K…l‡Ki AK¬všÍ cwikª‡g G †`k f‡i I‡V dm‡ji mgv‡iv‡n| Avgiv cvB ¶zavi Avnvi| K…l‡Ki Drcvw`Z dmj we‡`‡k idZvwb K‡i †`‡ki A_©bxwZ mg„× nq| ej‡Z †M‡j, K…lKB Avgv‡`i RvZxq Dbœq‡bi PvweKvwV; Avgv‡`i RvwZi cÖvY| Kwei fvlvq :


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me mva‡Ki eo mvaK Avgvi †`‡ki Pvlv, †`k gvZviB gyw³Kvgx, †`‡ki †m †h Avkv| K…l‡Ki AZxZ BwZnvm : cÖvPxbKv‡j G †`‡k RbmsL¨v wQj Kg, Rwg wQj †ewk| De©iv Rwg‡Z cÖPzi dmj n‡Zv| ZLb kZKiv 85 RbB wQj K…lK| Zv‡`i †Mvjv fiv avb, †Mvqvj fiv Miy Avi cyKzi fiv _vKZ gv‡Q| Zv‡`i Rxeb wQj myLx I mg„×| Zvici G‡jv eM©xi AZ¨vPvi, wdwiw½-cZz©wMR Rj`my¨‡`i wbh©vZb, Bs‡iR‡`i LvRbv Av`v‡qi m~h©v¯Í AvBb, †kvlY I wbcxob| G‡jv gš^šÍi, gnvgvix| MÖvgevsjv DRvo n‡jv| K…lK wbt¯^ n‡q †Mj| m¤ú`kvjx K…lK cwiYZ n‡jv f‚wgnxb Pvwl‡Z| `vwi`ª¨ Zv‡K †KvYVvmv Kij| K…l‡Ki Rxeb n‡q DVj †e`bv`vqK| Kwe¸iy iex›`ªbv_ VvKz‡ii fvlvq : ¯‹‡Ü hZ Zvi Pv‡c fvi ewn P‡j g›`MwZ hZÿY _v‡K cÖvY Zvi Zvici mšÍv‡b‡i w`‡q hvq esk esk awi ... ïay `ywU Abœ LuywU †Kvb g‡Z Kó-wK¬ócÖvY †i‡L †`q euvPvBqv| Gfv‡eB GKKv‡ji myLx I mg„× K…l‡Ki †MŠiegq Rxeb-BwZnvm AÜKv‡i nvwi‡q hvq| eZ©gvb Ae¯’v : evsjvi ivR‰bwZK BwZnv‡mi A‡bK cwieZ©b n‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`k ¯^vaxbZv jvf K‡i‡Q| wKšÍy evOvwj K…l‡Ki DØv¯‘, Amnvq I welYœ Rxe‡bi †Kv‡bv i~cvšÍi N‡Uwb| evsjvi K…lK Av‡Rv wkÿvnxb, e¯¿nxb, wPwKrmvnxb Rxeb-hvcb Ki‡Q| †`‡ki RbmsL¨v †e‡o‡Q, K‡g‡Q K…wl Rwgi cwigvY| Rwgi De©iZvI †M‡Q K‡g| d‡j evowZ gvby‡li Lv`¨ †hvMv‡bvi kw³ nvwi‡q‡Q G †`‡ki K…lK| c„w_ex Ry‡o Pvlvev` c×wZi cwieZ©b N‡U‡Q| ˆeÁvwbK c×wZ‡Z DbœZ †`k K…l‡Ki kw³ e„w× Ki‡Q| wKšÍy G †`‡k GL‡bv gvÜvZvi Avg‡ji Pvlvev` e¨e¯’v envj Av‡Q| evsjvi K…lKI †fuvZv jvOj Avi Kj¼vjmvi `y‡Uv ej‡`i †cQ‡b Nyi‡Z Nyi‡Z wbt¯^ n‡q hv‡”Q| G Qvov Abve„wó, AwZe„wó, eb¨v, cÖvK…wZK `y‡h©vM - †Kv‡bv wKQzB †gvKv‡ejv Kivi †KŠkj I mvg_©¨ K…l‡Ki †bB| Z‡e ax‡i ax‡i GB Ae¯’vi cwieZ©b NU‡Q| K…wl‡Z AvaywbK cÖhyw³ I DbœZ c×wZ cÖ‡qv‡Mi ¸iyZ¡ evo‡Q| m¤cÖwZ e¨vsK, mgevq mwgwZ ev gnvR‡bi F‡Yi UvKvq Avi D”P djbkxj ex‡Ri mvnv‡h¨ K…wl‡Z djb †e‡o‡Q| wKšÍy †ÿ‡Zi dmj K…l‡Ki N‡i IVvi Av‡MB e¨vsK, mgevq cÖwZôvb wKsev gnvR‡bi FY cwi‡kva Ki‡Z nq| ZvB K…l‡Ki myL-¯^cœ AaivB †_‡K hvq| K…wl evsjv‡`‡ki A_©‰bwZK Dbœq‡bi cÖavb Aej¤^b n‡jI K…l‡Ki †kvPbxq Ae¯’vi cwieZ©b nq bv| GL‡bv Zviv bvbv †ivM-†kvK, Awkÿv-Kzwkÿv, `vwi`ª¨ I Kzms¯‹v‡ii weiy‡× jovB Ki‡Q| K…l‡Ki Dbœqb : evsjv‡`k K…wlwbf©i †`k| †`kxq A_©bxwZ‡Z K…wli Ae`vbI h‡_ó Zvrch©c~Y©| ZvB †`‡ki Dbœq‡bi ¯^v‡_© K…l‡Ki Dbœqb mvab Kiv `iKvi| evsjvi K…l‡Ki fv‡M¨vbœq‡bi Rb¨ AvR me‡P‡q †ewk `iKvi Pvlvev‡` ˆeÁvwbK c×wZi cÖeZ©b| wb‡Ri Rwg‡Z K…lK †hb ¯^íg~‡j¨ DbœZ


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ivwL| K¬všÍ †`nUv‡K Avivg †`Iqvi Rb¨ Gwm wKsev B‡jKwUªK cvLvi wb‡P ewm Ñ GB fv‡eB mvivw`b weÁv‡bi mvnv‡h¨ Avgiv Rxeb Pvwj‡q wb‡q hvw”Q| Avevi mܨvq evwo wd‡i w`‡bi AembœZv `~i Ki‡Z wgDwRK †cøqvi wKsev wUwf Pvwj‡q gbUv‡K m‡ZR ivL‡Z †Póv Kwi| †Q‡j-†g‡qiv Kw¤úDUv‡i Zv‡`i †bvU iv‡L; KL‡bv KL‡bv wfwWI †Mgm& †L‡j| Ggwbfv‡e Rxe‡bi cÖwZ c`‡ÿ‡cB weÁv‡bi Ae`vb Abyfe Kwi| MÖvgxY Rxe‡b weÁvb : †hvMv‡hvM I hvZvqv‡Zi †ÿ‡Î weÁv‡bi we¯§qKi Ae`v‡bi Rb¨ gvbyl AvR `~i‡K K‡i‡Q wbKU cÖwZ‡ekx| evm, wi·v, f¨vb, mvB‡Kj, †gvUimvB‡Kj meB GLb MÖvgxY Rxe‡bi Ask| d‡j weÁvb kniRxeb‡K AwZµg K‡i †cuŠ‡Q †M‡Q MÖv‡g| eZ©gv‡b MÖvg¨ Rxe‡bI weÁv‡bi Dci wbf©iZv †e‡oB P‡j‡Q| Uz_‡c÷, Uz_eªvk, wUwf, †iwWI, †gvevBj †dvb, UP©, †mœv, mvevb, cvDWvi, Avqbv-wPiywb, ivmvqwbK mvi, KxUbvkK `ªe¨, Uªv±i BZ¨vw` GLb MÖvgxY gvby‡li ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡bi m‡½ wg‡k †M‡Q| kn‡ii gvbyl †hgb wb‡R‡`i RxebhvÎv‡K mnR Ki‡Z weÁvb‡K wbZ¨m½x K‡i‡Q, †Zgwb MÖv‡gi ga¨weË I D”PweË gvby‡li Rxe‡bI B‡jKwUªK wnUvi, ivbœvi M¨vm, †cÖmvi KzKvi, wd«R, Iqvwks †gwkb BZ¨vw` Acwinvh© n‡q D‡V‡Q| ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b weÁv‡bi cÖfv‡ei AcKvwiZv : ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b weÁv‡bi Dci AwZgvÎvq wbf©iZv gvby‡li A‡bK ÿwZ K‡i‡Q| h‡š¿i Dci AwZwi³ wbf©i Ki‡Z wM‡q gvbyl cwikªg-wegyL n‡q DV‡Q| gvbwmK cwikª‡gi Zzjbvq kvixwiK cwikªg Kg Ki‡Q| d‡j bvbv RwUj †iv‡M AvµvšÍ n‡”Q| gvbwmK fvimvg¨ bó n‡”Q| me‡P‡q eo K_v, gvby‡li Rxe‡b K…wÎgZv Nbxf~Z n‡”Q| gvby‡li †mœn, gvqv, ggZvi g‡Zv m˜¸Y¸‡jv nvwi‡q hv‡”Q| gvby‡l gvby‡l we‡f` evo‡Q| weÁvb-wbf©i hš¿kw³i Dci AÜ Av¯’v ¯’vcb Ki‡Z wM‡q gvbyl hvwš¿K n‡q DV‡Q| Dcmsnvi : Avgv‡`i ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡bi bvbv cÖ‡qvRbxq e¯‘ AvR G‡Kev‡i nv‡Zi gy‡Vvq G‡b w`‡q‡Q weÁvb| mKvj †_‡K mܨv, Avevi mܨv †_‡K mKvj ch©šÍ hv wKQz Avgv‡`i cÖ‡qvRbxq Zvi meB weÁv‡bi Ae`vb| weÁvb AvR Avgv‡`i wbZ¨ mnPi| weÁvb Avgv‡`i Rxeb-hvcb‡K K‡i‡Q mnRmij| Z‡e ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b weÁv‡bi cÖfve ïay †h Kj¨vY Ki‡Q Zv bq, A‡bK ÿwZI Ki‡Q| ZvB weÁv‡bi Ace¨envi bv K‡i Avgv‡`i Av‡iv m‡PZb n‡Z n‡e|

5.9 QvÎRxe‡bi `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ f~wgKv : gvbeRxe‡bi me‡P‡q ¸iyZ¡c~Y© mgq n‡”Q QvÎRxeb| G mgq †hfv‡e wb‡R‡K M‡o †Zvjv nq, mviv Rxeb †m iKg dj cvIqv hvq| QvÎRxeb‡K ejv nq cÖ¯‘wZi Rxeb| Ávb-weÁv‡bi iv‡R¨ wePiY K‡i wb‡R‡K †hvM¨ wn‡m‡e M‡o Zzj‡Z nq GB QvÎRxe‡bB| myZivs e„nËi Rxe‡bi cUf~wg‡Z QvÎRxe‡bi `vwqZ¡ I KZ©e¨ A‡bK|


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QvÎRxeb : Kwe m‡Z¨›`ªbv_ `Ë e‡j‡Qb : wek¦‡Rvov cvVkvjv †gvi mevi Avwg QvÎ, bvbvfv‡e bZzb wRwbm wkLwQ w`evivÎ| gvbyl mviv Rxeb wKQz bv wKQz †k‡L| ZvB e„nËi A‡_© gvby‡li †MvUv RxebUvB QvÎRxeb| wKšÍy QvÎRxeb ej‡Z Avgiv eywS, ¯‹zj, K‡jR I wek¦we`¨vj‡qi cÖvwZôvwbK wkÿvRxeb‡K| Rxeb MV‡bi Rb¨ gvbyl‡K GKwU we‡kl mg‡q AvbyôvwbK wkÿv MÖnY Ki‡Z nq| g~jZ wkÿv cÖwZôv‡b Aa¨q‡bi GB mgqUzKzB gvby‡li QvÎRxeb| QvÎRxe‡bi jÿ¨ : ÔQvÎbs Aa¨qbs ZctÕ Ñ Aa¨qbB n‡”Q Qv·`i GKgvÎ Zcm¨v| QvÎRxe‡bi cÖ_g I cÖavb jÿ¨ n‡jv Aa¨qb I Ávb AR©b| QvÎ-QvÎx‡`i K‡Vvi cwikªg I Zcm¨vi gva¨‡g Ávb AR©‡b AvZ¥wb‡qvM Ki‡Z n‡e| fwel¨‡Z †`k I RvwZ‡K myôzfv‡e cwiPvjbv Kivi ¸iy`vwqZ¡ Zv‡`i IciB Awc©Z n‡e| †m ¸iy`vwqZ¡ enb Kivi Rb¨ QvÎx‡`i Dchy³ wkÿvq wkwÿZ n‡Z n‡e| QvÎRxe‡bi KZ©e¨ : ÁvbvR©‡b AvZ¥wb‡qvMB GKRb Qv‡Îi cÖavb KZ©e¨| GRb¨ GKRb wkÿv_©x‡K cvV¨cy¯Í‡Ki evB‡i Av‡iv A‡bK †ewk cov‡kvbv Ki‡Z nq| Avi Gfv‡eB cÖK…Z ÁvbvR©‡bi mv‡_ mv‡_ Zv‡K gvbe-Pwi‡Îi bvbvwea mr-¸YvewjI AR©b Ki‡Z nq| †hgb : 1. PwiÎMVb : ÒPwiÎ n‡”Q gvbeRxe‡bi gyKzU ¯^i~c|Ó Qv·`i GKwU cÖavb KvR n‡jv PwiÎ MVb| ZvB G mgq cÖ‡Z¨K Qv‡ÎiB mZ¨evw`Zv, mnvbyf~wZ, mn‡hvwMZv, c‡ivcKvi, D`viZv, ˆah©, mshg, †`k‡cÖg cÖf…wZ m`&¸Y AvqË Ki‡Z n‡e| me iKg Am`&¸Y I e`-Af¨vm †_‡K `~‡i _vKvI GKRb Qv‡Îi Ab¨Zg KZ©e¨| 2. wbqgvbyewZ©Zv : k„•Ljv Qvov gvbeRxeb my›`ifv‡e M‡o DV‡Z cv‡i bv| GB k„•Ljv ev wbqgvbyewZ©Zv QvÎRxe‡bB AR©b Ki‡Z nq| G ¸Y AR©‡bi Ici Zvi fwel¨‡Zi mvdj¨ wbf©i K‡i| 3. mgqvbyewZ©Zv : mgqwbôv GKwU eo ¸Y| †h gvbyl mg‡qi g~j¨ w`‡Z Rv‡b bv, †m Rxe‡b DbœwZ Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| ZvB QvÎRxeb †_‡KB mgqwbôvi Af¨vm Ki‡Z n‡e, mg‡qi g~j¨ w`‡Z n‡e| 4. Aa¨emvq : Qv·`i AjmZv Z¨vM K‡i cwikªgx n‡Z n‡e| †`Lv hvq A‡bK †gavex QvÎI AjmZvi Kvi‡Y cixÿvq fv‡jv djvdj Ki‡Z e¨_© nq| Avevi A‡bK Kg †gavi QvÎ ïay Aa¨emvq I cwikªg Øviv AvkvZxZ mvdj¨ AR©b K‡i PgK m„wó K‡i| ZvB QvÎRxe‡b Aa¨emv‡qi ¸iyZ¡ Acwimxg| 5. †Ljvayjv I e¨vqvg : ¯^v¯’¨B mKj my‡Li g~j| Avi my¯’ kix‡i evm K‡i my¯’ gb| kixi my¯’ bv _vK‡j wbqwgZ †jLvcov nq bv| ZvB kvixwiK I gvbwmK my¯’Zvi Rb¨ Qv·`i wbqwgZ †Ljvayjv I e¨vqvgPP©v Kiv Lye Riywi|


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6. mn-wkÿv Kvh©µ‡g AskMÖnY : Qv·`i †jLvcovi cvkvcvwk Ab¨vb¨ mn-wkÿv Kvh©µ‡gI AskMÖnY Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| weZK© cÖwZ‡hvwMZv, Dcw¯’Z e³…Zv, Ave„wË, wPÎv¼b, Mvb, bvP, Awfbq BZ¨vw`‡ZI Zv‡K Ask wb‡Z n‡e| QvÎRxe‡bi `vwqZ¡ : QvÎRxe‡bi `vwq‡Z¡i `ywU w`K i‡q‡Q| GKwU n‡”Q wb‡Ri Rxeb‡K †hvM¨ K‡i M‡o †Zvjv, AciwU n‡”Q †`k I RvwZi Rb¨ wb‡R‡K cÖ¯‘Z Kiv| wb‡R‡K †hvM¨ K‡i †Zvjvi `vwqZ¡ h_vh_fv‡e cvjb Ki‡Z cvi‡jB e¨w³ I RvwZ Df‡qiB Kj¨vY nq| QvÎiv †`k I RvwZi fwel¨r KY©avi, Avkv-AvKv•¶vi cÖZxK; wkÿv I ms¯‹…wZi aviK I evnK| ZvB †`‡ki RvZxq Dbœq‡b m‡PZb bvMwiK wn‡m‡e Qv·`i `vwqZ¡ me‡P‡q †ewk| AZx‡Z RvwZi msKUKv‡j QvÎmgvRB AMÖeZ©x wPšÍvi cw_K…r n‡q GwM‡q G‡m‡Q| gyw³hy‡× QvÎmgv‡Ri AskMÖnY wQj LyeB D‡jøL‡hvM¨| fwel¨‡ZI RvwZi msK‡U-mgm¨vq Suvwc‡q c‡o †`k I RvwZ‡K iÿv Kivi Kv‡R QvÎmgvR‡KB `vwqZ¡ wb‡Z n‡e| cÖ‡Z¨K Qv·KB gvZvwcZvi cÖwZ kª×v, fvB-†evb, AvZ¥xq-¯^Rb‡`i cÖwZ fv‡jvevmv, cvov-cÖwZ‡ekx‡`i cÖwZ †mŠRb¨ cÖKvk Ki‡Z n‡e| mncvVx‡`i m‡½ eÜzZ¡c~Y© m¤úK© ivL‡Z n‡e| wkÿK I ¸iyRb‡`i m¤§vb Ki‡Z n‡e| ag©-eY© wbwe©‡k‡l mevi m‡½ cÖxwZ I HK¨ eRvq ivL‡Z n‡e| Dcmsnvi : gvby‡li fwel¨r Rxe‡bi wfwË MwVZ nq QvÎRxe‡b| Avevi †`k I RvwZi fwel¨r wbf©i K‡i Qv·`i Ici| ZvB QvÎRxe‡bi KZ©e¨ I `vwqZ¡ wVKfv‡e Dcjwä K‡i Zv h_vh_fv‡e cvjb Kiv cÖwZwU Qv‡ÎiB DwPZ| G‡Z †`k I RvwZi Kj¨vY Ges DbœwZ mvab nq|

5.10 kª‡gi gh©v`v m~Pbv : Kg©B Rxeb| m„wói mg¯Í cÖvYx‡KB wbR wbR Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g †eu‡P _vK‡Z nq| †QvÆ wcuc‡o †_‡K wekvj nvwZ ch©šÍ mevB‡KB cwikªg Ki‡Z nq| cwikªg ØvivB gvbyl Ab¨vb¨ cÖvYx †_‡K wb‡R‡K Avjv`v K‡i‡Q| cwikª‡gi gva¨‡gB gvbyl wb‡Ri fvM¨ e`‡j‡Q| Ges eû eQ‡ii kªg I mvabv Øviv c„w_ex‡K my›`i I mg„× K‡i Zz‡j‡Q| ejv hvq, gvbyl I mf¨Zvi hveZxq AMÖMwZi g~‡j i‡q‡Q cwikª‡gi Ae`vb| kªg Kx : kª‡gi AvwfavwbK A_© n‡”Q †gnbZ, ˆ`wnK LvUzwb| mvaviYZ †h-†Kv‡bv KvRB n‡jv kªg| cwikªg n‡”Q G c„w_ex‡Z †eu‡P _vKvi msMÖv‡gi cÖavb nvwZqvi| cwikª‡gi ØvivB M‡o D‡V‡Q wek¦ I gvbe-mf¨Zvi weRq-¯Í¤¢| kª‡gi †kªwYwefvM : kªg `yB cÖKvi : gvbwmK kªg I kvixwiK kªg| wkÿK, Wv³vi, ˆeÁvwbK, mvsevw`K, Awd‡mi Kg©Pvix †kªwYi gvbyl †h ai‡bi kªg w`‡q _v‡Kb †mwU‡K e‡j gvbwmK kªg| Avevi K…lK,


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kªwgK, ZuvwZ, †R‡j, gRyi †kªwYi gvby‡li kªg n‡”Q kvixwiK kªg| †ckv ev Kv‡Ri aib Abymv‡i GK GK †kªwYi gvby‡li cwikªg GK GK ai‡bi nq| Z‡e kªg kvixwiK ev gvbwmK hv-B †nvK bv †Kb Df‡qi wgwjZ cwikª‡gB M‡o D‡V‡Q gvbe-mf¨Zv| kª‡gi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv : gvbyl wb‡RB wb‡Ri fvM¨weavZv| Zvi GB fvM¨‡K wbg©vY Ki‡Z nq K‡Vvi cwikª‡gi gva¨‡g| ZvB gvbeRxe‡b cwikª‡gi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Acwimxg| Kg©wegyL Ajm gvbyl †Kv‡bvw`b DbœwZ jvf Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| cwikªg Qvov Rxe‡bi DbœwZ KíbvgvÎ| Rxe‡b AvZ¥cÖwZôv jvf Ki‡Z n‡j wbijm cwikªg `iKvi| c„w_ex‡Z †h RvwZ hZ †ewk cwikªgx, †m RvwZ ZZ †ewk DbœZ| ZvB e¨w³MZ I RvZxq ch©v‡q cÖwZwôZ n‡Z n‡j gvbyl‡K cwikªgx n‡Z n‡e| GKgvÎ cwikªgB gvby‡li Rxeb‡K my›`i I mv_©K K‡i Zzj‡Z cv‡i| kª‡gi gh©v`v : gvby‡li Rb¥ mªóvi Aaxb, wKšÍy Kg© gvby‡li Aaxb| Rxeb-avi‡Yi ZvwM‡` gvbyl bvbv K‡g© wb‡qvwRZ nq| K…lK dmj djvq, ZuvwZ Kvco †ev‡b, †R‡j gvQ a‡i, wkÿK QvÎ covb, Wv³vi wPwKrmv K‡ib, weÁvbx Avwe®‹vi K‡ib| Guiv cÖ‡Z¨‡KB gvbeZvi Kj¨v‡Y KvR K‡i hv‡”Qb| c„w_ex‡Z †Kv‡bv KvRB †QvU bq| Av_©-mvgvwRK c`gh©v`vq nq‡Zv mevB mgvb bq| wKšÍy G‡`i cÖ‡Z¨‡KiB †gav, gbb, Nvg I kª‡g mf¨Zv GwM‡q wb‡q P‡j‡Q| ZvB mK‡ji kª‡gi cÖwZB Avgv‡`i mgvb gh©v`v I kª×v _vKv DwPZ| DbœZ we‡k¦ †Kv‡bv KvR‡KB Zz”Q Kiv nq bv| mgv‡Ri cÖwZwU †jvK wb‡Ri KvR‡K ¸iyZ¡ w`‡q Kivi †Póv K‡i| ZvB Pxb, Rvcvb, †Kvwiqv, ivwkqv, Bsj¨vÛ, Av‡gwiKv, d«vÝ, KvbvWv cÖf…wZi g‡Zv †`k DbœwZi Pig wkL‡i D‡V‡Q| Avgv‡`i †`‡k kvixwiK kªg‡K we‡kl gh©v`vi †Pv‡L †`Lv nq bv| Zvi d‡j Av‡Rv myRjv-mydjv-km¨-k¨vgjv †`‡ki Awaevmx n‡qI Avgiv Pig `vwi‡`ª¨i g‡a¨ emevm Kwi| cwikªg †mŠfv‡M¨i cÖm~wZ : †mŠfvM¨ AvKvk †_‡K c‡o bv| Rxe‡b †mŠfvM¨ AR©‡bi Rb¨ cÖPzi cwikªg I wbišÍi mvabvi `iKvi nq| me gvby‡li g‡a¨ myß cÖwZfv Av‡Q| cwikª‡gi Øviv †mB myß cÖwZfv‡K RvwM‡q Zzj‡Z nq| †h gvbyl Kg©‡K Rxe‡bi eªZ wn‡m‡e MÖnY K‡i‡Q, RxebmsMÖv‡g ZviB n‡q‡Q Rq| K‡g©i cÖwZ wb‡ew`Z-cÖvY e¨w³ Rxe‡b mdj ˆmwbK n‡Z cv‡i| Kg©nxb e¨w³ mgv‡Ri †evSv ¯^i~c| Ab¨w`‡K kªgkxjZvB gvbeRxe‡bi †mŠfv‡M¨i PvweKvwV| Avgv‡`i Rxe‡b DbœwZ Ki‡Z n‡j, Rxe‡b myLx n‡Z n‡j cwikª‡gi weKí †bB| Dcmsnvi : cwikªg ïay †mŠfv‡M¨i wbqš¿K bq, mf¨Zv weKv‡kiI mnvqK| gvbe-mf¨Zvi DbœwZAMÖMwZ‡Z kª‡gi Ae`vb Ab¯^xKvh©| Avgiv ¯^vaxb-mve©‡fŠg evsjv‡`‡ki bvMwiK| †mvbvi evsjv Movi ¯^cœ I mvabv Avgv‡`i| ZvB †Kv‡bv cÖKvi kªg †_‡K Avgv‡`i gyL wdwi‡q _vK‡j Pj‡e bv| kª‡g weRq-i‡_ P‡o Avgv‡`i DbœZ mf¨Zvi wmsnØv‡i †cuŠQ‡Z n‡e|


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5.11 cvVvMv‡ii cÖ‡qvRbxqZv m~Pbv : gvby‡li AbšÍ wRÁvmv, Amxg †KŠZ~nj| Zvi GB AbšÍ wRÁvmv, AšÍnxb Ávb a‡i iv‡L eB| Avi eB msM„nxZ _v‡K cvVvMv‡i| cvVvMvi n‡jv mvwnZ¨, BwZnvm, ag©, `k©b, weÁvb BZ¨vw`i GK wekvj msMªnkvjv| iex›`ªbv_ VvKz‡ii fvlvq : ÒGLv‡b fvlv Pzc Kwiqv Av‡Q, cÖevn w¯’i nBqv Av‡Q, gvbevZ¥vi Agi Av‡jvK Kv‡jv Aÿ‡ii k„•L‡j KvM‡Ri KvivMv‡i euvav cwoqv Av‡Q|Ó cvVvMv‡ii eB‡qi fvÊv‡i mwÂZ n‡q Av‡Q gvbemf¨Zvi kZ kZ eQ‡ii BwZnv‡mi ü`q-¯ú›`b| cvVvMvi Kx : cvVvMvi ej‡ZB Avgv‡`i †Pv‡Li mvg‡b †f‡m I‡V Ggb GKwU evwo ev Ni, †hLv‡b A‡bK eB msMÖn I msiwÿZ _v‡K| cvVvMv‡ii kvwãK cÖwZkã n‡”Q cy¯ÍKvMvi, MÖš’vMvi ev jvB‡eªwi| k‡•Li g‡a¨ †hgb mgy‡`ªi kã †kvbv hvq, cvVvMv‡ii g‡a¨ †Zgwb gvby‡li ü`‡qi DÌvb-cZ‡bi aŸwb †kvbv hvq| cvVK GLv‡b ¯úk© cvq mf¨Zvi GK kvk¦Z avivi, Abyfe K‡i gnvmgy‡`ªi kZ kZ eQ‡ii K‡jøvj aŸwb, ïb‡Z cvq RM‡Zi GK gnv HKZv‡bi myi| ZvB cvVvMvi ev jvB‡eªwi n‡”Q gvby‡li AZxZ, eZ©gvb I fwel¨‡Zi †mZzeÜb| cvVvMv‡ii BwZnvm : cvVvMv‡ii BwZnvm †ek cyi‡bv| gy`ªYhš¿ Avwe®‹v‡ii A‡bKKvj Av‡M †_‡KB cvVvMv‡ii cÖPjb wQj| ZLb gvbyl Zvi Ávb mwÂZ K‡i ivLZ cv_i, †cvov gvwU, cvnv‡oi Mv, c¨vwcivm, f~R©cÎ ev Pvgovq| Avi G¸‡jv msiÿY Kiv n‡Zv †jL‡Ki wb‡Ri evwo‡Z, gw›`iDcvmbvj‡q Ges ivRKxq fe‡b| wLª‡ói R‡b¥i cÖvq cuvP nvRvi eQi Av‡M wgk‡i cvVvMv‡ii Aw¯ÍZ¡ wQj| cÖvPxb wMÖ‡mI cvVvMvi wQj e‡j cÖgvY i‡q‡Q| fvi‡Z cÖvPxbKv‡j cwÊZ‡`i e¨w³MZ cvVvMvi wQj| cieZ©xKv‡j †eŠ× wenvimn wewfbœ Dcvmbvjq, bvj›`v wek¦we`¨vjq I weµgkxjvq mg„× cvVvMvi M‡o I‡V| GQvov Avwmwiqv, Av‡jKRvw›`ªqv, evM`v`, `v‡g¯‹, Pxb, wZeŸZmn eû¯’v‡b c„w_ex-weL¨vZ cvVvMv‡ii mÜvb cvIqv hvq| cvVvMv‡ii weKvk : AvaywbK Kv‡j weÁv‡bi mnvqZvq DbœZ cvVvMvi cÖwZwôZ n‡q‡Q| wek¦weL¨vZ cvVvMv‡ii g‡a¨ jÛ‡bi weªwUk wgDwRqvg, g‡¯‹vi †jwbb jvB‡eªwi, d«v‡Ýi wee&wjIw_K& bvrwmIbvj jvB‡eªwi, IqvwksU‡bi jvB‡eªwi Ae Ks‡MÖm, KjKvZvi b¨vkbvj jvB‡eªwi D‡jøL‡hvM¨| Avgv‡`i †`‡k XvKvq Ô†K›`ªxq cvewjK jvB‡eªwiÕ cÖwZwôZ nq 1953 mv‡j| GB jvB‡eªwii mn‡hvwMZvq †`‡ki wewfbœ ¯’v‡b miKvwi-†emiKvwi ch©v‡q kZvwaK cvVvMvi cwiPvwjZ n‡”Q| GQvov XvKvq evsjv GKv‡Wgx Mªš’vMvi, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq MÖš’vMvi, RvZxq MÖš’‡K›`ª, GwkqvwUK †mvmvBwU jvB‡eªwi, weªwUk KvDwÝj jvB‡eªwi, ivRkvnxi e‡i›`ª wgDwRqvg, Lyjbvi D‡gkP›`ª ¯§„wZ MÖš’vMvi mwe‡kl D‡jøL‡hvM¨| eZ©gv‡b we‡k¦i wewfbœ †`‡k åvg¨gvY cvVvMvi ¯’vcb K‡i gvby‡li Ávb wccvmv PwiZv_© Kivi cÖ‡Póv Av‡iv †eMevb n‡q‡Q| XvKvi wek¦mvwnZ¨ †K›`ª evsjv‡`‡k åvg¨gvY cvVvMv‡ii cÖPjb K‡i Av‡jvwKZ gvbyl Movi Kv‡R wbijm †Póv Pvwj‡q hv‡”Q|


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