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Prescribed by the National Curriculum and Textbook Board as a Textbook for class Seven from the academic year 2013

Arts and Crafts For Class Seven

Written by Hashem khan Adeline Malakar A.S.M. Atiqul Islam Sanjib Das

Edited by Mustafa Monowar

Translated by Asaduzzaman Ziaul Abedin Rakhal

NATIONAL CURRICULUM AND TEXTBOOK BOARD


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Published by National Curriculum and Textbook Board 69-70, Motijheel Commercial Area, Dhaka [All rights reserved by the publisher]

Trial Edition First Edition: December, 2012

Co-ordinators Sujaul Abedeen Sudarshan Bachar

Cover & Illustration Hashem Khan Adeline Malakar A.S.M. Atiqul Islam Sanjib Das Sudarshan Bachar Sujaul Abedeen

Computer Compose Color Graphic

Design National Curriculum and Textbook Board For free distribution from academic year 2010 by the Government of Bangladesh Printed by :


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Preface Education is the pre-requisite for the holistic development in our national life. To cope with the challenges of the fast changing world and to lead Bangladesh to the doorstep of development and prosperity, a well educated and skilled population is needed. In order to build up a nation imbued with the spirit of the Language Movement and our Liberation War, the secondary education aims at flourishing the talents and prospects inherent in the learners. Besides, the other aims also include expansion and consolidation of the basic knowledge and skills of the learners acquired at the primary level in order to make them fit for entry into higher education. The aims of secondary education further emphasise on developing these learners as skilled and competent citizens of the country through the process of acquiring knowledge at the backdrop of socio-economic, cultural and environmental settings. Keeping the aims and objectives of national Education Policy 2010 ahead, the curriculum at the secondary level has been revised. In the revised curriculum the national aims, objectives and contemporary needs have been reflected. Along with these expected learning outcomes have been determined based on the learner’s age, merit and level of acquisition. Besides, efforts have been made to raise, starting from the level of moral and humanistic values down to awareness on history and tradition, the spirit of the Liberation War, passion for art-culture and literature, patriotism, feelings for nature and equal dignity to all irrespective of religions, caste, creed and sex. Efforts have also been made to apply science in all spheres of our life in order to build a nation advanced in science. Attempts are also there to make the learner capable of implementing the goals envisioned in Digital Bangladesh-2021. In the light of the present curriculum almost all the textbooks at the secondary level have been introduced. While introducing the textbooks, the capacity, aptitude and prior knowledge of the learners have been taken into utmost consideration. While selecting the contexts and their presentation special attention has been given on the expansion of the learner’s creative faculty. Adding learning outcomes at the beginning of each chapter, hints about the achievable knowledge of the learners have been given. By adding variety of activities, creative and other questions evaluation has also been made creative. Human being’s every sphere of living is encircled by work of art. In building a developed country and prosperous society doctor, engineer, agriculturalist, and politician play as much important a role as is versed in Fine Arts. Like education system of countries of developed world in developing countries Arts and Crafts has been given special respectable position. Special attention has been given on reflection of textbook’s syllabus and objectives of the lessons and to teach the subject accurately much emphasis has been given on practical education or hands on activity. I hope the objective is realized in the new curriculum and syllabus is reflected in the textbook (Arts and Crafts) of class Seven. Considering the challenges and commitments of 21st century and following the revised curriculum the textbook has been written. Therefore we welcome with our highest consideration any suggestions, both constructive and rationale as well for the further improvement of the book. Amidst huge activities needed for introducing a textbook, this one has been written within a very short span of time frame. We will continue our effort to make the next edition of this book more beautiful, decent and free from any types of errors. We appreciate the endeavours of those who assisted very sincerely with their merit and hard work in the process of writing, editing, translating, illustration, introducing sample questions and printing of the book. We hope the book will ensure joyful reading and achievement of expected skills from the learners.

Prof. Md. Mostafa Kamaluddin Chairman National Curriculum & Textbook Board, Dhaka.


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CONTENTS Chapter

Heading of the Chapter

Pages

One

The History of teaching Fine Arts in Bangladesh

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Two

Fine Arts is the language of all people of all ages

8-17

Three

The Folk Art and Handicrafts of Bangladesh

18-27

Four

Different medium of draw picture

28-31

Five

Various interesting Practices of drawing Pictures

32-40

Six

Different types of Crafts

41-60

Color and used color

61-68


Chapter One The History of Teaching: Fine Arts in Bangladesh

Faculty of Fine Arts, Dhaka University

At the end of the lesson we will• • •

be able to describe the brief history of teaching Fine Arts and Crafts in Bangladesh. be able to mention the names of pioneering artists of teaching Fine Arts in Bangladesh. be able to explain the necessity of learning Fine Arts in the society.


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Lesson: 1 Those who draw pictures are artists, the artists of music are called musicians, the actors and actresses are known as dramatic artists or cinema artists. Those who dance are known as dancers. Thus, every division of practicing culture and subjects has separate or particular identity. Drawing a picture Zainul Abedin

Every sphere of art and culture needs practice and exercise. Young or old - at any stage of life, Fine Arts can be practiced. However, in order to institutional practice, some easy and clear system and regulations are to be followed. For example, tune and rhythm are to be understood well for singing. From Saregama or soptosur to other tunes, rhythms etc are to be learnt through every day practice. That is called gola sadha ba rewaj kora (regular practice) by the musicians. Those who are famous in the area of music give much importance on rewaj following this rule all through their lives. In the field of fine arts, pictures are to be drawn every day. But, regarding music, the way saregama, tune and rhythm are to be learned from childhood – in case of drawing, general rules of drawing are not enforced that strictly. Rather, it is emphasized that the children should easily draw from their own reflecting their personal thought, dream and will on the paper with color and brush. Children should never be dictated in case of drawing pictures. The children and the young will draw pictures by themselves up to a particular time. As the children can draw pictures, they draw them in great interest. Generally from class six, it is good to draw pictures gradually by following rules and regulations- while the children will draw themselves up to class five. Learning following the rules and regulations is called institutional learning. Now we will know institutional learning about the Fine Arts and Crafts in Bangladesh.

Lesson: 2 Before establishing independent Bangladesh, the institute of learning fine arts has been built in Dhaka in 1948. A number of artists take the initiative. They completed their course at Art College in Kolkata. They are shlipacharya Zainul Abedin, Potua Quamrul Hasan, Khaja Shafiq Ahmed, Shafiuddin Ahmed, Anowarul Hoque and Shafiqul Amin. At the end of two hundred years of British rule in all India in 1947, India was divided into two independent states. Of them, one was named India and the other was Pakistan. Again, Pakistan had two parts- East Pakistan and West Pakistan.


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The artists had to face huge obstacles to establish Fine Art Institute in Dhaka, the capital of East Pakistan in 1948. In that time ‘draw pictures’ was not socially accepted. Nobody could imagine of artworks. Because, what will be done by drawing pictures? There Shipacharya Zainul Abedin was no condition of earning by Artist Quamrul Hassan drawing pictures in the country. There was no Government job. So, what will be done by drawing pictures? On the other hand, social prejudice and stubbornness was a great obstacle. So, the shlipacharya Zainul Abedin, Quamrul Hasan, Anowarul Hoque, Shafiuddin Ahmed proposed the government that after the division of countries, like many other things, the people of East Pakistan has the right to get the half of Kolkata Art College. Therefore, an Art College can be established in Dhaka very easily. Almost all the above mentioned artists were the teachers of Kolkata Art College and employees of previous British ruled Indian Government.

Lesson: 3 The then Pakistan Government refused the proposal of the artists very neglectfully. They showed the reason that Pakistan was the Islamic country. Pakistan needs such educational institutes through which the Islamic tradition is established everywhere. Art College cannot serve that purpose. The artists did not go back. They convinced the government that artists are needed to build up the new country beautifully and to make the life of people beautiful and elegant. They mentioned some examples at that time. They are1. The General people will have to be given health service and in order to recover them from different diseases – they can be made understand easily through drawing pictures. It is not easy to make them understand in writing books. Because the number of educated people in the country is very small. 2. In publicity of different topics of the government – artists are needed to make poster and leaflets for walking on roads, the rules of running buses and trucks etc.


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3. General mass can be easily made understood from how to cultivate easily, irrigation, being aware of insects to how to increase agricultural products by drawing pictures. 4. Artists are urgently needed for drawing maps, drawing pictures for books of schools and colleges, and for books of medicine and polytechnic institutes. 5. Industrialization will gradually be developed in recent new country. Various types of packets will have to be made to export the products in the market and abroad after production. The packets will need design and pictures. The advertisement will be made by drawing pictures. So, artists are very important for any country, people and for welfare. Therefore, the government should start to build up a college or institution for producing artists as soon as possible.

Lesson: 4 The artists thus showing different logic to the high officials of the then Pakistan government have upheld the view that the fine arts education should be established for the sake of the country. A number of educated people came forward praising this initiative of the artists. Scientist Dr. Kudrat E Khuda was then the chief of public education department of the East Pakistan (DPI). He also made the government understand that fine arts education is definitely needed. High government official Solimullah Fahmi, Abul Kashem and so on stood by the artists. They tried different ways to convince the government to change their attitude and realize the necessity of fine arts. At that time, journalist and cultural minded people too started to write on newspaper about paintings. They were - Dr. Sarwar Murshid, Borhan Uddin Khan Jahangir, Munir Chowdhury, Showkat Osman, Ajit Guh, Sikander Abu Zafor Ohidul Hoque and so on. Because of writing and discussion, the government gradually became flexible though some people started to make adverse comment from religious point of view about the government and culture loving people. They gave fotwa that it is sinful and non-Islamic to draw pictures in Islamic country. But within 4/5 years of its inception the artists kept proving that religious opposition is baseless. These are the mental fabrication of some people. Fine arts learning and practice are very important for the welfare of men, prosperity and different works of the country.


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Lesson: 5 After a long effort, at last an educational institution has been established for painting in Dhaka, in the capital of the then East Pakistan. The date 30 was September 1948. First an institution has been started in two rooms of National Medical College at Nobabpur. It was named the Government Art Institute. 12 students got admitted in the first year. Artist Zainul Abedin was appointed as the principal. Other teachers were Anowarul Hoque, Khaja Shafiq Ahmed, quamrul Hasan, Syed Ali Ahsan and Shafiqul Amin. They all studied at Kolkata Art College. Zainul Abedin, Anowarul Hoque and Shafiuddin Ahmed were appointed as teachers at Kolkata Art College also. At the division of this country in 1947, they came back to Dhaka. Then, after one year’s of struggle, they established a same Fine Art College of Kolkata in Dhaka. Artist Mohammad Kibria, joined as teacher after two years. He also studied at Kolkata Art College.

Lesson: 6 The pioneering artists of Fine Arts The introduction of learning arts begins in Bangladesh, which is in East Pakistan in 1948. We shall call them pioneers those who led this movement that is the movement of learning art. Because, we can now draw pictures as they showed us the way. We are studying this subject. A significant number of artists contributed much to the expansion of learning art studying from this institution. Two of the twelve artists from the first batch established their fame as artist. One is Aminul Islam and the other is artist Syed Shafikul Hossen. Most of them of the remaining ten artists took painting as profession and contributed to making the society understand the necessity of artists. Aminul Islam could advance the practice of art in Bangladesh. He has a great contribution to the gradual development and establishment of the fine arts for a long time in Bangladesh. Both Aminul Islam and Syed Shafikul Hossen also worked as the principal of Fine Arts Institute.

Lesson: 7 & 8 Shlipacharya Zainul Abedin and the other founder artists did not give up only establishing the Fine Art Institute. They also paid their attention to the painters so that they could use the paintings in different ways in case of necessity of the society. The teachers and students were jointly trying to mould public opinion about creating honorable posts for the painters in different institutions of the government, necessity of painters in different institutions etc. That effort was a cultural


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movement. The work was not easy at all. It took ten to twelve years to convince the state and the society that art is important like other professions to build up a beautiful society and a beautiful country. As engineers, doctors, teachers, administrators, architects, actors, musicians are needed for a developed society; the artists can greatly contribute to building up beautiful society. So, it is easy to say that shlipacharya Zainul Abedin gave a powerful leadership to establish the fine arts of Bangladesh in due respect. Artist Anowarul Hoque, artist Shafiuddin Ahmed, Pouta Quamrul Hasan, Khaja Shafiq Ahmed, Shafiqul Amin, artist Mohammad Kibria equally struggled with him. Those who came for learning art for first 12 years also worked with their teachers with equal devotion. As a result, a characteristics and form of self perception of art of Bangladesh have been established which reached the practice of fine arts of Bangladesh to the international standard. Those who had remarkable contribution among them were Quyyum Chowdhury, Rashid Chowdhury, Murtaza Bashir, Abdur Razzak, Abdul Baset, Hamidur Rahman, Syed Jahangir, Samorjit Roy Chowdhury, Hashem Khan, Rafiqunabi, Nitun Kundu, Devdas Chatterjee, Abu Taher, Mahmudul Hoque, Monirul Islam, Abul Barok Alvi and so on.

Sample Question Give tick mark (√ ) at the correct sentence 1. 2. 3. 4.

Those who draw pictures are - dramatic artists/ painters/ dancers. Those who perform in drama and cinema are – potters/actors/ painters Those who can sing wonderfully are – actors/ musicians/actors of drama At first to teach the children drawing – they are to teach the rules and regulations very well/ let them draw pictures at their sweet will. 5. Generally – it is good for the children to draw pictures following rules and regulations gradually from class six/ they will draw pictures learning rules and regulations from class one. 6. The ancient men used to - draw pictures on canvas/ draw pictures on the walls of caves/ draw pictures on papers. 7. The ancient men used to - collect their color and brush for painting from shops in the town/ make them sharpening soil, fat of animals and stones by themselves.


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8. Till fifteen – sixteen century the artists- used to learn drawing picture going to famous art colleges/ learn from the masters going to help the masters or teachers in the work of drawing pictures. 9. The Pakistan government called the artists – after establishing Art College by themselves/ started the institution for learning art because of the demand of artist Zainul Abedin, quamrul Hasan, Shafiuddin Ahmed, Anowarul Hoque, Shafiqul Amin, and so on. 10. The name of the first institution for learning art was – Government Art College, Government Art Institute. 11. The Government Art Institute started its journey on – 14 August 1947/ 30 September 1948/ 22 August 1948 12. The own institute of learning art – the classes of the Government Art Institute began at the present Fine Art Institute of Dhaka University/ began only in two rooms of the National Medical College at Nababpur. 13. To build up developed society like the engineers, doctors and scientists- the artists have role/ the artists draw pictures for themselves and for their display.

Answers in a few sentence 1. How to draw pictures in childhood and during reading at school? 2. In which year and when and where was educational institution of Fine Arts and Crafts established in present Bangladesh or East Pakistan? What was the name of the institution? 3. Through which examples did the artists make the government realize to establish the Government Art Institute? 4. How many students took admission in the first year? Write about them. 5. Who are the artists to contribute in flourishing culture and learning arts in first twelve years by studying art?


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Chapter Two Fine Arts and crafts is the language of all people of all ages

To make understand the famous artist Zainal Abedin drew the things that he wanted to eat on a piece of paper. By drawing he explains weather to eat boiled or fried. By drawing he also said he won’t drink wine.

At the end of this chapter we will learn• Before civilization people used picture to express their feelings. •

By using art or picture we will be able to have communication with the rest of the world.

Will be able to describe the famous artist and their artworks.


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Lesson: 1 Starting from the primitive time from the cave age man has conquered the world by in different ways. Today man has reached a place starting from nowhere. Man cannot live by depending only in nature. The main obstacle is the relationship between human beings. For survival and for food men had to overcome the catastrophe of nature and had to live in panic for the attack of the Altamira brutal and ferocious animals. To be free, they used to believe in magic, drew different types of pictures on the mountains walls and faced those obstacles by uniting themselves. But why people draw pictures. We will now know the mystery of those. It was the year 1879. In the southern part of Spain, a landlord named by Soutula lived. His regions were large. There were many mountains. In this place he discovered a cave. He started digging the cave by thinking that there he might find something valuable. Thought there might be the skeletons of primitive people and weapons made of stone. As usual he started to look out. His five year old daughter was with him. Of course she did not know anything about. For a short visit she came out by holding her father’s hand. Entering the cave, the father by bending and started to look for skeletons and weapons. But the little girl did not like the matter. Taking a candle in her hand she started move around. Moving around at a point suddenly her eyes was stuck at a place. Instantly she started shouting father, Bull! Bull! Hearing the shout father came running, thinking if a real bull is in the cave. No! Not a real bull. But like a bull. It’s a picture of bull. The discovery of the little became known to all. Famous scholars started to visit the Altamira cave. After that for the next sixteen years the scholars engaged themselves about the picture of bull. They debated and also researched. The first discovered picture, drawn by the primitive people was twenty thousand years old. Its existence was found in the mountain caves of Spain’s Altamira, France’s Lamu and Lasko. The art of drawing was learned because of survival and living. They expressed their feelings by signs and gestures. At that time in 1895 a new cave was discovered in Spain. Many different types of drawing and art were discovered on the walls of that cave. Who drew those pictures? Obviously those people of primitive age. Those primitive people first started to express their thought by using pictures as medium.


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Lesson: 2 Many carving in the caves by primitive people were found from the countries France, Spain and South Africa etc. After much calculation the scholars found that some of the pictures were probably 10,000 to 30,000 B.C old.

From this article we have learned that people chose picture as the first medium to express their feelings. In today’s world there are many different countries, and these different countries there are different type of people and again their language is also different. It is not possible for one person to learn all those languages. But if pictures are drawn according to the nature, environment, lifestyle of a country, one can easily grasp information about that country. Imagine that because of a festival in our country, children from China, Japan and many other countries gathered together. It is possible to exchange greetings with one another. But we will not be able to tell about our country, environment, etc because of our lacking in language. If we draw pictures related to our country’s culture, life style, environment and nature then by the description of those pictures, every country almost whole feature could be reflected which will tell about the lifestyle, culture and tradition and grow bilateral good relation among the countries. That is why by only the language of picture or art and craft we can easily understand the culture and natural environment of any people of any nation in this world. Task: In ten sentences write about, “Art is an international language”.


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Lesson 3

World famous artists and their art works From the primitive time till today hundreds of pictures were drawn by hundreds of people. As the names of the artists of cave drawings remain unknown to us. So is about many paintings drawn by artist from many countries in later time. Some of them became world famous through their artwork. Many great artists by their creation in the field of art have taken the place in the history art and craft. Among them some of the special personalities are, Rabindranath Tagore, Gogonendranath Tagore, Abnindranath Tagore, Jamini Roy, Nandalal Bose and others. Like that, similar artist of our country are, shilpacharya Zainul Abedin, Quamrul Hasan, S.M.Sultan, Anowarul Haque. After them some of the famous sculptors who continued to uphold the works are Kibria, Qayyum Chowdhury, Aminul Islam, Hamidur Rahman, Murtoza Bashir, Mustafa Monowar, Bashir Chowdhury, Abdur Razzak, Abdul Baset, Debdash Chatterjee, Nitun Kundu, Hashem Khan, Rafiqunnabi, Monirul Islam. Some of the artists’ biography and their work, who became famous in the world for art and sculptor, will be discussed now.

Lesson 4

Leonardo Da Vinci Leonardo Da Vinci was born in 1452 B.C. in a small village named Anchiaro , 60 miles away from Florence of Italy in a small town called Vilti. His father Pioro V was a respectable wealthy person. His mother’s name was Catherine. This child was good looking and physically healthy. His father Peiro tried his best for a bright future for his son. Leonardo Da Vinci grew up in great wealth and prosperity. Leonardo Da Vinci was born at a time when Italy was going through Renaissance. At that time a new era of revolution had started in Europe.


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He had great liking about horse riding, music, Painting, Medical Science, and Architecture. He used to have many experiments on paintings. He designed a layout of an airplane by observing the birds flying in the sky. He also dissected and experiment human dead bodies to acquire the correct structure of human body. Besides, fine art, his research of other things, helped science to discover and invent many things later on. He has uncountable paintings on different subjects. He has done research on different topics of Science. Later on from his ideas and thinking airplane, land transport and sea ships were invented that are the wonders of modern world.

Leonardo Da Vinci

Among his works, the Lisa still remains the world famous and most parodied portrait. The painting is now the property of Louver Museum. Its length is 3 feet, breadth 2 feet. This 25 year old lady was the wife of a man named, Fransischo Del Jukunda of Italy. The smile on her face till today is a mystery to us. Besides other famous paintings, are Adoration of the Rocks, Madonna, Children and Saint Annie. At the age of 67 this great artist died on 2 May in 1519 B.C.

Monalisa

Task: Was Leonardo Da Vinci only an artist? What are some of his other introductions? Explain in six sentences.


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Lesson 4

Michelangelo (1475-1554) Michelangelo was born on 6 March, 1475 B.C. in a small town called Caprese, near Florence in Italy. Michelangelo was considered the greatest living artist in his lifetime, and ever since then he has been held to be one of the greatest artists of all time. Realizing his interest in Art, Sculpture, Architecture, and Humanities, his father admitted him to Domenico Ghirlandaio to take art lessons at the age of 13. Here he took lesson for only 3 years. Before coming to Ghirlandaio he was already skilful in sculpture carving. Here he took lesson on painting, architecture and sculptor. He could beautifully draw painting, create sculpture and could produce accurate beauty and glamour to the stone carved statues. He could not lead his life as lavish Michel Angelo like Leonardo Da Vinci. By hard working he earned wealth, education, experience, and fame. He had to suffer many ups and downs in his artist life that caused sorrow till the end. In his later years he was not happy. But still he had great trust and confidence in his work. Like Leonardo, he also dissected human bodies to observe the growth of muscles and the diaphragm in the inner part. Looking at his paintings or sculptures one can easily notice his experience and knowledge about human structure. Every organs of human were neatly and clearly exposed in his paintings. Michelangelo liked sculpture work more than painting and he became famous for carving sculptors. Statues were made of metal and PROSTO. Pieta sculpture is one of best and extraordinary creation in the world. This statue is the property of Saint Peters Church in Rome now. The statue David is in the Florence Academy. Bond Pave is in the Louvre Museum. He was not only good at creating sculpture but also at paintings. People still see in wonder at the painting created by Michelangelo La Picta that is at the ceiling in Sistine Chapel, in the Vatican City. That is, in his sculpture he exposed the human structure beautifully. By his pattern of work he changed all the earlier ideas and theories. His technique of art created a new wonder. He is the first person to create


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beauty and glamour equally to the youth in his created painting and sculpture of prophet and great men. This type of artistic work was splendor and contain glamour and lively. The painting containing life giving to Adam is drawn at the ceiling of Rome's Sistine Chapel. That shows his creation of wonder with sympathy. The fresco of The Last Judgment on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel was a wonderful creation. . The work is massive and spans the entire wall behind the altar of the Sistine Chapel were more influential than others and have inspired and encouraged the future artists about their work. Michelangelo was a bachelor throughout his life. He used to lead life like hermits. Though he was having irritating behavior in his later years, people still respected him for his talent. In the year 1564 B.C. in the month of February, while completing the last phase of work on the feet of the famous Pieta, fell ill. On 17th he was strongly advised by the doctor to take rest. At that time he thought of writing a will in full conscious. On that will he wrote, “My soul is for God and my body is for the world. At the age of 89 Michelangelo took his last breadth at 5 O’clock.

Lesson: 5 (1483-1520)

Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino Better known simply as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form and ease of composition and for its visual achievement of the In 1483 BC, Raphael was born at a mountainous city, Urbino on a Good Friday at 9 p.m. His father Giovanni Da Sanchez was also a painter and culture related person. Raphael first started learning painting from his father and at the age of 10, he was allowed to brush and paint over his father’s paintings. His father Giovanni sent him to Perugino, a famous painter of that time at the age of 16. Only within 3 Raphael Sanzio years his name became known in the culture society because of his eagerness and sincerely about painting. His major discovery was to display the layout of the subject of painting correctly. Only in his painting this type of discipline was seen. In no other painting this could be seen.


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Raphael was an extremely handsome male. His behavior was also, gentle, polite, decent, and was helpful to others. Anyone who came in touch with him used to become happy. In his youth he got both, becoming famous and obtaining wealth. But fame or wealth could not influence his character. Raphael and Leonardo, both artists were very curious type of. One used to do research in discovering the mysterious of the world while Raphael was careful in finding the truth.

The Madonna

At the time of renaissance Leonardo, Michel Angelo and Raphael, these 3 great artists used to paint by using the scientific theory. A near dimension was created by using the light and shadow and by obtained research.

Among his famous painting the painting tilted Madonna, published at the left side is a wonderful creation of beauty. About Raphael hermit life, there is a good story, when Raphael was very famous in Rome; his opponents hired a killer to assassinate him and at that time, keeping the door open he was creating the sculpture of mother statue. After seeing the painting both killers forgot their mission. According to his usual gentle and polite behavior he tried to explain the painting to them. Influence by his behavior, the killer’s admitted their crime and asked for forgiveness, and then left. Only at the age of 37 this great artist, who was born on a Good Friday died. Task: Make 10 sentences about Raphael behavior and nature.


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Model Questions Multiple-choice questions 1. Leonardo Da Vinci was born in a. In the year 1452 b. In the year 1442 c. In the year 1550 d. In the year 1480 2. Which artist was equally good at fine arts and sculpture a. Leonardo Da Vinci b. Raphael c. Michelangelo d. Paul Shezan 3. Who drew the painting Madonna? a. Vangog b. Raphael c. Matis d. Michelangelo 4. The first picture drawn by primitive people was discovered ---probably a. Probably 10 thousand years ago b. 20 thousand years ago c. 30 thousand years ago d. 40 thousand years ago 5. The cave Al Tamira— a. In France b. In Spain c. In Germany d. In Japan


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Below the names of the artists and their work is given. Write them according to the artists’ works. Leonardo Da Vinci, Statue of Pieta, Child and Saint Annie, Raphael, Michelangelo, Madonna.

Creative Questions In the summer vacation, Samia and Sifat along their mother and father went to visit their aunty who lives in Japan. The natural environment of Japan made great impression on them. Soon they became friends with “SU”, a boy of same age, who was a neighbor of their aunt. 1. Where did Samira and Sifat go for a visit? 2. What did they find new there? 3. Explain how they will get to know about Japan nature and environment as they do not know the Japanese language. 4. “Fine Art and craft is the language of all people of all ages” …describe


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Chapter Three

The Folk Art and Handicrafts of Bangladesh Our Folk Art and handicrafts are intensely related to the people of Bangladesh, nature and their living. We learnt about the folk-arts and handicrafts in detail in class six. In this chapter, we will learn about some main folk-arts and handicrafts, and we will get an idea about the use of folk-arts and handicrafts in different aspects of our livings.

The pictures of the Folk Art and handicrafts of Bangladesh

After the completion of this chapter, we will be able to•

Describe some main Folk Art of Bangladesh.

Describe some main handicrafts of Bangladesh.

Describe the fields of use of Folk Art and handicrafts.

Describe the role of Folk Art and handicrafts in our daily life.

Make a poster in our own school giving the chart of Folk Art and handicrafts.


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Lesson: 1

Some main folk-arts of Bangladesh The area of the folk-arts of Bangladesh is very wide. The multifarious world of the folk-arts of Bangladesh is made with alpana, designed cake, designed frame, designed fan, cold carpet, embroidered kantha designed shika, folk-painting, toys, dolls, work of shola, fence of bamboo and reed, folk-ornaments, folk-musical instruments etc. Different folk-paintings are made in various religious rites and celebration in the village areas of Bangladesh. Mohorrom related paintings, pot-painting, ghotpainting, sora painting, wall painting; musk painting, piri painting etc. are among them. These folk paintings are the part of our folk-arts. Let us know about some of the main diverse Folk Art in brief.

Alpona Alpana is one of the main folk-arts of Bangladesh. Alpana is drawn in many celebrations of Bangali. Now we can see the use of Alpana in the celebration of New Year, birthday, turmeric paste in marriage ceremony and on the premises of Shahid Minar and roads on 21st February. Besides we use Alpana to increase the beauty and pompousness of different ceremonies and celebrations. Drawing Alpana in any auspicious occasions is an integral part of our Bangali culture and ancient customs. It was mainly derived from the belief of religion and magic of the ancient Bengali life. Alpana was being drawn in different kinds of puja and religious functions. For example- circle shaped Alpana is used as the seat or pedestal of goddess at Laxmipuja. One of the frequently used motifs of Alpana is Kongki. Kongki is here the symbol of the treasury of Laxmi filled with rice. The family will be enriched if they perform puja of goddess Laxmi drawing Alpana with this sign or symbol. The granary will be fulfilled with rice. Such Alpana was drawn from this belief. On the other hand, religious rites were performed to fulfill the hope what we desire in our family and social life. The different motifs used in the religious Alpona were every single sign of the desire of mind. Afterwards, Alpona becomes the part of auspicious functions of all religions – caste of Bengali surpassing the circle of religious celebrations. Now Alpona is drawn using different folk motifs, for example- flower, Alpona


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leaf, fish, bird etc. and various geometric as well as natural shapes. Alpona is drawn in pieces of cloth in it making pithali mixing powder of rice. There was an ancient custom of drawing Alpona with finger spreading powder of rice. Variations of colour were brought with powder of pulse, burnt husk of rice, dust of brick etc. Some traditional and fixed shapes and size were considered a special phase of Alpona. This fixed shape and size or design is called motif. But in modern times, changes have been brought in its forms and motifs with the expansion of fields in using Alpona. Diversity has been brought in the Laxmi Sora use of colour. Now Alpona is drawn with paintbrush mixing aika gum with plastic colour and oxide of different colours.

Sorachitra Different types of sketched sora belong to Folk Art. The name of cover of pot is Sora. Sora also used in the kitchen. But, not painted this way. But this type of Sorachitra is sketched as the component of marriage ceremony of Hindu community. Generally lotus, butterfly and related different paintings are sketched on Sora. But Laxmisora is the most remarkable example of Sorachitra. Laxmisora is the main element of Laxmipuja. It is kept in house for decoration after puja. In Laxmisora the portrait of Laxmi is portrayed with goddess Durga. The portrait of owl, the carrier of goddess Laxmi is also potrayed. These portraits are drawn with different bright colors in accordance with folk tradition. At present, the Sorachitra is not confined to religious matters only. Now the Sora is sketched with various folk matters and designs. These soras are used in decoration of different functions and adornment of houses as well. So, these sorachitra is a part of our folk-culture.

Lesson: 2

Pot or Potchitra Pot is one of the examples of Bengal Folk Art. Pots are sketched based on different social and religious functions. The word pot has been derived from potto or cloth. Two types of pots were drawn- wrapped and square pot. And the artist of this are known as “Potua�. Wrapped pots are much long and tall. Many pieces of pictures are decorated vertically one after another on a pot. These pictures are symbolic to some folk tales or religious tales. Pots are drawn on many subjects such as- the life of Buddha, the story of jatok, the love affair of Krisna, Ramayan, Behula, myth of Lakhindar, story of Mohorrom, Sonai-Madhob etc. Afterwards, pots were drawn on the life story folk peer Gazi, Kalu Gazi-Champaboti. These are famous as pot of Gazi.


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These pots were wrapped fixing two sticks at two ends. Paintings were drawn on paper fixed on cloths. Besides, paintings were drawn with sticky color on cloths. Some people in the villages narrate the tales of pot in tunes while roaming with them. Boys to old including girls listen to the tales of pot and derive pleasure. Square pots are drawn on small sized paper. Pot of Gazi These are usually 1 foot long and 6 to 8 inches wide. Of these, the pot of Kalighat was famous. The variety and standard of art of the pot of Kalighat was outstanding. Lives of good as well as bad sides of the people of different classes and professions of the society, social customs–good and bad, and different functions were sketched on them. The Potuas used to sketch a kind of pot named eye donation pot for the dead person in order to get his place in heaven. Eyes were drawn on them in exchange of proper remuneration from relatives after drawing pictures of dead person without eyes so that he can see the path of heaven.

Lesson: 3

Embroidered Quilt Embroidered quilt is one of the most attractive precedence of Bangladesh. Quilt is sewed with a few pieces of cloth together to put on in winter. Some of the quilts are made with threads of different colors, on different designs. Quilt sewed with many designs is embroidered one. Workings day after day during leisure time, the village girls make appear colorful picture and design on quilt by needle and threads. In these pictures, there are many stories, many tales. Village bride makes appear the stories of sorrow and happiness of her own life in the picture with thread and needle. A single quilt sometimes needs one year, even more than two years in some cases. Artistic excellence of some quilt is

Nokshikhata


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surprising. The designs on the quilts are- flower, leaf, trees, lotus, moon, stars, bird, fish, different animals, even houses etc. Again, shapes like line, circle, round shaped house, trigonometric house are used again and again on quilt. Frequent uses of the same shape or design is called motif. Embroidered quilts are classified into different types according to their uses. For exampleSujonipere, lepkantha, chador kantha, jaynamaj, ason kantha, palki kantha, rumal kantha etc. There are two main streams or styles of the quilt of Bangladesh. One of them is Jessore style and the other is Rajshahi style. Besides, Chittagong, Khulna, Faridpur etc. regions have remarkable styles. The embroidered quilt of Jessore holds the highest position in Bangladesh. The sewing of the quilt of this region is very sophisticated and refined. These quilts are never sold in village fair. These quilts are made for themselves. But embroidered quilts are made at the order by others in exchange of remuneration. Nowadays, these embroidered quilts are seen to be sold in handicrafts shops in cities. Even, these conventional articles are sold in the international markets.

Terracotta Plate of burnt clay is ancient traditional and very famous folk art of Bangladesh. These plates were used in different buildings and architectures in the middle age, especially on the wall of temples, mosques etc. The designed plate or terracotta is such a relief work which remains high on the floor or ground of the plate size soil. First, the plates are made with mud and burnt to make it. So, they are called plates of burnt soil. The most Terracotta ancient designed plates were found in Mahasthangar that is in ancient Pundra city of Bangladesh in archeological diggings. The subject-matter of the designed plates of Mahastangar and Dinajpur is men-women and gods-goddesses. On the other hand, pictures of the then society and nature are found on the plates of Paharpur and Moynamoti of Comolla. The subject-matter of Bagha mosque or Adina mosque of Tangail is flower, leaves and geometric design. But at present terracotta is made with different modern subjects and shapes. Now a lot of terracotta is used in the interior design of offices and houses and to increase exterior beauties of buildings.


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Lesson: 4

Some main crafts of Bangladesh

Rickshaw

There are different daily useable things of Bangladesh on which cutting scratch mark, engraving, sometimes attaching leaf, flower, bird, pictures of different animals etc. are drawn to adopt beauty on them. They arechopper, axe, khonta, sickle, janti, blade of plough, pot, pitcher, motka, many things made of copper, brass and boat, rickshaw, cot, door etc. We call these useable materials with crafts – crafts. We use many types of crafts in our country. We will learn here about some remarkable handicrafts among them.

Rickshaw Rickshaw has earned fame at home and abroad as a beautiful craft of Bangladesh. A rickshaw with three whiles is an art work in appearance and shape. Nevertheless, rickshaws are decorated beautifully with bamboo, flower with plastic and cloth, sewing with the design of birds. Sometimes two flower vases are set at two edges of its handle with flower. Again, colorful rattles are hung around the hood. These create rhythmic sound while rickshaw plies. Beautiful pictures are set at the back of each rickshaw. With all these, rickshaw is an attractive craft.

Boat Boat is a much known transport in riverine Bangladesh. It is not only a dependable and mostly used water way vehicle but also a bright example of our handicrafts. A boat has artistic excellence in appearance and shape along with much art craft made engraving on boat. Boats are known in separate Many kinds of boat names according to their appearance. For example- Goyna, Pansi, bojra, kosha, sarongo, sampan, dwip,


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fishing boat etc. In the past there were boats named Moyurponkhi, Tiathoti etc. front and the shape of other parts of the boat imitating peacock, parrot etc. Boats are decorated placing two eyes of brass on front, sheets of brass and aluminum etc.

Lesson: 5

Fence of wood and cot Fence made of wood and cot is very ancient handicraft of Bangladesh. Beautiful art craft was made on the fence of wood and face of lion, elephant, and lotus etc. motif were used on that. Fence of wood was once a popular art in the region of Faridpur. There is creeper and herbs at the two sides of the door of the arch and in between there are two lions. It seems that this custom was derived from the tradition of lion’s door. Like the fence of wood, cot of wood is a traditional handicraft of Bangladesh. Different types of cots adorned with art craft are used in the houses of this country from ancient time. In the past the legs of the cot were made like the claw of tigers and lions. Sometimes, they were engraved like fairy. Two legs of the cots kept at national museum, stands of mosquito nets are held by the fairies. Besides, there are adornment of creepers and herbs. In the villages the wood at the head of the cot is usually adorned with a pair of peacocks.

Adorned door made of wood Wooden door with art crafts has enriched our handicrafts from ancient time. Doors were adorned engraving the face of lion, elephant etc. animals besides the design of flower- creepers-herbs. Huge door with art crafts of the gorgeous building would double the beauty of the building. Still the delicate Bengalis show their taste by using the door with art crafts in their house. Among innumerable handicrafts of Bangladesh, a few have been discussed above. We can know more about them if we become conscious about the dispersed folk art and crafts around us. One folk art and craft has earned fame in one area of Bangladesh for its artistic quality, skilled work and beauty. When you get any craft at your hand, you will know about them with information.

Lesson: 6

Fields of use of Folk Art and Crafts of Bangladesh The folk art and crafts have noticeable use in different fields in our daily life. These arts are inseparably mixed with our lives from age to age. The use of folk art and crafts in different fields has been mentioned below.


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Use of Folk Art in different fields of livings Different types of colorful toys made of soil, wood and cloth have possessed noticeable place among the folk arts of Bangladesh. These are very popular as toys for children along with their standard of art. Especially the village children spend their colorful childhood period with these mind blowing toys. Again the reticulate bag, floor mat, table mat etc. made from jute have pragmatic suitability. These are used in every house of villages. Embroidered quilt is the most remarkable and mostly used element of folk-arts. This attractive art is used equally both in towns and villages for its artistic quality and standard. This quilt is used in every home in winter. Even it has popularity and demand above the country. On the other hand, Laxmisora is the main component of Laxmipuja of Hindus. Likewise, Alpana, wall paintings etc. have become the part of functions and celebrations of Bengali. Alpana and wall paintings are widely used in different functions including New Year celebration, puja, wedding, birthday, turmeric paste in marriages, martyred day etc. These make the ceremony pompous and colorful. Designed cake is a very popular food in the villages of Bangladesh. Relatives and friends are entertained with these cakes in winter. These designed cakes are beautiful not only to see but also to eat. No function, ceremony and marriage would take place without these cakes. Still these cakes are favorite food in marriages and social functions. On the other hand, the use of designed fans during summer is found in towns along with villages. In the middle age terracotta or the designed plate of burnt clay were set in different structures and on the wall of religious organizations to increase the beauty of the buildings. At present a lot of terracotta is done with modern subjects and nature. The delicate use of this terracotta has been increasing day by day in different organizations and residences. So, we can say that folk-art is not only a medium of art rather it is used in different fields of our daily life. Folk Art play extensive role to make our life beautiful and rich.

Use of handicrafts in different fields of livings Like folk art, craft is also closely related in different fields of our lives. We know that to adorn different products or things is handicraft. So, it is easily understood that all the handicrafts are used in our practical life. For example- different furniture having art crafts made of bamboo, cane and wood increases the beauty of our houses while they are used in various necessities like for our sleeping, sitting, preserving dress and cloths and keeping food. Different potteries with art crafts made of mud are the main elements of the families of general people. Again, we use various designed utensils in different works made of copper and brass. Beautiful ornaments and saree are every day used elements of the women of Bangladesh. Designed cot, door, almirah bear the testimony of our delicacy, on the other hand, their use is inevitable in our daily life. So, it can be said that these arts play significant roles in different fields of our life.


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Sample Question Multiple choice Question 1. “Alpana” is one of the maina. Handicrafts b. Cottage industry c. Folk Art d. Darushilpa 2. The most famous of the choukopot a. Pot of Gazi b. Pot of eye donation c. Pot of Kalighat d. Pot of Zisus 3. The highest position is in Bangladesha. Embroidered quilt of Rajshahi b. Embroidered quilt of Faridpur c. Embroidered quilt of Jessore d. Embroidered quilt of Chittagong 4. The example of the designed plate of burnt soil of Bangladesh is found ata. Mahasthangor of Bogura b. Moynamoti of Comilla c. Kantoji temple of Dinajpur d. Bagha mosque of Rajshahi 5. The cot made of wood is the most ancient – a. Folk-art b. Hand made art c. Cottage industry d. Handicrafts Combine the words below putting aside-

Right Kongki jorano Sujonipere Riskshaw Moyurpongkhi

Left Embroidered quilt handicraft alpana boat pot


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Creative questions Different materials used for different purposes in our daily life are crafted variously to adopt beauty. We call these useable utensils with craft work handicrafts. There are a variety of handicrafts in our country. Among them, bamboo, cane and handicrafts made of wood are very famous. Besides, different utensils, ornaments made of copper, brass, gold, silver etc with craft works are our remarkable handicrafts. Rickshaw used as vehicle, different types of boats and palki are our beautiful handicrafts. a. What is called handicraft? b. Name five handicrafts made of wood? c. Every day we use various handicrafts- explain with particular exercise.

d. ‘Handicrafts have been flourished with the advancement of society’- clarify.

Essay type questions 1. Give a description about embroidered quilt mentioning their different classifications. 2. Give a description about rickshaw as a popular vehicle and beautiful handicraft.


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Chapter Four

Different medium of draw picture There are different medium of draw pictures. Picture can be drawn in different medium including pencil, ink and pen, water color, oil color, pastel color, acrylic color. In this chapter, we shall learn about- poster color, acrylic color and water color as medium of draw picture.

At the end of this chapter we will be able to• Learn about poster color and its use.

• Describe acrylic color and its rules of use • Describe water color and its implementation.


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Lesson: 1

Poster color To the little boys and girls, poster color is a favorite color as a medium of draw picture. It is mainly water based color. Picture is to be drawn with this color mixing water. But, poster color is called nontransparent water color. It is because the previous color is completely covered when one color is pasted on another color. The previous color loses its existence. The poster color is found in various shades in small bottles of glass. It is preserved in bottles in the form of opaque paste. The color is used on paper taking it from bottles by mixing with water. The poster color is generally used to draw picture on paper. The poster color is suitable to use on paper with rough surface. To have the brightness of the picture, it is better to use more than one painting brush and clean water. It is possible to draw any kind of picture with poster color.

Poster color painting by children

Lesson: 2

Acrylic color Besides tube, acrylic color is found in small and big different cans of glass and plastic. Preserved in opaque paste form, pictures can be drawn in liquid form mixing with water. Acrylic color can be used to draw picture on anything like paper, board or canvas. It is generally indistinct color. But lessening opacity with water it can be used like water color. Pictures can be drawn quickly because the color dries fast. So, at present acrylic color is very popular among artists. All colors


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are found in acrylic. The color which is found in the market as plastic color is mainly acrylic. But it is comparatively more liquid than acrylic. Plastic color can be used mixing with water.

Lesson: 3 & 4

Water color The color which is mixed with water to draw picture is called water color. It is transparent. The water color is kept in the small boxes like square tablet. They are also found as divide tablets. Even water color is made in the tube like tooth paste. Though water color and poster color are almost similar, they are much different in quality. Water color is transparent and light. The previous color cannot be mixed strong one color on another. Due to being transparent, the combination of two colors makes one color. The water color is generally used on paper. A little thick paper with rough surface is the most suitable to draw water color. Water color can be drawn with thick cartridges available in our country. Those who can afford should arrange hand made or better type of paper.

Rules to use water color Cut the halves of a sheet of cartridge paper. You can make it smaller if you like. Remember that the paper is not shrunk or folded. Ensure that you have cut the paper beautifully. Stick the paper on hard board so that it remains tight. Place the board in front of you on ground or leaning against something high. Take clean water in a mug. Keep a few specially made palates or white small palates to draw with water color. Keep tube of color or canes of color near your hand. This is the time to draw now. Think well before starting what you are going to draw. Suppose, you will draw sky covered with black and white cloud. So, start draw with pencil softly. It is good not to rub again and again. Too much rubbing damages the smoothness of paper. When color is put, unnecessary lines can be seen on rubbed place. The pictures can also be destroyed. Before putting color, wet the paper with clean wet cloth or wide painting brush. Wait for some time. You will find the water has somewhat dried. Now take color on small palate. Some brown color will have to be taken. Mix the brown and blue color with water and put lightly on half wet paper with wide painting brush. Remember, you will begin putting color from the top of the paper. You will move the painting brush from left to right. The color will roll to the bottom like water. You will finish the wash by quickly drawing the rolling color. Thus at the time of putting the blue wash, leave the parts of white cloud according to the drawing. That is – ensure that the whiteness of the paper is left. Now wait for some time completing the wash of blue color. Start the work of black cloud after the color is somewhat dried. For this, prepare color of your needed amount in two small plates mixing blue and black, again black and brown color. Then, according to drawing, first put some light blue and black color at the portion of black cloud. Then, to make it darker put some black and brown mixing color thickly on previous portion. Now you will find the type of black cloud wet by rain if you put color this way on wet paper and wet color. Now put the black and brown color mixing lightly on white cloud where the shed is needed. Your drawing is completed here. Here we have told you a simple process. In this process, a water color picture can be drawn within a short time. But, many kinds of color will be needed according to subject.


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The color will vary according to light and shade and you will require more time. The use of water color will have to be learnt well practicing again and again in the class under the supervision of the teacher.

Sample question Multi-choice question 1. Water color isa. Non-transparent color b. Heavy color c. Transparent color d. Oil color 2. The drawing of poster color is donea. Mixing oil b. Mixing Turpin c. Mixing water d. Mixing gum 3. Acrylic color is preserved ina. In the form of thick paste b. In the form of liquid black c. In the form of color stick. d. In the form of cake 4.

Acrylic color is prepared to the artist a. Because the color is dry very quickly b. Because the color is bright c. Because the color is not erased d. Because less color is required

5. Picture is generally drawn with water color on a. Canvas b. Paper c. Hardboard d. Pieces of wood

Brief questions answer 1. Separate such colors from below which can be drawn only on white paper. Acrylic color, plastic color, water color, oxide color, poster color, tie-dye, pastel color, oil color. 2. Write briefly on poster color. 3. Describe the rules of use of water color. 4. ‘Acrylic color is now a favorite medium of the artists’- explain.


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Chapter five

Various interesting practices of drawing pictures

At the end of the chapter we•

Will be able to draw interesting pictures with number

• Will be able to say the measurement of shape, structure of daily useable things • Will be able to draw the design with the shape of fish and birds.

• Will be able to draw different designs from self imagination.


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Lesson : 1 We shall now learn to make and draw the interesting pictures which will give us entertainment. In class six, we learn to draw flower, leaves, design in the light of general rule. You will learn the interesting pictures yourself at your sweet will. We have been using the digits from class one to nine since our childhood to solve mathematics. We are still using them and have to use these digits for our necessity throughout our life. The interesting fact is – have we thought that interesting pictures can be made with these digits also. Now we will get entertainment by making interesting pictures with these digits and at the same time we will astonish our, father, mother, relatives and friends by drawing pictures with them.

Interesting practices with digits

Task : Everybody show by interesting practices at your sweet will with the digit 1


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Lesson : 2

Interesting practice with digits Task : Everybody show by interesting practices at your sweet will with the digit 2 and 3.

Lesson :3

Interesting practices with digits Task : Everybody show by interesting practices at your sweet will with the digit 4.


Various interesting practices of drawing pictures

Lesson : 4

Interesting practices with digits Task : Everybody show by interesting practices at your sweet will with the digit 5, 6, 7 and 8.

Lesson : 5

Interesting practices with digits Task : Everybody show by interesting practices at your sweet will with the digit 9 and 0

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Some initial talk to draw pictures We have to be very conscious of the shape and size of the things while drawing pictures that we see around us to draw them realistically. Because this thing is very important. We have got a conception about shape and size in previous lesson. All the things in the world are circle, rectangular or triangular. Specially all dots among circle or rectangular can be shaped initially. An interesting fact in realistic drawing is – either the size is big or small, the shape will fixed.

For exampleSame shape same size

Same shape different size

Same size different shape

Different size different shape


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We said before that drawing any picture means a collection of lines, they can be either straight, curved, circle or any way. So, each line carries same importance in case of drawing. Some exercises are shown with the combinations of different lines-

Exercises in combination of lines The things we have to remember to draw these things are- they are subject-matter or length, breadth, height, its proportion to see the balance and to pay attention to its proper structure etc. Any thing or matter whatever we draw conforming these subjects, it will present a beauty.


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Exercises from nature

All that we see around us is nature. This nature has colourful appearance. It changes its appearance from sun rise to sun set. The appearance of nature in the soft light of morning changes by the sharp light by noon. Again the appearance at sun set is of different feeling – and all these take place in the change of light and shade. Again, it changes differently in the diversification of seasons. The nature is adorned at different appearance in paragon beauty during summer, rainy season, autumn, late autumn, winter, spring. We all love to see natural scenery, different scenes of rural-Bangladesh, fields wide up to the horizon. Our soul is touched by far off sun rise or sun set, extra ordinary beauty of riverine Bangladesh. Sometimes, neat and clean roads of cities, blue sky, urban civilization – all these touch our mind. You have to observe the facts deeply before you draw these scenes. Say, you have gone somewhere to travel, here there are fields after fields, small cottages at far away, even at more distance a few boats with sail in the river, a few birds are flying in the sky, there are some palm trees in the front. Keeping the picture in your mind, when you will sit to draw at your home, you will draw with the fantasy of your mind following the general rules that you knew beforehand, for example --according to size, shape, distance proportion, light and shade etc, the picture will be then more lively to you. So, the more you increase your observation power before drawing anything, the more lively will be the picture.


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Practice drawing different things from nature conforming all these under the supervision of the teacher.

Design Design with the shape of fish and birds

Design with the shape of fish and bird.


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Design can be for the need of different activities. For example- design is needed to give artistic appearance to the border of saree, neck design of cumiz or Punjabi, table cloths or cushion, vase, designed pot or any other things. Task : Show drawing a design after your mind with the measurement of 8″ × 8″ inches using the shape of fish and bird.

Sample question Practical 1. Show doing an interesting exercise with your choiceable digit. 2. Shaw drawing any three things with different size and shape. 3. Draw a picture of one of your favourite seasons in poster or water colour. 4. Make a pencil sketch after your mind using 2b and 4b pencils. 5. Draw a design with the measurement of 8 inches by 10 inches using the shape of fish and birds.


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Chapter six

Different types of Crafts

At the end of the lesson we will learn•

How to make different types of amateur toys with cotton

How to make cushions of different colors

How to make gates or banners with cotton for different programmes

Needle Craft

How to make stitches in fabric with needle and thread

How to learn names of different stitches and make different designs

How to make different types of toys by using fabric and cotton

Art works with useless things • How to make different things with useless matters

How to decorate our houses with those things

How to increase our awareness not to waste different things

How to make designs by using the pieces of potatoes and ladies fingers


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Lesson: 1

Crafts made of Cotton and fabric Let us make a picture of beautiful duck with cotton. Besides, we will make pictures of flower vase, bird, cat and other things with flowers and leaves of different colors

Materials Cotton is the main Materials to make any crafts with cotton that we can easily understand. We also need- cotton used for bandage, simple cotton from seeds, different colors, fabrics of different colors, pitch board, hard board, white paper, carbon paper, glue made from flower, aika, glue, scissors, needle, thread etc. However, there are two types of cottons. For writing and cushion, to make blanket we have simple cotton from seeds or dhuna and for picture we have bandage cotton piled up level by level. Besides, we need fabrics of different colors, white paper, color paper, chalk, fabrics of different colors, thick white paper or brown paper etc.

Lesson: 2

Writing with cotton Now we can start writing with cotton. We need certain length of colour fabric. Red, blue, green or violate whatever colour we like. Colours should be dark, light colour will not look good. Let us spread the piece of cloth on clean floor or a table, and then we write the target writing with a chalk in big letters. Let us make little ball with simple cotton from seeds. The way we make the ball of flour to make bread by putting clod of flour on palate rolling with another palate, in the same way, we will make the ball of cotton. Now on the cloth where letters are written with chalk. We need to put the thick glue of flour over those letters and fix the cotton ball by pressing one by one. It is needed to fix the cotton balls very closely- one beside another. We will fix the glue making it like a coin on the cloth just under the cotton ball. We will make same size cotton balls. Use of small and big cotton balls will not look good in the same writing. Width of a cotton ball could be 2 or 3 cm. For thick font we need big balls and for thin font we need small balls. By seeing the picture we could write any writings with cotton balls.


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Writing with cotton

Lesson: 3

Picture with cotton The painting we are going to make will be of different colours of flowers like white, red, yellow, orange, violet etc. and green leaf and stalk also. There will be flower vase, so we need cotton of different colours. We could find powder colours in market that could be dissolved in water. If we do not get necessary colours in the market, we will make our desired colours by mixing one colour with another. If we mix red and yellow, we will get orange colour and if we mix red and blue, we will get violet colour. The green colour we get in market is not green leaf colour. If we mix a little red colour with the green colour, we will get green leaf colour. The colours we will use in the painting, we will colour cotton with those colours and dry them up. The picture we will make with cotton, now we will draw the same picture with a pencil on a piece of paper. We will draw the picture on the paper as big picture as we make with cotton. There will be different colours of flower in the picture. So the flowers will be of different kinds and big and small sizes. Different flowers’ leaves will be of different sizes and shapes. We draw this picture keeping these things in mind. Now, we will keep the picture sketched with pencil on a carbon paper. We will use clip or pin to fix the paper so that they cannot be displaced due to movement. Now we can draw the picture by following the sketch with a pencil on the paper. We will get a reverse picture on the back side of that paper fixed on the carbon paper. We will make more two or three reverse mark of the sketch. We will colour the picture drawn by pencil first so that we can decide which flower will get which colour while making the picture with cotton. What will be the colour of flower vase? What will be the colour of leaf?


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Picture with cotton

Now let us take different pieces of paper which wetre cut separately. We will put flower glue at the back of picture mark paper where we will try to press cotton of certain colours about 1 cm. thick so that they are pasted properly. This way we will fix cotton on every piece of paper and keep them to dry up. We will have enough space around the picture. We will take a strong board of same size and a piece of black cloth 5 cm. bigger than the pitch board in both length and breadth. The cloth is beeded to iron properly so that there will not be any fold on it. Putting the pitch board on the cloth we need to paste the glue in every corner and fix the extra paper by folding it with the board properly. We should be careful that the cloth should not be fixes loosely rather it should be fixed perfectly without any fold. Now we will cut the cotton papers with sharp scissors by seeing the carbon paper’s mark to make cotton flower, leaf, stalk, flower vase, etc. We will fix the cotton flower vase, flower, leaf, etc. on the pitch board attached black cloth exactly by seeing the colorful drawing on paper. After arranging the picture properly we will take part by part to put glue at the back side and paste them in the place on the cloth. We should be careful that all sides of the picture are fixed properly, and no side is loosely fixed. Now we will see the picture made of different colorful cotton looking very beautiful. Flowers and leaves are seemed to be soft like real one. If we try, we can make beautiful pictures after our wish. To set stamen inside the flower, we need to cut the petal separately and set the cotton of another


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color as stamen, then fix the petal around them. Not only the picture of flowers leaves but also human illustration with different colors of dresses, animals, birds, trees etc. could be made by this way. Cotton made illustration could look very good if we could frame it with glass and hang it on the wall.

Lesson: 4

Needle Craft We see mother sews at home. They do many needle crafts like they make dresses for us, beautiful design on dresses etc. We also do many things with needle and thread. For example- we fix buttons; fix torn cloth, small handkerchief, table cloth etc. We use quilt at many of our homes both in villages and towns. Some are normal quilt while some are embroidered. Different colours of thread and designs are found in quilt. It looks fantastic. Bird, fish, flower, creepers and herbs, elephant, horse, human figure etc could be presented in a quilt through illustrations and designs by sewing it with colour thread. There are some people who frame the small size embroidered quilt to decorate houses. We call this craft needle craft. This craft is one of the important subjects of fine arts. For years grand mothers used to sew fans, towels, prayer mat, quilt etc with different designs. They used their pastime in sewing a quilt and it took many days to complete one. They presented their stories of joys and sorrows through different designs by using needle and thread. In the villages of Bangladesh general women are still making this kind of embroidered quilt. This embroidered quilt is well known and famous all over the world as folk art. In the collection of different museums of Bangladesh and the world has this very Bangladeshis folk art. At present this craft has a great usage in Bangladesh. Mitigating the personal need, it is also sold in market. Its demand has increased commercially. By exporting this folk art, we are earning a lot of foreign currency. Needle crafts are usually done by the village women. This craft not only enrich our thoughts of beauty but also mitigate our needs. Embroidered handkerchief, table cloth, saree, kamiz, scarf, pant, frock for children, curtain etc are looking very nice. We ourselves are interested to wear this kind of dresses. So, learning this crsft we could be self dependent commercially after mitigating our personal needs. The main subject of needle craft is the prpper use of different stistches and different colours of thread.

Materials Thin and thick different types of needles. White or color thread or wool. Pencil to mark the cloth. Cloth or coarse cloth made of jute as much needed, a pair of small scissors. A frame (which is used to sew using needle and thread). A box to keep the ingredients. A scale or a tape to measure the cloth. Are all the ingredients ready?


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Materials

Now we need to know different sorts of stitches if we want to design with needle and thread on cloths or gunny. Many types of stitches are used on needle work or embroidery. Here we will know some stitches and how they are to be done; how they are looked and we will be able to make the stitches.

The name of the stitches 1. Running stitches or run sewing 2. Hem stitches side sewing 3. Bokheya stitch 4. Stem stitches 5. Chain stitches 6. Legi-deigi stitches 7. Cross stitches 8. Star stitches 9. Button stitches 10. Blanket stitches 11. Sir tin stitches 12. Heringbon stitches


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Running stitches or run sewing Of the different stitches, run sewing is the easiest. The cloth which will be stitched will have to be held high with left hand and will be sewed with right hand. Keeping on cloth or hand, hold the cloth with pressure on the remaining four fingers by the thumb. Holdind needle with right hand, 3 to 4 stitches can be made together. But, every time after 3-4 stitches, the sewing should be made tight by drawing thread. To learn running stitch, use colorful thread in case of white cloth, white thread in case of colorful cloth. Because, thus we will understand easily whether the sewing is straight or equal. Besides, doing line sewing, filled Run stitch and design sewing can also be done with this stitch. Running stitch is abundantly used on embroidered quilt.

Run stitch and design


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Run stitch, filled with run stitch and design of run stitch

Hem stitch or gutter sewing This stitch is used to sew the gutter of any of this- table cloth, handkerchief, frock etc. The stitch used for sewing the gutter of any of these- table cloth, handkerchief, frock etc is called hem stitch or gutter stitch. The side of the cloth should be folded in a way during this sewing so that the threads do not come out. By this stitch, design can be made in appliqué on cushion, frock, saree table cloth etc. Appliqué is to make design setting colour cloth on another cloth. By learning hem or gutter sewing, we will be able to do different works in appliqué method.

Embroidered prayer mat with run stitch

Hem stitch or gutter sewing


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Bokheya stitch Bokheya stitch looks like sewing of machine in the straight. To make this stitch, needle is to be run from underneath to above like running stitch. Again, stitch is to be made with needle from a bit before and above. Take back the face of the needle to the previous stitch. Again, take stitch from below to above. Thus advance to the front with stitches. We will see the stitches are looking like the sewing of machine. This stitch is generally needed to join shirt of other thing. The joint of bokheya stitch is very strong. Besides, different types of design can be made with this stitch. For example- we can reflect the picture of a fish after line by drawing a sketch of a fish with pencil on a cloth of 25 cm wide and 25 cm long with bokheya stitch. We can do any other design with bokheya stitch.

Bokheya stitch & design of Bokheya stitch

Lesson: 6

Stem stitch or branch stitch Branch stitch is generally used to design branch of tree, flower and branch of leaves, creepers etc. The line becomes twisted like rope if the sewing is done on the line with this stitch.

Stem stitch or branch stitch

while sewing with branch stitch, the stitches will come from front to back step by step. Put a knot at the end of the thread fixing thread at needle. Take the front of the needle from the back of the cloth to the front. Get the point of the needle at the right


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between the stitches back aside where the point of the needle got. Again, insert the point of the needle putting aside at left where the point is got and take the point of the needle at right between the stitches. Thus come from front to back stitching one after another. Let us see how beautiful the sewing looks. The design is made with brunch stitch

Lesson: 7

The design is made with brunch stitch

Chain stitch

This stitch mostly looks like a chain. Take comparatively coarser thread for chai stitch. Put a strong knot at the end of the thread. Or take a strong stitch. Get needle and thread above. Now, take a stitch sending the thread to the left with right hand at the point of the needle. We will see that the stitch looks like a chain (leave the thread loose while rounding hand). Take the needle from below to up inserting it by the side of the previous stitch. Put the needle always on the thread while stitching. Take stitch again rounding the thread from right to left. Thus, take the thread from below to up by inserting the needle beside the stitch. Any dress can be designed with chain stitch. Designs of flower or creepers and herbs can be made specially on frock, saree, handkerchief, table cloth etc. with chain stitch. We can use this stitch in filled work too. We can use this stitch to bring diversity in fine arts.

Chain stitch

Legi-deisy stitch Legi-deisy stitch can be done like chain stitch. But the stitches of chain stitches advances following a line and this stitch has separate chain stitch. Handkerchief, dresses of children or any cloths look beautiful if bunches of flower, design, creepers, leaves etc are made on them with this stitches.


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Now let us make the design appear on handkerchief drawing flower, creepers and herbs with legi-deisy stitch. We have learnt many types of stitches. Now, let us make a handkerchief and table cloth. We all need handkerchief. We keep a handkerchief with us when we start for school or anywhere. Then, let us learn to make a handkerchief first. We can use the handkerchief ourselves learning the sewing of it. We can also gift them to other.

Legi-deisy stitch

Legi-deisy stitch’s design

Lesson: 8

Cross stitch This stitch is much like a cross or ‘multiply’ sign. Usually net or sellula cloth is used for cross stitch. The ground of sellula cloth is like table like boxes. This stitch is beautifully done on gunny.


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The design of jacket with cross stitch

Let us do the design counting the boxes on graph paper

Star stitch Star stitch is more like a cross stitch. We can easily take this stitch seeing the picture. This stitch is easy to do on check cloth or gunny.

Star stitch

Lesson: 9

Button box stitch After cutting button box in dress, the face of button box tied by sewing so that the thread cannot come out. The special stitch by which this sewing is done is called button stitch. (Let us do seeing picture)


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Button box stitch

Cut work with button box stitch

Lesson: 10

Blanket stitch This stitch is used to sew the border of shawl, blanket etc. Blanket stitch is very easy. It is much like a button box stitch.

Blanket stitch


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Sartin stitch Sartin stitch is also very easy. We hope we will be able to do it seeing picture. This stitch is taken side by side.

Design with sartin stitch

Herringbone stitch This stitch is much like cross stitch. This stitch is taken as cross stitches are. We hope we will understand this stitch by seeing picture.

Herring stitch and design


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Let us practice this design with herringbone stitch

Art work with rejected things We throw away things considering that they are of no use. We call them rejected things. We can make much beautiful art works with these rejected things using our imagination power. There are many things spread around us which are found naturally. They are rejected things in our eyes. Beautiful things can be made which such things that we do not notice or do not come to our notice. We can make rejected things like dried branches of trees, jute-stalk, pieces of wood etc. into lively and attractive art work with beauty using our strong will and imagination power to make something beautiful. Let us know about some art work like these.

Flower of paper with dried branch Take a small branch of plum tree with thorns. Branch of any other tree will also be useable, but that must be thorny. Make 2.50 cm wide long slice with white or yellow paper of kites. Make the slice of paper 2.54 cm wide and 15 cm long folding three or four times. Now cut a side of the slice thinly with scissors, and to the opposite side will be attached of almost 6 cm that is not cut. Thus the slice of cut paper will somewhat look like a comb. Unfold the paper after it is cut. Let us take a few pieces of jute-stalk selecting with narrowness at the top, and cut an end of a jute-stalk levelly with a sharp knife or blade. Now attach the glue of flour at the side of joint with comb look and round the paper from one end with joint to the top of the jute-stalk taking 635 cm space which was levelly cut. One fold will be put on another. Thus separate the slice of paper after five to six fold. Now, cut the top of the jute-stalk with paper from the fold with sharp knife or blade. Now, spread the narrow heads of the paper folded with pieces of jute-stalk. How beautiful flowers they have become.


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Thus we can make flower one after another by cutting folded paper with comb look at the top of jute-stalk. Take another piece of jute-stalk after finishing the other. After we have made required number of flowers, fix a flower with each thorn of the branch. The bottom of the jute-stalk is softer than the thorn of the branch, so it will not be difficult to fix. Fill the whole branch with flowers. How beautiful they look! Fix the branch of the flower in the soil of a small vase and place it in a suitable location. How our pleasure will be when everybody will take them for real flower from far.

Flower of paper with dried branch

Mosaic picture Let us take 8-11 inches cloth and glue. Sketch a bird on the cloth. Now fix the pieces of papers of different colors carefully on the flower of the cloth. Pieces of separate colour should be fixed around the bird. Keep it in this position for two days. Next, we can display it at home with frame. We will get much pleasure to do it. Thus we can make any flower, elephant or any mosaic picture with colour paper if we wish. Mosaic picture


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Print with cut potato and ladies finger diving into colour Print can be taken cutting potato, ladies finger or korla with any colour (according to circle). Beautiful design can be made on paper with print cutting any type of vegetables like potato, ladies finger or korla. Besides, printing with new things, beautiful patterns can be made.

Necessary information Any colour mixing with water can be used in this context. Here it is shown how printable block can be made with soft things like potato curving inside. If print is taken on particular paper or cloth putting colour on this curved portion, we will get beautiful design.

Print design by cutting potato or ladies finger

Making mask with rejected paper Let us collect enough thrown away paper. Get the paper wet in water for a day. Make glue with wheat (by cooking). Now, take the paper from water. Mix the things of paper with glue of wheat. This will make mondo. Mix some tut with mondo. Otherwise, worm will cut them.


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Make middle size ball with enough dry paper, rope or string. Now make the shape of the face of cat or human on the surface of the ball with soil like mondo of paper. Dry them for two or three days. Bring out the ball of paper from below after it is dried. Now we have made mask of cat or human. Now, paint them. (We can do by seeing picture)

Making mask with mondo of rejected papers Toys or dolls can be made with mondo as with soil


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Sample questions 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Needle work means-

a. Dresses b. A few stitches c. Paintings d. A kind of handicrafts Chain stitch is used for a. Line sewing b. Line and filled work c. Only thick line sewing d. Gutter sewing Button box stitch is used fora. Sewing only button box b. Sewing button box and other flower-creeper etc. c. Sewing only creepers and herbs If you want to make picture with cotton, firsta. Picture is to be drawn on the cloth of picture with pencil b. Cotton is to fixed after cutting c. It is to be cut after drawing picture on cotton. d. Picture is to be drawn on paper Suitable cotton for drawing picture isa

6.

Normal cotton

a. Shimul cotton a. Cotton used for bandage b. Carpas cotton If you want to make colour picture with cotton – a. Colour is put after making picture b. It is to be dived into colour cutting each part c. Cotton is to be dried beforehand putting colour


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Write answers 1. Make a general discussion about needle work. 2. What materials are needed for needle and thread work? 3. Write the name of some stitches that you know.

Activity 1. Make a handkerchief and sew a design with branch stitch, legi-deisy stitch and button box stitch.

Read the stimulant and answer the questions One day Reena and Apon went their friend Kajol’s home. They saw at their home that his mother is teaching sewing work to many women. Some again are sewing an embroidered quilt in a team. Fish, human, elephant, horse, palanquin, boat etc. are drawn on the embroidered quilt. They have got new experience seeing these. They have decided that they will thus draw pictures sewing an embroidered quilt and adorn their houses. a) Where did Reena aand Apon go to visit? b) What were Kajol’s mother teaching? c) What pictures were drawn on embroidered quilt? d) What will Reena and Apon make? e) What will they do the picture?

THE END


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