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The Political Movement in East Bengal and the Rise of Nationalism (1947-1970) At the midnight of 14 August 1947, the colonial rules of the Raj ended in India, and gave birth to two independent nations called India and Pakistan. The eastern part of Bengal was included in Pakistan as a province and named East Pakistan.The key part of Pakistan was called West Pakistan. The administrative power had been exercising by the elites of West Pakistan since the very beginning, and they engaged their political muscle in controlling the culture, economy, politics, and the social system of East Pakistan. So the people of East Pakistan organised protest against the injustice and discrimination, and started agitation and mass movement. The language movement was the first move to defend the honour of our mother tongue, Bangla. The Bengalis of then East Pakistan were united on the issue.The spirit of the language movement contributed a lot to launch agitation, demonstrations and mass movements against the Pakistani rulers that were communal, partial and autocratic in nature. Based on the historic 6 point demands, the people of East Bengal voted in favoure of the Bengali nationalism in 1970, and gave their verdict for a secular nation named Bangladesh. A national unity was urged on the identity based on language, history, tradition, culture and Bengali nationalism. This national unification is called the Bengali Nationalism that encouraged people to form a secular, non-communal Bangladesh, and after a bloody war of nine months, Bangladesh emerged as an independent country in 1971. In this chapter we will know about the political movement in East Bengal and the rise of nationalism. After reading this chapter, we will be able to• explain the background and significance of the language movement; • analyse the significance of the language movement in the formation of nationalism; • explain the significance of declaring 21 February as the International Mother Language Day by the United Nation; • be respectful to our own as well as the languages of others; • explain the reasons of forming the Awami Muslim League and the Jukto (United) Front; • explain the impact of the election in 1954 of the Jukto (United) Front; • understand the reason of transformation from the Awami Muslim League to the Awami League in 1955, and explain the political situation from 1958 onwards;

• realize the spirit of the Bengali Nationalism; • explain the reasons and consequences of the

anti martial-law movement in 1958;

• analyse the nature of discrimination between

West Pakistan and East Pakistan;

• explain the significance of the historic 6 point • • • • •

demands; explain the historic Agartala Case (State Vs. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and Others); describe the background of the Mass Uprising in 1969; evaluate the role of the mass movement as an influence to the Liberation War; describe the election of 1970 and explain its aftermath; be conscious to defend the interest of the country.

Section 1.1: The Role of the Language Movement for Flourishing the Bengali Nationalism Background of the Language Movement Before the establishment of Pakistan, a debate erupted on the issue of the official language of the proposed country. As Mohammad Ali Jinnah proposed Urdu as the official language of the Muslim League in 1937, Sher-e-Bangla A K Fazlul Haque, a veteran leader of Bengal protested against it. When the division of India and the establishment of Pakistan was absolutely certain in 1947, the debate again sharpened on


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the issue of the state language. On 17 May 1947, Chowdhury Kaliquzzaman and in July, Dr. Ziauddin Ahmed, the Vice Chancellor of the University of Aligarh proposed Urdu as the state language of Pakistan. Dr. Muhammad Shahidullah, an eminent linguist of East Bengal, Professor Dr. Muhammad Enamul Haque of the University of Dhaka and some other intellectuals protested against the proposal by writing articles in the newspapers. The Gano Azadi League, headed by Kamruddin Ahmed demanded the mother tongue as the medium of education in 1947. A cultural organization called Tamaddun Majlish was formed at the University of Dhaka headed by Professor Abul Kashem in September. In a meeting of the young workers of this organization on 6-7 September, it was unanimously decided to propose Bangla as a medium of education and legal proceedings. On 15 September, they published a booklet titled ‘What is the state language of Pakistan- Bangla or Urdu’. Then Tamaddun Picture 1.1: The Procession of the Majlish formed Rastrabhasha Sangram Porishad Language Movement (The National Language Action Committee). A fierce protest broke out in East Bengal when a decision was taken in an education conference in Karachi in December 1947 that Urdu should be the state language of Pakistan. People from all walks of life raised their voice to declare Bangla as the state language of Pakistan instead. Articles were published in the newspapers focusing on the demand, and in December, Rasrtabhasha Sangram Porishad was reorganised, and they brought out processions, rallies and held meetings at the University of Dhaka including the secretariat and other organisations. The Pakistan government imposed Section 144 and banned meetings and rallies. Dhirendranath Dutta, a member of the Pakistan Assembly (The Gano Porishad) demanded Bangla along with Urdu and English as the medium of proceedings in the Assembly on 23 February 1948. As his demand was rejected, there was a call for strike in Dhaka on 26 and 29 February. Rastrabhasha Sangram Porishad was reformed on 2 March at the University of Dhaka. March 11 was declared ‘A Call for Bangla Language Day’, and people forced the issue by striking. Founded on 4 January 1948, the East Pakistan Muslim Chatra League played a significant role to observe the protest. At least 69 protesters including Sheikh Mujib, Shamsul Haque, Oli Ahad were arrested while demonstrating, and strikes were observed on 13-15 March in protest against their arrest. Having no other way out, Khawja Nazimuddin, the Chief Minister of Pakistan signed an eight-point-agreement with the Rastrabhasha Sangram Porishad stated below: 1. All detainees in connection with the language movement would unconditionally be released; 2. A thorough investigation of the police atrocity would be initiated soon, and after its completion, the report would be made public; 3. A proposal of declaring Bangla as one of the state languages would be tabled in the Parliament of East Pakistan; 4. Bangla would replace English as the official language of East Pakistan; 5. All restrictions would be withdrawn from the newspapers; 6. No legal action would be taken against the participants of the language movement; 7. Section 144 imposed since 29 February would instantly be withdrawn; 8. The Chief Minister would unequivocally state that ’the language movement was not provoked by the enemies of the state.

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Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the Governor General of Pakistan, came Dhaka on 19 March 1948. He categorically declared in a public meeting arranged at the Racecourse (now Suhrawardy Uddayn) on 21 March, ‘Urdu and only Urdu shall be the state language of Pakistan’. When he repeated the declaration at the University of Dhaka, the students vehemently protested saying ‘No, No’. They also Group work: Make a chart spontaneously protested against the declaration made by successive of the events of the Jinnah in the Racecourse. When the Pakistan Government proposed to write Bangla by using the language movement. Arabic alphabets, the protest took a violent shape. Within a few months immediately after the emergence of Pakistan, the movement on the language issue boosted up the confidence in the Bengalis and strengthened the ideals of Bengali Nationalism as well. By defending the honour of the mother tongue, the people of East Bengal understood the importance of growing up as a nation. The minority ethnic groups of this land also supported Bangla, not Urdu as the state language of Pakistan. Khawja Najimuddin, the new prime minister of Pakistan followed the footsteps of his predecessor Jinnah and reiterated their vow on 26 January 1952 that Urdu would be the state language of Pakistan. Students again protested against the declaration by observing strike on 30 January. Rastrabhasha Sangram Porishad was reorganised with its new convener Abdul Matin. A fresh agitation began, and the political parties extended their supports to the movement. Students observed a strike on 4 February in Dhaka, and they called for a general strike on 21 February and decided to observe the day as the National Language Day.

Abdus Salam

Abul Barkat Abdul Jabber Shafiur Rahman Picture: 1.2: Language Martyrs

Rafiquddin Ahmed

They declared their firm determination to continue the movement until the demand was fulfilled. Imprisoned Sheikh Mujib, while under the treatment at the Dhaka Medical College Hospital, gave the students and the workers of the Awami Muslim League necessary instructions. After that, Sheikh Mujib and another detainee Mohiuddin Ahmed were transferred from Dhaka Central Jail to Faridpur district prison. As both of them went on a hunger strike demanding unconditional release of the arrested political leaders and immediate declaration of Bangla as the state language, the agitation received a great energy and enthusiasm. People’s opinion was drummed up. The government imposed Section 144 since 21 February onwards, and banned all meetings, rallies and procession for a month. The leaders moblising the movement discussed at length and were in dilemma whether they would violate the government order or not, but in the end, they decided to break the section 144. A meeting was held at Amtala (under the mango tree in front of the Dhaka Medical College) of the University of Dhaka at 11 am of 21 February. It was decided that they would bring out small processions comprising 10 persons. The processions in parts approached to the Dhaka Medical College defying Section 144. At first, the police arrested some of the students, and later hurled the tear gas and charged


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batons at the demonstrating students. At one stage, the police opened fire on the protesters, and Abul Barkat, Jabbar, Rafique, Salam and others died on the spot as bullet pierced through their body, and many others received bullet injuries too. The news of killing the students spread like a wildfire throughout the country. People instantly brought out mourning processions. A person named Shafiur was also killed when the police attacked the procession. The mass people and the students together erected a Shahid Minar (memorial) in front of the Medical College on 21 February to make the martyrs’ memory immortal. The Shahid Minar erected first was inaugurated by the father of martyr Shafiur on 23 February, but the police demolished the Shahid Minar on 24 February. Poet Mahbub-ul-Alam of Chittagong composed the first poem on the killing of 21 February, titled “Kadte Aashini Fashir Dabi Niye Aeshechi” (We’ve not Come to Cry, but with the Demand for Death Sentence by Hanging). Another poem was composed by young poet Aalauddin Al Azad titled “Smirit Minar”(Monument of Memory) on the instant reaction of the incident. Students, youth, mass people from different cities including Chittagong, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Khulna, Barisal, Comilla extended their supports to the language movement. A strong feeling of hatred to the West Pakistanis stirred the people of East Pakistan. The killing had a far reaching impact on the mind of the people. Journalist Abdul Gaffar Chowdhury composed the immortal song Amar bhaier rokte rangano ekushe February, ami ki vulite pari, singer Abdul Latif composed and tuned songs like ora amar mukher bhash kaira nite chaye and Tora Dhaka shohor rokte vhashaili. Dr. Munir Chowdhury from inside the prison wrote a drama titled “Kobor”, Jahir Raihan wrote a novel “Arek Falgun”. Basing on the language movement, a fierce protest against the Pakistan government spread through out East Bengal in the fields of art, culture and literature. The narrow stream of the Bengali nationalism was going to be a deluge. Started in 1947, the language movement took a turn into a violent struggle from 1948 to 1952. As a result, the Pakistan government was compelled to recognised Bangla as one of the state languages, and Bangla was included in the constitution of Pakistan in 1956. The Bengali and the other ethnic groups of East Bengal became self-reliant and brave relying on their history, tradition, culture Picture 1.3: The first Shahid and language. After the language movement in 1952, the whole Minar of Bangladesh decade of the 50s was the most eventful period for the preparation of establishing rights and independence by the Bengalis. The language movement was the source of inspiration to all the political movements afterwards. The movements made the people aware of their rights and in them a sense of unity and the spirit of independence. It was the first movement launched by them as a part of the emancipation from the slavery of the Pakistani rulers. Development of Nationalism The language movement which was the primary step to develop the Bengali nationalism united the Bengalis first. The fascination for Pakistan faded away soon. The importance and interrelation between the language and culture became clear and unmistakable to them to build up their own national identity. They started realising the significance of politics, economy, education and culture of their own to be recognised as a nation. The language oriented unity made a solid foundation for nationalism which subsequently played the key role in emerging Bangladesh as an independent country. The Martyr Day and the International Mother Language Day The 21 February has been observing as the Martyr Day since 1953 throughout the country. Every year we pay tribute to the martyrs by laying floral wreath at the Shahid Minar (Martyr Memorial) early in the morning after walking barefoot.It’s a day to the Bengalis to be

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revived in the spirit of grief. The United Nations educational, scientific and cultural organisation (UNESCO) recognised 21 February, the martyr day of Bangladesh as the International Mother Language Day on 17 November 1999 as a result of initiatives taken by some Bengali emigrants in Canada and the diplomatic role played by the Awami League government. There are more than 6000 languages in the world. This day offers the opportunity to the people of the world to show respect to the languages and cultures of other countries. It renders a good opportunity to uphold the history of the glorious movement and sacrifice of the people of Bangladesh for their mother tongue too. Every nation in the world has had the opportunity to realise the significance of their mother tongue anew. We should also make positive move to flourish the languages and cultures of the different ethnic communities of our country. We will learn to respect the languages and cultures of other people along with Bangla while observing the day. Section 1.2: The Role of the Political Movement in developing the Bengali Nationalism The people of East Bengal understood the political peculiarities of the state called Pakistan, and realised the illusions of two nation theory immediately after the establishment of Pakistan. Although the Bengalis were 56% of the total population, the West Pakistanis dominated everywhere in running the state, either occupying high administrative posts or availing of the economic and political privileges. The people of East Pakistan, i.e. the Bengalis were deprived of their rights. There were three streams in the political parties and leadership in that time: 1. Political parties loyal to Pakistan like the Muslim League and other Islamic political parties; 2. Political parties defended the interest of East Bengal like the Awami League, the National Awami Party (NAP); 3.The Socialist political parties. The Formation of the Awami Muslim League Rejecting the two nation theory of the Muslim league, a secular, progressive Bengali leadership established ‘The East Pakistan Awami Muslim League’ on 23 June 1949 in a conference at Rose Garden. Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani and Shamsul Haque of Tangail were nominated as the president and the General Secretary respectively of the newly formed party, while Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was made the Joint Secretary. At the very beginning, the party made an extended plan of activities in the interest of the Bengalis. They decided to place some demands before the government like provincial autonomy, sovereignty of the people, recognition of Bangla as one of the state languages, nationalisation of the jute and tea industries, abolition of feudal system without giving any compensation, distribution of land among the farmers, cooperative system oriented farming etc. The party became very popular within a very short time for voicing the demands to the government. Maulana Bhashani, Shamsul Haque and Sheikh Mujibur Rahman became the victims of rage of the Pakistani rulers. Sheikh Mujib was arrested in 1949, and was kept in jail as a detainee until 27 February 1952. The Awami League was the key initiator to form Jukto (United) Front in 1954, and they changed the name of the party to ‘East Pakistan Awami League’ in 1955 by expressing their commitment to secular ideals. So the Bengalis and the minority ethnic groups had the opportunity to be merged into the stream of nationalism. In this time, on the one hand, the party initiated movements outside, on the other hand, the members of the national assembly and provincial government remained vocal in the Parliament and inside the government to defend the political, economic and the other rights of the people. The Formation of Jukto (United) Front, Election and Government After the establishment of Pakistan, ruling party Muslim League did not take any initiative to form the central and provincial government for a long time. Besides, the dillydallying of the central government on the issue of forming the provincial government became clear to the people of East Bengal. The Awami League decided to establish Jukto (United) Front on 14 November 1953 to defeat the Muslim League in the


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forthcoming Pradeshik Porishad (Provincial Assembly) election of East Bengal. The Jukto (United) Front was comprised of four parties after finalising 21 point demands. The parties were the Awami League, the Krishok Sramik Party, the Nezame Islam and the Ganotantri Dal. The Provincial election was held in March of 1954. The people considered the 21 point demands of the Front the charter of their emancipation. The Jukto (United) Front got 223 seats out of 237 Muslim constituencies in the Provincial Assembly of East Pakistan, while the Muslim League bagged only 9 seats. The other parties got the rest of the seats. The people of East Bengal gave their verdict in favour of the Jukto (United) Front as they wanted to get rid of the dominance of the West Pakistanis in the state power. It was evident that they wanted the Bengalis to see in the power, and the Jukto (United) Front had the mandate from the people to form the provincial government. The election again proved that people are the ‘sources of all power’. They by rejecting the politics of the Muslim League brought about an end of their regime in East Pakistan. The 21 Point Demands of the Jukto (United) Front in 1954 1. Bangla will be one of the state languages of Pakistan; 2. Feudal system will be abolished without giving any compensation; all brokery and certificate system will be null and void; 3. Giving fair price, the jute trade should be nationalised, and the culprits involved in Jute scam should rightly be punished; 4. Cooperative agricultural system should be introduced, and handicrafts and small cottage industries will be developed; 5. Salt industries will be expanded and the culprits involved in salt scam will be duly punished; 6. Homeless will be rehabilitated; 7. Irrigation system will be improved, and measures should be taken to initiate flood control system and to prevent famine; 8. East Bengal will be properly Industrialised, and the rights of the labourers will be duly protected; 9. Free and compulsory primary education will be imparted, and a decent scale of salary and allowance for the teachers will be ensured; 10. Bangla will be recognized as one of the mediums of education; 11. University of Dhaka and Rajshahi will be given full autonomy, and all the black laws will be repealed; 12. Expenditure in running the administration should be reduced, and the discrimination between high and low waged staffs will be minimized; 13. All kinds of corruptions will be wiped out; 14. Political detainees will be unconditionally released, and freedom of speech, of meeting and assemblage, and of press will be ensured; 15. Judiciary will be separated from the administration; 16. Bordhaman House will be a hostel for the time being, and later be developed as a research centre for Bangla language and literature; 17. A Shahid Minar (memorial) will be erected in memoriam of the language martyrs; 18. 21 February will be declared ‘The Martyr Day’ and it will be a government holiday; 19. East Pakistan will have full autonomy as per the historic Lahor proposal; 20. Free and fair election will be held regularly; 21. If the Jukto (United) Front is defeated in three consecutive by-elections, the cabinet will resign; The Government of the Jukto (United) Front A K Fazlul Haque, the leader of the Krishok Sromik Party, one of the allies of the Jukto (United) Front took oath as the Chief Minister on 3 April 1954. The Jukto Front

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remained in power just for 56 days. The Pakistan government could not accept the Jukto (United) Front government in East Bengal. They started conspiring to topple the government. Golam Mohammad, the governor general of Pakistan dismissed the Jukto Front government on 30 May 1954 on a flimsy pretext of the riot between the Bengalis and the Non-Bengalis at the Adamjee Jute Mill and Kornofuli, it was found later that the riot was provoked by the Pakistan government. Sher-e-Bangal was placed under house arrest, Sheikh Mujib and other 3 thousand workers were arrested too. The enmity and the hatred of the Pakistani rulers were again Group Work: The anarchy created expressed through this conspiratorial act. The by the ruling class was responsible despotic regime began in East Pakistan. The for the failure of the Jukto (United) frequent changes of government in the centre Front government-show reasons in and provinces increased unrest everywhere. In favour of this statement. the end, they tried to prevent the crisis by imposing the martial law in 1958. It was a final and desperate attempt to defend the existence of Pakistan by exercising autocratic power disregarding the democratic norms. Section 1. 3: The Martial Law and the subsequent political events The military and civilian rulers of West Pakistan continued to foil the democratic institution in Pakistan. As a result, the Parliament as well as the government could not play any effective role. The frequent change of the central and the provincial governments made the whole situation fragile. The conniving groups were waiting for the chance to grab the power. In the Provincial Assembly, Deputy Speaker Shahed Ali was seriously injured and subsequently died in a hospital because of a brawl among the MLAs on a disputable issue. President Iskandar Mirza declared Martial Law on 7 October 1958 on the pretext of this incident. After assuming the power, the decisions he took were as follows: 1. Voided the Constitution of 1956; 2. Dissolved the central and the provincial assembly; 3. Put embargo on the political activities; 4. Arrested Sheikh Mujib and some other leaders; 5. Deprived the people of their fundamental rights. Occupying Power by Ayub Khan President Iskandar Mirza was ousted from power in a military coup on 27 October 1958 and was forced to leave the country. General Ayub Khan after assuming office as the President of Pakistan took the following steps: 1. Declared himself the chief martial law administrator; 2. Suspended the general election of 1959 declared earlier; 3. Expressed his commitment to wipe out corruption and illegal trafficking of goods; 4. Continue embargo on political parties; Ayub Khan initiated a new system called fundamental democracy to linger the autocratic rule. In this system, an electoral panel will be formed with 80 thousand elected members of the union council from both West and East Pakistan. They will preserve the right of electing the President and the members of both the central and provincial assembly. It was an indirect election process. He was elected the President of Pakistan getting 80 thousand votes of the union council members. The administrative power was centralized on West Pakistan, and the discrimination between the two parts became blatant. Discriminating Attitudes to the People of East Pakistan Before the establishment of Pakistan, East Bengal was in a better position in economic, social, educational and other sectors in comparison with West Pakistan. However, East


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Pakistan started lagging behind because of the oppressive rule of West Pakistan established in 1947. Discrimination between the two parts was looming large since then. Discrimination in the economic sector: West Pakistan was in a better position in comparison with East Pakistan due to the discriminatory policy of the Pakistan government. For example, East Pakistan received an allocation of taka 113 crore 3 lakh and 80 thousand from 1955-56 to 1959-60, on the Group work: Identify the fields of other hand West Pakistan got taka 500 crore in the discrimination done to East Pakistan same period. East Pakistan got taka 6,480 million by west Pakistan. from 1960-61 to 1964-65, and West Pakistan received taka 22,230 million in the same period. As a result, East Pakistan started lagging behind in the fields of trade and commerce, industry and agriculture, and in economy. Discrimination in the administrative sector: East Pakistan was prevented from playing any effective roles in the administration of Pakistan. The discrimination was very blatant. A comparative study of discriminatory administration of Pakistan in 1966 is shown bellow: Nos. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Heads In the secretariat of the President Defence Industry Home Information Education Health Law Agriculture

The Bengalis 19% 8.1% 25.7% 22.7% 20.1% 27.3% 19% 35% 21%

The West Pakistanis 81% 91.9% 74.3% 77.3% 79.9% 72.7% 81% 65% 79%

Discrimination in the defence sector: The Bengalis would often experience discrimination in the recruitment and promotion in the Army, Navy and Air Force. Only 5% of officers, 4% of general soldiers, 19% of high official in the Navy, 9% of lower officials, 11% of Pilots in the Air force, 1.7% of technicians belonged to the Bengali community. Discrimination in the education sector: East Bengal was far ahead of West Pakistan in the primary and secondary education before the establishment of Pakistan, but after its birth, the complexion in the education sector was totally changed as West Pakistan started receiving more than double allocation of funds in the annual budget every year. So, many new educational institutions had been established in the primary, secondary and higher secondary levels in West Pakistan. Social discrimination: The growth of the middle class in East Bengal was hindered for the discriminatory policies of West Pakistan. The Bengalis became fragile financially. Disparity increased between the two regions. People started showing demonstrations and organising movements. The Anti-Martial Law Movement:Agitation started in East Bengal against the autocratic regime of Ayub Khan since 1961. It was further intensified when Hossain Shahid Suhrawardi, a favourite leader of the Bengalis and former Prime Minister was arrested in January 1962. Subsequently Sheikh Mujib was arrested in February, and the people of this part launched movement demanding his unconditional release including all other political

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detainees. The students became vocal against the form of government proposed by Ayub Khan. Then they declared 15 point demands. Various professional groups extended their supports to the movement on the issue of education policy. Besides, Jatiyo Ganotantric Front (The National Democratic Front) was formed to reinstate the constitutional government. The front orchestrated agitation against the despotic regime of Ayub Khan. The political parties got the opportunity to go to the mass people with their political agenda against the military rules while they were campaigning for the Presidential election in 1965. Indo-Pak War Indo-Pak war broke out on 6 September 1956, and continued for 17 days. Then East Pakistan was totally insecure. The government did not think of the safety of the people of this part. Though Pakistan was defeated in the war, the ruling quarter of West Pakistan continued their anti-India campaign. Besides, they describing the songs of Rabindranath as Hindu culture, and complaining against the songs of Nazrul bearing influences of Hinduism tried to stop its practice, and termed it as anti-Islam. So the people of East Bengal reiterated provincial autonomy to defend their own culture, history, tradition and political rights. People felt the urge for the politics of Bengali nationalism. The 6 Point demands: East Bengal’s charter of freedom The long movement against the Pakistan government’s discriminatory policy and indifferent attitude to the people of East Pakistan took a clear shape in the 6 point demands. Awami league president Sheikh Mujibur Rahman participated in a conference of the opposition leaders on 5-6 February 1966 in Lahor. He stated the 6 point charter demands in a press conference to defend the rights of the people. The points are as follows: 1. There will be the Parliamentary form of government under federal system. The polling will be held under the general electoral system, and adult voters will enfranchise; 2. The central government will keep two ministries in their hand, the defence and the foreign affairs. The states will have full autonomy of the other affairs; 3. Two different but convertible types of currency should be introduced in the country, or a single currency might be used on some terms and conditions; 4. The state government will preserve the right to impose taxes, and a part of the collected revenue will be deposited to the treasury of the central government; Picture 1.4: Bangabandhu Sheikh 5. The states will be the owners of the foreign currency Mujibur Rahman, the exponent that they will earn, and similarly a portion will be of the provincial autonomy on the basis of the 6 point demands. deposited to the treasury of the central government; 6. The states will be given the power of forming militia force for their regional security;

Importance: The 6 points included economic, political, martial and other rights of the people of East Pakistan. The Ayub regime termed it as a separatist movement. The


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demands reflected the national spirit of the Bengalis. Although the demand of independence was not spelled out in it, the charter inspired the Bengalis in the spirit of independence, and in the end, it became the national charter for liberation. The Pakistan government did not accept the demands, rather started oppression that made the peoples’ movement inevitable. The Historic Agartala Case (State Vs. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and Others) The ultimate goal of the politics of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the father of the nation was to achieve independence of Bangladesh, and he believed that the freedom would not be achieved without armed struggle. He gave consent to the revolutionary wing formed secretly to achieve independence of Bagnaladesh to go for armed struggle as per the plan. The revolutionary wing planned to attack all the cantonments at a time in the commando style to snatch arms and ammunition from the Pakistani forces and hold them captive. Later they would declare the independence under the leadership of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahaman. As the plan was disclosed before being materialized, the historic Agartala (State Vs. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and others) case was lodged. A charge was framed against a total of 35 persons including political leaders, civil servants, in service and retired army officers and other civilians. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was named the number one defendant. They were accused under the Section of 121-A and 131 of the Pakistan Penal Code for conspiring to make East Pakistan a sovereign and independent state through arms struggle. The hearing of the case started on 19 June 1968 in a special tribunal at the Dhaka Cantonment. As the trial began, a fierce movement launched by the people to withdraw the case. The farmers, labourers, students and general people spontaneously joined the agitation on the11 point demands of the students. The political movement on the basis on the 6 and the 11 point demands took root among the masses, and the subsequent ‘Historic Agartala Case’ eventually encouraged the people to move for the independence. The Mass Uprising in 1969 The most important movement against the Pakistani rulers was launched in 1969 with full participation by the people from all walks of life. It was termed in the history as Unoshotturer Gano Abhuthan (The Mass Uprising of Sixty Nine) that took a revolutionary turn. All democratic parties, professionals, mass people spontaneously took part in the movement. Asaduzzaman Asad, a student of the University of Dhaka, and Dr. Shamsujjoha, a professor of the University of Rajshahi became the victims of brutal killings by the Pakistani Junta. People indiscriminate of professions took to the streets everywhere in East Pakistan to protest against the autocrat, and in the end, Ayub Khan Picture 1.5: Martyr Asad was forced to release Sheikh Mujib unconditionally on 22 February 1969. Similarly the other political detainees were released too. The Agartala case was withdrawn. Chatra Sangram Porishad gave a warm reception to Sheikh Mujib

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at the Racecourse (now Suhrawardi Uddayan) on 23 February, and he was awarded the title ‘Bangabandhu’ in the reception meeting. The Historical influence of the Mass Uprising: Pakistani Junta Ayub Khan was forced to resign as the consequence of the mass uprising in 1969, and before his resignation, he withdrew the Agartala Case. The new military government of General Yahia was forced to declare the general election in 1970. The nationalist ideals started germinating in the minds of the people of East Bengal for the successful uprising in 1969. They Picture 1.6 : A glimpse of a violent realised a greater unity based on the Bengali procession during the mass uprising nationalism. The mass uprising of 1969 had an of 1969 influence in the polling of 1970 and the liberation war of 1971, and the achievements were made possible for the spark of the Bengali nationalism in the people’s mind. The Election of 1970 and aftermath President Ayub Khan resigned his post on 25 March 1969. Yahia Khan succeeded him as the next dictator. In a statement on 28 March, he promised to hold a general election, but the people were in confusion because previously no general election was called by the despotic ruler. No law was enacted to run the country smoothly. Finally on 7 December 1970, the general election was held for the first time in Pakistan on the basis of ‘one person one vote’. The Awami League, the NAP (Wali), the Muslim League (Kayum), the Muslim League (Convention), the Pakistan People’s Party, the Democratic Party, the Jamat-e-Islami and some other political parties took part in the election. The Awami league termed this election as a ‘referendum’ in favour of 6 point demands. 3 crore and 22 lakh out of 5 crore and 64 lakh voters belonged to East Pakistan. In the central parliament election held on 7 December 1970 (in some of the constituencies on 17 January 1971), the Awami League bagged 167 (with 7 female seats) out of 169 seats preserved for East Pakistan. In the election of Provincial assembly held on 17 December, the Awami League got 288 out of 300 seats. The landslide victory of the Awami League was unprecedented. They got the verdict of the people in favour of 6 point demands and the formation of government. Importance of the Election: The Awami League achieved the landslide victory in the national and provincial assembly. So it was authenticated that the people supported the 6 and 11 Point demands. The Bengali nationalism marked a political victory. On the other hand, it was a big blow to the Pakistani rulers. So they started hatching new plot against the Bengalis not to hand over the power to the Individual work: Make a list of the elected body. The people of East Pakistan stood political events contributed to the rise firmly against the dictatorship of West Pakistan. of the Bengali nationalism. The significance of the election in emerging an independent Bangladesh in 1971 became clear. It also played a vital role to transform the spirit of nationalism to the spirit of freedom. As a result, a new country named Bangladesh emerged and secured her place in the world map.


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Exercise Short questions: 1. How did East Bengal become a Province of Pakistan? 2. What is the International Mother Language Day? 3. Identify the reasons of calling the historic 6 Point demands the charter of liberation. Descriptive questions: 1. What were the circumstances of demand to establish a militia force in 6 Point demands? 2. ‘The people of East Pakistan fully participated in the movement of the 6 Point Demands because of the discriminating attitude of the rulers of West Pakistan towards the East Pakistan about financial matters’– substantiate your points in favour of your statement. 3. ‘The liberation war was the inevitable outcome of the general election of 1971’explain. 4. Explain the reasons of terming the historic Agartala case as a conspiracy by the then rulers. Multiple choice qustions: 1. What ideal was spread out in East Bengal by the language movement? a. The Bengali Nationalism b. The secular ideology c. The two nation theory d. The community feeling Read the pragraph below and answer the question nos. 2 & 3 that follow: Rifat watches cartoons on television on 21 February every year, but this year he comes to school to participate in the morning procession, and took a vow to place floral wreath at the Shahid Minar (The Martyr Memorial) every year, and he will never write Bangla by using English letters. 2. The vow Rifat took to lay wreath at the Shahid Minar expresses his ─ i. respect to the martyrs of the language movement ii. inclination to get applause iii. love for cherishing the memory of the martyrs Which one of the following is correct a. i & ii b. i &iii c. ii & iii d. i, ii & iii 3. The spirit reflected in the changed disposition of Rifat is hisa. respect to the Bengali nationalism b. tendency to imitate people c. love for his own language d. disinclination to write English language

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Creative questions: 1. Table-1 West Pakistanis 95% 96% 81% 91%

Heads of Comparison Army Officers Soldiers High Officials of the Navy Other posts of the Navy Years 1955-1960 1960-1965

Table-2 Allocation for West Pakistan Taka 500 Crore Taka 22,230 Million

East Pakistanis 5% 4% 19% 9%

Allocation for East Pakistan Taka 113 Crore Taka 6480 Million

a. What was the first movement launched by the Bengalis for the national emancipation in the Pakistan regime? b. Describe the historic significance of the mass uprising of 1969. c. Explain the discrimination between East and West Pakistan reflected in the table no. 1. d. Evaluate the economic condition resulted from the discrimination between East and West Pakistan shown in the table no. 2. 2.








15% 95%


85% 84%

80% 75%



central civil foreign service service

east Pakistan


west Pakistan infentry pilot force

air force

100% 80% 96

60% 40% 20%


58 80

66 34

20 0% foreign20 currency The34US. (in dev. work) Aid


42 4 other foreign Aid

20 42 industrial industy 20loan dev. cor. and investment


West Pakistan East Pakistan


industrial 24 dev. bank.

a. In which year was the Jukto (United) Front formed? b. Explain the significance of the general election of 1970 in achieving the freedom of Bangladesh. c. Which of the 6 point demands was raised in the light of the statistics shown in the figure-1 d. ‘The 6 point demands were raised for the discrimination shown in figure2, are you agreed to the statement? Show reasons in favour of your answer.


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The Independent Bangladesh Bangladesh achieved the independence through armed struggle in 1971. The Bengalis experienced widespread sufferings, and sacrificed a lot to achieve the independence. The Awami League won by the absolute majority in the general election of Pakistan in 1970 under the leadership of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. The people of East Pakistan spontaneously voted for the Awami League to be free from the oppression of the Pakistani rulers. But the rulers of the West Pakistan started hatching plots not to hand over the power to the Awami League. Yahia Khan suspended the session of the national assembly on 1 March 1971 sine die. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman called for Ashhojog Andolon (the non-cooperation movement) on 2 March protesting the decision. In a historic speech delivered at the Racecourse on 7 March 1971, Bangabandhu called for taking preparation with all one’s soul to achieve the liberation and independence. The Pakistan army swooped on the civilians on 25 March. Bangabandhu declared the independence on the early hours of 26 March. The formal campaign of the liberation war began after the formation of the Mujibnagar government and the approval of the constitutional declaration on 10 April, and we achieved independence on 16 December 1971 after a bloody war of long nine months. A total of 93 thousand Pakistani invading soldiers surrendered in that day, and Bangladesh emerged as an independent and sovereign country in the world map. The Bangabandhu government faced enormous challenges to cope with the situation of a war torn country, but Bangabandhu was brutally killed and his government was ousted from power in a military coup on 15 August 1975. That was the beginning of the autocratic rules in Bangladesh. Democracy was reestablished by deposing the junta through a long struggle and continuous movements by the people. The country returned to the track of the socio-economic development again. In this chapter, we will know about the background of the independence of Bangladesh, her emergence, reconstruction, military regime, reestablisment of democracy and the development of socio-economic condition. After reading the chapter, we will be able to ─ • analyse the importance of the oration of 7 • • •

• •

March in achieving the liberation of Bangladesh; explain the significance of naming Mujibnagar; evaluate the role of the Mujibnagar government in commanding the liberation war; evaluate the roles of various political parties, students, professional groups, women, mass media, cultural workers and mass people in the liberation war; evaluate the roles and contributions of the important political leaders to the events in achieving the independence; evaluate the roles of various countries and creating global opinion in the emergence of independent Bangladesh;

• analyse the historic significance of the

great liberation war;

• explain the process of reconstruction of a

war affected country;

• describe the brutal killing of the father of

• • • • •

the nation and four other national leaders in 1975, and the subsequent political changes; describe the rise of military rules after 1975; describe the killing of General Ziaur Rahman and the subsequent elections; explain the despotic rule of H M Ershad since 1982 and its impacts; describe mass movement in 1990 and reestablishing of democracy; describe the significant socio-economic and cultural development of Bangladesh.

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Section 2.1: Preparation for the Liberation War, Armed Struggle and the Emergence of Sovereign Bangladesh The Awami League achieved absolute majority in the national and provincial election held in 1970. The Junta of Pakistan started hatching plot not to hand over the power to the Awami League. Yahia Khan called for the session of the national assembly on 3 March 1971. Julfikar Ali Bhutto refused to join the session in Dhaka and threatened other members to refrain them from joining. It was the part of a Bhutto-Yahia conspiracy. Yahia Khan postponed the session of 3 March sine die through a statement on 1 March using the refusal of Bhutto as a pretext. The people of East Bengal exploded into agitation against the decision of suspending the session without discussing with Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the leader of the party got absolute majority in the election. Strikes were observed on the call of All Party Action Committee and Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on 2 March in Dhaka and 3 March throughout the country in protest against postponing the session. As a result, all the activities of the government came to a standstill. The police and the army opened fire on the protesters, killing and injuring hundreds. Bangabandhu called for a non-cooperation movement, and under this circumstances, he delivered his historic oration on 7 March in a huge gathering at the Racecourse. Addressing the people, he declared the independence of Bangladesh and urged for participating in armed struggle. Bangladesh emerged on the world map as an independent and sovereign country after a bloody war of nine months. The Historic Oration of 7 March and the Formal Journey towards the Independence Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman delivered a historic oration on 7 March at the Racecourse (present Suhrawardi Uddyan). In his speech, he, pointing to the glorious background of the political history of the Bengalis, gave a detail account of the oppression, misrule and the awful deprivation of the Bengalis by the West Pakistan government, and unveiled the dirty game played by them to deceive the people of this part even after winning the election with absolute majority. The oration is a historic evidence for the Bengalis. Of the speeches notable in the history of the world, the speech of 7 March is one of them, and it will be immortal to the people aspiring freedom and independence.

Picture 2.1: The historic oration of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman given at the Racecourse on 7 March 1971


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The Bengalis got the inspiration for being united and the indication for joining the liberation war from the speech of 7 March. Only one target was fixed before them from then onwards, and it was nothing but the freedom. The Bengalis started taking preparation for the lebaration war Group Work: Mention the after the formal call for the independence by Bangabandhu vital aspects in the historic in his speech of 7 March. Giving suggestions and further oration of 7 March inspired guidelines, he urged the people, ‘build forts in every the freedom fighters. house, and face the foes with whatever you have.’ ‘As we’ve sacrificed our lives, we will sacrifice again, we will liberate the people of this country, Inshallah. This struggle is for freedom, this struggle is for independence,’ he added. In this speech, he also highlighted the strategy of war, ways to face enemies, resisting technique etc. Bangabandhu clearly declared the independence of Bangladeh in his historic oration. The Pakistan army swooped on the innocent Bengalis in the night of 25 March and made them victims of genocide. The Bengalis started resisting the attack, and they risked their own lives to join the liberation war responding to the call for independence by Bangabandhu. The Formal Journey to Independence People from all walks of life were united responding to the call for independence and the activities declared by Bangabandhu on 7 March 1971. All the offices, educational institutions, judiciary department, factories and industries remained closed sine die. As the situation of East Pakistan was rapidly deteriorating, Yahia Khan came to Dhaka to talk to Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. Bhutto also came to Dhaka then. They were pretending as well as wasting time in the name of holding talks and meeting, but they secrectly assembled soldiers, arms and ammunition to East Bengal from West Pakistan as a part Picture 2.2: The genocide of of the preparation of war. Tikka Khan and Rao Forman Ali designed a blue print named the ‘Operation Search 25 March 1971 Light’ on 17 March to make the Bengalis victims of mass killings. The brutal mass killing in the history of world civilisation began in the night of 25 March. Yahia and Bhutto secretly left Dhaka. The Pakistani Army launched attack on the innocent people by the order of Yahia Khan, and indiscriminately killed people. They attacked the Police line of Razarbagh, the BDR camp of Pilkhana, the University of Dhaka and the other important establishments of Dhaka city and killed the police and BDR personnel and the civilian. It is called Kalratri (blackout) in the history. Bangabandhu declared the independence in the hours of blackout on 25 March, i.e. at the early hour of 26 March, and transmitted the message through wireless. Hearing the declaration of the independence by Bangabandhu, the people instantly initiated resistance in Chittagong and other places of the country. So an uneven war broke out between the Pakistan armed forces and the unarmed ansar, police, and general people. It is known as the great Liberation war of Bangladesh. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was arrested at the midnight, nearly at 1.30 am of 26 March, and was secretly sent to West Pakistan. The Declaration of Independence Bangabandhu declared the independence of Bangladesh at the midnight of 25 March i.e. in the early hour of 26 March just before his arrest by the Pakistani Army. The declaration was in English so that the people around the world can understand it. The declaration was as follows:

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‘This may be my last message, from today Group work: What is the declaration Bangladesh is independent. I call upon the people of independence? Prepare the subject of Bangladesh wherever you might be and with matters relating to the declaration of independence. whatever you have, to resist the army of occupation to the last. Your fight must go on until the last Group work: Describe why the solider of the Pakistan occupation army is Bengalis started the liberation war. expelled from the soil of Bangladesh and final victory is achieved.’ (Bangladesh Gezette, Fifteenth Amendment of the Constitution, 3 July 2011). The declaration of independence was broadcast all over the Bangladesh through the radio transmitter of EPR, telegram and tele-printer. M.A Hannan, a leader of the Chittagong Awami League broadcast the declaration of independence by Bangabandhu at noon through Chittagong Radio Station and subsequently through Kalurghat radio station in the evening on 26 March. Major Ziaur Rahman again proclaimed the decalration on behalf of Bangabandhu in the evening of 27 March through the same radio station. The freedom aspiring people became very much enthusiastic hearing the declaration of independence by Bangabandhu and the immediate support and participation of Bengali officers in the army, para military and other forces. The Commencement of the War of Liberation and the Activities of the Mujibnagar Government Bangabandhu and his close allies discussed the situation prevailed on 25 March 1971. He gave them directives to resist if the Pakistani army would attack. The Bengalis started war to achieve freedom from the oppression that had been continuing for long 24 years. The formation of the Mujibnagar Government was very important in the history of liberation. The mango grove of Baidaynathtala of Meherpur was named Mujibnagar after the name of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. The Mujibnagar government was formed on 10 April 1971 with the elected members of the national and provincial assembly to run the war by giving necessary directives as well as to drum up the support of the foreign countries. ‘The order of the declaration of independence of Bangladesh’ i. e. the constitutional declaration of independence was formally proclaimed on that day. The Mujibnagar government took oath on 17 April 1971, and the government of independent Bangladesh came into being with taking this oath. The structure of the Mujibnagar Independent Government was as follows:

1. President and Commander in Chief of the Liberation War: Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman 2. Vice President: Syed Nazrul Islam (Acting President in absence of Bangabandhu) 3. Prime Minister: Tajuddin Ahmed 4. Finance Minister: M. Mansur Ali 5. Home, Relief and Rehabilitation Minister: A.H.M. Qamaruzzaman 6. Foreign and Law Minister: Khondoker Mostaq Ahmed An advisory committee of 6 members was formed to provide necessary suggestions and guidance to the government of Independent Bangladesh. Maolana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani of the National Awami Party (NAP-Bhashani), Professor Mozaffer Ahmed of the Natioanl Awami Party (NAP-Mozaffer), Comrade Moni Singh of the Communist Party, Sri Monoronjon Dhar of the National Congress, Tajuddin Ahmed (The Prime Minister of Bangladesh government) and Khondoker Mostaq Ahmed (Foreign and Law Minister of Bangladesh government) were on the committee. Colonel (Retired) M.A.G. Osmani was made the Chief commandant of the liberation war.


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The Activities of the Mujibnagar Government The Mujibnagar government was formed with the elected members of the national and provincial assembly in the general election of 1970. The main purpose of forming the government was to give necessary directives to the liberation war and campaign worldwide to have support in favour of Bangladesh. The government ran the administration by the Bengali officials. There were 12 ministries or divisions in it. Those were the Ministry of Foreign affairs; the Ministry of Finance, Industry and Commerce; the Cabinet Secretariat; the General Administration; the Health and Welfare Division; the Relief and Rehabilitation Division; the Engineering Division; the Planning Commission; the Controlling Board for Youth and Reception Camp etc. The Mujibnagar government established Bangladesh mission in various important cities (Calcutta, Delhi, London, Washington, New York, Stockholm) of the world. These missions campaigned for having support in favour of Bangladesh from the world community. The government appointed Justice Abu Sayed Chowdhury as a special envoy. He tried his best to get support of world leaders and the public as well in favour of the Liberation War. After Group work: Describe the the formation of the Mujibnagar government on 10 April, a activities of the acting force of the freedom fighters with the Bengali soldiers and Mujibnagar government. civilians was initiated to form. The government divided the country into 4 military zones and appointed 4 Sector Commanders on 10 April, but it was divided again into 11 sectors the next day. Besides, some sub-sectors and 3 Brigade forces were formed. The Bengali officers served the Pakistan army, the police, EPR, members of the Navy and Air Force joined these sectors. There were soldiers, guerrillas and general fighters in every sector. They were usually called MuktiJoddha or Muktifouz ( the freedom fighters). Sudents, youth, women, farmers, political activists and supporters, labourers and various professionals joined these forces. After receiving training in different training camps, the warriors entered the country and attacked the Pakistan army camps, barracks and other military establishments. Several troops were spontaneously organised inside the country to take part in the Liberation war except the troops formed under the Mujibnagar government. These troops played a significant role in the war against the Pakistan army and the Razakars in local areas. The name of Kaderia Bahini (Cadre of Kader Siddiqui) of Tangail is still remembered by the people. Under the leadership of Mujibnagar government, the freedom fighters fought in the battle fields to liberate the country from the occupation of the Pakistani forces. Many of them sacrificed their lives for the cause of the mother land and many of them suffered causalities. The Role of the General People and Professionals in the Liberation War The students, general people, Police, EPR (East Pakistan Rifles) bravely resisted when the Pakistan army swooped on the unarmed people on 25 March 1971. The Bengalis did not Group work: Explain why the nation give up resisting the enemy, and many freedom will honour the freedom fighters as the fighters sacrificed their lives in the battlefield valiant sons of the soil. and many others became permanently disabled Group work: Explain why the bearing bullet wounds. The country is deeply liberation war is recognised as the war indebted to these freedom fighters for their of the mass people. sacrifices. The nation will always remember them as the valiant sons of the soil. The freedom fighters risked their own lives and joined the war to liberate the country. They were brave warriors and patriots inspired by the spirit of self-sacrifice. The Bengalis from all walks of life participated in the war. That is why, this war was termed as Ganojudha or Janojudha (a battle of the mass

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people). The people were the major controlling force of this war of independence. When the war broke out, different political parties, students, professionals, women, cultural workers and people of all spheres of life joined the war, and contributed whatever they could from their respective positions. They established the sovereign and independent Bangladesh by sacrificing their lives. The Political Parties The liberation war of Bangladesh was a political war. The political leadership determined the strategy of the war. The political party that led the war was the Awami League. At first the Awami League organised the people of East Pakistan and initiated movements for self rule. After winning the general election in 1970 with absolute majority, they inspired the people to achieve the independence, and the people, responding to the call of Bangabandhu for independence, started taking preparation for the liberation war. At the beginning, the political leaders formed the Bangladesh government, and formally recognised the declaration of independence by Bangabandhu on 10 April 1971, Group work: Describe the and the background of the liberation war, its importance of political parties in significance, and future plan were sketched out. The the Liberation War. political leaders being organised formed the Group work: Why will the government, liberation force, and campaigned for bangal is hate the anti-leberalion having support of the world community, collected forces? arms and ammunition for war, and worked hard to boost up the confidence of the people. The political leadership succeeded in showing their strength, merit and political acumen to achieve victory in the war. The government and the political leadership arranged training for the freedom fighters and guerrillas, shelter and relief for a total of 1 crore refugees in India, opened Shawdhin Bangla Betar Kendra (A war time radio station) and played a vital role to get support in favour of the liberation war, and urged the world leadership to reach a consensus on the issue. The progressive political parties Like the National Awami Party (NAP-Bhashani), the National Awami Party (NAP-Mozaffar), the Communist Party, the National Congress etc. along with the Awami League played an important role in the liberation war. Many leaders and workers of these parties directly participated in the liberation war. The Muslim League, the Jamat-e-Islami, the PDB and some other political parties inside Bangladesh opposed the liberation war. These parties established militant cadres called Shanti Committee, Rajakar, Al Bodor and Al Shams. These forces were engaged in antihuman activities like killing, looting, arson, and raping women. Besides, these anti liberation forces killed the intellectuals of the country on 14 December 1971 as a part of implementing the blueprint of making the nation intellectually barren. The Student Community The student community played a glorious role in all the major movements regarding the interest of the Bengalis during 24 years of the Pakistan rules. They played the most significant roles in the language movement in 1948 and 1952, in the movements against the Group work: Identify the students’ Education Commission Report in 1962 and 1964, contribution and sacrifice for the in the movements for the 6 point demands in Liberation War. 1966 and for the 11 point demands in 1968, in the mass uprising of 1969, in the general election of 1970, in the non cooperation movement called by Bangabandhu in the March of 1971. A large number of school, college and university students directly participated in the war of liberation after it had been started on 26 March 1971. Most of them entered the country after having the training from neighbouring country India, and fought against the occupation army of Pakistan.


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Students were the highest in number in the liberation force as the single group of participants. In the irregular wings of liberation force, students were huge in number. At one stage of the war, MujibBahini was formed mainly with the students. Activists of the Chatra League and the Chatra Union got organized in different zones and participated in the war. It was difficult to win the war without the sacrifice of the students. The Professionals Those who are involved in various professions are usually called professionals such as teachers, doctors, engineers, artists, writers, technologists, journalists, bureaucrats, scientists, government officers and other officials. They played a unique and glorious role in the war of liberation. A large section of the professionals either actively or passively participated in the liberation war. The professionals played an important role in the war by forming a planning cell under the Mujibnagar government, and representing the authentic picture of the liberation war to the international community sought their cooperation, campaigned for support in different international forum, and soothed and encouraged the refugees. Some of the professionals died in the liberation war. Women in the Liberation War The role of women in the liberation war was glorious. The participation of women specially the female students was spontaneous in the Sangram Parishad (The Action Committee) constituted in the beginning of March 1971 in every part of the country. They took part directly in the war after having training in handling the firearms and in guerrilla warfare in the training camps along with the male fighters. Besides, a large number of female freedom fighters as fellow soldiers, providing the freedom fighters with shelters, collecting information of the enemies and nursing the wounded fighters played a vital role in the war. Nearly 3 lakh women were molested by the Pakistani army. They were the fellow fighters too, and as a Picture 2.3: The female recognition of their sacrifice, the government gave them fighters in a training session the title of honour Birangona (the heroic woman). The Mass Media Group work: Evaluate the The role of the media in the liberation war of contribution of women to Bangladesh was enormous. The newspapers and the the Liberation War. Shawdhin Bangla Betar Kendra played a leading role in this regard. The artists and cultural activists of Chittagong Radio Station the Shawdhin Bangla Betar Kendra on 26 March 1971. Later it ran under the supervision of the Mujibnagar government. The Shawdhin Bangla Betar Kendra broadcast news, patriotic songs, heroic deeds of freedom fighters, events of warfield and thus inspired the general people to join the liberation war. It encouraged the freedom fighters, and contributed a lot to win the war. Besides, the newspapers circulated by the publication cell under the supervision of the Mujibnagar government also played important roles in the liberation war. The Mass People The victory in the war of liberation was made possible only in nine months for the all out cooperation and assistance of the mass people and their strong will for liberation. Most of the people somehow participated in the liberation war except the collaborators of the Pakistan occupation army. People gave the freedom fighters shelter, food and medicine, information of the enemy’s position and movement, and provided assistance. The small ethnic groups participated in the liberation war too, and some of them attained

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martyrdom. The mass people were large in number of 30 lakh martyrs of our liberation war. The national flag of red circle on green mass and a map of an independent land are the achievements of their sacrifice. The Immigrant Bengalis The immigrant Bengalis contributed to the liberation war in many ways. They collected donation from many countries. They went to the parliament members to get support for Bangladesh, sent representatives to the international forums, pleaded to the governments of some countries to stop supplying arms and ammunition to Pakistan. The role of the immigrant Bengalis in Britain was remarkable in this regard. They campaigned for having public support in favour of the Liberation war of Bangladesh. The Role of the Artists, Writers and Intellectuals The key regulating factor of the liberation war was the people. However, the role of the artists, writers, intellectuals and cultural workers was very praiseworthy. Articles in the newspapers, news cast in the Shawdhin Bangla Betar Kendra, patriotic songs based on the libation war, recitations of poetry, drama, talks, Charampatra and Jollader Dorbar, the most popular programmes of M R Akhter Mukul etc. contributed a lot to move the war ahead. All these helped to boost up the spirit of the freedom fighters, encouraged them, and made the general people indomitable against the enemy. The Roles of the Political Leaders in Achieving Independence The contribution of the political leaders for achieving the independence was immeasurable. The leaders of various political parties made great sacrifice for achieving the independence of Bangladesh. They faced repression and oppression, and risked their own lives to continue the political activities from beginning to end of the liberation war. The Leadership of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Bangabandhu Shiekh Mujibur Rahman was the key leader of the war of independence. He devoted all the activities, struggles and movements of his life to achieve freedom of the Bengali nation. He put in a lot of effort to establish the Chatra League in 1948, and the Awami League in 1949. He played a vital role in the language movement in 1984 and 1952. He was one of the first detainees of the language movement. Irrespective of the assembly or of the street, he was always vocal in favour of Bengali language and culture. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the father of the nation played the most important role single handedly in the Jukto (United) Front election in 1954, in the movement to get the constitutional recognition of Bangla as the state language in 1956, in organizing agitation against the martial law of General Ayub Khan in 1958, in the movement to realise the 6 Point Demands in 1966, in mass uprising of 1969, in the landslide victory of the Awami League in the election of 1970, from the non-cooperation movement to the declaration of Independence and in winning the liberation war in 1971. He was put in prison as a political detainee for long 12 years out of 24 years of the Pakistan regime. When the Pakistan army swooped on the innocent people of the country with utter cruelty on 25 March, he declared the Picture 2.4: Bangabandhu independence of Bangladesh in the early hour of 26 Sheikh Mujibur Rahman March 1971. He called for the war of independence in his great oration of 7 March 1971 following the ways of armed struggle. Our liberation war was directed after his name. He was the Commander-in-Chief of the liberation war and the President of the Mujibnagar government. We achieved the independence for his strong and uncompromising leadership. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman is the


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father of the nation, the great leader of our independence and the architect of a sovereign Bangladesh. Tajuddin Ahmed Tajuddin Ahmed was the General Secretary of the Awami League during the lebaration war. He was the most loyal and close ally of Bangabandhu Shiekh Mujibur Rahman. This great leader discharged his duty of the Prime Minister of the Mujibnagar government formed on 10 April 1971 to direct the war of liberation. He announced the formation of the Mujibnagar government through a radio on 11 April 1971. He succeeded in directing the liberation war in absence of Bangabandhu. He was the Convener of the Advisory Committee Picture 2.5: Tajuddin Ahmed formed to run the liberation war. His name is inseparably related to the history of our liberation war. Syed Nazrul Islam Syed Nazrul Islam was one of the top leaders of the Awami League. He was the Vice President of the Mujibnager government too. He discharged the duty of the acting President in absence of Bangabandhu. He called on all to join the liberation force. Syed Nazrul Islam was one Picture 2.6: Syed of the organisers and leaders of the liberation war. Nazrul Islam Captain M. Mansur Ali Captain M.Mansur Ali was one of the senior leaders of the Awami League and a very close associate of Bangabandhu. He was the Finance Minister of the Mujibnagar government during the liberation war. Collecting fund was a very important job for supplying food, clothes and other essentials for the freedom fighters taking armed training. He Picture 2.7: Captain had discharged these duties very sucessfully. M. Mansur Ali A.H.M. Qamaruzzaman A H M Qamaruzzaman was another top leader of Awami League. He was the Minister for Home, Relief and Rehabilitation during the liberation war. Then he discharged his duty successfully by collecting relief for millions of refugees sheltered in India, distributing relief in the camps and later rehabilitating the refugees etc. He had immense contribution for achieving independent Bangladesh. Picture 2.8: A.H.M. Qamaruzzaman Other leaders The role of Maolana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani in the liberation war was very noteworthy. He played a very vital role in the movement begun with the demand of the release of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman from the historic Agartala case (196869) and in the mass uprising of 1969. Staying in India during the war, he called upon the world community to support our liberation war and extend their hand to help us. Besides, Professor Mujaffar Ahmed (NAP-Mujaffar) and Communist Party leader Comrade Moni Singh played a significant role in the war of liberation. These three leaders were the members of the ‘Advisory Committee’ formed to conduct the war of liberation rightly.

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The Opinion of the World Community and the Role of the Foreign Countries during the Liberation War The brutalities of the Pakistani occupation army to the people of Bangladesh during the liberation war in 1971 gave a jolt to the conscience of the world community. They woke up and protested against the booty, arson, molestation of women and mass killing by the Pakistani soldiers and their collaborators of this land. Many countries condemned and protested against the brutalities and expressed support to the liberation war. The world community raised their voice against the genocide in the night of blackout on 25 March and afterwards. The people around the world directly or indirectly supported the liberation war of Bangladesh. The Role of India: Our neighbouring country India directly supported Bangladesh, and successfully highlighted the crimes of mass killing, atrocity, violence on women, booty committed by the Pakistani invading army since 25 March to the next nine months. So the consciences of world community received a jolt. India provided shelter, food, clothes, medicine to the millions of refugees, and arms and ammunition with necessary training to the freedom fighters. In the last stage of the war, Pakistan initiated airstrikes to India. India recongnised Bangladesh on 6 December 1971. The Muktibahini (freedom fighters) and the Indian force jointly initiated the Joutha (Joint) Command. A total of 93 thousand Pakistani army surrendered to the Joutha Command after Picture 2.9: The unconditional an all out attack launched by them on the surrender of the Pakistani force Pakistani army. A large number of Indian soldiers died in the liberation war. The Soviet Union and the Role of the Socialist Countries: India contributed most to the liberation war of Bangladesh, next to that, the then Soviet Union (present Russia). The Soviet President called upon President Yahia Khan of Pakistan to stop mass killing, booty, arson, and the violence on women. He also urged Yahia to hand over the power to the elected body. The Soviet newspapers, mass media highlighted the atrocities of the Pakistani army and the armed resistance of the freedom fighters in the war to drum up the support for the cause. When the USA tried to table a proposal at the United Nations to declare a ceasefire in Pakistan’s favour, the Soviet Union used its veto to block the proposal. The then socialist countries like Cuba, Yogoslavia, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany etc. supported the liberation war of Bangladesh. The Role of Great Britain: The British media, specially the BBC and newspapers published from London highlighted the genocide and the brutality of Pak-army, the resistance of the Bengalis, the plight of the refugees sheltered in India, and the development of liberation war to have support of the world community. The British government was also very sympathetic about our liberation war. It is worth-mentioning that London was the main campaigning centre for drumming up support for our war of liberation. Besides, the British born singer George Harrison along with Ravi Shanker and Ali Akber Khan organized a concert in New York to have support of the world


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community and raise funds to help the distressed people of Bangladesh. About 40,000 people attended the concert where Harrison sang songs describing the anti-inhuman activities of the Pak-army in our liberation war. The media of Australia, West German, France, Italy, Japan and Canada along with Britain helped winning the support of the world community against the atrocities of the Pakistani inavding army. Iraq also supported Bangladesh. The people, media, and some congressmen of the United States supported our libration war, but some of the countries opposed the war of independence. The Role of United Nations The main objective of the United Nations is to establish world peace and maintain security throughout the world. When Pak-Junta Yahia Khan was jealously engaged in slaughtering the Bengalis instead of handing over the power to the elected body of East Pakistan, then the UN remained silent. It did not take any effective measure against the genocide and the violation of fundamental rights. In fact, the UN had a very little power to act on its own initiative except the five influential countries that could exercise the veto. Its power to slate was feeble either. The Historic Significance of the Liberation War The liberation war of Bangladesh is a significant event in the world history. Bangladesh was the first among the third world countries that achieved independence through armed struggle. The people of East Bengal were the victims of oppression, repression and exploitation since 1947 by the Pakistani rulers, but the rebellious people of this land revolted against all the evils that came to an end with the victory in the liberation war on 16 December 1971. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahaman, the greatest leader of the liberation war called for the independence on 7 March 1971 and formally declared it on 26 March, and after an armed struggle of nine months, we achieved it on 16 December 1971. The mass people of this country provided all cooperation to the freedom fighters. As a result, the liberation war became the expression of the Bengali nationalism. The liberation war created a new patriotic zeal among the Bengalis and different ethnic communities living in this land, and they being inspired by this zeal, engaged themselves in the reconstruction of a war torn country. we have got an independent country through the war of liberation, and she has secured her position in the world map. The dream that the Bengalis nourished for thousand years came ture through the victory in the war. The liberation war of Bangladesh inspired the oppressed people of the world desirous of freedom. Section 2.2: The Rules of Bangabandhu in the Reconstruction of Bangladesh and aftermath The ultimate victory in the liberation war was achieved through the unconditional surrender of the Pakistani invading army on 16 December 1971. The independent government of Bangladesh came to Dhaka from India on 22 December and assumed office. The country started running by the declaration of independence delivered on 10 April 1971. 10, January 1972 Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the father of the nation came back to independent Bangladesh and took the responsibility as the head of the government. Reconstruction of the war torn country, administrative reformation, rehabilitation of one crore refugees, drafting of the constitution, holding of fresh election, sending the Mitrabahini (friendly troops) back to India, earning recognitions of various countries etc. were the remarkable achievements of his rules. The Father of the nation and his family were brutally killed on 15 August 1975 by some aberrant army

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officers as a part of implementing the conspiracy of the anti-liberation force. His two daughters Sheikh Hasian and Sheikh Rehana were saved as they were staying outside of the country then. The Reconstruction Process of a war torn country When Bangladesh achieved the Independence, it was fallen into ruins. Laments for losing kin, outpouring of grief, and tears made the air heavy. A huge number of roads, bridges, culverts, industries, inland ports, and sea ports were demolished. The government treasury was found empty. The independent Bangladesh had no military or civil aircraft. The main challenges in the newly independent nation were the rehabilitation of one crore refugees, reconstruction of thousands of houses in the villages and urban areas, providing food, cloth, medicine and shelter to seven crore people, and restor law and order. The rules of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman started with the reconstruction of the war torn Bangladesh, besides, the key achievements of his administration were as follows:

Picture 2.10: Bangabandhu in the reconstruction works of the country

Drafting of a New Constitution and its Enforcement: Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahmand as the President of the country proclaimed a temporary constitution order on 11 January 1972. A Draft-Constitution Formulating Committee of 34 members was formed in the first session of the national assembly (Ganoporishod) on 10 April 1972. The committee drafted a constitution and submitted in the national assembly on 12 October. It was adopted and enacted in the assembly on 4 Novermber, and enforced since 16 December 1972. The fundamental priciples of the Constitution were democracy, socialism, secularism and nationalism. Voting rights for all, the fundamental rights, justice and political rights, economic and social rights were also recognized in the constitution. The Ganoporishad: Bangabandhu brought into force an order called the Bangladesh Ganoporishad, on 23 March 1972. All elected members of the national and provincial assembly were considered the members of the Ganoporishad under the order. All the necessary laws for the country were enacted and passed in the first session of the


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Ganoporishad started on 10 April 1972. It was a significant event in the development of democracy in Bangladesh. Nationalisation of abandon industries: The Pakistani industrialists set up factories including Adamjee in the land of Bangladesh during the Pakistani rules. As the owners of those factories left the country, the government of Sheikh Mujib natonalised all the abandoned industries, and brought under the ownership of the state. Natioanlisaion of the Primary Education: There were 38 thousand primary schools in the land of Bangladesh during the Pakistani rules. The teachers who had been serving these schools would receive very small salary from the government. Bangabandhu nationalized all the primary schools, and with the step, the Bangladesh government took all responsibiites of the Primary education. A Committee for New education policy: The Bangabandhu government formed a committee for new education policy headed by eminent scientist Dr. Kudrat-e-Khuda in 1972. The Committee submitted a policy for the scientific education in 1974. The Bangabandhu government took the initiative to implement the modern education system. The Relief and Rationing system: The Bangabandhu government distributed to the affected families blankets, foods and money that came as donations from foreign countries in 1972. He also introduced the rationing system in the village and city areas to provide foods and other household commodities to the people in reasonable price. The General Election of 1973: The first general election was held on 7 March 1973. The Awami League won the election with absolute majority. The government was formed under the leadership of Bangabandu for the second time. New Financial Policy for five years: The Bangabandhu government formed a 5 Year Planning Commission, and took initiatives to reform the commerce, industry, agriculture and other sectors to rebuild a war-affected country as recommended by the Commission. The government waived all land-taxes with arears upto 1972 . The Second Revolution Programme for an Oppression-free Society: When Bangladesh was busy with repairing the immeasurable loses caused by the war, hike in oil price in the international market, food crisis and crop failure for the flood in 1973-74 put the country into a new crisis. Groups of hoarders, corrupt people and conspirators were active in the country. The government of Bangabandhu formed Bangladesh Krishok Shromic Awami League (BAKSAL) with the leaders and activists of the Awami League, NAP, the Communist Party and other parties for achieving the economic emancipation and creating an exploitation free nation. He took initiative to introduce a new socio-economy and politics that was termed as the Second Revolution by him. The Foreign Policy: Bangabandhu after returning from Pakistan to Dhaka on 10 January 1972 said in a statement that Bangladesh believed in peace and did not support enmity towards anyone. He declared, ‘friendship with all, no enmity towards anybody’. He had called upon the world community to recognise Bangladesh and assist in the effort of reconstruction of the country. So at least 140 countries recognized Bangladesh as a sovereign and independent country within a very short time. The Soviet Union helped Bangladesh in sweeping landmines from the Chittagong Port. Other friendly nations also extended their hands in providing food and relief to the distressed people.

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The Withdrawal of the Indian Mitrabahini (Friendly Troops): The Indian army participated in the liberation war of Bangkadesh as the Mitrabahini (Friendly Troops). They played a very important role in defeating the Pakistani army, but Bangabandhu requested Indira Gandhi, the prime minister of India to take back the troops, and did not give the local and international communities any chance to make false propaganda. They left Bangladesh in March 1972 for India, and the image of Bangladesh became bright in the international sphere for quick withdrawal of the Indian troops. Bangladesh in the International community: Bangladesh became a member of the Commonwealth in 1972. It got the membership of the United Nations in 17 September 1974. Bangabandhu delivered his speech in Bangla in the general assembly for the first time in the history of the UN. Bangladesh got the membership for Non Aligned Movement (NAM). Bishwa Shanti Porishad (The World Peace Council) awarded him the Julio Kuri Peace Prize. Then Bangladesh was adorned with honour in the international level. Bangabandhu and the Awami League had to face the conspiracies inside and outside the country and the natural calamities as well to run a newly independent nation ravaged by war. The government achieved a significant success in different fields during their short tenure. The Background of Formulating the Constitution of 1972 The Constitution is the top most document of a country. It reflects the purpose, mission and vision of a state. As the head of the government, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman proclaimed a temporary constitution order on 11 January 1972. The parliamentary form of government was established Group work: Describe the various under this order instead of the Presidential form of government. The key features of this temporary aspects and objectives of the Temporary Constitution Order. constitution order were as follows: This order was the temporary constitution order of Bangladesh. It would be enforced immediately. It would be applicable to the whole country. A Ganoporishad would be formed to draft a constitution for Bangladesh. There would be a cabinet to run the administration. The prime minister would be its chief. The President would be the titular head. The President proclaimed ‘Bangladesh Ganoporishad Order’ on 23 March 1972 to prepare a constitution in which the aspiration and dream of the nation would be reflected. As per the order, the members elected in the national and provincial assembly in the general election of 1970 would be the members of the Ganoporishad. The main objective of the Ganoporishad would be to prepare the constitution. At the first session of the Ganoporishad on 10 April 1972, a 34 member committee called A DraftConstitution Formulating Committee headed by Dr. Kamal Hossain was formed. A female member was also included in the committee. Suranjit Sengupta, a then leader of the NAP (Mozaffar) was the member of the committee. The Committee sought suggestions about the constitution from the organisations and the interested persons. The draft-constitution was placed as a bill at the second session of the Gano Porishad on 12 October 1972, and it was adopted on 4 November 1972 and enforced since 16 December (the Victory Day). While addressing on the Constitution, Bangabandhu said, ‘this Constitution is written with the blood of the martyrs, and it will remain alive as a symbol of aspiration and dream of the people.’ It is worth mentioning that Pakistan took


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9 years (1947-1956), and India took 3 years (1947-1949) to promulgate their constitutions after the partition, but the Bangabandhu government presented a constitution to the nation only in ten months. The Characteristics of the Constitution of 1972 The original Constitution of 1972 was significant for the distinctive characteristics of independence and sovereign Bangladesh. The original Constitution of 1972 was prepared with the characteristics given below: The Constitution of 1972 was written, and it was a non-changeable in terms of amendments. Four fundamental principles of state policy were written in it. Nationalism, democracy, socialism, and secularism constituted the foundation of state policy. The state would secure the basic necessities of life including food, clothing, shelter, education, and medical care. Defending the fundamental rights of the people is the main characteristic of this constitution. Protection of rights to life and personal liberty, freedom of movement, freedom of assembly, freedom of association, freedom of thought and conscience, and of speech, freedom of religion, rights to property were ensured in this constitution. Bangladesh was described in the constitution as a unitary state to be known as the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. The National Parliament would be the sovereign body to enact laws. ‘All powers in the Republic belong to the people,’─ this declaration established the people’s sovereignty. The Constitution was stated as the supreme law of the Republic. The Supreme Court can nullify any law inconsistent with the constitution describing it as unconstitutional and uphold the honour and the supremacy of the constitution. The parliamentary democracy was introduced with. According to the article no. 77, the parliament, by law, may provide for the establishment of the office of Ombudsman. In the Constitution of Bangladesh, irrespective to caste and creed, any person who is not less than 18 years of age, under the ‘one person one vote policy’ can administer his/her voting right in the general election.In this constitution, the principles of the state, cooperative, and private ownership were stated. The Parliament will be of the single assembly. In different times, various governments had amended the constitution for 15 times. Of these amendments, the fifth amendment by the late President Ziaur Rahman, the seventh and the thirteenth amendments of General Ershad were nullified by the Supreme Court. The Brutal Killing of 15 August 1975 The Bengali nation experienced a brutal and heinous killing on 15 August of 1975. At the dawn, a section of aberrant and ambitious officers of the Bangladesh army by the Group work: Describe the brutality of provocation of the anti-liberation force the killing of 15 August. assassinated Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Group work: Describe the reasons of Rahaman, the founder of Bangladesh and the killing of the Father of the nation. father of the nation at his own residence on the road no. 32 of Dhanmondi. No family member of Bangabandh present in the house remained alive. Even Rasel, an innocent child of 10 years old was not spared of the bullets of the cruel killers. When Bangabandhu was proceeding with the ambition of making a modern, oppression and corruption free state with his ‘Second Revolution’ programmes by uniting the nation, some conspirators hiding in the country organized the assassination of 15 August with the help of the local and the international reactionary

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groups. They understood that Bangabandhu would be successful in materialising the ‘Second Revolution’ as was successful in the liberation war. They hatchd a plot to reverse the political direction of the country. The Pakistani communal ideal was reestablished through the killing. It was the most heinous and anti-human crime. It was the part of a secret conspiracy. Bangladesh fell into a deep political crisis after the killing of 15 August. The day is our national mourning day. The Black Stain in the History of Bangladesh and the Gruesome Murder in the Jail (15 August-3 November) Khondokar Mostak Ahmed, the then minister for commerce assumed power as the President after the killing of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the Father of the nation and the President of the country. After five days of assuming the power, the martial law was declared in the country. Four national leaders led the liberation war were arrested on 22 August 1975. General Ziaur Rahman was appointed as the chief of army staff replacing General K M Shafiullah on 24 August. Ban on politics and the political parties was imposed by an order on 31 August. Khondokar Mostak Ahmed declared an ordinance inconsistent with the constitution and justice on 26 September 1975. It was called ‘The Indemnity Ordinance’ to save the killers of 15 August from the trial. The junior army officers who were involved in the killing on 15 August started interfering in the state affairs staying at the President building instead of returning to the barrack. A chaotic situation prevailed in the country. Brigadier Khaled Mosarraf took initiative to restore the chain of command in the army. An army revolution took place on 3 November of 1975 under his leadership. Khondoker Moshtak resigned his post on 5 November. A S M Sayem, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court took oath as the new President on 6 November. The Heinous Killing in Jail (3 November. 1975) The killers involved in the assassination of 15 August illegally entered the Dhaka Central Jail with the permission of Khondokar Mostak Ahmed and brutally killed the four national leaders ─ Syed Nazrul Islam, Tajuddin Ahmed, Captain M Mansur Ali and A H M Qamaruzzaman who led the nation in the war of liberation. It was another black stain in the political history of Bangladesh. This heinous killing created an adverse reaction among the Group work: Identify the people and the army of the country. This incident reasons of killings in the jail on accelerated the fall of Mostak regime. The killers 3 November 1975. were forced to leave the country. The killing was the implementation of a blue print of the anti-liberation force of 1971 and the local and international groups conspiring against the independent Bangladesh. The aim of those killings was to destroy the success and glory of the armed struggle of 1971, and make a vacuum of leadership in the country and restore the ideals of Pakistan. The one and the same quarter initiated both the killing missions of 15 August and 3 November. Section 2.3: The Martial Law Administration (1975-1990) The martial law prevailed in the country from 15 August 1975 to 6 December of 1990. Dissolving the Constitution of the country Khondokar Mostak, Justice Sayem, General Ziaur Rahman, Justice Ahsan Uddin, and General Ershad assumed power in different times. Keeping the martial law in force, General Ziaur Rahman (1975-1981) and General H M Ershad (1982-1990) succeeded in holding the election and established the civilian


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rules. Their anti-democratic exercise of power, snatching the right to enfranchise, antiliberation war activities made the people violent. They protested against the military rules, and after a long struggle, democracy was established in the end. The Rules of General Ziaur Rahman (1975-1981) General Ziaur Rahman was a Major of the army during the liberation war in 1971. He read out the declaration of independence on behalf of Bangabandhu on 27 March 1971 from Kalurghat radio station. He was the Commander of Sector no. 2 in the liberation war. After the incident of 15 August 1975, Khondokar Mostak assumed office as the new President of the country. Later, he appointed General Ziaur Rahman as the Chief of Army staff on 24 August. After the fall of Mostak by a military coup, General Ziaur Rahman was placed Group work: Identify the under housearrest. On 7 November, General Ziaur steps of General Ziaur Rahman Rahman was freed by a counter military coup, and to consolidate power. came to the limelight of power. President and Justice A S M Sayem was appointed as the Chief martial law administrator, but General Ziaur Rahman replaced him as the Chief martial law administrator on 3o November 1976, and assumed office as the President of the country on 21 April 1977. During the rules of Ziaur Rahman, a good number of thwarted coups intensified the unrest in the country. After that incidents, in a farcical trial, many innocent military officers and soldiers were either sentenced to death or sacked from the job. A drastic change was made in the foreign policy and politics of Bangladesh during the regime of General Ziaur Rahman. Most of the fundamental principles of the constitution and the spirits of the war of liberation were void in that time. He rehabilitated the anti-liberation forces and proPakistani persons in the society and politics. Colonel (Retired) Abu Taher, a valiant (crippled) freedom fighter and a sector commander, who played the key role to rescue General Ziaur Rahman from captivity on 7 November was sentenced to death by hanging in a farcical trial at the military court ordered by General Zia. The then President General Ziaur Rahman was the initiator of the black Indemnity Ordinance to save the killers of Bangabandhu. The Election and the Formation of Political Party The political parties were allowed to do ‘infromal politics’ on some terms and conditions in 1976. General Ziaur Rahman arranged a referendum on 30 May 1977 to legalize his rules. Later, as per his plan, he formed a political party called the Jatiotabadi Ganotantrik Dol (Nationalist Democartic Party) with the leaders and activists of different political parties. The Presidential election was held on 3 June 1978 under immense pressure and the splitting up of the political parties. Two alliances were formed on the issue of the election. One was the Jatiotabadi (Nationalist) Front led by the Jatiotabadi Ganotantrik Dol founded by General Zia. Another was the Ganotantric Oiykko Jote (Democratic Alliance) led by the Bangladesh Awami League. General Zia was the candidate of the Jatiotabadi Front and M A G Osmani, the Chief Commandant of the liberation war was the candidate of the Ganotantric Oiykko Jote. General Ziaur Rahman won the election easily. The intention of the ruler was reflected in the election arranged under any military rules. General Ziaur Rahman established the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) on 1 September 1978 by abolishing the previously founded the Jatiotabadi Ganotantrik Dol. General Ziaur Rahman formally took the leadership of

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BNP. The National Parliament Election was held on 18 February 1979 for the second time in the country. In this election, the BNP bagged 207 seats. In this parliament, all military rules, amendment of the constitution, and various ordinances passed from 15 August 1975 to 6 April 1979 were enacted as the fifth amendment of the constitution. However, the Supreme Court has declared the fifth amendment as illegal through a judgment in 2008. The martial law was withdrawn in a session of the parliament on 6 April 1979. General Ziaur Rahman rehabilitated the anti-liberation forces in the politics. He changed the fundamental principles of the constitution. He started using religion in politics anew. He gave his own interpretation of nationalism and socialism. President General Ziaur Rahman initiated the 19 point. Action plans and the concept of Bangladeshi Nationalism. He also Group work: Make a list introduced the Khal Kata (canal excavation) programme. of steps taken by General Some countries opposed the independence of Bangladesh Ziaur Rahman to legalise such as China, the Middle East including Saudi Arabia his military rules. recognized Bangladesh during his period. Pakistan also made a very close ties with Bangladesh then. The relations with India and Eastern European Countries including the Soviet Union became very cold, but the relation with the USA improved. The policy for building up close ties with the Muslim countries of the Middle East was followed with a view to use religion in the politics. Ziaur Rahman took the initiatives to establish South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). President Ziaur Rahman was brutally killed on 30 May 1981 at the circuit house of Chittagong by a group of military officers. As a result, the five and a half year long military rules of President General Ziaur Rahman came to an end. The Rules of General Hussain Mohammad Ershad (1982-1990) After the assassination of General Ziaur Rahman on 30 May 1981, the Vice President Justice Abdus Sattar assumed power as the acting Group work: Describe how President as per the Constitution. General Hussain General Hussain Mohammad Mohammad Ershad was the chief of army staff then. In Ershad came to power. the same year, Justice Abdus Sattar won the Presidential election, but General Hussain Mohammad Ershad occupied the power on 24 March 1982 through a military proclamation showing the excuse of weak leadership of Justice Sattar, political unrest, corruption, anarchy and economic crisis. After taking over the power, he dissolved the Parliament and withheld the Constitution. Retired Justice of the Supreme Court Ahsan Uddin was made the President. General Hussain Mohammad Ershad, the Chief of army staff declared himself as the Chief Martial Law Administrator. Ousting President Ahsan Uddin from the power on 11 December 1983, General Hussain Mohammad Ershad assumed office as the President of Bangladesh. Ban on the political activities was continuing since the proclamation of the martial law on 24 March 1982. The press was deprived of their rights. Sheikh Hasina, Dr. Kamal Hossain, Mohammad Farhad and some other leaders were either detained or placed under housearrest. The Chatra League, Chatra Union, Chatra League (JSD) and some other student organizations started agitation against the military rules of Ershad since February 1983. Movements under the banner of Chatra Shangram Parishad (The Student Action Committee) started in full swing. In this movement, Selim, Delwar, Shahjahan Shiraj,


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Jainal, Dipali Saha and some other students were killed by the Junta. A 15 party alliance under the leadership of the Awami League and 7 party alliance under the leadership of the BNP was forged. The anti-Ershad movement in 1990 reached its peak and finally on 6 December 1990, General Ershad resigned. The Ershad government followed the most of the policies of the Ziaur Rahman regime. During his tenure, the fist SAARC summit was held in Dhaka in 1985. The Formation of Party and Election General Hussain Mohammad Ershad faced violent political opposition from the beginning of his assuming power. On the demand of the political parties, Ershad allowed to start political activities. He gave permission for informal politics from 1 April 1983 and gave permission for open politics from 14 November. Ershad himself tried to form a political party named Jonodol on 17 March 1983 and declared the 18 point Action plans. The Union Parishad election was held in 1983 and the Pourashava (Municipal) election was held in 1984. Ershad organized a referendum on 21 March 1985. General Hussain Mohammad Ershad introduced the Upazilla system to decentralize power. The first Upazilla Parishad election was held on 16 and 20 May 1985 amid violent oppsition from the political parties. The Jatio (National) Front was formed with Jonodol and 5 other small parties on 16 August. This Front emerged later as The Jatio Party. General Hussain Mohammad Ershad after retiring from the army, became the Chariman of the Jatio Party. The National Parliament Election was held on 7 May 1986. A total of 28 parties including the Jatiyo party of Hussain Mohammad Ershad, 8 party alliance under the leadership of the Awami League and the Jamat-e-Islam participated in the election. The 7 party alliance led by the BNP boycotted the election. In the election, the Jatiyo Party won by securing 153 seats out of 300. The Awami League got 76 seats single handedly and appeared as the second largest party, they complained against General Ershad for the media coup to snatch the victory. The observers also support the complaint. The presidential election was held on 15 October 1986. All the major opposition political parties did not take part in the election, and General Hussain Mohammad Ershad was declared the President of the country after the farcical election. All political parties, general people and civil societies exploded into a rage against General Hussain Mohammad Ershad after holding the Parliament and Presidential election in 1986. People started agitation demanding the resignation of Ershad and holding a meaningful election. The National Parliament was dissolved as all the elected members of the opposition resigned in December of 1987. The fourth National Parliament election was held on 3 March 1988. All the major opposition parties including the Awami League and the BNP boycotted the election. The Jatiyo Party won the election bagging 251 seats, and the government sponsored Shommilito Birodhi Jote (cop) headed by A S M Abdur Rob got 19 seats. The JSD (Shiraj) got 3 seats, the Freedom Party got 2, and the other individual candidates bagged 25 seats. The roads and communication system of the country was significantly improved during the nine year long rules of General Hussain Mohammad Ershad.

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Section 2.4: The Restoration of the Journey towards Democracy After the assassination of the father of the nation and the founder President of Bangladesh Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the journey of democracy of Bangladesh was hindered. The Junta was in the power upto 1990 in the guise of a civilian ruler. With the resignation of General Hussain Mohamman Ershad on 6 December 1990, the democratic rules restored to the country through an election on 27 February 1991 with the participation of all the parties. The people of Bangladesh, after being free from the Ershad regime, started proceeding further towards the spirit and values of the liberation war by developing the democratic norms. In this development, people from all walks of life made a heroic contribution. To establish a real people’s participation oriented administration, the people of the country faced oppression, suppression and imprisonment. They sacrificed their lives for the cause of democracy. The military regime was ousted the mass movement in 1990. So the impediments on the way of running the government by the elected representatives were removed. The Parliamentary form of democracy was reestablished making the Presidential form of Government and incorporated in the Constitution. The Mass movement of 1990 and the Restoration of Journey to Democracy The students started agitation for the first time against the martial law in 1982 by demanding the cancellation of the education policy of General Hussain Mohammad Ershad. Demanding the restoartion of the original constitution of 1972 and for establishing the parliamentary democracy, the Awami league led 15 party alliance and the BNP led 7 party alliance were formed in 1983. The 15 party and 7 party alliances raised 5 point demands to the anti-autocratic movement. The key demands of the 5 points were the withdrawal of the martial law, returning of the army to barrack and holding the parliament election before any other election. The people of this country did not like deposing a civilian government through a millitary coup by General H M Ershad in 1982. As a result, General Hussain Mohammad Group work: Explain the importance Ershad faced violent mass movements in his of politics of the alliances in the massnine year long rules. Apart from the political revolution in 1990. parties, students, teachers, doctors, engineers, lawyers, journalists, agronomists, farmers, labourers and people from all quarters of life participated in it. Thus, this mass movement turned into a mass revolution. Due to the immense pressure from the 15 party, 7 party, and 5 party alliances General Hussain Mohammad was forced to allow open politics. From the experience of the Parliament election in 1986 and 1988 and the Presidential election in Group Work: Mention the names 1986, the political parties understood that any of the alliances and their roles in election under the rules of Hussain Mohammad the movements against General Ershad would not be free and fair. Therefore, the 8 Hussain Mohammad Ershad. party alliance, 7 party alliance and 5 party alliance launched a one point movement for ousting Ershad from power. The anti-Ershad movement got a tremendous pace because of the call for an all out strike action and the Dhaka Oborodh (besieging Dhaka) prorgamme by the three alliances. On 10 November


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1987, while demostrating near the Dhaka GPO (General Post office) at zero point writing Ganotontro Mukti Pak, Shoyrachar Nipat Jak (Democracy be free, despot be fallen down) on his chest and back, Nur Hossain was shot dead by the Police. The agitating people became more violent. Sheikh Hasina and Khaleda Zia were arrested on 12 November 1987, and Ershad declared Emergency on 27 November. The Junta sponsored hoodlums indiscriminately fired on a rally of Sheikh Hasina in Chittagong on 24 January 1988. Sheikh Hasina was narrowly escaped. The whole nation flared up. The programme of besieging the secretariat on 10 October 1990 by opposition alliances and other parties made the political situation volatile. The firing on the processin took the lives of 5 people and other 3 hundred got injured. Shorbodolio Chatra Oikkyo (All Party Student Unity), an alliance of 22 student wings declared to continue the agitation until Ershad resigned. General Ershad had to retreat because of the continuous agitation by the opposition political parties. Though President Ershad decleared different measures to suppress the agitation, in the end, he had to withdraw. The three alliances announced a joint declaration suggesting the formula of the resignation Picture 2.12: Nur Hossain in the mass movement of Ershad which was known as the Tin Joter Ruporekha (The Precepts of the Three Alliances). When the BMA leader Dr. Shamsul Alam Milon was shot dead on 27 November, the movement reached its pinnacle. The teachers of the University of Dhaka unanimously submitted their resignation on 29 November. Besides, teachers of other universities announce to put their resignation too. The 8 party alliance headed by the Awami League, 7 party alliance headed by the BNP, and 5 party alliance of the left wing got united with the same political programmes. Finally General Hussain Mohammad Ershad declared his resignation on 6 December 1990, and handed over the power to an interim government headed by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Justice Shahabuddin Ahmed. New interim President Justice Shahabuddin Ahmed led the nation towards a democratic system. With the mass revolution, the autocratic rules ended in 1990 and the country entered a new phase of democracy. The fifth Parliament election was held on 27 February 1991 with the participation of all parties. The democratic process of handing over the power was established. The parliamentary form of governmment was incorporated into the Constitution. It gave the opportunity to free flow of information, right to speech and withdrawal of embargo on the press. Bangladesh got recognition as a democratic country all over the world. In the general election of 1991, the BNP got 140 seats. They needed 151 seats to form the government. In this circumstances, the BNP formed the government taking support from the Jamat-e-Islam. Begum Khaleda Zia was elected the Prime Minister. There were complaints of vote rigging in several by-elections held under the BNP government. The

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opposition political parties came to a conclusion that the free and fair election under a partisan government would not possible. So, all the parties unitedly moved to initiate a care taker government system for holding a fair election, but the BNP solely held an election on 15 February 1996 disregarding the demand of other political parties. This election was not accepted in the national and the international level. So, the BNP led government passed a bill on the caretaker government on 26 March and resigned on 30 March 1996. The Seventh National Parliament election was held on 12 June 1996 under the caretaker government headed by Justice Habibur Rahman. In this election, the Awami League got the majority bagging 146 seats. The Jatiyo Party supported the Awami League to form the government, and Sheikh Hasina, the daughter of Bangabandhu was elected the Prime Minister. The Awami League handed over power to the second caretaker government headed by Justice Group work: Describe how Latifur Rahman in 2001 after completing the tenure. Bangladesh restored its journey The four party alliance formed the government towards democracy. getting 219 seats in the Eighth National Parliament Election held on 1 October 2001. There was a crisis in selecting the head of caretaker government in 2006. President Iazuddin Ahmed violating provision of forming the caretaker government assumed office as the Chief Advisor. As a result, the crisis loomed large. The opposition parties initiated an all out movement to form a caretaker government as per the provisions for holding a free and fair election. President Iazuddin Ahmed resigned from the caretaker government and declared emergency on 11 January 2007. Dr. Fakruddin Ahmed backed by the army became the Chief Advisor of the caretaker government on 12 January 2007. In fact, the military was running the state behind the curtain. The two leaders of the major 2 parties were arrested. This government initiated depoliticisation in the name of reform and advanced with a blueprint to linger the military rules, but the plot was not successful because of the previous bitter experience that the military rulers encountered. Finally the election commission prepared a new voter list with photograps and the code of conduct for the political parties, and held the Ninth Parliament Election on 29 December 2008. In this election, the Mahajote (greater alliance) under the leadership of the Awami League achieved the landslide victory bagging 262 seats and formed the government. Sheikh Hasina became the Prime minister for the second time. The Mahajote Government is running the state keeping the flow of the socio-economic and cultural development unhindered. Significant Socio-Economic and Cultural Development of Bangladesh Bangladesh is a poverty-stricken country. The poor was 70% in 1972. The poverty level was reduce to 30% during the last 40 years due to the government policies and collective effort of labourers and farmers. The objectives of the last 5 Five-Yearly Plan and 1 biyearly plan helped to reduce the poverty. The policies of the government also helped the people living below the poverty line to win the poverty. The human development indicator for Bangladesh is now developing. It is now better than that of the South Asian countries like Pakistan, Nepal and Afghanistan. ‘The National Poverty Alleviation Strategy’ and ‘The National Poverty Alleviation Strategy-2’ prepared by the advice of the development partners played a significant role in this regards. The present government is working hard to transform this country to a middle-income nation by the year 2021. In the last 3 decades, food production rose to 3 times than the previous


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periods. Bangladesh is in the third position among the garments manufacturing countries of the world. Apart from poverty alleviation, Bangladesh has made a significant progress in various social sectors. Dr. Amartya Sen, the Nobel laureate in economics opined that Bangladesh has made a praiseworthy role in flourishing education, reducing child mortality rate, empowering women etc. among the countries in the world. The child mortality rate has been reduced to 48 in Individual work: Prepare a 1000 comparing to 185 in 1000 during the last 4 decades. list of the social security Child education is now increased to 65% comparing to programme. 17% during the Pakistan era. The Education Policy-2010 has brought about a radical change in the education sector for the first time in Bangladesh. Introducing an assesment system of creative method, using information and communication technology in education, developing curriculum and publishing new text books, distributing free text books among the students of primary and secondary levels, imparting training to the teachers, the government has brought a significant change in the education system. As a result, the success rate in the public examinations has increased by a good marign, the rate of drop out has been reduced, attendence of female students in the class has gone up. Besides, due to the introduction of unified education ‘education for all’ programme has been successful. As a result, the government is advancing towards the Vision-2021. The significant steps taken for women empowerment and for ensuring their health are providing financial assistance during motherhood, immunization programme, helping project for poor women, providing stipend for increasing the rate of female education etc. These steps help to ensure overall development of women. In 2011-12 fiscal year,1 lakh 12 thousand progenitresses are provided with taka 350 each as government grant. Under the project of Social Safety circle in 2010 -11 fiscal Year, the working mothers of urban areas are getting financial grant from the Lactating Mother Assistance Fund. A new law titled, Family Violence prevention and Protection Act was enacted in 2010 to protect women from the violnce in family. This law has played a significant role in women empowerment and establishment of their right. The Food Policy-2006 was proclaimed to achieve Individual work: Establish a food security, i.e. ensuring availability of food and link between the socio-economic nutrition among the poor people. The government and cultural activities and the has initiated various projects such as Food for work achievement of target for the (Kajer binimoy khaddyo), VGF, VGD, TR etc. to Vision-2021. ensure food safety to the marginal people of the villages. Under this programme, the government has alloted 20 lakh tons of rice to the poor, handicapped and labourers. The government has received appreciation from the international community for the successful management of the environmental problems and of various natural disasters. The government has enacted The National Child Policy-2011 for the protection of children and the development of their life in 2011. Everyone under the age of 18 is Child as per this Policy. Compelling child in risky and heavy job is totally prohibited under this law. Separate steps are taken to foster the street-children and those who have gone astray. Bangladesh is not lagging behind in the cultural field. Our Mother tongue Bangla achieved the status of the International Mother Language Day. We hoped that in near future Bangla will be the official language of the United Nations. On 21 February 1952, the students and people sacrified their lives for the recognition of Bangal as a state language of Pakistan. Today, it has been recognized as ‘The International Mother Language Day’. This is a big achievement of our country and the people.

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Exercise Short questions: 1. Present the structure of Independent Mujibnagar government of Bangladesh in a table. 2. Identify the role of mass communication in achieving independence. 3. Write the role of the Soviet Union in the liberation war of Bangladesh. 4. What are the reasons of mass uprising in 1990 ? 5. “Independence is the biggest achievement of our country and people”- what are your logics in favour of this statement? Descriptive questions : 1. Describe the contribution of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in achiving the independence. 2. Explain the reconstruction process of the war torn country. 3. Explain the fundamental policy of the Constitution of 1972 4. Evaluate the administration of General Ziaur Rahman. 5. Evaluate the election process of General Ershad. Multiple choice qustions : 1. Who was the Relief and Rehabilitation Minister of the Mujibnagar Government? a. Captain M. Mansur Ali b. Tajuddin Ahmed c. Khondokar Mostak Ahmed d. A.H.M. Qamaruzzaman 2. To drum up the support of world community in favour of the Liberation War, the government and political leaders ─ i. Ran Shwadhin Bangla Betar Kendra; ii. Trained guerrilla fighters. iii. Gave speech in various international forums. Which one of the follwing is correct? a. i & ii b. ii and iii c. i and iii d. i, ii and iii. Read the paragraph below and answer the question no. 3 & 4. After the liberation war, Bangladesh started reconstruction work of a war ravaged country. As a rehabilitation process, Bangabandhu government waived taxes of land up to 1972 with all interest. After that he introduced “The Second Revolution” programme.


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3. According to the paragraph, which initiative did include the primary step of Bangabandhu? a. Formulation of new Constitution b. Distributing Relief and Rationing c. Initiating “The Second Revolution” programme d. New five years plan for economy 4. According to the paragraph, what is the purpose of Bangabandhu’s taking the later step? a. Agricultural development b. Infrastructural development c. Development of Engineering d. Socio-economic and political development Creative questions : 1. Imran’s father was an artist of the Shwadhin Bangla Betar Kendra. The general people joined the Liberation War being inspired by his songs. On the other hand, his mother supplied food to the freedom fighters in the Liberation War Camp. Some times, she took care of the injured freedom fighters. a. How the Liberation War was termed? b. Explain the role of the Mujibnagar government in achieving independence. c. What was the role in the Liberation war of the media where Imran’s father worked for? d. To accelerate the achievement of Independence, the role of women like Imran’s mother was significant. Show logics in the light of the text you read. 2. Dulu Mia, son of a freedom fighter was a jail guard at the Dhaka Central Jail on 3 November 1975. At the mid-night, he saw a group of armed men went to the special cells of the jail and killed some persons there. Dulu Mia informed this to his father. In a instant reaction, his father said the main motive of this killing was to destroy the achievements of armed struggle in 1971. a. What is the lactating mother assistance fund? b. What is the role of ‘Bangladesh Ganoporishad’ in progressing democracy of Bangladesh. c. Explain which incident as per your reading was related to the killings witnessed by Dulu Mia. d. Do you agree with the opinion with the Father of Dulu Mia? Present in the light of your reading of the text.

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The Family Structure of Bangladesh and Socialization Family is the primary institution of a society. Society originates from family. Family is one of the important social institutions that are formed in a society. The genuine and intimate bond of human being is developed through this institution. From the initial stage of family life, every person has to cross the first step of family life. The structure of our family life stands on the filial bondage and activities of father-mother, brothersister or father-mother, brother-sister, uncle-aunt, grandfather-grandmother and such other relationship. This sort of relationship with which people grow up is noticeable in the family structure of Bangladesh. Gradually people get associated with different social institutions and adapted with the social environment. This adaptation process is called socialization, which centres round of a person’s whole life. Socialization is important for social life. Human being achieves perfection and becomes a responsible member of the society through socialization. In this chapter, we shall get acquainted with the family structure of Bangladesh and the process of socialization.

After reading this chapter, we will be able to ─ • explain the concept of family; • exemplify the concept of different types of family; • explain the common functions of a family; • analyse the types and roles of family system of Bangladesh (rural and urban), the problems created by the change of the types and roles of family; • explain the roles and attitudes of a family towards a child with special need; • aware of our own roles as the members of family; • interpret the concept of socialization; • interpret the social environment of Bangladeshi people, different components of

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socialization needed to create social life and values of the people of Bangladesh; explain the role of family and its members in the process of socialization in the modern Bangladesh; explain the similarity and differences between the rural and urban society of Bangladesh regarding the process of socialization; analyse the roles and influences of different institutions in the process of socialization; aware and motivate in playing a role in the society by developing personality and building values.


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Section 3.1 : The Family Structure of Bangladesh Every human child borns in a family and grows up there. Man’s birth, the whole active life and the ending of life are accomplished through family bondage. No human society will be found where there is no family. Family is the smallest unit of social organization where the father, mother and their children live together. All the qualities including loveaffection, control-regulation of father, mother brother, sister and other children grow and advance in a family. The Concept of family The family is the fundamental organization of a social structure. It is the first step of an organized life. It is basically a permanent organization or an institution of a couple where they may or may not have children. Marriage is the important precondition for the formation of a family. A male person creates a family by marrying a female person in a socially accepted manner. The family also existed in the primitive societies. In that society, a family was formed without marriage, but it is impossible in the present society. We do not know any such family where there is only brother sister without any father-mother or any mother and daughter or son or father and his unmarried son or daughter or grandfather and his grandson or daughter. So, it can be said that family can be formed with or without marriage. The family is the universal institution of people leading an associated life. The existence of a family remains in every society and in every sectors of social development. It is the emotional foundation of our united life. Giving birth to children, rearing them up, the bondage of love and affection, the formation of values, creating awareness of the rights etc. happen in a family. As an institution, a family has some special rules and regulations, ideals, values and active organizational base, and its collective form is known as the family structure. From the primitive society to the present, many changes have been taken place in the formation of a family, its function and its structure. But, despite these changes, the necessity and importance of family are immense to human society comparing to other institutions, because the family is the safe haven in a man’s life from the beginning till end. Men’s relation with the family, from their birth to death, is very deep and regulatory. The social, economic, psychological and cultural security is being ensured through a family. The Classification of Family Families are of different varieties depending on society or country. Families can be divided into different types based on different yardsticks. Families can be classified into numerous varieties based on the numbers of husband -wife, authority, size of family, family status, living place and the process of selecting the bride and the groom. 1. Family based on the numbers of husband and wife: Families of this kind can be of three types─ the monogamous, polygyny and polyandry family. A single or monogamous family can be formed by the matrimonial relation between a man and a woman. A single wife family is seen as the most common type of family in the world. This type of family is regarded as an ideal family. In this family structure, friendly rapport is seen to be the core between a husband and a wife. Again, the family that is formed through the marriage between one man with many women is known as polygyny family or family having many wives at a time. In this type of family, a single man can keep more than one wife living at a time. Commonly this sort of polygamous family is seen in the agro-based local Muslim family. Such custom is also seen in the Eskimo and

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in the Negro in Africa. A family of one wife having many husbands at a time is known as polyandry family. This sort of family is not seen very common in the modern civilized society. But, once in Tibet, it was a custom of having many husbands. Besides, the family of this category was also found among the Toda inhabitants of Malagor region in south India. 2. Family based on the authority. Families of this kind can be of two types: Patriarchal and Matriarchal. In a patriarchal family, the overall power and authority of the family rest on the male members of the family like father, husband or the other elderly people. In these types of family, family name and identification is determined through the male members of the family. This type is more common in the society of Bangladesh. Again, the family whose overall authority and power is exercised by mother is known as matriarchal family. In Bangladesh, the family among the different ethnic comunities specially the family of Khasia and Garo is matriarchal. 3.Family based on the size: Families of this kind can be of three types: single or nuclear family, joint family and extended family. The family where husband, wife and their unmarried children live together is known as single or nuclear family. This family is confined within two generations. These Group work: Make a list of family two generations mean father and his structure that is found in Bangladesh. young children. Most of the families in Individual work: Make a table identifying urban areas of our country are nuclear different family types based on religion families. This tendency of keeping single family is also obvious in rural areas, but living in your locality. in the civilized countries of the world, this convention of family is a prevalent custom everywhere. In the joint family, married son and his children live together in the same family under the authority of his parents. Like a single family, the bondage of a joint family develops through the blood relation among family members. Once, in the rural areas of our country, most of the families were joint families. Now, the number of these types of joint families decreases for various reasons. The family where father-mother, their children, their wives and children and other relatives live together is regarded as extended family. That means, family bondage among three generations is extended family. This type of family can be still noticed in our rural agro-based societies. Such family convention is also seen in China. 4. Family Based on the Status and Inheritance of Properties: Families of this kind can be of two types ─ Patrilineal and Matrilineal family. In patrilineal family, children are entitled to the family status and inheritance of properties of father. This type of family is present in our social system. In matrilineal family, children get family status and property inheritance through mother. The maternal family system still exists in Khashia and Garo communities. 5. Family Based on Dwelling Place of Husband and Wife after Marriage: Families of this kind can be of three types- patrilocal, matrilocal and neo-local. The family where the newly married couple live in the husband’s father’s house is called patrilocal family. It is commonly seen in our social system. Matrilocal family is the type of family where the newly married couple live in the wife’s father’s house. This family is found among the Garos. The married couple does not live either with the husband’s or with the wife’s paternal house; rather they live in a new place is known as neolocal family. This type of family is found within the service holders of urban areas. 6. Family Based on the Selection of Bride and Groom: This type of family is of two types ─ Exogamous family and Endogamous family. When a person marries outside of


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his own caste is Exogamous family. This family is of two types. When a bridegroom of superior caste marries to a bride of lower caste, is called morganatic or Anulome marriage system. When a bridegroom of lower caste marries a bride of upper caste it is called morganatic or Protilome marriage. The root cause of this type of marriage is to prevent incest from the society. Again, if a person marries within the same caste of his own is called as Endogamous family. This type of Endogamous marriage is more common in Hindu society. To protect the so-called blood bondage and to keep intact its purity is the only reason behind these types of marriage. Now a days, many changes have been taken place to form such type of families. Most of the Hindu families consider this colour custom as superstitions. The Common Function of a Family The scope of the role of family in human society is immense and its functions are multidimensional. Family plays a significant role in giving birth to children, rearing them up, nourishing and developing rightly. This role is seen worldwide in all the family structure. The role of family is also undergoing a change due to social transformation, but there are some basic functions performed by the families of all societies around the world. Some of the functions of a family are discussed below: People form family in order to fulfil the biological demand in a socially acceptable manner. Family fulfils the biological demand of male and female through marriage. The main objective of framing a family is giving birth to children, and rearing them up. Proper rearing up of the children is a work related to the production of children. This function remains as a responsibility of the family until the child becomes selfdependent. In this case, proper rearing up of children depends on the income of the family. In addition to child’s rearing, socialization of a child is the key responsibility of parents and other members of the family. A child learns to see himself through the eyes of others from his age. They also learn the family values, can express their liking and disliking, can be introduced with outsiders, and develop the skills of adaptation with others. Since childhood, a child learns from the family about the social norms ─ manners, customs, behaviour, rules and regulations, practices, etc. The desired behaviour of a child is shaped through the congenial environment of the family. Apart from paying attention to his physical needs, a family fulfils the demands of a child’s mental security, safety of love and affection. Lack of mental security, frustration, inferiority complex and tension can be created in a child’s mind. We shall be more aware of this issue in the next section. Once, family was the main centre of all financial activities. In that time, all necessary things were produced in home. For this reason, family was called as the main unit of production system. Once all these financial activities were performed by the joint families in rural area, but with the passage of time, these financial activities of a family are being performed by institutions like factory, shop, market and bank. Now the family members work outside home to earn money. For this reason, the family is treated as a unit of earning. Besides, the rural agro-based families of our country are the main driving force of agro-economy of Bangladesh. Not only this, cottage industry, which is an important factor in the economy of our country, has been formed on the basis of family. Family is one of the mentionable centres of tutoring of a child. After birth, a child gets his primary education from home. Mother is the best teacher of a child. Though nowadays, all the responsibilities of teaching has taken over by the educational

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institutions, but still a child gets lessons from the family on manners-behavior, punctuality, morality, religious values and conducts. Family plays a vast role in matters related to health and hygiene. Once providing the health related service and its regulation were confined within the family. In modern times, such service is given by the hospitals and clinics. In the past, leisure and recreational amusements for the family members were done within the family. Although at present, various technology and tools have been applied in recreational activities, still for mental peace, a family is considered the highest recreation centre. Family chatting is a natural recreation system, which plays an important role in keeping unity among the family mothers. Inheritance of family property exists in almost all Group work: Make a list of the roles types of social system. Starting from property, of a family in building a person’s land, whether movable or immovable, all transfer economic, social and moral life. through inheritance, from one generation to other generation. And since family is the root of making generation, the role of the family is immense in preserving property and deciding inheritance. Therefore, a child acquires the qualities and duties of a future parent through his family. Our nice social system is developed for our families. The Role of the Families in Rural and Urban Areas of Bangladesh In Bangladesh, the rural and the urban family differ in terms of its types and roles. There was a time when in our rural society, the number of joint families was many, but at present, the joint family system is gradually splitting up due to various reasons including industrialization, urbanization, increase of population, poverty and self-indulgence. Of late, micro credit given by various government and non-government organizations to these families played another important role for such change. Nowadays, the number of nuclear family is more either in villages or in cities. Extended family can be found in the villages but its number is few in the cities. In both the places, patriarchal and patrilocal based families can be found in abundance. But, maximum number of family system in cities is neolocal. Once in this country, the number of polyandry families was in plenty among the rural Muslim society. Now this type of families has decreased. Monogamy or single wife family is seen in abundance in both the villages and in the cities. The role of the family has been changed due to the change of its types in our rural and urban societies. For example, in our urban areas in the process of industrialization, the general male and female from the rural area leaving their agricultural work, start joining as Individual work: Make a list of the industrial workers in the cities. As the active causes of change in the roles of families member of the family goes to the cities, other and problems arisen from such changes members of the family are suffering from many in your locality. problems including financial insecurity. Once, Group work: Indentify the impact of in an agro-based country like ours, rural the changes in the role of families in children grow up either in joint or extended terms of education, marriage, medication family. Then those children were engaged in and the rights of the family members. family occupation since their childhood. In this case, a family played a role in selecting the profession of a child. This role of the family has changed. Both in the village and city, parents are now becoming more conscious of developing a decent life and having rights for their children. Many parents are now


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aware that child labour is prohibited, but there is a close relation between the increasing numbers of child workers and poverty in this country. Family is an important centre for learning a child’s formal and moral educations. Parents have to be more aware of providing moral education to their children. The seeds of morality grow from the family and blossoms in a child’s behaviors through family. Again, a child enters into the world of education through their parents, but this role of educating children through the family has been replaced by the kindergarten and nursery schools at present. This facility is comparatively well in cities. Due to the changing role of families, the reflections of the necessary moral qualities are not observed in a child’s behavior. The parents living in the cities are more conscious of childbirth than those living in the villages. The parents living in the cities do not want to take more than two children. In case of giving birth to a child, they prefer going to hospital and clinic instead of going to an unskilled midwife. The role of a family in this respect is almost same in the villages and in the cities. Once, the families of the villages depended more on Ayurvedik practioners or Homeopathy treatment. Now these families are receiving treatment either from government hospitals or from clinics. We all know about the facilities in the cities regarding medical treatment. Once, the family was the main centre for religious education. Parents, grandparents and other members of the family made understand a child about religious values and morality in various ways, but with the passage of time, a child’s religious education is mostly carried out by a religious teacher or cassette players on religious matters instead of family. For this reason, no proper development is happening in a child’s life on acquiring religious and moral education. Once, in our country, there was a tradition of settled marriage. The decision of the parents got preference in settling marriage. Nowadays, there is a change in this tradition. Lots of changes have been seen in the activities of marriage ceremonies. As the role of families has been changed, there is a difference between village and city based marriage in this respect. Knowing that early-marriage and dowry acceptance as heinous, these tradition is still very common both in villages and in cities. But, nowadays, the conscious families of the villages Picture 3.1 : Children of special needs and cities start thinking this tradition at schools and amusement centre wholeheartedly as detestable; they also become conscious of the laws related to it. Besides, the male members become aware of the rights of female members of both the family structures in the rural and urban areas because different mass awareness activities have been undertaken by various government and non-government organizations. Women now become more conscious about their rights. At present, both in the cities and villages, self centred tendency is noticeable to some extent, due to the increasing number of neo-local families. In many cases, elderly parents of these families are suffering from a feeling of insecurity. Once in our countries children born with special needs either in villages or in cities are thought to be burden in the society; for example children impaired of intelligence, hearing, and sight, and autistic children were treated as a burden for the family. But this attitude of the family has been changed a lot. Look at the picture beside: schools and amusement centers are being made for these children so that they can be able to study, play, sing and dance. Again, a few of such children can acquire expertise in the

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vocational training. For this reason, now the autistic children of our country are able to show their mental and physical ability by participating in children Olympic competition. Nowadays, the member of the families is more aware of the rights of these children. We shall also change and develop our school, family and social environment on the demand of the children with special needs. We shall make arrangements for those special children so that they can independently and safely achieve chances to perform their work by themselves, as far as possible.

Section 3.2: The Process of Socialization After its birth a baby first comes in contact with the mother and then with other members of the family. The conduct and behavior of other family members influence the conduct of the child. In this way, the child gets associated with the outer environment; for example, they get experiences from their playmates, neighbours, school, religious institution, etc. The society in which a child grows up, influence the character of the child. He learns to adapt with the society and try gaining experience from social custom, values, norms, conduct etc. So, the process through which a child gradually become a social being is labelled socialization. The Concept of Socialization Socialization is a lifelong process. The process of socialization involves the whole thing; from the very birth of a child till his death, his getting experience through various medium, and his method of adaptation in the society. In the every stages of his life, when a person needs to enter from one phase into another, he has to get acquainted and adapted with new environment and situation. Through this process of adaptation, a change has taken place in his behaviour. Adaptation with the new rules and regulations, norms, culture and situation and environment is named as the process of socialization. The Components of Socialization Basically, the behaviour of one of your classmates influences the behaviour of others and you are also influenced by the conduct of others. The reaction of the mutual influences of behaviours is Group work: Identify the called interaction. Interaction is the key issue of any cultural elements of a social social life. That means, the socialization of a person environment and make a chart takes place through the actions and responses of the of its impacts on human life. social environment, social life and social values. So, Individual work: Identify the the influence of these three components is evident in influences of the elements of the formation and development of human personality. socialization on human life. Social Environment: The particular social system where a man lives is his social environment. Man blooms through his social environment. Social environment also influences on a person’s economic, psychological and moral life. Social environment includes social manners, conventions, customs, institution, rules and regulations, all types of tendency, problems and so on. Social environment comprises of the economic, cultural, psychological and technological environment. Economic environment is a part of social environment. In the kingdom of nature, human being is producing different economic articles and goods. The root cause of this is his own happiness and comfort. Market, land, garden, domestic animals, machinery etc are the various components of economic environment. Besides, numerous institutions including the family and other religious institutions are formed in the social environment. Culture developed through these institutions influences the behaviour of a person in many ways, which is also a part of cultural environment.


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The cultural environment is formed through the man made components of the society. Everything, including dwelling house, roads, behaviours, science and knowledge, encompass the cultural environment. In the process of socialization, the influence of cultural environment on people is also deep. Man’s human quality develops and his mental faculty broadens in a developed cultural environment. Human being is recognized as social creature because of their united living. There is a psychological reason behind such united living. The growth and development of mechanical civilization in all the surroundings is called technological environment. This environment also influences on our social environment. Technological invention, for example, computer, television, internet etc. also influence man’s behaviour and conduct. Besides, natural factors also influence in many ways on the lives of people’s Social life. The Social Life: The Social life is an important component of socialization. The social life of human being is mainly regulated through several behavioural factors and conduct. The social life is a set of conduct, behaviour and life style of a human being that he acquires from living in a society. People participate in various activities and ceremonies of the society. People try to adapt with those activities and ceremonies through their actions, reactions and behaviours. In this respect, people try to perform their work by imitating the behaviours of other people. It means, through this tendency of imitation, people acquires various things like language, pronunciation, mode of speaking, etc. Many things of the society and its culture are transmitted through the language to the people. Ceremonies like birthday, marriage ceremony, Eid day, Puja festival, Christmas day, birth anniversary of Buddha, marriage anniversary etc. occurs in our social life. These ceremonies of social life influence the process of socialization The Social Values: The values are specific features of our social life. The standard of people’s life style can be measured through these values, because, by exercising these values, a man’s conduct becomes obvious regarding social rules and regulations, norms, customs, respect for social laws, etc. The social values are our common cultural ideals. The views, needs, good and bad aspect of people in the society can be assessed through these ideals. As people grow up, they learn all the social values. Everyone gets equal importance and facilities in the society. Showing respect to the elderly person, offering love and affection to the younger one, exercising truthfulness and justice are the social values present almost in every society. People acquire these values from the society. The values of the united social life can be expressed through their life style; for example, the social values of a Bangladeshi or an Indian are different from that of a Chinese people. The Bangladeshi and the Indian people stress much importance on their lifestyle about the spiritual development, sacrificing own interest for the sake of others etc. On the contrary, the fundamental characteristic of the life of a Chinese people is the development of prosperity or wealth. The social values influence the personality of a human being that can be evident from his thinking, behaviours and conduct.

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The Role of Various Institutions of the process of Socialization Socialization is an important factor in human life. Through socialization, a child acquires perfection in social Family Neighbours Educational matters and becomes a responsible Institution member of the society. We, in our social life, are always influenced by Institutions the persons of authority like father, Local Socialization related to mother, elder brother and sister and Society entertainment teacher. Again, we are also influenced by the friends, classmates and Mass Media Local Community playmates of our same age. In this respect, we can see that our relation with the elderly persons is obligatory and our relation with the friends is based on mutual cooperation. We get lessons from both of these relations. From the chart presented above, we get associated with family, neighbours, educational institution, religious institutions, local society, local groups, mass media and institutions providing entertainment. These institutions influence the process of our socialization. The Role of the family and the family members: Family is the most important medium of Individual work: Deepa is a girl socialization. The space for socialization becomes living in the city. Identify the mutual ready within the family prior to the birth of a child. impacts of various components of Various types of families are existent in the family the society in the process of her structure of Bangladesh. We have learnt about this socialization. in the previous chapter. Whatever may be the type Group work: Chandona grows up of family, we spend our childhood in a family. in the rural environment. She is the Naturally, all the good and bad aspects of our only child of her parents. Identify family life influence our behaviours. The social the mutual impacts of various morals and civic sense are introduced within our components of the society in the family. We acquire qualities like cooperation, process of her socialization. tolerance, fellow feeling, brotherhood, sacrifice, love etc. through family. In the process of socialization of a child, the relationship between father and mother plays the most important role among all family affairs. Good relation among the parents is very essential for the proper development of children’s personality. The conflict between the parents begets conflict among the children. The dear and near persons to a child Individual work: Identify the reasons of not are his mother and father. Of these forming the group of neighbours all around the two, ‘mother’ is the most intimate. urban society. Naturally, socialization begins from the mother. Mother is the first Group work: “The influence of neighbours and institution of making a children’s group of neighbours is the most on the socialization food habit and language learning. In of a child”-give reasons. its very childhood, mother creates attraction for whatever types of food that influences the behavior of the child in his advanced life. We apply in our own family of our learning and experience from what our mother did with us in matters like singing lullaby, techniques of learning alphabets, process of memorizing rhymes and many more.


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In some families of our society, only father earns. And in some cases, both parents earn. They need to apply many rules and regulations for the smooth direction of their family life. The behavior and values of individual parents influences on the socialization of the children. A child’s attitude of self determination and the tendency of stubbornness is the result of the influence of his parent’s attitude. In this way, from the other members of the family, for example, brother-sisters uncle-aunt, cousins, the grandparents from both paternal and maternal side and all other close relatives influence the behavioural pattern of a child’s life. It further enriches the self-conception of a child and beautifies his personality. The Relatives and the Neighbours: The persons with whom we have blood relations, excluding our own family members, are our relatives. And the people, who live around our home, are our neighbours. People grow up in association with their relatives and neighbours since childhood. The position of relatives and neighbors are just next to the family. For proper development of a child’s life, the role of relatives and neighbors are important. A group relation is developed among the children of the same ages in our neighborhood. A child acquires qualities like cooperation, fellow-feeling, unity, leadership, etc. from the group relation of the neighbourhood. Children participates and enjoys different ceremonies of the neighbours, like marriage, birthday, Eid, Puja, Christmas etc. and through such participation, children acquires qualities like tolerance, adaptation, fellow feeling etc. All the family members participate in any ceremonies of the neighbours; for example, birthday, marriage, marriage anniversary etc. Again, if anybody gets sick, neighbours play a more vital role than the close relatives. Neighbours are the first partners of all happiness and sorrows. The relationship of neighbours differs on the basis of village and city. In rural society, the relationship of neighbours is to be very intimate. There is no artificiality in this relation. But the relation among the urban neighbours is not very intimate. But, they become close by participating in different joyous festivals in the society. Neighbours give us lesson on socially accepted behaviours directly or indirectly. For this, good neighbours are essential. The School and schoolmates: In the process of socialization, school and schoolmates play an important role to a child after the family. School is the formal media of socialization. Besides, acquiring knowledge, a child also learns some social ideals from the school. These ideals include discipline, punctuality, reverence, cooperation, mutual love, etc. Participating in different activities in the school, a child comes in contact with the teachers, classmates, workers, school environment, and institutional values. All these elements influence the behaviours of the child, and it increases in his mind the qualities like leadership, respect for others, unity, patriotism, fellow feeling, tolerance, friendship etc. The school makes a child able to cope with the lessons of the next stage or in his workplace. A child also learns the behaviour, conduct, courtesy, etc. of any of the greater societies from the school. The topic of the textbooks also influences in many ways the conduct of the student. The quality like truthfulness, justice, consideration of good and evil, is learnt from the school by a student. So the role of school in the process of socialization of a child is immense. The environment of the school, the conduct and the values of the teachers play the most important role for the proper socialization of a child. A child’s play-mates and class mates play a significant role for the proper socialization of a child. Through them, a child’s quality like cooperation, tolerance, fellow feelings, leadership etc. widens. There can be a dispute or conflict between the playmates and

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classmates, and they learn to resolve it by themselves. It also helps a child to learn the techniques of dispute settlement. A child can know subtly the criticism of his good and bad qualities from his playmates. This sort of criticism helps a child to learn the desired behaviour in a society. The conduct and behaviour among the playmates and classmates of the same ages is almost same in nature. It is a small group. This group has special values, discipline, rules and customs. For this reason, this group is called peer group. The influence of mutual conduct and behaviour is vital in its juvenile and adolescence state of life. Again, a child can accept good Group work : Identify the influences social values with the influence of this group. of your intimate friends on your life. They can also accept socially hated values. In Individual work : Identify the role of this respect, the members of the families, the school for proper socialization of teachers and concerned peoples must be the students. aware. The Local society: Local society or caste is another important media for socialization. In this local society, a child grows up gradually. This local society develops in the locality in a specified area. There are some special values in a society which comprises of the integration of all local values. The conduct of a child is influenced by the human group of this society, social environment and institutions. Besides, a life of a person is also influenced by these local values. The language of a particular locality and the conduct of a person are reflected on the behaviour of an individual. The fellow feeling within the people of the same caste can be expressed in this society. The Local community : The local community is the collection of many people having special relation with each other. In an organized structure, all connected human groups are called the social group. Assessing from Group work: “We acquire the lesson of this perspective, a political party, trade fellow feeling by participating in the union, cultural club, literature club etc. also universal religious festivals of all nations’ become the part of this group. Children of religious caste,” present your argument. this group participate in different activities Individual work: Identify the influences starting first from family to neighbour and then to school and finally to this local of your own religious ceremonies for your group. This locally formed group or socialization. association influences in the process of Individual work: Identify the influences socialization of a person. These groups of any local groups for your socialization. locally play role in the field of sports, literature, culture, science and etc. Since childhood, children gets involved in this local group for amusement, sports and cultural activities that influence further to their proper socialization. Children become cultural minded, literature lovers, sports devotees and scientific minded. The Religious Institutions: The influence of religious institutions is important for the socialization of children. A child watches his/her parents and other relations to perform religious functions and rituals at mosque, temple, church and pagoda. Children observe and hear how the members of the family perform religions activities; for example, they watch and listen reciting the Holy Quran, Vogobot Geeta, Bible and Tripitak. These influence children’s future attitude towards religious institutions and life. Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Azha are the two biggest religious festival of the Muslims. Various activities of these festivals teach us about unity, solidarity and amity besides spreading the feelings for religion in children’s mind. It reduces the difference between people. By performing these religious ceremonies, social values and personality are developed among them. It also helps getting inspiration to devote themselves in the social services.


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There are different religious institutions for the Hindu, Buddha and Christian religion. The children participate in different activities of this religious institution. Religious festivals of these institutions influence the mind of the child. It limits their external conduct and develops moral values. These religious institutions awaken the conscience and spirit. It strengthens the mutual bondage, enriches good relation and enhances amity. It further helps developing the mental strength of the children. Mental narrowness is eradicated by the lessons of fellow feeling. The Mass Media: Mass media is a system of transmitting news, history of the country, culture, heritage, special concepts and views, Individual work: Identify the impacts of entertainment to a larger community. The cultures of the modern era develop basing on any program telecast in the television for example – Agricultural programme. mass media. Mass media includes newspaper, radio, cinema, television etc. Individual work: Write down the Newspaper publishes news on country’s impacts of the news broadcast for the history, heritage, culture, economy and other socialization of the children. various topics. By reading this news, the children fill their food of minds. They learn to adapt with their society and culture. They scientifically get inspiration about life and the universe. Radio offers us education and entertainment. We get information on weather, sports, educational discussion, drama, talk-show, news and music from the radio. So, the radio influences in many ways the personal and social life of a person. Different beneficial programmes telecast by the television influence our personal lives too. It increases the level of consciousness, makes people science- minded and develop the mental health of a person. Social and life oriented cinemas impacts deeply on the personality of persons. The characters from the constructive social movie influence the behaviour of a person. It teaches us to be respectful to the people of various classes and occupations. It makes us aware of different aspects of the society. The Process of Socialization in the Villages and in the cities of Bangladesh The greater social structure of Bangladesh is made up with both the villages and cities. As it’s a village oriented country, most of the people live in villages. The socialization of most of Bangladeshi people takes place in rural environment. There are some differences between the children of rural and urban area in the process of socialization. The special features of the rural social structure of Bangladesh are single and joint family structure, agro-based economy, intimacy among the members of the family, simple living style, influence of social customs and rituals etc. Besides, good feeling for the neighbours, sincere attention to all religious activities are noticeable in the social structure of this country. Poverty, illiteracy and conservative attitude are also the unique characteristics of this social structure. Rural children grow-up with these environment, interact with various components of the social life, which influences on the process of their socialization. The features of urban social structure of Bangladesh are nuclear family structure, industry based economy, complex social life, urban culture and wide gap between people in terms of social relations etc. A man acts or interacts with different components of this environment that again influences the process of his/her socialization.

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Similarities and Dissimilarities in the process of Socialization of person in the Rural and Urban Societies There are few similar elements that influence socialization of people in both the rural and urban societies. These elements include family, neighbour, peer groups, relatives, educational institutions, religious institutions, entertainment and sports organization etc. Both in the rural and urban societies, a child is reared up in the family. The childhood of a person is spent in the lap of his family life. Naturally, all the activities of family life are reflected in a large extent to his subsequent life. The common impression held by a family of both the rural and urban society also has impacts on the minds of the children of that family. A child learns to speak language within the family, imitates the behaviours of other family members and absorbs all elements of his/her family. A child learns about moral values, civic sense, tolerance, fellow feeling, brotherhood, self sacrifice, love and other social factors through the family. Neighbours and group of neighbours are evident in both the rural and urban environment of Bangladesh. The rural children are in a deep intimate relation with the elderly neighbours which also influence socialization. But this sort of relation is not found with neighbours of urban areas. The relationship among the kin is much closer in village comparing to that of the cities. The relationship with the classmates and peer groups in village is much more spontaneous and cordial comparing to that of the cities. Through this peer group, children get knowledge on cooperation, techniques of solving problem in dispute settlement and learn wisdom on principles. And children also learn about different aspects of cultural life from this peer group. A student’s relation with the school environment, textbook and with different school activities is very deep. When a child enters the school crossing away the border of the family, naturally his/her role gets enlarged. In this greater atmosphere, his/her role and leadership capabilities get regulated. A student’s own qualities, capabilities and powers are developed in this environment.Different components related to the school environment, have different impact on the students depending on the difference between cities and villages. In the cities of Bangladesh, there are different Group work: Make a comparison of types of schools for the children like the impact of school in a child’s life kindergartens, international schools, pre-cadet both in the villages and cities. schools which are different from the rural Group work: Identify the obstacles in children in terms of socialization. In most of the process of the socialization of a these schools, there is no extra and co- child in the city life and propose steps curricular activity. There is no such element like playground, garden, ponds, etc. There is no to resolve the same. celebration of school debate competition and the celebration of various national and international days. As the students can not participate in such activities, it hinders the required change in their attitudes. The working environment of a person and his experience is an important medium of socialization. A person chooses a profession after completing his/her study. The occupational fields in the cities are different from that of the villages. One can see the differences of environment in the process of socialization of a person. Besides, there are different ideals between rural and urban societies in terms of social values, culture, faith, food habit, custom, institutions and social structure that influences a person’s socialization.


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Exercise Short questions: 1. How will you define the concept of a family? 2. Identify the reasons of more Patrilocal families in our social systems. 3. What is the reason of change in endogamous family system? Explain. 4. Explain the roles of school in your socialization. Narrative questions: 1. Explain with examples the economic functions of a family. 2. Explain the economic functions of your family among all other works in the family. 3. Explain the types of families in your village. 4. “The role of playmate is significant for the socialization of a person” – Illustrate. 5. Find out the dissimilarities of socialization of two students living in village and city. Multiple choice questions: 1. How many types of families are there depending on the number of husband and wife? a. 2 b. 3 c. 6 d. 7. 2. The reason for breaking up of joint family system in Bangladesh isi. Poverty and increase of population ii. Industrialization and urbanization iii. Illiteracy and ignorance Which one of the following is correct? a. i & ii b. i & iii c. ii & iii, d. i,ii & iii 3. Which one of the following is the types of family depending on authority? Single Joint Extended

i a. i. c. ii & iii

Patriarchal Matriarchal

Patrilocal Matrilocal



b. ii. d. iii & iv

Monogamy Polygyny Polyandry


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Read the following passage and answer the question no. 4 and 5: Faiyaz and Rajina have a family of five members, only Faiyaz participates and gives opinion in the decision making process and in all the activities of his family. On the other hand, Mongpru and Idongpru also have five family members. Idongpru only takes decision in her family matters. 4. What is the type of family of Faiyaz and Rajina? a. Patrilocal b. Patriarchal c. Nuclear d. Extended 5. What are the characteristic similarity regarding the types between the family of Faiyaz and Mongpru and Idongpru? a. Regarding family size b. Regarding family status c. Regarding family authority and Power d. Regarding family Inheritance Creative questions: 1. Ripa resides next to the flat of Bidita. Ripa treats with care when relatives of Bidita come to Bidita’s house. One day Ripa got sick. That time Ripa’s parents were not in the home. Bidita’s parents took her to the hospital. When Bidita broke her leg by a rickshaw accident, Ripa cured her with her service staying in the hospital for a week with Bidita. In Bidita’s birthday Ripa and her family come to her house with gifts. a. How many are the types of families based on authority? b. Why a family is called the unit of income? Explain. c. What are the influence of the element of socialization do you find in the behaviours of Bidita ? Explain d. “In the urban life neighbours are the most intimate persons”. Do you agree with the view ? 2. Tahsan and Mahi work in a private Bank. After marriage they live together in a flat. Their only child, Muna passed her time with the help of the domestic servant. Muna remains in sleep when her parents come back home after their work. Again, when they go for work, that time also Muna remains sleeping. None of the parent can give time to Muna. After some days, Tahsan and Mahi noticed that Muna talks and behaves like the domestic servant. It becomes a matter of dispute between the husband and wife. They blame each other, Tahsan says “Only mother is the ideal for all children”. Mahi replies by saying, ‘Both the parents have equal responsibilities for their child.’ a. What is mass media? b. “Socialization is a lifelong process” – Explain. c. Explain the influence of the family stated in the event in changing the behaviours of Muna. d. Analyse the statement of Mahi in the context of this passage.


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The Solar System and the Earth A vast extensive sky exists around the surface of the earth. This stellar sky includes the stars, galaxy, nebula, comet, planet, minor plant or satellite, aeroliths and other luminaries. The universe has been created with such innumerable luminaries of the stellar sky. The sun is one of the stars of the universe. The solar system or the solar family consists of the sun and its planets, minor planets, asteroids, countless comets and innumerable aeroliths altogether. The sun is the regulator of all planets and minor planets of the solar system. The planets and the minor planets being attracted by the sun as well as their mutual gravitation traverse round the sun through their respective orbits in a particular duration. The solar system is very small in comparison with the vastness of the universe, and the earth is smaller too. The universe is bigger in size by billion fold in comparison with the earth. In this chapter, we will learn about the concept of the solar system, the planets, the formation of subterranean and time schedule of the universe, the rotation of the earth and its effects, the change of seasons, the surmise of ebb and flow and their influences.

After reading this chapter, we will be able to─ • explain the concept of the universe; • describe the planets of the solar system; • explain the causes for habitation of the living beings; • describe the formation of subterranean; • show the locations drawing the solar system and the planets as well; • explain the concept of parallels of equator, latitude and meridians of longitude, prime meridian and international date line; • assess the role of the imaginary lines in respect of the world's time deciding; • explain the causes resulting the difference between the time of Bangladesh and that of any other country, and specify the time; • draw the figures of locations of different lines; • explain the concept of motion of the earth;

• explain the concept of diurnal rotation and annual motion, and their effects on the earth; • explain the reason causing waning and waxing of day-night; • explain the causes resulting in changes of seasons in the world; • analyse the relation between annual motion and the change of seasons in Bangladesh; • calculate the time by applying mathematical cognition in a new situation; • explain the surmise of ebb and flow, their causes and classification as well; • explain the effects of ebb and flow on the earth; • establish the relation with the environment and adaptation as well.

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Section 4.1: The Solar System The sun-family comprising the sun and its planets, minor planets, asteroids, comet, aeroliths, is called the solar system. The sun is the centre-point of the solar system. There are 8 planets, 49 minor planets, thousands of asteroids and millions of comets in the solar system. The Sun The sun is the regulator of all planets and minor planets or satellites existing in the solar system. It is a bright star. It maintains a very Jupite close relation to the earth. It is greater than the Saturn earth by 13 hundred thousand-fold. The earth Comet is away from the sun by approximate 150 Venus million kilometers. It is about 13 hundred 84 thousand kilometers in width. The Sun Earth temperature of its surface is 57,000째 Celsius. Asteroids A very light temperature from the sun arrives Mars Mercury at the earth since the sun stays very far. Such a light temperature and rays adequately suffice the need of the living beings on earth. Neptune Uranus The sources of heat and light in other planets and minor planets are the sun itself too. The sun has neither any hard nor any liquid substance. It consists of 55% of hydrogen, Figure 4.1: The Solar System 44% of helium gas and 1% of other gases. The black spot that is sometimes seen in the sun is called the Sunspot or Solar infamy. The heat of Sunspot is less than that of its other parts. Under the atomic energy generation process, hydrogen existing in the sun transforms into helium gas, and energy is being generated from this gas in a continuous process. The sun revolves on its own axis once in about 25 days, and it strolls around its own galaxy through the long rotund way at a gap of about 200 million years. The vibration of life, plants, and animals could not exist in the earth without the light and heat of the sun, and the world had remained in ever darkness. The Planets: Some luminaries influenced by the gravitation revolve around the sun in the space through certain orbits maintaining a particular duration are called planets. They have no light or heat of their own. The number of planets in the solar system is 8. They respectively stay from the sun in accordance with their distance, namely Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Jupiter is the largest among the planets and the Mercury is the smallest planet in the solar system. Mercury: Mercury is the closest planet to the sun and the smallest planet in the solar system. Its diameter is 4,850 kilometers and its weight is equivalent to three-fiftieth of the earth. It orbits the sun once in about 88 earth-days. The average distance of it from the sun is 5.8 crore kilometers. It has no natural satellites. Its temperature is very high since it is the closest planet to the sun. Many holes and mountains with level ground have been noticed on the surface of Mercury.


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Venus: Venus is the closest to the Earth and its position is the second from the sun by distance. It is 10.8 crore km away from the sun and only 4.3 crore km from the Earth. We find it in the western sky as the evening star, and at dawn as vesper in the eastern sky. It orbits the sun once in 225 earth days. It has no natural satellites. Like earth, Venus has a substantial atmosphere but has no oxygen in it. The presence of carbon dioxide gas is about 96%. This planet orbits on its own axis very slowly. Therefore, the sun rises and sets twice a year in its sky. Acid rain showers due to the dense cloud of carbon dioxide in this planet. It is much drier than the earth, and the pressure of air is ninety times stronger in its atmosphere than that of the earth. The Earth: The Earth is the third closest planet to the sun. It has an area of 510,100,422 square kilometers. Its diameter measures 12,752 km in the East-West and 12,709 km in the North-South. The average distance of the earth from the sun is 150 million km. It orbits the sun once in 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes and 47 seconds. This planet has sufficient oxygen and nitrogen as well. The average temperature of the surface of the earth is 13.90째C. It has necessary water on its crust. Of all the planets, the Earth is the only planet which is ideal for living for the creatures and plants. It possesses one natural satellite, the moon, the only large satellite of a terrestrial planet in the solar system. The average distance of the Earth from the Moon is 381,500 km. It orbits the Earth once in 29 days and 12 hours. Holes, mountains, hills have been observed in the rear part of the Moon. Mars: Mars, after the Earth, stands close to the Sun by distance. Its average distance from the sun is 22.8 crore km and 7.8 crore km from the Earth. Its diameter is 6,787 km and its weight is equivalent to one-tenth of the Earth. It takes 687 days to orbit the Sun, and it orbits once on its own axis in 24 hours and 37 minutes. It has two tiny natural satellites (Demos and Phoebus). Living is impossible here. It possesses an atmosphere containing 3% of nitrogen and 2% of argon gas. The amount of water is very scant here. It is colder than the Earth and its average temperature is below the freezing point. Its surface is peppered with gorges and vast volcanoes. Its red color comes from iron oxide (rust) in its soil. Asteroids: Numerous small planets are orbiting together in between Mars and Jupiter. There is no other planet in this extent. A luminary with a diameter less than 1.6 km to 805 km is called 'asteroid'. They are called asteroids in a body. Jupiter: Jupiter is the largest planet of the solar system. It stands fifth from the sun by distance. Its measure is equivalent to about1300-fold of that of the Earth. Its diameter is 142,800 km. It is about 77.8 crore km away from the sun. Jupiter orbits the sun once in 12 years and on its own axis in 9 hours and 53 minutes. The sun rises and sets in this planet twice in one earth-day. It possesses a dense atmosphere. The up-level temperature of this planet's surface is very low and its internal temperature is very high. It has 16 known satellites of which Ganymede, Callisto, Lo and Europa are the most important. Saturn: Saturn is the second largest planet of the solar system. It is 143 crore km away from the sun. It orbits the sun once in 29 years and 5 months and on its own axis once in 10 hours and 40 minutes. Saturn is larger than the Earth by 9-fold approximately, and it can be watched with open eyes. It possesses an atmosphere containing mixture of hydrogen and helium, methane and ammonia gases. Three bright belts have surrounded Saturn. It has 22 confirmed satellites of which Capitas, Tethis, Hua, Titan, Enceladus are to be mentioned. Uranus: Uranus is the third largest planet. It is 287 crore km away from the sun. It orbits the sun once in 84 years. Its average diameter is about 49,000 km. Its volume is larger than the

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Earth by 64-fold and its weight is heavier than that of the Earth by 15-fold only. Its atmosphere possesses a vast amount of methane gas. It has 5 known satellites of which the largest ones are Miranda, Ariel, Oberon, Unbriel and Titania, etc. It is discovered that Uranus has belts like Saturn. Neptune: Neptune's average diameter is 48,400 km. It is 450 crore km away from the sun. This planet is cold since it stays much far away from the sun. It is largely bluish to look at. It orbits the sun once in 165 years. It has two known satellites ─ Triton and Nereid. Neptune is accompanied in its orbit by a number of minor planets termed Neptune Trojans. The Causes for Habitation of Living Beings in the Planet Earth All sides of Earth are surrounded by miscellaneous gaseous elements. Such invisible gaseous covering is called the atmosphere of Earth which is implicated in the surface of the Earth being attracted by the gravity, and being rotated along with the Earth. Its density is most on the sea-surface due to air-pressure, and its up-level density is comparatively less. Nitrogen and Oxygen have supremacy in the atmosphere. Oxygen is a must for all kinds of creature. The extent of other elements other than that of carbon dioxide gas remain almost invariable, but some elements like dust, smoke, aqueous vapour, etc. remain at particular places in different extent. The atmosphere plays a vital role in order o help all creatures live in the Earth. It protects the fauna from the harmful rays of the sun, and its gaseous element namely carbon dioxide (CO2) saves plants and oxygen (O2) saves the fauna as well. Troposphere is a level adjacent to earth-surface and the lowest level of the atmosphere. This level possesses an average depth of about 13 km. It is the most essential level for human beings, because moistness, clouds, fogs, rains, steams of air, etc. are noticed at this level. Due to the increase of height, the velocity of air gets enhanced at this level, and air moves up and down. Most of all the processes of the climate and weather happen at this level of atmosphere. The atmospheric boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere is called Tropopause. The depth of Tropopause is narrow, and the air remains standstill there, and spacecraft routinely pass through this level without any trouble for not having any prevalence of rainstorms. Ozone gas possesses a Individual work: Make a list showing level in the atmosphere known as Ozone level. reasons why other planets are not Its depth is approximate 12-16 km. Since it suitable for habitation except the Earth. absorbs the ultra-violate rays of the sun, its temperature reaches at about 76°C. This level of the atmosphere has made the Earth habitable for the living beings. The Earth receives light and heat from the sun. This Earth would remain ever dark without the light of the sun. No life vibration could remain in the Earth, and all creatures, plants and fauna could not live. The human activities on Earth help form the atmosphere and bring about changes in the elements. For example, deforestation, smokes emitted from the mills and industries, and burning of fuels, coals and natural gases enhance the pollution of the atmosphere. It is necessary to keep the atmosphere fresh for the sake of existence of the living beings. The humans and animals need light, air and water in abundance. The average temperature on the surface is 13.90°C. Its surface possesses sufficient water. The heat and light that reaches the Earth from the sun are also endurable by the fauna. These are very essential and suitable elements for the existence of the flora and fauna as well. That is why the humans and animals can live comfortably live on Earth. The Formation of Subterranean The Earth resembles like almost a globe. It possesses an approximate radius of 6,400 km. There is no scope so far to observe directly such depth of the ground-interior by


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cleaving the hard surface of the Earth. The geologists guess the formation elements of subterranean through the observation of earthquake, motion and nature of the wave, gravity and magnetosphere. The Subterranean is composed of rock-sphere. The region from the earth-surface to its center-point can be distinguished in three levels ─ the subterranean, barysphere and centrosphere. The Earth's Crust: At the time of creation, the Earth was in a gaseous state. It was diffusing heat through whirlpool for millions of years, and it took many years to become cold and solid as well. In such process, a hard cover was formed on its surface. This hard cover is the Earth's crust. Though the Earth's surface seems hard, its inner state was hot and melted. When any heated substance becomes cold, it becomes compressed. The thin layer of the upper part has been crimped, and formed the flat and uneven earth-surface because of continuous compression. The seas and oceans have been formed at the lower extents of the earth's crust. The upper part of water becomes continents. The Barysphere: The lower level of the Earth's crust is the barysphere. There exists a very fine level in between the Earth's crust and the barysphere. The thickness of the barysphere level is approximately 2,885 km. The rocks on the upper part of the barysphere seem hard and fragile, and it possesses a depth measuring approximately 100 km. The Earth's Crust and he upper part of the barysphere are called together the Lithosphere which is approximately 100 km thick, and it stretches about 60 km from the earth's surface to the inside. The barysphere exists in a very hot Fig.4.2: The cross section of the state. Many experts opine that its formation of earth's interior elements are full of gluey mud due to tremendous pressure over there. The Centrosphere: The level extending from the lower part of the Barysphere to the Earth's center is called Centrosphere. This level is about 3,486 km thick. The Centrosphere possesses a diameter of approximate 16% of the total volume of Earth, and its weight is about one-third thereof. The pressure of this level is more than the airpressure on the earth's surface by thousands of folds, and its temperature ranges from 3,000 to 5,000°C. It has been known through the earthquake wave that the Centrosphere possesses a liquified outer covering of 1.216 kilometers thick. The scientists opine that this level is composed of some substances like iron, nickel, mercury and led, but as nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe) remain in plenty, it is known as the Nife. It is imagined that this level exists in an elastic and sticky state due to tremendous heat and pressure over there. The Earth's magnetic force depends on the metallic nature of this level to a great extent. Section 4.2 : The Method of Calculating Time at Different Regions of the World A few imaginary lines are drawn in the world's map across the East-West and the NorthSouth in order to decide location of any region in it. These are respectively called Axis and Meridians of Longitude. The location of any region can be known through the Axis

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and the meridians of longitude. Any regional time can be known from the position of the meridians of longitude. As the locations in the North and South can be known from the equator through the axis, the meridians of longitude is used to know about the locations in the East or West from the prime meridian as well. Though the Earth's surface seems level, it is an approached globe in fact. That is why the distance from the prime meridian can be easily demonstrated in an angular measure as the Earth is almost round. The Axis, Equator, Latitude, Meridians of Longitude and Prime Meridian The Axis and Equator: The line imagined at the North-South over the center of the Earth is called Axis. Its northern end point is called the north pole or the Arctic, and its southern end point is called the south pole or the Antarctic. The line that is imagined hemming the Earth across the East-West by keeping the same distance from both the poles is called Equator or Equinoctial Line. This line is circular in size for round shape of the Earth. So it is also called Equinoctial Circular. The Equator has divided the Earth equally into two parts across the North-South. A half of the Earth existing at the North to the Equator is called northern hemisphere, and the other half of the Earth at the South to the Equator is called southern hemisphere. An angular distance of any region within northern or southern hemispheres can be decided through the Equator. A unit of latitude measure like the geometrical angle is called Degree. The Parallel of latitude: An angle of 360o originated at center of the Earth's circular is divided into Degree (o), Minute (′) and Second (″). Angular distance of each pole from the Equator is 90o. A parallel line of the Equator which is imagined by dividing this angle into degrees and minutes is called a parallel of latitude. These parallels of latitude are stretched out towards the East-West, reciprocally parallel, each is a full circle, if a latitude increases, the circumference also increases, and the maximum latitude is 90o. The well known parallels of latitude are 23.5o north latitude known as the Tropic of Cancer, 23.5o south latitude known as Tropic of Capricorn, 66.5o north latitude known as The Arctic Circle, Figure. 4.3: Parallels of latitude and 66.5o south latitude known as The Antarctic Circle. The angular distance of any region situated either at the North or the South from the Equator is called the latitude of that region. In order to know the location of any region, it is necessary to identify where the region exists and how far it is in the North or South from the Equator, or in the East or West from the prime meridian. All regions situated at one Axis have the unique latitude. A latitude possessing 0o to 30o is called the Lower Latitude, 30o to 60o the Middle latitude and 60o to 90o the upper latitude. The Meridians of Longitude By dividing the Equator into Degrees, Minutes and Seconds, the lines that have been imagined throughout from the North Pole to the South Pole over each of division points are called the Meridians of Longitude. It is also named the meridian. The Meridians are


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semi-circle and not parallel. Each of the meridians of longitude possesses the equal length. The highest meridian becomes 180o. Considering any of the meridians of longitude a particular prime meridian, an angular distance of the other meridians of longitude from this line, can be measured. The Local time is decided through the meridian. The Prime Meridian There is an international agreement that the meridian running through Greenwich, London of the UK over the Royal Observatory in Greenwich at a vicinity of London city, which is spread out over the North Pole Figure 4.4 : The Meridians of and the South Pole is considered the official Prime Longitude Meridian. Any line of the longitude (a meridian) can serve as the 0o longitude line. The other meridians can be drawn from the Prime Meridian by the angle originated at the Earth's centre. The meridian existing at the East by 45o from the Greenwich Prime Meridian, meridians of all regions over it is 45o Eastern Individual Work: Note the situations Meridian. So we can say that an angular distance of the important imaginary lines (in 0 of any region in the East or West from the degree) in a table. Greenwich Prime Meridian is the Meridian of that region. We also know that Greenwich meridian serves as the 0 degree. Any angle originated with the diameter of the Earth possesses 360 degrees. The Prime Meridian has divided these 360 degrees equally into two divisions after every one degree i.e. by 180o in the East and 180o in the West. Since the Earth possesses a round shape, both the 180o East Meridian and the 180o West Meridian remain within the same meridian. Like the Latitude, the meridian is divided into minutes and seconds as well. Each minute meridian is equal to 60/1 of a degree. Where there the Equator and the prime meridian intersect each other lengthways, both the latitude and meridian fall in Zero (0) degree. That is the region of the gulf of Ginny. It is possible to determine the meridian of any region from the Local time and the Greenwich Mean Time. The Difference in Local Time: The earth is round and it continuously moves around its own axis from the West to the East. So the different regions of the Earth face the sun at different duration. When the prime meridian of any region reaches just the front of the sun, the sun is found exactly overhead at that region, and then, the midday occurs at that region and it is 12 o'clock by watch over there. The other timings of the day are decided in accordance with the midday. We know that one degree of meridian difference results in difference of time by 4 minutes, and the distance of one minute meridian results in difference of time by 4 seconds. When it is 12 o'clock at any place or region, the time of any region existing 5o East to that place or region, will be 12+(5X4) minute or 12 hours 20 minutes. The time of any region existing at 5o West to the same region, will be 12 o'clock (5X4) minute or (12H-20M) 11 hours and 40 minutes. Through Greenwich Mean Time: The Greenwich Meridian serves Zero (0) degree. The exact time of Greenwich can be known by the Chronometer watch. The meridian of a place is calculated by the sextant apparatus, and the midday of that region at that time is determined by observing the highest position of the sun in the sky. The meridian of such region is ascertained from the difference of time between Greenwich Mean Time and the time of that region at a particular duration. If any region is situated to the eastern side of Greenwich, the local time of that region will be more than that of Greenwich, and

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if it is situated to the western side thereof, its local time will be less than that of Greenwich. The Local Time and the Standard Time Local Time: Everyday the Earth orbits its own axis from the West to East regularly. Consequently, the sun rises earlier in the regions located at the eastern part of the Earth. In the course of Earth's rotation, when the sun remains overhead or at the highest site, midday occurs at that region and it is 12 o'clock by watch over there. The other timings of the day are determined from such meridian while. It is termed as the local time of that region. The local time is decided by the sextant apparatus too. The measure of angle at the Earth's centre is 360 degrees. The earth orbits such 360o angular distance once in 24 hours or (24X60) = 1,440 minutes. So the Earth orbits 1 degree in (1,440-360) = 4 minutes i.e. time differs by 4 minutes due to the difference of every one degree meridian. The Standard Time: If the local time is determined by ascertaining the duration of midday sun over the meridians of longitude, the calculation of time faces confusion in the same country. For that reason, a separate standard time for each country is determined where necessary. In every country, the time that is determined as per the meridian at any region of its center is called the standard time for that country. If the country is larger, it may have several standard times itself. Such as The United States of America have 4 standard times, and Canada has 5. The local time of Greenwich (0o meridian) has been accepted as the standard time for the whole of Earth. The Standard Time of Bangladesh is +6 hours from the Greenwich Mean Time. 90o East meridian is situated almost Individual work: Decide local above the middle of Bangladesh territory. For this time and standard time. reason, the local time of this meridian is considered Bangladesh's standard time accordingly. > The difference of time between Dhaka and Seoul is 2 hours 32 minutes. What is the meridian of Seoul while it is situated at the 90o East to the meridian of Dhaka (Seoul is situated to the East of Dhaka)? The meridian of Seoul will be more since it is situated in the East of Dhaka. The difference of time between Dhaka and Seoul is 2 hours 32 minutes = 152 minutes. The Meridian differs by 1o at a difference of 4 minutes. So the meridian differs at a difference of 1 minute by (1/4)o So the meridian differs at a difference of 152 minutes by ( ) = 38o So the meridian of Seoul stands 90o +38o = 128o Answer: The meridian of Seoul stays at 128o East. ♌The Meridians of Dhaka and Chennai are respectively 90o East and 80o15' East. What is the local time in Chennai when the midday occurs in the sky of Dhaka? The difference of meridian between Dhaka and Chennai is 90o - 80o15'= 9o45'. Time will vary for 9o45' meridian, and the time differs by 4 minutes for 1o meridian's difference. So, the time variation for 9omeridian is 9oX4"= 36 minutes. Time differs by 4 seconds due to 1omeridian's difference. So the time difference due to 45' of the meridian by 45'X4"=180 seconds= 3 minutes. So the time difference due to 9o45' meridian by 36 minutes + 3 minutes =39 minutes.


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Chennai is situated at the West of Dhaka (Chennai's meridian is less). Accordingly, its time is less. So, when the midday occurs in Dhaka, i.e. 12 o'clock at noon, the local time of Chennai will be 12 hours 39' minutes – 11 hours 21 minutes a.m. Answer: The local time of Chennai is 11:21 a.m. The Antipode A point that stands opposite to any point existing on the Earth's surface is called the Antipode of that point. The Antipodes exist entirely to the opposite of one another. In order to decide antipode, an imaginary line from any point of the surface through the Earth's center is drawn towards the side contrary to the Earth. The point where the so supposed line reaches at the opposite side of the surface, the very same point is the Antipode to the previous point (see figure). If a latitude of any region is known, its E Antipode's latitude is also known as well. The degree of a latitude of any region is the degree of its antipode's latitude. Either of both the regions will be situated at the North and at the South of the Equator. Both the regions will be in both the hemispheres. If one region's latitude stands at 70o North, its Antipode's latitude will be at 70o North as well. If a Figure 4.5 : The Antipodes meridian of any region is added to its Antipode of place Ka is Kha antipode's meridian, the summation will be Antipode of place Cha is Chha 180o. So, if the meridian of one region is deducted, its antipode's meridian is got. If the meridian of one region stands at the East, its antipode's meridian will be at the West. For example, a meridian of antipode of a region situated at 40o of the East meridian, its meridian will be 180-40o = 140o to the West. The time will differ in between both the regions by 12 hours. In the figure 4.6, the antipode of Cha point is Chha point (see figure). The antipode of Dhaka is situated over the Pacific Ocean near Chile within the territory of North America. The International Date Line While traveling a long way from any particular region to the East or West, days of weeks sometimes get confused along with the local time difference. Problems arise to pass through 180o meridians of longitude to the East or West from any specific venue. In order to solve such problems, a line extending across the North-South over the watersurface is imagined by having the recourse to 180o meridians of longitude. This imaginary line is named ‘The International Date Line'. The Importance of the International Date Line: We know that the time differs by 4 minutes for 1o of difference in the meridian. So, the time difference will be 1 hour for 15o of difference in the meridian. If it (the meridian of Greenwich) advances forward from the prime meridian to the East, 12 hours will be more at 180o meridian, and if it gets ahead towards the West, 12 hour time will be less at 180o meridian. So, when it is 10 o'clock on Monday at the prime meridian, the local time will be 10 o'clock night on

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Monday at 180o East meridian as well. Accordingly, if the meridian of longitude is calculated by the Western side, the local time will be 10 o'clock at night on Sunday, i.e. the previous day at 180o West meridian instead. But the line at 180o East and 180o West is the same. So, it is observed that the local time differs at the same meridian by 24 hours or a whole day. At the same region, where there is Sunday, there is Monday elsewhere, but at the same meridian, 10 o'clock on Sunday night and 10 o'clock on Monday night can not happen at the same time. In order to solve this problem, a line that has been imagined having recourse to the 180o meridian in the atlas over the water-surface of The Pacific Ocean under the International recognition is the International Line. Since passing through this line results in changes of day and date, that's why it is called International Date Line (see figure). It passes through the northeast region of Siberia, Allucian, Fiji and Chatham islands. In order to solve problems of the local people in calculating dates, this line has been designed over the water-surface in Bering system making it bent towards at 12o East Allusion islands 70o West, and 11o East at Fiji and Chatham islands. By ship or aircraft towards eastern region, Fig.4.6: International Date Line while people routinely pass through this line, they deduct one day from their extended time in order to maintain harmony with the local time over there. Similarly while passing through it towards western region, people calculate their date by adding one day to their curtailed time. The Role of Imaginary Line to Determine Time The Earth is almost like a globe. So the imaginary line plays a great role in the world's map in order to determine time within its territory. The round shape Earth orbits its own axis from the West to the East in due course. Consequently, different parts of the Earth's surface face the Sun at different durations. While the meridian of any part stands just in front of the sun at a particular time, the midday occurs at that part and it is 12 o'clock by watch over there. The other timings of the day are determined in accordance with the Noon or Midday. The Earth orbits from the West to East, so the sun rises earlier in the parts existing in the eastern side. If it is 1 o'clock, the time at its 1o East will be 4 past one, and at 1oWest 4 minutes to one. In Greenwich (0o) when it is 8 am, it is 10 am somewhere else, and the meridian of such place will be Meridian 30o East. Again, when the time runs behind than that of Greenwich, the said place will be at the West of Greenwich.


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Section 4.3: The Motion of Earth We regularly notice that the sun rises in the East and sets in the West in due course. But have we ever thought on how it happens? It is because the Earth is on motion. The Earth being regulated by the gravity, rotated on its own axis following the sun in its front and moves round the sun through particular orbits. This is the Earth's motion. The Earth's motion is classified into two ways ─ The Annual Motion and the Diurnal Motion. The Diurnal Motion: Let us have a look to the figure. What do we see there? There are a burning candle and a globe. We can see and notice that one side of the globe is illuminated and the other side is dark. The day and night Figure 4.7: Earth's Rotation from come alternatively in the same manner due to the West to East diurnal motion in the Earth. The Earth rotates on its axis from the West to the East regularly. It rotates in this way almost 24 hours or a day. The time for one complete rotation is 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4.09 seconds. This motion of Earth is called the 'Diurnal Motion'. The time for one complete rotation of Earth is called a Solar Day. The days and nights come due to the Diurnal Motion. The Earth possesses no light itself. It gets illuminated with the sunshine. Since the Earth is round, the sunlight cannot reach the Figure 4.8: Occurrence of Day-night whole of its surface at a time. During the rotation, the part where the rays fall in, day occurs, and the other part remains dark, and vice versa. The time can be calculated on recourse to the diurnal motion. Considering the complete rotation 24 hours, the time is calculated by dividing it in hours, minutes and seconds as well. The ebb and flow takes place in the Earth by attraction of the Moon and the Sun due to the diurnal motion. The diurnal motion affects to a great extent the seastreams and air-ventilation The Experiment: Supposing a burning candle on the table in a dark room as the Sun and the globe as the Earth, we can find that the front part of the candle is lighted and its opposite Night Day part remains dark by moving the globe before the burning candle. Day occurs in the lighted part and night in darkness. The circular region in between the lighted and the dark regions of Earth is known as the shade-circle. The part of the Earth that just reaches the lighted part due to the rotation by passing through the shadeFigure 4.9 : With the candle and the globe circle from the darkness, dawn occurs over there. The time when meager light exists sometimes earlier from the daybreak is called the dawn, and the time when meager light exists before sunset is called twilight.

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The Annual Motion: The Earth moves round the sun continuously on its own axis through a certain semi-circular orbit, to a certain direction and in a certain duration. Such rotation of Earth to the East from the West is called the Annual Motion. The Earth moves round the sun in a speed of 30 km per second. The time required for the earth to make one complete rotation around the sun is 1 year. It is called the solar year. The exact time is 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, 45.51 seconds. As the solar year is calculated on 365 days, every fourth English year is calculated with an additional day, i.e. 366 days. In that year, February possesses 29 days instead of 28, and such year is called the 'Leap Year'. The waning and waxing of the day-night, and changes of seasons happen in the Earth in consequence of the annual motion. The Role of the Annual Motion to the Waning and Waxing of Day-Night and to the Changing of the Seasons We have noticed that the time of different days and nights in the year have discrimination, i.e. sometimes days are longer and sometimes nights are longer. Have we ever thought on how it differentiates? It can be replied that such disparity occurs due to the annual motion. An annual motion causes to wan and wax days and nights and to change the seasons. The Reasons that Make Days and Nights Longer or Shorter Let us have a look to the following figure. While moving round the sun, the four stays of the earth have been specified in the orbit such as June 21, September 23, December 22 and March 21. June 21: While moving round the sun, the earth upon its course reaches at such a place on the orbit on June 21, where the North Pole mostly inclines (23.5°) towards the sun, and the South Pole remains farthest away from the sun. On this day at noon, the sunlight falls over 23.5° North Latitude lengthways (at angle 90°). The day on this date becomes the longest in the north hemisphere and the night becomes the shortest. The opposite situation Figure 4.10 : Increase and Decrease of day-night exists in the south hemisphere instead. The day lasts for 24 hours from the Arctic Circle (66.5° North) towards the North to the North Pole, and the night lasts for 24 hours from the Antarctic Circle (66.5° South) towards the South to the South Pole as well. September 23: While June 21 becomes over, the North Pole continues to move away from the sun and the South Pole continues to draw near gradually. Consequently, day gradually becomes longer and night shorter in the north hemisphere, and in the south hemisphere, day gradually becomes longer and night shorter. The Earth stays at such a place on September 23, where both the Poles remain equally away from the sun. On this day, the sunlight falls lengthways towards the Equator (at angle 90°), towards both the Arctic and Antarctic circles at angle 66.5°, and towards the Poles at angle 0°. For this reason, day and night on this day remain equal across the Earth.


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December 22: While December 22 becomes over, the North Pole continues to move farther away from the sun, rather the South Pole draws nearer. Consequently, the daytime gradually becomes shorter and night longer in the north hemisphere. Once when the Earth stays at such a place on December 22, the South Pole remains most inclined (23.5째) towards the sun. The sunlight falls lengthways (90째) towards the Tropic of Capricorn this day. On this date, the day becomes the longest and the night shortest in the south hemisphere. March 21: Subsequently after December 22, when the Earth gets farther ahead to its own orbit, the North Pole gradually draws near the sun, whereas the South Pole moves away instead. For this, day continues to be longer and night shorter in the north hemisphere. Al last on March 21, the Earth reaches at such a place on its own orbit, where both the Poles remain equally away from the sun. Like September 23, day and night become equal on this day. This stay of Earth is called the Vernal Equinox. After 21 March, the Earth restores to the previous position of 21 June through moving on its own orbit. The waning and waxing of days and nights happen for the annual motion. The Change of Seasons Let us have a look to the adjoining figure. Here while moving round the sun, an explanation regarding the change of seasons has been provided from the four stays of the Earth. The sunrays fall somewhere lengthwise and somewhere else obliquely because of the annual motion which also results in waning and waxing of days and nights. Since the sunrays fallen lengthways reach by cleaving less layers of air, they make the surface more heated, and the rays fallen obliquely do not reach by cleaving more layers of air only, but they get extensively spread out in comparison to the rays fallen lengthways. Consequently, temperature on all over the surface varies at different times Figure 4.11 : The Change of seasons of the year and it results in the change of seasons in the course of time. The difference or transformation of temperature in the Earth in the discrimination of time is called the change of seasons. While moving round the sun, an explanation regarding the change of seasons has been found from the four stays of the Earth. The Summer in the North Hemisphere and The Winter in the South Hemisphere: The 21st day of June is the last day for the summer solstice of the sun. The sunrays fall lengthwise towards the Tropic of Cancer this day. Accordingly here the day becomes the longest and the night shortest. Heat prevails much within the territory of the North Pole for a total period of three months from one and a half months earlier as well as one and a half months later since June 21. During this period, the summer season occurs in the north hemisphere. Since the sunrays fall obliquely during this period for the days being longer and the nights shorter in the south hemisphere, the winter season occurs over there. The Autumn in the North Hemisphere and the Spring in the South Hemisphere: On the 23rd day of September, the sunrays fall lengthways over the Equator and day and night remain equal all over the Earth. For this reason, during a total period of 3 months pervading over one and a half months earlier as well as one and a half months later since

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the date, heat remains in moderate state. During this period, the Autumn occurs in the north hemisphere whereas the Spring in the south hemisphere. The Winter in the North Hemisphere and The Summer in the South Hemisphere: The 22nd day of December is the last Individual work: Fill in the table day for the winter solstice of the sun Date N. Hemisphere S. Hemisphere i.e. the sunrays fall lengthwise towards June 24 the Tropic of Capricorn this day. Sept 25 Accordingly, here the day becomes Dec. 11 longer and the night shorter. One and a half months earlier and later since this date, the summer season occurs in the South hemisphere whereas the winter in the north hemisphere for opposite reason. The Spring in the North Hemisphere and The Autumn in the South Hemisphere: Both the North and the South Poles stay equally away from the sun on 21 March. The sunrays fall towards the Equator lengthwise this day, and the day and night become equal everywhere. One and a half months earlier and later since 21 March, the spring season occurs in the north hemisphere whereas the Autumn in the south hemisphere. The Reasons for the Change of Seasons As the consequence of the annual motion of the Earth, the sunrays fall somewhere lengthwise and elsewhere obliquely, which result in regular change in temperature and the change of seasons. The annual motion of the Earth causes waning and waxing of the days and nights as well. When the daytime at a place becomes longer than that of night, the atmosphere of that place becomes hotter. In this way, the heat becomes different in the different times of the year all over the earth, and the Individual work: Identify the change of seasons occurs, and the waning and waxing reasons for changes of seasons. of day and night occur in the course of time. While moving round the sun, the Earth always rotates inclining at the angle of 66.5째. Consequently, an angular disparity occurs in respect of dropping sunrays to different sites and seasons get changed. The length of the Earth's orbit possesses a measure of 938051827 km. Since this orbit of Earth is elliptical in shape, while rotating, distance of Earth from the sun does not always remain equal. The sun stays closest to the Earth during January 1-3 which is called the Earth's perihelion. In other words, the closest point to the sun in a planet's orbit is called Perihelion. Similarly, the sun stays remotest from the Earth during July 1-4. It is called the Earth's Aphelion. In modern times, Earth's perihelion occurs around January 3, and the aphelion around July 4. It is proved from the decrease and increase of the distance in between the sun and the earth, and from the actual change of the relative volume, it is proved that the Earth's orbit is elliptical in shape. Consequently, the sunbeams vary and seasons get varied as well. Our Bangladesh is situated within the north hemisphere and the Tropic of Capricorn line passes (23.5째 North Axis) through the middle of the country. So, the seasons of Bangladesh get changed in accordance with the change of solidity in the north hemisphere. Section 4.4: The Ebb and Flow Apart from the oceanic current in different seas and oceans, the mass-water has a motion of itself. Consequently, the seawater gets inflated for a while every day (the water heights get up), rather it comes to a stop for some while. Such inflation of the seawater in a regular manner is called the high tide or flow, and disembarking of the same is called low tide or ebb. The ebb and flow mainly occurs due to the earth's motion itself and under the influence of the moon and the sun thereupon. The ebb and flow has diverse categories. Besides, it affects the Earth in various angles and aspects.


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The Surmise of the Ebb and Flow, their Reasons and Classifications The sun and the moon continuously attract the surface of the Earth. The water of its surface gets inflated because of such attraction at a site and gets descended elsewhere at intervals of a particular duration, sea-water regularly ascends and descends once after every 12 and a half hours in due course. Both the ebb and flow successively occurs after every 6 Figure 4.12 : The Ebb and Flow hours and 13 minutes. Such inflation of the seawater in a regular course is called the high tide or flow, and descending thereof is called the low tide of ebb. The water at the middle-sea generally ascends high or descends below by 1-3 feet only. But because of the depth of the seas and oceans at littoral regions, the mass-water ascend and descend very high and low. That is why the ebb and flow is observed few kilometers from the estuary throughout the rivers' course. The Reasons of the Ebb and Flow: In the ancient period, different fanciful suppositions about the reasons of tide were customary, but nowadays the scientists have proved that the high and low tides occur in consequence of the centric force generated due to the Earth's rotation and of attraction from the sun and the moon over the Earth. The Influence of Gravitation Force: Each substance of the Earth has an attraction, and one attracts the other. This attraction is called the gravitation force or the gravity. Due to the gravity, the Earth moves round the sun, and the moon moves round the Earth. One that is so large possesses the gravitation force so much relatively. But when the distance becomes far, the gravity becomes weak. Though the sun is larger in size than the moon by 2.60 crore-fold, but the distance of the sun from the Earth is comparatively much more than the distance of the moon, the attraction force of the moon over the Earth is more than that of the sun by twofold. Thus the moon's attraction causes generating the ebb and flow. The Centrifugal Force: Since the Earth staying on its own axis or spine moves around rapidly, liquid mass-water has the tendency of getting scattered from its surface. Such force is named Centrifugal Force. Due to the rotation of the earth and the moon, the influence of the Centrifugal Force over the liquid and light mass-water of the surface prevails extensively. For this reason, the mass-water gets ejected outside all the while and trends to become isolated from solid ground of the liquid mass-water. In the same manner, the Centrifugal Force helps originate the ebb and flow. The Classifications of the Ebb and Flow: The ebb and flow or tide may be divided into a few categories such as the Major Tide, the Minor Tide, the Flood Tide or the Spring Tide and the Neap Tide or the Ebb Tide. The moon moves round the Earth. During the rotation of the moon, the part of the Earth that draws near the moon, the moon's attraction prevails mostly over there. Consequently, water arrives from the neighboring sites and gets inflated just below the moon, and tides originate. This tide is categorically called Major Tide, or in other words, direct tide. To the opposite of the Major Tide, the landsite below the water is firmly tied with the Earth's centre, because of which an attraction of the moon over there remains equal in comparison with that of the centre. Consequently, the landsite becomes more attracted towards the moon than the water-site of the opposite side. Resultantly, the Centrifugal Force is generated. Water from both the sides flows towards that extent, and causes the generation of tide. Such tide is called Minor Tide or Indirect Tide. When a major tide originates at one side of the Earth, and a

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minor tide at the other side, water flows out of the middle between the two tides. The state of water existing at the middle is called the ebb.

Figure 4.13 : Flood tide (in the duration of new moon) Figure 4.14 : Flood tide (in the duration of full moon)

On a new moon lunar day, the moon and the sun stay at the same side of the Earth, and on a full moon day, the moon stays at one side of the Earth whereas the sun stays at the other side instead. Consequently, the sun and the moon stay at the prime vertical circle during these two lunar days, and the tide that strongly got generated due to their combined attraction, is called the Flood Tide or the Spring Tide. Since the sun and the moon stay at a right angle of the Earth on the 7th and 8th lunar days, the tides originate towards the moon because of its attraction. But these tides' velocity does not get the severity because of the sun's attraction at the same time. Such tide is called the Neap Tide or the Ebb Tide. The Prime Tide originates twice and the Neap Tide also twice a month. The Interval of the Ebb and Flow As the Earth rotates upon its own axis from the West to the East so the moon orbits round the Earth from the West to the East too. The moon moves round the Earth on its own orbit once in 27 days, so the moon passes its regular route (360X27) or 13째 in the duration of its one complete rotation around. As both the sun and the moon rotate from the West to the East, the Earth passes through the said 13째 in further (13X4)=52 minutes. So when Figure 4.15 : Ebb-tide on the 8th day the Major Tide originates at any certain site at a particular duration, a minor tide also originates over there after 12 hours and 56 minutes from the originating time of the major tide, and again a major tide originates over there after 24 hours and 52 minutes from the time of the major one. So, at every concerned site, there originates an ebb after 6 hours and 13 minutes from the originating time of a flow in due course. The Influence of the Tides on the Earth The tide has an influence directly or indirectly on the Earth or the ground-surface, the mass-water and the economic activities of human beings. Due to occurrence of the ebb and flow twice a day, the sweepings Individual work: Describe the reasons for the existing in the river get cleansed and its ebb and flow and their influence on the Earth. water becomes free of filths or dirt, and silts gathering at the river-channel and river-mouths hinder the flow. The river-pits become deeper due to the current of ebb and flow. The tide of water is kept confined by cutting canals beside a number of rivers for the irrigation purpose. Hydro-electricity is


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generated at lots of rivers in the world by utilizing the tide such as the Larance Power Plant in France, and a hydro-electricity center at Bandala Port in India. As salty water inundates the interior side of the country by the ebb and flow, the river water movement remains favorable in the countries characterized by the predominance of cold. Due to the increase of river water, big ships, vessels to the ocean can easily enter the rivers; again, they can go back to the ocean with the ebb. In Bangladesh while the depth of river extends at the Chittagong and the Mongla ports during tide, big vessels can easily enter or leave the port. The vessels, ships, etc. cast their anchors at the river-channel before entry to the port waiting for tide. The tide from the Bay of Bengal reaches near Goalanda at the river Padma and at the Meghna near Bhairab Bazar. Salt is also made with the seawater keeping confined through drying process. The sea-water largely enters the landsite passing through the river-channel during the spring tide in strong waves, and causes Tidal bore. Tidal bore holds the height of 3-4 feet to approximate 40 feet. The rivers whose estuaries are narrow or facing sand damp in their front, originate strong tidal bore. In Bangladesh, strong tidal bore usually takes place in the new moon's tide during the rainy season. But its velocity gets increased after its entrance into the land surface. The Meghna, the Vagirothi, the Amazan, etc. rivers become usually succumbed with the excessive tidal bore. A havoc wear and tear including submersion of boats, steamers, ships, etc. inadvertently happen due to such tidal bore from time to time.

Exercise Short questions: 1. Why does acid-storm fall in the Planet Venus? 2. Why does Jupiter require much time to move round the Sun? 3. Why can aircrafts pass through the Tropopause? 4. Why does Ozone level possess excessive temperature? Descriptive questions: 1. Why do the day and night get changed at the time of passing through the International Date Line? 2. Which imaginary line is more important in deciding the location of any place? Multiple choice questions: 1. Which one of the following is the satellite of uranus? a. Capitus b. Ariel c. Nereid d. Ganymede 2. Which gases remain mixed in Saturn's atmosphere? a. Nitrogen and Helium b. Hydrogen and Helium c. Carbon dioxide and Helium d. Oxygen and Helium

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3. Due to the rotation of the Earth through the space elliptical in shape ─ i. Different seasons come into view ii The Gravitation force gets increased or decreased iii Disparity occurs in the length of day-night Which one is correct in the following ─ a. i b. i & ii c. i & iii d. ii & iii Read the following passage and answer the Question No. 4 and 5. Orpita regularly sits to study very early in the morning. Once she noticed that a star is being observed at dawn. She understands that she has noticed a planet. 4. What is the name of the planet noticed by orpita? a. Venue b. Saturn c. Mars d. Neptune 5. What dissimilarity of that planet with the Earth can be found? a. The planet possesses no natural satellite b. Temperature in the planet remains below the freezing point c. The planet has belts around it d. The planet is of bluish color Creative questions: 1. Venue Axis A 30° North B 50° South

Meridian of Longitude 105° West 56°West

Date June 22 June 22

Time 7 AM ?

a. What is an Axis? b. What is the Sunspot? c. When the local time at the place marked with A in the table is 6:15, what is the local time at the place marked with B? d. Will the length of day-night be same at both the places on that date? Give reasons in favor of your answer.


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2. Mysha lives in Sweden (at 66.5° North Axis and 15° East Merdian). She congratulated her younger sister Maliha staying in Canbera (35° Axis and 150° East Meridian) at local time 6 AM on September 25 on her birthday. In the course of time, Maliha informed her that she is going to visit Sweden on the following December 28. a. What do you understand by a Solar Year? b. What is a Leap Year? Explain. c. When did Mysha talk to as per the local time of Canbera? d. Will the same season exist in both the places when Maliha will go to visit over there? Give arguments supporting your answer. 3. Synthia went to visit Cox's Bazar accompanying her parents. They became highly attracted seeing the calm disposition of the sea in the presence of the full Moon' rays in the evening. Afterwards, they noticed the inflation of seawater falling to the bank with a severe force. Her father told her not to be afraid. a. What is the Vagirothi? b. What is the Centrifugal Force? Explain. c. Explain the reasons why such reaction was held in the seawater then. d. Does the incidence seen by Synthia have any effect on the economic activities of the human beings? 4. Venue Axis Meridian of Longitude Date Time Mexico 30° North 105° West June 22 ? Willing 50° South 75° West June 22 7 AM Islands a. What is an Antipode? b. Why is the Planet Neptune cold? c. What will be the time difference in between Mexico's local time and the Willing Islands mentioned in the table? d. Give a relative explanation to the length of both the days-nights on the same date.

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The Configuration of Land and the Climate of Bangladesh Bangladesh is one of the large deltas of the world. The whole of Bangladesh is formed with generic hilly region, limited high land and a vast area of plain land washed by riverwater. The land configuration of this country is of low and level. The climate of Bangladesh is on the whole equable. The monsoon has a great influence over the climate. As a result, different seasons come in rotation at different periods of the year. Sometimes we feel hot and sometimes cold because of the climatic change in different seasons. A heavy rainfall takes place here due to the climate. For this reason, an excessive rainfall, untimely tide and tidal wave influence people's lives. The people have to confront with different disasters and difficulties. In this chapter, we will be acquainted with the configuration of land, climate and natural disasters of Bangladesh.

After reading this chapter, we will be able to─ • describe geographical location and periphery of Bangladesh; • identify the geographical location in the World -map and the configuration of land Bangladesh; • explain the classification and formation of land of Bangladesh; • explain how the formation of land configuration extends its influence over spreading of population (habitation); • explain the influence of spreading habitation on the use of land in Bangladesh; • be awakened in preservation of environment; • compare features of climate of Bangladesh to that of some countries of South Asia (like India, Myanmar and Nepal);

• explain the influence of climate over the people's lives and their livelihood in Bangladesh, and prepare a statement in this respect; • explain the surmise of earthquake and its reasons; • narrate situations of some countries termed as earthquake-prone regions; • explain why Bangladesh is called earthquake prone region; • explain preparedness and necessary steps of Bangladesh in confronting the risk of earthquake; • be alert on encountering difficulties due to change of climate, and have capability for adaptation; • grow supportive attitude in confronting situation after-earthquake.


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Section 5.1: The Configuration of Land in Bangladesh Bangladesh possesses a moist region comprised of alluvium. The whole of Bangladesh except some generic hilly areas at its northeast and southeast parts and some limited highlands at the northwest thereof comprises of a vast level ground washed by riverwater. Bangladesh is situated at the basin of three largest rivers the Ganga, the Brahmaputra and the Meghna of South Asia. The configuration of land of this country is of low and level in nature. The Geographical Location and Periphery Bangladesh is situated to the South of Asia Continent, in between 20°.34′ North Axis and 26°38′ as well as 88°.01′ East Meridian of Longitude and 92°41′ East Longitude, and the Tropic of Cancer passes through (23°.5′) over the middle of Bangladesh. The maximum extent of East-West 440 km, and the maximum extent from north-northwest to south-southeast 760 km. West Bengal of India, Meghalaya and Assam are situated to the North of Bangladesh; Assam, Tripura, Mizoram and Mayanmar to the East; the Bay of Bengal to the South and West Bengal of India to the West of Bangladesh. A total area of Bangladesh is 1,47,570 square kilometers or 56,977 square miles.

Figure 5.1: Bangladesh in the World's Map

The Classification and the Formation of Land-Configuration Bangladesh is one of the largest deltas of the World. A number of rivers flow through it. Among them, the main ones are the Padma, the Jamuna, the Meghna, the Brahmaputra, the Shitalaksha, and the Karnaphuli. Since the region of Bangladesh possesses a gradual slanting ground from the North towards the South, these rivers, tributaries and effluents flow from the North to the South towards the Bay of Bengal. Almost the whole region except the hilly areas at northeast and southeast side of Bangladesh, is level in shape and washed by river-alluvium. The Entire Bangladesh possesses almost a vast area of level land. Bangladesh possesses a small area of high land. She, on the basis of her land configuration, may be chiefly divisible into three categories ─ the hills of Tertiary age, Flight of steps of Pleistocene age and Flood-level land of the recent age. The Hills of the Tertiary Age: The Hills of the Tertiary Age possess an approximate 12% area of the total volume of Bangladesh. These hills were formed while the

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Himalayas was formed in Tertiary Age. The hills existing in this part, have been divided into two categories, such as The Hills of the South-Eastern region and The Hills of the NorthEastern region. The Hills of the South-Eastern Region: This region comprises of Rangamati, Bandarban, Khagrachhori, Cox's Bazar and the Eastern region of Chittagong district. The hills and mountains existing in this part possess an average height of 610 meters. At present, the name of the highest peak of Bangladesh is Tajiodong (Bijoy) possessing a height of 1,231 meters. It situates within Bandarban District. The second highest peak of Bangladesh is Cucradong possessing a height of 1,230 meters only. Besides, there are two other mountain peaks, Modokmual (1,000 meters) and Pyramid (915 Meters). The hills and mountains in this region comprise of sandstone, clay and cell-stone as well. Figure 5.2 : Extent percentage The Hills of the North Eastern Region: This part of the Configuration of Land comprises of the hills of the northeastern region existing at the northern region of Mymensingh and Netrokona, at the north and northwestern region of Sylhet, and at the south of Moulvibazar and Habiganj. These hills possess an average height not exceeding 244 meters. The hills of the North are locally known as Tila (hillock). Their heights vary 30 to 90 meters. Chiknagul, Khasia and Jayantia are the main hills in this part. The Flights of steps/the plains of the Pleistocene age: This part comprises of about 8% of the total volume of land of Bangladesh. Approximately, the Pleistocene age is the age before 25,000 years. It is guessed that such flights of steps were formed due to originating of floods with the internally melted icy waters of that period. The flights of steps of the Pleistocene age may be divided into three categories The Barendra Bhumi (ancient gauda), the Modhupur and Bhawaler Gar (fort) and the Lalmai Hill. The Barendra Bhumi comprises of some parts of the districts of Naogaon, Rajshahi, Bogra, Joypurhat, Rangpur 5.3 : Land Configuration of Bangladesh and a particular region of the district of Dinajpur. The height of such areas is more than the flood level land by 6-12 meters. Soils of these areas are of grey and red colors. The courtyards of the Modhupur and


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Bhawal comprise of some parts of the districts of Mymensingh, Tangail, and Gazipur. It possesses a volume near about of 4,103 square kilometers. The height of such areas is more than the level land by 6-30 meters. Soils here possess radish and grey hues. The Lalmai Hill stretched from Lalmai, 8 km far away to the West from Comilla city upto Moynamoti. It possesses a volume of 34 square kilometers. The average height of these hills is 21 meters. Such soils also possess radish hues and are mixed with pebbles, sands and gravels. The Flood Level Land of the Recent Age: Bangladesh possesses a vast level land comprising about 80% of the total volume washed by river-water. As a number of rivers flow over the level land, they cause flood during the rainy season. Silts carried with flood water have been amassed for years after years, and formed this flood level land. This flood level land possesses a volume of 124,266 square kilometers. The soil level of the whole level land is very deep and the land is very fertile. The flood level land of the recent age may be categorically divided into several divisions such as the region that spread over most parts of Rangpur and Dinajpur situated in the northwest region of the country. In fact, this region is formed with alluvium carried from the Himalayas. This region stretches out over the districts of Dhaka, Tangail, Mymensingh, Jamalpur, Comilla, Noakhali, Sylhet, Pabna and some parts of Rajshahi. This region comprises of Sylhet, Sunamganj, Moulvibazar, the most part of Habiganj and a small part of the district of Kishoreganj and Netrokona to the East. The Delta plains comprise of Faridpur, Kushtia, Jessore, Khulna, Barisal, Patuakhali and a part of Dhaka. The coastal level land comprises of Noakhali and from lower part of Feni river up to Cox's Bazar. The watercourse level land comprises of Khulna and Patuakhali regions and a part of the district of Barguna. The soil of these regions of Bangladesh is very fertile and plays a vital role in producing agricultural produces. The Formation of Configuration of Land in Bangladesh and Population Bangladesh stands 9th considering its population in the world. The population density of this country is, in comparison to its land, very excessive. Besides, the growth rate of population here is also very high. The population of Bangladesh was 12.93 crore according to the census of 2001. Population growth rate was 1.48% and the density of population per square km is 876 heads in that census. At present, population of Bangladesh is about 14.97 crore, and the growth rate is 1.37 and the density of population per km is 1015 heads (Source: Census: 2011). But, disparity of population density varies in consideration of diverse regions of this country due to formation of land-configuration. Since Bangladesh possesses continual land Individual work: Identify the land configuration, people live almost everywhere on configuration of an area situated its territory. As the provision of livelihood is beside your school. toilsome in the Hill tracts and the Sundarban region, density of population is comparatively very less in these two areas. Provisions of livelihood are difficult due to lack in good road and railway communications in these areas. These areas are sparsely populated due to undeveloped communication system, woodland and its land configuration. Centering round the tea industries in Sylhet, habitation has been developed here.

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The level areas at the basin of rivers are formed of fertile silts. Cultivation of land is somewhat easy in such areas. That is why dense habitation has been noticed to grow in that region. Navigability of the rivers, convenience and opportunity of highways and railways attract the people to a great extent. Moreover, distribution of mass habitation is regulated due to the influence of climate over there. People prefer residing at such places having the equable condition to places having extreme climate. Weather condition in the whole area of Bangladesh is almost same, but the difference of cold and hot in the weather of northern region is relatively observed more. The mass people are preferably inclined to dwell in the level land due to the useful climate for cultivation and helpful condition for production of corns. In Bangladesh, the regions where mineral resources have been discovered, a large number of labourers and employees gather there in quest of livelihood, and made the places crowded with habitations. Pursuing the mineral resources, agricultural assets, forest-grown assets and livestock, the mass habitation has been developed. At such places, a lot of sundry incidental industries along with the leading industries have been established. Such areas have been turned into densely populated areas based on the leading industries because of augmentation of industrial trading. Thick cluster of habitation has been developed in these districts since the industrial cities have been grown particularly in Tejgaon, Tongi, Narsingdi, Khulna, Chittagong, etc. Easy communication may be maintained if there exists enough scope for modern communication in an area either by highway, railway or by rivers. Consequently, the area becomes numerously inhabited in the course of time. In recent days, education and culture have influenced the human society to a great extent. The region that provides much opportunity to exercise and practice education and culture, etc. the mass habitation also gets crowded normally. The Influence of Spreading Habitation on the Use of Land in Bangladesh Bangladesh is a thickly populated country. It has a larger population than its volume. Mass habitations also increased due to the growth of population. This country possesses less cultivable land comparing to its necessity. Rather its measure is getting lessened due to spreading out of further habitations which results in causing a fatal pressure over the land. Since our population is gradually increasing, a further pressure is being made on the agricultural land. The pressure increases on the land suitable for making habitations too. Already Individual work: Identify the influences of spreading of mass habitation problems in Bangladesh have been habitation over land management detected both in villages and cities. On the other of Bangladesh. hand, a cultivable piece of land is being divided into parts among the heirs. Continuously land becomes separated into pieces, and modern cultivation is not possibly made in such divided pieces of land. The cultivation in scientific system is not possible due to division and distribution of the land. For rapid population growth, a lot of dwellings are being constructed on a large extent minimising the agrarian land. A family that possessed 100 Bighas of land 30 years ago, now has 10 Bighas or less than that. In 1974, the land per head was .28 acre, which has been .25 at present. It will be reduced in near future. People have brought changes in the direction of


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land for excess population and necessity of habitation increase. For example, people need to make their dwelling places by filling canals, marshes with earth and cutting down trees at random. If such acts continue, natural disorder may be inevitable in future. Section 5.2: The Climate and Natural Disaster of Bangladesh A climate implies the daily average state of climate's constituent pervading in a vast region. The influence of climate over human lives is multifarious and important. Climate somewhat gets varied at different times over the year due to monsoon. While in the Rainy Season, a heavy rainfall takes place and vast areas of Bangladesh get overflowed. It causes excessive rainfall and untimely flood. The change of climate causes different types of natural calamities. The Climate of Bangladesh and of Some Countries of South Asia The climate of Bangladesh is moderately warm, humid and equable. The influence of the monsoon in this region is so high that this climate is known as tropical monsoon climate as a whole. Three seasons of diverse characteristics are observed in Bangladesh which harmonise the overall climate of South Asia. Those are the winter, the summer and the rainy season. Disparity in climate is somehow observed in consideration of season, but no extreme weather is perceived here like that either of a cold country or of that of the tropical country. In fine, the dry and comfortable winter season and the hot and moist summer are the main features of the climate in Bangladesh. Features of climate on the three separate seasons prevail all over Bangladesh are described as follows: The Winter: The winter extends in Bangladesh from November to February every year. Since the Sun stays in the south hemisphere, its rays fall obliquely towards Bangladesh and in that time temperature of heat gets reduced in abundance. The highest and the lowest temperature during the winter range from 29°c to 11°c. January is the coldest month in Bangladesh. This month possesses an average temperature of 17.7°c. During this period, the temperature gradually reduces from the seashore at the South towards North, and equalhot-lines become largely erect, and stay at the east-west side. In January, an average temperature remains 20°c in Chittagong, 19.4°c in Noakhali, 18.3°c in Dhaka, 17.7°c in Bogra and 16.6°c in Dinajpur. But, sometimes the temperature in the northern zone gets more Figure: 5.4: The Average Temperature of reduced. Bangladesh (January)

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The Summer: The months from November to February make the Summer Season in Bangladesh. It is the hottest season of the year. The maximum temperature in this season remains at 38°C and the minimum temperature at 21°C. April is the hottest month on an average temperature. The temperature during this season gradually increases from the southern part towards the northern part due to maritime climate. Such as, an average temperature during April remains 27.64°C in Cox's Bazar, 28.66°C in Narayanganj and 30°C in Rajshahi. As the Sun draws near the tropic of cancer during the summer time in the north hemisphere, air pressure gets varied, and the southeast monsoon usually blows over the territory of Bangladesh. At that time, dry and cold air also blows from the West and northwestern sides. It is called (Northwester). Besides, the coastal areas of Bangladesh are frequently hit by the devastating cyclones in April and May due to downward pressure created in the Bay of Bengal. On 29 April 1991, a cyclone along with tidal wave hit the coastal areas of Bangladesh, particularly Chittagong coastal zone, and it resulted in a heavy destruction of assets and loss of lives. The Rainy Season: The months from June to October cover the rainy season in Bangladesh. This season starts with the arrival of monsoon at the end of June. During this period, the Sun emits its rays lengthways towards Bangladesh. That is why an excessive heat is observed here. But a heavy rainfall takes place during this period which results in increasing temperature not so high, as it was expected for the same; rather the weather always remains hot. An average temperature during this period remains approximate 27 degree celsius. June and September are the hottest months during the rainy season. A Four-fifths of the total rainfall takes place during the Rainy Season in Bangladesh. An average rainfall is minimum 119 cm and maximum 340 cm. Comparatively more rainfall happens in the eastern part of the country than in the western part. For example, the amount of rainfall reaches 114 cm in Pabna, 120 cm in Dhaka, 140 cm in Comilla, 180 cm in Srimongal and 190 cm in Rangamati. Monsoon Rainfall in Bangladesh During this season, rainfall takes place not less than 200 cm anywhere in the country either at the hill tracts or on the coastal belt. It pours up to 340 cm in mountainous areas of Sylhet, 200 cm in Patuakhali, 250 cm in Chittagong, 280 cm in Rangamati and 320 cm in Cox's Figure: 5.5: Monsoon Rainfall in Bangladesh Bazar.


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The Climate of India India possesses a vast volume of land, and diversified climates. It is because a difference happens in her axis, oceanic distance, stream of air etc. India is situated in the monsoon region. Consequently, her temperature, rainfall, moisture, etc. entirely depend on the flow of monsoon. The climate of India may be divided into four seasons in consideration of disparity in her temperature and rainfall ─ the Winter, the Summer, the Rainy Season, the Autumn and the Late Autumn. The Winter: As the Sun stays in the south hemisphere during the winter season, temperature all over India gets reduced to a great extent. The Winter covers from December to February in India. During this period, the eastern monsoon flows over India because it flows out from the frigid zone and blows through her land-surface and consequently causes blowing of dry and cold air over there. Since the Himalayas stand like a wall spreading over the northern region, dry and cold air cannot enter into India's atmosphere. Thus India gets protection from winter effect. During winter, the climate all over India remains dry, cold and comfortable. Sky remains lucid, fair and cloudless, and air possesses lesser amount of aqueous vapour. The Summer: The months from March to May make the summer in India. The sun stays at the Equator from the south hemisphere and it gradually moves forward towards the Tropic of cancer. Since the sun begins its summer solstice, temperature of India gradually increases accordingly. During this time, an average temperature of 27°C is observed at the valleys of the Ganges. Temperature gradually continues to increase as much as ahead towards the northern region. And, in that time, temperature in the desert areas at the northwest of India reaches to 48°C. Although the maximum temperature in May reaches to 43°C in Kolkata city, but an average temperature in the summer time does not exceed 20°C so far. The Rainy Season: The Rainy Season in India lasts from the months of June to September. As the Sun stays above the Tropic of Cancer at the end of June (June 21), the northern part of India serves excessively increased hot temperature (above 32°C), and temperature in the southern part thereof gradually gets reduced even below 27°C. Excessive hot temperature causes growing of a strong low pressure belt in Punjab within the northern India. The southeastern trade wind from the high-pressure belt of the Capricorn within the south hemisphere does not enter the equatorial lowpressure-belt, but moves directly towards Punjab after being attracted by the more powerful low pressure of Punjab. As this wind passes through a long way over the sea, it Figure: 5.6: Winter-Equal-Hot Line of India

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contains much aqueous vapour with it. That is why it causes a heavy rainfall at different regions of India after being resisted at the Himalayas and the walls of other high mountains. For this reason, an approximate 75% of the total rainfall of India, pours down during this season. The southwest monsoon being divided into two wings enters India, such as, the Arab oceanic wing flows over the Arab Sea and the Bay of Bengal wing flows over the Bay of Bengal. The Autumn and the late Autumn: October and November are the two months that make the Autumn and the late Autumn in India. During this season, the southwestern monsoon changes its direction and turns into the northeastern monsoon. It causes rainfall along with strong storm over some parts of India. Rainfall takes place during these seasons at West Bengal, Tamilnadu, Urishya and Medinapur coastal area. This strong storm, in the West Bengal, is called Ashwina Jhar. The climate and the amount of rain all over India gradually reduces at the end of Figure : 5. 7 : Rainfall and Stream of Air the Dewy season. during the Rainy Season in India

The Climate of Myanmar The Climate of Myanmar is similar to that of the Indian Subcontinent and seems like tropical monsoon. The climate of this region possesses a clear presence of three diverse seasons in consideration of differences in her temperature and rainfall, namely the Winter, the Summer and the Rainy season. The season wise features of climate of this region are discussed as follows: The Summer: The Summer in Myanmar comprises of the months from March to May. During this season, most part of the country gets very hot and an average temperature reaches almost to 29째C. The Sun stays in the north hemisphere during this season and a great low pressure is formed in the middle of Asia. Monsoon begins to flow over there. During this season, temperature remains 19째C in Bhamo, 32째C in Mandalaya and 27째C in Rangoon as well. The Rainy Season: The Winter in Myanmar comprises of the months from May to October. A heavy rainfall takes place in this region due to the southwest monsoon, and at the middle of May, normal rainfall takes place in Rangoon, and at the end of that month, it prevails all over the country and continues to do so until October. A great difference in the amount of such rainfall is observed in different regions of Myanmar. A heavy rainfall persists up to 200 cm on the coastal belt of Arakan and Tenaserim for the monsoon in the southwestern part, whereas only 80 cm rainfall takes place in the northern hilly regions. The Winter: As the sun stays in the south hemisphere during this time, a great high pressure is formed in the middle of Asia in the north hemisphere. A low pressure is formed from here


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in the relatively more hot areas in comparison to that in the sea at the southeast side that causes the blowing of the northeast trade wind towards the southwest side instead. Although it is expected that Myanmar would possess excessive cold due to the influence of cold stream of air in the North, but cold cannot be so severe due to the existence of hilly region in the North. This stream of air prolongs to blow till the month of March. During this time, snowfall pours over the high hilly region in the North of Myanmar, and its temperature reaches almost at the freezing point. The Climate of Nepal In Nepal, considering its existing temperature and Group work: Make a list showing rainfall in the climate, two seasons are clearly features of the climate existing in perceived over there. Heavy rainfall persists in this Bangladesh, India, Myanmar and region during the months from June to September, and Nepal. this period is called the Rainy Season. The temperature in July at Katmandu remains 24.4째C. On the other hand, a very dry condition and lack of rains persist over there from the months of November till January in Nepal. The temperature is also reduced during this season to a great extent, so, it is considerably termed as the winter season. The temperature at Katmandu remains approximately 10째C in January. The condition of temperature of any other parts of Nepal does not increase at the high hilly regions, and much difference of temperature in between cold and hot is observed over there. The yearly average rainfall in Nepal is 145 cm, most of which takes place within the months of June to September. The Influence of Climate upon the People's Life and Livelihoods in Bangladesh The socio-economic condition of the people of Bangladesh depends largely on nature and natural resources due to its geographical position and the climate as well. A lot of changes take place in people's life and livelihoods here due to the change of climate. Depending on its climate, frequent natural calamities and disasters, long-lasting floods, disintegration of rivers cause changes in the living and livelihoods of the people. A heavy rainfall takes place in Bangladesh due to the influence of the southwest monsoon during the rainy season. Consequently, diverse crops and fruits grow here. A little rainfall takes place in this country during the winter season due to the influence of the northeast monsoon. Consequently, diverse rabi crops like paddy, wheat, tobacco and different sorts of pulses, oilseeds, round potatoes, onions, garlic, coriander, etc. and various vegetables, can be produced here. Silts carried by flood water overflowed to the agricultural land that enhance fertility of agricultural sites, and cause to grow better crops as well. An average temperature across the country has increased due to the change of climate. A heavy rainfall is taking place during the rainy season and sometimes the advancing of the rainy season is delaying. The heavy rainfall within a short time, landslip, flood and hill-slide due to heavy rainfall are the common phenomena here. Sea level has heightened. The sea level of the Hiron point, Char Changa and Cox's Bazar has also been increasing by 4 mm to 6 mm every year (NAPA- 2005). The rivers flowing through this country protect Individual work: Identify the human lives and their livelihoods as well. Human influence of change of climate life-styles are experiencing change because of the over the environment. disappearance of the rivers. Besides, about 4,00000

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people have become homeless because of river erosion, and have taken shelters in cities for their livelihoods. A number of ordinary farmers are getting employed in the cities due to obstruction in agricultural production, which consequently causes disintegration of family, insecurity of children, aged persons and women as well. Living and livelihoods have a close relation to the environment they exist in. A number of creatures of the animal kingdom, being failed to cope up with the change of climate and with environment has been extinct, animal variegation has been vanished and food production has been reduced in the course of time. Accordingly, the hunger and poverty have increased. The Fishermen residing at the coastal belt are changing their profession and a number of Fishermen are moving towards the cities for their livelihood in quest of employment over there. Livelihoods of the coastal area people, by any means, depend on the natural resources. People residing at this region, the poor people, the hardcore poor, middle class people and the rich people pass their lives depending on natural resources like ponds, canals, landed property, gardens, trees and plants, fish, etc. The foundation of their living existence is getting lost due to different kinds of disasters because of the change of climate. Various natural calamities such as water lodging, salted water, flood, deluge, storm, Sidr, Ayla, cyclone, etc. have influenced human lives and their livelihoods immensely. The Concept of Earthquake and its Reason Earthquake is one of the natural disasters. This tendency of earth is observed almost in a number of countries and regions of the world. Earthquake is held liable for lots of devastation in human civilization. It is supposed that approximate 15 million people died caused by earthquake over the last 4000 years. The earth-surface is being transformed through different natural processes. The scientists resolve that heat from the radioactive substances is dispersed beneath the earth's crust. This heat being amassed causes convectional stream within the Earth, and there generates a strong force which causes agitation and metamorphosis at different parts of the crust. Such metamorphosis within the crust by the internal force takes place either in sudden course or in slow course. Earthquakes and volcanoes are major force among all other forces causing metamorphosis in sudden process. The Earthquake Sometimes some parts of the earth-surface get an unexpectedly shake for some reason. This quake or shake turns to severe state from its very tender state which normally lasts for few seconds. Such sudden and momentary vibration of the surface of earth is called 'earthquake'. The region within the interior side of the earth where an earthquake is formed is called the Focus of earthquake. The name of the outer surface of earth at just above the focus is called Epicenter. The velocity of the quake from the Epicenter gradually is reduced around. Quake severity line The Reasons for Earthquake: While searching the possible reasons for earthquake, the scientists noticed that some regions of the world are earthquake prone. In this zone, the new mountain ranges are situated. Their idea is that earthquake takes place when any sudden shakes stimulate the earth all along the detachment or crack of the foundationrock. Besides, earthquake also takes place while saliva of a Figure 5.8 : Focus and volcano comes out of the interior side of the earth. When the Epicenter of earthquake


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earth's crust gets compressed by dispersing heat, crack Individual work: Identify the or plait is created in order to maintain consistency of reasons causing an earthquake. load at the rock-level down the earth, and a quake of earth is also observed. When rock is collapsed or displaced at any place of the earth's crust due to earth-agitation, a vibration in earth is observed. Besides, when either of the two plaits staying abreast enters the bottom all along the others' periphery or fluctuates horizontally, a quake in earth is observed within such fractious environment. The scientists have identified two reasons for earthquake. Firstly, the crack that is created in the earth's crust due to collision within the plaits causes quake into the earth. Secondly, an earthquake takes place when magma diffuses inside or below the earth, or remains in a pressure-free state towards the deviation-line. The Reasons for Earthquake in Bangladesh Bangladesh is situated, for its geographic location, at the periphery of the Indian and European plaits. For this reason, it has been in an earthquakes prone region. Earth's agitating force is active in Bangladesh for her earth's category and the internal structure. That is why, the country remains in an active earthquake zone and thus earthquake is a common phenomenon here. For different human and natural reasons, some parts of the country are getting compressed downward and some parts are getting a lift. For such position of earth, the possibility of earthquake may increase gradually. When cracks are created in hilly regions due to earthquake, and when such cracks cause to increase further cracks, then an earthquake occurs. An earthquake is likely to happen because of the category of earth. Different reasons created by human beings including cutting down of hills have increased the possibility of earthquake in Bangladesh. The Consequences of Earthquake A lot of changes and damages take place in the world due to earthquake. A direct or indirect consequence of earthquake is discussed below: An innumerable cracks and dislocations are created in the earth's crust because of earthquake. Sometimes a vast area of land at the bottom of the sea rises for the earthquake. Again, sometimes a large area of land at the surface submerges at the bottom of the sea. Sometimes, a river-motion is changed or blocked. Big ice-pieces suddenly fall down from the hillsides because of the earthquake, and causes Group work: Make a list showing heavy damages of the hills. The sea level gets down the impact of the earthquake. from the shore for the shake of the quake, and then the seawater falls out towards the shore in the form of waves arising at a height of 15-20 meters with horrible roar. Such tidal waves are called Tsunami. On 26 December 2004, with the blows of Tsunami created due to earthquake, innumerable lives and assets were lost in different countries such as in Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and India. Sometimes, the highlands get submerged into the sea-water. And sometimes, a place at the bottom of the sea gets up and forms islands in the sea. Because of the influence of earthquake, a horizontal side-pressure on the surface of the earth persists. Consequently, it gets contracted and makes fold. Landslip gets sloped from hilly region for earthquake, and resists the river-motion which causes the formation of a lake. Because of earthquake, famine and devastating epidemic continue in the damaged area for which a heavy loss of lives takes place. The telephone lines, electricity, etc. get disconnected, and make the communication

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system disrupted. The road communication is damaged too. If a strong earthquake takes place at the bottom of the sea, big dams, culvert and bridges existing on the surface are damaged. Sometimes, it causes Tsunami. The Steps to Minimize the Losses of Earthquake: A correct forecast on any natural calamity may help minimize the measure of destruction. Particularly, correct forecast on the origin of disasters, duration of staying, force limit and the areas that may be victim by the same is very important. The nature of earthquake is different from that of the other disasters. Moreover, it takes place suddenly, continues momentarily, and occurs within the interior of the earth. That is why there is no scope to observe it directly. If some steps are taken, it may help guess about an earthquake. The scientists have guessed that the regions where no earthquake has taken place during the last 100 years but are normally identified as earthquake prone zone, the possibility of earthquake is greater in that zone. Among this region, the most mentionable are South California, Middle Japan, Middle Chile, Taiwan and the west coastal areas of Sumatra, etc. A high-degree earthquake measured in the Richter scale may take place in these regions within several decades to come. It is possible to minimize the losses if the following steps are taken in the earthquake prone regions. While constructing any infrastructure anywhere, the soil should be tested by experts, and the foundation of the structure should be made firm and strong. A safe distance should be maintained in between two constructions that must have several doors instead of one, and any multi-storey building should possess emergency exits where necessary. Lines of electricity, gas, etc. should be maintained in a faultless state. The furniture of the house should preferably be made of wood as much as possible. There should be a helmet for each of the family members in a residence. At the time of earthquake, switches of electricity and gas line should be kept off, and people should take shelter in an open space. World Earthquake Prone Region The virulence of earthquake is not the same all over the world. The earthquake prone zone may chiefly be divided into three regions: The Regions Extending over the Pacific Ocean: Earthquakes are mostly observed alongside the external periphery of the Figure 5.9: World Earthquake Prone Region Pacific Ocean. Within this region, Japan, Philippines, Chile, Allician islands, Alaska are known as the most earthquakes prone regions. The Regions Extending over the Mediterranean-Himalayas: This region comprises of the part extending over the Aleppo Mountain through the north bank of the Mediterranean and through Kocacious, Iran, the Himalayas, the Indo-China and the West-Indian islands up to New Zealand. The Regions extending over the Ridges of the Middle Atlantic-Mediterranean: The middle Atlantic ridge along with the North-South and the Indian Oceanic ridge being conjoined have run into the part of the Mediterranean to the Red Sea in Africa.


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Besides these three main belts, the virulence of earthquake is also observed at some parts inside the surface of earth and at the pits of the oceans. Bangladesh The experts opine that Bangladesh is situated at an active earthquake prone zone. An earthquake takes place in Bangladesh because of the collisions happened in tectonic plaits. Bangladesh stands in between the earthquakes prone Indian plait and the Myanmar sub-plait. The geologists say that liniamote extends over the region starting from Assam up to Pagla of Dhaka. This liniamote is linked with the AssamDouki Danger-fault at the East-West. Sylhet of Bangladesh is situated at this Danger fault-line. A French Engineering Consortium drew a map mixed with earthquake belts of Bangladesh in 1989. These belts have been shown therein. It termed the first belt as 'Terribly Disturbing' the second one as Figure 5.10: Earthquakes Prone Region of 'Dangerous' and the third one as 'Venial'. Bangladesh These belts are called ‘Seismic Risk Zone’. Bandarban, Chittagong, Sylhet, Mymensingh and Rangpur are situated in the first belt; and Dhaka, Tangail, Bogra, Dinajpur, Comilla and Rangamati in the second belt; and all other regions in the third one as well. The Preparations and Necessary Steps of Bangladesh to Confront Risk of Earthquake No minimum preparation exists in Bangladesh to confront topsy-turvy of any severe earthquake. For its poor rescuing measures and capability, a medium scale earthquake may cause a catastrophe in Dhaka. Millions of people may be the prey of death in a helpless situation. The risk of earthquake is getting worse as the consequence of population density, unplanned cities, lots of multi-storey buildings, lack of open spaces, narrow lanes, poor rescuing measures and equipments. If all the concerned people with earthquake can consciously take necessary steps, it may be possible to restrain the earthquake and to minimize its losses to a great extent. If we take a careful look, we will notice that an earthquake takes place in our country for 30-35 seconds, more loss of lives will occur because of the delay and failure in rescue operation than the loss of lives may be caused by the same. For this reason, it is necessary for us to have proper idea on preparation in confronting the earthquake. An earthquake may cause a heavy loss within short time, and lasts for short while. It suddenly occurs within the interior side of earth. Consequently, there exists no scope to directly observe the earthquake anyhow. Notwithstanding, the geologists

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can refer to some advance steps to confront the earthquake which may largely help minimize the loss. The Preparation of Bangladesh in Confronting Risk of Earthquake The preparations that should be taken for an earthquake are as follows: Those who will construct new buildings should comply with the National Building Code while compiling structure and designs for the same accordingly, and they should construct their buildings with the quality construction materials under the supervision of expert engineers as well. While constructing walls with bricks, no building should be built above 4-storey height; if a building is above two storey-heights, an erect steel rod should be put in between the bricks at each corner, and an erect steel rod should be put in between each window and door too. It is not good to make windows or doors at corner-side any way. If such alertness is taken into consideration, brick-built buildings' resistance capacity increases. Although cracks may take place on the wall during earthquake, they will not collapse so easily. But, it will cost more 1% to 2% than the average construction. Tin-shed houses in the village have hardly in a risk because of the earthquake. But the houses made of earth have no resistance power. In order to increase the resistance force, bracing of wood or bamboos may be diagonally used to serve the purpose. If a building does not possess so resistance force, the building may further be made strong even after its construction work. In respect of concrete building, volume and shape of poor sites can be increased with concrete moldings by using extra amount of rods. Moreover, coating on walls by using Ferro cement may increase the resistance force. The ground floor should not be kept vacant. Resistance force of Semi-brick-built rooms may be increased by fastening the same around in the form of dragging. The Do’s and Don’ts of a Person in the Preparation of an Earthquake As a part of the preparation of earthquake, one should keep Indivisual work: Make a a battery-run radio and a torch light in the house. He list of the responsibilities of should keep a first-aid box ready to administer. He should a person during the eathe know where the main switches of gas, water and electricity quake. lines of the house remain and how to turn them off. He should identify the most protected site within the house. He should keep the contact numbers of hospitals, Fire Brigade, etc. to him. He should also provide the concept of earthquake to the children at schools, and instruct them on the do’s and don’ts at the time of earthquake. Finally, he should stay away from the brick-built buildings. The dos and don’ts of mass people during earthquake Each and every of the common people should keep oneself easy and tranquil at the time of earthquake. He should run away from the house if it is 1-storey construction. He should not be greedy confining at the home for something. He should not enter the house if he stays outside at the time of earthquake. If earthquake takes place during night and if he stays within any multi-storied building, he should stay under the table or the cot and should stay away from glass-windows. If it is necessary, he should take shelter at the corner of the room or at the bottom of the column.


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If anybody stays outside the house at the time of earthquake, he should stay away from any large trees, lines of electricity, water, gas, etc. He should not try to jump from any high-rise building, windows or roofs. If he is driving on the road, he should not continue driving but should keep the engine stopped. Landslide is most likely to take place at hills, mountains, high ditch or sloping land, one should take shelter at safe places from such risky sites. The Responsibility of a Conscious Individual after Earthquake While earthquake is over, a conscious people should examine his own injury as well as the injuries of others and provide first aid where necessary. He should check the lines and connections of water, gas, electricity, etc. He should open the windows and the doors of the house. He should keep the radio on in order to hear announcement centrally broadcast regarding confrontation of the disaster. One should not walk bare footed. He should be aware of plundering and work according to the advice of the experienced individuals.

Exercise Short questions: 1. Where is the location of Bangladesh by degrees at Axis and at Meridian of Longitudes? 2. Why are the hill tracks in the Northern regions of Bangladesh called hillocks? 3. What does Ashwina Jhor mean? 4. What is an Epicenter? 5. What is 'Seismic Risk Zone'? Descriptive questions: 1. Explain why a heavy rainfall takes place at different regions of India during the period starting from June to September. 2. Explain the roles played by the internal earth's force and its plaits for causing earthquake. Multiple choice questions: 1. In which district does the highest mountain peak of Bangladesh stand? a. Chittagong b. Khagrachhori c. Bandarban d. Rangamati 2. Due to the change of climatei. change has been made in people's occupations ii. sea-surface height is getting up iii. different species of animals are being endangered Which one of the following is correct a. i & ii b. i & iii c. ii & iii d. i, ii & iii Read the following passage and answer the question No. 3 & 4: Ristana once in an afternoon in December, along with her parents, went to visit a fair. Suddenly, it began to rain and they immediately took shelter under a tree, but after a scant rainfall, clouds went off.

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3. What type of wind did influence the rainfall witnessed by Ristana? a. North-East Monsoon b. North-West cool air c. North-West Monsoon d. North-West dry air. 4. Which crop can be produced with such rainfall? a. Maize b. Wheat c. Jute d. Cotton Creative questions: 1. North


Bay of Bengal India

Figure: The part of the Map of Bangladesh

Figure: The part of the Map of Bangladesh

a. Which line has passed through the middle of the territory of Bangladesh? b. Why do rivers of Bangladesh flow towards the Bay of Bengal? c. Explain the formation of land-configuration of the region marked with 'A' in the figure. d. What will be observed more in the region marked with 'B' & 'C' in the figure? Give arguments in support of your answer. 2. Sabbir was watching a disaster report on the television. The report was showing a sudden quaking of a city in Philippines that resulted in breaking down a considerable number of habitations and disconnection of electricity lines from several locations. Sabbir, after watching this terrible condition of that disaster felt the necessity for taking preparatory steps in order to resist such awful condition. a. What is Chiknagul? b. Explain the concept on Kalboishakhi. c. Explain the causes of disaster taking place in the above report watched by Sabbir. d. What type of preparatory measures did Sabbir feel necessary to take in respect of confronting the risk of such disaster? Explain in the light of the perused subjectmatter.


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The Rivers of Bangladesh and the Natural Resources Bangladesh is a land of rivers. Rivers make the lives active in Bangladesh. Numerous rivers flow down the North of the Himalayas and the hilly regions of India through Bangladesh. These rivers move crisscrossing the country. Many of the rivers are so long and wide. Some are narrow. Many rivers are now non-existent and wiped off the map, and some of the rivers are on the verge of death. At present, Bangladesh has a total of 700 rivers and rivulets. The total length of these rivers is 22,155 km. These rivers are our main resources. Besides, we have some land, soil, forest, agriculture and mineral resources including some other natural resources. The existence of Bangladesh largely depends on the accumulation, use and preservation of these resources. In this chapter, we will learn about our rivers and the natural resources of our country and will try to preserve this wealth.

After reading the chapter, we will be able to ─ •

• • •

describe the main rivers of Bangladesh such as the Padma, the Brahmaputra, the Jamuna, the Meghna, the Kornaphuli, the Tista, the Posur, the Sangu, the Naf and the Matamohuri, and to describe the sources, the routes of flowing and realise the importance of preserving them; explain the inter-dependence of rivers and dwellings; analyse the cause of water-crisis in a certain part of Bangladesh for the impact of the rivers of concerned countries; analyse the problems created by the water-crisis in some parts of Bangladesh and explain the opinion to resolve the issues; analyse the importance of rivers for communication, hydroelectricity and trade;

• realise the necessity of preserving the rivers to overcome water-crisis; • explain the concept of natural resources; • can compare the natural resources (mineral, forest, agriculture, water, and solar) of Bangladesh with several countries of South Asia (India, Myanmar and Nepal); • explain the concept of water resource management; • explain the importance of water resource management of water and food security of Bangladesh; • describe the alignment of forestry of Bangladesh; • analyse the significance of these resources in the economy of Bangladesh; • be aware of preserving the natural resources.

Section 6.1 : The Rivers and the Water Resources of Bangladesh The number of rivers in Bangladesh is about 700. Of these, the main rivers are the Padma, the Brahmaputra, the Jamuna, the Meghna, the Karnaphuli, the Tista, the Sangu etc. Most of the known rivers of Bangladesh originated from the Himalayas, Tibbet, Borak of Assam and the hills of Lusai. All these rivers flow into the Bay of Bengal in the end.

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The Padma: A single river has two different names. In India and in the North Bengal of India, it is familiar with the people as the Ganges, and in Bangladesh, it is known as the Padma. It has its source in the Gangotri Glacier of the middle of the Himalayas. Flowing through several states of North India, the Ganges entered the district of Rajshahi of Bangladesh. The main flow of Brahmaputra has connected with the river Jamuna near Goalanda. It has united with the Meghna at Chandpur assuming the name Padma which has fallen into the Bay of Bengal flowing through Barisal and Noakhali. This is one of the largest rivers of Bangladesh, and the total area adjacent to the Ganges-Padma is 34,188 square kilometer. Of the numerous branches of rivers flowing from the East to the West, the mentionable are the Bhagirathi, the Hugli, the Mathabhanga, the Isamoti, the Bhoirab, the Kumar, the Kapataksah, the Naboganga, the Chitra, the Mothumati, the Arial Kha, etc. The Brahmaputra and the Jamuna: The Brahmaputra originated at the Manos Sarobor (large lake) of Tibbet. It has entered the district of Kurigram of Bangladesh flowing through Assam. Before 1787, the main stream of river Brahmaputra flows through Mymensingh from the northwest to the southeast corner. But in 1787, the bed of the river rose up due to the earthquake, and the bed lost the containing capacity of water. So a new stream was created and it was named as the Jamuna. It was known as the Jamuna up to Goalanda to the South. Being united with the Ganges, it assumed the name Padma. The branches of the Jamuna are the Dholeshiri, and the Buriganga, the Dhorola, the Tista, the Karatoa, and the Atrai. Up to the confluence of river Ganges, the length of the Brahmaputra is 2897 km and the length of the shore is 5,80,160 square km of which 44,030 square km is situated in Bangladesh. The Meghna: The Meghna has been created at the confluence of the river Surma and Kushiara in the Figure 6.1: The rivers of Bangladesh district of Sylhet. Both the rivers originated from the river Borak of Asham in Naga-Monipur zone, and entered Sylhet of Bangladesh. It was named the Meghna, and moved towards the southwest corner after assuming the name Kalni near Azmiriganj of Sunamganj. Passing through Bhairab Bazar, it is united with the old Brahmaputra. The confluence of the Buriganga, the Dholeshori and the Shitalaksha has connected with the Meghna, and meeting with the Padma near Chandpur, the river has created an estuary. In the end, it falls into the Bay of Bengal. The river Moon, Titas, Gomoti, Bowlai are the branches of the Meghna. The alluvium soil and flood during the monsoon make the land of Bangladesh more fertile. The Karnaphuli: The main river of the southeast region of Bangladesh is the Karnaphuli. Its inception point is the mountain of Lusai. The river stretching the length of 320 Km falls into the Bay of Bengal flowing near the Chittagong city. The main branches of the Karnaphuli are river Kaptai, Halda, Kasalot, and Rangkhiang. Chittagong, the main sea port of Bangladesh, is situated on the bank of the river Karnaphuli. This river is important for the hydroelectric power station and the Chittagong port.


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The Tista: It originated in the hilly area of Sikkim, and flowing through Jolpaiguri and Dargiling of India, the Tista entered Bangladesh through the Dimla area. It changed its directon because of the flood in 1987 and started flowing through a dried up stream of the Brahmaputra. Before changing the direction, it was connected with the river Ganges, but now it is flowing together with the Brahmaputra. At present, the length of the river is 177 km and the wide ranges from 300-550 meters. The role of the Tista in draining away water in the northern region of Bangladesh is vital. The Tista barrage project had been constructed in 1997-98. It plays an important role in preserving and discharging water, in irrigation and in protecting flood. The Posur: The Bhairab or Rupsha, flowing by the south of Khulna, advanced further and by the right side of the landmasses of Trikona and Individual work: Identify the Dubla and through the southern Sundarban of the impacts of the rivers on rural Mongla port has fallen into the Bay of Bengal. The economy. length of the river is 142 Km, and the width ranges Individual work: Identify the from 460 meters to 2.4 km. This is so deep that the causes of low tide of the rivers. ships can either enter or leave the Mongla sea port easily throughout the year. The Posur plays an important role as a river-route of Khulna to Barisal and vice versa. The Sangu, Feni, Naf, Matamuhuri : Having originated from the Arakan hills and entered into the Chittagong hill-tracts, it was named 'Sangu'. It has fallen into the Bay of Bengal. It is 208 km of length. On the other hand, the river Feni had its origin in the hilly area of Tripura, and entered the district of Feni. The river Feni has fallen into the Bay of Bengal flowing by the south of Sandeep. The river Naf is situated at the boarder area of Bangladesh and Myanmar. Its estuary is very wide. It has fallen into the Bay of Bengal. Its length is 56 km. On the other hand, the river Matamuhuri has its source in the Maiver hills of Lama. This river has fallen into the Bay of Bengal by the western side of the district of Chokoria. Its length is about 120 km. The influence of these rivers on the economy of Bangladesh knows no bounds. Those are the sources of irrigation, industrial use and the generation of hydroelectricity. Not only that, the rivers are the sources of fish and proteins. Those are the main routes of transportation and communication too. These rivers carry the silt to increase the fertility of the land. The importance of these rivers is immense in our economic development since the agriculture, industry, trade and business, transportation, etc. largely depend on the river. The flow of our rivers has been feeble and the navigability is lost for creating obstruction against the flow, throwing industrial waste, maritime waste, untreated sewage, etc. We all should be aware to protect these rivers from being destroyed. The Reciprocal Relation between the River and Dwelling Human beings started living on the riverbanks since the ancient time because rivers would ensure their necessary water. On the other hand, water for irrigating cultivable land was also possible to get from the rivers. Rivers are closely related with catching fish for survival. Their roles as the main sources of food and earnings are also significant. Rivers have a great contribution to the building of human civilization. Subsequently,

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human beings used rivers for the development of life and livelihood. They would establish their dwellings near the rivers and search for livelihood too. As a result, the relation between rivers and the human being has been reciprocal. At present, this relation has been multifarious and close. Human beings have set up the villages and towns as the permanent dwellings through catching fish, carrying goods, and developing trade and commerce, etc. depending on the rivers. The rivers have become water resources. The population growth was utmost on the riverbanks. So, most of the towns and cities are built-up on the banks of the rivers such as Dhaka is built on the bank of the river Buriganga, Chittagong on the bank of the river Karnaphuli, Narayangonj on the bank of the river Shitalakksah, Sylhet on the bank of the river Surma, and Comilla on the bank of the river Gomoti. Now the use of rivers in establishing industries, factories, etc. is utmost. Rivers are given priority for developing a modern irrigation system to cultivate land by the modern technology. It is planned to bring the vast area of Kustia, Jessore and Khulna under the irrigation system from the project of the Ganges-Kapotaksha project. The people of that area will be benefited in agricultural production. From the multifarious project planning of the Karnaphuli, ships are being moved through the waterway of 644 km, cultivation is being possible in 10 lakh acres of land, and hydro-electricity is being generated building a dam at Kaptai. Besides, it has been made possible to keep Chittagong free from the devastating flood. The people of Rangpur, Bogra and Dinajpur are getting benefit from the Tista barrage project. On the other hand, taking water from the river Meghna it is been possible to develop the cultivation in Comilla, Noakhali and Chittagong. Various agricultural projects have been taken on the use of river water. As a result, the agroeconomy of the country is being developed day by day, employment of human being and food security are being ensured. In respect of communication with the people of the southern zone of the country through the waterway, the number of water vessels are being increased day by day. River route is picked for the transportation of goods. It is also chosen to give India the transit. As a result, Bangladesh gets the opportunity of earning a huge amount of foreign currency. The role of rivers is being increased day by day to develop the economic condition of the people of Bangladesh, to protect their health, to ensure fresh air and the supply of water in the cities. In the northern zone of the country, as the rivers are being dried up, crops fail, and the human life is facing the threat of destruction. That is why, dredging is needed to keep the navigability of the rivers immediately. All the rivers of the country should be protected to develop the economy, and the rural as well as the urban life. For this reason, the ecologists are carrying on awareness programme like ‘save rivers.’ The Reasons for Water Crisis, its Impact and Steps for Solution The Reasons for Water Crisis In spite of having numerous rivers, canals, marshes and pools in Bangladesh, the watercrisis is acute in some parts of the country. Although the reasons for crisis are different in different areas, there are some common reasons. A huge flow of water from the upstream of the rivers of Bangladesh comes down along with the silt. These silts fill up the river-bed and causes low tide of water. Besides, many rivers have been dried up. Numerous rivers of Northern and Southern zones are known


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as ‘dead rivers’. To keep the navigability of these rivers, regular dredging is necessary, and it should be continued. In spite of that, the tide has been low. Many rivers of Bangladesh have their origins in India. As India has made dams across several rivers, the flow of water of those rivers in our part has become low in the dry season. The Tista, the Padma, and the Kapotakkho have been dried up. The north-west zone of the country faces acute water crisis for constructing dam at Farakka. All the rivers including the Padma face negative Group Work: Make a list of consequences. The water crisis causes an ecologicalthe problems created by the imbalance especially in the dry season. low tide of the rivers. The flow of water in the main stream of the rivers is being low for pumping out a huge quantity of water for irrigation and other essential works. So, the rivers have lost their usual course and complexion. Many rivers are being dried up for constructing bridges, culverts, and dams disregarding the rules and regulations. The rivers are gradually losing their navigability in the dry and winter season for low tide, and it has an adverse effect on the society, economy and human life. Trade, fishing, communication are almost being closed. Those who dwell on the banks of the rivers are compelled to leave in search of different livelihood. The tide of the rivers becomes low in the dry season, but high in the rainy season. As a result, the dwelling places of the people are washed away because of tremendous pressure of the water, and people become homeless and destitute. If the rivers are dried up, there will be crisis of fish, and malnutrition may occur for protein deficiency. If the rivers lose their flow, the trade and profession that have been created a long ago may be destroyed, and the people who earn a living from the trade may be poor and destitute. The greenery on the bank of the rivers may be pale without water. So the existence of human beings and animals may be endangered. So, the rivers should be dredged regularly to keep the usual flow of the rivers, and unnecessary barrages, bridges, and culverts should not be built over them. The Role of the Waterway in Communication, Hydro-electricity and Trade The importance of the waterway in the fields of communication, hydro-electricity generation and trade is mentioned below: The Communication: The Rivers play a significant role in communication systems in the land of rivers. The Padma, the Karnaphuli, the Jamuna, the Kushiara, the Matamuhuri, the Atrai, the Modhumati, the Gorai, etc. rivers play an important role in providing service of carrying the passengers. All consider the waterway as the busiest route. The length of the waterway of this country is about 9833 km of which 3,865 km remains busy with the movements of marine vessels. Through the waterways of this country, millions of people travel by boats, launches, steamers, ships, etc every year. In this country, several government and non-government organizations have taken the responsibility of running these transport system. 'Inland Water Transport Authority' is an important agency of Bangladesh. In 1958, the 'Inland Water Transport Authority' was formed. Its abbreviated form is IWTA. This agency arranges water vessels as per the public requisition. The traveling cost on water route is moderate as there is no construction cost except some preservation cost. The Hydro-electricity: The electricity that is generated by using either the current of river-water or waterfall with the help of a turbine is called the hydro-electricity. It is a renewable power resource. The hydro-electricity started generating power during the

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Pakistani period by constructing a dam across the river Karnaphuli at Kaptai. This electricity can be produced at a very low cost. In the present world, the cost of electricity which is produced by oil, gas or nuclear burner is very high. As the generation cost of the hydroelectricity is very low, the increase of the production of electricity by using water resource is more profitable for the economy of Bangladesh. But, the mountains and hills convenient for generating hydro-electricity are few in number in our country. That is why Bangladesh has a few scope for producing hydro-electricity. Trade : A total of 75% commercial goods are transported through the inland waterway in Bangladesh. In 1972, the trade and commerce through waterway was institutionalised by establishing 'Bangladesh Shipping Corporation'. Once upon a time, we did not have any ship. Now the number of cargo ships are being increased day by day. Goods are being transported through almost Picture 6.2 : Map showing communication all the waterways by the government and system of Bangladesh. private enterprises. Goods can be transported easily even though unrest prevails in the country. In the rainy season, most of the goods are transported Group work: Make a list of by the waterway. But in the dry season, due to the the activities that depend on navigability problem, the movement of ships in some the rivers. of the rivers is rapidly decreasing. There is no alternative of water transport to develop our agriculture, fishery and industry. All the government and non-government institutions and organizations should come forward to make long-term planning and implement afterwards to make the trade and commerce of Bangladesh forceful. Then Bangladesh will be capable to achieving economic solvency by using the facilities of waterway and water resources. Section 6.2 :The Natural Resources of Bangladesh The Concept of Natural Resources The goods that are produced by the human beings by using the nature to fulfil his own demands are usually called the natural resources. Those are soil, water, forests, solar energy, fish, minerals, etc. The Natural Resources of Bangladesh and Several Countries of South Asia The natural resources of Bangladesh are almost same in comparison with the resources of several South Asian countries like India, Myanmar and Nepal. The descriptions of these natural resources are given below: The Agricultural Resources: The South-Asian countries like India, Bangladesh and Nepal are agriculture-based in nature. The farmers of these countries grow agricultural


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products depending on the land, nature, climate, soil, and rivers. Rain and temperature of a certain degree are needed to grow these agro-products. As a results, production varies in different areas. In some areas of India, the production of crops hampers either for immense cold weather or for scanty rainfall. At the bottom of the Himalayas of Nepal, crops grow very little, but in the river washed fertile zone of West Bengal of India, Bangladesh and Myanmar, paddy, wheat and other corps grow several times in a year. Paddy, potato and wheat grow plenty in Bangladesh. In the eastern zone of India and in the hilly area of the northeast zone of Bangladesh, tea is being produced. The production of wheat, maze, mustard, etc. are plenty too. The soil plays an important role in producing these crops. Cotton, tea, pepper etc. are grown well. The Forest-born Resources: The relation between the forest and the climate is very deep. The climate of Bangladesh is different from that of the South Asian countries like India, Myanmar and Nepal. In the hot and moist climatic zone, deep and extensive forests grow for heavy rainfall. In the hill tracts of Chittagong, the eastern zone of India and the northern zone of Myanmar, the ever green forests have been developed. The Fisheries: The land and the climate have a direct relation with the fisheries of a country. Bangladesh is regarded as a country of fishes for having rivers, canals, ponds, pools, marshes and fens in plenty. Many kinds of small and big fishes are found here. The Bay of Bengal is a big source of fishes. The neighboring countries of Myanmar, India and Nepal have sufficient fish resources. The Mineral Resources: Various kinds of mineral resources such as gas, coal, oil, limestone have been found under the ground of hilly districts of the eastern zone of Bangladesh. The demand of gas of the country can be fulfilled by collecting these resources. Natural gas has been found at the bottom of the sea. Still there are the possibility of having many kinds of animal and mineral resources. India is a large country of the southeast Asia. It is enriched with various mineral resources for having geological varieties. Myanmar is in an advanced stage regarding mineral resources, but Nepal is still lagging behind. The Solar Energy: The sun emits rays lengthways Group work: Make a list of the almost throughout the whole year in the southern natural resources mentioning the latitude of the equatorial zone. So, Bangladesh and important roles on different the other countries of the South Asia gets a huge fields of the economy. quantity of solar energy easily for being situated in Group work: Prepare a chart the equatorial or tropical zone. In the countries of this zone, the temperature never falls down. So the mentioning the steps that should be taken to preserve the natural people never have to stay in dark. In several countries of Europe and American continent, the sun resources of Bangladesh. gives rays in a slanted way. Sometimes the sun can not be seen even. That is why the people of those country have to spend a huge quantity of fuel to keep their residence suitable for living. The countries of our zone have not to do so. The sunlight that we get easily from the nature is a very valuable solar resource. We can use this solar energy through modern technology, and fulfil the demand of electricity. The possibility exists that we can develop in the fields of food, health care, and residential facilities by using the solar energy. The Concept of Water Resource Management The role of water is important for the existence of the animal and the human beings. So, water is a very valuable resource. The role of water is immense in the development of

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agriculture and industry. Though we can get sufficient water from the rainfall, the agricultural and industrial productions are hindered and life becomes complicated for the want of water in the cold and dry season. For Individual work: What are the that reason, the flow and distribution of water efforts that might be taken for water should be ensured through the proper and food safety of your locality? management. Getting and using water in a planned way is called the water management. Water usually exists in the solid, liquid and steam form. In the cold and dry season, the use of water can be ensured through proper management by reserving the water in the rivers, canals, ponds, pools and marshes. In the modern age, the management of water resource has been emphasised for the welfare of human beings, or the misuse, scarcity, and toxicity may cause environmental disaster and existence of the flora and fauna may face the threat of extinction. The Importance of Water Resource Management for Water and Food Security of Bangladesh Bangladesh is the most densely populated country of the world. It is hard to ensure the food, water and other securities of this large population. So, it has been difficult to cope with the increasing number of population. The problems of land management, water, food, and shelter are increasing in the country day by day. Though the population has been doubled in the last four decades after the liberation, the food production has increased three times as it was before, and the country has no big food crisis. But there is still the possibility of crop failure because of the water pollution and water crisis as well. So, all should extend hands for a permanent solution of food safety through the proper management of water resource of the country. The measures that should be taken to water management are given below: 1. The Preservation of Environment: The rivers, ponds, canals, pools, marshes, fens, forest and land should be preserved. 2. Ensuring Proper Use of Water: In the dry and winter season, the policy and strategy of misusing water should be implemented in the country. 3. Dredging Rivers Solve the Navigability Problem: The rivers of the country are filled-up with silt. Many rivers have been dried up. The proper dredging will ensure the flow of water and the necessary supply of water for agriculture and industry will be got from here. 4. Excavation of Connecting Canal and Reservoir: If several reservoirs can be excavated in the northern zone of Bangladesh, it will be possible to fulfil the demand of water in the dry season. The demand of water for producing crops will be fulfilled too. Pisces culture and fish-cultivation will be normal. 5. Saline-free Water: The soil of the southern zone of the country is salty for red colour. A thin layer over the soil spoils the fertility and causes crop failure. So, Pisces culture, agriculture and afforestation programmes are being hampered. Small dams should be made in these areas for keeping the supply of freshwater normal. As a result, the water and food security will be ensured. 6. The Protection of River Erosion: In the rainy season, new shore emerges and the river beds are filled-up with silts. The water safety should be ensured by dredging and protecting the erosion of rivers. 7. Using Limited Fertilizers and Pesticides: In our country, fertilizers and pesticides have been indiscriminately used in the agricultural sectors for a long time. So, the


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cultivation of Pisces culture and agriculture is hindered for acute water pollution. If the indiscriminate use of chemicals can be stopped, the qualities of soil and water can be protected. 8. The Proper Use of Science and Technology: The water resource of the country should be used in the welfare of the human beings. The scientific concepts and the technology should be used in increasing the production of agriculture. If the water resources of the country is ensured, the agricultural production will be increased gradually after fulfilling the need of water of the whole year. That is why we should ensure water and food security, and we should make the ‘National Water Policy’ properly effective in the country. The Classification of Forests of Bangladesh Where the trees grow in plenty is called the forest. Timber, honey, bee-wax, etc. are the resources of the forest. Bangladesh does not have sufficient forests. A country should have 20-25% of forest of the total area of land. But in Bangladesh, it is only 13%. The increasing population of the country requires valuable timber to make house and furniture. The requisite timber is collected from the land of forest of the country. As a result, the forest is gradually being decreased. Different types of forests are created in the different areas of Bangladesh on the basis of the climate and the variety of soil. The forest areas of Bangladesh are divided into four distinctive classes ─ the forest zone of Chittagong, the forest Zone of Sylhet, the Sundarbans, and the forest zone of Dhaka-Tangail-Mymensingh. As per the characteristics of trees, forests have been classified as follows: 1. The Tropical Evergreen and Deciduous Forest; 2. The Tropical Deciduous Forest; and 3. The Mangrove or Goran Forest. 1. The Tropical Evergreen and Deciduous Forest: The hilly regions of the southeast and northeast of Bangladesh are known as the tropical evergreen and deciduous forest area. Usually various kinds of trees such as the creeping plants, shrubs, and herbs grow in the hot and moist areas. The leaves of these trees do not sprout and fall down at a time. As a result, the forest remains green throughout the year. That is why these forests are called evergreen forest. Chittagong, Khagrachori, Rangamati, Bandarban and Sylhet are included in this zone. The total area of this forest is about 14 Picture 6.3 : The forest land of Bangladesh

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thousand square kilometers. The chapalish, moina, telsur, mehogani, jarul, segun, gorjan are the mentionable trees of this region. Bamboos and canes grow in plenty in the hilly region of Sylhet. Rubber is cultivated in Chittagong and Sylhet zone too. 2. The Tropical Deciduous Forest : Mymensingh, Tangail, Gazipur, Dinajpur and Rangpur comprise the tropical deciduous forest area. In the forests of these districts, leaves of the trees fall once in a year in the Winter. Besides the shal or gozari, the koroi, bohera, hezol, shiris, horotoki, jackfruit, nim etc. trees grow in plenty. In this forest, as the shal is the main tree, it is called the shal forest. In Mymensingh, Tangail and Gazipur, this forest is known as the Modhupur Vowal forest, and in Dinajpur, it is called the forest land of Borendra. 3. The Mangrove or Goran Forest Area: The trees that grow at the salty and wet soil washed by the ebb and flow of the sea near the seashore of Noakhali and Chittagong to the southwest zone of Bangladesh are called the Mangrove or Goran forest area. It grows in the Sundarban too. On the wet and salty soil, the sundari, gewya, porosh, dhundal, kewra, bayen, goran, etc. trees grow in plenty. Bangladesh has 4,192 square kilometers of Mangrove or Goran forest area. In the national life of Bangladesh, the forest land is important not only for forest resources but also for leading a healthy life in the midst of light, wind and in the green nature. The Importance of Natural Resources in Economy of Bangladesh In the economic development of Bangladesh, the importance of natural resources knows no bound. Agriculture, forests, Pisces culture, minerals, solar energy, water etc. are the important natural resources of the country. In economy of Bangladesh, it is possible to alleviate poverty, ensure food security and standardize life style. These natural resources accelerate the economic development. The land is the most important resource of Bangladesh. The soil of this country is so fertile that the farmers do not need much money for cultivating crops. By ensuring the utmost use of this fertile land, we can extend the production of agricultural crops, flower, and trees. The production of crops has been increased three times during the last forty years after the liberation of Bangladesh. By using the modern technology, high quality seeds, and scientific system of cultivation, Bangladesh may produce more crops. By cultivating various native and foreign fruits, it is possible to fulfil the demand of nutrition, and after fulfilling the local demand of vegetables, it might be exported to foreign country. The use of fertile land of Bangladesh has been increased in a large scale to meet the demands of housing, mills and factories, culverts, roads, towns, cities for the increasing population that has been developed financially as well. Unless the land is used in a planned way, the catastrophe in the national life is inevitable. In our economy, the importance of water as a natural resource is especially mentionable. The economic development of our agriculture and industry completely depend on the water of the rivers, canals, pools, marshes and fens. The Group work: Mention the importance communication system depends on the natural of natural resources in the economic resource like water too. The country is going to development of Bangladesh. be economically solvent by using the solar energy, mineral and forest resources of the country. The major portion of the national income of the country comes from the use of these resources. The natural resources of the country contribute a lot to the development of the mills and industries. As a result, the people are getting opportunity for employment, commodities of the local demands


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are being produced, and the export-oriented goods are being produced by using these resources. In the economic development, new efforts are being adopted. The use of natural resources are helping to take those efforts ahead. The demand and supply of the natural resources are being increased as raw materials, those are being treated with importance, and after fulfilling the demand of the country, these commodities are being exported to the foreign countries. As a result, the economic condition of the people is being developed. People are being more interested and conscious in producing crops, using forests and other natural resources. In this way, the economy of the country is rapidly progressing through the uses of the natural resources and the economic efforts of human beings, and the people are moving towards the dream of a developed life.

Exercise Short questions: 1. What is the solar energy? 2. What is the facility of the production of hydro electricity? 3. How will you define the idea of preservation of rivers? Descriptive questions: 1. How are the human dwellings expanded centring the rivers? Explain. 2. What steps might be taken for keeping the flow of the rivers? 3. Analyse the influence of climate on agriculture and forests. 4. Analyse the importance of preserving the natural resources. 5. Explain the cause of water crisis in the northwest zone of Bangladesh in dry season. Multiple Choice Questions: 1. What is the source of the river Matamuhuri? a. The hill of Saiver b. The hills of Lusai c. The Manos Sarobor d. The Gangotri Glacier 2. What is the characteristic of the Gozari trees? i. All the leaves fall down because of the difference of season. ii. Its leaves remain evergreen. iii. It grows on the salty soil. Which one is correct? a. i b. i & ii c. i & iii d. ii & iii

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Read the paragraph below and answer to the question No. 3 & 4: Sajib went to a forest of the eastern zone of India on a study tour and noticed that the trees of that place are high and dense. The teacher told them that trees like such height grow in plenty in a zone of Bangladesh. 3. Which trees are grown in the forest watched by Sajib? a. The Segun b. The Bohera c. The Shiris d. The Dhundol 4. In which place of Bangladesh such similar forest is seen? a. Tangail b. Dinajpur c. The hill tracts of Chittagong d. Noakhali Creative questions: 1. Zahid is a student of Chittagong University. He went to the forest of that place with some of his foreign friends on vacation. They were spell bound seeing the beauty of the forest abundant with the segun, gorjon, jarul trees. On the way back, Zahid took them on the bank of the main river of that region, and told them that this river was the source of endless power. a. What is the Naf? b. Explain the cause of the creation of branch of the Brahmaputra. c. Explain the characteristics of the trees mentioned in the paragraph. d. Analyse the aptness of the comment made by Zahid in the light of the subject read by you. 2. Azmol Miah was a dweller on the bank of a river at the northern zone. Once he used to live on catching fishes. But now, he has to change his profession as the course of the river is changed, and he has become very poor as the river has devoured his land and hut. In his region, people have fallen in deep crisis due to water shortage in the dry season. a. What are the mineral resources discovered in the lower bed of the Bay of Bengal? b. Why is the huge solar energy found in the South Asian countries? c. Explain the causes of changing the flow of the river in the zone where Azmol Miah lived. d. What kinds of steps might be taken to eliminate the crisis mentioned in the paragraph?


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The State, Citizenship and Law Generally, the state means the government, the country, the society or the nation. The state is the most important political institution of a social life. The state had emerged to unify all citizens and resolve their problems as well as ensure their welfare. In a certain level of the evolving process, the state emerged from the society. In the ancient and middle ages, the state was considered as an organization formed by the God. The modern political thinkers explain the state as an organization ‘to provide common welfare’ and ‘indispensable for the independence of the people and flourishing their personality’. The state is for the citizens. The state has to discharge many responsilibilites to ensure citizens’ peace and happiness. Some of these works are mandatory and some of the works are optional. Besides, the citizens also have some duties and responsibilities to the state. On the other hand, rules and regulations are necessary to ensure security of the citizens, and solve the existing problems of the society. In this chapter we will learn about the state, citizen and law. After reading this chapter, we will be able to ─ • • • •

explain the concept of state; explain the works of the state; explain the concept of citizen; explain the duties and responsibilities to the state as a citizen of Bangladesh; • encourage ourselves to discharge responsibilities as a citizen;

• explain the concept of law; • explain the sources of law; • explain the necessities of laws for good governance; • describe the application of the Right to Information Act of Bangladesh and be aware of it.

The Concept of the State Every human being lives in a certain state. A state never evolves suddenly. The ancient people would live in groups. The state emerged as time changed. People make the state. Every citizen of the state has to obey the rules and regulations of the state. The people of the states are called citizens. The state discharges many duties for the citizens so that they can live in peace and harmony. The political scientists and political theorists described the state in various ways. According to Aristotle, ‘The state is a union of families and villages having for each end and perfect and self sufficing life.’ According to R. M. MacIver, ‘The state is an association which acting through law as promulgated by a government endowed to this end with coercive power maintaining within a community territorially demarcated the universal external condition of social order.’ Professor Gerner gave the most complete and clear definition of state. According to him, ‘The state is a community of person more or less numerous permanenetly occupying a definite portion of territory independent (or nearly so) of which the great body of inhabitants render habitual obedience.’ So we can say that the state is a society based on a certain territory which has organized government and citizens, and have sovereign power upon all organizations in a specific geographical area.

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The basic elements of the State If we analyse the concept of state, we will notice four essential elements of it: the people, the specific geographical territory, the government, and the sovereignty. Each state consists of these four elements. The People: The primary element of the state is its people. People means the people organized politically. People are necessary to form a state. The state evolved from the intention of people to be united and to build up relationship among them. However, there is no such pre-requisite on the number of people to form a state. Politically the number of people of a state can be some crores. Even it can be few thousand, for example, the people of China and India are more than one hundred crore. On the other hand, small countries like San Marion and Monaco have 20 thousand and 14 thousand respectively. The Specific Geographical Territory: The specific geographical territory is the second mandatory element of a state. Every state is surrounded by a specific geographical border. The territory also includes land, sea and air. The sovereignty over the geographical territory is essential for the people of the state to live in that land. To uphold the right upon a Individual work: Which specific territory, the citizens unitedly launch the one is the most important nationalist movement, organize agitation and fight or element of the Bangladesh take steps according to the constitution. Every state state and why? establishes a security system based on its border. The geographical land can be big or small, for example, Russia is a huge country and Darus Salam, Switzerland, Bruni are very small country. The territory of Bangladesh emerged as an independent state in the world map after a liberation war in 1971. Sometimes, the specific geographical area of a state can be formed with some small islands, for example, Japan, Malaysia, Indonesia. The Government: The third essential element of a state is the Government. The control over a specific land is established after the formation of the government. The partial formation of the state is complete. There are three divisions for running of the government ─ the law, the administrative and the judiciary. Usually in a democratic system, the people form a government through the general election. The system of government can be different in different states. The Government is meant by everyone of the administration who participates dirrectly or indeirectly in running the state, i.e. the power of the state is administered by the government. According to Professor Gerner, ‘If we consider state as a body of a life, government is its brain’. The Sovereignty: The principal element to form a government is the sovereignty. The meaning of the word ‘sovereignty’ is the highest and absolute power. The formation of the state becomes complete when the sovereignty is ensured. This power distinguishes the state from the other organizations. The sovereignty is a characteristic of the state which is not bound to any other legally except its own will. In each social system, there will be a central authority which will execute the supreme power. And this power is the sovereign power. The ideal of sovereignty is the law. Everybody is bound to obey the law or the ideal of sovereignty. The sovereign power has both the inner and outer entity. By exercising the inner power, the state establishes its supremacy over all its citizens and organizations. No authority can exist over this sovereign power. The meaning of outer


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sovereignty is that the state will be free from the control and influence of outside power in the international arena. If any state has citizens, specific territory and government, but it lacks the sovereignty, will not be recognized as a state. As long as a state exists, the sovereignty will also prevail. The sovereignty will not be damaged by the change of the government. So the people, the specific territory, the government and the sovereignty are the four components that constitute the state. A State will not be formed for lack of any of these components. The Activities of the State We need to know that what a state does or can do as a part of the society. That is we will learn what service a state can provide to its citizen and what its capacity is. We know that a state emerges from the necessity of the people, and it plays the role of ensuring overall welfare of the human beings. According to the political analysts, the state discharges two types of duties─ controlling and ensuring welfare. Based on these two types of roles, the responsibilities of the modern state are divided into two parts. The mandatory or prime activities, and the welfare or optional activities. The Mandatory or Prime Activities: The responsibilities discharged by the state to protect the entity of the state, the independence and the sovereignty, and to conserve the rights of the people living in the territory are called the mandatory or prime activities of the state. The mandatory job of the government are described below: R.M. MacIver in his book The Modern State says, ‘maintaining law and order situation is the prime work or responsibilities of a state’. The organization called state has been evolved to ensure security of life and property of the citizen, and protect the freedom of the individuals. The key responsibilities of a state are to make the people abide by the laws, punish the offenders who break the peace and tranquility of the society, and maintain overall peace and harmony of the country. The state establishes political authority in local, regional and national levels to achieve this objectives. The state establishes the police and the para military forces to maintain the law and order situation. The Police, RAB, Ansar, Village Defense Party, etc. are working to maintain law and order in Bangladesh. The Protection of national security, independence and sovereignty are other mandatory responsibilities of the state. Establishment of a powerful defense force is another mandatory responsibility of the state to protect the country from the foreign intervention and to maintain the geographical integrity. In modern age, each of the independent states builds up powerful defense forces. The capability and modernisaiton of the defense force give a country special facilities in the international fields, for example, the USA and the UK have a leadership role in the world due to the power of their defense forces. The defense force is established with the army, navy and air forces. Introducing the country in the foreign field, establishing the rights upon the resources within the territory, establishing diplomatic relationship with other countries, signing

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various treaties and conventions, establishing regional courts and commercial market in foreign countries and extending them, ensuring security of the citizens residing in foreign country and providing them with various services are the mandatory responsibilities of the foreign offices of any state. The enactment of laws and its implementation, and ensuring justice are the fundamental duties of a state. The laws are enacted by the parliament. Establishment of the judicial council, Supreme Court, High Court, Judge Court and other courts to ensure justice are the mandatory works of the state. Every state establishes an administrative structure to accomplish the routine works, control and run the state smoothly. In this structure, recruiting staff and officials, distributing their works, providing instructions, supervising and directing are the mandatory work of the state. The appropriate management of the finance and resources, and the collection of funds and proper distribution are the other key resposibilities of the government. A huge amount of money is required to run the various activities of the government. The collection of this amount from various resources is the mandatory work of a state. Imposing tax and revenue on various goods, business organizations, individuals, traders, and collecting as well as sensible utilization of the money are the other important works of the state. Formulating budget, introducing currency, facilitating investment of money, determining unit of measurement, fixing the price for essential commodities are other important duties of the state. Managing economy, controlling inflation rate, controlling price of essential commodities are the other key responsibilities of a state. The Welfare or Optional Responsibilities: Almost all the countries of the world demand that they are welfare states. The political theorists once started thinking that the role of a state should not be confined to protecting law and order, and collecting revenue. The state should play roles for the overall Group work: Prepare a table development of the society and improve moral, social, cultural and economic conditions of the mentioning the works the state. citizen and ensure their welfare. These welfare and development works are the optional and less important work for a state. The more the state develops in the economy the more its optional works extend. The most important work of the state is to educate its people. The educated citizens are the most valuable resources of the state. The educated persons are aware of the citizen’s rights, duties and responsibilities and are encouraged to be a patriotic. The state gives much importance to the development of the education, and conveys the facilities of educations to its citizen’s door steps. The Government introduces compulsory primary education, organizes adult education with giving emphasise on women education, and initiates various programme for eradicating illiteracy. The state also play a significant social role for healthcare of the citizens and for wiping out various disparity and bad customs existed in the society. The state also establishes and runs hospitals, free medical centres, mother and child healthcare centre, family planning centre, temporary health camp around the country for ensuring healthcare services for its citizen and for arranging treatment facilities for the patients (nominal or


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free of charge). Besides, the state also provide services to ensure healthcare for its people, arrange pure drinking water, sewerage system, disease prevention measures and immunization programme. Besides, the state also plays a vital role to eradicate dowry and racism, prevent child marriage, and ensure gender equality etc. By ensuring the constant supply of essential commodities such as rice, pulses, flour, coarse flour, sugar, etc. the government should consolidate food security, and the through the modernization of agricultural systems, and providing subsidy to the agriculture, fertilizer, seeds, pesticide, irrigation system, and increasing production, the government should minimize food storage which nowadays becomes an important responsibility of the state. Because of the increasing population, demand for food has been increased. As a result the state has to give more attention to the food security compared to the previous time. The economic development of any state depends on the industrialization and improvement of trade and commerce. Establishing new industries, providing logistic support and loan to the entrepreneurs for setting up big industries, establishing industrial zone, expanding trade and commerce, creating markets for products and extending support to boost up export are the important works of a state. Every state should focuse how to be self-sufficient rather than depending on import. For this, the state has to emphasize on the scientific and technological research. Besides, setting up and running industries under the supervision of the state, it should create employment opportunities for a good number of people, and it’s aother optional work of the state. The infrastructural development of a country such as making roads, bridges and culverts, establishing roads, railway, waterway and air communication systems, ensuring post, telegraph and telecommunication services and connecting with modern mode of communication are some optional works of the state. A huge revolution in communication system has been taken place in the present world. The inter connectivity has been increased in this world because of using the Internet, networking and frequency. The technological improvement in the field of domestic and international communication are considered as the important optional works of a state. The establishment of appropriate transportation and communication system are essential for the development of a state. To maintain the harmony and unity among the people, projecting the national tradition and developing nationalism by the local culture, music and song, maintaining local diversification, conserving local crafts, establishing museum, organizing culture programmes, initiating cultural exchange are the important optional work of the state. Setting up stages for performance, establishment of playgrounds, parks and gardens for the recreations are also included among the responsibilities of the state. The most important optional work of the government is to defend the independence and rights of the people. The state will ensure freedom of speech, freedom of movement of its people and assist them in participating in the political activities. In this regards, it will organize free, fair and neutral election, create an environment so that people can involve in politics, ensure freedom of establishment of organization and political parties, coordinate among the conflicting interests of the people, preserve interest of minority, protect corruption, establish the right of the different ethnic communities, ensure shelter for the refugees, etc. Those are the optional political works of the state.

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The modern states take various initiatives to ensure the social security. Providing financial and other assistance to the poor, widows, orphans and disabled people residing in the state, providing allowance to the unemployed, giving pension and grants to the elderly people, etc. are included as the welfare activities of the state. Running the huge work force and make them healthy are the optional works of the state. Upholding the rights of the labours, making labour policy, fixing up minimum wage, determining working hours, creating working environment, providing bonus, insurance and pension, creating employment, making skilled workers by providing training, appointing labour officer for defending the rights of the workers abroad are important works of the state. Besides, the state initiates various development and welfare works, for example, the development of agriculture and irrigation system, the forestation programme, fight against the natural disaster, assistance and rehabilitation of the disasteer victims, protecting the people from famine and death by the diseases, creating facilities for the citizens, supplying power and energy, the appropriate management of natural resources, the urbanization, the rural development, preventing the growth of black market, resisting women and child trafficking, creating awareness, etc. are the works done by the state. The state is a huge organization. It has to face various new challenges every day. However, providing overall welfare to the people are the main objectives of a state. As per demand of the people, the area of optional works of a state is increasing day by day. The Concept of Citizen We have already learnt that one of the main pre-requisite to form a state is the mass people. When a state appeared absolutely, the mass people of this state are considered as citizens. The relationship between the state and its citizen are very close. The success and failure of a state depends on the sense of duty and responsibility of the citizens. So we have to be aware of the duties and responsibilities of the citizen, and to know how to be a good citizen. The word ‘citizen’ derived from the Latin word ‘civics’. The key elements of studying civics are citizen and state. Usually, by the word citizen it is meant the inhabitants who reside in the city. The persons involved in the administration are regarded as the citizen. Aristotle, the father of the political science also described citizen in his definition saying, ‘Who participates in the administration directly and represents in the city state is called Citizen.’ Aristotle, in his concept, did not included most of the people because as per his opinion, most of them are not capable enough and they have not enough time to do so. In the Greek city state concept, women and slaves were not regarded as a citizen and they could not participate in the state affairs. Now the national state has been evolved instead of city state. The modern state is very big and its population is also big and everybody enjoys civic facilities directly and indirectly. But it is not possible to accommodate this huge number of people in the administration. So, while awarding citizenship to anybody, loyalty to the state and the political as well as other facilities he enjoys are regarded as a parameter instate of participating in the government. Modern political scientist of Britain Harold J Laski said in his definition for citizen, ‘The persons who take facilities of the state and remain loyal to that state are called Citizen’. Professor Getel said, ‘Citizen is the member of that


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political society who is committed to discharge duties for that society and he is entitled to enjoy all facilities.’ The citizen is therefore the person who is bound to discharge duties and responsibilities of the state on the other hand enjoy all civic and political rights. In broader sense, citizen is the person who live permanently in that state and remain loyal to the law, constitution and other orders of the states. Citizens play the roles in the welfare of the state by their own works, and enjoy all the social, economic and political rights distributed by the state. As a citizen, everyone is equal and in modern citizenship concept all man, women irrespective to cast and creed are entitled to be a citizen. The Duties and Responsibilities of a Citizen to the State As the state provides various facilities and rights to the citizens, they have to discharge some duties and responsibilities as well to the state. Duties and responsibilities are interrelated and inter-dependent to each other. The most Significant duties and responsibilities of the citizens are described below. The prime responsibility of the citizen is to be loyal to state, i. e. obedience to the instructions of the state. The citizen has to remain vigil and ready for supreme sacrifice for the security, integrated territory, independence and sovereignty of the state. The citizens are responsible for abiding by the Group work: Prepare a list of existing law and constitution and showing respect to the duties and responsibilities the law. If anyone breaks the law, it creates of the citizens to the state. indiscipline in the society. It impedes normal life. So every citizen has to obey the law for maintaining peaceful life and discipline. Enfranchisement with honesty and acumen is the sacred duty and responsibility of a citizen. So qualified and eligible candidates can be elected as peoples’ representatives. Everyone should abstain from voting unqualified and corrupted persons. The prime sources of the state’s income are tax and revenue provided by the citizen. A huge amount of money is needed to run the administration as well as the defense to initiate various developmental works. The citizens should cooperate the state by providing taxes on regular basis. The responsibility of the citizen is to perform the assigned duty on him by the state. Any work initiated by the government is the work of the citizen. The success and development of a government depends on the morality, concentration and devotion of the government officers and the citizens of the state. Every child is the child of the state. Parents work as a guardian of the child. Thus vaccinating, keeping good health and sending the children to the school in right time are the responsibility of the parents. As a result the child will be a decent citizen by having good education and will contribute to the family, society and the state. Every citizen should have patriotic zeal. The responsibility of the citizens is to wish the state all the success and feel proud of their own culture. They should remember the National Anthem, the national history and the contribution of the national heroes and scholars. Every citizen should have high tolerance level for others. The national unity is achievable by evaluating and respecting difference of opinion. Everyone should believe that beauty remains inherent in the diversity.

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Every citizen should protest against the corruption and injustice. It is a moral obligation of a citizen to protest against the unlawful act of a person, organization and even the state. But one should not take the law in one’s own hand. In this way, a society of good governance and free of corruption would be established. The Concept of Law The laws usually in a social system are some necessary written and unwritten rules and regulations for combined livelihood abided by the people. Most of the inhabitants obey these rules to control the behavior of the people as well as maintain peace and harmony of the society. Therefore, law is a combination of various kinds of rules, regulation, custom, practice, rituals and codes. The rules and bindings obeyed by the people in social life are called social law. In the state structure, the laws enacted in accordance with the various national policies to control the behaviours of the people and to protect various problems of the society, the statutory obligations and instructions unanimously promulgated by the government are considered as the state laws. Various political thinkers and law experts provided the definition of law. T.H. Green said, ‘Laws are rights and bindings imposed by the states’. According to professor Holland, A law is, general rule of external action enforced by sovereign political authority’. Woodrow Wilson gave a suitable definition of law. He said, ‘Law is that portion of the established habit and thought of mankind which has gained distinct and formal recognition in the shape of uniform rules backed by the authority and power of the government’. So, law is the combination of specific rules recognised by the society and government for betterment of the social welfare of the people. The Characteristic of Law From the above definitions, some of the characteristics of law are notices, and those are as follows: 1. Law controls the external behaviour and work of people. 2. Law is for all because it is equally applicable to everyone. 3. Law is one kind of order or prohibition which everyone has to obey. The person who disobeys the law faces punishment. 4. Law is recognized and imposed by the authority of the state. 5. Everyone obeys the customs and regulations of the society. The Sources of Law There are various sources of law. Political Scientist Holland mentioned 6 main sources of law. Those are: 1. The Custom, 2. The Religion, 3. The Judgment of Court, 4. The Scientific discussion, 5. The Sense of Justice, 6. The Parliament. 1.The Custom: The custom is the ancient source of law. The social customs are habits, thoughts, behaviour, regulations, etc. that are existed in the society. The impact of these social customs is so strong that conflict and revolution can happen if those are violated.


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In course of time, these customs are recognized by the government and become law, for example, most of the laws in Britain came into being from the customs. 2. The Religion: The impact of religion on human being is immense. Since the ancient period, the people are following divine laws. So the religion, regulations of religion, the scriptures are the important sources of law. As the sense of justice-injustice, vice-virtue, etc. was recognised by the religion, the influences of religion were prevalent in the politics of the ancient and the middle age. In the religion based state, religious norms are considered as a state law. The laws of the Islamic state are based on the Holy Quran and the laws of the Shariah. The Hindu laws also principally based on the scriptures such as the Vedas, the Geeta and the Ramayana. In this modern world, the state laws are enacted based on religious norms too. For the marriage and inheritance laws, the Muslim and Hindu community depend on their respective religious rituals. 3. The Precedence of Court: The verdict of judges or the judgment from the judiciary are the sources of the law. If any judge cannot justify any case using the existing law, he can resolve it using his insight, acumen and wisdom by providing new explanation of the existing law, which can be used as the precedence and may consider as law in future. So the verdicts of judges are the sources of the law too. 4. The Scientific Discussion: The scientific discussion of the lawyers, their books on laws may be regarded as the sources of law. The state has an idea of the laws from the explanation, evaluation, and discussion, etc. of the eminent lawyers. The opinions of the British lawyers Coke, Blackstone, American lawyer Kent, Muslim scholar and jurist Imam Abu Hanifa were regarded as law. 5. The Sense of Justice: When a justice fails to resolve any case either by using the existing law or for the absense of relating law, he can provide his verdict by using social sense of justice. The law derived from the sense of justice may get a full status of law. Thus sense of justice and fairness can be a source of law. 6. The Parliament: In the modern age, the Parliament is the main source of law. There is parliament or assembly in every democratic state. Besides, the constitution of the state, the decree passed by the head of the state, the international treaty, the ratification of international law and convention are considered as sources of law. The Necessity of Law for Good Governance The necessity of law is very important for good governance. If law and order prevail in a state, every citizen can enjoy freedom and benefits provided by the government. Nobody can harm the rights of others. Usually, the rule of law expresses two concepts : (a). The supremacy of law, (b). equality of everyone to the law. If the supremacy of law prevails, the government cannot be autocratic and usually cannot abuse power. Arresting any one without any crime or confiscating and punishing any one without trial are the contrary to the rule of law. The supremacy of law is the protection of freedom of the citizen. Nobody can interfere in other’s affairs if the supremacy of law prevails in the society. The government does not dare to interfere in

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the freedom of any one’s life without any logic. The meaning of equality in the eye of law means Individual work: Why is the rule of law mandatory for Bangladesh? everyone irrespective of religion, cast, creed, Mention the reasons. color, community or of being rich or poor is same. Nobody will be entitled to have additional privileges. The same law is applicable to all. The freedom of life hampered in the state, when rules of law do not exist. The law enforcing agency usually harass the citizen arresting them without any legal reason for the absense of the rules of law. The Rules of law cannot prevail if freedom of judiciary and democratic environment do not exist. The Right of Information The Constitution of Bangladesh, under Section 39, has recognized the freedom of thought and conscience, and of speech as one of the fundamental rights of the citizen, and the right of having information is the integral part of it. The Bangladesh Government enacted the Right to Information Act on 5 April 2009. This law is promulgated to ensure the right of the people to get information. Many of the country of the world have rights to Individual work: Describe how information law. We have to know that what the you have been benefited or will be meaning of information is. Generally any kind of benefited by the Right to record is a part of the information. In the Right to Information Act. Information Act, the meanings of information are the structure and official works of any authority, book, map, agreement, datainformation, log book, order-notice, record, sample, letter, report, accounts, project proposal, photograph, audio-video, sketch, film, electronic instrument, machine readable documents and physical formation and characteristics and any other matter related information and their photocopy. However, the official note sheet and copy of the note sheet will not be part of it. Now an independent organisaiton called ‘Information Commission’ is formed under the Right to Information Act. This commission comprises with one Chief Information Commissioner and two Information Commissioners. It is described in this law that each of the citizen has the right to have information from the authority and the authority is bound to provide necessary information to the citizen. As per the law, any ministry, department or office attached or subordinate, related department, office or head office, office in the division, regional office, district office or upazila office will be act as an information providing unit. As per law, to get any information, one has to apply in wiring or by electronic medium or by e-mail. The responsible office will assist the person who is illiterate, and submit his appeal after having the person’s thumb print. If the responsible officer fails to provide the information within designated time, within 30 days of this laps, the applicant can appeal. If the applicant fails to have justice from the appealed authority, the person can send complaint to the Information Commissioner. In this regards, the responsibility


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of the Information Commissioner is to receive complaint and to take necessary measures accordingly. In providing information, the responsible officer has to be a conservator/bank of information. His main duty is to inform the application procedure to the people, create facility to have information from the authority, assessing appropriate charges of the information and identify reasons of failure to provide information. So, we will be conscious about the right to information act to get information. By the Right to Information Act, the poor, marginal and under privileged people will be developed. Activities of each organistion will be transparent and accountable, good governance will be ensured, corruption will be eradicated, positive impact will be created in preserving human rights and eradication of poverty by ensuring empowerment of the people and above all root of democracy will be consolidated.

Exercise Short questions: 1. The state is the important political organisaiotn of society. Explain. 2. Which one is the prime component of forming a state? Explain. 3. In what logic, Wadood will be regarded as the citizen of Bangladesh? 4. Explain the necessity of law to ensure the rule of law. Descriptive questions: 1. ‘The Right to Information Act will be beneficial for the poor, marginal and under privileged people.’ Explain. 2. ‘The more a country economically developed, the more its optional works are extended.’ give your opinion against this quotation. 3. As a citizen of Bangladesh, describe your duties and responsibilities to the state. Multiple choice questions: 1. ‘Law is the rule of external human action enforced by the sovereign political authority’, who said this? a. T.H. Green b. Holland c. Woodrow Wilson d. Aristotle 2. Responsibility of the citizen is toa. Obey the traffic law in the street b. Appointing more people in the industries c. Prepare skilled manpower d. Establish political organization

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3. The Characteristics of law are toi. Control external behavior of the people. ii. Conserve everyone’s rights equally iii. Make people abide by the rules and regulations As per above information which one is correct? a. i & ii b. i & iii c. ii & iii d. i, ii & iii Read the paragraph and answer to the question no 4 and 5. One day, Ovi and Rafi caught red handed when they were stealing guava from a neighbour’s tree. As Rafi’s father is an influential man, he freed Rafi from the Police Station. Ovi’s poor parents can not free him despite very humble request. 4. Which part of the rule of law was not maintained for Ovi i. The supremacy of law ii. The equality to all in the eye of law iii. The belongingness of the law to common people Which one of the following is correct? a.i b. ii c.ii & iii d.i, ii & iii 5. If this part is established in the society, according to lawi. Irrespective of the rich and poor, everyone will be equal ii. Law will be applicable to everyone iii.Nobody will be entitled to additional advantage Which one of the following is correct? a. i b. i & ii c. ii & iii d. i, ii & iii Creative questions: 1. In a state called ‘A’ Mobarak Hossain, the elected representative of the people participates in formulating ‘Labour Policy’ and laws relating to increasing elderly allowance and pension. The government of the state A has established two new hospitals, provided books to the students free of cost and formulated laws to protect child marriage. a. ‘The state is a union of families and villages having for each end and perfect and self sufficing life.’ Who said this?


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b. Write the concept of ‘Citizenship’. c. What type of work is it by the state to formulate the Labour Policy by Mr. Mobarak Hossain? d. According to the above paragraph, should we call the state ‘A’ a welfare state? Provide your logic in favour of your answer. 2. Jamila Begam went to Quazi office to get the copy of the Kabin Nama (marriage certificate) to obtain information provided during her marriage. Quazi Shaheb (relevant official) harassed her in various ways instead of cooperating her. She appealed to the concerned authority as she did not get the information with in the stipulated time. Fianally she was sucessful in getting the relevant information. a. What are the sources of income of a state? b. Why does the state give much importance to flourish education? Explain. c. Explain which law helps Jamila Begam to get the information. d. ‘The Success of Jamila Begam is encouraging for good governance.’ Evaluate.

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The Organs of Bangladesh Government and the System of Administrative We have already discussed the state in the previous chapter. In any state, the system of government is like a machine. The state serves its purpose through the government. The government has some organs in order to discharge different functions thereof. In usual terms, what we understand by the government is the legislative body, the political parties, the cabinet, the ruler, the court and the police. A government has three organs such as the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary in the traditional tripartite government. These three basic departments necessarily exist in each political system because the three key-tasks of the government are running the administration, making laws and establishing the justice. The administrations are of two categories ─ Central and Local. In this chapter, we are to know of the different organs and the administration of Bangladesh.

After reading this chapter, we will be able to ─ • explain the important organs of the Government; • explain the powers and functions of the President and of the Prime Minister; • delineate the National Parliament and its functions and powers; • explain how the parliament dominates over the administration; • describe the powers and jurisdictions of the Judiciary of Bangladesh;

• explain the roles of the Judiciary towards the enforcement of Fundamental Rights of the people and protecting the rule of law; • describe the appointment procedure of the Justices; • describe the administrative structure of Bangladesh; • narrate the formations and functions of the local government of Bangladesh; • evaluate the importance of local government in the sphere of development in Bangladesh; • be aware of our rights and responsibilities.

Section 8.1 : The Organs of Bangladesh Government The Executive A smooth administrative system is a must for the internal peace, discipline and development of a country. The Administration is the department that regulates governance of the state, i.e. conducts the regular and occasional administrative & official functions, maintains law and order and implements overall resolutions of the state and the privileges thereof. In a greater sense, the Executive or the Administration Department consists of all administrative employees including the President, the cabinet,


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the government officials, the security, law & order maintaining agencies, the diplomats, the officers and even a Chowkidar (a village watchman) altogether. The Legislature The Legislature is one of the three organs of the government. The power of Legislative includes the power of making laws and repealing or modifying or amending the existing laws without contravening the provisions of the Constitution where necessary. The Legislature or the Parliament is a part of the Legislative Department. The legislature is composed of persons elected by the people, or members nominated in some particular extents. Any law enacted by the Legislature is finally passed with the President's assent. Every state has a legislative body, and these legislative bodies are known with different names. The name of the legislature of Bangladesh is the parliament. The Congress is the legislature of the United States of America, the name of Britain's legislature is the parliament, and the legislatures of most of the Islamic countries are known as Mazlis. Some countries' parliaments consist of a single house and some of two houses. A twohouse parliament consists of an upper council and a lower as well. The Parliament of Bangladesh consists of a single house whereas India, the USA, Britain have a two-house parliament. The Judiciary To establish the justice is one of the solemn tasks of the state. The department of the government that tries judicially is called the judiciary, i.e. the Judicial Department. To punish the infringers of law, establish justice and protect individual freedom of the citizens depend on an independent and unprejudiced judicial system to a great extent. The Judicial Department consists of all the courts, justices and judges of the state. The Power of the Executive The Status of the President: The President is, by the status he holds, above all in the state. He is Head of state according to the constitution. He, as Head of State, takes precedence over all other persons in the State and exercises the powers, and performs the duties conferred and imposed on him by the constitution and by any other law. The Powers and Functions of the President: In the parliamentary system of government, the President is a titular head only. All executive actions of the government are executed in the name of the President. In fact, he preserves no executive power, but he can exercise his executive actions in formation of government, in governance, legislation, finance, Judiciary, Defense, and Diplomatic functions of the country. The executive powers of the President are discussed below: 1. The Powers and Functions relating to appointment of the Prime Minister and Administration: The president shall appoint the leader of the party got majority in the election as the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister forms the government with the ministers chosen by Group work: Prepare a table him/her. The President may not act with the advice of describing the functions of the any body in appointing the Prime Minister. The President. President appoints the Prime Minister, Cabinet Ministers, State Ministers, Deputy Ministers, and distributes the portfolios amongst them with the advice of the Prime Minister. The President also appoints the Attorney General of Bangladesh, judges of the Supreme Court, the Chief Election Commissioner, the Comptroller and Auditor General, the Chairman and other members of the Public Service Commission, the Ambassadors, Envoys and High Commissioners in exercise of his power. 2. The Parliamentary and Legislative power: The President summons the Parliament, and he may address the Parliament or may send messages thereto at the commencement of the first session after the general election of members of the Parliament and at the

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commencement of the first session of each year.The Parliament discusses after the address by the President. Sometimes, he may send messages to the parliament. He may summon, adjourn and dissolve the Parliament in accordance with the written advice of the Prime Minister. 3. Ordinance Making Power: At any time, when the Parliament is dissolved, or is not in session, and if the President thinks that circumstances exist which require immediate necessary action, he may promulgate ordinances, and any ordinance so made shall, as from its promulgation, has the like force of law as an Act of the Parliament. 4. The Appointment of the Chief Justice and Judicial Power: The President shall appoint the Chief Justice to the Supreme Court of Bangladesh. The President may consult nobody in appointment of the Chief Justice. The other justices of the Supreme Court are also appointed by the President. 5. The Prerogative of Mercy Power: The President shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves and respites and to remit, suspend or commute any sentence passed by any court, tribunal or other authority. The President of Bangladesh exercises this power in accordance with the advice of the Prime Minister. 6. The Financial Powers and Functions: No money Bill, or any Bill which involves expenditure from public money, shall be introduced into the Parliament except on the recommendation of the President. The President has the power to authorize expenditure from the Consolidated Fund for supplementary or excess grants. 7. The Powers Relating to the Defence Service: The President is the supreme commander of the Defence Services of Bangladesh. He may take any defensive measure against any external aggression or internal disturbance. The Proclamation of Emergency Power of the President If the President is satisfied that a grave emergency exists in which the security or economic life of Bangladesh, or any part thereof, is threatened by war or external aggression or internal disturbance, he may issue a Proclamation of Emergency, provided that such Proclamation shall require for its validity the prior counter signature of the Prime Minister. While a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, provisions of certain articles of the constitution and enforcement of fundamental rights remain suspended for such short period as may be specified in the order. The Status of the Prime Minister The Prime Minister of Bangladesh is the head of the Government in the parliamentary form of government adopted by the constitution. He or she is the real chief executive of the Government and he/she occupies the central position. He/She is the leader of the majority party in the parliament as well as the leader in the Cabinet and the Council of Ministers. The ministers hold offices during the pleasure of the Prime Minister who can ask any Minister to resign so long as it does not affect his/her support and leadership in the party. If the Prime Minister resigns or loses the confidence of parliament in him/her, the government embraces downfall. The entire constitutional machinery revolves round him and he wields great power, influence and prestige. The President appoints as Prime Minister the Member of Parliament who appears to him to command the support of the majority of the members of Parliament. In the Parliamentary form of government, the status of the Prime Minister of Bangladesh possesses a high dignity. Although the Prime Minister is appointed by the President, the President has to act with the advice of the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is the main executive post of the Cabinet. The entire administrative power revolves round him. He/She occupies a credible position. According to the constitution, the Prime Minister remains accountable for his/her governance to the Parliament.


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The Powers and Functions of the Prime Minister 1. The Administrative & Executive Power: The Prime Minister gives an effective lead to the entire system of administration, and all the important decisions are taken by him/her. All types of executive powers are conducted and regulated by the Prime Minister in the name of the President. The Prime Minister appoints the ministers and distributes offices among them in his discretion. All actions relating to justice, finance, ministry of foreign affairs and administration of the government are conducted with the advice and views of the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister appoints the high government officials himself. 2. The Legislative Power: The Prime Minister plays a vital role to legislation. He/She patronizes the ruling party in the Parliament. The legislative actions of the Parliament revolve round him/her. 3. The Power of the Prime Minister in Leading Parliament: The Prime Minister is the leader of the parliament and he/she takes up an effective role in respect of successful management of the Parliament. He/She leads to have confidence and cooperation of the opposition. The Prime Minister has to discharge many functions for the sake of interest of all members of the Parliament. The President may summon, adjourn and dissolve parliament with the written advice of the Prime Minister. 4. The Financial Power: The Prime Minister reserves an import authority in financial Group work: Describe why the Prime concern of the state. The Finance Minister Minister is the Chief Executive. prepares and presents an annual financial Group work: Prepare a table showing statement before the parliament, popularly the functions of the Prime Minister. known as the budget with the advice and directive of the Prime Minister. The financial policies of the Prime Minister reflect in the budget presented by the Finance Minister. The President grants the fund for meeting the administrative expenditure with the advice of the Prime Minister. 5. The Role of the Prime Minister to Coordinating the Government Policies: The Prime Minister coordinates the government policies. Since the entire administrative machinery revolves round him, his/her lead plays a vital role to coordinating executive actions of all ministries, offices and directorates. He/She presides over the interministerial meetings. 6. The Role of the Prime Minister as the Principal Spokesman of the Nation: The Prime Minister leads the nation and discharges his functions as the spokesman of the nation. He/She introduces Bangladesh to the world and represents the country. He/She informs the nation of any national crisis, delivers statement on behalf of the state. 7. The Leader of the Majority Party: The Prime Minister is the leader of the ruling party in a democratic system of government. He/She plays an important role in determining the party policy and implementing the functions within and outside parliament as well. A Prudent role of the Prime Minister as the leader of the party and the establishment of a cooperative relation with the opposition are very important in practice. Thus the Prime Minister plays a very important role in all the spheres of administration of the government, legislation, superintendence of financial management, political stability with a great sense of responsibility. 2. The Legislature The Legislature is one of the three organs of the government. The other two organs are the Executive or Administrative Department and the Judicial Department. The functions of the legislature include the power of making new laws and repeal or modification or alternation of the existing laws. From the perspective of Bangladesh, the Parliament is a

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part of the legislature. The legislature is composed of persons elected by the people, or the members nominated in some particular extents. This is the legislative body that legislates, and any law enacted by such body is finally passed with the assent of the President. The Powers and Functions of Jatiya Sangsad, the Parliament The name of the Legislative Body of Bangladesh is the ‘Jatiya Sangsad, i.e. the Parliament. The Jatiya Sangsad is the predominant part of the legislature. Any law enacted by the Parliament is finally passed with the assent of the President. The legislature is an organ of the government. The Parliament of Bangladesh consists of 350 members as per the 15th amendment of the Constitution. The 300 members will be elected by the direct enfranchisement of the people, and the rest of 50 seats are reserved for women. They will be elected by the 300 members of the Parliament in accordance with the law. The reserved seats do not preclude any woman from contesting the election in the general seats. Out of the members of the parliament, a speaker and a deputy speaker will be elected by the Members. The normal tenure of parliament is five years from the date of its first meeting unless it is earlier dissolved by the President. The Parliamentary system of government has been established as per the twelfth amendment of the constitution in 1991. As a result, the powers and functions of the Parliament have been much augmented in respect of legislation, control over the administration, superintendence of finance, election, etc. in Bangladesh. Different types of powers and functions of the Parliament are discussed below: 1. The Legislative Power: Article 65 vests the legislative power of the republic in the Parliament dictating that ‘there shall be a Parliament for Bangladesh (to be known as the House of the Nation), in which, subject to the provisions of this constitution, shall be vested the legislative powers of the Republic’. The Parliament has the plenary power to make any new laws and to repeal or modify or alter the existing laws. The Parliament, by law, can delegate the function of making subordinate legislation to some other authority to legislate any law, by-law, rules and regulations provided that such a delegation does not amount to delegation of essential legislative function. The president has, in exercise of the power, to assent to the bill presented by the Parliament within 15 days of presentation of the Bill to him. 2. Power to formation of the Government: The Parliament plays an important role to form the government. The member who commands the support of the majority of the members of parliament is appointed as the Prime Minister by the President, and he forms the cabinet. But if the Individual work: Prepare a Prime Minister ceases to retain support of the majority in list describing the functions of the Parliament. parliament, the government succumbs flopped. 3. The Financial Power: The Parliament virtually keeps an eye on how and why the funds of the state would be spent. Neither money Bill nor any Bill involving expenditure from public fund can be introduced in the Parliament without the assent and jurisdiction of the parliament. The Parliament has the right to impose and assess any tax and collect the same. The Government presents a budget before the parliament every fiscal year. The government has to bear the expenditure as per the budget passed by the Parliament. Discussions also held upon expenditures of the Consolidated Fund. In fine, the whole expenditures of the state or the government are made in the discretion of the parliament.


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4. The Power to Judicial Affairs: The Parliament may impeach the President on a charge of violation of the constitution, or of grave misconduct, or on the ground of physical or mental incapacity. The Parliament also, in exercise of the power, may impeach the Speaker, Deputy Speaker and Ombudsman where necessary. The Parliament virtually reserves the right to discharge such actions relating to different national important judicial affairs. 5. The Power to Electoral Affairs: The Parliament is vested with the electoral power for different elections including the parliament election, elections to appoint the President, the Prime Minister, the Speaker, the Deputy Speaker, the Ombudsman, etc. The Parliament also has the power to elect different committees for the parliament. 6. The Power to Protection of and Amendment in the Constitution: The Parliament plays an important role as depositary of the constitution. Any revision in the constitution is presented before and accepted by the Parliament. 7. Miscellaneous Power: The Parliament has the right to legislate for establishing subordinate courts other than the Supreme Court. The Parliament has the power to declare war or sign any international treaty. The Parliament also legislates for rules and regulations relating to local governance. The Procedure to Control of the Administrative Department by the Parliament In a democratic state, the Administrative Department should be kept subdued and subjected, and such subjection is ascribed by the Judicial Department. The Prime Minister and his/her Cabinet are held accountable to the parliament for all sorts of administrative actions. The government remains accountable to the Parliament. The Parliament may praise the government for its good actions and also criticize any action of the Government. The government has to pay heed to attitudes and views of the Parliament. The Parliament, in a democratic form of government, virtually has the control over the government. The Parliament establishes its control, in exercise of the power, proposing postponement of parliament, censure motion, questions to the Prime Minister or other ministers, or non-confidence motion. Any minister even the Prime Minister may be bound to vacate his/her office if he/she ceases to retain confidence of the parliament in him/her. The resignation of the Prime Minister automatically terminates the appointment of other Ministers. In such situation, dissolution of the Parliament will follow in most cases and a general election will be held de novo. 3. Jurisdiction and Functions of the Judicial Department of Bangladesh The Constitution of Bangladesh contains an important feature respecting separation and independency of the Constitution. The Bangladesh Judiciary is well-organized and welladministered as well. The Supreme Court helps run the administration to its specific course in accordance with the Constitution declaring any rule contravening the constitution illegal. The Bangladesh Judiciary keeps the rule of law unhampered and keeps the democratic system invigorated at his level best. The Judicial system of any country is like a scale measuring the standard of its justice de facto. So the judicial system helps introduce a competent governance system by establishing a just and neutral judicial system in the country. As an important organ of the state, its jurisdictions and functions are very extensive in general terms, which are mentioned in brief below: 1. To Dispense Justice: The main tasks of the Judiciary include judging the convicted for the offence and the infringer of law in according with the existing laws. To this effect, the judges independently and freely try judicially on the basis of equity as per law in due course. The Judicial Department virtually tries to establish the justice in the

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society in order to award punishment to the accused through investigation of the real occurrence in any suit either of civil or criminal in nature. 2. To Make Law: Usually, the Judiciary is vested with the charge to expound and apply the law in exercise of the power. Besides, the judges usually unify new laws. The judges, in absence of appropriate law in some extents of practice, pronounce a judgment unanimously, which is considered a law with effect. 3. To Protect Fundamental Rights: The court itself is vested with the responsibility to protect the fundamental rights of the people generally included in the constitution. 4. To Expound and Apply Law: The key functions of the judiciary include expounding and analysing the law, and enforce the law accordingly. Law means law enacted by the parliament, juridical order and different customary usages. 5. To Safeguard the Constitution: The judiciary acts as custodian of the constitution. It delivers an ultimate expounding of the constitution. Judicial reviews have a great importance in the US system of governance where the Supreme Count holds authority to a great extent. 6. To Settle Disputes: From time to time, disputes in Group work: Prepare a list different agencies, bodies of the state and the individuals describing the functions of thereof arise, and the judicial department makes such the Judiciary of Bangladesh. disputes settled. 7. To Advise the Administrative Department: The judicial department also provide advices upon request from the administrative department. 8. Miscellaneous Functions: The judiciary executes of miscellaneous functions in exercise of the power such as awarding citizenship to alien citizens, determining the guardianship, looking after the properties belonging to minors and granting licences, etc. The Role of the Judiciary to Protecting the Rights and the Rule of Law The judiciary, in a democratic system, prescribes what to do to keeping up the people's freedom, and may take all necessary arrangement not to infringe individuals' human rights. In other words, it may be said that the judiciary protects personal freedom of the people. This department virtually acts as a safeguard of personal freedom by protecting civic rights and fundamental rights recognized by the constitution de facto. The judiciary has to, in order to protect such rights, adopt some particular methods, such as, by way of issuing writs in the nature of hebeas corpus, mandamus, certiorari and quo warranto, etc. The judicial department has the right to issue these writ jurisdiction through which the judiciary, upon application of the aggrieved person, may order the relevant accused person or authority to appear before the court in exercise of the power. In recent days, the judiciary of Bangladesh has issued different important writs suomoto in order to protect the human rights in Bangladesh which has largely been applauded by the public. The Appointment Procedure of Judges The appointment procedure is the first step to maintain independency of judiciary in Bangladesh. Different types of procedures are applied in order to appoint judges to High Courts in abroad. Such as a. The election by the people, b. the election by the judiciary and c. the appointment by the Chief Executive of the government. Qualifications for appointment of the judges have been defined in the Constitution of Bangladesh. The President, upon compliance with the fulfillment of provisions for appointment, appoints the judges with the advice of the Chief Justice. Since there are different intricacies in the other both procedures, most of the states generally serve appointment of the judges by the Chief Executive of the Government in these days. The President appoints the Chief Justice, and other judges to the high court, but subordinate judges get appointed through undergoing competitive examinations.


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Section 8.2: The Administrative System of Bangladesh A smooth administrative system is a must for internal peace and development of any state. The administrative laxity may cause the origination of a turmoil consequence. Cooperation of public with the administration is very essential in order to properly implement functions relating to administration. Bangladesh achieved her independence on December 16, 1971. This land was a province of Pakistan during pre-independence time. A provincial administrative system was introduced here. During that time, the administrative system of this country could not become people-oriented in general terms. The traditional long-standing administrative system has been largely time-befitting in consequence of a vast developmental initiatives during post-independence. Instead of US Style in administration, a concentric system is introduced. The existing administrative levels of Bangladesh are- 1. The Central Administration, 2. The Divisional Administration, 3. The District Administration and 4. The Upazila Administration. The Government of Bangladesh consists of different ministries and divisions. A ministry is vested with the administration of one or more divisions. The Minister is the head of a ministry, and a secretary is the Administrative Officer thereof. Each department or ministry is linked with the divisions or the directorates. The Director General or the Director is the head of the Directorate. Besides, the full or semi-autonomous organizations, boards or corporations retain included under such directorates. Enforcement of the Government adopted laws, rules, implementation of programmes or the projects are made under the administrative system or in a bureaucratic way. Basement of conducting the administration by the Government Officials includes cognition and training on the administrative functions. The Central Administration A secretariat of Parliament holds the central place Minister within the administrative system in Bangladesh. It resembles like a nerve in the administrative system. This secretariat is the key source of functions of Bangladesh Government. All government decisions Secretary are first accepted in the secretariat. In general terms, different ministries and their divisional offices are collectively called 'secretariat'. A minister is appointed with the charge of every ministry in the Additional Secretary discretion of the Prime Minister. The Minister is a political member and head of the ministry. A secretary executes his duties as the Chief Executive Officer or the Administrative Officer, who, being Joint Secretary appointed by the Public Service Commission, gets promoted to that position/secretary through his service, capability, training and a series of offices. The Secretary is vested with the entire charge of the Deputy Secretary ministry. The Secretary assists the Minister in discharging his functions. The Minister, in order to conduct the ministerial functions, receives the advice with regard to the relevant matter from the secretary Senior Assistant Secretary in exercise of the power. The secretary serves the Minister in different spheres of functions including resolution as his companion. Both of them try to maintain a close relation between them basing on the Assistant Secretary mutual discussion and consultation in the course of discharging functions. From this point of view, both

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the Minister and the Secretary are dependent to and confident in each other. The Bangladesh Secretariat is based on bureaucratic system in nature. As per rank-stairs within the administrative structure, the rank of 'Assistant Secretary' is the lowest, the consecutive upper positions are (gradually upward) as respectively, Senior Assistant Secretary, Deputy Secretary, Joint-Secretary, Additional Secretary, Secretary and then the Minister is above all in the ministry. The rank-stairs are figured beside : all administrative functions are implemented through these structure-levels in the course of time. Decisions or directives descend not ascend. No divisional chief may send anything directly to the Minister without the advice of the secretary. There may be more than one secretary, additional secretaries, joint secretaries or junior officers, but the number of officials depends on the importance of the ministry and its extensiveness of the volume of works. Any resolution held by the secretariat is dispatched to the department, and also to the divisional, district and upazila administrations as well. Thus noticed that the secretariat holds the central point of importance within the administrative system in Bangladesh. All departments, offices and organizations are held accountable to the secretariat actually in practice. Composition and Functions of the Local Administration in Bangladesh There exists any form of local governance in every state, but it differs in form and nature and usually not alike. Like difference in a political system, the local administrative system of the same may usually differ from another country's. Behind such differences, there are reasons following geographic location of a particular country, variegation of the people, history-tradition, experience, sequence of transformation, production system, political culture, etc. We, Bengali Nation- our local administrative system, like modeling the state, gets ahead through a historic change of situations and a series of political processes. From time to time, it often gets laid in an orderly manner. The Local Administration A local administration means a form of administration at local levels comprising of divisions/districts and upazila governance. It is formed for the sake of convenient governance. Through such form of process, the central administration and control thereof approach outskirts. The main objective of the central administration is to maintain law and order, collect revenues and implement government decisions. In this form of administration, working individuals who relate to the local administration are considered agent or representative of the government, for example, the Divisional and Deputy Commissioners and the Upazila Nirbahi Officer (UNO) in our country. The Divisional Administration The Divisional Administration occupies the second level next to the central one in importance. The whole of Bangladesh has been divided into 7 divisions in order to maintain its administrative system in Bangladesh, namely, 1. Dhaka, 2. Chittagong, 3. Rajshahi, 4. Khulna, 5. Barisal, 6. Sylhet, and 7. Rangpur. The Divisional Commissioner tops the divisional administration. A number of employees including an Additional Commissioner and a Private Secretary to the Commissioner serve the divisional administration. The Divisional Commissioner is one of the Principal Officers of Bangladesh Civil Service, and he holds an office equivalent to that of a Joint-Secretary by position. He is a revenue officer of the Government of Bangladesh de facto. The Divisional Commissioner monitors the functions of the deputy commissioners. He serves like a bridge to establish connection in between the divisional and district administrations as well. His functions include taking planning for public welfare activities and


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implementing the same. He has to conduct help and service related works, and to take arrangement confronting natural disasters etc. He serves as an agent to the Government of Bangladesh indeed. The District Administration The District Administration occupies the third level of the administration system of Bangladesh. Each division is also divided into several districts. There are 64 districts in Bangladesh at present. The entire governance in the district revolves round the Deputy Commissioner. The Deputy Commissioner is the most prominent person within the relevant district. He is an experienced member of Bangladesh Civil Service and a judicious officer of the Administration. He holds the position next to the Divisional Commissioner. A link of the central administration always exists with the district administration. All the decisions regarding district affairs that are held accepted by the Bangladesh Secretariat are directly dispatched to the Deputy Commissioner. The Deputy Commissioner conducts the district administration in accordance with the central decision in exercise of the power. The district administration is conducted and rotated following the Deputy Commissioners. The deputy commissioner is held accountable for his actions to the Divisional Commissioner, whereas the Divisional Commissioner is held accountable for all actions to the central administration. The Divisional Commissioner causes to establish a bridge-like connection in between districts and the center. The Deputy Commissioner discharges an extensive volume of functions. Functions of the Deputy Commissioner The Deputy Commissioners execute a comprehensive functions which are briefed below: 1. Functions Relating to the Governance: He implements all decisions and policies relating to governance which are accepted by Bangladesh Secretariat, superintendents works of different government offices within the relevant district, provides all out support to the government in respect of deciding public policies and maintaining smooth governance. 2. Functions Relating to Revenues: The Deputy Commissioner being the Chief Collector may impose and assess land revenues and other taxes and collect the same in exercise of the power. An Additional Deputy Commissioner (revenue) helps him discharge his functions. 3. Functions Relating to Coordination: Role of the Deputy Commissioner towards coordination affairs is not less important. He maintains inter-official communication among all the government offices existing in the territory of the relevant district. He, for making development in Group work: Prepare a list the district, also keeps close contact with important and describing functions of the respectable individuals in order to solve different Deputy Commissioner. problems of the locality. 4. Functions Relating to the Local Governance: The Deputy Commissioner plays a vital role towards the local governance affairs. He superintendents the local organizations having concern with the local autonomies. He appears in the role of caretaker in respect of the Upazila and the Union Council within the jurisdiction of the relevant district. 5. Functions Relating to Humanity: The Deputy Commissioner or DC plays his role in different humanitarian functions too. He virtually controls business firms and markets of

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the district. During any natural calamity, he remains engaged in welfare activities to alleviate woeful conditions of the people in danger. During such situations, he distributes centrally allocated money, garments and medicine among the victims. 6. Functions Relating to Judgment: The Deputy Commissioner is a judge himself. He discharges settlement of criminal cases as a first class magistrate. His jurisdiction in respect of judgment, includes awarding punishment for maximum two years and pecuniary fine amounting Taka one thousand only in exercise of the power entrusted to him. Besides, he settles any dispute concerning revenues himself. 7. Functions Relating to Disciplinary Measure: He maintains law and order to establish peace and tranquility with the help of the District Police Super. 8. Other Functions: The Deputy Commissioner being the Principal Officer, discharges a number of responsibilities. He is the Chief Controller to the District Publications and Newspapers Division. He stands by the people who sustain loss due to different natural disasters like flood, cyclone, drought, heavy rainfall, shortage of rainfall, etc. Power to issuing licenses for firearms, spirit, venom, etc. is vested in him. So the Deputy Commissioner may be called the Director, Superintendent and Controller of the District. The Upazila Administration In our country, Upazila is considered an important administrative level. Each district is divided into several Upazilas (sub-districts). Every administrative Thana (Police Station) is an Upazila itself. At present there are 485 Upazilas in the country. The Upazila Nirbahi Officer (UNO) is the administrative officer of the Upazila, who coordinates directives sent to him by the DC and the Chief Executive Officer of the District, and other functions. He also one of the members of Bangladesh Civil Service. He implements all development programs of the Upazila with the cooperation of other officer at Upazila level to his level best. Besides, he superintendents the Upazila administration, and peace and tranquility in the Upazila. His functions include all kinds of development and administration of the Upazila on the whole. The Local Autonomy A local autonomy means self-governance of the people in a particular area, and is managed by the representatives elected by the people, who are held accountable to them. The main features of it include a. legal basis, b. elected body, c. opportunity for the people to participate decision-making process, d. ability to collect funds by imposing and assessing taxes, e. widened and multi-faced functions, designing plans and implementation, f. conducting functions independently without any control of the Government central or local. Such is the democratic political system or the practiced form of the governance system. Notwithstanding the units of the local administration, in such situation, are not totally independent from the control of the central or high level authority, but they enjoy the freedom to a great extent. Local autonomous organizations of Bangladesh are the Union Council, the Upazila Council, the District Council, the Municipality and the City Corporation. The Union Council The comparatively most ancient local organization of our country is the Union Council. Since the pre-British period till date, it is found by reviewing the development of this organization, that it has been rendering service aiming at establishment of a real representative local governance in the rural areas. 'The Chowkidar Panchayet Ain-1870' was introduced in order to cooperate in maintaining the law or order in rural areas. That system was introduced in order to maintain the law and order and to conduct different development activities by a five-member authority. In 1885, 'The Bengal Local Act' was


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passed with a view to forming a governance system which would be more accountable at local extent. According to this Act, a Union Committee was composed at the Union level, a Mahkuma (sub-division) Board at the Mahkuma level and a District Board at the district level. In 1919, only one local government was established in the name of 'Union Board' by 'The Palli Ain' abolishing the Chowkidari Panchayet and the Union Committee. During Pakistan period, it was named as the Union Council. After Bangladesh achieved her independence, as per a local government ordinance, local government system having 3-layers including Union Council, Thana Council and District Council, was introduced in the country in 1976. A radical change is made in composition of Union Council by the Local Government (Union Council) Amendment Act-1997, accordingly a Union Council will consist of an average 10-15 villages to be headed by a chairman, 9 general members directly elected by the people, besides 3 elected female members (in the reserved seats). Earlier a Union was divided into 3 wards, whereas by the revised Act, the number has been increased upto 9 wards, one member from each of the wards which amounts to 9 members to be directly elected by the people. Female members, basing on 1 in each 3 ward, to be directly elected by eligible voters male and female. The tenure of the Union Council is five years. There are 4,468 Union Councils in total in Bangladesh. Functions of the Union Council All functions of a Union Council have been categorically classified into mainly two kinds, such as, 1. major functions, and 2. Optional/Voluntary Activities. Major Functions Include 1. Maintaining Mass Discipline: One of the key functions of a Union Council is to maintain security for the villagers.This Council in order to discharge its some specific functions plays a vital role such as to appoint few Chowkidars and Dafadars in each Union, to take steps for restraining crimes, indiscipline and smuggling, to play role in refuting quarrels, continuous riot and disturbances, to execute the charge relating to village court, take initiatives to settle family disputes and discontents, and so on. 2. Welfare of and service to the people: To acquaint the people with different services and programmes taken by different public and private agencies in the spheres of agriculture, health, Pisces-culture, live-stock farming and education, and to undertake projects and to implement the same under programmes of the rural structure organization, relieving poverty, sanitation, water supply and water extraction, selfemployment and socio-economic development programs, etc. are included in the key functions of the Union Council. 3. Planning on the Local Economic Development and Implementation thereof.: The Union Council has to take overall steps for agricultural development in the area to attain development of rural handicrafts, grow markets, make people informed of advanced method on Pisces-culture and live-stock farming, establish smooth distribution of highbred seeds, plants Group work: Draft a and fertilizers, provide the community people with table describing functions advices on income increasing activities, creating of a Union Council. employment, constructing damps, etc. 4. Functions Relating to Administration: The Union Council has to direct, superintendent and control the Secretary, Rural Police and other employees of the Union Council, call all meetings, compile and dispatch different statements, execute the responsibility entrusted by the competent authority, etc.

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The Optional/Voluntary Activities Inter alia, to provide public and royal passages and to maintain them, to help the widows, orphans, poor and destitute persons financially, to take arrangement for providing first aid, to superintendent the primary education system and to spread the light of education door to door, to protect environment, and plantation; maintain cleanliness of the Union, set up library, provide arrangement for garden and playground, public relation, award certificate, perform disaster management and relief activities, list out the destitute, execute all kinds of census related responsibility, look after the public properties like- roads, culvert, canal, damp, telephone and electricity lines, take initiatives to rural electrification, etc. The Upazila Council Another important unit of the local governance system in Bangladesh is the Upazila Council. There is a provision in law to compose a Upazila Council through election in order to ensure the autonomous rights of the local people in 485 Upazilas under 64 districts of the country. Upazila system was first introduced earlier in 1983, but this system could not take a permanent basis for different reasons later. To this effect, 'The Upazila Council Act-1998 is reintroduced and whereas it is expedient further to amend the said Act, 'The Upazila Parishad Ain' was passed on April 6, 2009 which is known as 'Upazila Council (Reintroduction and Revision of the repealed Act) Act, 2009. According to rule of the Act, a Upazila Council will consist of the following individuals, namelya. 1 Chairman b. 2 Vice-Chairmen including a female c. Chairmen of all unions within the territory of the Upazila d. Municipality Mayor e. Female members elected in the reserved seats. The Chairman and the Vice-Chairman will be directly elected by the people. Number of seats equivalent to one-thirds of both the Union Council and the Municipality included in the Upazila territory shall be reserved for female representatives who will be elected out of and by the female members/councilor from the reserved seats of both the Union Council and the Municipality included in the same Upazila territory as well. The Upazila Council will act for overall development in the Upazila. Success in all actions will depend on participation by the people. Formation of the District Council The Government of Bangladesh introduced an Act namely 'The District Council Act, 2000' on July 6, 2000. According to this Act, a provision provides the formation of District Council in every district other than Khagrachhari, Rangamati and Bandarban hill districts. A District Council will consist of 1 Chairman, 15 members and 5 female members of the reserved seats. The tenure of a newly formed District Council will be five years. Functions of the District Council Functions of the District Council are of two categories, such as, compulsory and voluntary. Compulsory Functions Include 1. Reviewing all development programmes within the district; 2. Reviewing implementation progress of projects undertaken by the Upazila Council or the Municipality;


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3. Providing arrangement for general library and maintaining the same; 4. Constructing, maintaining and developing public passages and bridges; 5. Planting small tress beside the passages and at places usable by the people and maintaining the same; 6. Cooperating other organizations engaging in implementing development programmes within the area; 7. Aiding, cooperating and encouraging the Upazila and the Municipality as well; 8. Implementing development plans vested in the District Council by the government; 9. Executing other actions assigned to it by the government from time to time; Voluntary Activities The District Council as parts of its voluntary activities may undertake extended programmes regarding education, culture, social welfare, economic development, public health and public works. The council may provide monetary grants to academic institutions, and take other initiatives to develop education, sports, games, etc. for the common people; set up information centre, observe red letters days including our National Day; extend civic education, establish benefactors for indigent; make shelters, widow-house, orphanage and other institutes; check gambling, prevent using the intoxicating substances, adolescent offences and other unsocial practices; make arrangement for the settlement of disputes by arbitration amicably, set up an ideal agricultural farming for economic development, and make advanced agricultural system popular among the farmers. The Municipality or Town Council The Pouroshava (Municipality) is the name of local governance agency of the town. There is a Municipality for each municipal or town area in Bangladesh. Number of municipalities small or large, at present in Bangladesh is 316 only. The Formation A municipality consists of a Chairman and few members based on wards, to be directly elected by the eligible voters. The members are known as Commissioners. The number of each municipality members is not equal. The number may be more or less following volume and population of the municipal area. Functions The Municipality has to perform diverse sorts of activities for solving different problems in order to render development. 1. Functions Relating to Planning: The Municipality composes different projects and implements them for overall development of town and other adjacent areas within its territory. The Municipality may array roads and highways or habitations of residential areas for beautification of the town. 2. Functions Relating to Mass Security: The Municipality provides arrangement for fire prevention and extinguishment. Besides, it provides life-support assistances for the victims during and post-disaster period, affected by flood, devastative epidemic, famine, tornado, etc. 3. Functions Relating to Public Health: The Municipality provides arrangement for maintaining public passages, latrine, dustbin, extraction of sewerage dirt and refuses as well.

Group work: Prepare a list of activities of a Municipality.

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Besides, it superintendents different public health related services, such as, establishment of clinics, child-house, mother-house, etc. preventing contagious diseases and providing remedies for, forbidding sale or purchase of polluted and adulterated victuals, supplying pure water, etc.

4. Functions Relating to Habitation: The Municipality is vested with authority to regulate any construction or reconstruction works. Thus making or reconstructing any brick-built or stone-built house requires approval from the Municipality. 5. Functions Relating to Education: The Municipality's educational functions include construction of academic institutes and hostels, providing training to the teachers, awarding stipend/scholarship to poor and brilliant students, distributing books free of cost, providing compulsory education and mass education, etc. 6. Functions Relating to Improvement of Public Passages: For the sake of public passages, the Municipality constructs passages, names them and maintains the same, keeps the passages neat and clean, provides lighting on the roads and regulates trafficking of vehicles on roads and highways. 7. Functions Relating to Social Welfare: The Municipality sets up welfare centres and orphanages for the orphan, destitute and indigent persons and manage them within its territory. 8. Functions Relating to Plantation: The Municipality is vested with functions relating to maintenance and development of forests within municipal area, plantation and maintenance of plants beside roads and at public places, maintenance of park, garden and open spaces for recreation of the common people, and providing playgrounds to play thereat. 9. Functions Relating to Arbitration: The Municipality may take initiatives to settle or may settle different disputes and problems arising from awarding fine to the people living within the Municipality, limitation of boundaries, family problems and quarrellings by way of arbitration amicably. In this extent of service, the relevant ward commissioner and the Chairman where necessary, may act as arbitrator to serve the purpose. The Municipality is an important and effective governance system in the district and The upazila towns, serving the town-dwellers by participating even in solving their problems they face. The City Corporation The municipalities namely Dhaka, Rajshahi, Chittagong, Khulna, Sylhet, Barisal, Rangpur, Comilla and Narayanganj, have been promoted to the City Corporations. Dhaka City Corporation has been divided into two corporations, namely the Dhaka North and the Dhaka South. The number of members of the City Corporation depends on its volume and activities. The City Corporation consists of a mayor and a deputy mayor who are directly elected by the people. The City Corporation has been formed in order to solve the widespread problems of the city such as arrangement for supply of water and drinking water, drainage system, removal of dirt, refuses, etc. and garbage management, increasing civic privileges and rendering overall development in the territory. Importance of the Local Administration In modern times, importance of local autonomy in respect of administering the state, undoubtedly plays a great role that has no limit de facto. At present, any state consists of


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a vast area and a large number of population, it is far impossible for the central government to, staying in the capital, smoothly govern the whole territory of the country, to superintends different matters in regular manner, to expedite development activities and to ensure well-balanced development Group work: Make a debate on the without distinction as to region on the whole. importance of local administration The superiority of the local administration is that it keeps unaffected from central dependency and bureaucratic intricacies that facilitate taking immediate initiatives or steps to solve different problems and in respect of local developments by the light of variegations and materiality at local level corresponding to particular area where necessary. This system helps make the foundation of democracy much steady by ensuring participation of the people in the local governance and development activities, growing awareness and leadership among them and making transparency of the administration and its accountability more secured in true sense of the term. Reference Books 1. Bangladesh Politics, government and administrative development 1757-2000 by Dr. Harun-or-Rashid 2. Civics, Open School, Bangladesh Open University, by Professor Harun-orRashid and Professor Shawkat Ara Husain. 3. Modern State Philosophy and organization, by Abdul Qayum.


Short questions: 1. Write the names of three major organs of the Government. 2. How does the Parliament predominate the administrative department? Explain. 3. Explain the importance of the local administration. Descriptive questions: 1. Narrate the powers and functions of the Prime Minister elaborately. 2. 'Parliament virtually controls the administrative department'. Make this quotation clear with grounds. 3. Explain how the judiciary establishes the rule of law. Multiple choice questions: 1. Which one is the example for a state consisting of a single legislative house? a. The United States of America b. The United Kingdom c. India d. Bangladesh Read the following passage and answer the question No. 2 and 3 Hridoy informed his friend living abroad that the Prime Minister of Bangladesh discharges her duties and applies her power in different matters such as in patronizing the ruling party, financial functions, leader of the political party and parliament related authority.

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2. Which one out of the information passed by Hridoy is correct in respect of discharging functions by the Prime Minister ─ i. Patronizing the ruling party ii. Approval to annual budget iii. Preserving the rights of the members of the Parliament. Which one in the following is correct? a. i & ii b. ii & iii c. i & iii d. i, ii& iii 3. For executing the above functions, the Prime Minister is called ─ a. Chief of the Government b. Chief Executive c. Head of the Parliament d. Leader of the party Creative questions: 1. The habitations in three villages under a district of the southern region of Bangladesh were damaged by a cyclone. The Deputy Commissioner 'Ka' provided victims with cash money and treatment for the injured. He holds reputation through smoothly discharging his functions maintaining law and order within the relevant district, implementing government policies and collecting revenues, etc, in exercise of the power. a. What is the tenure of a Union Council? b. What is impeachment? Explain. c. What type of activities of 'Ka' does 'taking steps for the victims of cyclone'? Explain. d. 'The Deputy Commissioner is a friend of the district', evaluate this quotation by the light of the section described, and the subject-matter perused. 2. Bellal Hossain is the representative duly elected by eligible voters of his area. There are 12 more representatives in his office. He got 3 tube-wells installed, supplied 5 rings for set up of toilets (latrines) and distributed fertilizer among the farmers in his area. a. What is the number of the Members of Parliament made limited by the Constitution in accordance with 15th Amendment of the Constitution? b. What do you understand by the Local Autonomy? c. What organization is Bellal Hossain the Chief of? Explain. d. Is Bellal Hossain's work as mentioned in the section enough for the said organization? Give arguments in favor of your answer.


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The Democracy of Bangladesh and the Election Democracy is by far the most acceptable and challenging form of government in the present world. It is extensively getting popularity in almost every country of the world. Though there is no universally accepted definition of democracy, it generally means a form of government in which the sovereign power resides in the people as a whole, and is exercised by them, instead of a system of government where power is occupied by a small number of individuals as in an oligarchy. Democracy is such a system of political governance in which a peaceful handover of power at the end of the tenure of the government in power through adult enfranchisement, people’s participation in the political parties and the activities, running the state by the elected body, and the protection of their freedoms and opportunities of their welfare are ensured. The system of government in Bangladesh is also democratic. The parliament election is held in Bangladesh too. For this purpose, the government has established an Election Commission and formulated codes of conduct with the provisions of awarding punishments for violating the same. In this chapter, we will know of the democracy, the election and the electoral code of conducts of Bangladesh.

After reading the chapter, we will be able to ─ • • • • • •

explain the concept of democracy; explain democratic process of Bangladesh; explain the concept of political parties; explain the roles of the ruling party and of the oppositions in the democratic system of Bangladesh; explain the democracy and the election as well; explain the National Parliamentary Electoral Process of Bangladesh;

• explain the establishment and the functions o the Election Commission in Bangladesh; • describe the electoral code of conducts; • explain the punishment for violating codes; • be aware of the democracy, the political parties and the election, and we may be inclined to grow as citizens possessing democratic values.

The Concept of Democracy The former US President, Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) defined democracy as the "Government of the people, by the people, for the people". According to Professor Getel, 'Democracy is a form of government where people are entitled to participate in exercise of the sovereign power on behalf of them'. Generally, democracy is, in fact, a system of government formed and governed for the sake of the interest of majorities. It does not mean that democracy will deny views and interests of the minorities, rather all are

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considered equal in the eyes of the laws in democracy. So, the democracy, which has been established as the most effective system to regulate public affairs so far, is undoubtedly a popular concept in the 20th century, That is why the democracy is one of the subjects worth studying. Establishment of the democracy as a form of government is a consequence of historical process. Democracy was first established in the city of Athens of ancient Greece. The Athenians would understand such a political governing system by democracy in which the whole people could directly participate. The Athenian democracy could not continue on the move later. A considerable long duration in the Middle ages got elapsed in the diarchy of religion and lord, the autocratic reign and the feudal system of governance. After a long gap, democracy got the rebirth in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. In the 19th and 20th centuries, democratic system was established in different countries of the world. England is marked as the main source of democratic trend of thoughts of the 18th century. However, the development of democracy has gradually approached such a successful consequence that the modern civilization has been turned into democratic civilization. Different Types of Democracy Democracy is usually introduced in two basic forms: (1) The Direct Democracy or Pure Democracy and (2) The Indirect Democracy or Representative Democracy. The Direct Democracy The Direct democracy is a form of government in which the eligible and adult citizens participate in the governance personally. Initially the direct democracy was introduced in small city-states in ancient Greece. All the citizens of the state directly took part in legislation, decision-making, imposing tax, justice and other jurisdictions. But the concept of 'citizen' was narrow then, and every one did not enjoy the honour of a citizen. A Modern state is big in size and has a large population as well. So there is no scope to exercise direct democracy over there, but in some regions of Switzerland, the system of direct democracy still exists. The Indirect or Representative Democracy The Indirect Democracy or Representative Democracy involves the election of representatives by the people, and the citizens do not directly take part in the state affairs. The elected representatives enact laws and run the state as well. In the modern states, the indirect or representative democracy is prevailing. The Merits and Demerits of Democracy The good qualities of democracy are as follows: In democracy, the rules of laws are established. It is a system of responsible governance in which the government is elected directly by the people, and remains accountable to the citizens. A democratic system of government is a system which is governed by the public opinion. Any autocratic oppression, repression or control can not be accepted in this system. In democratic governance, people's interest gets priority in making the state policy. People's individual freedom and freedom of speech are ensured in this system. As a result, a political sense grows among the people. In this system of governance, the ruling party or the government is treated as the people's government. When such government loses the trust of the people, it can no longer survive. Under such form of government, an individual may enjoy the privileges of self-development. Moreover, a


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democratic-government is a benevolent government, and its main goal is the welfare of the people. In a democratic form of government, there are some limitations and shortcomings. Ancient sages and philosophers like Plato and Aristotle termed 'democracy' as a ruling system of the illiterate and incompetent people because many irrational, incompetent and corrupted person may be elected in this system for it being a rules of the majority. As a result, the objectives of the democracy are not achieved in lack of knowledgeable politicians, and many problems arise in governance. As a matter of fact, democracy turns into a governance by the majorities where the minorities cannot send their representatives to the legislative body and for which the government in power remains disinterested in their matter of complaints or needs whatsoever. Many controversial opinions and views are noticed in democracy for which difference of opinions and conflicts on political issues are created, and destroy the national unity. Besides, when political parties fail to come to a consensus, the nation becomes divided, and democracy becomes ineffective. In undeveloped countries, the ruling party governs the state by keeping their own party interest up. As a result, neutrality becomes futile, and agitation among the mass people is inevitable. Moreover, democracy is largely an expensive ruling system involving frequent electoral arrangements, forming public opinions, comprehensive propaganda, etc. for which the political parties as well as the candidates have to spend a lot of money. The Democracy of Bangladesh The Parliamentary system of government was adopted in Pakistan after the British Rules had been over in 1947. Bangladesh was a part of Pakistan having the name of East Pakistan. It took long 9 years to form a constitution for the state in the national assembly. In fact, during this period, the Governor General and the bureaucrats governed the state in the name parliamentary rules. Either the Prime Minister or the Governor General used to form the cabinet with a chosen few without taking any opinion of the National Assembly. General Ayub Khan declared the martial law in 1958 two and a half years after formulating the constitution through which the transient democratic system of Pakistan came to an end. But subsequently, a demand to establish Parliamentary democracy had been raised and the first National Assembly Election was held in Pakistan in 1970, and that was the last election in the undivided Pakistan. The Awami League got the absolute majority in the election under the leadership of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, but the Junta of Pakistan did not hand over the power to Bangabandhu, rather they swooped over the unarmed Bengalis which resulted in the division of Pakistan. Bangladesh got her independence through a bloody war of 9 months in 1971. Since the post-independence till today, three political parties came to power ─ The Awami League, The Bangladesh Nationalist Party and The Jatiya Party, and a considerable period was under military regime. After the liberation, The Bangladesh Awami League first formed the government under the leadership of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. The Bengali nation achieved their independence under the leadership of Bangabandhu, a manifest symbol of their long struggle against the Pakistani oppression and repression. The Awami League government made an important contribution to the reformation of a war-torn state, to the foundation of the infrastructure and the restoration of different industries and the nationalization, improvement of administrative system in due course. The Awami League government initiated different steps to establish the democracy by introducing the parliamentary form of government, drafting a democratic and progressive constitution within 10 months after the

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independence, achieving recognition of 140 states as an independent country, getting memberships of the United Nations, the OIC, and other international organizations, and by holding the General Election on 7 March 1973 for the first time in the country as per the newly drafted constitution. On 15 August 1975, a group of aberrant army personnel cruelly killed the Father of the nation, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, and all of his family members who were present in the house at that time, and subsequently the four National leaders in the jail. Thus Bangladesh confronted a turning reversely which continued to go on the move until the mass revolt that took place in 1990. The country was under the Martial law for 15 years after the Post-75 political turmoil when the people's voting right was snatched away. The Pro-army supporting parties are formed by disintegrating different political parties or alluring leaders thereof tactfully. The despot in power took over the control of polling booths in the name of election. Constituencies were shared out in the name of socalled election. The Election Commission became ineffective and helpless with concern. Student led mass movement of 1990, the formation of the Caretaker Government under leadership of the Justice Shahabuddin Ahmed, and holding the National Parliament Election on 27 February 1991 introduced a mentionable chapter focusing on political revolution and retrieval of democracy in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) won the election held in 1991 and formed the government. Immediately after the election, the cabinet governance system was reintroduced in the parliament on 6 August 1991 by the Constitution (Twelfth Amendment) Act, 1991 upon mutual consent of all the parties in a body. But such mutual understanding between the ruling party and the opposition could not last long. A dissension among the parties was grown regarding the by-election in the constituencies of Mirpur, Dhaka (1993) and Magura (1994) within a short time. It created a suspicion among the parties in opposition that no election would be free and fair under the government of the ruling party. However, different political parties including the Awami League initiated a demand of holding the subsequent general election under a neutral caretaker government. All the Members of the Parliament belonging to the Awami League and other political parties boycotted the session of the House, and subsequently 147 MPs of the opposition tendered their resignation from the Parliament. The Awami League, the Jatiya Party and the Jamaat-e-Islami began movement demanding the formation of a Non-party Caretaker Government, and called strikes incessantly by forcing the issue. The then BNP Government ignored their demand, and doggedly held the General Election on 15 February 1993. The Awami League and other political parties rejected the election, and the so-called election was held in almost absence of the voters. The election lost its acceptance and importance as well since the opposition parties did not take part in the election. In spite of that, a bill for establishing the system of Caretaker Government was passed and included in the Constitution as the Thirteenth Amendment in 1996 in a session of the Sixth Parliament lasted for only four days, and a constitutional provision on conducting the general election under a Non-party Caretaker Government was ensured. However, the Awami League formed the government getting the majority in the Seventh Parliamentary election held on 12 June 1996. The Awami League government initiated different policies to strengthen the democracy in the state by forming different parliamentary committees, introducing a session for the Prime Minister to answer the queries of the members, signing the Chittagong Hill Tracts peace Treaty, and


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introducing the system for women to be elected in Union Councils and other local government elections through direct voting. Following the eighth parliamentary election held on 1 October 2001, the four-party alliance led by the BNP-Jamaat formed the government. This government purposefully and for the sake of party interest extended the age limit of the retirement of the Justice in service for 2 years from 65 to 67, and made impartiality of the subsequent Chief Advisor of the caretaker government and the Chief Election Commissioner controversial. A most critical political situation was created in the country. At such a state, an indirect army interference by General Moin U Ahmed took place in the politics. The then army-backed government of Dr. Fakhruddin Ahmed was in power for two years, and they tried their best to survive through an unconstitutional way by arresting both the party-chiefs of the major two political parties, establishing a special tribunal for their trial, imposing the socalled reformation on the existing political parties, and issuing numerous ordinances. However, after two years of such a situation in the country, the Caretaker Government was compelled to declare time and schedule for the general election, and the election was held on 29 December, 2008. The greater alliance led by the Awami League achieved the landslide victory and formed the government as well. The Political Parties A political party is an important organization in the modern state governance. In fact, nowadays, a representative government means a political government. No existence of a democratic state is imagined without the political parties. The public opinion, party manifesto, supporters and politically conscious citizen groups are formed centralizing on the political parties. The Definition of a Political Party In general sense, a political party is defined as an organized group of people that tries to assume power in a lawful manner by propagating their political manifesto and forming public opinion. According to Professor Getel, “a political party consists of a group of citizens more of less organised, who act as a political unit, and who by use of their voting power, aims to control the government and carry out their general policies.” Generally a political party may be formed under the creative leadership of an individual or a group. So, it may be said from this point of view that a political party is an organized group of people that tends to identify the problems of the citizens by the political leaderships, and building the public opinion in a specific course of actions solve the problems, and tries to form the government of their own in a lawful manner. Such political parties, apart from ensuring the national interest and progress, play roles in strengthening their party and preserving the interest of their party members as well. MacIver, a political scientist, defined a political party in this way, “we may define a political party as an association organised in support of some principles or policies which by pro-constitutional means. It endeavours to make the determinant of the government.” Therefore, it can be said that a political party is an organization of the people whose members and supporters agree in opinions and seek to take over the power as the constitutional way and to implement the agenda fixed by the party.

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The Objectives of the Political Parties The main objectives of the Political parties are ─ 1. To identify the problems of the country, and make programmes and policies and implement them being united on principles; 2. To create public support by making the development policies and plans and place before the public; 3. To achieve national progress and development of the country by implementing party policies and programmes and to keep up the national interest above all; 4. To assume power through a systematic legal electoral process for the fixed tenure, and to establish political dominance on others. The Roles of the political Parties in a Democratic System The existence of a powerful and well-organized political party is one of the leading provisions for the success in a democratic system of government. Professor Finer says, "Modern democratic governance is the political party government in practice". Any form of government either democratic, or autocratic, or socialist may exist in a state, but the importance of political parties is well accepted. But in a democratic system of government, the necessity and importance of the political parties are utmost. The roles of the political parties in a modern democratic system are described below: Every Political party after identifying different political, social, and economic problems of the country adopt its policies and throw specific programmes. Such policies and principles are usually mentioned in the party manifesto. The political parties arrange meetings, Individual work: Describe why the gatherings, holding talk-shows to make their party policies and plans public, and try to have political parties are essential in a supports by expressing their opinions through democratic system of government. Group work: Make a list showing the the newspapers. key functions of the political parties. The important functions of the political parties are to nominate candidates in the national election of the country and convince the voters through canvassing. They launch an all out campaign for their candidates to make them victorious. The main function of the political parties is to form the government after winning the election. Usually, the party that gets the majority in the election forms the government. After assuming office, the party or the alliance rules the country on their party-principles and the commitment declared earlier. The political parties play a great role in mobilizing the citizens to participate in the politics and develop a political consciousness. The opposition has an important role in a democratic system of government. A party or the parties that fail to get the majority in the election play the vital role of the opposition. The opposition keeps the parliament active by initiating debate, criticising the policies of the government, raising pending proposals and expressing opinions on different issues. The opposition keeps the government accountable to the public by holding discussion, giving statements and criticising outside the Parliament. Besides, the opposition represents alternative policies to counter the policies of the government, and plays responsible role and criticise in a constructive way. The members of the ruling party stay with the people of their respective localities, and explain the policies and decisions of the government. Again, the public expressing their


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opinions demand the solution from the government. The parties are the indispensable links between the people and the representative machinery of the government. The political parties drive their movements in order to realize the due rights for the citizens of the country in any independent state. The political parties organise movements for liberation from slavery and for the achievement of independence. For example, The Muslim League launched the movement for achieving Pakistan and the Awami League for the independence of Bangladesh. The roles of the political parties to a democratic state are inevitable. They detect the needs, demands and problems of the public, and undertake programmes for the overall welfare of the people. Besides, the opposition represents a shadow government in the parliamentary form of government, because, if the ruling party loses the support and fails in a vote of confidence in the parliament, the opposition avails of the opportunity of assuming power and form the government instead. The Relationship between the Democracy and the Election The fundamental aspect of democracy is the election. No democratic system can be imagined without election. There is no other alternative to election in a democratic form of government to run the state by the people’s representatives. The Election is held in order to elect public representatives at different levels of the government. In the modern democratic form of government, all powers of the country belong to the people, and the people exercise their democratic rights by participating in the election and casting their votes. In this process, the people may elect honest and competent representative on the basis of their evaluation, and the government is formed and run by those who are elected with the mandate of the people. So, the legal electoral system has a relationship with the picking of lawful authority of election and the formation of a democratic government. Through electoral process, the people may discard the previous government, i.e. the previous ruling party. The people do not trust the government or the party that ignore the interest or opinion of the people. The people give a stern reply through the election. The sovereignty of the people is exercised through the election. The System of Election in Bangladesh and the National Parliament Direct democracy was customary in the city-states of Ancient Greece. That is, the citizens would directly participate in the ruling system individually. But the modern states are big in size with a large population. So, it is not possible for every citizen to directly participate in the process of governing. That is why the people perform the duty indirectly by electing their representatives through enfranchisement. The election is a process through which representatives may be elected from the candidates of different parties in order to govern the country on behalf of the people. In other words, the election is a system through which the adult and eligible citizens of the state elect their representatives by casting their votes as per their own choice. In almost every country, the election is held by ballot. The citizens who have legal rights to vote or enjoy the dignity to cast votes are called voters or electors. All voters in a body are generally termed as the 'electoral body'. The whole of the country is divided into some

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electoral constituencies. Each constituency elects its representative, and the Parliament or the Legislative Assembly is formed with the elected representatives. In Bangladesh, the parliament election is held at national level. There are two kinds of electoral systems in different countries of the world, such as, the direct election and the indirect election. The electoral system through which the voters cast their votes directly and elect their representatives is called the Direct Election. Bangladesh is a country where the direct Photo: 9.1: The National Parliament election system is in practice so far. The indirect building of Bangladesh election system is an electoral process in which the voters casting their votes directly form a midterm electoral agency known as Electoral College, and the Electoral College finally and formally elects representative or the President as found in the United States of America where this body of electors formally elects the US President and vice president as well. The total areas of Bangladesh have been divided into 300 constituencies for the electoral convenience. The Election Commission declares the time for holding election and the 'election schedule' at the same time. At the time of election, the candidates are initially nominated by the political parties. In fact, the candidates get the opportunity of fighting in the election having nomination from the political parties. The Election process, i.e. the election related activities start immediately after the declaration of the Election Schedule by the Election Commission. The compilation of the voter list, determination of the constituencies, appointments of the returning officers, distribution of the nomination papers, receiving and sorting out of the nomination papers, distribution of the symbols among the candidates, printing out the ballot papers, fixing the polling booths and making the necessary arrangements, appointing presiding, assistant presiding and polling officers, distributing ballot papers, holding election, computing votes, and declaring formally the results are the usual activities of the Election Commission. That is, all the election related activities are the parts of the election process. The Formation of the Election Commission, Its Jurisdiction and Function The Formation of the Election Commission The Election Commission discharges the responsibility to hold different elections in Bangladesh. This Commission holds all the elections as an independent, unrestricted and neutral establishment. The Election Commission consists of a Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and some other Election Commissioners. The President appoints the Chief and other Election Commissioners. The Chief Election Commissioner acts as the Chairman of the commission. The tenure of the Commission is five years. The Commissioners may submit resignation to the President. They shall be removed from their post for insubordination and inability.


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The Jurisdiction and Functions of the Election Commission The Election Commission makes the voter list and all the necessary arrangements for holding elections at the local government or the national levels. If any dispute arises regarding the voter list, the commission will resolve it. The Commission holds the elections of the Union Councils, the District Councils, the City Corporation, the Municipality and the National Parliamentary. The administration assists the Election Commission in the discharge of its functions. The Election Commission fixes the boundary of the constituencies, and its decision is final to resolve any dispute regarding the boundary. The Election Commission appoints the required number of Returning and Polling officers for holding the election. The Commission makes the necessary arrangements to elect the President by the members of the Parliament as per the constitution. The Commission sorts out the nomination papers. If any dispute on the sorting out of the nomination papers arises, the Commission will resolve it. The Commission holds the byelection at the National and Local levels. In case any dispute arises regarding the eligibility of any member of the parliament, the Commission deduces the settlement for the same. The Election Commission discharges its functions in accordance with the constitution and the law. The Electoral Codes of Conduct In order to hold elections, the necessary electoral codes of conduct are mentioned below: 1. The Compliance with the Electoral Rules: All concerned shall comply with the electoral rules and regulations accordingly. 2. The Interdiction of Payment of any Subscription, Grant, etc. to any Organization: No candidate shall be entitled to donate, subscribe or to promise to do so directly or indirectly in his constituency from the date of announcement of the schedule till the day on which votes will cast, and also no promise shall be made to undertake any development project in the jurisdiction of his constituency. 3. The Electoral Campaign: 3.1. Without distinction as to political parties and candidates, all concerned will enjoy the equal rights in electoral campaign. No bar to any meeting, procession or campaign shall be made against the counter part; 3.2. No mass meeting causing impediment to public passage on any road or highway shall be called/held without the permission of the competent authority. 3.3. If someone impedes meeting or procession, complaint against that person shall be made before the police agency. But the candidate or/and his supporters shall not be entitled to do any thing of their own; 3.4. No political party or candidate shall be entitled to use any government leaflets, vehicles, or to receive help from any public officer or employee or otherwise any national opportunity; 3.5. No posters, leaflets, or handbills belonging to any candidate shall be replaced by the same of any counter party any way;

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3.6. No electoral camp can be set up on the passage or road any way; 3.7. No government Bungalow, circuit house, rest house and govt. offices shall be used as a place of election activities for any party or candidate; 3.8. On the occasions of election, no loss or damage to any citizen's landed property, house or any other movable and immovable assets shall be made any way, no such work that disturbs peace shall be done; 3.9. All concerned shall abstain from wall writing in any form; 3.10. No entry with motor cycle, mechanical vehicles into the fixed limit around the polling booth; And carrying any kinds of firearms and explosives is legally punishable; 3.11. No influential individual or public officer shall exercise illegal interference to the electoral functions; 3.12. No say striking religious feelings or causing fidgetiness shall be had any way. 4. Keeping the Election Influence-free: No electoral functions shall be influenced by money/bribe, arms, muscle-power or local influence. 5. Admittance into polling booth: Only electoral officers, employees, candidates, electoral agents and voters will be able to enter the pooling booth. No members or supporters of any party shall be entitled to frequently come and go around the pooling booth. 6. Electoral Indiscipline: Violation of any of these rules shall be treated as preelectoral indiscipline. If any victim candidate or party wishes to get remedies, may apply in writing to the Electoral Inquiry Committee under the electoral area or to the Election Commission. The Penalty for Violation of Electoral Codes of Conduct In accordance with the Representation of the People Order, 1972, Electoral Offences and their penalties have been defined. Offences and their penalties are mentioned hereunder: a. to violate the rules relating to election expenses; b. to receive any bribe or gives, offers or promises any gratification; c. to cast false vote or with pen-name; d. to influence the election unfairly, to collect votes forcibly or to causes bar to voting; e. to exercise any false play concerning the personal character of a candidate or any of his relations calculated to adversely affect the election of such candidate; f. to make or publish a false statement relating to the symbol allocated to any candidate; g. to make or publish a false statement on the withdrawal of candidature by any candidate; Group work: Identify the h. to call upon or persuade any person to vote with nature of violations of the distinction as to a particular religion, electoral code of conduct. community, race, caste, sect or tribe, etc. ; i. to help or oppose any candidate by providing him with vehicles;


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to cause or attempt to cause any person present and waiting to vote at the polling station to depart without voting; k. to treat unlawfully, and l. Violation of prohibition imposed on the meeting and procession is an immoral crime in nature. Besides knowingly spoiling a ballot paper or box, or removing the same elsewhere, forging ballot paper or Govt. Brand, taking over possession of polling booth and causing any bar to electoral process also included. The Penalty for Offences A person who is guilty of such corrupt practices is punishable with rigorous Group work: Narrate the nature of imprisonment for a term which may be penalty due for a candidate in your extended to 10 years and shall not be less electoral constituency who violated the than two years, and also with fine. Suits may electoral code of conduct. be instituted at the competent court for such election related offences, but no suit may be instituted against the Electoral Officer-inCharges, employees without permission from the Election Commission in writing.

Exercise Short questions: 1. How will you define democracy? Describe. 2. What do you understand by the Electoral code of conduct? 3. What does the direct democracy mean? Descriptive questions: 1. What does a political party imply? 2. Narrate the Bangladesh National Parliament Election System. 3. Describe the types of conducts worth violation of the electoral code of conduct. Multiple choice questions: 1. Which amendment of the constitution reintroduced the Parliamentary Governance System in Bangladesh? a. the fourth amendment b. the eighth amendment c. the tenth amendment d. the twelfth amendment 2. When a democratic system of government is applied ─ i. Opportunities of self-development of the people are enhanced ii the Government becomes accountable to execute its responsibility iii Quelling conducts get increased in governance system

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Which one is correct in the following ─ a. i b. i & ii c. i & iii d. ii & iii Creative Question: 1. Most of the members of Mitul's Club want to personally be the General Secretary. No one abstains from longing for the same, all of the members empowered some persons to select a Secretary. Subsequently the empowered individuals selected one of them a General Secretary. Although the newly appointed General Secretary gets a tried to obtain their confidence, but he became controversial later due to the lack of prudence and with the charge of keeping up the interest of his nearest ones, and the process of selecting a Secretary stuck in question. a. Write the definition of democracy as defined by the Political Scientist MacIver. b. What is the Election Commission? c. Explain the process applied to select General Secretary to Mitul's Club in the light of the subject-matter perused by you. d. "The selection process will be best subject to removal of weakness in selection process" Explain.


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Chapter-10 The United Nations and Bangladesh No man can be fully developed without human rights. Human Rights mean having ownership of privileges and opportunities of a human being for his survival. Two world wars took place in the last century in our world, namely the First World War and the Second World War. Human rights had been infringed during these wars to a great extent. Millions of people were put to death in these wars. Widespread devastations that took place during the First World War made the human beings greatly afraid of such war and sincerely desirous for peace and harmony. Consequently an International Organization was founded as 'League of Nations', but this organization utterly failed to serve the purpose, which rather resulted in causing the Second World War. The consequence of the Second World War was more stigmatized and panicky than that of the First World War in the history of human civilization. Consequently, the United Nations came into being. The United Nations has played a great role to develop the lot of women. In fact, women's right means human rights. The United Nations send peace keeping force to different countries for defending human rights and maintain the world peace and security. We will know about the United Nations and the roles of Bangladesh in the United Nations as well.

After reading this chapter, we will be able to ─ • describe the background of founding • evaluate the roles of the peace keeping the United Nations; force of Bangladesh in the United Nations • evaluate the roles of the UN in to establish global peace and security; Bangladesh; • be respectful to the activities launched • explain the roles of the United Nations by the UN in maintaining the world peace. in dispelling all sorts of discriminations towards women;

Background of Establishing the United Nations War cannot lead to anyway to settle any crisis among the nations. It causes terrific devastation and immeasurable sufferings and anxiety for the mankind. In the history of the twentieth century, two world wars took place. The First World War took place at the first quarter (1914-1919) and the Second World War during the forties (1939-1945). Basically, the arbitrating peace-loving people were not silent towards the devastations during the wars in respect of settling conflicts between nations. Then a 'League of Nations' was founded on January 10, 1920 in order to maintain international peace and security after the First World War. But the onset of the World War II showed that the 'League of Nations' had failed to maintain the world peace due to its organising toothlessness and other vulnerability. Again, the destructions of the Second World War in 1939 engulfed the whole world. Millions of people died, were injured and crippled,

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and became homeless. Every country losed their young generation capable of working. However, the awful fright caused by the Second World War made the world conscience panicky, and gave them a jolt. The world leadership of that time felt the necessity of a new international organisation to maintain peace and security under the circumstances. Subsequently in 1943, conferences were held in Tehran and Moscow among four major powers, and the representatives of the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Russia and France jointly came to a conclusion to form the United Nations. Then the UN formally came into being on 24 October, 1945. That is Group work: Explain the why the United Nations Day is observed every year on background of establishing 24 October worldwide. All independent states are the the United Nations. members of the United Nations. The United Nations consists of five main organs including a secretariat. The five organs are the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, theTrusteeship Council (which is currently inactive) and the International Court of Justice. The General Assembly comprises of all the member states of the United States. It is also called the 'Deliberative Assembly'. The Security Council is the most important and effective organ. It is made up of 15 member states including 5 permanent memeber states─China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States─and 10 nonpermanent states. The five permanent members hold veto power, i. e. the right to block any proposal. The functions of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. The Trusteeship is formed with a view to looking after such regions not independent so far. The function of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) is to settle the international dispute. This office of the International Court of Justice is situated in The Hague of Netherlands. The Secretariat is the Administrative Division of the United Nations. The General Secretary is the chief executive of it. The Headquarters of the United Nations is situated in New York City of America. Membership of the United Nations Any peace-loving state of the world can be the member of the UN if it accepts the obligations contained in the present Charter. At present, 193 states of the world are the member states of the United Nations. Bangladesh was included therein in 1974 as the 136th Member state. The objectives of the UN The objectives of the United Nations are clearly depicted in the UN Charter in order to maintain international peace and security, and develop friendly relations among nations. The objectives are as follows: 1. to keep peace throughout the world in cooperation with the United Nations by eliminating all types of threats, aggressive disposition and activities that may cause to break the peace; 2. to develop friendly relations and cooperation among nations by showing respect towards equal rights of all human beings; 3. to develop friendly relations among all nations in the fields of economy, society and culture as well; 4. to encourage respect for each other's fundamental rights and freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; 5. to settle international disputes by international rules in peaceful manner; 6. to recognize the rights of Self-discipline for every nation, and to keep up the same; and─ 7. to follow modus operandi of the United Nations in order to implement the objective in cooperation with the United Nations.


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The Roles or Functions of the United Nations in Bangladesh All of the missions of the United Nations' organs are in Bangladesh. Bangladesh being the 136th member state of the United Nations always attains special attention from the UN. All the UN associate organizations, from its inception, have been working in Bangladesh for changing the socio-economic condition of Bangladesh in due course. By this time, four Secretary Generals, at different times, visited Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh's contribution to the United Nations is not much so far, but Bangladeshi troops play an effective role on conducting peace keeping missions by laying down their lives instead. Besides, after being a member state of the United Nations, Bangladesh has been playing an important role towards this international organization. In 1979-1980, the election of Bangladesh as a transient member of the Security Council is a recognition of her role and a sign of trust of the UN as well. Since 1984, the use of Bangla in modus operandi of the United Nations, has been a glory for our nation. In 1986, the then Foreign Minister of Bangladesh, Mr. Humayun Rashid Chowdhury presided over the 41st session of the United Nations' General Assembly. His election as the president of the session reminded the international community of the roles especially played by Bangladesh. The country has been successful in resolving the disputes regarding the distribution of the water of the Ganges and the issues of the hill tracts of Chittagong with India by following the rules of the UN about the peaceful settlement of problems. The associate organizations of the United Nations serving in Bangladesh are as follows: The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) The UNDP embarked on its journey in Bangladesh on 31 July 1972. Since its inception, the UNDP has been conducting various kinds of socio-economic development activities in Bangladesh. The UNDP has fixed 8 projects under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Bangladesh by 2015. The United Nations International Children's Education Funds (UNICEF) The UNICEF has been working in Bangladesh to ensure the fundamental rights, i e. the rights of education and medical care of children and female children. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) The FAO of the United Nations has been working in Bangladesh in order to ensure the food safty for the huge population of this country. The World Health Organization (WHO) The WHO has been conducting different programmes in Bangladesh such as supplying medicine and conducting immunization programme for the children to prevent polio. The United Nations High Commissions for Refugees (UNHCR) The UNHCR is mediating on the Rohinga issue between Bangladesh and Myanmer. They contribute to the expenses of running the Group work: How has Bangladesh refugee camps. Besides, this office plays a vital become benifitted by the roles of the role on different issues including the housing for UN. Explain. the stranded Biharis in Bangladesh. The United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) It observes different kinds of programmes for the development of women in Bangladesh. They involve them in realising the demands of women and in the financial activities of them. It also acts in different issues including safe labour and immigrations for the women here. So, we notice that the United Nations’ programmes are praiseworthy in overall development of Bangladesh.

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The Roles of the United Nations on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women: The United Nations, from its inception, enacted different international charters and rules for eliminating discrimination towards women and for preservation of their rights such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) in 1948, besides, the United Nations conduct a number of functions for women development that are as follows: • 1949- to confer approval of the United Nations for quelling human trafficking and for ending of prostitution; • 1951- to pay the same amount of wages for the same sorts of labour to either a male or a female worker/labourer by The International Labour Organization (ILO); • 1952- to enhance women's political rights in order to cast votes and to contest with the same; • 1957- to introduce the right to preserve nationality or to change the same for the married women; • 1960- to draw up charters eliminating discrimination in women's employment and their trading arena; • 1962- to draw up charters declaring minimum age for women's marriage and registration thereof; • 1962- Equal rights in respect of education for women and girls; • 1975- Declaration of Women's day; • 1975- The First World Women Conference that was held in Mexico; • 1976-1985 -The Women's Decade declared; • 1979- Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). It was effected since 1981; • 1980- The Second World Women Conference held in Copenhagen; • 1985- The Third World Women Conference held in Nirobe; • 1992- The recognition of the Women's rights on preservation and management of the environment and development conference at Rio D Genro; • 1993- The recognition of the Women's right as human right at Vienna Conference in Austria; • 1995- The Fourth World Women Conference held in Beijing. The declaration of the World Women's Conference was substantiated as 'see the world with women's eyes'. A platform for action or Beijing Modus Operandi was adopted; • 2000- Beijing Plus Five Conference; • 2005- Beijing Plus Ten Conference held at New York. Therefore, we observe that the United Nations has been playing leading roles by holding different international protocols, seminars and modus operandi for welfare of the women. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW, 1979) Group work The Charter on Elimination of all forms Make a table showing the discriminations of discrimination against women known towards women and explain the roles of the UN. as the CEDAW Charter was adopted on Fields of discrimination The Roles of the UN 18 December in 1979 by the United towards Women Nations General Assembly, and came into effect on September 3, 1981 with the support of 20 countries. 132 countries including Bangladesh ratified this Charter so far. A special feature of this Charter is that it is a complete charter on the rights of women, which comprises of different issues adopted at different times in order to eliminate discrimination against women.


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The Roles of the CEDAW Charter against the Discrimination towards Women The Charter that was adopted by the CEDAW on the basis of equality without discrimination of any kind as to race, sex etc. The issues on the equal rights of the women were raised there too. Since these rights had been legally mandated, ratifying countries are bound to comply with this Charter. In this Charter, it was admitted that though legal rights for women were in force in different countries, the discrimination existed over there, and it was done through foiling their access into economic or social development. The Charter ensured the state’s responsibility towards its women contained 30 Articles, out of which the first 16 Articles describing all sorts of discriminations that existed against the women, and the rest 14 Articles explaining how to eliminate such discrimination against them. On November 17 1999, the United Nations General Assembly, in order to resist tortures on women, declared 25 November as 'The International Women Torture Resistance Day'. Thus from 25 November-10 December is observed as 'Women Torture Resistance Fortnight' across the globe. The UN has declared 8 March as 'The World Women's Day'. Therefore, we observed that the United Nations, from the very beginning, has been doing a lot for women's development and making women's position much uplifted. The Roles of the Bangladesh Peace Keeping troops in the United Nations Bangladesh is a peace-loving country. Whereas the United Nations has been founded with a view to maintain international peace and security. That's why, the contribution of Bangladesh to the United Nations Peace Keeping Mission is envious. More than 11,000 Bangladeshi soldiers and police are presently deployed in 45 conflict zones in 11 countries of the World. Achievement of an unprecedented success by the Bangladesh troops in African countries has Photo: 10.1: Bangladesh Army in increased the acceptability of Bangladesh in the the UN Peace Keeping Mission same countries i.e. across the globe. Bangladesh has obtained her acquaintance as a model for establishing peace and a peace-loving nation across the World. When the troops of other countries were not getting acceptability in different African and Asian countries due to political bias, Bangladeshi soldiers have not only got the acceptability but also they have earned love and respect of the local community. Our Bengali language has deserved the dignity of the 2nd State language in Sierra Leone. A very busy road in Ivory Costa has been named as Photo: 10.2: Bangladesh Police Force 'Bangladesh Road'. Not only the Bangladesh Army, but also the in the UN Peace Keeping Mission police, male and female, are engaged in peace keeping mission as well. Bangladesh has achieved a widespread acquaintance in the United Nations or the World in consequence of their tireless diligence. The Peace Keeping Mission in the United Nations was not so easy. Bangladeshi troops standing in between the armed militant guerilla tribes in Africa and Asian countries, watched the ceasefire and helped to establish peace and harmony there very aptly. 88

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soldiers have attained martyrdom to establish world peace. Many of them have been injured. Individual Work: Identify the Bangladesh soldiers have proved that they are fields of the Bangladesh peace ready to lay down their lives for peace. Bangladesh keeping force in the UN. is a poor country in consideration of its economy, but it has a magnanimous population. Its trained up soldiers have boldly contributed to maintain international peace and security through the United Nations. The developed countries contribute to the United Nations in the form of subscription, whereas Bangladeshi soldiers and police, i. e. peace keeping troops have lost their lives and uplifted the dignity and pride of the nation and thus making a contribution set an example of keeping global peace.

Exercise Short questions: 1. Why has Bangladesh achieved the dignity of the Second State Language in Sierra Leone? 2. What is Veto? Descriptive questions: 1. Describe the background of establishing the United Nations. 2. Evaluate the contribution of Bangladesh in keeping world peace. Multiple choice questions: 1. In which year did Bangladesh obtain the United Nations' membership? a. 1974

b. 1980

c. 1984

d. 1986

Read the following passage and answer the question No. 2 & 3. Mr. Tapos Roy, while staying at a Jungle in Africa, informed his wife that their goals to ascribe ceasefire among the militant groups, have been fruitful over there. 2. The programme Mr. Tapos Roy is taking part on his nation’s behalf isi. The United Nations Mission ii. Peace Keeping Mission iii. Bangladesh Mission Which one of the following is correct ? a. i & ii c. ii & iii

b. i & iii d. i, ii & iii


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3. What achievements have been made by Bangladesh abroad so far for the said activities? a. has been developed with the Military Strategic Achievement b. has influenced foreign countries c. has formed a disciplined soldiers d. has maintained the World Peace Creative questions: 1. A housewife named Rita, despite her higher education, was not allowed by her family to participate in any working sphere. She was able to get a job in a private firm after showing a number of reasonable arguments and continuous struggle. She was paid there lesser financial facility in comparison to that of one of her male colleagues having the same position. Once she discussed the matter before the authority in order to ensure her reasonable respect and due facilities, and she became successful at last. Her brother Lablu, a member of the Bangladesh police, working in Sierra Leone, came to know this news and became very glad and he greeted his sister from there. a. When was the League of Nations founded? b. What does 'Deliberative Assembly' mean? c. Explain an associate organization of the United Nations that works with a view to realizing the women's rights like Rita. d. Rita's brother, Lablu has been playing an important role for the nation─ Give reasons in support of your answer.

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The National Resource and the Economic System The prosperity of any country depends on the nature and amount of national resource of that country. The prospect of development of that country rich in national resource is obviously high. So, for knowing about the economy, it is necessary to know first about its resources. Again, to know about the economic system of a country, we should know first about its production and distribution process and method. This production and distribution system is different under various economic systems. The economic system includes the method, process and rates under which the economy of any country is operated. In this chapter, we shall know about the production and distribution of national resources and the resource production method in various economic systems as well.

After reading this chapter, we shall be able to ─ • explain the concept of national resource; • • narrate the way to preserve and way to check the wastage of National resource; • • compare various economic systems; •

identify the characteristics of the economic system of Bangladesh; preserve and check the wastage of resource; be interested to know about various economic systems.

The Concept of National Resource Usually, resources mean land, house, various, types of necessary and durable goods, gold-silver, etc. In the real sense of the term, if any material or goods can be termed as resources, the said goods have to hold utility1, insufficiency2, visibility and exchangeability. Utility is the ability of any goods to fulfill want. Insufficiency means limitation of supply compared to demand. Visibility means that the goods is visible. Notes: 1

Utility: The ability of fulfilling the need of any commodity is called utility, for example, human beings have the need or want of clothing, shirt, pant, sari, and all these goods have the ability to fulfill the want of clothes. 2 Insufficiency: When the supply of any goods or services is less than the demand, the said goods or service appear as insufficient, for example, food. The supply of food in every country all the time is less than the demand. So money has to pay for getting food, i. e. it means the insufficiency of food. Again, man needs air for respiration in every moment. Since, the supply of air is unlimited compared to the need, man has to pay no price for air. It means there is no insufficiency of air.


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Exchangeability means the possibility of getting the goods by one person from the other. But price has to pay for getting it. Resource or asset can be divided into four classes - personal, collective, national and international. Personally owned land, house, factory money, car, goods, etc. are the personal asset. Own intellect, personal skill though nontransferable, but an individual can create resource by utilizing those qualities. So these are included as personal asset. The resources which are enjoyed by all the people of the society collectively are collective asset. All the citizens have equal rights on this asset and they have equal obligations for those assets. Roads, Railway, Embankment, Park, Government Hospital, School, and all natural resources under state ownership such as forest, mineral resources, rivers, etc. are the collective resources. All the personal resources of all citizens of the country and the collective resources of the society are jointly called the national resources. Moreover, any qualifying characteristics of the nation such as skills, creative power, technical knowledge, etc. are included in the national resources. There are some resources that do not belong to any state. So every nation can enjoy those resources such as ocean, scientific invention, technology, etc. All these are the international resources. There are mainly two sources of national resources. The first is the gift of nature. The land, inside and outside the geographical boundary of any country is the gift of nature. Natural forest and trees –fruits, animals and birds, rivers and natural water body and fishes, other aquatic animals and trees, water and all types of mineral resources within soil are the nature given resources. The second source of national resource is created by the human beings. The citizens of any country use, collect and withdraw natural resources by using their labour and capital and create asset by transforming or transferring those items. For example, man cultivates land and produces crop, fruit, flower and trees. They cultivate fish in the water, lift mineral resources and make it suitable for use. Moreover, man by their own initiative or under the finance and control of the government constructs roads, factory, machinery, vehicle, embankment and bridge and produces various types of industry. In this way, the citizens of country are engaged in the creation of various types of goods and services, i.e. asset throughout the year. The Reservation of National Resource and Checking Wastage Preservation means preservation and supervision specially. We know that the personal asset of all the citizens and the collective asset of a country together form national resource. Collective asset includes those assets that are collectively owned by all the people and the state owned natural and produced resources are included too. So, the preservation of national resource means both the personal asset and the collective asset altogether. Preservation is the special protection and supervision of any object, goods, organization, and property with care. The individual generally keeps his own asset such as money, land and property, gold and silver, furniture, ornaments, own factory or industry, vehicle, etc. with special care for his own interest. Not only that, they are much active to develop and to increase those. Moreover, everybody supervises those items to check wastage of their own resources. The looking after of asset, preventing the possibility of damaging any asset, replacing the asset damaged, etc. are included in the preservation responsibilities. The individual do not generally incur excess expenditure or misuse of his own asset. He remains always aware for not spending excess of necessity.

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The Preservation of National Resources Roads, bridges, hospitals, schools, the state owned vehicles (car, train, ship, aeroplane) and factory, organization or institution, office building, important installation, natural resource, land and resources inside and above the land (such as forest, river, water body, mineral resource etc) all these are included as collective asset. The state and people are collectively own all such resources. The people use and enjoy these. The state ensures all the development and welfare of the people by using those resources in a planned way. So, all the citizens should especially be careful to preserve all such collective resources. Moreover, organization or institution in charge of there collective resources should perform their duties properly. The Actions to Be Taken to Preserve and Check Wastage of National Resources of Bangladesh • Attention should be given so that the arrangement that is taken by the state to preserve national resources is not hampered. We know that there are security guards for the maintenance of bridges, important establishment, office building, etc. If those are found not secured, then proper authority has to be informed. • Awareness should be enhanced so that none can harm those resources. If any such misdeed is found, the proper person, authority has to be informed, for example, cutting down trees illegally from preserved forest, hunting birds, beasts, etc. would be considered as the damage of national resources. • Trying to keep the development and increasing of these resources. • Remaining aware and active to check the misuse and wastage of the collective and the national resources such as water supplied by the state agency, not to use electricity, gas, etc. without need and to be Group work: Identity some national resources, economical while enjoying. and write the steps should be taken to preserve it. Individual work: How would you separate • If each citizen is aware and active performing respective duty to individual resources from the national resources. reserve those resources, it is not hard to preserve the national resource and wastage of all those items. • For the preservation and supervision of all such resources, the responsibility and duties of authorized organizations are described clearly in the documents of the organizations concerned. The officer employers of the organization have to remain vigilant to perform all such duties property. • To give necessary training to perform all such duties. Various Economic Systems The man has manifold needs such as he has need for food, clothes and shelter. He also needs proper education and good health. Moreover, to live decently with recreation facility, disciplined and safe family social system also required. Need is created from the insufficiency to meet unlimited demand. Man tries to fulfill demand and produce. Production is the transformation of goods or resources from one condition to the other such as chair is made from wood. This transformation is production. Four factors are


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required for production: Land3, Labour4, Capitals5, organization6. Wood for chair is collected from land. For collecting wood, money and to transform wood to chair, machinery and other factors are required. This money and machinery is capital. Afterwards, labourer or technician is needed who prepares chair from wood with the help of machinery and own labour, and the organizer or entrepreneur accomplishes chair production process by integrating land, capital and labourers. In this way, man always initiates effort to fulfill his various needs by the help of these four factors. The above-mentioned four factors are required to accomplish production process. This money received from the produced asset is divided into the said factors as rent, wage, interest and profit. There are the incomes of the factors of production. Through this income the owner of land, labour, owner of capital or capitalist and entrepreneur fulfils their various need and want. The process of distributing produced resources among the said four factors of production is called distribution. We can say from this discussion that the economic function that is performed by man to fulfill his various wants7 has various stages. The stages are as follows: Want → Effort → Production → Distribution → Consumption For production, the land owner is given rent for land. Similarly wages to the labourers, interest to the capital owner, profit to the organizer are given. All the rewards such as rent, wage, interest and profit are properly distributed, speed in economic programmes comes and economic welfare is attained. If the distribution system is faulty and discriminatory, economic problem persists, and instability and disorder are created in the society. The way how the money value of total produced asset is distributed among the factors of production; it depends on the economic system of the country. The system or structure under which the ownership of factors of production is determined and the process of distribution and consumption of produced asset is accomplished is called the economic system. This system forms in combination of economic function of the people and economy related organization and legal structure. Four types of economic system are mainly effective in the present world : the capitalist, the Socialist, the Mixed and the Islamic Economic Systems. In this chapter, we shall know how the work of production and distribution is accomplished under the four economic work process and characteristics under the said four systems. 3

Land: Usually land means soil or plain field, but in economic land means all the mineral resources such as the soil, the upper stratum of earth, and everything on and inside land. 4 Labour: The physical and mental ability of man usable in production work is called labour. 5 Capital: The produced factor of production is called the capital. Capital is such type of asset which is not directly consumed, but more production is made by utilizing it, such as machinery, factory, building used in the work of production, money, etc. 6 Organization: Three factories of production such as land, labour and capital in combination of all these the work of conducting production and execution is called organization. The man who organizes is called the organizer or entrepreneur. The risk or uncertainly which remains in production is shouldered by the organizer. 7 Want: The need felt for any material or in material goods (service) is want. want is the desire or wish to get any goods or service.

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The Characteristics of the Capitalistic Economic System • Ownership of Components of Production: The components such as land, labourer, capital and organization are under the individual ownership in the capitalistic economic system. It means that the individual achieves the ownership of land with the help of his assets or income. He can employ the labourers, and can form the capital. The individual can consume and transfer freely his own asset. In this case, the individual himself takes all the decision. • Freedom to Take Initiatives: The individual alone or collectively can take any initiative for producing goods or services in the capitalist economic system and can make necessary investment. In this case, there is no restriction. In this case, almost all economic functions can run in personal initiative. The capitalistic economy is called many times as free market economy. In this economic system, production, distribution, consumption of goods is operated on the basis of demand and supply. The main characteristics of capitalist system are the independence to take decision by the individual in case of private ownership and production and consumption of asset. It can be said that there is no interference of government in this case. • The Free Competition: Any individual can take initiative to produce any goods or service. So these are many producers for same goods and tree competition continues among them. Group work: Give your opinion The price of goods is determined through regarding distribution of income in competition between the producer or seller and the the capitalist economy. buyers. • Freedom of the Consumer: Which goods and how much amount will be consumed8 by a consumer is decided by himself. But his liking, earning and the market price of the commodity influences his decision • Earning the Highest Profit: The production process is conducted in capitalistic economic system for earning maximum profit. The producers invest9 more money for such goods that have the possibility of making more profit. • Exploitation of labourer: Since it is the objective to earn maximum profit the entrepreneurs or capitalists try to keep production expenses of goods less and to get more prices. To keep production cost less the labourers are given less wages than the just wage. This surplus wage is accumulated to the capitalists and entrepreneurs as profit. In this way inequality and disparity is created in the distribution of produced asset. The labourers get minimum wages compared to dues, and the capitalists and entrepreneur earn more money than their dues since the number of capitalists are less, most of the part of the asset of the society is accumulated in the hand of a small group, and since the number of labourers are huge in number, a vast population of the society get small ownership of the total asset. The Characteristics of the Socialistic Economic System In a socialist economic system, the ownership of the factory of production, production process, and distribution of produced asset is different, compared to capitalistic system. The main characteristics of the socialist economic system are as follows: 8

Consumption: The process of using the utility of a any goods to meet the need of man is called consumption. Such as man meets hunger by food. So man consumes food. But if food is destroyed for any reason it would not be consumption. If used to meet want of men it would be consumptions. 9 Investment: Money engaged in production is investment. Addition of new capital (Money or machinery, equipments, raw material for production) with existing capital goods is called investment.


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• Ownership of the Factors of Production: All asset including factors of production is under the state ownership in the socialist economic system. No private ownership is vested on the asset. Socialism is the ‘economic organization of the society’. The state integrates the four factors of production through this organization and gives guidance to the production activity and conducts according to an over all central planning. The aim of the socialist economic system is that the members of society will have maximum welfare from this planned economic activity. • The Government Instruction in Economic Activities: The producers have freedom to produce any goods in capitalistic economic system. As a result, open competition is created in the production of that goods. More over the individual has no restriction on the purchase and consumption of any goods. So the price is fixed in the market through competition between the buyers and sellers. But the government takes basic decision in producing goods and imparting service to the citizens in a socialistic economic system. Which goods would be produced in what amount and when and in what process the goods would be sold to whom are decided by the government. All these decisions are the part of the central planning. • Lack of Freedom of the Consumer: There is no freedom in making decision regarding production by the producer in socialist economic system. Similarly, the consumer has no privilege to consume goods according to their own wish. The producers grow foods determined by the government, and the consumers purchase and consume these according to the need. The consumers enjoy freedom to select necessary goods and purchase socially. • The Objective of Economic Activity: The main objective of production in the socialist economic system is to earn maximum profit. In the socialistic economic system, all economic activities are conducted to meet the basic needs of each citizen and to attain highest welfare for the people. There is no scope here for earning personal profit. • Income Distribution: The capitalist and entrepreneur received the profit margin in the capitalist system. But the owner of earned profit is state or government in socialistic economic system. Similarly, the revenue of land and interest of capital is deposited in the government treasury, because the government is the owner of land and capital. The state pays wage to the labourers and incurs other expenses of production. As a result, there Group work: Identity the three remains no scope to deprive the labourers by the differences between the capitalist capitalist like the system of capitalism. The policy and the socialist economic system. of paying wage to the labourers is that 'every one will get work according to his qualification and remuneration according to work'. There will have no unemployment in this system because the state arranges works for all as per his ability and qualification. The income of all is not same, but none is deprived from his due income in production according to his contribution. For all such characteristics in socialist economic system, the equal distribution of asset is attained and the income equality is less compared to the capitalist economic system. Production, distribution and consumption activities are accomplished in the socialist economy according to the need of people. All economic activity is conducted by the state under a central planning. So the waste of asset is comparatively less. As a result, the Gross National Product gradually increases, and balanced distribution of asset is possible.

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No private ownership is accepted in the socialist economic system, and the ownership belongs to the state. On the other hand, the individual has no freedom to take initiative in production and consumption. As a result, in case of production and investment the individual initiative and eagerness may be reduced. As a result, optimum utilization of resources, specially the highest productivity and the creativity of individual can not be ensured. The Characteristics of Mixed Economy Another economic system is existent along with the capitalist and socialist economic system in the present world. It is mixed economy. It is a system based in the combination of some characteristics of the capitalist and socialist economy. In this system, the private ownership is recognized in production, investment and consumption, and at the same time, there is the arrangement for production and investment by the government initiative. Some sectors or a part of some sectors of the economy is controlled by the government. The main characteristics of mixed economy are ─ • Coexistence of Government and Private Sector The government ownership, initiative and either full or partial control remain effective in some sectors in the mixed economy along with the private ownership and private initiative. The supply of essential goods and services for the people such as communication system, treatment, arrangement for education, etc. are run mainly under government control. In such cases, the production and supply of partial personal or private initiative are seen.

More over basic and large industry, publicly important organization, big bank and financial organization, main import and export goods, life saving drug, child food, etc. usually remain under government control. Again the essential commodity such as agricultural goods, clothes and garments, processed foods, personal vehicles, restaurant, etc. are produced, established and supplied mainly on private initiative. • Competition: The individual or private sectors remain predominant in mixed economy. So there is competition for production and in fixing up price of goods, spontaneous activities and counter activities of supply and demand. The choice of buyers and investments of the entrepreneur is fixed depending upon the price and ability. • Earning Profit: The personal ownership in property, individual freedom in decision marking, and predominance of private sector remain in the mixed economic system. So the main objectives of all economic activities of the producers are to earn maximum profit. Even the state owned sectors are also influenced with the motive of earning profit.

But there is no aim of earning profit from public welfare activities, specially in service oriented activities (such as health, education related activities). Arrangement is also made to control profit in some social welfare sectors such as telecommunication, transport, etc. • The Freedom of Entrepreneur and Consumer: The individual can take initiative to produce any commodity at any amount in capitalist economy. Even he can do monopoly in business as the sole producer of any commodity. In the mixed economy, the


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restriction is imposed on monopoly business of essential goods used by the people. As a result, more than one producer sells the goods in the market in competitive price. In this economic system, the consumer can sale purchase and consume common goods freely. Also if production hampers at special time and in disaster period then government may impose control indirectly on the sale purchase of any goods. • Distribution of Income: The distribution is also affected by these characteristics of mixed economy. A big part of the economic activities such as the big and heavy industries, the production and marketing of essential goods and the import-export is controlled by the government along with the private ownership. The part of private ownership of the economy is run fully by the individual for the purpose of earning profit. In most of the cases, due wage of the labourer is given less like the capitalist economic system and the surplus wage is included with the profit. As a result, a balanced distribution of asset is not produced. The disparity appears in the income of various factors of production. So, the over all welfare of the people of society is not ensured.

It appears that the part in the mixed economy controlled by the government is not for making profit but for the social welfare to the utmost. The labourers engaged in the production get the right wages. So a balanced distribution has been possible. In this way, it is seen that a balanced distribution of asset and wages is ensured in the mixed economy though sometimes, it is noticed that the labourers are exploited and deprived and income disparity is observed. The Islamic Economic System There is the instruction of each activity of human being in Islam. This religion is a code of life. So the policies, rules, legal structures and guidance required to perform the political, social, economic and religious activities are included in Islam. All such rules and regulation are inscribed in the Holy Quran and Hadith. The foundation of Islamic economic system is also the Holy Quran and Hadiths. To understand the issue of distribution asset under Islamic economic system, we have to understand first the main characteristics of Islamic economic system. The Characteristics of Islamic Economic System The Islamic economic system is the full discussion of human life. The Creator has created man, all types of commodities, creatures, environment and materials. Man uses all these goods and environment given by the Creator, has created asset and thus consumes. It is the rules of Islam. • Ownership of Asset: The personal ownership of asset is recognized in Islam. Man can use and consume the asset according to his wish. He can transfer this properly to his heirs. • The Shariah Based Economic Functions: The economic and all functions are run in Islamic economic system as per the provision of Sariah. The basic principles of economic activities are determined according to the five basic pillars of Islam, instructions of the Holy Quran and the provisions of Hadith of Rasul (SM). • Production System and Remuneration of the Factors of Production: Any individual can invest either individually or collectively for producing goods permitted by

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the Shariah in Islamic economic system. He himself can also purchase and consume necessary goods. The objectives of production are to confirm producing 'Halal' goods permitted by the Islam and ensure the social welfare oriented and exploitation free production process. The large scale production activity is customary in Islamic economy. But where there is no existence of individual or private initiative, the government initiative can be launched. If money or asset remains under the possession of an individual for a certain period, then a fixed portion of it has to be distributed among the poor in the Islamic economic system. This system is called Zakat. Zakat is compulsory for the rich person. One of the main factors of production in the capitalist and socialist system is capital. There is the interest for the capital, but the transaction of interest is 'Haram' or prohibited in the Islamic economic system. In this economic system, the capitalists sustain the profit or loss at the proportionate rate of the capital invested by them. There is interest free Individual work: If you are given the deposit and loan taking system in the Islamic authority to introduce economic system Banking system. The producers and in your own country which economic businessmen can take this loan and pay profit system would you introduce? Why? to the loan disbursing individual organization Group work: Determine the economic (Bank), and it is received as profit from the system of Bangladesh and write the business. There is the arrangement of paying problem of its distribution activities. just dues to the labourers in time in this economic system. As a result, the proper distribution of produced asset is possible. • Income Distribution: Since the production system free of exploitation is followed in the Islamic economic system, the paying of remuneration on the basis of equity and justice is ensured.

The Prevailing Economic System in Bangladesh The Feudal Economic System was mainly prevailing in Bangladesh during the ancient Bengal, the Muslim and the British rule. This system was Landlord centred. The owners of worth mentioning area of land would have called Landlords. The economy was agriculture based. A Landlord was financially self-sufficient. People of all vocation and profession such as farmer, black smith, potter weaver, fisherman, carpenter, gold smith, businessmen, teacher were under his control. Even he would have the Lathials (the goons) for the security of his asset or land property. These Landlords were called Zamindar in the British period. The Zamindar system was abolished in the Pakistan period, and was replaced by the capitalist economic system. The influence of Zamindari system was in existence along with the capitalist system. The capitalist system got predominance at the end of the Pakistani period. The major portion of capital and asset were under the possession of a few number of people. Bangladesh achieved independence in 1971 through the armed struggle. Initiative was taken to establish a socialist economic system in the country on the basis of the constitution drafted after the liberation. The large industries, financial organizations, Banks, insurance companies, transport, main industrial organizations, the primary education, import and export, etc. were taken in the state ownership and control. All


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these factories, business and financial organizations were under the control of the nonBengalis who left the country after the independence and problem was created in managing these organizations. On the other hand, the government had to employ almost the entire capacity to solve the problem of the war-ridden economy of a newly independent country. The human resources such as the administrators, managers, entrepreneurs, and intellectuals were the victims of killings and atrocities. As a result, it was not possible to initiate proper management of those organizations. As a result, the nationalized industries and business organizations faced loss. So the action was taken to expand the private sector and individual initiative. This trend of expanding private sector and private initiative is still continuing after the nineties, and denationalization of nationalized industries started during this time. At present, the economy is run to establish a free market economy to keep pace with the global economic condition. After the independence to present time, various types of reforms and changes are going on in the economic system of Bangladesh. It can be said that at present mixed economic system is existent in the country. Main industries, business organizations, financial organizations are included in the Individual work: Which change in nationalized sector. Also all the sectors of the the existing economic system of economy are gradually going under private Bangladesh would you think be able control. Another remarkable characteristic of the to make the system more developed? economic system is that market economy is getting established with the expansion of private initiatives. The prices of goods are determined by the mutual action of demand and supply and this price again influences the nature of production and amount of consumption of the consumers. The major portion of the capital that is required for the production inside the country is collected from internal sources, but the foreign loans, aid, grants and personal capital also play a very important role in this case. It means that there is the coexistence of government and private sector in production and the distribution process of the country. The private sector is gradually expanding. As a result, the entrepreneur and consumer have independence. Any entrepreneur of producer can produce any amount of any goods. The production work is also operated by the motive of earning more profit. In case of distribution of income, the lower rate of wages of the labourers and the higher rate of profit of the entrepreneur are also observed in the capitalist economic system. Interest and rent are paid at higher rate. Since there is control of government in the government sector, the wages of the labourers are ensured, but the commercial sectors are under private control, so inequity in wages in Bangladesh is evident. As a result, the lower standard of living of the labourer class is prevailing since long.

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Exercise Short questions: 1. Who is called the entrepreneur? 2. Give the example of personal property. 3. What is the national resource? 4. How would you define collective resources? Narrative questions: 1. Explain the responsibilities of the state to preserve the national resource of Bangladesh. 2. Differentiate between the capitalist and the socialist economic system. 3. Identify the characteristics of economic system of Bangladesh. Multiple choice questions: 1. Which one below is the collective resource? a. House b. Ocean c. Factory d. Forest

Car House Own Intellect

Road Park School

i ii 2. Which circle above includes personal asset? a. i b. ii c. i & ii d. ii & iii 3. The characteristics of mixed economic system are – i.

Mineral Resources Government Hospital Technical Knowledge


Personal independence and predominance of the government sector in decisionmaking

ii. The predetermined government decision about the quantity of the production iii. Introduction of the lone system as a lone producer


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Which one is correct? a. i b. i & ii c. iii d. i & iii Read the paragraph below and answer the question no. 4 & 5. Tanvir of Bakulpur village of Gazipur district observes that some people are cutting the trees from the forest. Tanvir caught the people engaged in cutting trees with the help of villagers and handed them over to the police. 4. What type of effort of Tanvir to preserve the national resource and prevent the misuse is? a. Personal b. State c. collective d. International 5. As a result of taking the said initiative ─ i. National resource would be protected ii. Financial development would occur iii. Employment opportunity would occur Which one is correct? a. i b. ii c. i & ii d. ii & iii Creative question: 1. Pertho is the citizen of a country named "A". The country where he has born does not allow establishing industry by personal initiative. The factory in which the father of Pertho used to work would give a portion of his due wage only when needed. Recently Perth has got the citizenship of a country named 'Kha'. He has established an industry by spending $ 1 lakh. He has established another industry with his earnings. a. How many divisions can the asset be divided into? b. What is the economic system? Explain. c. Explain the nature of economic system of the 'A' country of Pertho from the point of view of the subject matter you learnt. d. Discuss with logic the difference between the economic system of the country of ‘Kha’ with the economic system of the country of ‘Ka’.

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The Economic Indicators and the Nature of the Economy of Bangladesh To know the economic condition of a country, it is necessary to know the gross national product, gross internal or domestic product and per capita income of the people of that country. These are called economic indicators because these indicators indicate economic condition. Whether the economy of a country is advancing or falling back or remaining at the same position compared to the previous condition can be understood by the standard of those indicators. Along with these indicators, what the condition of production in agriculture, industry, service and in other sectors is, how the money sent to the country by the people working aboard is creating impact on national economy taking all these into consideration, it is possible to know the condition and flow of the economy of the country. In this chapter we shall be informed of various topics including all these economic indicators i.e. gross domestic product, gross national product, per capita income and the nature of the economy of Bangladesh and her worth mentioning sectors.

After reading this chapter, we shall be able to – • explain the concept of Gross National Product (GNP), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and per capita income; • find out the difference between GNP and GDP; • explain the contribution of the sectors of economy to domestic product; • compare the GNP, GDP and per capita income of some countries; • find out GNP, GDP and per capita income in small proximity; • explain the main characteristics of the

economy of Bangladesh; • explain the significant obstacles to the progress of the economy of Bangladesh; • explain the steps to be taken to overcome the obstacles to the development of the economy of Bangladesh; • explain the concept of developed, underdeveloped and developing economy; • explain the economic relationship of Bangladesh with the developed and developing countries; • be aware in solving economic problems.

Section 12.1: The Economic Indicators The Gross National Product It is necessary to know about the Gross National Product and per capita national income of a country to know the economy and economic condition of that country. The monetary value of the amount of material and immaterial goods and services produced in


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a particular period-generally in one year by investing the labour and capital of a country on the natural resources or land of that country is called gross national product. The Measurement of Gross National Product The Gross National Product can be measured from the viewpoint of three aspects. 1. Taking the Produced Goods and Services into Account Various types of goods and services10 are produced in the economy of any country on the basis of the need of the people. Because of the variety of the produced goods, it is not possible to calculate the total amount of these goods and services. So, the amount of total production of each commodity and each service is to be multiplied with their market price to calculate the amount of gross national product. The summation of the financial value of each commodity and service obtained in this way is called gross national product. For calculating gross national product in this method only the ultimate commodities have to be counted. Many goods are purchased and sold more than once as primary and secondary goods before coming to the market at the final phase. These purchase and sale occur between the producers and the businessmen. At the final phase of the production of the commodity consumers purchase and consume11 it. After the purchase by the consumer it is no more purchased or sold. If the commodity is counted at each phase to calculate the gross national product, the amount of gross national product will not be correct. So, in calculating gross national product the only commodity of the final phase has to be calculated. Let us try to understand the topic through an example. Suppose there is produced yarn from cotton, fabric from yarn and shirt from fabric. Here, cotton is the primary commodity, yarn and fabric are the secondary goods and shirt is the ultimate commodity. If the price of the commodity is calculated at all these four phases, cotton, yarn, fabric and shirt, it will be a wrong calculation. Because, the prices of cotton, yarn and fabric are included in the price of the shirt. So to calculate or measure gross national product in the method of production only the ultimate commodity which is directly consumed is calculated. 2. Taking the Earned Income of the Factors of Production into Account To calculate gross national product in this method the summation of the total income of the factors of production is found out. The income of the four factors of production – land, labour, capital and organisation is rent, wages, interest and profit respectively. The national income of any country in a year is the summation of the total of the revenue, the wages/salary, the interest and the profit earned by the factors of production in that year. 3. Taking the Total Expenditure of the Society into Account Gross national product can also be calculated on the basis of the total expenditure of the society. According to this method, the financial value of gross national product is found by totaling all types of expenditures of the country in a specific period of time.


Service: The service is a material goods which have the value of utility and exchangeability, for example, imparting lesson by a teacher in the classroom, providing treatment by a physician, providing finance related service by a banker, etc. 11 Consumption: The process of using the utility of any commodity is consumption, for example, man satisfies their hunger by foods, so, man consumes food, but when foods are wasted, it is not consumption. It will be regarded as consumption if it is used for feeding.

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The total income of any country is spent in two ways, such as (i) to buy utility goods and service and (ii) to invest. Spenders can be classified into three: the government of the country, various government- Individual work: Explain with example the difference between non government organisations and the people. The summation of government, organisational and Gross National Product (GNP) and private consumption expenses and investment Gross National Income (GNI). expenses of a country in a specified period of time, usually in one year is the gross national product of that country in that year. Gross National Product is many times called Gross National Income. In any simple economy Gross National Product (GNP) and Gross National Income (GNI) may be the same. We know, the summation of the financial values of the total produced goods and services in any specified period of time in any country is called Gross National Product. But it may not be equalized with the total income or the total expense of the society. Because, to continue production process some portion is separated from the financial value of gross national product to make up the damages of capital items such as machinery, equipment etc. This portion is not included in the income of the factors of production. So, the financial value of Gross National Product (GNP) and the income of the factors of production (rent, wages, interest, and profit) or national income are not the same. But, for the sake of the advantage of discussion gross national product and gross national income are many times used as having the same meaning. Gross Domestic Product: To understand Gross Domestic Product the idea of Gross National Product or GNP has to be remembered. Gross National Product is the summation of the financial values of the amount of the ultimate goods and services produced by the people of any country in a specified period, generally in one year. Individual work: The financial value of total The production/ income of foreign goods and services produced inside any individuals or organisations residing and country written any specified period is Tk. working inside the country should not be 21,000 crore. Out of which the value of goods included in the national production. But, and services produced by the foreigners in that the production/ income of native citizens, country is Tk. 2,000 crore. Financial value of organisations and institutions residing total production of the citizens of that country residing aboard in various countries in the and working aboard will be included. On the other hand, Gross Domestic same year is Tk. 4,500 crore. Determine Gross Product (GDP) is the summation of the National Product (GNP) and Gross Domestic financial values of the goods and services Product (GDP) of the Country. produced at the final phase in a specific time period, generally in one year by all the people residing inside any country or within its geographical boundary. In this case the value of the goods and services produced at the final phase by all the citizens and foreign individuals, organisations and institutions within the said boundary will be included. But, the income of the citizens/ organisations/ institutions residing and working aboard will not be included in it. If we mean the income of the native people residing aboard by X and the income of foreigners residing in the country by M, the Gross National Product (GNP) = Gross Domestic Product (GDP) +(X-M). From the above discussion it is clear that Gross National Product takes only the production of the citizens of the country into account. Wherever those citizens reside- in home or abroad- in this case the issue of nationality or citizenship is important.


Bangladesh and Global Studies

Again, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) counts only the total production within the boundary of the country, whoever- the citizens or the foreign nationals produce it. In this case only the point of geographical boundary of the country is important. Gross National Product (GNP) may be more or less than Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and even may be equal. However, GNP is usually found more or less than GDP, not equal. The Per Capita Income: The Per capita income is the average income of the citizens of any country in any specific period of time. Per capita income is determined by two separate standards: (1) Gross National Income and (2) Total population. Per capita national income or per capita income is got by dividing the Gross National Income (GNI) of any country in any specified period by the total population of that country. Per capita income is expressed as follows: Per capita income = Gross National Income Total Population If we express per capita income with the help of sign, we get _ Individual work: In 2013 the total Y= Y population of Bangladesh is expected P to be 15 crore, and, if in this period the _ gross national product is 8000 crore Where, Y = Per capita income US dollars, calculate the per capita Y = Gross National Income income of the people of the country. P = Total Population Suppose, in the middle of 2011 the population of Bangladesh is 14 crore, and at that time the Gross National Income is 7000 crore US dollars. So, the per capita income in that period = 7000 crore US dollars 500 US dollars = 500 US dollars Per capita income determines the standard of living of an individual. High per capita income ensures high standard of living. But, along with high per capita income, the issue of price of goods has also to be taken into consideration to determine the standard of life. If the per capita income of the people of a country in a year becomes double and at the same time the level of prices of goods also becomes double, the real standard of living will remain the same. Because, the individual will be able to buy similar amount of goods and services with that double income. So, his real income has not increased though his financial income has got double. Because, financial income and the prices of goods have increased at the same rate. But, if per capita income increases while the price level remains unchanged, the standard of living will increase, and if per capita income decreases, the standard of living will decline. Again, if there is no balanced distribution of national income, the standard of living of most people remains low though per capita income increases. Because, per capita income is an average standard. The per capita income of a small portion of population may be much higher, yet, despite the income of the majority of the people being much less, the average standard of per capita income of both the section of people may be such that the standard of living of the people appears to have been higher. But, if there is such an unequal distribution of gross national income, the per capita income of most of the people will be less than the per capita national income. As a result, the standard of living

Bangladesh and Global Studies


of most of the people will not be developed. However, if the per capita income rises and the price level remains unchanged or increases at a lower rate compared to income rise, the standard of living will rise in those countries where there is balanced distribution of national income. In the fiscal year 2010-11 the per capita national income in Bangladesh in current price is around Tk. 58,000/- and in dollar 818 dollars. (Bangladesh Economic Survey, 2011,

Ministry of Finance)

The Sectors of National Economy and its Share in or Contribution to Gross Domestic Product The Sectors of economy refers to various parts, divisions or sections of economy. The economy of any country of the world is divided into main three sectors: agriculture, industry and Service sectors. Land and every thing produced from land- crop, forest resource, animal and fish resources are included in agriculture sector. Large scale and small scale industries, all types of construction, all activities regarding mineral matters are included in industry sector. The rest of all activities such as education-healthrecreation, bank- insurance, hotel- restaurant, postal- telephone, communication and transport- all these are included in service sector. However, in many countries, for the advantage of budget allocation and running works each of these three main sectors is divided into some other sectors. The economy of any country is divided into several sectors. The Sectors of economy means various parts, divisions or sections of economy. The economy of Bangladesh is divided into a total of 15 main sectors. These 15 sectors are (1) agriculture and forest (2) fishery (3) mineral and excavation (4) industry (5) electricity, gas and water resource (6) construction (7) whole sale and retail trade (8) hotel and restaurant (9) transport, preservation and communication (10) service of financial organisation (11) real estate, rent and other business (12) public administration and defense (13) education (14) health and social service (15) community, social and personal service. However, these 15 sectors can be integrated into total 5 wider sectors. They are, for example- agriculture, industry, service, business and social service. In the sector of ‘agriculture’ there are the sectors of ‘agriculture and forest’. In a broader sense ‘the resource of fishery’ is also included in agriculture sector. In the ‘industrial sector,’ there are small, medium and large industries. However, in a broader sense the sectors of the ‘mineral and excavation’, ‘electricity, gas and water resources’ and ‘construction’ are also included in industry sector. Services such as hotel and restaurant, transport, preservation and communication, service of financial organisation (bank and insurance), etc. are included in service sector. The ‘Public administration and defence’, ‘education’, ‘health and social service’, ‘community, social and personal service’-all these are included in the ‘social service’ sector. The ‘Wholesale and retail trade’ and ‘real estate, rent and other business’─ these two sectors fall under the domain of ‘business’ sector. So, though the entire economy of the country is divided into 15 sectors, we can integrate those sectors into 5 main sectors. Among the said five integrated sectors, industrial sector tops the list of the sector wise share in or contribution to gross domestic product in fiscal year 2010-11. Its contribution is 30.33%. It is followed by ‘business’ sector. Its contribution is 21.26%. Agricultural sector is placed in the third. Its share in gross domestic production is 19.95%. ‘Social service’ and ‘service’ sectors hold the fourth and fifth positions respectively- their share is 14.81% and 13.64% respectively.


Bangladesh and Global Studies

The share/contribution of 15 various sectors of economy in gross domestic product is presented below in a tabular form. Table-1 Share of the sectors of economy in gross domestic product (2010-11) Seria Sector of economy Share in gross domestic l No. product (in percentage) 01 Agriculture and forest(Crop, vegetable, animal resource and 15.52 forest resources) 02 Fishery resource 4.43 03 Mineral and excavation (Natural gas, crude oil and other 1.26 mineral resources) 04 Industry (Small, medium and large industry) 18.41 05 Electricity, gas and water resources 1.59 06 Construction 9.07 07 Whole sale and retail trade 14.27 08 Hotel and restaurant 0.73 09 Transport, preservation and communication (transport by 10.91 road, water and air, preservation of associate transport, communication through post and telephone) 10 Service of financial organisation (bank, insurance and 2.00 others) 11 Real Estate, rent and other business 6.99 12 Public administration and defense 2.92 13 Education 2.78 14 Health and social service 2.41 15 Community, social and personal service 6.70 Gross domestic product in current value 100 Reference: Bangladesh Economic Survey, 2011, Ministry of Finance

Comparison among the GNP, GDP and Per Capita Income of Some Countries We know that the main indicator of economic development of any country is the per capita income of the people of that Individual work: Calculate the contribution of country. But, for determining agricultural sector to gross domestic product. whether a country is developed, Group work: In the above table the total 15 sectors of under developed or developing the economy of Bangladesh and their contributions to some other issues need to be gross domestic production (2010-11) is shown in considered in addition to per capita national income or per capita percentage. Present the 15 sectors in a table on the income. For example the nature of basis of the share of each of the 15 sectors as the economy i. e. whether the individual sector in gross domestic product. economy is agriculture oriented or it has undergone industrialisation, rate of literacy or education, availability of health service to the people, whether the economic infrastructure has undergone upward development or not i. e. whether transport and communication facility and the rate of capital formation and investment are in upward trend- all these are also to be considered. However, World Bank has divided the countries of the world into three main divisions on the basis of per capita gross national income. Those are: High Income Countries, Middle Income Countries and Low Income Countries. Middle income countries are

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again divided into two classes: Upper Middle Income Countries and Lower Middle Income Countries. Income wise classifications are given below: Income based classification of the countries of the world and classification of several countries on the basis per capita gross national income are shown here: Table-2 Income wise classification of the countries of the world and Classification of some countries on the basis of per capita gross national income (GNI Percapita) (2010) No.

1 (1)



Income based class

2 High Income country (12276 dollars and above)


Gross National Income (GNI) (Billion dollar) 4 14600.8 1415.4 2399.3 416.9 469.0 5369.1 210.3 5700.00 330.4 220.4 719.4 286.7 1566.6 182.5 197.9 186.4 46.7 104.5

3 USA Canada UK Norway Sweden Japan Singapore Middle (a) Upper China Income Middle Iran Country Income Malaysia (1006-12295 (3976-12275 Turkey dollars) dollars) Thailand (b) Lower India Middle Pakistan Income Egypt (1006-3975 Nigeria dollars) Srilanka Lower Income country Banglades (1005 Dollar or below) h Nepal 14.5 Cambodia 10.7 Uganda 16.6 Kenya 31.8 Source: The World Bank Report, 2012

Population (Million)

5 310 34 62 5 9 127 5 1338 74 28 76 68 1171 173 84 158 20 164

Per Capita Gross National Income (US Dollar) 6 47140 41950 38540 85380 49930 42150 40920 4260 4530 7900 9500 4210 1340 1050 2340 1180 2290 640

30 14 34 41

490 760 490 780

The High income countries are recognised as developed countries. These countries have achieved this developed state because of reaching the top stage of development process. Per capita income of these countries are such that after meeting all basic needs of the people huge amount of money remains as surplus- which is spent in forming savings and capital. These countries run further development activities with the surplus money and assist in the development programmes of the developing and the under developed countries. In the above table-2 it is shown that USA, Canada, UK and other European countries, Japan among the Asian countries, Singapore are classified as ‘High Income Countries’. The per capita national income of these countries in 2010 ranged from 38540 dollars to 85380 dollars.


Bangladesh and Global Studies

‘Middle Income Countries’ are generally developing countries. However, the position of the ‘Upper Middle Income Countries’ is developed between the two classes of middle income. The basic needs of the people of these countries have almost been fulfilled. The countries are being industrialised rapidly, and social infrastructures like education and health Individual work: Classify the countries of the world on the basis care are undergoing upward development rapidly. of per capita gross national income. However, these countries have to cross a long way to reach the similar stage of the developed countries. Per capita income of the people of ‘Upper Middle Income Countries’ included in the table above ranges from 4210 dollars to 9500 dollars. These countries include China and Iran, Malaysia, Turkey, Thailand. ‘Lower middle income countries’ lies below the class of ‘Middle Income Countries’. These are also developing countries. Five Asian and African Countries namely India, Pakistan, Srilanka, Egypt and Nigeria are included in the table as ‘Lower Middle Income Countries’. The per capita income of the people of these countries ranges from 1050 dollars to 2340 dollars. At the bottom of the per capita national income based classification list there are the ‘Lower Income Countries’. Though these countries are sometimes termed as developing countries, these are basically underdeveloped countries. However, in most of these countries the trend of development has started since a pretty much time back. Through planned activities these countries have achieved some development too. So, in many cases, these countries are termed as least developed countries instead of underdeveloped countries. Nepal, Bangladesh, Cambodia among Asian Countries, and Kenya and Uganda among African countries are included in this class in the table. The per capita income of the people of these countries is very low. The per capita income of the ‘Lower Income Countries’ included in the table ranges between 490 dollars to 780 dollars. The Characteristics of the Economy of Bangladesh The characteristics of the economy of a country depend mainly on the nature of economy of that country. The nature of economy is again dependent on all these factors such as the geographic nature, natural resources, education and level of skill of the people, their endeavour and mentality to take initiative etc. The economy of Bangladesh has been known as agriculture based economy since very ancient time. In this lesson we shall know about the main characteristics of the economy of Bangladesh. 1. The Agriculture Based Economy: Since the very ancient time to the present time, the economy of Bangladesh has been counted as agriculture based economy though the importance of industry sector in the economy of the country is gradually increasing in the recent years. In the fiscal year 2010-11, the contribution of agriculture sector including fishery to the gross domestic product was around 20 percent. Total 43.6% percent of the manpower of Bangladesh is engaged in agriculture sector. Agriculture sector has also remarkable contribution to the export income of the country. Food grain is one of the main produced goods of the agriculture sector. Food production in Bangladesh has been on gradual rise for more than one decade back, and the country is gradually getting selfsufficient in food. Moreover, the raw materials of many industries of our industry sector are supplied by our agriculture sector. They are, for example, jute industry, tea, and leather industry etc. For all these reasons, agriculture sector has been considered the most important sector of the country till date. The amount of food grain production in Bangladesh in the period from 1990-91 to 2010-11 is shown next page in the table. It is noticeable that this production is gradually increasing.

Bangladesh and Global Studies


Table-3 Food Grain Production Situation in Bangladesh (in lakh Metric ton) Year Total Production 1990-91 188.6 1995-96 191.0 2000-01 269.06 2005-06 277.87 2009-10 341.13 2010-11 370.42 (target) Source: Bangladesh Economic Survey, Ministry of Finance, 1996, 2003, 2011 2. The Nature of Agriculture Sector: Agriculture sector is a main and important sector in the economy of Bangladesh. It is like the foundation of the economy of Bangladesh. Though so much important, the process of agricultural production has not yet become fully Group work: Detect the reasons modern. In the major portion of land under behind terming the economy of cultivation traditional method of cultivation is Bangladesh as agriculture based still going on. As a result the productivity of economy till date. agricultural land is also low. Moreover, the agriculture of this country is dependent on nature. The time of rain and its volume cast wide impact on agricultural production. If necessary amount of rain does not occur in time, or if it rains excessively, production falls by huge amount. Another major shortcoming of the agriculture sector is that it is not always possible to give the right wages to farmers or agricultural labourers. Moreover, because of the inadequacy of transport facility or the shortcoming in marketing system, the real producers don’t get just prices for their produced goods in many cases. It casts an adverse effect on the entire agriculture sector of the country. 3. The Increasing Importance and Contribution of the Industrial Sector: The importance and contribution of industrial sector in the economy of Bangladesh is gradually increasing. In the fiscal year 1980-81 the contribution of industry sector in GDP in fixed price was 17.31 percent. The contribution of this sector in the fiscal year 2010-11 is 30.33 percent (estimated). The industrial sector is formed in combination of small and medium industry, large industry, mineral and excavation, electricity, gas and water supply and construction. 4. The Nature of Industrial Sector: Though the contribution of industrial sector in the gross domestic product in increasing gradually, there is rarely any existence of basic and heavy industries in our industry sector. Fertilizer factory, sugar and food industry, textile industry, jute industry, leather industry, readymade garments industries are included in the major industries of the country. But the rapid industrialisation is required to accelerate economic development. For this purpose heavy or basic industry such as iron and steel industry, generation of electricity for infrastructure, fuel industries etc. are essential. There are heavy vehicle assembling, electrical equipment and water vehicle building and repair industries in the country, but those are very insufficient compared to the need. 5. The Excess of Population and Low Rate of Education: One of the main characteristics of the economy of Bangladesh is its over population. The total population of this country is around 15 crore. The density of the population is very high- 1015 people per square kilometer. The rate of population growth is also high, 1.37 percent. (The Population Census Report-2011). Though Bangladesh is a country of over population, the rate of the growth of population is gradually falling. In 1991 and 2001,


Bangladesh and Global Studies

the growth rate of population was 2.17% and 1.48% respectively. This rate has decreased by 1.37 percent in 2011 (Population Census Report, 2011). However, in Bangladesh, both the density of population and the growth rate of population are much higher than those of her neighboring countries. According to the world development report (World Bank, 2012), in 2009 the density of population per square kilo Individual work: ‘There is over meter in India, Pakistan, Srilanka, Myanmar, population in Bangladesh’. Evaluate Malaysia were 389, 220, 324, 77, and 84 people the statement. respectively. In 2000-10 the yearly average growth rate of population in these countries was 1.4%, 2.3%, 0.9%, 0.8% and 1.8% respectively. Population is considered the asset of the country. But the population of Bangladesh is a problem till date. The reason behind this is the rate of literacy in Bangladesh (7 years +) only 51.8 (Population Census Report, 2011). It means that 43 percent of the population is illiterate. To make the illiterate population literate, to give them necessary education and training, to ensure their good health, to make them endeavouring at work, to supply them with capital, to arrange employment for them etc. have created a big pressure for the state. 6. The Widespread Unemployment: Over population and lack of rapid industrialisation have given birth to unemployment in the country. A remarkable portion of the labour force of the country is unemployed. Since the rate of wages is low in this country, most of the day labourers can be counted as half unemployed. 7. The Poor Per Capita Income and Low Standard of Living: The average income of the people i.e. per capita income is low because of low rate of wages, widespread unemployment, and semi unemployment. At present (2010-11) per capita income (annual) is 818 dollars. This income is lower than that of the neighboring countries. Per capita income in Pakistan, Srilanka, India is 1050, 2290, 1340 dollars respectively (World Development Report, World Bank, 2012). Because of low per capita income, the standard of living is also low. The position of 40 percent i.e. two fifth of the population is below the poverty level (On the basis of high poverty level). 8. The Low Rate of Savings, Capital Formation and Investment: The rate of savings (28.40% of GDP) of the people is low because of the low per capita income. So the rate of capital formation and investment for production is also low (24.73% of GDP) (Bangladesh Economic Survey-2011). Again, because of the low rate of investment, the pace of new installation of industries is slow. As a result, the rate of new employment generation is low. Bangladesh is entangled within such a circle of poverty. But, the government has undertaken planned development programme to come out of this circle. 9. The Weakness of Infrastructure: Infrastructure can be divided mainly into two parts: Social and economic infrastructures. Education, health, recreation etc. are included in social infrastructure. Communication system (such as postal and telecommunication, electronic communication), transport, financial organisation such as bank, insurance and other agencies disbursing loan for industry, electricity, water and fuel supply, embankment and irrigation system etc. are included in economic infrastructure. This socio economic infrastructure is like the foundation of economic development. Development activities can not be started unless infrastructure is developed. In Bangladesh this infrastructure is underdeveloped and insufficient. 10. The Dependence on Foreign Aid: Bangladesh was too much dependent on foreign loan and grant for her socio economic development. But, for about the last one decade, the amount of loan from the internal sources has gradually been increasing in

Bangladesh and Global Studies


Bangladesh. And because of various changes in the world scenario, the amount of receiving loan and grant form foreign sources is gradually decreasing. 11. The Foreign Trade: In case of foreign trade Bangladesh exports mainly low value agricultural goods, readymade garments and knitwear among the industrial goods, ceramic goods and laboureres. But the import goods of Bangladesh include high value capital goods such as machinery, equipments and food and luxury items (colour television, automobile, cosmetic goods etc.). As a result, in the field of international trade adverse condition is prevailing in Bangladesh. Export income has been less than import expenditure for a long time. As a result, deficit has been continuing for long period in the foreign transaction of Bangladesh. 12. The Imperfect Use of Natural and Human Resources: Among the natural resources of Bangladesh, the worth-mentioning resources are her very fertile agricultural land, rivers, natural water bodies and underground mineral resources. Among the mineral resources the worth mentioning mineral resources are coal, natural gas, limestone, silica, sand, while soil, china soil, hard rock. A population can turn into human resource mainly through ensuring proper education and training, technical knowledge and skill and good health. A major portion of the population of Bangladesh is still deprived of education and health facilities. Because of widespread unemployment and poverty a greater part of the population is the victim of non-availability of food and malnutrition. Because of all these reasons, it has not yet been possible to transform the greater portion of the population of Bangladesh into human resource. As a result, to know the full quantity of the natural and mineral resources and the full use of those have not yet been possible. The Significant Obstacles to the Economic Advancement of Bangladesh From the above discussion, we have learnt about the nature and characteristics of the economy of Bangladesh. We have seen that agriculture is an important sector in the economy of Bangladesh, but the industrial sector is gradually widening. The social and economic structure of the country is insufficient and underdeveloped. Over population, the low rate of education and unemployment are the special main problems of the economy of Bangladesh. We have further learnt that a vast portion of the population of the country is poor, and so the standard of living is low. From these very situations and characteristics, in this lesson, we shall detect the obstacles to the progress of economy. The main reason of the backwardness of the economy of Bangladesh lies in our history. From the analysis of our history it appears that Bangladesh that is so backward in economy and problem ridden has a wide background of two centuries, which was formed for around two hundred years of British colonial rule and in 23 years of Pakistani rule. 1. The Background of the Economic Backwardness of Bangladesh: The main cause for the economic backwardness of Bangladesh is around two hundred years of colonial rule and exploitation. The pre-liberation history of the economy of Bangladesh can be divided in to 4 phases ─ the ancient Bengal, the Muslim rule, the British rule and the Pakistani rule. There were affluence and diversity in the agricultural production in ancient Bengal. In the field of industry metal industry, wood industry, textile industry had undergone special expansion. The period of Muslim rule was the golden age of group work: How will you Bengal. In this period Bangladesh reached the peak of relate the present state of the prosperity in all fields such as agriculture, industrial economy of Bangladesh to and international trade. The industrial goods of the period 1757-1971? Bangladesh, specially the clothes were very warmly


Bangladesh and Global Studies

received in various countries of the world. But the rule of the English was established in Bengal after the war of Palashey in 1757. The English rulers continued uninterrupted exploitation and plunder in this country. Because of the introduction of Zamindar system through permanent settlement system and mandatory indigo cultivation, the agriculture and farmer society were copiously ruined. During the Muslim rules, Bangladesh had trade with many countries of the world. Bangladesh had extended export trade even in the European countries including the neighbouring countries. Along with the agricultural goods, Bangladesh was regarded as a big industrial goods exporting country. The English grabbed all business and trade as their own. Because of the advent of industrial revolution in England at that time the mechanical age started. The clothes produced in the textile industry of England in less expense captured the market of Bangladesh, and so the world famous textile industry and other industries of Bangladesh were damaged. In this way Bangladesh turned in to a market of industrial products of England. During this time of this colonial rule Bangladesh merely became a raw material exporting country instead of exporting agricultural and industrial goods. In the field of international trade, there arose continuous deficit in Bangladesh in the balance of trade. As a result the process of savings and capital formation were hindered. As a result of the partition of India in 1947, two countries emerged named India and Pakistan. The Pakistani regime started afterwards. There were two parts of Pakistan ─ East Pakistan and West Pakistan. The Present Bangladesh was then the East Pakistan. During the period of 1947-71, West Pakistan exploited East Pakistan in the same way. The people of East Pakistan had been victims of the extreme deprivation in all cases such as of service, distribution of resources, budget allocation, appointment in armed forces and share of foreign aid. West Pakistan had the supremacy in all fields of administration. In this way, the economic foundation of Bangladesh economy was destroyed because of more than two hundred years (1757-1971) of the colonial rule and exploitation. An advanced country like Bangladesh in the fields of agriculture, industry and trade became economically dependent on others. Bangladesh inherited this dependent economy after being independent through the armed struggle in 1971. As a result much of our time was spent in preparing the foundation for starting economic development activities. We are mostly engaged in preparing the foundation till now. 2. The Obstacles in Agriculture: In our agriculture based economy, the area of agricultural land is gradually decreasing. In agriculture, high yielding seed, fertilizer, irrigation facilities and modern cultivation method are being applied. But, the facilities have not yet reached to a major portion of people concerned with agriculture. Easy availability of agricultural loan is a big factor for agricultural development. The amount agricultural loan disbursement is increasing every year. But because of insufficiency of institutional facilities, the agricultural credit is still not easily available to many real farmers. The biggest obstacle to agricultural development is infrastructural weakness. Productivity falls low because of insufficiency of irrigation facility, insufficiency of seed and fertilizer and uncertainty to get those in time, lack of electricity, higher transport expense in marketing produced goods and lack of facility to preserve and store goods. Moreover, because of the domination of brokers and middlemen in all stages- from production to marketing, the real producers are deprived of the right prices. As a result they lose the interest to produce and do not become interested to take new initiative. Bangladesh is called a country of natural calamities. Natural calamity is a major hindrance to the development of agriculture. Every year various areas of this country are

Bangladesh and Global Studies


affected with flood, drought, storm, cyclone, water upsurge, and excess rain. All such calamities are the cause of widespread loss in agriculture. 3. The Obstacles in Industry: Industrial sector is gradually expanding in the economy of Bangladesh. But, as there are not basic industries even in this sector, industrial sector is not being able to advance towards development much rapidly. Heavy industries such as iron and steel industry, heavy vehicle industry, electricity oriented industry, etc. are very insufficient compared to the need. Weakness in the financial infrastructure is also a big obstacle to progress in the industry sector. Lack of necessary number of land, river and airports, higher price of fuel and gas, insufficiency in the production and supply of those, insufficiency of roads and bridges and their underdeveloped state are big obstacles to establishing new industry and enhancing production. The Bank loan facility is essential for the development of industrial sector. In Bangladesh, credit facility is inadequate compared to demand. Endeavour to provide loan facility to encourage new entrepreneurs is little. Moreover loan management is also not proper. The socio-political situation, i.e. the political instability of the country is not favourable for the development of the industrial sector. The political programmes such as hartal, agitation, blockade, etc. cast remarkable negative impact on the productivity of industrial sector. The income of the labourers reduces. Production process is hampered and prices of produced goods increase. As a result demand for goods in the market reduces and income of the industry owners reduces. Consequently, new initiative and interest to invest decrease. 4. The Socio-Economic Obstacles: Among the socio-economic problems the biggest one is the illiteracy of more than two fifths (43%) of the population of the country. The educated or literate people are not also being able to make expected contribution to the development of the country. The reason of this is that education is mostly bookish and knowledge based. Students do not attain enough skill for applying the earned knowledge. Because of this weakness of the education system, low rate of literacy of the people and because of lack of technical skill and knowledge, the productivity of the ordinary workers is low. In addition to these, malnutrition and lack of good health further reduce productivity. Eagerness and ability to take initiative is also less among the labourers and people. All these factors have kept the progress of all the sectors of economy, specially the progress of industry sector almost hampered. Backwardness of women compared to men in all spheres of the society has also made an obstacle. Half of the population of the country is women. Because of this backwardness, women are Individual work: Prepare a lagging behind in the job sector too. In different fields list of the socio-economic of the society, even in decision making in the family obstacles to the economic the role of women is very little. As a result, there are development of Bangladesh. widely occurring incidents of early marriage, family violence, giving birth to more children, which is intensifying the population problem. The main obstacles among the socio-economic obstacles are over population and other problems caused by it. Because of over population, the government has to face additional pressure in all sectors of the country like education, health and communication.


Bangladesh and Global Studies

Another big problem originated from population problem is unemployment. A big portion of the manpower of the country is unemployed and semi-employed. As a result, the per capita income gets low. The rate of savings and investment is also low. So, the rate of establishing new industry is poor. Unemployment gives birth to many social problems too. The unemployed adolescents and young people get involved in social criminal activities. As a result, the social life gets troubled, and law and order situation becomes weak. 5. The Lack of Good Governance, and Corruption: Since after independence the democracy has not yet been able to be firmly rooted in the administration system of the country for various reasons. For a long time of forty years after independence military rule had continued in this country. There is the lack of accountability and transparency in administration. It has not been possible to arrange education, training and employment keeping pace with population growth. As a result there are widespread unemployment, dissatisfaction and restlessness among the youths. An influential portion of the officials working in government and private sectors being corrupt, corruption has spread across all the levels of the society. Because of such corruption, social instability and lack of good governance, no expected progress has taken place in the industry and service sectors of the country. 6. Nature Made Obstacles: The Natural calamity is a common incident in Bangladesh. It is said that Bangladesh is a natural disaster prone country. The main natural calamities include flood, draught, water upsurge, cyclone, tornado, river erosion, etc. These calamities spoil mainly the agriculture sector. Moreover, houses, roads and trees undergo widespread damage. Especially, every year, because of flood and river erosion, a huge area of land of this country with limited agricultural land is dissolved. Besides, the loss of human lives, cattle, fishery and bird resources also undergo widespread damage. With this loss, the production has to be started again every year. Steps to Overcome the Obstacles to the Economic Development of Bangladesh The steps taken by the government and private organisations to eliminate the main obstacles to the development of the economy of Bangladesh are mentioned below. 1. To Prepare Policy Based Foundation for Development: A policy based foundation is required for any national development programme. Formulating or amending a national policy for different sectors of economy, the government has undertaken a project for preparing a structure for development. Planning and project are required to implement the policy. The present government has undertaken initiatives for a planned development to attain overall economic development of the country. Under this said initiative a document of plan titled "Bangladesh Perspective Planning 2010- 2021" has been prepared in the light of "Rupkalpa-2021" declared by the government. Based on the said perspective, a 6th five-year-plan (2011-15) has been prepared as a midterm plan. This plan will include the objective of overall economic development and the strategies, method and description of assets and directions to attain that objective. Bangladesh has implemented five ‘five year plans’ earlier. 2. Steps Taken in Agriculture: Among the big obstacles to agricultural development there are: decrease in agricultural land, insufficiency of agricultural loan, insufficiency of agricultural materials such as seed, fertilizer and insecticide, weakness in

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infrastructure such as lack of irrigation facility and electricity, lack of facility to sell produced goods and natural calamity. The government is facing all these obstacles through formulating and implementing various policies. These policies include the ‘National Agriculture Extension Policy’, ‘National seed policy’, ‘Integrated Fertilizer Distribution Policy’ and ‘Integrated Pest Management’. Moreover, the activities for agricultural development are going on according to the ‘National Agriculture Policy 1999’. The steps undertaken under such policies are described below: • Expansion of the area of agricultural land through eradicating water logging from different regions of the country and through planned water extraction from marshy land; • To increase subsidy in the agricultural materials, to make agricultural materials easily available at fair price and to ensure the supply of those to the farmers; • Expansion of irrigation facility by using the surface water in various areas of the country and raising the availability of making irrigation instruments for the farmers; • Making more investment in the production of high quality and high yielding seed, etc.; • Making sufficient arrangement for the preservation of crops, controlling quality of agricultural goods, and ensuring fair value of agricultural goods; • Under taking initiative to increase the agricultural production by producing bio-fertilizer, green fertilizer Individual work: Which and bacteria fertilizer round the homesteads of 97 lac one is more effective from families in the country giving more importance on bio- your point of view among the steps undertaken for fertilizer; agricultural development? • Making balanced use of fertilizer and continuing to give subsidy on the import cost of fertilizer for Explain two steps. increasing production; • Continuing agricultural and rural loan disbursement activities through banks and financial institutions; • Recent formulation of loan policy and programme to include agricultural loan programme in all scheduled banks working in Bangladesh including private and foreign banks. 3. Steps Taken in Industrial Sector: The importance of industrial sector in the economy of Bangladesh is increasing. The contribution of industrial sector to gross domestic product is gradually increasing. Expansion of the industrial sector, setting up of heavy or basic industry and overall development of this sector is urgent for the general economic development of the country. Among the existing main problems in the industrial sector of Bangladesh, there are lack of large/heavy or basic industry, weak infrastructure, insufficiency of capital and industrial loan, lack of mentality to take initiative and political instability. To solve all these obstacles and problems the government has declared ‘National Industrial Policy 2010’. The important intrinsic objectives of this policy are: to create productive employment, to bring the women in the mainstream industrialisation process and to eradicate poverty, to establish labour oriented, export oriented and import- substitute industry, to ensure public- private partnership in the development of the country and to build a prosperous and modern industrial sector. This national policy is under implementation at present.


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To ensure rapid industrialisation of the country, the government has taken initiatives to establish and expand large/ basic industries side by side with small and medium industries. The first and main requirement for industrialisation is capital. The sources of capital are banks and financial organisations. So, action has been taken through banks and financial organisations to increase industrial loan and to provide other helps. The amount of industrial loan disbursement in the country was tk. 9650.00 crore in 2005-06 whereas it was tk. 24487.71 crore i.e. around 2.5 times more in 2010-11 (Source: Bangladesh Economic Survey-2011). 4. Steps Taken to Eliminate the Social Obstacles: Weakness in the socio- economic infrastructure is a great obstacle or challenge in the economic development of the country. The weakness in the social infrastructure includes mainly the illiteracy of the vast population (43%), the absence of arrangement for the students’ earning various types of skills in the curriculum, lack of technical and technological knowledge, and skill among the labourers, over population and unemployment caused by it, backwardness of the women society in education and in all other social fields and the lack of their empowerment, insufficiency of healthcare service for the people, etc. A policy based foundation has been built up to eliminate all these obstacles. A multipurpose action has been taken under the ‘National Education Policy 2010’, ‘Health, Nutrition and Population Sector Policy’, and the second and third phases of the ‘Primary Education Development Policy’. These actions include: • Raising the rate of enrolment of students into primary and secondary education and their attendance at schools, and to take special action to check drop outs; • Ensuring the political, social, administrative and economic empowerment of women; • Providing stipend for the girl students at the secondary and the higher secondary levels and exempting tuition fees with a view to expanding female education; • Putting a special importance on enhancing school enrolment, pre-primary education and stipend with a view to ensuring the eradication of illiteracy within 2014; • Raising the number of beneficiaries of stipend for the primary education from 48 lakh to 78 lakh; • Establishing schools in villages where there is no school; • Free-distributing text books among students; • Providing training for the teachers engaged in the secondary and the higher education under various projects, and introducing information technology education in schools and arranging its expansion; • Including vocational course in the schools of secondary and higher secondary level with Madrasha with a view to expanding technical and vocational education; • Incorporating various skills including practical skills in the curriculum for making the secondary education life and work oriented; • Arranging health, family welfare and nutrition service in the community clinics to reach health service to the rural population; • Introducing tri-stage based (community, union and upazila) upazila health service and at the same time introducing district health service. 5. Steps Taken to Eradicate Nature Made Obstacles: Disaster management has been formed in the country to face natural calamity. Various organisations like Disaster Management and relief division of the government, under it the directorates of disaster

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management and weather, water development board etc. give forecast of various natural calamities. Many NGOs are working to face natural disasters. The directorates relief and rehabilitation, food, public health engineering, local government engineering and water resources planning organisation are concerned with disaster management. The disaster management and relief division is implementing the 2nd phase of the project Individual work: Will you recommend titled ‘Comprehensive Disaster Management any step other than the taken ones to Programme (CDMP)’ in the term of 2010- eliminate the social obstacles to 14. Under this project steps such as advance development? If you do, what is the warning about disaster, preparation for the recommendation? Explain. disaster, reduction of risk, raising people’s ability to face the disaster etc. steps are being taken and implemented. Developed, Under Developed and Developing Countries and the Economy of these Countries To know whether a country is developed, under developed or developing we have to know what is called economic development. The Concept of Economic Development Development is the blooming of intrinsic power. Development means prosperity. By development, we also mean overall improvement. Making and development of overall socio economic prosperity by utilising the assets and potentials of the country can be called economic development. Asset means both the natural and the human resources of the country. In this process of achieving development the assistance and support of other countries of the world are also required. Economic Growth and Economic Development In order to get the right idea about economic development, the matter of economic growth has also to be understood. The two terms ‘economic development’ and ‘economic growth’ are many times used as having the same meaning. But these two are not the same, there is some difference. The rate of annual growth of national income of a country is called the rate of growth. Growth rate is the rate of the change of national income. But economic development takes population and price level into consideration along with the rate of growth, and considers the issue of increase in real per capita income. If the growth rate of a country is 2% and the population of that country also increases at the rate of 2%, it cannot be said that there is taking place economic development because, if the rate of economic growth and the rate of population growth are the same, per capita income will remain the same. If the rate of growth is more than the rate of population growth, only then per capita income will increase and it can be said that economic development is taking place. But, the issue of change in price level has also to be taken into consideration. Let us assume that per capita income of the people of a country has increased by 5% in a particular year. In the same period, the price level of goods has also increased by 5%. In such a case, the people will not be able to purchase more goods and services than the past inspite of increase in per capita income. It means that their real income has not increased though their financial income has increased. In such circumstances, it can not be said that the economic development has been attained. If per capita income increases while the price level of goods remains unchanged, or if the rate of increase in price level


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of goods is less than the increase in per capita income, only then real per capita income will increase. However, if the real per capita income continues to increase for a long time, only then it can be said that economic development has taken place. The increase in real per capita income for long period with the increase in the gross national product or income of a country is called economic development. This continuous real income increase is possible only when structural and natural changes of the economy a country take place. The structural change of the economy includes change in economic infrastructure and change in the process of production and distribution. Under the change of economic infrastructure, the loan disbursement programme of banks and other financial organisations is extended, and the transport and communication system is developed. Development takes place in the marketing system of goods and services. At the same times, the developed technology and strategy are used in production. As a result, the productivity of the labourers increases which results in the increase in the volume of production. Disparity or inequality in the distribution of the produced asset or national income keeps decreasing. As a result, the factors of production, specially the labourers get their fair wages. So, the overall welfare of the people goes up. The objective of economic development is the maximum welfare of all the people of the country. Equitable distribution of income ensures this welfare. Moreover, changes take place in social infrastructure too. The scope of education and the facility of healthcare reach to all the people. As a result, the standard of living of the people develops. The people feel the benefit of high standard of living, and the rate of population growth falls. The natural change means the turn of economy from Individual work: ‘Growth and the state of being agriculture based into being development are not the same.’ industry based. As a result, the country is transformed Explain with example. from rural economy to town based economy and social system. Income of the people increases. The rate of savings and capital formation and investment also increases. As a result, employment generation increases, unemployment decreases and production further increases. There continues gradual development in the standard of living. This overall developed state is called economic development. From the above discussion, we can say that the economic development is a deeper, wider and multi-dimensional issue compared to the rate of growth. If the per capita real income of the people of a country continues to increase for long time because of the gradual development of socio-economic infrastructure and natural change of economy of a country, and if equitable distribution of income is ensured, this state is called economic development. The Developed, Under developed and Developing Country On the basis of the degree of development, the countries of the world are divided into three groups: the developed country, the under developed country, and the developing country. The Developed Country The type of country where economic development has taken place and development has been continuing for long term is called developed country. The per capita income of the

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people of the developed countries is very high. The rate of growth of per capita income is also high there, and as a result the standard of living is also much developed. In these countries the industrial sector is expanded, transport and communication system is developed and international trade is in favour of the economy. Housing, education facility and health service of the people of those countries are ensured. Because of the expansion of education, knowledge and science is also expanded rapidly and new technologies are invented. USA and Canada of America, European countries such as England, France, Germany, Switzerland, Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, among Asian countries Japan etc. are the developed countries in the world. Some common characteristics of these countries are shown below: 1. The High Standard of Living: The main feature of the developed countries is that the per capita income of the people of these countries is very high and their standard of living is also much high. In 2010, the per capita annual income of some main developed countries of the world ranged from 40,000 dollars to 85,000 dollars. 2. The Industrialised Economy: The economy of the developed countries is dependent on industry. Those countries have attained development because of rapid industrialisation. These countries have turned into industry based country from agriculture based economy. Basic and large scale industries have gradually developed in those countries from small and medium industries. 3. The High rate of savings, capital formation and investment: Because of high per capita income, even after spending for consumption, people have surplus income which is deposited as saving. Because of high rate of saving, the rate of capital formation and investment is also high. As a result the volume of production increases gradually. 4. Developed Method of Production and Distribution Process: The more the developed countries advance towards development, the more their method of production and management get developed. A big reason of developed production is the development of technical devices or technology. Because of setting up big industries, developed process is innovated and production increases manifold by its application. Moreover, the distribution system of national income in developed countries is also developed. The factors of production, especially the labourers get their due wages. As a result, inequality in income distribution decreases. For this reason the overall welfare of the people rises. 5. Developed socio- economic condition: One main characteristic of the developed countries is that the socio-economic infrastructures of these countries are much developed. It includes• Developed banking system and loan disbursement Individual work: What management; indicators would you use to • Developed transport and communication system; identify developed country? • Low rate of population growth and unemployment; • Sufficiency of electricity, water and fuel; • High rate of education, assurance of education facility and health service for all • Social Security system for all. 6. The Developed and Modern Agricultural System: Agriculture is a minor sector in the developed countries. But, the agricultural production and marketing system are very developed. Both the volume of production and the quality of agricultural goods are very developed.


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7. Controlled Population and Developed Human Resource: The population of the developed countries is controlled. Since the rate of population growth is lower than the rate of economic growth, the per capita income increases incessantly. Moreover, because of high rate of education, proper training and developed health service, the population turns into human resource. This human resource contributes a lot to the production and development of the country. 8. The Favourable Foreign Trade: Since the volume and quality of both agricultural and industrial goods are high, these countries can build up favourable trade relations with other countries in the field of international trade. This relationship is also helpful for economic development. 9. The Widespread Urbanisation: Because of the gradual industrialisation from agriculture based state and because of the development of roads, communication and electricity system, rural economy holds an urban shape. As a result, rural people keep coming to towns, and villages also turn into towns. 10. The Political Stability: There is political stability in the developed countries. Here, administration system works with transparency. The volume of corruption is also very small. The political and social organisations are also stable and developed. As a result, an environment favourable to economic development is formed and it sustains. The Under Developed Country The level of economic development of a country is determined mainly from the point of view of per capita real income. The countries of which per capita real income is lower than that of the per capita real income of the developed countries like the USA, Canada, Australia and West European countries are called under developed countries. But, it is not right to term a country under developed on the basis of per capita real income only. The type of country which is not able to use the resources fully is also meant as underdeveloped country. According to many economists, the countries where there is coexistence of unused manpower and natural resources are underdeveloped countries. Professor Ragnar Narks says, “Underdeveloped countries are those where capital is much less compared to population and natural resources.� Dominance of primary profession, shortage of capital and widespread unemployment exist in these countries. Some common features of these countries are discussed below: 1. The Low Per Capita Income and Low Standard of Living: The main characteristic of the underdeveloped countries is very low per capita income and standard of living of the people compared to the developed countries. The major portion of the population has no ability to fulfill the basic needs such as food, cloth, shelter, education and treatment facilities etc. Among the underdeveloped countries, there are even countries with less than 200 dollars per capita income whereas the per capita income of the prominent developed countries ranges from 4000 dollars to 85000 dollars (World Development Report 2012). 2. The Excessive Dependence on Agriculture: Majority of the population of the underdeveloped countries are dependent on agriculture to meet food, livelihood and other needs. Agriculture is the single biggest sector in the national production. 3. The Undeveloped Agricultural Production and Marketing System: Though majority of population of these countries are dependent directly or indirectly on

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agriculture, the agricultural production and marketing system are not developed. Agriculture is much undeveloped because of all these reasons such as traditional method of cultivation, defective ownership, less investment, lack of agricultural materials and necessary infrastructure for agriculture such as fertilizer, seed and irrigation facility and marketing facility, dependence of agriculture on nature etc. 4. Small and Undeveloped Industrial Sector: Industrial Sector is very small in the underdeveloped countries because of the lack of capital and the skilled Manpower. There is no basic or heavy industry in these countries. Predominance of small, medium and cottage industries is noticed here. Generally, the contribution of industrial sector to Gross National Product is only 8 to 10 percent. 5. Low Rate of Capital Formation and Investment and Widespread Unemployment: Since per capita income is small, the entire income of the people has to be spent for purchasing daily necessities. As a result the rate of savings of the people is very small. So, shortage of capital is seen, and the rate of investment is also very low. Since investment is very small, the rate of establishing new production or industry is very small. As a result, no new employment is created. Unemployment increases. Per capita income continues to fall. In this way the country rotates within the circle of poverty. 6. The Incomplete Use of Natural Resources and Manpower: Capital and skilled manpower are required for the perfect use of natural resources. There is so much want of capital and technically skilled Manpower in the underdeveloped countries that it is not possible for long period to determine what mineral resources at what amount are available in the country. As a result, all these countries remain poor despite having resources. 7. High Rate of Population Growth and Unskilled Manpower: Because of illiteracy, superstition and lack of proper control, the rate of population growth in the underdeveloped countries is high. The volume of the population is bigger than the supporting powers of the country. The arrangement to turn this population into skilled manpower through providing general education, technical education and health facilities is also trifling. 8. The Weak Socio-economic Infrastructure: One of the main characteristics of the underdeveloped countries is the weakness both in economic and in social infrastructures. Organisations disbursing loan in agriculture and industry are insufficient, and their management is weak. Transport and communication system is also undeveloped and insufficient. Major portion of population is deprived of education and health service. Electricity and fuel supplies are also much insufficient. 9. The Unfavourable Foreign Trade: Underdeveloped countries are dependent on import for meeting the basic needs of people- even for meeting the demands for food, clothing and treatment. These countries export mainly agricultural goods and raw materials for industry and import industrial goods. Export income is always less than import expenses. Individual work: Why does the As a result there is always deficit in the balance of underdeveloped condition of the under developed countries always the international transactions of these countries. 10. The Dependence on foreign aid: Because of lengthen? Explain. lower capital compared to need, the underdeveloped countries depend too much on foreign aid to collect capital for investment. These countries depend too much on foreign


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aid not only for the supply of capital but for the necessary money and other goods needed during disaster and emergency periods. 11. Lack of Mentality to Take Initiative and Risk: In the underdeveloped countries, the lack of the Manpower to lead in the economic development is noticed among people. The progress of economic activities is dependent on capital, just as the same way skilled entrepreneurs are also required for it. There is lack of capital in these countries. Moreover, the capitalists do not show interest to invest because of weak infrastructure and political instability. Investment starts in the traditional trend. There is lack of mentality to take initiative and risk to invest in the field of new production. As a result, there is no infusion of new life in economy, and underdevelopment is lengthened. The Developing Country In the middle stage of the developed and the underdeveloped countries there is another type of countries in the world- which are called developing countries. The real per capita income in these countries is much less compared to that of the developed countries. Most of the characteristics of underdeveloped economy exist in the developing countries. Among those there are predominance of agricultural sector, backwardness in industrial sector, widespread unemployment, insufficiency of transport, communication and electricity, low rate of education, low rate of capital formation and investment, low per capita income and poverty, high rate of population growth etc. But, the difference of these countries from the underdeveloped countries is that through planned development programme these countries have arranged to increase gross national product so to say per capita real income by utilising the natural resources and population of the country. As a result, a tendency has been created to raise per capita income for a long time. Under planned development programme these countries undertake efforts to develop socio-economic infrastructure and rapid industrialisation in the country. As a result, the tendency to raise the rate of capital formation and investment is seen. Spread of education is done for making the population human resource, and initiatives are taken to provide all the people with health service. As a result of all these initiatives and efforts, there is created a situation of dispelling the anti-development obstacles existing in economy. Some common characteristics of developing countries are discussed below: 1. Awareness about the Economic Condition and Initiative for Planned Development: Developing countries are those that being aware about the condition of their own economic development, take effective steps for changing that. This step starts through the process of taking overall development plan. Though there are many obstacles to the implementation of this development programme in the developing countries, because of over population and shortage of resources, it is not possible to attain development without planned programme. 2. The Availability of Natural Resources and Possibility of Development: As there are natural resources such as land, mineral resources, water resources in these countries, the volume of population is also big similarly. Endeavours are taken to enhance production by utilising these natural resources and population. 3. The Reduction of Dependence on Agriculture and Rapid Industrialisation: The trend to be industry oriented country gradually from agriculture based state is a feature of developing country. For this purpose, through planned programmes steps are taken to establish basic industry and to invest in industry.

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4. The Gradual Development of Agriculture: Agriculture is modernised in the developing countries. Arrangements for cultivation in scientific method, development of infrastructure of agriculture, supply of high quality seed, fertilizer and irrigation facility etc. are taken. As a result, productivity of agriculture increases, and gradual development of agriculture starts. 5. Development of Infrastructure: Since initiative is taken to spread agriculture and industry, it becomes essential to develop socio-economic infrastructure in the developing countries. So, action is taken in these countries to develop and extend economic infrastructure such as transport and communication system, formation and supply of capital and social infrastructure such as education and health service etc. at the starting level of development. In course of this trend of attaining development, development of social environment also takes place gradually. 6. Decrease in the Rate of Population Growth and Human Resource Development: There is excess in population in the developing countries. National Programme is taken to control population. As a result, though slow, the rate of population growth gradually continues to fall. Steps for taking literacy project, extension of education and training programme and for the introduction of technology and technical education are taken to turn the population of the country in to manpower or human resource. Moreover, health facility and service undergo expansion. For all these reasons the trend of the transformation of population into human resource is created. Their skill and productivity also increases. 7. The Decrease in Unemployment and Elimination of Poverty: Widespread unemployment exists also in the developing countries. But, efforts are taken to reduce the rate of unemployment through application of modern methods in agriculture, rapid industrialisation and through creation of new employment opportunities. Generally, arrangements are made to reduce unemployment and eradicate poverty through various types of projects under development plans. 8. The Reduction in the Dependence on Foreign Aid: In the developing countries huge amount of money and capital are required to implement development plans and programmes. Since it is not possible to collect sufficient fund from internal sources, these countries become too much dependent on foreign loan, aid and grant. This dependence usually continues for long period. But, at some stage of achieving development this dependence reduces. 9. Ensuring Financial Welfare of the People: The main objective of economic development is to ensure maximum financial and social wellbeing of all the people. If it is possible to ensure balanced distribution of income together with economic development, financial and social welfare are ensured. But, though socio-economic development is initiated in the developing countries, the shortcoming in distribution system remains for long. As a result, disparity in the distribution of income prevails for long period. 10. Increase in the Rate of Urbanisation: A trend of gradual development is created through planned Individual work: What factors economic and social programmes in the developing will you consider to call a countries. This trend is much rapid in some countries, country ‘developing’? but not so much in other countries. But, because of these development activities, modernisation of rural economy gradually takes place, infrastructure develops and


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people moves from villages to cities in search of work because of industrialisation. Urbanisation takes place in the country because of all these. 11. Development in Social Environment: Though slow, in the developing countries education, health service, recreation system, roads and bridges, transport and communication system, financial organisation such as bank and insurance facility, international communication etc. are developed and expanded. All these results in elimination of superstition and bigotry. For being introduced with high standard of living, people become interested in attaining development. 12. Increase in Per Capita Income and Standard of Living: The economy of developing country is run mainly on the basis of planning. Though there is the existence of bottleneck in implementing plans, a tendency to development is created as a result of implementing the plans. As a result, the per capita income of the people of these countries continues to increase gradually, and development starts in the standard of living. Economic Relationship of Bangladesh with Developed and Developing Countries We have learnt that the countries of the world are divided into developed, developing and underdeveloped or least developed countries according to the degree or level of economic development. According to this division, Bangladesh belongs to the last class i.e. least developed countries. But, because of incessant development efforts and activities and the higher standard of some indicators (such as gender equality in education, reduced rate of child and maternal death, worth mentioning progress in the rate of enrolment in primary education), Bangladesh may also be considered to be in the class of developing countries. We have learnt in the mean time about some developed, developing and under developed countries. We know that USA, Canada, and most of the countries of Europe are included in the class of developed countries. South Asia and sub-Saharan African countries are mainly the low income countries. Moreover, countries of East and Middle Asia, Latin America, Middle East and North African countries are mainly middle income countries, which include both ‘middle income’ and ‘higher middle income’ countries. No country in the world is self sufficient. Every country has to establish, maintain and develop relationship with other neighboring countries also because of economic, social and political reasons. In this lesson we shall discuss the issue of economic relationship of Bangladesh with developed and developing countries. We can discuss the topic of economic relationship under two main heads: 1. Relationship concerning foreign trade 2. Relationship concerning loan assistance and the giving and taking of grant. 1. Relationship Concerning Foreign Trade There are two aspects of trade –export and import. Export is the source of income of a country, and import is the head of expenditure. The export income of Bangladesh is always less than the import expenses. So, Bangladesh is always a country of deficit in the field international transaction. The main export goods of Bangladesh include readymade garments and knitwear, raw jute, goods made of jute, frozen food, tea, leather, agricultural goods, ceramic goods, etc.

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From the review of country based export trade it appears that USA has been the biggest market of the export goods of Bangladesh for the last one decade. Next to it there are countries like Germany, UK, France, Belgium etc. Moreover, our goods are also exported to countries such as Italy, Netherlands and Canada. It means that the export trade of Bangladesh is spread mainly in the developing countries. One important aspect of our export is that we are a Manpower exporting country. We export unskilled and semi- skilled labourers to various countries of the world. There is arrangement of various types of employment in there countries. Among the countries where employment has been made for the Bangladeshi labourers, the main countries are Singapore, Malaysia, Middle Eastern countries such as Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain and Kuwait. Moreover, diplomatic process to export manpower from Bangladesh to the African, East European and Latin American countries has been started. There is the trade relationship of Bangladesh with the SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) countries in addition to the developed industries. The amount of export of Bangladesh within the SAARC countries is the highest in India. In the fiscal year 2010-11 the amount of export of Bangladeshi goods to India is 78 percent of the total export to the SAARC countries. It is worth mentioning that the amount of income in the first 9 months of 2010-11 fiscal year from the SAARC countries is only 3% of the total export income of Bangladesh in the same period. In addition to India our goods are also exported to other SAARC countries such as Afghanistan, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Srilanka.

Individual work: Initiate a debate regarding the dependence of economic relationship of Bangladesh with developed and developing countries.

Our main import goods include capital machinery, raw materials of industry, food grains, petroleum and petroleum based goods, cotton, oil, fertilizer and yarn etc. From the review of the country wise import goods it appears that China tops the list in the country’s import during July- February of the current fiscal year (2010-11). During this period 18.49 percent of the total import of the country has come from China. In the second, third and fourth positions there are India (14.34%), Malaysia (4.76%) and Singapore (4.01%) respectively. The analysis of the Statistics of the last decade shows that India and China are on the top among the countries from where Bangladesh has been importing goods. The other countries export goods to Bangladesh are Singapore, Japan, Hongkong, Taiwan, South Korea, Malaysia and the USA. 2. Foreign Loan- assistance and Grant Bangladesh is a developing country. This country undertakes planned development programmes to attain economic development. Huge amount of money is required to implement this programme. It is not possible to supply the entire amount of this money from internal sources. Bangladesh receives loan assistance and grant from other countries of the world to collect development fund. Bangladesh also receives loan and grant from international organisations giving loan assistance and grant in development programmes such as World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Asian Development Bank (ADB), European Union, Organisations of United Nations, IDA (International Development Agency) etc.


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The countries from which Bangladesh gets foreign assistance are USA, Canada, UK, Germany, France, Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Australia. Japan is worth mentioning as the aid giving agency among the Asian countries. Some amount of aid is also received from India.

Exercise Short questions: 1. How is the total income of the factors of production determined? Explain. 2. Explain the code formula to determine the Gross National Product. 3. Why is agricultural sector considered the most important sector in Bangladesh? Explain. Descriptive questions: 1. How does the per capita income determine the standard of living? Analyse. 2. How do the sectors of economy contribute to the Gross Domestic Product? Explain. 3. Make comparative analysis of GDP, GNP and per capita income in case of low income country. Multiple choice questions: 1. What percentage of the total Manpower of Bangladesh is engaged in the agricultural sector? a. 17.31 b. 24.73 c. 28.40 d. 43.60 2. The price of which commodity of a garments factory is considered in case of measuring the Gross National Income? a. Cotton b. Yarn c. Fabric d. Shirt Read the passage below and answer question no. 3 and 4. In 2010, the Gross National Income of 2010 of X country was 9600 crore US dollar and population was 16 crore. 3. How much US dollar was the per capita of X country in 2010? a. 400 b. 500 c. 600 d. 700

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4. The above index indicates 'X' country’s people’s – i. Standard of living ii. Rate of saving iii. Rate of education Which one below is correct? a. i b. ii c. i & ii d. ii & iii Creative questions: 1. Economic Growth ↓ Low rate of population growth ↓ Increase in per capita income ↓ ? a. b. c. d.

What is called the Gross National Product? How is Bangladesh entangled in vicious circle of poverty? Explain the idea which the (?) marked place of the table indicate. Among the steps mentioned in the table explain the relationship of first with the last. 2. Onima was going to visit Kuakata by microbus with the members of her family. At the time of going, they crossed two Ferris without any hazard. But while going to cross the ferry of Mohipur, she found that because of water upsurge, three fourth portion of the pontoon adjacent to the ferry was submerged under water. They had to wait there for four hours. Talking to the officer in charge of that place, Onima’s father learnt that the government had taken a special project to solve such type of situation. a. What is the foundation of economic development? b. What is meant by foreign trade? c. What type of economic obstacle of the country Onima and her family faced on the way to Kuakata? Explain. d. Will the project known to Onima’s father be helpful in the economic development of Bangladesh? Give argument in favour of your answer.


Bangladesh and Global Studies

Thirteen Chapter

The Financial System of the Government of Bangladesh and Bank The government of Bangladesh has an important role in providing security for the life and property of the people of Bangladesh, the defense of the country, the running of administration, the economic development activities and in public welfare works. The government spends a huge amount of money to play this role. Sometimes, either putting up the rate or imposing tax on new sectors, the government arranges extra income to meet these expenses. In the post-liberation period, the government of Bangladesh has formed many sectors based on managements including administration, finance, health, education and bank. The financial and the banking system are the two biggest managing sectors of the government of Bangladesh. With the change of time the functions of these two systems have increased manifold comparing to those in the past. People keep their income or surplus money in the bank for safety. With the change of time the government of Bangladesh has formed some particular financial institutions including the central and commercial banks. In this chapter, we shall be informed of the sources of income of the government of Bangladesh, the heads of expenditure and the bank management.

After reading this chapter, we shall be able to – • explain the concept of government financial system; • explain the sources of income of the government of Bangladesh; • explain the heads of expenditure of the government of Bangladesh; explain the concept, type of the bank management of Bangladesh;

• • • •

describe the functions of Bangladesh Bank; describe the functions of commercial bank; describe the role of various banks in poverty alleviation and self employment of Bangladesh; be aware of the economic functions of Bangladesh.

The Concept of the Public Finance Management The public finance is one of the important branches of economy. Generally the public finance means the policies and methods regarding the income and expenditure of the state. In this connection Professor Dalton says, “Public finance is concerned with the income and expenditure of the government and with the adjustment of the one to other.” In this branch of economy all types of income-expenditure of the state, loan and investment-related problems and the issues of their solutions are included.

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The Source of income of Bangladesh Government The government of Bangladesh spends a huge amount of money to accomplish public welfare, in running the administration and for socio-economic development. The government has to earn a lot of money to meet these expenses. The sources of income of Bangladesh government can be divided into two parts. Such as (a) Tax Revenue (b) Extra tax revenue. The sources of income of Bangladesh government are described below: (a) Tax revenue: The income which is received from the taxes imposed on people and on various business firms and industries by the government is called tax revenue. The sources of tax revenue income of the government of Bangladesh are as follows: 1. The Customs: The main source of income of the government of Bangladesh is the customs. The tax which is imposed on the exported and imported goods of the country is called the customs. 2. Excise duty: The tax which is imposed on the goods produced and used inside the country is called excise duty. In addition to revenue collection, excise duty is also imposed on the purpose of reducing the consumption of various harmful goods. In Bangladesh, excise duty is imposed mainly on tea, cigarette, sugar, tobacco, kerosene, medicine, spirit, match, wine, ganja, opium, etc. 3. Income tax: An important source of income of the government of Bangladesh is –the income tax. The tax which is imposed on the personal income of the people is called income tax. In Bangladesh, income tax is realized at a progressive rate from those whose income is over a sealing. 4. Value added tax (VAT): The value added tax is usually known as VAT in the tax system of Bangladesh. At present, in our country VAT has been imposed on imported and locally produced goods and on some fixed service sectors. 5. Supplementary duty: The duty which is imposed on some goods in addition to the custom or excise duty or VAT is called the supplementary duty. It is one of the main sources of income of the government of Bangladesh. 6. Land revenue: The tax paid to the government for the possession and use of land is known as land revenue. The income of the government in this sector has decreased to some extent as a result of the government’s exemption of land tax up to 25 bighas. 7. Non-judicial stamp: The government earns a huge amount of money from the stamps used for various documents and applications regarding judiciary, passport and exchange bills, etc. 8. Registration: The registration fee is paid for deed registration, and the court fee is paid for lawsuit. The government earns enough money from this source. 9. Vehicle tax: The tax paid for the registration of vehicles is called the vehicle tax. 10. Wine Duty: The government earns some money by imposing duty on wine, ganja, opium etc. drugs. 11. Electricity duty: The government has income from the electricity duty too.


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12. Other taxes and duties: Besides the above mentioned taxes and duties, the government earns more taxes and duties mainly from recreation tax, property tax, duty on petrol and gas, duty of foreign tour, tax on irrigation and its machinery etc.

Individual work: Identify the sources of income of the government of Bangladesh. Tax Revenue

Extra Tax revenue

(b) Extra tax revenue: The government of Bangladesh collects revenue from many other sources besides tax and duty. The revenue earned from these sources is called extra tax revenue. These sources are discussed below. 1. Dividend and profit: The government gets dividend and profit from various financial organizations such as bank, insurance company and various nonbanking financial organizations, park, zoo, etc. at the end of the year. 2. Interest: The government gives loan to various financial and autonomous organizations. Some income comes from the duties received in this regard. 3. The Economic service: The government also earns through giving some economic facilities to the people. Among these, tourism, banking, travel and service are notable. They are registration scheme received under export import act, the earning received under insurance act, audit scheme of cooperative societies, registration of cooperative society and renewal scheme, etc. 4. The General administration: The government of Bangladesh earns various types of fees for providing administrative services. 5. The Railway: Though railway is a source of government income, there is often deficit in this sector. 6. The Postal department: Since the postal department of the country is run by the government, it is also a source of government income. 7. The Telegraph and Telephone: Since the telegraph and telephone system is run by the government, it is another source of government income. 8. The Forestry: The government also earns a lot of money from the forest areas of Bangladesh through selling forest-born assets like wood, bamboo, fuel, honey, wax, etc. 9. Toll and levy: The government earns worth mentioning amount of money in the toll and levy head.

Individual work: Mention the way to expand the sources of government income.

10. Rent and lease: The government also earns through renting and leasing government property. 11. Fine, penalty and forfeiture: The government of Bangladesh earns an amount every year through fine, penalty and forfeiture. The government of Bangladesh carns a lot of money from the sources mentioned above.

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The Heads of Expenditure of the Government of Bangladesh The government of Bangladesh spends a huge amount of money on the socio-economic development, the construction of infrastructure, the human resource development and on the poverty alleviation. Moreover, the government has to spend money on the administrative, social, public welfare and other service-oriented activities. One of the important things in the government expenditure management is to increase expenditure in productive sector and to reduce expenditure in non-productive sector. The government allocates money for revenue as well as development expenditures in the annual budget. The main heads of expenditure of the government of Bangladesh are discussed below: 1. Defense: This is one of the main heads of expenditure of Bangladesh government. The government of Bangladesh spends a huge amount of money regarding the expenses of giving the salary, allowance and other facilities to the officers and employees of the defense forces, weapons of war, equipment etc. 2. The Civil administration: The government spends a worth-mentioning amount for the operation, development, salary, allowance, etc. of the employees of various ministries and divisions run under their control. 3. The Education: An important sector of expenditure of Bangladesh government is Individual work: Identify the education. The government has to pay a huge heads of expenditure of the amount of money in the recent times to free the government of Bangladesh. country from the curse of illiteracy through Individual work: Identify the expansion of education. The expenditure has unexpected expenses of the much increased for the grants of government government of Bangladesh. educational institutions, non-government schools, colleges and madrasahs, stipend, free distribution of books, imparting training to teachers and in new activities for the expansion of education. 4. Health and family welfare: The government spends a huge amount of money on heads like setting up hospitals and medical colleges, preventing various infectious diseases, population control, child welfare programme, maternity programme etc. 5. Payment of loan and interest: The government has to take huge amount of loan from home and abroad for developmental work of the country. The government has to spend a huge amount of money to pay off the capital money and interest every year. 6. The Agriculture, Fishery and Livestock: The government of Bangladesh spends a notable amount of money on these heads every year. 7. The Police, Ansar and Bangladesh Border Guard: The Police and Ansar forces are essential for maintaining law and order situation and keeping peace inside the country. Again the Border Guard has been formed in Bangladesh to protect the border and to check smuggling. The government of Bangladesh spends a huge amount of money on these three big heads. 8. The Judiciary and Jail Division: A huge amount of money is spent on the salary and allowance of the officer-employees of the Judiciary and Jail division and on the management of these two divisions. 9. Civil Public work: The government spends a huge amount of money on civil public work programmes every year. Construction of roads, bridges, culverts etc. are included in this sector.


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10. Revenue collecting divisions: The government of Bangladesh spends a big portion of the revenue to meet the expenses of income tax, customs, excise, land revenue division etc. 11. The Foreign affairs: The government has to spend a huge amount of money every year to establish relationship and operate embassy abroad to protect the interest of the country outside. 12. Retirement allowance and other facilities: The government has to spend a huge amount of money every year to give retirement allowance and other benefits to the retired officers and employees. 13. The Social welfare programe: The government has to allocate a huge amount of money every year for the social welfare activities. 14. Unexpected expenditure: Every year the government of Bangladesh has to spend enough money to solve emergency situations created by natural disasters like flood, cyclone, drought, water upsurge etc. 15. Other heads: In addition to the above mentioned heads, the other heads where the government spends money are the secretariat, the accounts, fuel and energy, mine, production and construction etc. Bangladesh is a developing country. The government of Bangladesh has to spend a huge amount of money every year on the heads mentioned above. The number of many new heads and the amount of expenditure are gradually increasing every year. However, the rate of increase in government expenditure should be controlled for the sake of overall development of the country. The Conception of Bank Bank is an organization to keep deposit of money of the people and to disburse variousterm loans to the borrowers. The role of bank in economic development is important. People keep their income or surplus money in bank for safety. People also get interest from some deposits. Bank gives this money deposited by the people to entrepreneurs, producers, businessmen and debtors as loan and collects interest on this type of loan. The interest which is given on the deposited money by the bank is less than the interest it collects from the borrowers. The difference of interest rate is the profit of bank. Bank survives mainly on the basis of this profit. As a result, bank is called the trader of loans. The Classification of bank Banks are classified into three types mainly on the basis of objectives and functions. Observe the format below: Bank The Central Bank: The central bank is the highest financial organization of a country. This bank supervises and controls the money market, monetary system and other banks of the country. Since it controls the overall The The Specialized banking system of the country, The Central Commercial Financial its name is the central bank. Bank Bank Organization

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The Central bank is the only organization authorized to introduce paper currency. The name of the central bank of Bangladesh is Bangladesh Bank. This bank works also as the representative of the government and as the financial adviser. The Commercial Bank: The Commercial bank gives short term loan for the purpose of commercial profit. There are many commercial banks in Bangladesh such as the Sonali Bank, the Janata Bank, the Agrani Bank, the Rupali Bank, the Uttara bank, the Pubali, the National, the City Bank, the Islami Bank etc. The Specialized Financial Organization: Some banks have been established in our country for attaining special objectives. These banks are called specialized financial organizations such as the Shilpa Bank for the development of industry, the Krishi Bank for the development of agriculture, the House Building Finance Corporation for sanctioning house building loans, the Cooperative Bank for sanctioning loans in cooperative activity and developing cooperative attitude in people, the Grameen Bank for providing micro credit to the poor people, etc. The Functions of the Commercial Bank The role of commercial bank is important in the economy. The life of business and trade is these commercial banks. These types of banks assist in economic development by conducting various types of programmes. One of the main objectives of commercial bank is to receive deposit from the people. Bank deposit is generally of three types – current, savings and fixed deposits. Deposited money of current deposit can be withdrawn any time. The bank does not give any interest to the depositor for the deposit. Money can be drawn once or twice a week from the savings deposit. For Individual work: Make this, the bank gives small interest to the depositors. And the a list of the functions of deposit which can be withdrawn after the expiry of a commercial bank. specified period of time is called fixed deposit. The depositor is given interest at a high rate for fixed deposit. Loan disbursement is another important function of the commercial bank. Keeping a fixed part of the money collected from the people, it gives the rest of the money to businessmen and industrialists as loan. In case of loan disbursement the bank generally operates this programme by keeping valuable assets as the mortgage. One of the duties of commercial bank is to create the medium of exchange. Though the authority of introducing paper notes is possessed only by the central bank, the commercial banks create media of exchange like cheque, bank draft, hundi, traveler’s cheque etc. In the developed countries most of the transactions are accomplished with the help of such exchange. Another important function of the commercial bank is to cash bill of exchange on settling discount. If money is needed before the term expiry, the owner of hundi can get cash money by exchanging the hundi from the commercial banks. The bank earns a huge amount of profit in this work. The Commercial Bank helps in settling the dues of buyers and sellers in case of internal and foreign trades. Most of the activities of international trades are done via commercial banks. Commercial bank transfers money safely and rapidly. These banks help people to transfer money easily from one place to another through the bank cheque, bank draft, pay order, traveler’s cheque, telegraphic transfer (TT) etc.


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Besides, doing the works mentioned above, the commercial banks accomplish more functions for the convenience of their clients as their representatives. For example, they buy and sell bonds, stocks, share and debentures. Moreover, they assist their customers in paying house rent, income tax, premium of insurance, telephone and electricity bill etc. They Keep valuable ornament, documents etc. securely. The Functions of central bank Introducing paper currency and keeping the monetary system of the country stable are the important functions of the central bank. The currency introduced by the central bank is the 'identified currency' of the country. The responsibility of keeping the internal and external value of currency stable is vested on the central bank. The central bank is mainly the bank of the government. As the representative of the government, it collects dues of the government from various sources and pays the liabilities of the government in various sectors without cost. Group work: Compare the The central bank calculates the internal and external functions of the central and loans of the government and performs the responsibility the commercial bank. of management. This bank keeps the deposit of the government money without interest, and in case of necessity, it gives loan to the government and gives advice regarding financial affairs. The central bank is the bank of other banks. Other banks have to deposit a specified portion of their capital in the central bank. By reducing or increasing the amount of this deposit, the central bank can control the loan giving ability of commercial banks to a great extent. One of the main functions of the central bank is to control loan. Loans given by the commercial banks are included in the total supply of currency of the country. If the total amount of money increases due to the formation of additional loan, inflation may appear in the country.The central bank tries to maintain stability by making equality between the demand and the supply of the total currency of the country. This bank undertakes various step to control loan to avoid square currency and inflation. When the commercial banks face financial crisis and fail to get loan from any other source, they are compelled to seek protection to the central bank. In such circumstances, the central bank saves the commercial banks from financial crisis by giving loan. For this reason, the central bank is called the borrower of the last phase. The central bank performs duty as the clearing house of the mutual dues among various banks. As a result of the transaction of cheque regarding daily trade, dues and liabilities are created among the commercial banks. Central bank settles inter bank dues and liabilities among various banks through cheque. The central bank maintains the specific exchange rate of the currency of the country with the currency of other countries. For this purpose central bank purchases and sells foreign currency. The central bank works in various affairs such as conducting research for the economic development of the country, collecting necessary information, assisting in formulating the budget, etc. Except the above mentioned functions, the central bank performs some other functions. For example, the central bank of every country works as the representative of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank in their respective countries. The central bank preserves gold, silver, etc. valuable metals and the earned foreign currency.

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The Role of Various Banks in Poverty Alleviation and Self-Employment Self employment means being engaged independently in the field of production or in income generating process through self-initiative with a view to being free from the curse of unemployment by an active person willing to do work. Every year around 20 to 25 lakh of new eligible people enter the labour market of Bangladesh. Various banks are playing important role in creating employment of those people and in poverty alleviation. The role of these banks is given below: Bangladesh Krishi Bank: After the achievement of liberation, Bangladesh Krishi Bank was formed taking all the assets and liabilities of the former Agricultural Development Bank situated in Bangladesh. This bank has important role in poverty alleviation and in creation of employment. Bangladesh Krishi Bank gives short, medium and long term loans to the farmers for enhancing agricultural production. Krishi Bank gives loans for various purposes like purchasing cattle, seeds, fertilizer and agricultural instruments, installation of power-driven pumps, deep and shallow pumps for irrigation etc. At present, besides agricultural works, this bank also gives loan for poultry and livestock growing, fishery, sericulture, fruit cultivation, flower cultivation and for cottage industry. In addition to Bangladesh Krishi Bank, the Sonali Bank, the Agrani Bank, the Janata Bank, Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank and the Rupali Bank have included micro credit programmes with proper importance in their respective agriculture and rural loan programme to eradicate poverty through self-employment and income generating activities. Minimum 25% of the annual loan disbursement target in agriculture and rural development heads of those banks and financial organizations are reserved for poverty alleviation. This loan is supplied through various organizations including private organization, and these banks have their own programmes too. The Grameen Bank: The Grameen bank has emerged in Bangladesh as an exceptional bank. It is a specialized financial organization for giving loan to the landless rural men and women. The Grameen Bank gives banking facility to the poor men and women of Bangladesh without security. The advancement of the bank started with a vow to protect the poor people from the exploitation of rural money lenders. This bank is playing an extended role to create scope for self-employment for the vast unemployed rural population.

Exercise Short questions: 1. What is the government financial system? 2. What tax is the additional money paid on purchased sweet included in? 3. What is the reason of calling the tax imposed on sugar Excise? 4. Which bank performs the duty as clearing house? Explain. 5. Why do the commercial banks have to keep a portion of their capital in central bank as reserve?


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Descriptive questions: 1. Analyse the way to expand the source of government income. 2. Evaluate the role of Bangladesh Krishi Bank in poverty alleviation and in creating employment. 3. One of the main functions of the central bank is to keep monetary system stable– Explain. Multiple choice qustions: 1. Which one is extra tax revenue? a. Land revenue b. Income tax c. Forest d. Vehicle tax 2. Which one is the main head of the expenditure of the government of Bangladesh? a. Defense b. Education c. Non government administration d. Foreign affairs 3. Which one below is the function of the Sonali Bank? a. To give money to import vehicles from abroad b. To keep accounts of foreign loan c. To give money for installing tube-wells in lands for irrigation d. To give banking facility without security 4. The function of Bangladesh Bank is─ i. Giving loan to the government ii. Giving loan to the commercial bank in time of crisis iii. Giving loan for doing business Which one below is correct? a. i b. i & ii c. ii & iii d. i, ii & iii Read the paragraph below and answer to the question nos. 4 & 5. Landless Nurjahan Begum of Sundarpur village received training on poultry rearing from a local organization. The organization lent Nurjahan Begum ten thousand taka. Nurjahan Begum is now solvent by rearing poultry.

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4. What organization Nurjahan Begum has taken loan from? a. The Central Bank b. The Commercial Bank c. The Krishi Bank d. The Grameen bank 5. The role of the organization giving loan to Nurjahan Begum is – i. To assist in the compilation of the national budget ii. To give loan to women without security iii. To protect the poor people from the exploitation of the rural money lenders Which one below is correct? a. i b. i & ii c. i & iii d. i, ii & iii Creative questions : 1. Two friends of Shafipur village, Mamun and Nafiz live in the village after obtaining the B.A. degree. Mamun has taken loan amounting to taka 5 lakh from a financial organization to install a deep tube-well to cultivate his paternal property. The farmers of the village are able to produce more crops through cultivation by using the water of Mamun’s tube-well. Nafiz has taken taka twenty lakh from a bank by mortgaging his house and has started a garments factory. 100 labourers of the village at Nafiz’s factory. The garments produced in Nafiz’s factory are being exported abroad. The young people of the village are playing a vital role in poverty alleviation by working at Nafiz’s factory. a. How many classes are the banks mainly divided into? b. What is ‘identified currency’? Explain. c. Explain the functions in poverty alleviation of the bank from which Mamun has got loan. d. The role of the bank from which Nafiz has taken loan is important in economicsExplain. 2. Prapti and Dipto are the students of class VIII. Prapti’s father is an importer of foreign car. This year Prapti’s father has got the prize of the highest tax payer. Dipto’s father is working in a bank as G.M. Every year Dipto’s father also pays tax to the government. a. What is the minimum rate of target of annual loan disbursement of the bank and financial organizations for agriculture and rural development? b. Explain the important sector of expenditure of Bangladesh government. c. What type of tax does Dipto’s father give to the government? Explain. d. The tax that Prapti’s father gives to the government is the source of income of the government. Explain.


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3. Zahid went to Aarong to buy a shirt for the festival of Eid. He had to pay more prices than the price written on the body of the shirt. When he asked the reason the salesman told him, additional price is one type of tax. Zahid’s father is a government service holder. After coming home when Zahid told all incidents to his father, his father told that he also pays tax to the government.

a. b. c. d.

What is called supplementary duty? Explain is the main sector of expenditure of Bangladesh government? Explain the nature of tax that Zahid pays. The tax that Zahid’s father gives to the government is the source of income of the government- Explain.

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The Social Change of Bangladesh Society is changeable. The society of Bangladesh is also no exception of this. Since the post liberation time, a widespread change has taken place in the economic, social and political fields of this country. The changes in education, technology and communication have taken the society and the economy of the country one step ahead. The widespread industrialisation and urbanisation have brought changes in women’s role. Because of this change in social life, the old problems are assuming complicated form on one side, likewise on the other side, new problems have evolved. In this chapter, we shall know about the concept of social change, the reason of change in the society of Bangladesh, the impact of this change compared with the perspective of the city and village, and the changes in the role of women.

After reading the chapter, we shall be able to ─ • explain the concept of social change; • explain the components of the change in the society of Bangladesh; • analyse the impact of social changes on the rural and urban societies of Bangladesh; • analyse the impact of industrialization, urbanisation, education, technology and communication as the components of the

change of Bangladeshi society; • explain the changes in the roles of women as an important factor of social change; • adapt ourselves with situations caused by social change; • be aware of the matters caused by social change.

The Concept of Social Change The Social Change means the change in social structure and its activities. The fundamental structure of every society is formed through the production system of that society and the relationship among various professionals related to that system. Besides, some other super structures are also developed along with this structure. They are, for example, the rules and regulations, politics, culture, etc. So, the changes of fundamental and super structures of the society are called social change. On social change, sociologist Kingsley Davis said, “social change is the change in social structure and activities”. MacIver said “social change is the change in the human relationship”. That is, social change is the behavioural change of the person, group and organization residing in the society. It is the change in the culture and tradition of the


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society. To sum up, the social change is the overall change of the life system of a nation, and it takes place sometimes at a slow pace and sometimes at a quick pace. The impact of this change deeply touches the economy, politics, social policy, religious values and even the age old system of life. The creative activities of the society get new momentum. New branches and skills of science are opened up. Enthusiasm for creating something new is born, and the process of forming new society begins. The Components of the Change of the Society of Bangladesh and its Impacts The social change of Bangladesh is evident in various fields of the country like the social, political, educational, religion and cultural etc. At the root of the changes in these fields of the society, there are some specific factors. The factors are discussed below. 1. The Natural factor: The geophysical position of Bangladesh is a notable cause of social change. Slow as well as sudden geographical change, the changes regarding the climate, global warming, etc. put impact on the life of the people of Bangladesh and cause a great change of the society. The natural calamities such as the river erosion, tidal surge, flood, tornado, drought, heavy rain, etc. are as same as the daily phenomena in this country. These natural calamities spoil the balance of the environment, and there appears the necessity of adopting new systems for adjusting with the environment. Consequently, the change of social relationship takes place among people. For example, the river erosion is one of the causes of the growth of slums in the urban areas. The slum problem in the urban areas has given birth to multifarious problems. Because of taking many programmes by the government and non-government organizations in solving this problem, various changes have taken place in the urban society. In this way, global warming and natural disasters cause various new problems. Taking multi-purpose programmes to face all these problems, people accomplish the change of the society. 2. The Organic factor: The organic factor is an important factor of social change. The birth and Group work: Identify the mortality rate, the density of population, the nature of impacts and changes of the population and the standard of lifestyle, etc. form the natural factors on the life of organic factor. The change of the organic state of the the people of the regions prone people of the society such as the increase or decrease in to natural disaster. population, the change in migration or in the density of Individual work: Identify any population play an important role in the social change. one organic factor and write Different strategies for the birth control are being how it changes the society. implemented to prevent the growth of population of our country. The decrease in birth and mortality rate is contributing to the change of the structure of the society. Because of the increase in population, diverse problems like tough competition have taken place in the fields of unemployment, child labour and employment. 3. The Cultural Factor: Culture initiates social change. If we look at any society, diversified culture, difference in people’s values, difference in objectives and ideologies, etc. will be noticed. As a result of this, organisations nurtured by various cultures have been created, and those cause different kinds of changes in the society. For example, during the British regime, the impact of foreign cultures on the social system of Bengal was especially noticed. Besides, reading travel stories, traveling the foreign countries, meeting people of other countries bring about the social changes. Hazrat Muhammad (Sm.), Goutam Buddha, Jesus Christ─these noble men presented before the people new views, new values, new ideologies that initiated diverse changes in the society at that

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time. A blend form of diverse cultures is also perceived when we look at the cities of Bangladesh. 4. The Education: A special factor of social change is education. Education is the making of one kind of reform and a ceaseless process. The spread of education among the members of the society arouses the self-confidence, the power of judgement and consideration. Education liberates us from all kinds of blindness, ignorance, superstition, etc. For example, the expansion of female education in the society of Bangladesh has created awareness among the people which has motivated various social movements. So, in the establishment of women rights in Bangladesh, various social policies and laws have been formulated. The Dowry Act, the family laws, the women development policy, etc. are the outcome of social awareness. The female education has made women eligible for outdoor work and made them tend to jobs. As a result women empowerment has taken place. In this way, the education of science and of commerce, etc. has created many things in social life, which have played an important role in the positive change of the society. 5. The Technology: Technology is the applied side Individual work: Prepare a of science. Through the introduction and expansion of technology, the mindset of the people in a social- table of the changes created due system and social structure experience changes. For to the impact of the cultural example, the invention of radio has influenced the factors. amusement system in social life, education system, Group work: Identify the role politics and many other kinds of social activities. of agricultural technologies in Automobile today has expanded the domain of social social change. relationship. Because of the gradual development of technology, we see two types of effects in our social system. One is direct and another is indirect. Some of the social changes are the inevitable consequences of technological change. They are, for example, the new organizations of labourers, expansion of the range of social communication, attainment of special skills for special jobs and the impact of urban life on rural life, etc. The increasing problems of unemployment, the distance between the labourers and owners, the rise in the intensity of competition, etc. are the indirect effects of the change of technology. In agricultural sector, production has increased by manifold for the use of improved type of seeds, irrigation, fertilizer, and the application of technological knowledge. Besides, application of various new technologies is now seen in Piscesculture in our country. Unthinkable changes in shrimp cultivation, integrated Piscesculture, breeding of cattle, cow fattening, etc. are the direct outcome of technology. The technology has brought about a big change in the economy of agrofarming. Various rural development organizations have been formed with a view to enhancing production in agriculture. Besides, changing rural agriculture, these organizations have also changed human relationships. 6. The Communication: The more the communication medium of a country is developed, the more developed is the economy of that country. The communication is one of the main factors of social changes. The communication by land, water and air, telephone, fax, internet, e-mail, dish antenna, mobile phone, radio, television, different kinds of newspapers, etc. contribute to the social changes. Nowadays one can communicate with all the countries of the world sitting in one’s own room. It is possible to pick and read the necessary book using the world’s best library sitting in the house. Because of this unthinkable development in communication, students of this country are


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communicating with the developed universities of the world sitting in the house, and are going abroad for studies. In the case of social change, the impacts of natural, organic and cultural factors accelerate the flow of the change. Besides, the education, the technology and various form of new communicating media cast a great impact on the social change. The impact of these components is noticeable in the rural and urban life of Bangladesh. Though social change is caused by various components, sometimes special factors such as the industrialisation and urbanisation cast extensive impact on social change. The far reaching effect of it is noticed in the whole social system such as in the social, economic, political, family and religious life. In this circumstance, the impact of industrialisaion and urbanisaion on the society of Bangladesh is significant. Besides, due to the effect of urbanization, in the changed circumstance the role of women has also undergone a change. 7. The Industrialisaion and urbanisaion: The industrialisation is such a process by which the agriculture and handicraft based economy and social system is transformed into a mechanical industry based and production oriented economy and society. Urbanisation is the result of industrialisation. Due to a widespread industrialisation, the process of switching from rural life to urban mode of life is called urbanization. Since the post liberation time of Bangladesh to the recent time, there has been a flourish of various industries. Among these, garments, medicine, tea, sugar, cotton, paper, tobacco, biscuit, cosmetics, soap industries are main. Due to the expansion of these industries, many skilled and unskilled labourers of villages are going to cities to be relieved of unemployment and are having urban life. Because of industrialisaion, the higher class, the middle class, and the lower class have emerged in our social life. Industrialisation is at the root of the increase in employment of this country, a high increasing rate of production, per capita and national income. Besides, due to industrialisation, the process of localisation of industries has started, and it has caused urbanisation. For example, Khalishpur of Khulna, Barobkunda of Chittagong, Chatok of Sylhet, etc. are known as industrial cities today. The transportation and communication systems have developed because of the industrialisation and urbanisation. Although geographical distance has been reduced by it, it has widened social distance. Men and women are working together. The industrial workers spend most of their time with their colleagues. The impact of the daily life at work influences the whole stream of life of a person. The philosophy of life, attitude, mentality and values, etc. of an individual have undergone change. Due to accommodation constraint in the industrial cities, low wages, etc. it is impossible to live with all the members of the family together. As a result, extended families are broken, and nuclear families are created. Again, many problems including divorce in the family organisation, problem in the appropriate socialisation of children and adolescents, insecurity of the elderly, criminal tendencies and other social problems have emerged. The growth of slums in the cities of our country is an outcome of industrialisation. Slums have been grown in the places where garments industry, tannery industry, bangle industry, tobacco and bidi industry have been established, and it has given birth to many social problems like conflict, robbery, crime, adolescent crime in social life. These problems have also created chain of problems, which have embittered the city life. Industrialisation is, on one side, a blessing for the urban economy, and a curse too on the other.

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The Social Changes and the Role of Women In Bangladesh the gradual development of industry has done great changes to the life of women and their field of dignity. The continuous progress in the industrial sector has dragged women from their confined environment to the outdoor work-resonant world. Besides, the opportunities of jobs for women have extended their scopes for extra income. In the field of education, women are more advanced now than they were in the past. Women are not confined to the boundary of primary and secondary schools. They are now studying in institutions like medical colleges, general universities, engineering universities, agricultural universities and in other institutions for higher education. A report presented by Bangladesh in the Fourth World Women Conference, Beijing-1995 states that among the total students of the universities, the number of female students is 23%. In the medical colleges and in engineering universities respectively 29% and 9% of the students are women. The Photo 14.2: The development in female education female education being free, the rural girls are getting more chances to study than it was in the past. Besides, the government has been running a Upabritti (stipend) project with a view to expanding the female education which has taken the rural female education one step ahead. Now, the people of rural societies, besides educating their sons, are putting importance equally on the education of female children. As a result of this, in the SSC and the HSC examinations of different education boards, girl students are much advanced in results. Besides education, women are now being involved in various works. At one time, women were Group work: Identify the reasons confined only to the household works. Today, in of changes in the roles of women the urban areas of Bangladesh, women are doing of the rural and urban areas. jobs in many industries, mills and factories like Individual work: Represent the garments industry, medicine manufacturing changes of roles of rural women in factory, telephone and telecommunication the field of education. industries, jute, tea, and paper industries, architecture industry, fish processing industry, etc. Moreover, educated women are working in different professions such as medicine, law, teaching, police, judiciary and at different government and nongovernment institutions. In government jobs, a major portion of women are serving almost in all cadres including the administration, police, postal, cooperative and ansar. In our rural perspective, women have created self employment taking loans from government or nongovernment organisations. In these selfemployments, there are tree plantation, nursery, cow fattening, rearing goats, fish farming, apiculture, poultry farming, tailoring, fruit business, etc. With their income households are being run, Photo: 14.3: Women in self- employment


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children are studying and members of the families are getting health care. Moreover, alongside men, these women are also carrying out many social responsibilities. With the social changes, the role of women has undergone changes in various fields. The change in the role has empowered women and established them with dignity and honour.

Exercise Short questions: 1. What is industrialisation? 2. How will you define Women Empowerment? 3. What is the social change? Descriptive questions: 1. How has the social change empowered women and established dignity? Explain. 2. Explain the role of technological knowledge in the change of rural agriculture. 3. Analyse the impact of social changes on the rural and urban societies of Bangladesh. Multiple choice questions: 1. Which one of the below is the cultural factor of social change? a. The Impact of global warming b. Increase in the density of population c. The Cooperative movement d. The expansion of garments industry 2. What is urbanisaiton? a. The process of taking urban life leaving rural life b. The continuous ways to the expansion of industry c. The method of developing urban civilisation d. The process of social and economic development 3. The reason of the recent changes in female education of Bangladesh is─ i. the free-distribution of text books ii. free education up to the secondary level iii. The impact of upabritti (stipend) programme Which one is correct? a. i & ii b. i & iii c. ii & iii d. i, ii & iii

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Read the paragraph below and answer to the question nos. 4 & 5: Chandan Nagar once lagged behind much in female education. The number of female students was less than half the number of male students in the schools. In recent times, in this region girl students are much advanced in respect of school attendance, achievement in examinations and in other fields. 4. The reason of the change in female education in Chandan Nagar is─ i. the increase in the parents’ awareness ii. the Government and non-government initiatives iii. the development of technology Which one is correct? a. i & ii b. i & iii c. ii & iii d. i, ii & iii 5. The reason of backwardness of female education in Chandan Nagar is ─ i. the ignorance and lack of education ii. the inadequacy of educational institutions iii. the development of socio economic and communication systems Which one is correct? a. i & ii b. i & iii c. ii & iii d. i,ii & iii Creative questions: 1. Once the “Shorbodoya” movement of Mahatma Gandhi led the backward people of India to life. Taking up a programme named ‘Sromodana’ similar to Gandhi’s programme, a non-government organisation of Bangladesh called CDM is doing many works to solve the problems of the neglected people of Bogra, and it has made various changes in different villages of Bogra. In this region, there is hardly any dowry and child marriage. Working in population control and micro credit projects, here, various women development organisations have brought widespread changes in social life. a. What is the social change? b. Explain the impact of industrialisaion on social change. c. The impact of what factor has resemblance to the social changes created by ‘Shorbodoya and Sromodana’ programmes? Explain. d. What impacts has microcredit programme made on social life through the change of women’s role? Analyse.


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2. Women empowerment

Eradication of superstitions

The rise of crime

Increase in production

Poverty alleviation

Increase in self confidence

Drug addiction

Increase in per capita income

a. b. c. d.

Table: A Table: B ‘Social change is the change in the human relationship’- who said this? Explain the impacts of cultural factor on social change. Explain the positive side of the factor which has effect on the indicators in Table ‘A'. The factor of the indicators in Table ‘B’ is blessing in one side and curse in the other ─ do you agree to this statement? Give reasons.

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Some of the Social Problems of Bangladesh and Their Remedies The society and the social problems are closely related. The social problems persisted at the very birth of the society and are still continuing. Only the nature of the problems has changed. The social problem is such an abnormal situation of the society that influences most of the people of the society, and everyone needs to work together to overcome the situation. We have known about the social changes in the earlier chapter. There is a deep relation between the social changes and the social problems. Due to unplanned social changes, the role of various social institutions and its failure to work properly create these social problems. The forms and types of social problems vary from society to society. There are many social problems in Bangladesh. In this chapter we shall be aware of the social anarchy, the degradation of values, the violence towards women, the HIV-AIDS, the road accident, and the militancy and corruption.

After reading this chapter, we shall be able to ─ • explain the concept of social problems; • explain the concept of social anarchy and degradation of social values; • explain the reasons and impact of social anarchy and the degradation of social values in Bangladesh; • identify the steps needed to prevent social anarchy and degradation of social values; • identify the concept ‘violence on women’; • explain the nature and reasons for cruelty towards women; • analyse the impact of cruelty towards women in Bangladesh; • explain the contents and punishment stated in the law to prevent cruelty towards women; • explain the way of developing social movement for preventing cruelty towards women in Bangladesh; • explain the nature, concept and legal remedies for child labour and juvenile crime; • explain the concept of maternal welfare and maternity benefit; • explain the concept of HIV-AIDS; • explain the situation and reasons of HIV-AIDS;

• analyse the impact of HIV-AIDS and can explain the activities for the prevention of AIDS; • explain the reasons of road accident; • describe the situation of road accident in Bangladesh; • explain the impact of road accident; • explain the ways of accident free, safe road and the steps to reduce road accident; • explain the concept of militancy; • explain the reasons and impacts of militancy; • indentify the steps to prevent militancy; • explain the concept and reasons of corruption; • explain the steps of preventing corruption and get motivated to build an ideal life; • be respectful to women and be aware to prevent all sorts of oppression for them; • aware of HIV-AIDS and come forward spontaneously to serve the patient; • aware of the prevention of corruption and accident; • be motivated to lead an ideal life based on religion.


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Section 15.1: The Social Anarchy and Degradation of Values The harmful and problematic elements and the inconvenient situations for the society are commonly known as Social problems. The social problem does not happen temporarily, it becomes more or less permanent, and unified effort is needed for its remedy. So, the social problem is such a state of social life which impacts on the majority of the social people and which is treated as unwanted, and unified effort from the people of the society is needed for its prevention. The social problems originate from social indiscipline. The social disorder is the disregard for traditional norms, regulations, customs, conducts and behaviour in the society. The social indiscipline can be seen only when the influence of social rules and regulations will be reduced from a man’s life. It means when the social norms fails to regulate the behaviour of a person, then the moral deterioration of a person starts its formation. The social institutions become nonfunctional when the moral deterioration of the society becomes massive. In such a situation, various types of social problems can happen to be generated. The mentionable symptoms of social indiscipline and anarchy are crimes, juvenile crimes, drug addiction, kidnapping, suicide, oppression of women, divorce, deterioration of the law and order situation, bribe, hijacking, terrorism, highway robbery, extortion, nepotism, sexuality, outbreak of sexual disease, child labour, negligence of the children, murder and so on. The Concept of Social Anarchy The social anarchy is the highest form of social disorder. It is seen when the machinery of the government does not work properly and cannot control the behaviour of a person or group. There are many reasons for which the social anarchy occurs. The Causes of Social Anarchy The proper exercising of social values is an important factor for the society. The social anarchy is created due to the degradation of values in the society. The deterioration and the looseness of law and order situation are also responsible for the creation of anarchy in the society. Besides, when the law enforcing agencies show discriminatory behaviour and negligence to the people seeking help is also responsible for the creation of anarchy. Different activities subversive to culture, invasion of bad culture, political instability, corruption, etc. is also responsible for the creation of anarchy in the society. The Concept of the Degradation of Social Values The social values comprises of the integration of social norms, rules, views and other socially recommended conducts of any society. Therefore, the values are the combination of those concept, faith, goal, objectives and determination that indirectly control the behaviour and activities of the people of the society. For example, showing proper honour to the elderly persons, showing respect to the guests, showing love and affection for the younger, etc. are some of the examples of social values. The deterioration of these values is called the degradation of social values which is the main reason of social inconsistency. The Causes of the Degradation of Social Values The change of the social values is closely associated with the changes of the society. When the society develops in education, industrialization, urbanization, and in technology, then its social values also gets changed. Such changes of the social values may be both positive and negative. The positive changes are socially accepted facts and

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the negative changes are socially unaccepted facts. The negative changes of the society are the main causes of degradation. The social disorder or inconsistencies increase when there is the dearth of establishing social justice. As a result, there will be the degradation of social values. Besides, the values will be degraded when the weakness and lacking of the rules of law, the absence of tolerance among the people and unruly environment persists in the society. The misinterpretation of religious rules may also lead people to a direction with no values. For example, beating with a cane in the name of fatwa or the verdict in the name of religion, is contrary to our values which may create social anarchy and disorder. The Effect of Social Anarchy and Degradation of Values The effect of anarchy and the degradation of Group work: Identify some of the values are far reaching in our social life, degradation of values in the society and especially in the socio-economic perspective. write down the measures to prevent it. The deprivation of the rights among the Individual work: Show the difference people increases if there is the degradation of with example between degradation of social values and state of anarchy in the social values and social anarchy. society. The whole society becomes nonfunctional because of corruption. The criminals become more powerful. In such situation, innocent person gets punishment. A fearful situation prevails in the social life. Standards of all service providing agencies go down trodden. Various social problems in the society also increase in an alarming rate. The Steps to Prevent Social Anarchy and Degradation of Social Values The steps that can be taken to prevent social anarchy and degradation of social values are: • Making extensive social movement and taking social awareness programme to prevent degradation of social values; • Bringing mobility and transparency in the programmes and activities of law enforcing agencies; • Taking extensive awareness programme to prevent bad culture; • Taking awareness programme and insuring accountability at the workplace to prevent corruption and nepotism; • Bringing transparency to the entire institutional programme for establishing justice; • Creating awareness to prevent malicious activities in the society; and • Establishing the rules of law, etc. Section 15.2: The Violence towards Women The Concept of Violence towards Women If any violence is done towards a woman by any man or women only for being a woman of any age is regarded as the violence towards women. This attitude towards a woman is caused by a person or a group of persons for any excuse due to weakness of her socioeconomic condition, physical or mental weakness. Tortures of various types, either physical or mental are inflicted on a woman against her wish. This violent attitude


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towards woman can be happened at anywhere in the house, street, school, college, workplace, shopping mall etc. The Nature of Violence to Women The violence towards women is gradually increasing in Bangladesh which is the main obstacle for the independence of women. The violence towards women has many natures. When a woman becomes the victim of torture, either physical or mental, inside her home is called domestic violence. She becomes the victim of such type of torture by her husband, mother-in-law, sister-in-law and other family members. This violence includes beating up the wife, torture to get dowry, deprivation of education and property rights, compelling to do excessive work, beating up the female child, sexual harassment and so on. Sexual harassment, torture and rape, fatwa, acid throwing, trafficking of woman and children etc. are all brutal, cruel and heinous violence. The Sexual Harassment: In recent times, the sexual harassment is one of the big social problems in Bangladesh. It is the highest moral degradation and social disasters, which like other countries is gradually gripping Bangladesh. Women of our country become victims of various sexual harassment. Presently girls and young ladies, even married women become the victim of sexual harassment. This sexual harassment of women is known as eve-teasing which is becoming unpreventable day by day. Eve-teasing is the synonym of sexual harassment which has been used extensively without explaining the real situation. Eve-teasing means disturbing to a woman by a man in a public crowded place. Women can be the victim of sexual harassment inside the houses, work places, at streets or any other isolated places for ill motive or to have any immoral relation. The Fatwa: In rural area, the violence is administered towards a woman through “Fatwa.� The Influential peoples of the villages administer judicial proceeding according to their own will which is inconsistent to our existing law. The Acid Throwing: The acid throwing is a very dangerous violence to woman. The incidence of acid throwing has increased in Bangladesh recently. Acid throwing in most of the cases happens towards woman. The love affairs and the refusal of indecent proposal, dispute concerning property, quarrel in the family and many such becomes the causes of acid throwing. The Trafficking of Children and Women: Women and children, who have become the victims of trafficking, also become the victims of violence. The situation of women and children trafficking is even worse in the South Asia. Many women and children of Bangladesh are being trafficked every year. And they have to engage themselves in various inhuman and humiliated works like prostitution, jockey of the camel, selling of the organs, etc. under compulsion. The Causes of Violence to Women There are many reasons in the society for violence towards women. In our social system, women are treated always as inexpert person to do various jobs. The violence against women is increasing gradually because of various social outlooks like deprivation of women from different social and religious rituals, child marriage, polygamy, being interested to have a son due to the repeated birth of daughters, etc. The vulnerable economic condition of our country also encourages establishing the custom of dowry. Gradually dowry becomes a tool for torture. Besides, depriving a

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woman from education, torturing by fatwa, etc. are some other social curses that become the important causes of violence towards women. In our society, still many men consider women weak Individual work: Write down and feeble. In both the rural and urban societies, the the types of violence towards attitude of several men in different families is that the rural poor woman. women’s only occupation will be to serve the Group work: Make a chart of household chores, i.e. she will cook, look-after the the causes of violence against children, make kitchen garden, rear the cattle, teach woman. the children, nurse the sick, etc. The domination and stubborn attitude of man in this country, for example, male is superior to female, women are servant of their husband, etc. creates violence towards women. Again, getting lessons from their childhood experience about the deprivation of women may make a man violent towards women. The negligence of parents towards daughter, giving preference to the male child, ignoring the desires of their daughter in marriage, etc. are some of the attitudes towards women that proceed violence towards women one step ahead. One important reason for violence towards women is poverty. To eradicate poverty, many women come out from their house to search jobs and get victims of violence. A huge member of female workers of Bangladesh work in garments sector. All of them are the victims of poverty. The problems like shortage of housing facilities or returning late from their work place are the reasons for becoming the victims of sexual harassment. Many small girls and women work as domestic servants in houses because of poverty. Most of these female domestic servants become the victims of torture. In most cases, the female folks of Bangladesh cannot express about the torture or raise their voice against such torture because of the fear of losing family or social status. So, incidences of violence towards women and children are increasing in abundance. But to speak in favour of women and children, different activities have been administrated by the Ministry of Education, the Ministry for Women and Children Affairs, various NGOs, etc. For example, Ain O Shalish Kendra, Breaking the Silence. etc. have taken various activities to voice for the victims. The Impact of Violence towards Women The impact of violence towards women’s life is terrible Individual work: Explain and complex. Sometimes physical torture to woman how violence to women results the loss of bodily organ. Such violence add injuries impacts the economy of to the physical and mental health of woman. In many cases, women go to the extreme to commit suicide. our country with special Female victims of violence can not lead a normal life. The reference to the female violence towards women also impacts on the economy of garments workers. our country. The Legal Supports to Prevent Violence towards Women Some of the legal aids of preventing violence towards women are: 1. The Prevention of Oppression towards Women and Children Act-2000: This act (amended in 2003) identifying sexual harassment as punishable offence, has said that ‘if a man assaults a women sexually or makes any indecent gesture and commits any sexual harassment to fulfill his sexual desire, he will get punishment of not exceeding 7 years and not less than 2 years rigorous imprisonment and also with the additional punishment of fine.’


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2. The Prevention of Acid Crime Act-2002─This Act clearly identifies matters like punishment for killing any person through acid throwing, causing injury by throwing acid or trying to throw acid or assisting of any of these crimes and judicial proceedings and other related matters. The Punishment for Killing through Acid: If a person kills another person by throwing acid, he will be punished with capital punishment or death sentence or lifetime rigorous imprisonment and with additional capital fine of maximum one lakh taka. The Punishment for Causing Injury by Acid: The act also says that if a person by throwing acid injuries another person by which he loses (a) either partly or wholly, eyesight, hearing or his face become mutilated, the criminal will be punished with capital punishment of death sentence or lifetime rigorous imprisonment or additional fine of maximum taka one lakh, (b) Any of his body parts, organs, glands becomes nonfunctional or any parts of his body gets injured, then the offender will be punished with rigorous imprisonment of maximum fourteen years but not less than seven years and fine of Taka fifty thousand maximum. Besides, acid throwing or attempt to acid throwing is also a punishable offence. Through these Act, the government regulates the storage, transportation, carrying of Acid. The Acid Control Amended Act is passed by our national parliament in 2010. 3. The Laws for the Prevention of Trafficking of Women and Children: Accordingly to ‘The prevention of oppression towards women and children Act- 2000,’ if a person brings any woman or child Group work : Mention the punishment under law and inside Bangladesh or traffics identify the duties of a citizen in the following table. to another country or sell or Law Provision Punishment Duties and purchase with a motive of Resposibilities engaging her in any illegal or immoral act like prostitution, Sexual he will be given capital harassment punishment or death sentence or life time rigorous Acid imprisonment or rigorous Throwing imprisonment for not Women exceeding 20 years, but not and less than 10 year and with Children fine as additional punishment. Trafficking Besides, this Act also has provision regarding kidnapping of women and children, taking ransom, rape, death due to rape, sexual harassment, death for dowry, etc. According to the law, ‘Human Trafficking Prevention Act-2011’ if a person conducted for human trafficking, it shall be considered punishable offence and will be given death sentence with capital punishment of fine, Taka five lacs. The Things to Be Done by the Society to Prevent Violence against Women The society should come forward to prevent violence to women. To prevent violence towards women, the society must take the following steps: 1. Enhancing women empowerment programmes through adopting activities to educate women, to give allowance to the widows and to function credit programme for the women;

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2. Enacting laws and its proper implementing in accordance with the nature and type of oppression and violence; 3. Providing education for both son and daughter of the family to lead a life with moral values; 4. Creating mass awareness about women’s rights and its associated laws; 5. Expanding activities of the organizations associated with women rights; 6. Giving exemplary punishment to the criminals of creating violence against women; 7. The proper implementation of the laws on violence against women, for example, The Prevention of Acid Crime Act, The Regulation of Acid Throwing Act, The Dowry Prevention Act, The Family Court Ordinance, The Early Marriage Prevention Ordinance, The Prevention of Terrorism Ordinances. 8. The violence towards women can also be prevented by giving social pleasure. The pressure creating institutions of the society are village court, union council, etc. Violence towards women can be prevented by united effort of creating pressure to the criminal and his family, for example, giving compensation to the victims, keeping the criminal isolated from the society, etc. Besides, pressure can also be given to find out the criminals. 9. Creating mass awareness by publishing the impact of Group work: Mention violence on women to prevent violence on woman. what kind of steps you Again publicity can also be made by announcing the can take to stop sexual provision of relevant laws in simple and lucid harassment. language. There are few other issues that should be given equal importance to prevent violence to women. For example, prevention of degradation of social values, stopping off badculture, building respectful relationship between man and woman, providing education for a sound and sensible family, exercising religious values and ideals, proper evaluation of the status and role of women etc. Child Labour Like many other countries of South Asia, child labour persists in Bangladesh. A child has to work for his livelihood when the child is supposed to go to school for study or play with friends. The poor economic condition is the first and foremost reason for child labour in Bangladesh. It is not possible for the parents of a poor family to bear the cost of their children’s education after arranging their food. As a result, Picture 15.1: Child Labour the guardians of these children lose interest of sending their children to school. In this circumstance, their father or


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mother thinks that it would be beneficial for them if their children engage in any occupation and earn bread for the family. Besides, the employer also gets interest in engaging children in work as it is lucrative for them to engage the child in work by spending less money and to exploit child labour for long hour than the adult. Poor parents consider education as non-profitable activity. They do not have patience and money to bear the cost of education of their children for 15 to 16 years. The child labour is increasing day by day as a result of the indifferent attitude of parents. In the urban life, the dependence on the domestic servants for all domestic works is also liable for the quick increase of child labour. The National Laws and International Conventions Ratified by Bangladesh on Prevention of Child Labour The Childern’s Rights in the Constitution of Bangladesh: The constitution of Bangladesh has recognized the fundamental rights of all citizens including children. The constitution on its part ‘Fundamental Principles of State policy’ has emphasized on taking steps for compulsory primary education for all children and special measures for physically handicapped and mentally disabled children. According to ‘The Bangladesh Labour Act, 2006’, the minimum age of children and adolescent is ascertained 14 years and 14 to 18 years. This Act also mentions that to engage any child in any work below 14 years of age is strongly prohibited, and the parents of that child can not enter into any agreement to engage that child in any work. An adolescent can be engaged in work only if his employer, at his own costs, gets a fitness certificate of that adolescent from a registered physician. The normal working hour of an adolescent is ascertained 5 hours daily. But, he cannot be allowed to work from 7 pm to 7 am. An adolescent cannot be allowed to do any risky or dangerous job. Besides, this Act also provides that a child of 12 years of age can only be allowed to do a light type of job at night in which there is no possibility of doing any harm to him or disrupts his education. In order to stop child labour, ‘The National Child Group work: Mention what Labour Prevention Policy-2010’ has determined you can do to stop child labour. some specific goals. It talks of taking some short term and long term strategic measures to prevent risky child labour from all institutional and non-institutional sectors and to eradicate all kinds of child labour. The United Nations Convention on Child Rights: The convention of 1989 by the United Nations has clearly cited its commitments on matters related to child labour. The convention has said that member states realising their local situation, must decide appropriate terms and conditions on the working hour, appointment, age of child labour, etc. In addition, this convention provides commitment to child security, compulsory primary education, etc. which indirectly will help eradicating child labour. Bangladesh has ratified this convention in 1990. Juvenile Delinquency Juvenile delinquency is a fearful social problem for every society. The existence of this problem in our society and all around the world persists in a significant rate. Juveniles become delinquent due to bad social environment and deprivation of fundamental rights; the juvenile gets associated with evil company, becomes victim of trafficking, and becomes the target of abuse in different forms.

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Children are the precious wealth of the nation. So, all required steps should be taken for their development and for giving them equal facilities. By this, they will be able to have physical and mental fitness, morally enriched, and also achieves abitilies to work for the society. Deprived children and underprivileged adolescents easily get involved with crime. They do not care anybody; they become associated with diligence, spirit, physical strength and power to sustain and also because of their daring attitude, they become associated with delinquency and in severe fighting. Juveniles of urban slums get more involved in delinquency because of poverty, deprivation from educational opportunity, irresponsible attitude and lack of control of their parents. Besides, adolescents also get engaged in such crimes due to loneliness in cities, aloofness from their parents due to remaining busy, intrusion of bad culture through internet and satellite chanels and many other reasons. Juvenile delinquency can be prevented by maintaining healthy family environment, providing religious and moral education in home and in school, taking activities for good entertainment, preventing bad culture, etc. Again, those who are already engaged in crimes, attempts can be taken to rectify their character and to bring them back into right path through the help of Juvenile court, Juvenile custody, Juveniles Correction Centre, etc. The Suppression of Juvenile Delinquency Act and its Trial System: The purpose of trial system for Juvenile delinquents is not to punish the delinquent juvenile; rather realising their misdeals, they should get opportunity for correction. Those who are Juvenile Delinquents: According to ‘The United Nations Convention on Child Rights’, all persons below 18 years of age are treated as children. Bangladesh has approved this convention in 1989. There are different laws in Bangladesh that define the word ‘Child’. According to the definition given in ‘Bangladesh Children Act, 1974,’ every person under 16 years of age is child. The Law on Juvenile Delinquency: ‘The Children Act, 1974’ in Bangladesh is considered the basic law for the trial of Juvenile Group work: Identify the delinquency. This Act directs to constitute a court for trial steps to bring a Juvenile of Juvenile delinquency, provide separate custody or lock delinquent in a right path. up for them and to take sufficient measure for their correction. Besides, this Act also directs to constitution a child court comprising of a magistrate of 1st class and other officers which will sit at least 2 to 3 time or more in each month. This act also says that custody for Juveniles should be different from the usual custody. Often, the adolescents are required to be detained for the investigation of the crime, judicial hearing and disposal. During this time, the investigating officer will observe the detained adolescent from different perspective and find out the reason of committing the crime by analysing the character of the adolescent. The investigating officers will submit report to the court according to their analysis, observation and judgment and also through the information provided by the parents of the victim. The adolescent in the custody is given scope to participate in different sports and activities for rectification. The Correction of the Adolescent: The law directs to take necessary measure for the correction of adolescents. According to the law, accused and convicted juveniles who need formal correction have to be sent to the correction centre.


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The Maternal Welfare The Right to achieve sound health is a human right. It is needed to ensure equality in getting service for all people between men and women for having good health, or ensuring service for entire people. While giving health care, it is very important to ensure maternal health. Maternal welfare means all organized efforts by society and social organizations so that maternal health can be well protected and ensured. To be specific, the most important sides of maternal welfare includes health service during maternity period, fulfilling the demands of required food and nutrition, safe service, The presence and nursing by trained midwife during the birth of child and stopping the death during maternity period, etc. From the perspective of human rights, death during maternity period is a serious blow to the right to the survival and to get health service. The overall maternal health situation is a great concern in Bangladesh. Everyday many pregnant mothers die due to pregnancy. The development or deterioration of maternal health situation can be realized by the rate of death reduction of the mother. One of the goals of National Health policy is to reduce the rate of maternal death, specially lessening the rate reasonably by the year 2021, the fiftieth anniversary of the independence of Bangladesh. For this reason, the government has taken satisfactory steps for the improvement of the health of mother and children and also to provide safe service during pregnancy as much as possible in every village. The Government of Bangladesh through a gazette notification on 11 January, 2011 declared maternity leave for 6 months for all females working in government service, which is effective from 9 January 2011. The increase of maternity leave will help the mothers to be able to breast feeding their infants that in the long run help eradicate the problem of malnutrition of infants. Section 15.3: HIV/AIDS The Concept of HIV The HIV is a special type of micro lentivirus. The full name of this virus is Human Immune Deficiency Virus, in short HIV which once entered into a human body, destroys gradually the immunity power of the body. HIV viruses remain dormant in the body for a long time, but usually this dormant period lasts for 6-7 months. This virus remains in different organs of the affected person, in the blood, semen, vaginal secretion, spit, tears, urine and breast milk. But, experts opine that the thickness of virus in tears, urine and spit is very less. That’s why through these organs there is no possibility of being infected. The Concept of AIDS The full name of the acronym AIDS is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Entering into human body, HIV destroys excessively the immunity level. The last stage of the HIV infection is called AIDS. As the immunity system of body reduces a lot, any other disease can easily attack the AIDS affected person. No effective immunization has yet been invented. For this reason, the obvious consequence of the AIDS affected person is untimely death.

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AIDS is not a communicable disease. There is no possibility of getting infected on AIDS by regular work with the AIDS affected person. Those who have HIV positive got ultimately affected by AIDS. A person is called HIV positive only when this virus is identified through blood examination in his/her body.


Individual work: Identify the causes of AIDS infection. Individual work: Why is not AIDS infectious? Show your arguments.

The Causes of AIDS The AIDS is such a destructive disease which enters into a human body through HIV infection. This disease occurs due to sexual intercourse between HIV infected male and female or transfusion of the blood of HIV carrier to another person. Besides, using a syringe, needle or other surgical instruments with HIV virus, without disinfecting them. Moreover, homosexuality, child birth from the infected mother or breast feeding by an affected mother, may spread this disease. Getting close contact with the blood of a healthy person with that of an infected person, for example, wound, burn, cut of both persons and by the tools used by the affected person and needle used for piercing ear and nose, if used without disinfection, may spread this disease. By the transplantation of the affected person’s cornea, heart, kidney, liver, etc. or cells may spread this diseases. A patient of this disease loses weight by 11% in two months, suffers from fever and diarrhoea all the time. The infected person suffers from coughing for continuously one month, gets respiratory infection and dry cough all the time. He also feels terrible pain at shoulder and armpit, suffers from fungal inflection at different body parts. He always has a feeling of depression. AIDS does not spread by the use of utensils, cup, glass, cloths, etc. of the affected person. It does not also spread by shaking hands, hugging, playing sports, studying and nursing the affected person. Situation of HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh and the World The first patient of HIV was identified in 1981 in this world. In Bangladesh, the HIV infection comes to light in 1989. According to the statistical report of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1995, the number of AIDS patient in Myanmar is 475, in Vietnam 228, in India 1036, in Malaysia 200, in Pakistan-46, in Phillipines-198, in Thailand 19095 and in Bangladesh 9 persons. But recently AIDS has spread extensively at places surrounding Bangladesh. The Ministry of Health presented a statistics about AIDS/STD (sexually transmitted disease) on 1 December, 2002 on world AIDS Day. It has said that in 2001, the number of carriers of HIV virus was 188 persons that increased into 248 persons in 2002. The latest situation of Bangladesh as per national AIDS and STD programmes 2010, the identified HIV affected persons were 2088 in number, AIDS affected persons were 850 of which 241 persons died. There are more than 3 crore young people from15 to 24 years who have no clear idea about HIV infection and prevention of AIDS. There are many reasons for spreading of AIDS or HIV in Bangladesh. The terrific spreading of this disease is already huge in the neighboring countries of Bangladesh. Everyday thousands of people of our country go to different other countries for business or for any other purposes. The number of sex workers is increasing in Bangladesh. By this time 6% sexworkers are infected by HIV virus and 52% are at risk to be infected. Besides, the numbers of professional blood donors have increased a lot. Among the blood donors, most are drug addicted person. The experts opine that lack of proper


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conception and awareness is the main cause of AID infection in our country. For example 99% of the transport workers and rickshaw pullers do not have any knowledge about AIDS, whereas they get engaged every day in various risky sexual contacts. Every year almost 80,000 people go abroad from Bangladesh. Some of them come back with carrying the virus of this disease. Besides, the numbers of drug addicted people who share same syringe to take drug have increased day by day. It is mentionable that the first patient infected by AIDS used to work in Dubai. The Impact of AIDS The HIV/AIDS infected person and his/her family have to suffer social torture. Almost all society of the world treats the affected persons with hatred. No cooperation or sympathy is shown to the affected persons rather they have a negative impression about them. As a result, they die mental death before their physical death. The AIDS infected person gradually loses all his Individual work: Give your own working capability which makes his/her family in arguments why in Bangladesh the a financially fragile position. Besides, by the HIV/AIDS is very risky. untimely death of the bread winner of the family, Group work: Identify the impact the whole family faces a sudden inconsistency and of the HIV/AIDS at personal, disaster. The mutual relation and trust between family, social and national level. husband and wife faces deterioration in many Individual work: Prepare a report cases due to these diseases. on the HIV/AIDS in the context of In most of the cases, the blood transfusion creates Bangladesh and world. risk in our country due to HIV/AIDS. Besides, the continuous development and services in the developing countries and the developed countries as well are on the face of threat. Due to AIDS, the rate of untimely death is increasing and the average lifespan decreases in the world. On the other hand, the economic development is facing obstruction. Besides, due to AIDS, the rate of reproduction is reducing, the health service is facing pressure, the productivity is reducing and the person, family, society and country are getting affected. The Ways to Prevent AIDS in Bangladesh There is no preventive vaccine for AIDS. Death is its only consequence. So to survive, we must resist it. The following measures must be taken to prevent AIDS: • • • • • • • • •

Following the religious rules and obeying the ideals set by the society for our character and attitude; Having trust on only one life partner/having sexual relation only with one sexual partner; The prior checking of HIV,before taking blood from any donor or source; Avoid using the needles, blade and syringe of others; Creating awareness amongst all people including adolescents; Using disinfected scissors and needles while piercing ear, nose or skin of boys; Taking steps with cautions while transplanting organ in our body; Taking special precautions while going abroad or non-residents; Engaging youth in mass awareness program to prevent AIDS.

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The Duties to be Done to the AIDS Patients The AIDS patients need essential treatment besides social and mental support. They must be taken to healthcare centres if they get fever, diarrhoea and pain. Arrangements for regular nutritious food and enough rest in needed. Mental and social support from the family and society is important for them too. We should always abide the policy, ‘Hate the disease not the patient’. Keeping friendly relation with them and cheering their minds through love and affection is necessary. The AIDS contaminated people should not be kept isolated from others. They should be kept carefully so that they do not get affected by other contagious diseases. The blood of the infected people should not be taken or physical relation with them should be avoided. Section 15.4: Road Accident The Situation of Road Accident The road Accident is a common phenomenon in almost every country in the world. But the situation is terrible in Bangladesh. This problem creates multifarious socio-economic obstructions in our social life which influences our psychological problem. The incident related to the roads and highways like the owner, driver, traffic police and the defects of roads and other incidents related to roads is known as Road Accident. The rate of road accident is growing uncontrolled with the increased number of roads and vehicles. The numbers of dead and wounded persons of road accident are also increasing. A statistics published by the Highway police of Bangladesh in 2001, is observed that the total number of road accident were 4091 and by the year 2002 it rose up to 4918. From the year 2002 to 2004, 50.58% of the total road accidents victims died, 38.10% got severe injury and 11.32% got light injury. Many of those severely injured died while taking treatment in hospital that is not included on the statistics. The real situation is even worse than the statistics. We will be able to know the severity of road accident from our daily newspaper. We can also know the reasons behind this problem, the impact of which is multifarious. The Causes of Road Accident The rate of expert drivers is not yet increased than the rate of vehicles in the cities of Bangladesh. Most of the accidents happen due to the inexpert and untrained drivers. Most of the drivers do not know the rules, regulations and laws for driving. For this reason they drive in extremely high speed. Sometimes drivers without license get appointment with fewer wages. Most of these drivers are young in age who drive recklessly and overtake in a dangerous condition. For this reason, road accident is also increasing everyday. Most of the truck drivers of our country overload their truck with goods. Again, in some cases, they carry passengers when get chances. The use of trucks in different activities like participating in the rally, procession and sports by the students sometimes also cause road accident. A big number of truck drivers are addicted and sometimes drive recklessly being drunk, resulting the road accident. Accidents also happen due to loading with passengers more than the seats capacity or even loading passengers at roof.


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Sometimes, less educated owners, in order to get more profit, handover their defective cars to drivers. Besides, cars of lightweight body are seen to be roaming in the highways. For this reason, road accident also increases. Most of us do not know the rules and Group work: Make a chart/table of the regulations of the uses of road. Accidents causes of road accidents based on happen as we do not know through which following heads. side of the road we should go, when to Driver Owner Road Others cross the road, etc. Sometimes indifferent person, children, old aged people, children with special need walk on the road without attention and this negligence and carelessness causes road accidents. Accidents also happen due to building shops, markets on the roads, drying up of paddy, jute, chilies and holding cattle’s on highways, playing mechanical and non-mechanical vehicles on the same road or walking of the pedestrians on roads. Another reason for accident is not using the zebra-crossing or foot over bridge while crossing the road. Talking to the driver while driving, engaging in competition while driving with others, no prior mechanical checking of the car, not using seatbelt, helmets, driving at midnight and negligence of law enforcing agencies in discharging their duties are also the causes of road accident. Some of the highways of our country have defective designs and badly construction. The negligence of road engineers and constructor and other adverse situation is responsible for this problem. Accidents also happen due to such defective roads and highways designing. The Impacts of Road Accident The impact of road accident on our family, social and economic life is severe which is also responsible for many problems. As per a statistical report of highway, 24% of road accident victims are below the age of 15 years and 39% are in between 16 to 50 years of age. Individual work: How can the According to the research report of the Centre road accidents of a child influence this family life? for Accident Research of Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology, most victims of Group work: A road accident road accidents are the capable person to earn. does not only devastate the family life but also make the socioBecause of the death or injury of the earning economic and mental life member of the family in road accident, the other miserable. Explain. dependant family members have to live a miserable life and face financial loss. The children of this family also face problem in getting education. Sometimes the victim of road accident becomes physically crippled and loses his/ her working capability, which makes his/her personal life imbalanced. Mental imbalances impact the personal life in many ways. In some cases, it may turn into suicide. Some of the victims also choose begging as a profession. Some may associate with criminal activities for their living. Someone even becomes addicted with drugs to reduce frustration. So a road accident not only devastates one’s family life but also make terrible his mental and socio-economic life.

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The large scale devastation, road blockage or other deterioration of law and order situation happens only because of road accident. Due to the disruption of communication at roads and highways, various sectors of economy face loss. The working hour of an employee gets waste. It also wastes raw materials due to delayed transportation of goods that indirectly causes price hike. We can get more information on this from the daily newspaper. The Ways to Keep Roads Accident Free and Steps to Reduce the Accident Making only new roads and highways or driving new vehicles did not make our road journey free or safe from accident. By taking the following steps, we will be able to keep our roads free from accident. •

Mobilize and encourage car drivers to follow traffic rules and drive cautiously by following regulations of signal, giving sides and speed;

Motivate the drivers not to drive recklessly or not to drive under influence of addiction, not to transport with overloaded vehicle with too many goods or people, not to overtake and to follow the laws and regulations of roads;

Taking steps to make a separate lane for heavy vehicle, constructing electrical signal at all points, establishing a modern and standard driving training Institute, making a safe road network by reconstruction of risky road, culverts, bridge, etc.;

Taking appropriate steps and awareness program for not carrying passengers and goods on the top roof of the vehicle, not to engage with any competition with other vehicles, before driving, prior checking of mechanical defects of the vehicles. etc.;

Awareness of the law enforcing agencies to perform their duties;

Encouraging the public media to play their role in making people aware of the problem;

Not constructing house, shops, markets, beside the highways or drying up of paddy, jute, etc. on the highways and keeping cattle on highways;

Making the relevant organization responsible while giving driving license or taking proper steps against fake license-holder;

Identify the alcohol drunken drivers, through blood examination and withdraw their license.

Individual work: Identify the steps to prevent accidents that may victimise young children. Individual work: Identify the steps that have taken in your locality to keep road safety.


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Things to Be Done for Our Safe Movements• Walking through the footpath, not crossing the road without looking left and right, not getting in or out while the vehicle is moving, no talking with the driver while he/she is driving, and crossing the road only through zebra-crossing, over bridge and underpass. • Familiarize the children with highways, access roads, semi-constructed road to prevent road accident. Besides, to introduce the children about zebra-crossing, bridge, traffic police, traffic signal, and dangerous places. • We should be careful about our younger brothers and sisters. It is our duties and responsibilities to assist the child with special needs and the older person who need special help while walking. It is our responsibility to be sympathetic to the victim’s family of road accident and offer them our full hearted cooperation. Section 15.5: Militancy The Concept of Militant and Militancy The English word militant comes from the Latin word Militare which means working as a soldier. From the perspective of behaviour, militant is the person who loves war, and is aggressive, hostile and destroyer. Militants work collectively by means of hostility or aggressiveness getting support from any established organisation which is not approved by the state or society. In order to fulfill their own objectives, they use any extreme and hostile method, so as to form any political concept. The militants not only participate in destruction but also engage in many activities like giving and collecting money, making plan, and executing them. The activities of the militants can be administered individually or in group. To fulfill their objectives, the militant want to establish their political or religious concept and philosophy made by their organization. To attain this, they use many techniques to propagate their concept like giving leaflets, posters and booklets. In many cases, murdering any person or doing any destructive work, they publicise their confessional statements. They administer their activities by using modern information technology like e-mail, facebook, twitters, etc. They always want to establish that their concept is right whether it is acceptable or not to the state and society. They do not want to abide the existing ideas, values, rules and regulations in the society. In many cases, they even use bombs, landmines, military weapons and modern deadly weapons. Sometimes, they also engage with destructive activities by hijacking aeroplane. To prepare these militants, secret military training is conducted for them. They have secret connections and communications all around the world. Any policy, contrary to the policy of the state or society is their policy. The concepts, ideas and activities formed and published by the militants are called militancy. The Causes of Militancy The craziness among the militants may be created through the spirit of the particular group to realize any political or religious rights and interests of any special community groups. The activities of the militants may happen to create anarchy in the country, even there may be any hidden political cause for creating such anarchy. A person may become a militant because of his misconception of life and world or because of his ignorance of

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proper religious knowledge. The militant activities may also be created due to matters related to the interest between different groups or intra-groups. The Impact of Militancy and Its Prevention The impact of militant activities is acute and serious on our life in the society and at the state level. Such activities of militancy may hinder the development activities of a country. Militant activities may create various adverse situations in our socio-economic, political and cultural life. The normal way of life becomes non-functional because of militancy. We all Individual work: Identify the know more or less about the criminal activities of the characteristic of the militants. militants in many countries of the world. The cause of Group work: Write down the destruction of the Twintower in the USA was due to preventive measures after militancy. This militant activity killed thousands of identifying the impacts of militancy in our life in social people and destroyed a huge amount of property. In our as well as in the state level. county, the militant murdered peace-loving people through bomb explosion at the programme of the Udichi Shilpi Goshti in Jessore and on the Pahela Baishak (Bangla New Year Celebration) at Ramna Batmul in Dhaka. Sometimes the militants happen to sacrifice their own lives while performing militant activities. The continuous militant activity in a county is a big threat to the easy flow of life of the common people. These militants are also a threat for their own families. In many cases, a massive destruction is caused of people, dwellings and neighbours by the explosion of the bombs kept by the militants. Basically, militants do not have any sound family life. They are considered as criminals in the eyes of state, society and family. Sometimes, their family and society cast hateful eyes over them. In the family, all the family members must be vigilant about their children’s behaviours, works and deeds. For the massive prevention of militancy, a forceful social movement is required. As a part of the social movement, the community should be mobilized properly to provide correct interpretation on any political or religious concept. For this placards, leaflets, posters can be used. Besides, the religious institutions may arrange discussion programme to make people aware about militancy. The militant can be brought to a normal life by giving special training to lead a sound family and social life. Section 15.6: The Corruption The Concept of Corruption The corruption is the activities done by the individual or group that stands against public interest or contrary to the established rules. For example, both the bribe and nepotism are corruption. The corruption in politics and the corruption in the government and nongovernment administration means to abuse the organisation to gain any personal interest. Generally by bribe, coercion, undue influence and giving any special advantage to an individual by abusing the power of the administration is called corruption. Any deliberate negligence to perform specific responsibility so as to get any illegal


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opportunity and advantage is also corruption. The corruption has connection with occupation, power, interest, cash, material, etc. Someone has to be suffered because of corruption. The nature and technique of this crime is different from other crimes and it requires more cunning ploy than physical work. The Causes of Corruption The causes of corruption in Bangladesh are many. Necessity knows no law runs a proverb. That is, there are many instances of corruption for the crisis of money. Some of the service holders want to earn additional money through corruption. In such cases, they take tips, commission, costs of refreshment, other materials, etc. in exchange of processing the files of the offices. Sometime they take bribe not by processing the files, but by locking the files in red tape in the head offices. Again, in most of the cases, the subordinates get the opportunities to take bribe for the files being stacked up on the table of the chief executive of the office. In fact, helding up the file is also a corruption. If the head office or branch is corrupted, it transmits to all other branches as well. Sometimes, the luxurious life of the officials and high ambitions to become the owner of more wealth in few days makes the officials corrupted. There is no similarity between their legal income and their life style. Corruption mixes with the thinking, spirit and value of their family members that subsequently transfer corruption in their life afterwards. Their family members also becomes corrupted, even service life as it starts with the help of a corrupted person. Sometimes too many demands of the family members of the serviceholders also force him/her to become corrupted. An adverse situation persists in our country; in one side the lack of opportunities in service sectors, and the huge unemployed youth in the other. In this situation, the young generation is bound to offer large scale bribes in the expectation of getting job. Besides, in our social system, it is seen that those who has much wealth, has got much social recognition. For this reason, with a view to achieving dignity and wealth, many people become corrupted to collect wealth and to be rich. In our political arena, lack of practicing the democratic values, the change of power in an undemocratic means and the extreme desire to hold the political power, etc. create a positive environment to spread corruption. These corrupted people do not have any humanitarian quality or any patriotism. The political instability sometimes makes our social life restless. This social instability again creates corruption. Corruption also

Individual work: Choose one office and highlight in what different ways corruption may happen there. Individual work: Identify an institution having an objective of prevention of corruption and highlight the corruption happen in it. Group work: Identify the impact of corruption in family life and write down the measures for prevention.

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increases due to business competition. Persons engaged with corruption, by counterfeiting or adulterating, try to make more profits, and this causes corruption in our society. The price level of essential products in Bangladesh is going upwards without any logic. At the same time inflation is also getting upwards. For such price hike and inflation, the businessman, wholesale dealers, middleman, traders, stock broker make their haven of corruption. They gain much profit by cheating and corruption. And due to this, the people with low income, just for their survival, start doing corruption. When the institutions formed to prevent corruption, fails to perform their jobs well or when its officials themselves have engaged in corruption, then corruption spreads all over the society in a massive level. Degradation of religious and moral values may also cause the increase corruption in the society. The Impacts of Corruption and Its Prevention The harmful impact of corruption in our social life is far reaching. One can be easily cheated by the other in a society where it is full of corruption. A corrupted person may also become the victim of corruption by another person. A corrupted society holds the senario of deprivation of justified rights. Qualified persons do not have any rightful place. If the nonqualified persons, through nepotism or bribe get appointment and promotion, the qualified persons become deprived from their rights. The social justice cannot be ensured because of corruption. Corruption creates frustration in people of the society. As a results, the development of talents hampers and gradually creativity losses. In a corrupted society, people lose respect for the law and order situation, rules and regulations of the society. It impedes the socio-economic development. Corruption creates a negative mentality among the officers of an office, and they become negligent of their duties and responsibilities. They also develop a mind of abusing the property. Corruption increases the rate of poverty. Honesty, ideals and values start declining. Above all, corruption is the main reason of the national disaster, an impediment to the development and prosperity of a county. It is necessary to create mass awareness and social movement against corruption to prevent it from the society. The Mass media as an effective tool for creating mass awareness. Mass awareness can be created by disseminating information about corruption through the public media. Ensuring accountability among all the levels of the society may eradicate corruption. It is possible to lift the veil of corruption from the people through proper auditing of income, expenditure, assets, wealth, etc. Corruption can be eradicated by organizing the people of the society for massive social movement to identify those corrupted persons, counterfeiters, frauds and cheats. Corruption can also be prevented by creating necessary job facilities, establishing law and order situation, taking programs for eradication of poverty, etc. Besides, by reviving family values and preventing degradation of the social values, corruption can be prevented in an effective way.


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Exercise Short questions:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is the cause of AIDS? How can anarchy be created in the society? Explain the concept of degradation of social values. How can a women and a child under trafficking become a victim of violence? Why is holding up of a client’s file by the high officials treated as a corruption?

Narrative questions: 1. ‘The falling apart of social institutions is the main cause of social disorder and anarchy.’ Explain this statement with example. 2. ‘The social anarchy and the degradation of values are interrelated concept’. Explain with example. 3. ‘Why is sexual harassment and fatwa a cruel and brutal violence to women’? Explain. 4. ‘Persons capable of earnings are more victim of road accident’. Explain the statement with arguments. 5. ‘Militants are the criminals in their family life, social life and at national life.’ Explain the statement with example. Multiple choice question: 1. Which of the followings is the highest punishment for a person convicted of human trafficking act- 2011? a. Fine of taka two lakh with rigorous imprisonment b. Fine of Taka five lakh with capital punishment c. Fine of taka five lakh with rigorous imprisonment d. Capital punishment or life time imprisonment 2. The main reason of a man to become violent due to his experience at childhood watching deprivation to a woman ─ a. Defective socialization b. Degradation of values c. Stubborn attitude d. Dominating mentality

Bangladesh and Global Studies


3. The cause of violence against woman in the society is─ i. The Poverty ii. The bad social custom iii. The social disorder Which one of the following is correct? a. i & ii b. i & iii c. ii & iii d.. i, ii & iii 4. Why does AIDS occur? a. For the contact with the tears of the affected patient b. For the attack of HIV virus c. For the use of utensils of the affected patient d. From the hugging of the affected patient Read the following passage and answer the question nos 5 and 6: Limon has grown up by experiencing the family clash, quarrels and fighting between his parents. He grew up alone after the divorce of his father and mother. He had also experienced the same attitude in his neighbours. The same incidents are happening after he got married. The family of Limon has gone to get assistance of a social worker in order to get rid of this problem. 5. What is the main cause of violent attitude of Limon towards his wife? a. Desire to get dowry b. Being grown up in extreme poverty c. Influence of the neighbours d. Experience of deprivation at childhood 6. The steps that can be taken by the social worker for the family of Limon is – i. Motivation to form a sound family ii. Awareness about the existing laws iii. Handing him over to the law enforcing agency


Bangladesh and Global Studies

Which one is correct? a. i & ii b. i & iii c. ii & iii d. i , ii & iii Creative questions: 1. Rimi’s father went to Singapore for service. While working there, he felt physically sick and came back to Bangladesh and died in two weeks. Her mother becomes sick after six months of the death of her father. Her treatment got started with the help of a development organization name Nirmal Hashi and after the diagnosis, the doctor has ascertained that she is suffering from AIDS. This matter has spread over in the locality. This family is now overcoming many problems. To prevent this problem, the organisation called Nirmal Hashi stands besides Rimi’s family. a. What is HIV identified b. Explain a way of spreading AIDS. c. How has the doctor been confirmed that Rimi’s mother is affected by AIDS? Explain d. Analyse the steps taken by the organization named Nirmal Hashi to tackle the problem of Rimi’s family. 2. According to the information of Roads and Highways Department in 1997 that almost 125 out of every 10,000 vehicles confront got road accident. The accident rate is the highest among other Asian countries and the rate is 100 times higher compared to Norway and Sweden. In Bangladesh every year 3412 children die in road accident. This problem causes injury to1200 children and they become crippled which means every day in an average 3.5 children become crippled. The report of Bangladesh Highway police has shown that from 2000-2004, 24% of the wounded persons of road accident were under the age of 15 years, 30% people were between 16-50 years of age. According to the statistics of the accident Centre of BUET, workable people between 20-44 years of age are becoming more victims of road accidents. a. How many road accidents happened in 2001 according to the report of Bangladesh Highway Police? b. Explain the causes of Road accidents with examples.

Bangladesh and Global Studies


c. Explain the economic and mental impact in our social life of the crippled and death of children and workable persons. d. Analyse the steps for prevention of road accident in the light of the information given above. The End

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