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RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012 MwYZ lô-`kg †kªwY D”PZi MwYZ beg-`kg †kªwY

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RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012 MwYZ

lô-`kg †kªwY D”PZi MwYZ

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RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012 Dbœqb I ZË¡veavb

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ii


gyLeÜ w`b e`‡ji A½xKvi c~iY Ges 2021 mv‡ji g‡a¨ evsjv‡`k‡K GKwU ga¨g Av‡qi †`‡k cwiYZ Kivi cÖavb Dcvq n‡”Q `ÿ Rbkw³ m„wó Kiv| wkÿvi gva¨‡g Zv m¤¢e n‡e weavq miKvi gvbm¤úbœ wkÿv wbwðZ Kivi j‡ÿ¨ me©gn‡ji wbKU MÖnY‡hvM¨ GK hyMvšÍKvix wkÿvbxwZ cÖYqb K‡i| RvZxq wkÿvbxwZ 2010 ev¯Íevq‡bi me©vwaK ¸iæZ¡c~Y© c`‡ÿc n‡”Q wkÿvbxwZ Abymv‡i †`‡ki wkÿve¨e¯’vi ¸YMZ cwieZ©b mvab| G †cÖwÿ‡Z RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW© cÖPwjZ wkÿvµg Dbœq‡bi D‡`¨vM MÖnY K‡i| wkÿvµg Dbœqb GKwU Pjgvb cÖwµqv| ivóªxq `k©b I Av`k© , BwZnvm I ms¯‹…wZ, mgKvjxb Rxe‡bi Pvwn`v, weÁvb I cÖhyw³ BZ¨vw` †ÿ‡Î Ávb I `ÿZv AR©‡bi avivevwnKZv eRvq ivLvi Rb¨ wkÿvµg cwigvR©b I Dbœqb K‡i wkÿv e¨e¯’vq MwZ mÂvi Ki‡Z nq| gva¨wgK ¯Í‡ ii cÖPwjZ wkÿvµg 1995 mv‡j cÖYxZ nq| G `xN© mg‡q RvZxq Rxe‡bi wewfbœ †ÿÎ Ges ÁvbweÁv‡bi RM‡Z e¨vcK cwieZ©b mvwaZ n‡jI wkÿvµg Dbœqb bv nIqvq Gi cÖwZdjb Avgv‡`i wkÿv e¨e¯’vq Av‡mwb| ZvB wkÿvµg Dbœqb mg‡qi `vwe| RvZxq wkÿvbxwZ 2010 Gi wfwˇZ wkÿvµ‡gi iƒc‡iLv cÖYqb Kiv nq| wkÿvµg iƒc‡iLv P~ovšÍKi‡Yi j‡ÿ¨ †`‡ki cÖw_Zhkv wkÿvwe`, eyw×Rxex I Ab¨vb¨ DcKvi‡fvMx‡`i mgš^‡q GKwU RvZxq Kg©kvjvi Av‡qvRb Kiv nq| G Kg©kvjvq cÖvß gZvgZ I mycvwi‡ki Av‡jv‡K Ges cÖ‡qvRbxq ms‡kvab mv‡c‡ÿ wkÿvµg iƒc‡iLv RvZxq wkÿvµg mgš^q KwgwU (Gbwmwmwm) KZ…©K Aby‡gvw`Z nq| wkÿvµ‡gi Aby‡gvw`Z iƒc‡iLv Abyhvqx wkÿvµg Dbœqb cÖwµqvi wewfbœ avc AbymiY K‡i lô †_‡K Aóg †kÖwYi 17wU Ges beg I `kg †kÖwYi 27wU wel‡qi wkÿvµg Dbœqb Kiv n‡q‡Q| wkÿvµg Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ welqwfwËK KwgwU MVb Kiv nq| G mKj KwgwU‡Z welq we‡klÁ, wkÿK cÖwkÿK, †kÖwYwkÿK I wkÿvµg we‡klÁMY KvR K‡i‡Qb| mv¤úªwZK Kv‡ji A‡bK ¸iæZ¡c~Y© welq I welqe¯‘, †hgb: Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³, Kg© I RxebgyLx wkÿv, K¨vwiqvi wkÿv, Rjevqy cwieZ©b I Avgv‡`i KiYxq, eqtmwÜKvj I cÖRbb ¯^v¯’¨, bvix Dbœqb bxwZgvjv BZ¨vw` wkÿvµ‡g AšÍf©y³ Kiv Kiv n‡q‡Q| cwigvwR©Z wkÿvµ‡gi †PZbvi g‡a¨ aviY Kiv n‡q‡Q gnvb gyw³hy‡×i Av`k©, g~j¨‡eva I †cÖiYv| wkLb‡kLv‡bv Kvh©µg I avivevwnK g~j¨vq‡bi †ÿ‡ÎI cwieZ©b Avbv n‡q‡Q| gyL¯’ Kivi cwie‡Z© ÔK‡i †kLvÕi Dci †Rvi †`Iqv n‡q‡Q| m„RbkxjZv weKv‡ki cvkvcvwk wkÿv_x©‡`i ˆbwZK g~j¨‡eva, mZZv, †`k‡cÖg I †bZ…‡Z¡i ¸Yvewj AR©‡bi Dci ¸iæZ¡v‡ivc Kiv n‡q‡Q| m‡e©vcwi G ¯Í‡ii wkÿv‡K Rxe‡bi cÖ‡ek Øvi wnmv‡e we‡ePbv K‡i Kg©Rxe‡b cÖ‡e‡k cÖ‡qvRbxq †hvM¨Zv AR©‡bi Dc‡hvMx K‡i wkÿvµg Dbœq‡bi cÖqvm Pvjv‡bv n‡q‡Q| †m‡KÛvwi GWz‡Kkb †m±i †W‡fjc‡g›U cÖ‡R± wkÿvµg Dbœq‡b Avw_©K I KvwiMwi mn‡hvwMZv cÖ`vb Kivq cÖKí KZ©„cÿ‡K ab¨ev` Rvbvw”Q| wkÿvµg Dbœq‡b welqwfwËK wkÿvµg Dbœqb KwgwU QvovI Gbwmwmwm, cÖ‡dkbvj KwgwU, †UKwbK¨vj KwgwU, †fwUs KwgwU Ges mvwe©K mgš^q KwgwU wbijmfv‡e KvR K‡i‡Qb| G mKj KwgwUi mKj m`m¨‡K RvbvB AvšÍwiK K…ZÁZv| Avkv KiwQ, DbœqbK…Z wkÿvµg ev¯Íevq‡bi gva¨‡g †`‡k Ávb, weÁvb I cÖhyw³‡Z `ÿ, GKB m‡½ ˆbwZK g~j¨‡eva, RbM‡Yi cÖwZ kÖ×vkxj I `vqe× Ges gyw³hy‡×i †PZbvq DØy× GK bZzb cÖRb¥ M‡o DV‡e| G bZzb cÖRb¥ †`‡ki Dbœqb I AMÖMwZ‡Z Zvrch©c~Y© Ae`vb ivL‡Z mÿg n‡e e‡j Avkv KiwQ| cÖ‡dmi †gvt †gv¯Ídv KvgvjDwÏb †Pqvig¨vb RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW© XvKv RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

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m~wPcÎ µg 1.

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6. RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012 Gi ˆewkó¨

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7. wkÿvµg iƒc‡iLv

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9. wkÿv_x© g~j¨vqb

15

10. wkÿvµg Dbœq‡b mswkøó KwgwU

19

11. MwYZ wkÿvµg

23

12. D”PZi MwYZ wkÿvµg

111

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

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1. m~Pbv 1.1 h‡_vwPZ c~e©cwiKíbv cÖYqb Ges Gi myôz ev¯Íevq‡bi Dci wbf©i K‡i †h‡Kvb Kvh©µ‡gi mdjZv| wk¶v Kvh©µ‡gi Giƒc c~e©-cwiKíbvB wk¶vµg| wk¶v_x©‡`i AvMÖn, cÖeYZv, mvg_©¨, AwfÁZv I wkLb Pvwn`vi mv‡_ Ges mgvR, †`k I AvšÍR©vwZK cwiw¯’wZ we‡ePbvq †i‡L cÖYxZ nq wbw`©ó wk¶vµg| †K, †Kb, Kx, wKfv‡e, Kvi mn‡hvwMZvq, Kx w`‡q, †Kv_vq, KZ mgq a‡i wkL‡e Ges hv wkLj wKfv‡e Zv hvPvB Kiv hv‡e Gme cÖ‡kœi DËi wk¶vµ‡g _v‡K| wk¶vi j¶¨, D‡Ïk¨, wkLbdj, welqe¯‘, wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg I g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv-GmeB wk¶vµ‡gi cÖwZcv`¨ welq| wk¶vµ‡gi wfwˇZB cÖYxZ nq cvV¨cy¯ÍK I Ab¨vb¨ wkLbmvgMÖx Ges cwiPvwjZ nq wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg| Gme cÖYq‡bi wb‡`©kbvI _v‡K wk¶vµ‡g| wk¶vµg‡K wk¶v Kvh©µg ev¯Íevq‡bi bxj-bKkv ejv n‡q _v‡K| 1.2

wk¶vµg GKwU Pjgvb cÖwµqv| G cÖwµqvq avivevwnK cwiex¶‡Yi gva¨‡g Pjgvb wk¶vµ‡gi mejZv-`ye©jZv I Dc‡hvwMZv wbY©q Kiv nq| mg‡qi mv‡_ mgv‡Ri cwieZ©b NU‡Q, ZvQvov Ávb-weÁvb I cÖhyw³i `ªæZ cwieZ©b n‡”Q| Gm‡ei d‡j wkLb Pvwn`vI cwiewZ©Z n‡”Q| G Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq cwigvR©b I bevq‡bi gva¨‡g wk¶vµg hy‡Mvc‡hvMx ivLv Avek¨K| Avevi Ggb mgq Av‡m hLb cyiv‡bv wk¶vµg cwigvR©b K‡i mg‡qi Pvwn`v c~iY m¤¢e nq bv, ZLb bZzb wk¶vµg cÖYqb Ki‡Z nq| RvZxq wk¶vbxwZ ev¯Íevq‡bi Rb¨I bZyb wk¶vµg Dbœqb Ki‡Z nq| G cwi‡cÖw¶‡Z RvZxq wk¶vµg 2012 cÖYq‡bi c`‡¶c MÖnY Kiv n‡q‡Q|

2. wk¶vµg Dbœq‡bi †hŠw³KZv 2.1 gva¨wgK ¯Í‡ii eZ©gvb wk¶vµg 1995 mv‡j cÖYxZ| Gici `xN© mg‡q RvZxq I AvšÍR©vwZK cwigЇj mvgvwRK, mvs¯‹…wZK, A_©‰bwZK I ivR‰bwZK wewfbœ †¶‡Î we‡kl K‡i Ávb-weÁvb, Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³i †¶‡Î e¨vcK cwieZ©b N‡U‡Q| cwieZ©‡bi mv‡_ mv‡_ wk¶v_©x‡`i wkLb-Pvwn`v `ªæZ cwiewZ©Z n‡”Q| G Pvwn`vbyhvqx wk¶v‡K hy‡Mvc‡hvMx Kivi Rb¨ wk¶vµg Dbœqb Acwinvh© n‡q `uvwo‡q‡Q| 2.2

gva¨wgK ¯Í‡ii cÖPwjZ wk¶vµ‡gi Dci Ôgva¨wgK ¯Í‡ii wk¶vµg g~j¨vqb I Pvwn`v wbiƒcYÕ kxl©K cwiPvwjZ M‡elYvi djvd‡j wk¶vµ‡gi A‡bK `ye©jZv, Am½wZ I mgm¨v wPwýZ n‡q‡Q| G wk¶vµg AwZgvÎvq ZË¡ I Z_¨ msewjZ hv

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

wkÿv_x©‡K gyL¯’ Ki‡Z DrmvwnZ K‡i| cÖPwjZ wkÿvµ‡g AbymÜvb, mgm¨v mgvav‡bi †hvM¨Zv AR©b, nv‡Z-Kj‡g KvR K‡i †kLvi my‡hvM, m„Rbkxj I D™¢vebx ¶gZv weKv‡ki my‡hvM mxwgZ| wk¶v_©x‡`i ˆbwZK I gvbweK ¸Yvewji weKv‡ki my‡hvMI Kg| cÖ‡qvRbxq welq Ges welqe¯‘ †hgb- Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³, Rjevqyi cwieZ©b I KiYxq, eqtmwÜKvj I cÖRbb ¯^v¯’¨, R¡vjvwb wbivcËv BZ¨vw`i cÖwZdjb LyeB mxwgZ| ZvQvov gvZ…fvlv evsjv Ges AvšÍR©vwZK fvlv Bs‡iwR wkLb-†kLv‡bvi †¶‡Î †kvbv, ejv, cov, †jLv-Gme `¶Zv wkL‡bi Rb¨ wkÿvµ‡g ¸iæZ¡ cÖ`vb Kiv n‡jI ev¯Íevq‡b G¸‡jv h_vh_ ¸iæZ¡ cvqwb| wkÿv_x©‡`i‡K Kg©gyLx Kivi †ÿ‡Î wkÿvµ‡gi Ae`vb m‡šÍvlRbK bq| bevqbK…Z wk¶vµ‡gi Gme mxgve×Zv KvwU‡q DVvi cÖ‡Póv †bIqv n‡q‡Q| 2.3

RvZxq wk¶vbxwZ 2010 evsjv‡`‡ki wk¶v‡¶‡Î GKwU gvBj djK| RvZxq wk¶vbxwZ 2010 Abymv‡i wk¶vi gva¨‡g hy‡Mvc‡hvMx Rbkw³ Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb wk¶vµ‡gi Dbœqb Ges Gi h_vh_ ev¯Íevqb| RvZxq wk¶vbxwZ 2010 Gi ev¯Íevq‡bi me©vwaK ¸iæZ¡c~Y© c`‡¶c n‡”Q wk¶vbxwZ Abymv‡i wk¶ve¨e¯’vi cÖeZ©b Ges Gi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb †m Abymv‡i wk¶vµg Dbœqb|

2.4

evsjv‡`‡ki iƒcKí 2021 Gi j¶¨ n‡”Q wWwRUvj evsjv‡`k MVb Ges †`k‡K ga¨g Av‡qi †`‡k cwiYZ Kiv| wWwRUvj evsjv‡`k Mov Ges ga¨g Av‡qi †`‡k cwiYZ Kivi cÖavb Dcvq n‡”Q wk¶vi gva¨‡g h‡_vchy³ Rbkw³ m„wó Kiv| Avi wk¶vi gva¨‡g Zv Kivi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb Dc‡hvMx wk¶vµg|

2.5

GKwesk kZvãxi wk¶vi Rb¨ MwVZ AvšÍR©vwZK wk¶v Kwgkb wi‡cvU© ‘Learning: The Treasure Within’ G gva¨wgK wk¶v‡K Rxe‡b cÖ‡ekØvi ‘gateway to life’ wnmv‡e wPwýZ n‡q‡Q| Gi A_© Kg©Rxe‡b cÖ‡e‡ki cÖ‡qvRbxq †hvM¨Zv gva¨wgK wk¶vi gva¨‡g AR©b| G †hvM¨Zv AR©‡bi Rb¨ cÖwZ‡e`‡b wk¶vi PviwU ¯Í¤¢ wPwýZ Kiv n‡q‡Q| ¯Í¤¢mg~n n‡”Q- Rvbvi Rb¨ †kLv, KvR Kivi Rb¨ †kLv, wg‡jwg‡k _vKvi Rb¨ †kLv Ges weKwkZ nIqvi Rb¨ †kLv| Gme ¯Í‡¤¢i ev¯Íevq‡bi gva¨‡g GKwesk kZvãxi Dc‡hvMx Rbkw³ m„wói Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb †m Abymv‡i wk¶vµg Dbœqb| 1


3. wk¶vµg Dbœq‡b Abym„Z g‡Wj D‡Ïk¨-wkLbdj g‡Wj (Objective Model) Abymv‡i RvZxq wk¶vµg 2012 Dbœqb Kiv n‡q‡Q| GwU‡K djwfwËK g‡WjI (Product Model) ejv nq| G g‡Wj Abymv‡i wk¶vi j¶¨ I mvaviY D‡Ïk¨ wba©viY K‡i D‡Ïk¨ AR©b Dc‡hvMx welq I welqwfwËK D‡Ïk¨ wba©viY Kiv nq| welqwfwËK D‡Ïk¨ AR©‡bi Rb¨ ¯ÍiwfwËK cÖvwšÍK wkLbdj wba©viY Kiv nq| cÖvwšÍK wkLbdj‡K †kªwYwfwËK wkLbd‡j wefvRb Kiv n‡q‡Q| †kÖwYwfwËK wkLbdj‡K eyw×e„Ëxq, Av‡eMxq I g‡bv‡cwkR-G wZb fv‡M wefvRb Kiv n‡q‡Q| †kªwYwfwËK wkLbdj‡K wfwË K‡i †kªwY Dc‡hvMx welqe¯‘, wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg I g~j¨vqb †KŠkjmn hveZxq wk¶v Kvh©µg wba©viY Kiv nq| AvR‡Ki we‡k¦ eû †`k D‡Ïk¨wfwËK g‡Wj Abymi‡Y wk¶vµg Dbœqb K‡i _v‡K| 4. wk¶vµg Dbœq‡b Abym„Z cÖwµqv †m‡KÛvwi GWy‡Kkb †m±i †W‡fjc‡g›U cÖ‡R± (GmBGmwWwc) Gi KvwiMwi I Avw_©K mnvqZvq Ges RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW© (GbwmwUwe) Gi mvwe©K ZË¡veav‡b GmBGmwWwc Gi wk¶vµg we‡klÁe„›`, GbwmwUwe-Gi wkÿvµg kvLvi Kg©KZ©ve„›` Ges wbe©vwPZ RvZxq ch©v‡qi wk¶vµg we‡klÁ, welq we‡klÁ, wk¶vwe`, wk¶K, wk¶v we‡klÁ I AwfÁ †kªwYwk¶‡Ki mgš^‡q MwVZ wewfbœ KwgwU wk¶vµg Dbœqb K‡ib| wk¶vµg Dbœq‡b †bZ…Z¡ I wb‡`©kbv cÖ`vb K‡ib GmBGmwWwci RvZxq wk¶vµg civgk©K| wk¶vµg Dbœqb cÖwµqvi wewfbœ ch©v‡q m¤úvw`Z Kv‡Ri msw¶ß weeiY Dc¯’vcb Kiv n‡jv:

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

cÖevn wP‡Î RvZxq wk¶vµg Dbœqb cÖwµqv wk¶K

wk¶v_x©

wk¶v cÖwZôvb

cÖPwjZ wk¶vµg

Ae¯’vi we‡kølY wk¶vµ‡gi iƒc‡iLv cÖYqb

mgvR, ivóª I AvšÍR©vwZK Pvwn`v ivóªxq g~jbxwZ RvZxq wk¶vbxwZ 2010

welqwfwËK wk¶vµg cÖYqb wk¶vµ‡gi mgš^qmvab I mvwe©K iƒc`vb RvZxq wk¶vµg mgš^q KwgwU KZ©„K wk¶vµg 2012 Aby‡gv`b

2


4.1 4.1.1

Ae¯’vi we‡kølY gva¨wgK ¯Í‡ii cÖPwjZ wk¶vµg ch©v‡jvPbv GmBGmwWwci wk¶vµg we‡klÁe„›` 2008 mv‡j gva¨wgK ¯Í‡ii (wbgœ-gva¨wgK I gva¨wgK) wk¶vµg ch©v‡jvPbv K‡ib| †hŠw³K ch©v‡jvPbvi gva¨‡g wk¶vµ‡gi ÎæwU-wePz¨wZ Ges wk¶v_©x‡`i wkLb Pvwn`v c~i‡Y wk¶vµ‡gi Dc‡hvwMZv hvPvB Kiv nq| GB ch©v‡jvPbvi djvdj bZzb wk¶vµg Dbœq‡b we‡ePbvq ivLv nq|

4.1.2

cÖPwjZ wk¶vµ‡gi g~j¨vqb GmBGmwWwci wk¶vµg we‡klÁMY Ôgva¨wgK ¯Í‡ii wk¶vµg g~j¨vqb I Pvwn`v wbiƒcY mgx¶v 2010Õ kxl©K GKwU M‡elYv cwiPvjbv K‡ib| G mgxÿvi gva¨‡g wk¶vµ‡gi mej I `ye©j w`K, ev¯Íevq‡bi cÖwZeÜKZv I cwigvR©‡bi †¶Îmg~n wPwýZ Ges wk¶v_©x‡`i wkLb-Pvwn`v wbiƒcY Kiv nq|

4.1.3

RvZxq wk¶vbxwZ 2010 RvZxq wk¶vbxwZ 2010-G D‡jøwLZ wk¶v msµvšÍ bxwZmg~n we‡kl K‡i gva¨wgK wk¶v m¤úwK©Z avivmg~n ch©v‡jvPbv K‡i bZzb wk¶vµg Dbœq‡bi wfZ ˆZwi Kiv nq| wk¶vbxwZi wfwˇZB cÖPwjZ mKj avivi (mvaviY, gv`ªvmv, Bs‡iwR) wk¶v e¨e¯’v‡K wbw`©ó ch©vq ch©šÍ mgwš^Z I GKgyLx wk¶vµ‡gi AšÍf³ ©y Kivi c`‡¶c †bIqv nq| G e¨e¯’vq me ai‡bi wk¶v cÖwZôv‡b cÖ_g †_‡K Aóg †kªwY ch©šÍ GKB wk¶vµg Abymv‡i wk¶v Kvh©µg cwiPvwjZ n‡e|

4.1.4

AvšÍR©vwZK ch©v‡qi wk¶vµg ch©v‡jvPbv mgmvgwqK we‡k¦i wbe©vwPZ K‡qKwU †`‡ki- fviZ , kªxj¼v, gvj‡qwkqv, wm½vcyi, A‡÷ªwjqv (A½ivR¨), hy³ivR¨ (A½ivR¨) Ges KvbvWvi (A½ivR¨) wk¶vµg ch©v‡jvPbv Kiv nq| Gme †`‡ki wk¶ve¨e¯’vi we‡kl K‡i wk¶vµ‡gi we‡kl w`Kmg~n ch©v‡jvPbv K‡i evsjv‡`‡ki cwiw¯’wZ‡Z G‡`i Dc‡hvwMZv hvPvB Kiv nq|

4.1.5

cÖvmw½K cÖwZ‡e`b, cÖeÜ I gZvgZ ch©v‡jvPbv †`k-we‡`‡k cÖKvwkZ wk¶v m¤úwK©Z we‡kl K‡i wk¶vµg welqK cÖwZ‡e`b, cÖeÜ I gZvgZ ch©v‡jvPbv Kiv nq| G¸‡jvi g‡a¨ D‡jøL‡hvM¨ K‡qKwU n‡”QGKwesk kZvãxi wk¶v m¤úwK©Z AvšÍR©vwZK wk¶v Kwgk‡bi cÖwZ‡e`b UNESCO (1996) ÔLearning: The Treasure Within; O’Neill, Geraldine (2010)

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

‘Programme Design: Overview of Curriculum Models’; Marsh, C.J (1997) ‘Perspective Key Concepts for Understanding Curriculum’; Sheehan, John (1986) Curriculum Models: Product versus Process, Smith, P.L (1993) Instructional Design, Macmillan; RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW© cwiPvwjZ

(2012) wbgœgva¨wgK, gva¨wgK I D”Pgva¨wgK ch©v‡qi wk¶vµg, wk¶K cÖwk¶Y wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯‡Í K †RÛvi ms‡e`bkxjZv ch©v‡jvPbv kxl©K cÖwZ‡e`b, Rjevq~ cwieZ©b I `y‡h©vM, ZvgvK wbqš¿Y, UNICEF (2009) cwiPvwjZ ÔRxeb `¶ZvwfwËK wk¶vÕ| ZvQvov evsjv‡`‡ki wewfbœ cÖKí, miKvwi I †emiKvwi cÖwZôvb Ges ms¯’v wk¶vµ‡g AšÍf©yw³i Rb¨ 31wU cÖwZ‡e`b Rgv †`q| Gme cÖwZ‡e`b ch©v‡jvPbv K‡i mswkøó wel‡q cÖ‡qvRbxq cÖvmw½K welqe¯‘ ms‡hvR‡bi e¨e¯’v †bIqv nq| 31wU cÖwZ‡e`‡bi g‡a¨ D‡jøL‡hvM¨ K‡qKwU n‡”Q- Rjevqy cwieZ©b, Z_¨ cÖvwßi AwaKvi, Lv`¨-cywó, cÖRbb ¯^v¯’¨, GBPAvBwf-GBWm, we‡kl Pvwn`vm¤úbœ wkï BZ¨vw`| 4.2

wk¶vµ‡gi iƒc‡iLv cÖYqb Ae¯’vi we‡kølY †_‡K jä AwfÁZv I djvd‡ji wfwˇZ GmBGmwWwci wk¶vµg we‡klÁe„›` RvZxq civgk©‡Ki wb‡`©kbvq wk¶vµg Dbœq‡bi bxwZgvjv Ges wewfbœ ch©v‡qi wk¶v Kvh©µg mgvßKvix‡`i wk¶vq AMÖmiY cÖevn wPÎ wba©viY K‡ib| Gm‡ei Dci wfwË K‡i wk¶vµ‡gi iƒc‡iLv cÖYqb Kiv nq|

4.2.1

wk¶vµg Dbœq‡bi bxwZgvjv  gnvb fvlv Av‡›`vjb I gyw³hy‡×i †PZbv Ges Amv¤cÖ`vwqK g~j¨‡ev‡ai wfwˇZ †`k‡cÖg weKv‡ki my‡hvM m„wó  ˆbwZKZv I gvbweK g~j¨‡eva weKv‡ki Dci ¸iæZ¡ cÖ`vb  AbymwÜrmv, m„Rbkxj I D™¢vebx ¶gZv e„w×i my‡hvM cÖ`vb  weÁvbgb¯‹ I Kg©gyLx Kivi Dci ¸iæZ¡ Av‡ivc  AvaywbK cÖhyw³ e¨env‡ii †hvM¨Zv AR©‡bi my‡hvM m„wó  ZvwË¡K Áv‡bi mv‡_ ev¯ÍegyLx I cÖ‡qvMgyLx wk¶vi my‡hvM e„w×  Rxeb`¶Zv AR©‡bi my‡hvM m„wó  me ai‡bi ˆelg¨ Aemv‡bi j‡¶¨ gvbevwaKv‡ii Dci ¸iæZ¡ cÖ`vb  wek¦vq‡bi Pvwn`v Abymv‡i gvbem¤ú` m„wói Dci ¸iæZ¡ cÖ`vb 3


wk¶v Kvh©µg mgvßKvix‡`i AMÖmiY cÖevn wPÎ

D”Pwk¶v (mvaviY, gv`ªvmv, †ckvMZ)

gva¨wgK wk¶v 9g †_‡K 12k †kªwY (mvaviY, gv`ªvmv)

KvwiMwi wk¶v D”PZi `¶Zv e„wËg~jK wk¶v

4.2.3

wk¶vµg Dbœq‡bi wba©vwiZ bxwZgvjv I wk¶v Kvh©µg mgvßKvix‡`i wk¶vq AMÖmiY wP·K mwµq we‡ePbvq †i‡L wk¶vµ‡gi Lmov iƒc‡iLv cÖYqb Kiv nq| Lmov iƒc‡iLvwU RvZxq wk¶vµg civgk©K I wk¶vµg we‡klÁM‡Yi †ek KqwU Af¨šÍixY mfvq ch©v‡jvPbv I cwigvR©b Kiv nq| Gfv‡e cwigvwR©Z iƒc‡iLv `yÕwU RvZxq †mwgbv‡i (25 AvM÷ 2010 Ges 23 †deªæqvwi 2011) Dc¯’vcb I ch©v‡jvPbv Kiv nq| Gme †mwgbv‡i RvZxq ch©v‡qi wk¶vµg we‡klÁ, welq we‡klÁ, wk¶vwe`, wk¶K-wk¶vq we‡klÁ, wk¶v cÖkvmK, †kªwY wk¶K AskMÖnY K‡ib| G †mwgbv‡i gnvb RvZxq msm‡`i K‡qKRb gvbbxq msm` m`m¨ I RvZxq ch©v‡qi †ek K‡qKRb †bZ…e„›` mwµq AskMÖnY K‡i gZvgZ cÖ`vb K‡ib| †mwgbvi †_‡K cÖvß mycvwik we‡ePbvq †i‡L iƒc‡iLvwU cwigvR©b Kiv nq| cwigvwR©Z iƒc‡iLvwU RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW© Ges RvZxq wk¶vµg mgš^q KwgwU KZ©„K Aby‡gvw`Z nq| (wk¶vµ‡gi iƒc‡iLv 6 bs Aby‡”Q‡` ms‡hvwRZ)

4.2.4

wk¶vµ‡gi iƒc‡iLvq AšÍfy©³ welqmg~n n‡”Q wk¶vi j¶¨ I mvaviY D‡Ïk¨, ¯ÍiwfwËK wbe©vwPZ welq, welqwfwËK b¤^i I mvßvwnK K¬vm wcwiqW, wkÿve‡l©i Kg©w`em I QywUi ZvwjKv, K¬vm-wcwiq‡Wi e¨vwß, RvZxq w`emmg~‡n KiYxq BZ¨vw`|

4.3

welqwfwËK wk¶vµg Dbœqb wk¶vµ‡gi iƒc‡iLvi wfwˇZ cÖwZwU wel‡qi wk¶vµg Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ RvZxq ch©v‡qi wk¶v we‡klÁ, welq we‡klÁ, AwfÁ †kªwYwk¶K I GbwmwUwe‡Z Kg©iZ we‡klÁM‡Yi mgš^‡q cÖwZwU wel‡qi Rb¨ 5 †_‡K 8 m`m¨ wewkó GKwU K‡i KwgwU wk¶v gš¿Yvjq KZ©„K MVb Kiv nq| cÖwZwU welq KwgwU‡Z mgš^qKvix wnmv‡e `vwqZ¡ cvjb K‡ib GmBGmwWwci GKRb wk¶vµg we‡klÁ|

4.3.1

welqwfwËK wk¶vµg Dbœqb KwgwUmg~n‡K wZbwU `‡j fvM K‡i cÖwZ `j‡K wk¶vµg Dbœqb wel‡q wbweo cÖwk¶Y †`Iqv nq| cÖwk¶‡Yi cÖavb wZbwU †¶Î n‡”Q (K) wk¶vµ‡gi iƒc‡iLv cwiwPwZ I wk¶vµg Dbœq‡bi bxwZgvjv (L) wk¶vµg Dbœqb cÖwµqv Ges wk¶vµg Dbœq‡bi wba©vwiZ QK I Gi e¨envi (M) QKwfwËK nv‡Z Kj‡g bgybv wk¶vµg Dbœqb Ges ch©v‡jvPbv|

D”PZi `¶Zvi Kg© ga¨ gv‡bi `¶Zvi Kg©

Kg©Rxeb

4.2.2

cÖ‡ek `¶Zvi Kg©

e„wËg~jK wk¶v

cÖv_wgK wk¶v / Ge‡Z`vwq (1g †_‡K 8g †kªwY) cÖvK-cÖv_wgK wk¶v RvZxq wk¶vbxwZ 2010 Gi wfwˇZ Aw¼Z AMÖmiY cÖevn wPÎvbymv‡i 8 eQi †gqvw` eva¨Zvg~jK I A‰eZwbK cÖv_wgK wk¶v †kl K‡i †gav I cÖeYZvi wfwˇZ wk¶v_©x‡`i GKwU Ask Pvi eQi †gqvw` gva¨wgK wk¶vq hv‡e Ges Ab¨ AskwU e„wËg~jK wk¶vq hv‡e| gva¨wgK wk¶v †k‡l Zviv D”P wk¶vq hv‡e| Z‡e gva¨wgK ch©v‡qi cÖ_g `yÕeQi †k‡l †KD †KD KvwiMwi wk¶vq hv‡e| e„wËg~jK wk¶v mgvßKvix‡`i GKwU Ask cÖ‡ek `¶Zvi Kg©Rxe‡b cÖ‡ek Ki‡e, Ab¨iv D”PZi `¶Zv e„wËg~jK wk¶v MÖnY Ki‡e| GB wk¶v †k‡l wKQz msL¨K KvwiMwi wk¶vq hv‡e Ges Ab¨iv ga¨gv‡bi `¶Zv Kg©Rxe‡b cÖ‡ek Ki‡e| KvwiMwi wk¶v †k‡l †KD †KD D”P wk¶vq (cÖ‡KŠkj) hv‡e, †KDev ga¨ gv‡bi `¶Zv Kg© Rxe‡b cÖ‡ek Ki‡e| D”P wk¶v †k‡l D”PZi `¶Zvi Kg©Rxe‡b cÖ‡ek Ki‡e| Gfv‡e wewfbœ Ávb `¶Zv wb‡q Kg©Rxeb ïiæ Ki‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

4


4.3.2

cÖwk¶‡Y cvi¯úwiK Avjvc-Av‡jvPbvi gva¨‡g welqwfwËK wk¶vµg Dbœq‡b wbgœwjwLZ †mvcvb Abymi‡Yi wm×všÍ †bIqv nq: (K) f~wgKv (wel‡qi msw¶ß cwiPq) (L) D‡Ïk¨ (mvaviY D‡Ïk¨vewji Av‡jv‡K wel‡qi D‡Ïk¨vewj) (M) cÖvwšÍK wkLbdj (welqwfwËK D‡Ïk¨vewj AR©b Dc‡hvMx wba©vwiZ ¯Íi †k‡l AR©b‡hvM¨ wkLbdj, QK 1 G cÖvwšÍK wkLbd‡ji †kªwYwfwËK wefvRb Ges QK 2 G †kªwYwfwËK wkLbdj, Aa¨vq I wcwiqW msL¨v, Aa¨vqwfwËK welqe¯‘, wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv, g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv I cy¯ÍK cÖYqb wb‡`©kbv| †h‡nZz beg-`kg †kªwY I GKv`k-Øv`k †kªwY Awe‡”Q`¨ †kªwY †m‡nZz G `yÕwU ch©v‡qi wk¶vµg Dbœq‡b QK 1G †kªwYwfwËK wkLbd‡ji wefvR‡bi cÖ‡qvRb nq wb|

4.3.7 mvwe©K wk¶vµgwU †UKwbK¨vj KwgwU KZ©„K cwigvR©‡bi ci wk¶v gš¿Yvjq KZ©„K MwVZ cÖ‡dkbvj KwgwU I RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW© KZ©„K Aby‡gvw`Z nq| me©‡k‡l RvZxq wk¶vµg mgš^q KwgwU KZ©„K Aby‡gv`b jv‡fi ci wk¶vµgwU ÔRvZxq wk¶vµg 2012Õ wnmv‡e M„nxZ nq|

4.3.3 cÖwZwU welqwfwËK KwgwU w`be¨vcx wbav©wiZ msL¨K mfvq wgwjZ n‡q wba©vwiZ Q‡K wk¶vµ‡gi Lmov cÖYqb K‡i| Gici GKB ai‡bi welq¸‡”Qi welqwfwËK KwgwUmg~n I wk¶vµg civgk©‡Ki †hŠ_ mfvq Lmov wk¶vµg Dc¯’vcb I ch©v‡jvPbv Kiv nq| welq KwgwU †m Abymv‡i wk¶vµg cwigvR©b K‡i| 4.3.4 GKB ai‡bi welqmg~n wb‡q PviwU `j MVb K‡i cÖwZwU `‡ji AvevwmK Kg©kvjv Kzwgjøv ev‡W© (BARD) AbywôZ nq| welq KwgwUi m`m¨e„›`, mswkøó †fwUs KwgwU I m¤úv`bv KwgwUi m`m¨e„›`, wk¶v gš¿Yvjq KZ©„K MwVZ wk¶vµg Dbœqb welqK †UKwbK¨vj KwgwUi m`m¨e„›` G Kg©kvjvq AskMÖnY K‡ib| G Kg©kvjvq welqwfwËK wk¶vµg Dc¯’vcb I ch©v‡jvPbv Kiv nq| ch©v‡jvPbvi Av‡jv‡K mswkøó KwgwU wkÿvµ‡gi cÖ‡qvRbxq cwigvR©b K‡i| 4.3.5

cieZ©x‡Z mKj wk¶vµ‡gi Rb¨ mvaviY Ask ˆZwi Kiv nq| G AskwU c~‡e© cÖ¯‘ZK…Z wk¶vµ‡gi iƒc‡iLv I welqwfwËK wk¶vµgmg~‡ni mv‡_ mgš^q K‡i c~Y©v½ iƒc`vb Kiv nq|

4.3.6

Gici cÖYxZ wk¶vµg wefvMxq Kg©kvjvq Dc¯’vcb I ch©v‡jvPbv Kiv nq| Kg©kvjvq welq-wk¶KMY `jMZfv‡e ¯^ ¯^ wel‡qi wk¶vµg wbweofv‡e ch©v‡jvPbv K‡i mywbw`©ó mycvwik iv‡Lb| Kg©kvjvi G mycvwi‡ki Av‡jv‡K welq KwgwU wk¶vµg cwigvR©b K‡i mvwe©K iƒc`vb K‡ib|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

5


4.4 wk¶vµg Dbœq‡bi wewfbœ ch©v‡qi Kvh©µg ch©vq Kvh©µg Dbœqb/cÖYqbKvixe„›` 1. Ae¯’vi 1.1 gva¨wgK ¯Í‡ii cÖPwjZ 1.1 GmBGmwWwci wk¶vµg we‡kølY wk¶vµg ch©v‡jvPbv we‡klÁe„›` 1.2 gva¨wgK ¯Í‡ii wk¶vµg 1.2 GmBGmwWwci wk¶vµg g~j¨vqb I Pvwn`v wbiƒcY we‡klÁe„›` mgx¶v 2010 cwiPvjbv 1.3 RvZxq wk¶vµg 1995-96 1.3 GmBGmwWwci wk¶vµg we‡kølY we‡klÁe„›`

3.

ch©vq welqwfwËK wk¶vµg Dbœqb

Kvh©µg 3.1. wk¶vµg Dbœq‡bi Dci wbweo cÖwk¶Y cÖ`vb

1.4 AvšÍR©vwZK ch©v‡qi wk¶vµg ch©v‡jvPbv

2.

wk¶vµ‡gi iƒc‡iLv cÖYqb

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

1.4 GmBGmwWwci wk¶vµg we‡klÁe„›` Ges RvZxq wk¶vµg civgk©K 1.5 cÖvmw½K cÖwZ‡e`b, cÖeÜ I 1.5 GmBGmwWwci wk¶vµg gZvgZ ch©v‡jvPbv we‡klÁe„›` Ges RvZxq wk¶vµg civgk©K 2.1 wk¶vµg civgk©‡Ki 2.1 wk¶vµg Dbœq‡bi wb‡`©kbvq bxwZgvjv wba©viY GmBGmwWwci wk¶vµg we‡klÁe„›` 2.2 wk¶v Kvh©µg mgvßKvix‡`i AMÖmiY cÖevn wPÎ cÖYqb

2.2

wk¶vµg civgk©‡Ki wb‡`©kbvq GmBGmwWwci wk¶vµg we‡klÁe„›`

2.3 wk¶vµ‡gi iƒc‡iLv cÖYqb

2.3.1 wk¶vµg civgk©‡Ki wb‡`©kbvq GmBGmwWwci wk¶vµg we‡klÁe„›` 2.3.2 `yÕwU RvZxq †mwgbv‡i AskMÖnYKvixe„›`

3.2. welqwfwËK wk¶vµg Dbœqb

4.

wk¶vµ‡gi mgš^q mvab I Aby‡gv`b

Dbœqb/cÖYqbKvixe„›` 3.1. wk¶vµg civgk©K I †UKwbK¨vj KwgwU 3.3.1 wk¶v we‡klÁ, welq we‡klÁ, AwfÁ †kÖwY wk¶K, GbwmwUwe I GmBGmwWwci we‡klÁ‡`i mgš^‡q MwVZ welqwfwËK wk¶vµg Dbœqb KwgwU, wb‡`©kbvq RvZxq wk¶vµg civgk©K 3.3.2 wefvMxq Kg©kvjvq AskMÖnYKvix welq wk¶K I GmBGmwWwci wk¶vµg we‡klÁe„›` 3.3.3 †UKwbK¨vj KwgwU

4.1. wk¶vµ‡gi mvgwMÖKfv‡e cÖ‡hvR¨ Ask ˆZwi I mKj As‡ki mgš^‡q RvZxq wk¶vµg 2012 iƒc`vb Ges

4.1.1 wk¶vµg civgk©K I GmBGmwWwci wk¶vµg we‡klÁe„›` 4.1.2 †UKwbK¨vj KwgwU 4.1.3 †fwUs KwgwU 4.1.4 cÖ‡dkbvj KwgwU 4.1.5 GbwmwUwe

4.2. wk¶vµg Aby‡gv`b

4.2 RvZxq wk¶vµg mgš^q KwgwU

6


5.

RvZxq wk¶vµg 2012 Gi ˆewkó¨ 5.1 mvaviY, gv`ªvmv I Bs‡iwR wk¶vavivmn mKj avivi wk¶vi Rb¨ Aóg †kªwY ch©šÍ GKgyLx I Awfbœ wk¶vµg cÖYqb| 5.2 Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³, Kg© I RxebgyLx wk¶v/K¨vwiqvi GWy‡Kkb ms‡hvR‡bi cvkvcvwk cÖPwjZ mvgvwRK weÁvb wel‡qi cwie‡Z© evsjv‡`k I wek¦cwiPq welq ms‡hvRb| 5.3 Rjevqy cwieZ©b, cÖRbb ¯^v¯’¨, Z_¨ AwaKvi, AwURg BZ¨vw` welqe¯‘ ms‡hvRb| 5.4 6ô †_‡K 10g †kÖwY‡Z Hw”QK welq wnmv‡e Ô¶z`ª b„‡Mvôxi fvlv I ms¯‹…wZÕ welq ms‡hvRb| 5.5 hy‡Mi Pvwn`vbymv‡i mKj ¯Í‡ii cÖPwjZ welqvw`i welqe¯‘ AvaywbKvqb Ges GKv`k-Øv`k †kÖwY‡Z Hw”QK welq wnmv‡e (K) wnDg¨vb ivBUm GÛ †RÛvi ÷vwWR (L) ccy‡jkb GÛ †W‡fjc‡g›U ÷vwWR (M) wnDg¨vb wi‡mvm© †W‡fjc‡g›U Ges (N) Uz¨wiRg GÛ nmwcUvwjwU bZzb welqvw` ms‡hvRb| 5.6 ag© wk¶vmn mKj wel‡q ˆbwZK wk¶vi Dci ¸iæZ¡ cÖ`vb| 5.7 fvlv Av‡›`vjb I gyw³hy‡×i †PZbv Ges Amv¤cÖ`vwqK †PZbv weKv‡ki gva¨‡g †`kvZ¥‡eva I RvZxq HK¨ weKv‡ki Dci ¸iæZ¡ cÖ`vb| †`kvZ¥‡eva weKv‡ki gva¨‡g AvšÍR©vwZKZv‡eva m„wói cÖqvm| 5.8 weÁvbgb¯‹, hyw³ev`x, Kg©gyLx I `¶ Rbkw³ m„wói Dci ¸iæZ¡ Av‡ivc| 5.9 gvZ…fvlv evsjv Ges AvšÍR©vwZK fvlv Bs‡iwR wk¶vq welqe¯‘ gyL¯’ Kivi cwie‡Z© e¨envwiK PviwU `¶Zv †kvbv, ejv, cov I †jLv †kÖwYK‡ÿ Abykxj‡bi gva¨‡g †kLvi my‡hvM m„wó Ges AwR©Z `ÿZv g~j¨vq‡bi c×wZ cÖeZ©b| 5.10 wkLb-†KŠkj Kvh©µ‡gi gva¨‡g wkÿv_x©‡`i‡K m„Rbkxj Kiv A_©vr we‡kølYg~jK, wPšÍv DÏxcK I m„Rbkxj cÖ‡kœvËi I KvR Abykxj‡bi gva¨‡g m„Rbkxj I D™¢vebx ¶gZvi weKv‡ki my‡hvM cÖ`vb| 5.11 †hme wel‡q e¨envwiK KvR Av‡Q †hgb- weÁvb, c`v_©weÁvb, imvqb, RxeweÁvb, K…wlwk¶v, Mvn©¯’¨ weÁvb, kvixwiK wkÿv I ¯^v¯’¨, Kg© I RxebgyLx wkÿv, Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³, Pviæ I KviæKjv wel‡qi ZvwË¡K I e¨envwiK As‡ki g‡a¨ mgš^q mvab Ges wk¶v‡K Rxeb I ev¯ÍegyLx Kivi cÖqvm| A_©vr cÖwZwU ZË¡, m~Î I bxwZ wk¶vi mv‡_ mv‡_ e¨envwiK Kivi my‡hvM cÖ`vb| 5.12 nv‡Z Kj‡g K‡i †kLv I `jMZ Av‡jvPbv K‡i †kLvi Dci ¸iæZ¡ cÖ`vb| 5.13 †kªwY Kvh©µ‡g cÖhyw³i e¨envi e„w×| 5.14 wk¶v‡K Rxeb I ev¯ÍegyLx Kivi cÖqvm Ges †`kxq †cÖÿvc‡U Dbœqbÿg Rbkw³ m„wói Dci ¸iæZ¡ cÖ`vb| RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

5.15 Aa¨vq †_‡K Kx Kx Ávb, `¶Zv, g~j¨‡eva I `„wófw½ AR©b Ki‡e Zv eyw×e„wËK, g‡bv‡cwkR I Av‡eMxq wkLbdj wnmv‡e cÖwZwU Aa¨v‡qi ïiæ‡Z ms‡hvRb| 5.16 wk¶vi gva¨‡g me©cÖKvi ˆelg¨ `~i K‡i mgZv weav‡bi my‡hvM m„wó| wj½, ag©, eY©, RvwZ, †ckvMZ I A_©‰bwZK ˆelg¨ `~i Kivi j‡¶¨ GKxf~Z wk¶vq ¸iæZ¡ cÖ`vb| 5.17 wek¦vq‡bi Pvwn`v Abymv‡i gvbem¤ú` m„wói cÖqvm| 5.18 cÖwZ wcwiq‡Wi e¨vwß e„w×, Aa¨vqwfwËK wcwiqW wba©viY, wkÿve‡l© Kg©w`e‡mi msL¨v e„w×| 5.19 RvZxq w`emmg~‡n ¯‹zj †Lvjv †i‡L w`em D`hvc‡bi e¨e¯’v cÖeZ©b| 5.20 avivevwnK g~j¨vq‡bi (MVbKvjxb g~j¨vqb) gva¨‡g wkLb `ye©jZv wPwýZ K‡i wbivgqg~jK †mevi gva¨‡g wkLb wbwðZKiY| 5.21 cÖPwjZ e¨envwiK cixÿvi ms¯‹vi mva‡bi gva¨‡g AwZwi³ b¤Ÿi cÖ`v‡bi my‡hvM eÜ Kiv| 5.22 mvgwóK g~j¨vqb/mvgwqK cix¶v I cvewjK cix¶v c×wZi ms¯‹vi| 6. wk¶vµ‡gi iƒc‡iLv 6.1 lô-Øv`k †kªwYi wk¶vi j¶¨ I D‡Ïk¨ j¶¨ wk¶v_©xi mvwe©K weKv‡ki gva¨‡g gvbweK, mvgvwRK I ˆbwZK ¸Ym¤úbœ Ávbx, `¶, hyw³ev`x I m„Rbkxj †`k‡cÖwgK Rb m¤ú` m„wó| K. L.

M.

N.

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6.3 mvaviY wk¶v avivi beg-`kg †kªwYi welq-KvVv‡gv, b¤^i I mgq eÈb wel‡qi aib welq cix¶vi mgqeÈb b¤^i (K¬vm wcwiqW) mvßvwnK mvgwqK evwl©K 1. evsjv 200 5 80 160 2. Bs‡iwR 200 5 80 160 3. MwYZ 100 4 64 128 4. ag© I ˆbwZK wk¶v 100 2 32 64 (Bmjvg I ˆbwZK wk¶v/ Avewk¨K wn›`yag© I ˆbwZK wk¶v/ wLªóag© I ˆbwZK wk¶v/ †eŠ×ag© I ˆbwZK wk¶v) 5. Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³ 50 2 32 64 6. K¨vwiqvi wkÿv 50 1 16 32 7. kvixwiK wk¶v , ¯^v¯’¨ 100 2 32 64 weÁvb I †Ljvayjv †gvU 800 21 336 672 kvLvwfwËK welq weÁvb kvLvi 8. c`v_©weÁvb 100 3 48 96 Rb¨ 9. imvqb 100 3 48 96 Avewk¨K 10.RxeweÁvb/D”PZi MwYZ 100 3 48 96 welq 11.evsjv‡`k I wek¦cwiPq 100 3 48 96 weÁvb kvLvi 12. RxeweÁvb/D”PZi 100 3 48 96 MwYZ/ ¶z`ª b„‡Mvôxi fvlv Hw”QK welq (GKwU †bIqv I ms¯‹…wZ, K…wlwk¶v/ hv‡e) Mvn©¯’¨weÁvb/ f~‡Mvj I cwi‡ek/Pviæ I KviæKjv /msMxZ/†ewmK †UªW/ kvixwiK wkÿv I µxov* me©‡gvU 1300 36 576 1152 e¨emvq wk¶v 8. e¨emvq D‡`¨vM 100 3 48 96 kvLvi Rb¨ 9. wnmveweÁvb 100 3 48 96 Avewk¨K 10.wdb¨vÝ I e¨vswKs 100 3 48 96 welq 11. weÁvb 100 3 48 96 RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

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8.1.5 wk¶v_©xiv hv wkL‡e Zv ey‡S wkL‡e| †Kvb welq m¤ú‡K© my¯úó aviYv jvf Ki‡e| bv ey‡S gyL¯’ Kiv h_v_© wk¶v bq| G‡Z wkL‡bi mÂvjb nq bv| ey‡S wkL‡j ev †Kvb mgm¨v mgvav‡bi hyw³ I c×wZ ey‡S cÖ‡qvM Ki‡j Abyiƒc mgm¨vi mgvavb wb‡RB Ki‡Z cv‡i| ZvB gyL‡¯’i †P‡q eySvi Dci ¸iæZ¡ †`Iqv cÖ‡qvRb| 8.1.6 wk¶v jv‡f h_vh_ wk‡¶vcKi‡Yi mwVK e¨envi AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| me wel‡qB Kg†ewk wk‡¶vcKiY e¨env‡ii my‡hvM Av‡Q| wk‡¶vcKi‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ RwUj I weg~Z© welq‡K mnR I g~Z© K‡i Dc¯’vcb K‡i welqwU‡K ¯úó aviYv †`Iqv hvq| GKwU †QvU MvQ †kªwY‡Z cÖ`k©b K‡i Mv‡Qi wewfbœ Ask ev gvwëwgwWqvq m~h©MÖnY †`Lv‡j hZ mn‡R mwVK aviYv jvf m¤¢e Ab¨ †Kv‡bvfv‡e Zv m¤¢e bq| gvwëwgwWqv e¨env‡ii my‡hvM bv _vK‡j P›`ª, c„w_ex I m~‡h©i Awfbq ev PvU© e¨envi Kiv hvq| 8.1.7 wkLb‡K ¯’vqxKi‡Yi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRb Abykxj‡bi e¨e¯’v| bZzbfv‡e AwR©Z Ávb, `¶Zv evievi Abykxjb Kiv n‡j GKw`‡K †hgb wkLb ¯’vqx nq, Ab¨w`‡K wkLb mÂvj‡bi my‡hvM m„wó nq| 8.1.8 wk¶v AR©‡bi †¶‡Î wk¶v_©xi cÖwZ wk¶‡Ki mnvbyf~wZc~Y© AvPiY LyeB ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| wk¶K-wk¶v_©xi m¤úK© Ggb n‡e †hb wk¶v_©x ïay †jLvcov welqK mgm¨v bq, Zvi †h †Kvb e¨w³MZ, cvwievwiK mgm¨v webv ms‡Kv‡P wk¶‡Ki mv‡_ Av‡jvPbv K‡i| wk¶K mgm¨v mgvav‡b civgk© w`‡eb Ges mva¨gZ mnvqZv Ki‡eb| wk¶K-wk¶v_©xi gv‡S †Kv‡bv †`qvj _vK‡e bv| m¤úK© n‡e †mœn-kª×vi Ges LyeB Nwbô I AvšÍwiK| 8.1.9 wk¶‡Ki wek¦vm _vK‡Z n‡e †h, Zuvi mKj wk¶v_©xB †kLvi mvg_©¨ m¤úbœ| mevi †kLvi Dcvq I MwZi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ _vK‡Z cv‡i, Z‡e Dchy³ cwi‡ek I mn‡hvwMZv †c‡j mevB †k‡L| †Kvb wk¶v_©xi cÖwZ wk¶‡Ki †bwZevPK g‡bvfve _vK‡j H wk¶K †_‡K wk¶v_©xi DcK…Z nIqvi m¤¢vebv LyeB Kg| ZvB cÖwZwU wk¶v_©xi cÖwZ wk¶‡Ki D”P aviYv _vKv evÃbxq| †Kvb wk¶v_©x‡K KLbI Ôgv_vq †MveiÕ, Ô†Zv‡K w`‡q wKQyB n‡e bvÕ, ÔMvavÕ, ÔAc`v_©Õ BZ¨vw` †Kvb ai‡bi †bwZevPK ev wbiærmvng~jK K_v ejv hv‡e bv| †eZ e¨envi ev †Kvb cÖKvi kvixwiK ev gvbwmK kvw¯Í cÖ`vb wkÿv jv‡fi AšÍivq Ges ivóªxq AvB‡b kvw¯Í‡hvM¨ Aciva| Drmvn cÖ`vb Kiv n‡j wk¶v_©xi †kLvi AvMÖn A‡bKUvB †e‡o hvq| 9. 9.1

wkLb gZev` wk¶v weÁv‡bi AZ¨šÍ ¸iæZ¡c~Y© welq wkLb gZev`| `xN©w`b a‡i _b©WvB‡Ki cÖ‡Póv I fyj ms‡kvab gZev` (Trail and Error Theory of Thorndike); †cfj‡fi DÏxcK I cÖwZwµqvwfwËK mv‡c¶ cÖwZeZ©ev` (Conditioned Reflex Theory of Pavlov); †Kv‡njvi I KvdKv‡ii mgMÖZvev` (Gestalt Theory) wkL‡bi †¶‡Î Abym„Z n‡q Avm‡Q| eqm‡f‡` wkï‡`i AeaviY ¶gZv wfbœ G wel‡q Theory of Cognitive Development of Piaget

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

wk¶vweÁv‡b mwe‡kl Ae`vb †i‡L P‡j‡Q| G gZev‡` AeaviY ¶gZv ev mvg‡_©¨i ZviZg¨ Abymv‡i 1 †_‡K 16 eQi eq‡mi wkï Rxeb‡K PviwU ¯Í‡i fvM Kiv n‡q‡Q| fvM¸‡jv n‡”Q (K) 0-2 eQi ms‡e`b mÂvj‡bi ¯Íi (L) 2-7 eQi cÖvK-Kvh©Ki ¯Íi (M) 7-11 eQi ev¯Íe Kvh©Ki ¯Íi Ges (N) 11-16 eQi AvbyôvwbK Kvh©Ki ¯Íi| wk¶vµg Dbœqb I wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg cwiPvjbvq wkïi AeaviY ¶gZv ev mvg‡_¨©i welq we‡ePbvq ivLv LyeB ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| †Kvb eq‡mi wkï KZUzKz aviY Ki‡Z cv‡i ev †Kvb eq‡m Kx Kx ai‡bi weg~Z© aviYv jvf Ki‡Z m¶g †m m¤ú‡K© my¯úó aviYv _vKv AZ¨vek¨K| wkL‡bi DwjøwLZ cÖ‡Z¨KwU gZev` g~jZ AvPiYev`| wKš‘ eZ©gvb we‡k¦ me©vwaK Av‡jvP¨ wkLb gZev`wU aviYv MVb m¤úwK©Z hv MVbev` bv‡g cwiwPZ| 9.2 MVbev` (Constructivist Theory) wk¶v_x© wKfv‡e †k‡L G m¤ú‡K© wk¶v g‡bvweÁvbx‡`i Ae¨vnZ cÖ‡Póvi d‡j D™¢~Z me©vaywbK ZË¡ n‡”Q MVbev`| j¨vwUb kã Constrvere †_‡K Construct kãwUi DrcwË hvi A_© web¨vm Kiv ev MVb †`Iqv| ZvB G Z‡Ë¡i g~jK_v n‡jv aviYv MVbB wkLb| cÖwZ gyn~‡Z© Bw›`ªq MÖvn¨ Z_¨ Øviv Avgv‡`i wPšÍ‡bi g‡a¨ †h wbqwgZ MVb Ges cwieZ©b n‡”Q Zvi gva¨‡gB wkLb cÖwµqv N‡U| cÖ‡Z¨K wk¶v_x© wb‡Ri AwfÁZv Ges cvwicvwk¦©KZv Abya¨vb K‡i wb‡Ri g‡Zv GKKfv‡e bZzb Ávb I aviYv MVb K‡i| e¨w³ bZzb wKQyi m¤§yLxb n‡j †m GUv‡K Zvi c~e©jä Ávb I AwfÁZvi Av‡jv‡K hvPvB K‡i MÖnY K‡i| Gfv‡eB e¨w³ bZzb aviYv ev Ávb AR©b K‡i| hvPvB‡q bZzb welq‡K AevšÍi g‡b n‡j GUv‡K †m evwZj K‡i †`q| wkL‡bi †ÿ‡Î Jerome Bruner cwi‡ek I fvlv weKv‡ki Dci †ewk cÖvavb¨ w`‡q‡Qb| Zuvi g‡Z ÁvbweKv‡ki †ÿ‡Î cwi‡e‡ki f~wgKv †ewk Ges ÁvbweKv‡ki wewfbœ ¯Í‡i wkï Áv‡bi AvIZvfz³ wewfbœ mgm¨vi mgvavb wewfbœfv‡e †`q| GUv wbf©i K‡i wkïi c~e© AwfÁZv I Áv‡bi Dci| David Jonassen g‡b K‡ib MVbev‡` wk¶‡Ki f~wgKv n‡e bZzb aviYv MV‡b wk¶v_x©‡K mnvqZv Kiv| ïay ZË¡ I Z_¨ mieivn Kiv bq| wk¶K mgm¨v-mgvavb ev AbymÜv‡bi wb‡`©kbv w`‡eb, wk¶v_x©iv hv‡Z wb‡RivB AbywgZ aviYv ˆZwi I cix¶v K‡i wm×všÍ wb‡Z cv‡i Ges `jMZ wkLb cwi‡e‡k Ab¨‡`i‡K Zv Rvbv‡Z cv‡i| G cÖwµqvq Ávb jv‡fi gva¨‡g wk¶v_x©iv wKfv‡e DcK…Z n‡”Q Zv D`NvUb Ki‡Z wk¶K wk¶v_x©‡`i DrmvwnZ K‡ib| Jonassen AviI g‡b K‡ib †h, wk¶v_x©iv wb‡Riv wb‡R‡`i‡K cÖkœ K‡i Ges Zv‡`i e¨eüZ c×wZ †KŠk‡ji h_v_©Zv hvPvB K‡i wb‡RivB µ‡g µ‡g AwfÁ wk¶v_x©‡Z cwiYZ nq, wKfv‡e wkL‡Z nq (How to learn) Zv Zviv AvqË K‡i †d‡j| Gfv‡e Zviv Rxeb-e¨vcx wk¶v_x©‡Z (Life-long learners) cwiYZ nq|

11


MVbev`wfwˇZ wk¶vµ‡gi web¨vm n‡e kw•Lj (spiral)| G e¨e¯’vq wk¶v_x© AwR©Z aviYv, Ávb I `„wófw½i Dci wfwË K‡i µgvMZfv‡e bZzb bZyb aviYv, Ávb I `„wófw½ AR©b Ki‡e| David Jonassen Gi

gZvbymv‡i MVbev`x †kªwYK‡¶ wkLb n‡e MwVZ (Constructed): wk¶v_x©iv Zv‡`i c~e© Ávb, aviYv I AwfÁZvi mv‡_ bZzb Ávb I AwfÁZvi mgš^q K‡i Abya¨v‡bi gva¨‡g wb‡Ri gv‡S bZzb aviYv MVb Ki‡e|  mwµq (Active) : wk¶v_x©iv wb‡RivB wb‡R‡`i aviYv m„wó Ki‡e| wk¶K Zv‡`i‡K cÖ‡qvRbxq wb‡`©kbv w`‡eb Ges wk¶v_x©‡`i‡K cix¶v Ki‡Z, DcKiYvw` e¨envi Ki‡Z, cÖkœ Ki‡Z I cÖ‡Póv Pvjv‡Z my‡hvM K‡i w`‡eb| wk¶v_x©‡`i‡K wb‡R‡`i j¶¨ I Kg©cš’v wba©vi‡Y mnvqZv w`‡eb|  Abya¨vbg~jK (Reflective): wk¶K wk¶v_x©‡`i‡K Zv‡`i wbR wbR wkLb cÖwµqvi Dci cÖkœ Kivi Ges Abya¨vb Kivi my‡hvM ˆZwi Ki‡eb| G KvR wk¶v_x©iv GKKfv‡e ev `jMZfv‡e Ki‡Z cv‡i| wk¶K wk¶v_x©‡`i Rb¨ Ggb me KvR w`‡eb hv‡Z wk¶v_©xiv wb‡R‡`i Kv‡Ri ch©v‡jvPbv K‡i g~j¨vqb Ki‡Z cv‡i|  mn‡hvwMZvg~jK (Collaborative): MVbev`x †kªwY Kvh©µg n‡e mn‡hvwMZvg~jK| wk¶v_x©iv `‡ji cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki †_‡K cÖ‡Z¨‡K wkL‡e Ges G‡K Ab¨‡K wkL‡Z mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡e| hLb wk¶v_x©iv mg‡eZfv‡e wkLb cÖwµqv ch©v‡jvPbv I Abya¨vb K‡i ZLb Zviv G‡K Ab¨ †_‡K djcÖm~wU MÖnY Kivi my‡hvM cvq|  AbymÜvb ev mgm¨vwfwËK (Inquiry or Problem-Based): MVbev‡`i g~jK_v n‡”Q mgm¨vi mgvavb| G †¶‡Î wk¶v_x©iv AbymÜvbg~jK c×wZi gva¨‡g cÖkœ K‡i, †Kvb wKQyi mÜvb K‡i Ges mgvavb ev DËi cvIqvi Rb¨ wewfbœ c×wZ I †KŠkj cÖ‡qvM K‡i|  weKvkgvb (Evolving): wk¶v_x©iv Zv‡`i ch©v‡jvPbv I Abya¨v‡bi gva¨‡g c~‡e© AwR©Z †Kvb Ávb‡K AmZ¨ I Am¤ú~Y© g‡b Ki‡Z cv‡i| †m‡¶‡Î Zviv AbymÜv‡bi gva¨‡g bZzb wm×v‡šÍ †cuŠQv‡e| cÖ‡Póv Pvwj‡q hv‡e Ges bZzb Ávb I AwfÁZvwfwˇZ c~e©jä wm×všÍ cybms¯‹vi Ki‡e| 9.3

MVbev‡`i mv‡_ mgMÖZvev‡`i (Gestalt Theory) †ek wgj Av‡Q| Gestalt Rvg©vb kã hvi A_© Structure ev MVb| wkLb cÖwµqvq aviYv MVb c„_K c„_K Dcv`v‡bi Dci bq, mvgwMÖKfv‡e Dcv`vb¸‡jvi Dci wbf©i K‡i| MVbev‡`iI g~j K_v aviYv MVb hv wbf©i K‡i wkÿv_x©i c~e©jä aviYv, Ávb, AwfÁZv I cvwicvwk¦©K Ae¯’vi

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

Dci| mgMÖZvev` Abyhvqx †PvL, Kvb, Z¡K BZ¨vw` Bw›`ªq¸‡jv Øviv Avgiv †h Z_¨¸‡jv cvB †m¸‡jv‡K Avgiv g‡b g‡b c~Y©v½ iƒc †`B, Avi MVbev‡`i g‡Z Avgiv Gme Bw›`ªqMÖvn¨ Z_¨¸‡jv w`‡q cÖ‡Z¨K ¯^Zš¿ GKwU gvbwmK wPÎ ˆZwii gva¨‡g AwfÁZv AR©b Kwi| Gfv‡e AwR©Z AwfÁZv GKwUi Dci GKwU mvwR‡q wkLb m¤úbœ Kwi| 10. wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg cwiPvjbvi KwZcq c×wZ I †KŠkj wk¶v_©xi wkLb A‡bKvs‡k wbf©i K‡i wk¶K KZ©„K cwiPvwjZ c×wZ I †KŠk‡ji Dci| wk¶v_©x‡`i ¶gZv I cÖeYZv Ges cv‡Vi ˆewk‡ó¨i wfwˇZ c×wZ I †KŠkj wbe©vPb Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| c×wZ I †KŠkj mwVK n‡j Ges h_vh_fv‡e cÖ‡qvM Kiv n‡j wk¶v_©x mn‡R wkL‡Z cv‡i| GLv‡b K‡qKwU c×wZ I †KŠk‡ji msw¶ß cwiPq †`Iqv n‡jv: 10.1 cÖkœ-DËi c×wZ (Question-Answer Method) cÖkœ-DËi GKwU eûj cÖPwjZ I Kvh©Ki c×wZ| G c×wZi mwVK cÖ‡qv‡Mi gva¨‡g wk¶v_©x‡K mwµq †i‡L wkL‡b mn‡hvwMZv Kiv hvq| wewfbœ D‡Ï‡k¨ cÖkœ Kiv n‡q _v‡K| †kLvi Rb¨ cÖkœ, wkLbdj AR©b cwigv‡ci Rb¨ cÖkœ, †Kvb we‡kl K‡g©i Dc‡hvwMZv hvPvB Kivi Rb¨ cÖkœ, BZ¨vw` †ek K‡qKwU aib i‡q‡Q| †hgb: 10.2 cÖkœ Kivi ixwZ  mg¯Í †kªwY‡K D‡Ïk¨ K‡i cÖkœ Kiv| cÖ_‡g †Kvb wk¶v_©x‡K wbw`©ó K‡i Zv‡K cÖkœ Kiv n‡j †kªwYi Ab¨ wk¶v_©xiv wbw®Œq _v‡K, Ag‡bv‡hvMx n‡Z cv‡i| mevB‡K mwµq ivLvi Rb¨ mg¯Í †kªwY‡K cÖkœ Ki‡Z nq|  wPšÍv K‡i DËi wVK Kivi Rb¨ wKQyUv mgq †`Iqv|  DËi `v‡b k„•Ljv eRvq ivLv| cviM wk¶v_©xiv nvZ DVv‡e| mevi GKmv‡_ DËi †`Iqvi Af¨vm Z¨vM Kiv‡Z n‡e|  wk¶v_©x‡K wbw`©ó K‡i DËi w`‡Z ejv| GKB wk¶v_©x‡K evi evi DËi †`Iqvi my‡hvM bv w`‡q ch©vqµ‡g mevB‡K my‡hvM †`Iqv| cÖ‡qvR‡b DËi `v‡b Bw½Z (K¬z) w`‡q mnvqZv Kiv| DËi mwVK bv n‡j Ab¨ wk¶v_©x‡K DËi w`‡Z ejv|  mwVK DËi cybive„wË Kiv|  Gici c~‡e© nvZ DVvqwb Ggb AcviM wk¶v_©x‡K GKB cÖ‡kœi DËi w`‡Z ejv|  cÖ‡qvR‡b AbymÜvbx cÖkœ (probing question) Kiv| GKwU cÖ‡kœi DËi †_‡K †h cÖkœ Rv‡M Zv‡K AbymÜvbx cÖkœ ejv nq|

12


10.3 cÖ‡kœi aib  cÖ‡kœi fvlv n‡e mnR I †kªwY Dc‡hvMx|  cÖkœ n‡e wk¶v_©xi wPšÍv DÏxcK I †cÖiYv m„wóKvix| Ô†KbÕ, ÔwKfv‡eÕ, ÔKviY KxÕ, Ôe¨vL¨v KiÕ, Ôwe‡kølY KiÕ, ÔZzjbv KiÕ BZ¨vw` Øviv cÖkœ Kiv n‡j wPšÍv K‡i DËi †ei Ki‡Z nq|  †hme cÖ‡kœi DËi Ônu¨vÕ ev ÔbvÕ Ggb cÖkœ bv KivB fvj| ¯§„wZ wbf©i cÖkœ †hgb ÔKxÕ, Ô†KÕ, Ô†Kv_vqÕ, ÔKqwUÕ ev ÔKv‡K e‡jÕ BZ¨vw` cÖkœ hZUv m¤¢e cwinvi Kiv|  ch©vqµ‡g Ggbfv‡e cÖkœ Kiv †hb cÖkœmg~‡ni DËi †_‡K welqe¯‘ m¤ú‡K© ¯úó aviYv jvf Kiv hvq| cÖ‡qvR‡b cÖ‡kœvˇii gv‡S gv‡S Av‡jvPbv Kiv|  AbymÜvbg~jK cÖkœ (probing question) A_©vr GKwU cÖ‡kœi DËi †_‡K D™¢~Z cÖkœ K‡i wel‡qi c~Y©Zv Avbv cÖ‡qvRb| †hgbg~j cÖkœ: ¯‹z‡j wkÿv_x©‡`i Mo Dcw¯’wZ KZ? DËi : mvaviY mg‡q 85%, we‡kl mg‡q 50% AbymÜvbg~jK cÖkœ: we‡kl mg‡q Kg †Kb? DËi : avb †ivcY I avb KvUvi †gŠmy‡g †Q‡j‡g‡q‡`i A‡b‡K K…wlKv‡R AwffveK‡K mnvqZv K‡i ZvB ¯‹z‡j Av‡m bv| 10.4 wk¶‡Ki KiYxq  mwVK Dˇii Rb¨ wk¶v_©x‡K Drmvn cÖ`vb  fyj Dˇii Rb¨ wb‡`©kbv I wkL‡Z Aby‡cÖiYv †`Iqv  mwVK Dˇii cÖm½ †U‡b Av‡jvPbvi gva¨‡g aviYv jv‡f mnvqZv Kiv  wk¶v_©x‡K cÖkœ Ki‡Z my‡hvM †`Iqv, DrmvwnZ Kiv Ges wk¶v_©xi cÖ‡kœi DËi †`Iqv 11.

`jMZ mn‡hvwMZvg~jK wk¶v c×wZ `jMZ mn‡hvwMZvg~jK c×wZ GKwU mdj wkLbc×wZ| G c×wZ‡Z GKB eqtµ‡gi ev GKB ch©v‡qi wk¶_©xiv ci¯úi wg_w¯Œqvi gva¨‡g wk¶v jvf K‡i| G‡¶‡Î wk¶‡Ki f~wgKv c‡iv¶ wKš‘ ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| `jMZ Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g cÖwZwU wk¶v_©xi ïay Ávb-`¶ZvB e„w× cvq bv, mv‡_ mv‡_ †ek wKQy gvbweK ¸Yvewji weKvk N‡U| K_v †kvbvi I K_v ejvi k„•Ljv AbymiY, cigZ mwnòzZv, †bZ…Z¡, mg‡SvZv BZ¨vw` ¸Yvewji weKvk N‡U|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

11.1 `j MVb wewfbœfv‡e `j MVb Kiv hvq| mg-mvg‡_¨©i wk¶v_©x‡`i `j, wgkª mvg‡_¨©i wk¶v_©x‡`i `j, welqwfwËK `j, AÂjwfwËK `j BZ¨vw`| A‡bK †¶‡Î wgkª mvg‡_©¨ `‡ji myweav Ab¨‡`i †P‡q wKQyUv †ewk| cÖwZ cv‡Vi Rb¨ ev cÖwZ wel‡qi Rb¨ bZzb K‡i `j MVb Ki‡Z †M‡j A‡bK mgq jv‡M| ZvB †kªwYwk¶K (whwb cÖ_g wcwiq‡W K¬vm †bb) `j MVb Ki‡eb| cÖ‡qvR‡b GK gvm AšÍi AšÍi bZzb K‡i `j MVb Ki‡eb| G‡Z wk¶v_©x‡`i wg_w¯Œqvi cwimi e„w× cvq| GKB †kªwYi wewfbœ wel‡qi wk¶KMY †kªwYwk¶K KZ©„K MwVZ `j¸‡jv‡KB `jMZ Kv‡R wb‡qvwRZ Ki‡eb| cÖwZwU `‡ji AvKvi 6 †_‡K 8 Rb n‡j fvj, Z‡e 10 R‡bi †ewk nIqv evÃbxq bq| cÖ‡Z¨K `‡ji GKwU K‡i bvg _vK‡j myweav nq| dj, dzj, cvwL, b`x ev is Gi bv‡g `‡ji bvg ivLv hvq| 11.2 `jMZ Kv‡Ri Avmb web¨vm `jMZ Kv‡Ri Avmb web¨vm Ggb n‡e hv‡Z `‡ji mKj wk¶v_©x gy‡LvgywL em‡Z cv‡i| †kªwYK‡¶i AvKvi eo n‡j Ges ch©vß AvmevecÎ _vK‡j, cÖwZ `j †Mvj †Uwe‡ji Pvicv‡k¦© em‡e| Giƒc AvmevecÎ bv _vK‡j cvKv †g‡S‡Z gv`y‡iI †Mvj n‡q em‡Z cv‡i| bZzev cÖ_g †e‡Âi wk¶v_©xiv Ny‡i wØZxq †e‡Âi gy‡LvgywL em‡e, Gfv‡e Z…Zxq †e Ny‡i PZz_© †e‡Âi gy‡LvgywL| G‡¶‡Î cÖwZ `‡ji wk¶v_©x‡`i‡K ci ci `yÕ†e‡Â em‡Z n‡e| wk¶K `jMZ KvR eywS‡q †`Iqvi mv‡_ mv‡_B `je×fv‡e e‡m `jMZ KvR ïiæ Ki‡Z n‡e| AvmevecÎ UvbvUvwb K‡i mgq bó Kiv hv‡e bv| 11.3 `jMZ KvR Kivi cÖwµqv  `‡j fvM nIqvi Av‡MB mg‡eZ K¬v‡m wk¶K ¯úó K‡i `jMZ KvR eywS‡q w`‡eb|  wk¶K `‡ji GKRb‡K GKwU Kv‡Ri Rb¨ `j‡bZv g‡bvbqb w`‡eb| ch©vqµ‡g `‡ji cÖ‡Z¨K‡K `j‡bZvi `vwqZ¡ w`‡eb|  wk¶v_©xiv `‡j fvM n‡q em‡e| `‡ji cÖ‡Z¨‡K welqwU wb‡q wPšÍv Ki‡e| Zvici Av‡jvPbv ïiæ Ki‡e| GKRb K_v ejvi mgq Ab¨iv gb w`‡q ïb‡e| K_vi gv‡S †KD K_v ej‡e bv| Z‡e Av‡jvPbv Ah_v `xN© ev cÖm½ ewnf©~Z n‡j `j‡bZv f`ªfv‡e wbqš¿Y Ki‡e|  `‡ji cÖ‡Z¨‡K Av‡jvPbvq AskMÖnY Ki‡e|  Av‡jvPbvi gva¨‡g ZË¡, Z_¨, hyw³ Dc¯’vcb I hyw³ LÐb Ki‡e| 13


     11.4

11.5

11.6

Kv‡iv K_v AcQ›` n‡j ev gbtcyZ bv n‡j ˆah© a‡i ïb‡Z n‡e, c‡i hyw³ w`‡q LÐb Kiv hv‡e, ivM Kiv ev A‡kvfb AvPiY Kiv hv‡e bv| †Rvi K‡i Ab¨‡`i Dci wb‡Ri gZvgZ Pvwc‡q †`Iqvi †Póv Kiv hv‡e bv| Av‡jvPbvi djvdj `‡ji wm×všÍ wnmv‡e wjL‡Z n‡e Ges mevB‡K †g‡b wb‡Z n‡e| cieZ©x‡Z mg‡eZ K¬v‡m wk¶‡Ki wb‡`©kvbymv‡i H Av‡jvPbvi `j‡bZv `‡ji cÖwZ‡e`b Dc¯’vcb Ki‡e| Ab¨ `‡ji cÖkœ _vK‡j `‡ji c‡¶ †h †Kvb GKRb DËi w`‡e| `jMZ KvR Pjvi mgq †Kvb gZv‰bK¨ ev mgm¨v †`Lv w`‡j `j‡bZv nvZ Zz‡j wk¶‡Ki wb‡`©kbv PvB‡e|

`jMZ Kv‡Ri aib `jMZ KvR cÖavbZ AbymÜvbg~jK ev mgm¨vwfwËK n‡e| `jMZ Kv‡Ri welq wPšÍv DÏxcK, m„Rbkxj I we‡kølYagx© n‡e| mvaviY ZË¡, Z_¨ ev Ávbg~jK Rvbvi welq `jMZ Av‡jvPbvi welq nq bv| Zv‡Z AbymÜvb ev wPšÍv DÏxcK wKQy _v‡K bv| `jMZ Kv‡Ri K‡qKwU D`vniY K. evsjv‡`k †_‡K wewfbœ cÖRvwZi cvwL µgvMZ wejyß nIqvi KviY I Zv‡`i i¶vi Dcvq AbymÜvb| L. MÖv‡gi wbi¶i gvbyl‡K ¯^v¯’¨ m‡PZb Kivi †¶‡Î wk¶v_©x‡`i KiYxq wba©viY| M. cix¶‡Yi gva¨‡g wewfbœ cÖKvi gvwUi ˆewkó¨ wPwýZKiY| N. evsjv‡`‡ki wkï‡`i AwaKvi i¶vq miKvi, mgvR I Awffve‡Ki KiYxq wba©viY| O. GKwU Aby‡”Q‡`i mvigg© D`NvUb| `jMZ Kv‡Ri welq wnmv‡e mwVK bq K. AbycvZmn evqyi Dcv`vbmg~‡ni bvg L. evsjv‡`‡ki f~-cÖK…wZi eY©bv M. mvK© †`kmg~‡ni ivRavbx, RbmsL¨v I gv_vwcQy Avq N. cigvYyi MVb eY©bv O. Z_¨ AwaKvi AvBb eY©bv

11.7 `jMZ Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g wkLb `ye©jZvi Aemvb wk¶v_©x‡`i †KD †KD wewfbœ Kvi‡Y wba©vwiZ wkLbdj AR©b Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| avivevwnK g~j¨vq‡bi gva¨‡g wkLb `ye©jZvm¤úbœ wk¶v_©x‡`i wPwýZ K‡i Zv‡`i Rb¨ we‡kl `jMZ Kv‡Ri e¨e¯’v Kiv hvq| G †¶‡Î GKB †kªwYi GKRb wkLbdj RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

AR©bKvix †PŠKm wk¶v_©x‡K `j‡bZv wnmv‡e `‡ji Ab¨‡`i‡K wkLb mn‡hvwMZv Kivi `vwqZ¡ †`Iqv nq| wkÿK `j‡bZv‡K c~‡e©B cÖ‡qvRbxq wb‡`©kbv w`‡q †`b| mgch©v‡qi wk¶v_©x Øviv Ab¨ wk¶v_©x‡`i‡K wkLb mn‡hvwMZv †`Iqv‡K ÔPeer LearningÕ ejv nq|

11.8 `jMZ KvR PjvKvjxb wk¶‡Ki KiYxq `jMZ KvR PjvKvjxb wk¶K Ny‡i Ny‡i cÖ‡Z¨K `‡ji KvR ch©‡e¶Y Ki‡eb| †hLv‡b hLb cÖ‡qvRb wb‡`©kbv I mnvqZv w`‡eb| cieZ©x‡Z `jMZ KvR Dc¯’vc‡bi mgq fyj-åvwšÍ ev Am¤ú~Y©Zv _vK‡j awi‡q w`‡eb| 11.9 cÖ`k©b c×wZ (Demonstration Method) cÖ`k©b c×wZi g~jK_v n‡jv †Kvb wKQy †`wL‡q GwU m¤ú‡K© aviYv jv‡f wk¶v_©x‡`i‡K mnvqZv Kiv| †Kvb wKQy Dc¯’vc‡b ïay eY©bv ev Av‡jvPbvq mxgve× bv †_‡K Zv †`Lv‡bv n‡j aviYv jvf mnR nq Ges G‡Z wk¶v_©x‡`i AvMÖn I Drmvn e„w× cvq| G c×wZ‡Z cv‡Vi welq mswkøó ev¯Íe e¯‘ ev cÖZ¨¶fv‡e cÖwµqv †`wL‡q eY©bv, Av‡jvPbv ev cÖkœ-Dˇii gva¨‡g aviYv jv‡f mnvqZv Kiv nq| †hgb- GKwU Rev dz‡ji Ask¸‡jv †`wL‡q dz‡ji Ask¸‡jvi m¤ú‡K© aviYv AR©‡b mnvqZv Kiv; †kªwYK‡¶ wk¶v_©x‡`i mvg‡b hš¿cvwZ ms‡hvRb K‡i `¯Ívi mv‡_ cvZjv mvjwdDwiK GwmW wgwk‡q nvB‡Wªv‡Rb cÖ¯‘Z K‡i †`Lv‡bv BZ¨vw`| A‡bK †¶‡Î ev¯Íe e¯‘ ev NUbv mivmwi †`Lv‡bv m¤¢e nq bv| †m‡¶‡Î Aa©ev¯Í‡ei mvnv‡h¨ aviYv jv‡f mnvqZv Kiv hvq| †hgb- P›`ª ev m~h©MÖnY m¤ú‡K© aviYv jv‡fi Rb¨ †kªwYK‡¶ wmwW ev wWwfwWi gva¨‡g gvwëwgwWqvq c„w_ex I Puv‡`i wbR wbR K¶c‡_ N~Y©b †`wL‡q MÖnY NUvi welqwU cwi®‹vi Kiv hvq| cÖ‡R±i ev gvwëwgwWqv bv _vK‡j Pv‡U©i gva¨‡g †`Lv‡bv hvq| †ivj-†cø c×wZ‡ZI †kLv‡bv hvq| †¶Î we‡k‡l wk¶v_©x‡`i‡K †kªwYK‡¶i evB‡i wb‡q ev¯Íe NUbv cÖZ¨¶fv‡e †`wL‡q wk¶v jv‡f mnvqZv Kiv hvq| †hgb- f~wg¶‡qi KviY¸‡jv cÖZ¨¶ †`Lv‡bv hvq| m¤¢e n‡j HwZnvwmK ¯’v‡b wb‡q wewfbœ wb`k©b †`wL‡q I eY©bv K‡i aviYv jv‡f mnvqZv Kiv hvq| †hgb- Kzwgjøvi †KvUevwo kvjeb wenv‡i cwi`k©‡b wb‡q ZrKvjxb †eŠ×mf¨Zv m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡Z mvnvh¨ Kiv| cÖ`k©b c×wZ‡Z wk¶v_©x‡`i AbymwÜrmv e„w× cvq| mn‡R mwVK aviYv jvf Ki‡Z cv‡i| wkLb A‡c¶vK…Z `xN©¯’vqx nq| cÖ`k©b c×wZ‡Z j¶ ivL‡Z n‡e †hb me wk¶v_©x ¯úó †`L‡Z cvq| 14


12. AbymÜvbg~jK Kv‡Ri aib AbymÜvbg~jK KvR g~jZ Kg©‡Kw›`ªK c×wZ| wWDBi mwµqZv Z‡Ë¡i wfwˇZ cwiPvwjZ G c×wZ‡Z wkÿv_x©iv GKKfv‡e ev `jMZfv‡e wb‡R‡`i cÖ‡Póvq wbqgZvwš¿K c×wZ‡Z wkÿv jvf K‡i _v‡K| G c×wZ‡Z wkÿv_x© †Kvb welq ev NUbv ev mgm¨vi KviY, djvdj, cÖwZwµqv BZ¨vw` D`NvUb K‡i| bw_cÎ ch©v‡jvPbv, cwi`k©b, ch©‡e¶Y, mv¶vrKvi MÖnY bvbvfv‡e AbymÜvb KvR cwiPvjbv Kiv hvq| D`vniY hyemgv‡Ri AvKvk ms¯‹…wZi cÖwZ cÖeYZv e„w×i KviY I djvdj  wkí A‡j evqy `~l‡Yi KviY I djvdj  Lv`¨ Drcv`‡b AwZgvÎvq ivmvqwbK KxUbvkK `ªe¨ e¨env‡ii cÖwZwµqv

†Kvb eva¨evaKZv †bB †h GKwU cvV cwiPvjbvq wk¶K‡K GKwU c×wZi Dci wbf©i Ki‡Z n‡e| cvV‡K djcÖm~ Kivi Rb¨ wk¶K cwiw¯’wZ Abymv‡i GKvwaK c×wZ I †KŠk‡ji mswgkª‡Y wb‡Ri g‡Zv K‡i cvV cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z cv‡ib| cv‡Vi mvdj¨ wbf©i K‡i wk¶‡Ki weP¶YZv Ges welqÁvb I wkLb c×wZi h_vh_ cÖ‡qv‡Mi Dci| GRb¨ ejv nq wk¶KB m‡e©vrK…ó c×wZ| wk¶v_x©‡Kw›`ªK wkLb-†kLv‡bv c×wZ eûwea| GLv‡b gvÎ K‡qKwU wk¶v_©xmwµq c×wZ ms‡¶‡c Dc¯’vcb Kiv n‡jv| Z‡e wk¶‡Ki AwaK msL¨K c×wZ I †KŠk‡ji Dci `¶Zv _vKv cÖ‡qvRb| Zvn‡j wZwb †h †¶‡Î †h c×wZ Dc‡hvwMZv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cv‡ib| cÖ‡qvR‡b GKvwaK c×wZi mswgkª‡Y wb‡Ri g‡Zv K‡i cvV cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z cv‡ib| cvV cwiPvjbvi mgq wk¶K hw` eyS‡Z cv‡ib †h cÖ‡qvMK…Z c×wZ wkÿv_x©‡`i wkL‡b djcÖm~ n‡”Q bv ZLb wZwb c×wZ cwieZ©b Ki‡Z cv‡ib| ZvB wk¶K‡`i eû c×wZi Dci `¶Zv _vKv Avek¨K|

12.1. AbymÜvbg~jK c×wZ‡Z wkLb cÖwµqv cÖ‡Z¨KwU AbymÜv‡bi Rb¨ GKwU welq ev mgm¨v wbe©vPb Ki‡Z nq| G c×wZ‡Z hveZxq Kvh©µg cÖavbZ cuvPwU ch©v‡q cwiPvwjZ nq| ch©vq¸‡jv n‡”QK. mgm¨v/D‡Ïk¨ wba©viY L. cwiKíbv cÖYqb M. Z_¨ msMÖn N. Z_¨ we‡kølY O. cÖwZ‡e`b cÖYqb me© cÖ_‡g Kvh©µ‡gi mgm¨v wPwýZ Kiv ev D‡Ïk¨ wba©viY Ki‡Z nq| wØZxq ch©v‡q mgMÖ Kvh©µ‡gi Rb¨ cwiKíbv cÖYqb Ki‡Z nq| D‡Ïk¨ AR©‡bi Rb¨ Kx Kx Ki‡Z n‡e, †KvbwU wKfv‡e Kx w`‡q KLb Ki‡Z n‡e-G meB cwiKíbvq _v‡K| Z_¨ msMÖn AbymÜvbg~jK Kv‡Ri GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© ¯Íi| cÖvBgvwi ev †m‡KÛvwi Drm n‡Z Z_¨ msMÖn Ki‡Z n‡e| PZy_© ch©v‡q Z_¨ we‡kølY I djvdj cÖYqb Ki‡Z n‡e| me©‡kl wkÿv_x m¤ú~Y© AbymÜvbg~jK Kv‡Ri Dci GKwU cÖwZ‡e`b cÖYqb Ki‡e|

13. wkÿv_x©i g~j¨vqb mvaviY A‡_© wkÿv_©xi g~j¨vqb n‡jv wkÿv Kvh©µg †_‡K wkÿv_©xi AR©‡bi gvÎv wbY©q Kiv| A_©vr wkÿvµ‡g D‡jøwLZ c~e© wba©vwiZ wkLbdj wkÿv_©x KZUv AR©b K‡i‡Q Zv wbiƒcYB wkÿv_©xi g~j¨vqb| hw`I g~j¨vqb K_vwUi we¯Í…wZ A‡bK e¨vcK| Avgiv wewfbœ mg‡q bvbvfv‡e wkÿv_©xi g~j¨vqb K‡i _vwK| g~j¨vq‡bi mgq I aib we‡ePbvq wkÿv_©xi g~j¨vqb cÖavbZ `yB avivi: (K) MVbKvjxb ev avivevwnK g~j¨vqb Ges (L) mvgwóK g~j¨vqb| Avgiv cvV PjvKvjxb ev wbw`©ó cvV¨vsk †_‡K wkÿv_©xi AR©b g~j¨vqb K‡i _vwK| G g~j¨vqb avivevwnK ev MVbKvjxb g~j¨vqb| Avevi Avgiv wbw`©ó mgq †k‡l ev Kvh©µg †k‡l mvgwqK cixÿv, evwl©K cixÿv, GmGmwm cixÿv BZ¨vw` cixÿvi gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb K‡i _vwK| G ai‡bi g~j¨vqb nj mvgwóK g~j¨vqb| avivevwnK I mvgwóK Dfq avivi g~j¨vq‡biB cÖ‡qvRb Av‡Q| Z‡e avivevwnK g~j¨vq‡bi ¸iæZ¡ A‡bK †ewk| KviY-

12.2. wkLb- †kLv‡bv Kvh©µg m¤ú‡K© K‡qKwU K_v wkLb-†kLv‡bv c×wZ I †KŠkj A‡bK ai‡bi| Gi K‡qKwU wk¶K‡Kw›`ªK Ges K‡qKwU wk¶v_©x‡Kw›`ªK| wkLb-†kLv‡bv cÖwµqvq wk¶v_©xi mwµq AskMÖnY wk¶vjv‡f mnvqK| me c×wZiB Kg‡ewk myweav I Amyweav Av‡Q| Ggb †Kvb c×wZ ev †KŠkj †bB †hwU mKj wk¶v_©xi Rb¨ mgfv‡e Dc‡hvMx ev me ai‡bi welqe¯‘i Rb¨ Dc‡hvMx| wk¶‡Ki wewfbœ c×wZ I †KŠk‡ji Dci `¶Zv Ges †kªwY I cvV Dc‡hvMx c×wZ I †KŠk‡ji h_vh_ cÖ‡qv‡Mi Dci wbf©i K‡i wk¶v_©xi wkLb mvdj¨| Ggb RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

 avivevwnK g~j¨vq‡bi gva¨‡g wkÿv_©xi wPwýZ wkLb `ye©jZv ZvrÿwYK wb‡`©kbv cÖ`v‡bi Øviv wbivgqg~jK e¨e¯’v †bIqv hvq|  wkÿv_©xi nv‡Z-Kj‡g e¨envwiK KvR Kivi cÖwµqv ch©‡eÿ‡Yi gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb K‡i wb‡`©kbv †`Iqv hvq|  wkÿv_©xi we‡kl wKQz `ÿZv, †hgb- †kvbv, ejv, cov BZ¨vw` Kg mg‡q, Kg Li‡P I mn‡R cwigvc K‡i av‡c av‡c wb‡`©kbv †`Iqv I wbivgqg~jK e¨e¯’v †bIqv hvq| mvgwóK g~j¨vq‡bi gva¨‡g A‡bK †ÿ‡Î Gme ˆewk‡ó¨i g~j¨vqb Kiv m¤¢e nq bv| 15


 wkÿv_©xi Av‡eMxq w`Kmg~n we‡kl K‡i e¨w³K I mvgvwRK AvPiY Ges g~j¨‡eva cÖZ¨ÿ ch©‡eÿ‡Yi gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb K‡i wb‡`©kbv †`Iqv hvq|  G g~j¨vq‡bi gva¨‡g wkÿK Zuvi e¨eüZ wkLb †kLv‡bv c×wZ I †KŠk‡ji h_v_©Zv I djcÖm~Zv wba©viY K‡i ev `ye©jZv wPwýZ K‡i cÖ‡qvRbxq cwieZ©b Avb‡Z cv‡ib|

RxeweÁvb, K…wlwkÿv, Mvn©¯’¨, kvixwiK wkÿv, Kg© I RxebgyLx wkÿv BZ¨vw`) Hme wel‡q GKwU e¨envwiK KvR I `yÕwU †kÖwYi Kv‡Ri †iKW© ivLv n‡e|  welq wkÿK KZ©„K wbqwgZfv‡e cÖ‡Z¨K wkÿv_©x‡K wb¤œwjwLZ gvb`ÐwfwËK g~j¨vqb Kiv n‡e Ges cÖwZ `yB gv‡m GKevi K‡i cÖwZ mvgwq‡K (Qq gv‡m) 3 evi g~j¨vqb †iKW© msiÿY Kiv n‡e|

avivevwnK g~j¨vqb 14.1.2. evwoi KvR evsjv‡`‡k 6ô †_‡K 10g †kÖwY ch©šÍ wb¤œwjwLZ `yBwU †ÿ‡Î avivevwnK g~j¨vqb  wkÿv_x© evwo‡Z wkÿvµgwfwËK †h KvR¸‡jv m¤úbœ K‡i ZvB evwoi KvR | Kvh©µg Pj‡e| evwoi KvR wkÿv_x© GKKfv‡e m¤úbœ Ki‡e GUvB cÖZ¨vwkZ| wkÿK wbwðZ 1. welqwfwËK eyw×e„Ëxq I g‡bv‡cwkR †ÿ‡Îi avivevwnK g~j¨vqb n‡eb †h wkÿv_x© GKvB KvRwU m¤úbœ K‡i‡Q| evwoi Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g wkÿv_x©i 2. Av‡eMxq †ÿ‡Îi avivevwnK g~j¨vqb wPšÍb `ÿZv Ges e¨w³K AvPiY I g~j¨‡eva g~j¨vqb Kiv n‡e| evwoi KvR g~j¨vqb K‡i wkÿK wkÿv_©x‡`i‡K cÖ‡qvRbxq wkLb mnvqZv w`‡eb| 14.1. welqwfwËK eyw×e„Ëxq I g‡bv‡cwkR †ÿ‡Îi avivevwnK g~j¨vqb wkÿvµ‡gi wkLbd‡ji Pvwn`vi Dci wfwË K‡i wkÿK evwoi KvR w`‡eb|  welq wkÿK welqwfwËK eyw×e„Ëxq I g‡bv‡cwkR †ÿ‡Îi avivevwnK g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb  jÿ ivL‡Z n‡e evwoi KvR †hb wkÿv_x©‡K gyL¯’ Kivq DrmvwnZ bv K‡i|  cÖwZwU wel‡q avivevwnK g~j¨vq‡bi Rb¨ eivÏK…Z b¤^i 20% evwoi KvR Ggb n‡Z n‡e †hb wkÿv_©xi wPšÍb `ÿZv weKvk Ges  cÖwZwU wel‡q avivevwnK g~j¨vq‡bi †ÿÎ I b¤^i eÈb : m„RbkxjZv cÖKv‡ki my‡hvM _v‡K| †ÿÎ b¤^i  †kÖwYK‡ÿ AwR©Z aviYvmg~n wPšÍv I Kv‡R cÖ‡qvM Kivi my‡hvM †hb evwoi (K) †kÖwYi KvR 10 Kv‡R _v‡K| evwoi KvR †hb wkÿv_x©‡K m„Rbkxj cÖ‡kœi cÖ¯‘wZ‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i 05 (L) evwoi KvR I AbymÜvbg~jK KvR †mw`‡K ¸iæZ¡ w`‡Z n‡e| wkÿvµg g¨vwUª‡· wkLb †kLv‡bv Kvh©µg Kjv‡g 05 . (M) †kÖwY Afxÿv cÖ`Ë evwoi KvR bgybv wnmv‡e AbymiY Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| †gvU 20  cÖwZwU wel‡qi evwoi KvR¸‡jv Ggb n‡e hv wkÿv_©x 20-25 wgwb‡Ui g‡a¨ cÖwZ welq wkÿK KZ©„K ¯^ ¯^ wel‡q cÖwZ wkÿv_©x‡K 20% b¤^‡ii wfwˇZ avivevwnK m¤úv`b Ki‡Z cv‡i| wkÿK cÖwZ mvgwq‡K †kÖwY‡Z A‡bK¸‡jv evwoi KvR g~j¨vqb K‡i wba©vwiZ Q‡K g~j¨vqb †iKW© msiÿY Kiv n‡e| w`‡eb| Z‡e †iKW© msiÿ‡Yi Rb¨ lô †_‡K Aóg †kÖwY‡Z weÁvb, evsjv‡`k I wek¦cwiPq, Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³, Kg© I RxebgyLx wkÿv Ges K¨vwiqvi 14.1.1. †kÖwYi KvR wkÿv wel‡q cÖwZ mvgwq‡K `yÕwU evwoi Kv‡Ri g~j¨vqb I †iKW© msiÿY Kiv  wkLb-†kLv‡bv Kvh©µg PjvKvjxb wkÿv_©x KZ©„K m¤úvw`Z hveZxq KvR †kªwYi n‡e| lô †_‡K Aóg †kÖwYi Ab¨vb¨ wel‡qi Rb¨ 3wU evwoi Kv‡Ri g~j¨vqb I KvR wnmv‡e we‡ewPZ| welq‡f‡` †kÖwYi Kv‡Ri ai‡b ZviZg¨ _vK‡Z cv‡i| †iKW© msiÿY Kiv n‡e| beg I `kg †kÖwY‡Z Hw”QK welq Qvov mKj wel‡q AwaKvsk †ÿ‡ÎB cÖ‡kœi DËi ejv ev †jLv, AuvKv (wPÎ/Qwe, mviwY, gvbwPÎ, cÖwZ mvgwq‡K `yÕwU evwoi Kv‡Ri g~j¨vqb I †iKW© msiÿY Kiv n‡e| †iKW© †jLwPÎ), Av‡jvPbv I weZ‡K© AskMÖnY, PwiÎ-Awfbq, e¨envwiK KvR-G ai‡bi msiÿ‡Yi Rb¨ m‡ev©”P b¤^i cÖvß evwoi KvR¸‡jv‡K we‡ePbv Ki‡Z n‡e| me wKQzB †kÖwYi KvR| evsjv I Bs‡iwR wel‡q †kvbv, ejv, cov, †jLv BZ¨vw` wkÿK †h †Kvb b¤^‡ii evwoi KvR w`‡Z cv‡ib| Z‡e G‡Z cÖvß b¤^i‡K 5 Gi †kªwYi KvR wnmv‡e we‡ewPZ n‡e| g‡a¨ cÖvß b¤^‡i iƒcvšÍi K‡i †iKW© msiÿY Ki‡Z n‡e| iƒcvšÍ‡ii ci fMœvsk  cÖwZwU wel‡qi Rb¨ cÖwZ mvgwq‡K wZbwU †kÖwYi Kv‡Ri g~j¨vqb †iKW© msiÿY Kiv b¤^i n‡j fMœvsk b¤^i wnmv‡e msiÿY Ki‡Z n‡e| n‡e| †hme wel‡q e¨envwiK KvR Av‡Q (†hgb- weÁvb, c`v_©weÁvb, imvqb, 14.

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

16


14.1.3. AbymÜvbg~jK KvR AbymÜvbg~jK Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g wkÿv_©xi mgm¨v mgvavb `ÿZv Ges wPšÍb `ÿZv hvPvB Kiv n‡e| AbymÜvbg~jK Kv‡Ri Rb¨ K‡qK NÈv †_‡K K‡qK w`‡bi cÖ‡qvRb n‡Z cv‡i| wkÿK welqwU wba©viY K‡i †`‡eb| wba©vwiZ avc AbymiY K‡i AbymÜvbg~jK KvR m¤úbœ Ki‡Z n‡e| lô †_‡K Aóg †kÖwY ch©šÍ mgm¨v wPwýZ Kiv, cwiKíbv cÖYqb I Z_¨ msMÖ‡ni ch©‡eÿY Uzjm /wmwWDj /cÖkœgvjv cÖYqb wkÿK K‡i w`‡eb| Z_¨ msMÖn AbymÜvb Kv‡Ri GKwU †gŠwjK ˆewkó¨ hv wkÿv_x© wb‡Riv m¤úbœ Ki‡e| Z_¨ msMÖn hZ`~i m¤¢e wkÿv_x©i cwievi, cÖwZ‡ekx Ges wbKU GjvKvq mxgve× ivL‡Z n‡e| Z_¨ msMÖ‡n wkÿv_x©i wbivcËvi welqwU we‡ePbvq ivL‡Z n‡e| Z_¨ msMÖ‡n wkÿv_©x †hb weeªZKi Ae¯’vq bv c‡o wkÿK Zv wbwðZ Ki‡eb| weÁvb welqmg~‡ni Rb¨ Z_¨msMÖn M‡elYvMv‡i cixÿ‡Yi gva¨‡g n‡Z cv‡i| AbymÜvbg~jK KvR ïiæi mgMÖ cÖwµqv wKfv‡e m¤úbœ Ki‡Z n‡e wkÿK Zv eywS‡q w`‡eb| cÖvBgvwi I †m‡KÛvwi Drm n‡Z Z_¨ msMÖn Kiv hv‡e| wkÿv_x© Z_¨ we‡køl‡Yi gva¨‡g djvdj cÖYqb Ges djvd‡ji Dci gZvgZ w`‡e| mgMÖ Kvh©µ‡gi Dci GKwU cÖwZ‡e`b iPbv Ki‡Z n‡e| cÖwZ‡e`‡b m¤úbœ Kv‡Ri eY©bv _vK‡e| cÖwZ‡e`b cÖYq‡bi wb‡`©kbv wkÿK w`‡eb| AbymÜvbg~jK KvR wkÿv_x©iv `jMZfv‡e m¤úbœ Ki‡e| Z‡e Z_¨ we‡kølY, djvdj cÖYqb, djvd‡ji Dci gZvgZ cÖ`vb Ges wi‡cvU© cÖYqb wkÿv_x© GKKfv‡e m¤úbœ Ki‡e| G Kv‡Ri g~j¨vqb n‡e GKK g~j¨vqb| beg I `kg †kÖwY‡Z wkÿv_x©iv wkÿ‡Ki b~¨bZg mvnvh¨ wb‡q AbymÜvbg~jK KvR m¤úbœ Ki‡e| wkÿK †h †Kvb b¤^‡ii Rb¨ AbymÜvbg~jK KvR w`‡Z cv‡ib| Z‡e G‡Z cÖvß b¤^i‡K 5 Gi g‡a¨ cÖvß b¤^‡i iƒcvšÍi K‡i †iKW© msiÿY Ki‡Z n‡e| iƒcvšÍ‡ii ci fMœvsk b¤^i n‡j fMœvsk b¤^i wnmv‡e msiÿY Ki‡Z n‡e| 14.1.4. †kªwY Afxÿv cÖwZwU Aa¨vq †k‡l †kÖwY Afxÿv †bIqv n‡e| Z‡e AwaK b¤^icÖvß Afxÿvi b¤^i †iKW© ivLv n‡e| †kÖwY Afxÿvi DËicÎ wkÿv_©x‡K †`Lvevi ci †diZ wb‡q msiÿY Kiv n‡e| †hme wel‡q e¨envwiK KvR Av‡Q Hme wel‡q `yÕwU e¨envwiK I GKwU wjwLZ Afxÿvi †iKW© msiÿY Kiv n‡e| Ab¨vb¨ wel‡q wZbwU wjwLZ RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

Afxÿvi †iKW© ivLv n‡e| e¨envwiK Kv‡Ri g~j¨vq‡bi gvb`Ð †kÖwY‡Z m¤úvw`Z e¨envwiK Kv‡Ri Abyiƒc n‡e| †kÖwY Afxÿv wjwLZ ev e¨envwiK n‡e| cÖwZwU †kÖwY Afxÿv ¯^í mgq †bIqv n‡e| wel‡qi Rb¨ wba©vwiZ K¬vm wcwiq‡W †bIqv n‡e| wba©vwiZ GK K¬vm wcwiq‡Wi AwZwi³ mgq †bIqv hv‡e bv| †kÖwY Afxÿvi w`b †kÖwYi Ab¨vb¨ wcwiq‡Wi ¯^vfvweK KvRKg© h_vixwZ Pj‡e| 15. Av‡eMxq : g~j¨‡ev‡ai avivevwnK g~j¨vqb wkÿvµ‡g wkÿv_x©i e¨w³K Dbœq‡bi Dci ¸iæZ¡ Av‡ivc Kiv n‡q‡Q| GKRb wkÿv_x ïay †gavex n‡jB n‡e bv Zv‡K fv‡jv gvbylI n‡Z n‡e| fv‡jv gvby‡li ¸Yvewj AR©b Ki‡Z n‡e| GKRb wkÿv_x© fv‡jv gvbyl wKbv Zv Rvb‡Z n‡j Zvi AvPiY I `„wófw½ g~j¨vqb Ki‡Z n‡e| avivevwnK g~j¨vq‡bi gva¨‡g wkÿv_x©i e¨w³K AvPiY I mvgvwRK g~j¨‡eva g~j¨vqb Kiv n‡e| we`¨vj‡q wkÿv_x©‡`i AvPiY I mvgvwRK g~j¨‡eva †Kv‡bv GKwU NUbv ev Bmy¨ w`‡q ZvrÿwYKfv‡e g~j¨vqb Kiv hvq bv| we`¨vj‡q wkÿv_©x †kÖwYi Kv‡Ri cvkvcvwk cÖwZwbqZ eû Kg©Kv‡Ð AskMÖnY Ki‡e| G¸‡jv n‡jv ˆ`wbK mgv‡ek, †Ljvayjv I µxov, mvs¯‹…wZK Kvh©µg, wkÿv mdi I cwi`k©b, RvZxq w`em D`hvcb, ag©xq Abyôvb, weÁvb †gjv, MwYZ Awjw¤úqvW, e‡qR ¯‹vDUm, Mvj©mMvBW, weGbwmwm Ges cwi‡ek msiÿ‡Yi Kvh©µg BZ¨vw`| wkÿv_x©‡`i wewfbœ Kg©Kv‡Ði ga¨ w`‡q `xN© ch©‡eÿ‡Yi gva¨‡g Zv‡`i AvPiY I g~j¨‡eva m¤ú©‡K GKwU wbf©i‡hvM¨ g~j¨vq‡b Avmv hvq| wkÿvµ‡g Av‡eMxq †ÿ‡Îi wkLbdj g~j¨vq‡bi AvIZvq Avbv n‡q‡Q| G †ÿ‡Î †h ¸Yvewj I g~j¨‡eva cwigv‡ci AvIZvq Avbv n‡q‡Q †m¸‡jv njwbqgvbyewZ©Zv, †`k‡cÖg, †bZ…Z¡, mZZv, k„•Ljv, mn‡hvwMZv, mwµq AskMÖnY, mwnòzZv, m‡PZbv I mgqvbyewZ©Zv| †kÖwY wkÿK Ab¨vb¨ welq wkÿ‡Ki mv‡_ civgk© K‡i Av‡eMxq †ÿ‡Îi g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb I †iKW© msiÿY Ki‡eb| 16. mvgwqK cixÿv I cvewjK cixÿv RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012 Gi wb‡`©kbv Abymv‡i we`¨vj‡qi wkÿv el© Qq gvme¨vcx `yÕwU mvgwq‡K fvM Kiv n‡e| cÖwZ Qq gv‡m GK mvgwqK wnmv‡e cÖwZ wkÿv eQ‡i `yÕwU mvgvwqK cixÿv AbywôZ n‡e| cÖwZ mvgwqK cixÿv †k‡l avivevwnK g~j¨vq‡b cÖvß b¤^i‡K GKwÎZ K‡i `yÕwU mvgwq‡K cixÿvq cÖvß b¤^i Ges avivevwnK g~j¨vq‡b cÖvß b¤^‡ii mgš^‡q cÖwZ wkÿv_©xi cieZ©x D”PZi †kÖwY ev Kvh©µ‡g DbœxZ Kivi welq we‡ePbv Kiv n‡e| 17


mvgwqK Ges cvewjK cixÿvi cÖkœcÎ cÖYqb Ges DËicÎ g~j¨vqb m„Rbkxj cÖkœc×wZi wb‡`©kbv Abymv‡i msMwVZ n‡e| wkÿv e‡l©i ïiæ‡Z welq wkÿK cÖavb wkÿ‡Ki mv‡_ civgk© K‡i wkÿvµ‡g cÖ`Ë Aa¨vqmg~n‡K `yÕwU mvgwq‡Ki Rb¨ eÈb Ki‡eb| we`¨vj‡qi Kvh©w`e‡mi cwigv‡Yi Dci wfwË K‡i Aa¨vqmg~n‡K mvgwq‡K eÈb Ki‡Z n‡e| cÖ_g mvgwq‡K g~j¨vqbK…Z Aa¨vqmg~n‡K wØZxq mvgwq‡K g~j¨vq‡bi Rb¨ e¨envi Kiv hv‡e bv| Z‡e Aóg I `kg †kÖwYi cvewjK cixÿvi (JSC, SSC) Rb¨ GB wb‡`©kbv cÖ‡hvR¨ bq| welq wkÿK †m Abymv‡i cvV Kvh©µg cwiPvjbv Ki‡eb| mvgwqK †k‡l Aby‡ôq cixÿv wkÿvµ‡g welq Ges c‡Îi Rb¨ eivÏK…Z c~Y© b¤^‡i n‡e| wkÿvµg iƒc‡iLvi welqKvVv‡gvq wel‡qi c~Y©b¤^i †`Iqv Av‡Q| m„Rbkxj cÖkœc×wZi cÖkœc‡Î `y&B ai‡bi cÖkœ _vK‡e| GKwU n‡”Q eûwbev©Pwb cÖkœ Ges AciwU n‡”Q m„Rbkxj cÖkœ| eûwbev©Pwb cÖkœc‡Î wZb ai‡bi eûwbev©Pwb cÖkœ _vK‡e| G¸‡jv n‡”Q mvaviY eûwbev©Pwb cÖkœ, eûc`x mgvwßm~PK eûwbev©Pwb cÖkœ Ges Awfbœ Z_¨wfwËK eûwbev©Pwb cÖkœ| eûwbev©Pwb cÖkœc‡Î wPšÍb `ÿZvi Pvi¯Í‡ii cÖkœ AvbycvwZKnv‡i _vK‡e (Ávb ¯Íi 40%, Abyaveb ¯Íi 30%, cÖ‡qvM ¯Íi 20% Ges D”PZi `ÿZv 10%)| mKj Aa¨vq‡K cixÿvi AvIZvfz³ Ki‡Z n‡e| cÖkœcÖÎ cÖYq‡bi c~‡e© wb‡`©kK QK ˆZwi Ki‡Z n‡e| cÖwZwU m„Rbkxj cÖ‡kœ GKwU DÏxcK _vK‡e Ges DÏxc‡Ki mv‡_ 4wU cÖkœ _vK‡e| cÖkœ 4wU w`‡q wPšÍb `ÿZvi PviwU ¯Íi (Ávb, Abyaveb, cÖ‡qvM Ges D”PZi `ÿZv) hvPvB Kiv n‡e| b¤^i cÖ`vb wb‡`©wkKv AbymiY K‡i DËicÎ g~j¨vqb Ki‡Z n‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

18


1. RvZxq wkÿvµg mgš^q KwgwU µg bvg I c`we W. Kvgvj Ave`yj bv‡mi †PŠayix, mwPe, wkÿv gš¿Yvjq, evsjv‡`k 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

mwPevjq,XvKv| DcvPvh©, RvZxq wek¦we`¨vjq, MvRxcyi| W. KvRx LjxKz¾vgvb Avng`, †Pqvig¨vb, evsjv‡`k Dbœqb cwil` I mfvcwZ, evsjv‡`k A_©bxwZ mwgwZ hyM¥-mwPe (gva¨wgK), wkÿv gš¿Yvjq, evsjv‡`k mwPevjq, XvKv gnvcwiPvjK, gva¨wgK I D”Pwkÿv Awa`ßi, XvKv

KwgwU‡Z c`we mfvcwZ m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨

gnvcwiPvjK, RvZxq wkÿv e¨e¯’vcbv GKv‡Wgx, avbgwÛ, XvKv gnvcwiPvjK, evsjv‡`k KvwiMwi wkÿv Awa`ßi, AvMviMuvI, XvKv cwiPvjK, AvBBAvi, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq, XvKv cÖ‡dmi †gvt †gv¯Ídv KvgvjDwÏb, †Pqvig¨vb, RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW©, XvKv †Pqvig¨vb, gva¨wgK I D”Pgva¨wgK wkÿv‡evW© , XvKv †Pqvig¨vb, evsjv‡`k KvwiMwi wkÿv ‡evW©, XvKv †Pqvig¨vb, evsjv‡`k gv`&ivmv wkÿv ‡evW©, XvKv m`m¨ (wkÿvµg), RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW©, XvKv cÖ‡dmi W. gynv¤§` Rvdi BKevj, wefvMxq cÖavb, Kw¤úDUvi mv‡qÝ GÛ BwÄwbqvwis wefvM, kvnRvjvj weÁvb I cÖhyw³ wek¦we`¨vjq, wm‡jU

m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨

15.

W. †gvt wQwÏKzi ingvb, cÖv³b Aa¨vcK I cwiPvjK, wkÿv I M‡elYv Bbw÷wUDU, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq, XvKv|

m`m¨

16.

Aa¨vcK W. †gvt AvLZviæ¾vgvb, Bmjv‡gi BwZnvm wefvM, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq, XvKv Aa¨vcK kvnxb gvn&eyev Kexi, Bs‡iwR wefvM, Rvnv½xibMi wek¦we`¨vjq, mvfvi, XvKv m`m¨ (cÖv_wgK wkÿvµg), RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW©, XvKv m`m¨ (cvV¨cy¯ÍK), RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW©, XvKv cÖKí cwiPvjK, GmBGmwWwc,gva¨wgK I D”P wkÿv Awa`ßi, wkÿv feb, XvKv Dc mwPe (gva¨wgK), wkÿv gš¿Yvjq, evsjv‡`k mwPevjq, XvKv

m`m¨

10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨

2. cÖ‡dkbvj KwgwU µg bvg I c`we cÖ‡dmi †gvt †gv¯Ídv KvgvjDwÏb, †Pqvig¨vb, RvZxq wk¶vµg I 1. cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW©, XvKv gnvcwiPvjK, gva¨wgK I D”P wk¶v Awa`ßi, XvKv| 2. gnvcwiPvjK, RvZxq wk¶v e¨e¯’vcbv GKv‡Wgx, avbgwÛ, XvKv| 3. cwiPvjK, AvBBAvi, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq,XvKv| 4. gnvcwiPvjK, evsjv GKv‡Wgx, XvKv| 5. gnvcwiPvjK, BmjvwgK dvD‡Ûkb, XvKv| 6. Rbve gbRyiæj Avnmvb eyjeyj, cÖavb m¤úv`K, ˆekvLx 7. †Uwjwfwkb wjwg‡UW, XvKv| cÖKí cwiPvjK, GmBGmwWwc, gva¨wgK I D”P wk¶v Awa`ßi, 8. wk¶v feb, XvKv| †Pqvig¨vb, gva¨wgK I D”P gva¨wgK wk¶v †evW©, XvKv I 9. mfvcwZ, evsjv‡`k AvšÍt †evW© mgš^q mve KwgwU 10. †Pqvig¨vb, evsjv‡`k gv`&ivmv wk¶v †evW©, XvKv| †Pqvig¨vb, evsjv‡`k KvwiMwi wk¶v †evW©, XvKv| 11. 12. Aa¨vcK Avãyjøvn Avey mvqx`, cwiPvjK, wek¦mvwnZ¨ †K›`ª, XvKv| 13. W. †gvt wQwÏKzi ingvb, civgk©K, GmBGmwWwc, gva¨wgK I D”Pwkÿv

m`m¨

m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨

Awa`ßi, XvKv

14. 15.

m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨

KwgwU‡Z c`we mfvcwZ

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

Aa¨vcK Kwdj DÏxb Avn‡g`, civgk©K, cÖv_wgK wk¶vµg DBs, GbwmwUwe, XvKv cÖ‡dmi gynv¤§` Avjx, cÖv³b m`m¨, wk¶vµg, GbwmwUwe,XvKv| (evmv-ÔmßKÕ- †gwfm 8g Zjv (cwðg), 6/9, eøK-wm, jvjgvwUqv, XvKv-1207| Wxb, Pviy I KviyKjv Abyl`, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq, XvKv cÖ‡dmi mvjgv AvLZvi, AvBBAvi, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq, XvKv Aa¨¶, wk¶K cÖwk¶Y K‡jR, XvKv m`m¨ (wk¶vµg), RvZxq wk¶vµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW©, XvKv cÖavb wk¶K, Meb©‡g›U j¨ve‡iUwi nvB ¯‹zj, avbgwÛ, XvKv Rbve †gvkZvK Avn‡g` f~uBqv, weZiY wbqš¿K, GbwmwUwe, XvKv

m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨-mwPe 19


3. †UKwbK¨vj KwgwU µg bvg I c`we 1. cÖ‡dmi †gvt Ave`yyj ReŸvi cÖv³b cwiPvjK, bv‡qg, XvKv|

KwgwU‡Z c`we AvnevqK

4. µg 1.

†fwUs KwgwU bvg I c`we evsjv

1.

Bs‡iwR

2. 1.

(evwo bs-7, moK bs-11, †m±i bs-4, DËiv g‡Wj UvDb, XvKv-1230)

2. 3.

4.

5.

6. 7. 8.

9. 10. 11.

Aa¨vcK W. Avey nvwg` jwZd mycvi wbDgvwi Aa¨vcK, AvBBAvi, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq, XvKv cÖ‡dmi Ave`ym myenvb cÖv³b gnvcwiPvjK, cÖv_wgK wk¶v Awa`ßi (wm-8, evmv bs-52, †ivW bs-6/G, avbgwÛ AvevwmK GjvKv, XvKv|) Aa¨vcK W. †Mvjvg imyj wgqv cÖv³b Aa¨¶, wUPvm© †Uªwbs K‡jR, XvKv (evmv bs-47, †ivW bs-02, †m±i-09, DËiv g‡Wj UvDb, XvKv1230|) W. †gvt wQwÏKzi ingvb civgk©K GmBGmwWwc, gva¨wgK I D”Pwk¶v Awa`ßi, wk¶v feb, XvKv cÖ‡dmi W. †gvt bvRgyj Kwei †PŠayix e¨e¯’vcbv wefvM, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq, XvKv W. Avãyj gv‡jK Aa¨vcK, AvBBAvi, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq, XvKv Rbve †gvnv¤§` RvwKi †nv‡mb wk¶vµg we‡klÁ GmBGmwWwc, GbwmwUwe, XvKv| Rbve kvnxbviv †eMg we‡klÁ, GbwmwUwe, XvKv Rbve †gvt †gvL‡jm Di ingvb we‡klÁ, GbwmwUwe, XvKv Rbve †gvt dinv`yj Bmjvg EaŸ©Zb we‡klÁ, GbwmwUwe, XvKv

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

m`m¨

2.

m`m¨ 2.

m`m¨

m`m¨

m`m¨

3.

4.

weÁvb

5.

evsjv‡`k I wek¦cwiPq

6.

Z_¨ I †hvMv‡hvM cÖhyw³

7.

cwi‡ek cwiwPwZ

m`m¨ m`m¨

MwYZ

m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨-mwPe

1.

KwgwU‡Z c`we Aa¨vcK Ave`yjøvn Avey mvqx`, cwiPvjK, wek¦ mvwnZ¨ †K›`ª, XvKv cÖ‡dmi b~iRvnvb †eMg, Aa¨¶, miKvwi weÁvb K‡jR, XvKv cÖ‡dmi Ave`ym myenvb, cÖv³b gnvcwiPvjK, cÖv_wgK wk¶v Awa`ßi, XvKv (wm-8, evmv bs-52, †ivW bs-6/G, avbgwÛ AvevwmK GjvKv, XvKv) cÖ‡dmi †gvt kvgmyj nK, cÖv³b Wxb, evsjv‡`k Db¥y³ wek¦we`¨vjq, MvRxcyi (evmv bs-25, G¨vcvU©‡g›U-we-5, †ivW bs 68G, ¸jkvb-2, XvKv-1212) cÖ‡dmi W. †gvt Avãyj gwZb, MwYZ wefvM, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq, XvKv

2. cÖ‡dmi W. †gvt Avãym Qvgv`, MwYZ wefvM, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq, XvKv 1. cÖ‡dmi W. †gvt AvwRRyi ingvb, c`v_©weÁvb wefvM, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq, XvKv 2. Rbve †gvnv¤§` b~‡i Avjg wmwÏKx, mn‡hvMx Aa¨vcK, AvBBAvi, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq, XvKv 1. cÖ‡dmi W. nviæb Di iwk`, ivóªweÁvb wefvM, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq, XvKv 2. W. ˆmq` nvwdRyi ingvb, mn‡hvMx Aa¨vcK, cwi‡ek weÁvb wefvM, Rvnv½xibMi wek¦we`¨vjq, mvfvi, XvKv 1. cÖ‡dmi W. gynv¤§` Rvdi BKevj, Kw¤úDUvi mv‡qÝ GÛ BwÄwbqvwis wefvM, kvn&Rvjvj weÁvb I cÖhyw³ wek¦we`¨vjq, wm‡jU 2. Rbve †gvt mwdDj Avjg Lvb, mnKvix Aa¨vcK, Z_¨ cÖhyw³ BÝwUwUDU, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq, XvKv 1. cÖ‡dmi W. G Gm Gg gvKmy` Kvgvj, f~ZË¡ wefvM, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq, XvKv 2. cÖ‡dmi W. †gvt LexiDÏxb, cwi‡ek weÁvb wefvM, Rvnv½xibMi wek¦we`¨vjq, mvfvi, XvKv

20


5.

wkÿvµg Dbœqb KwgwU

welq : MwYZ µg bvg I c`we Aa¨vcK mv‡jn gwZb 1 mv‡eK gnvcwiPvjK, cÖv_wgK wk¶v Awa`ßi, XvKv| 539 cwðg †kIov cvov, wgicyi,XvKv| W. Agj K…ò nvj`vi 2 cÖ‡dmi, MwYZ wefvM, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq, XvKv| W. †gvt †gvnmxb DwÏb 3 mn‡hvMx Aa¨vcK, ¯‹zj Ae GWy‡Kkb evsjv‡`k Db¥y³ wek¦we`¨vjq, MvRxcyi| Rbve †gvt dwi` DwÏb 4 cÖavb wk¶K, XvKv K‡jwR‡qU ¯‹zj, XvKv| Rbve †gvt kvnRvnvb wmivR 5 mnKvix wk¶K, Meb©‡g›U j¨ve‡iUwi nvB¯‹zj, XvKv| Rbve †gvt Aveyj Kvjvg AvRv` 6 mnKvix wk¶K, gwZwSj miKvwi evjK D”P we`¨vjq, XvKv| Rbve nvwg`v evby †eMg 7 EaŸ©Zb we‡klÁ, GbwmwUwe, XvKv| Rbve †gvt bvwmi DwÏb 8 we‡klÁ, GbwmwUwe, XvKv| Rbve bvRbxb AvLZvi 9 KvwiKzjvg we‡klÁ, GmBGmwWwc, GbwmwUwe, XvKv|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

†kÖwY : lô-Aóg KwgwU‡Z c`we AvnevqK

m`m¨ m`m¨

m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨

welq : MwYZ µg bvg I c`we Aa¨vcK mv‡jn gwZb 1 mv‡eK gnvcwiPvjK, cÖv_wgK wk¶v Awa`ßi, XvKv| 539 cwðg †kIov cvov, wgicyi,XvKv| W. Agj K…ò nvj`vi 2 cÖ‡dmi, MwYZ wefvM, XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq, XvKv| W. †gvt †gvnmxb DwÏb 3 mn‡hvMx Aa¨vcK, ¯‹zj Ae GWy‡Kkb evsjv‡`k Db¥y³ wek¦we`¨vjq, MvRxcyi| Rbve †gvt kvnRvnvb wmivR 4 mnKvix wk¶K, Meb©‡g›U j¨ve‡iUwi nvB¯‹zj, XvKv| Rbve †gvt Aveyj Kvjvg AvRv` 5 mnKvix wk¶K, gwZwSj miKvwi evjK D”P we`¨vjq, XvKv| Rbve nvwg`v evby †eMg 6 EaŸ©Zb we‡klÁ, GbwmwUwe, XvKv| Rbve †gvt bvwmi DwÏb 7 we‡klÁ, GbwmwUwe, XvKv| Rbve bvRbxb AvLZvi 8 KvwiKzjvg we‡klÁ, GmBGmwWwc, GbwmwUwe, XvKv|

†kÖwY : beg-`kg KwgwU‡Z c`we AvnevqK

m`m¨ m`m¨

m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨ m`m¨ mgš^qKvix

mgš^qKvix

21


welq : D”PZi MwYZ µg bvg I c`we W. †gvt Avãyj gwZb 1 cÖ‡dmi, MwYZ wefvM XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq, XvKv| W. †gvt AvBbyj Bmjvg 2 cÖ‡dmi, MwYZ wefvM XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq, XvKv| W. †gvt Avãym Qvgv` 3 cÖ‡dmi, MwYZ wefvM XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq, XvKv| W. Agj K…ò nvj`vi 4 cÖ‡dmi, MwYZ wefvM XvKv wek¦we`¨vjq, XvKv| Rbve b~i †gvnv¤§` 5 cÖfvlK, weqvg g‡Wj ¯‹zj GÛ K‡jR, XvKv| Rbve †gvt bvwmi DwÏb 6 we‡klÁ, GbwmwUwe, XvKv| Rbve bvRbxb AvLZvi 7 KvwiKzjvg we‡klÁ, GmBGmwWwc, GbwmwUwe, XvKv|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

†kÖwY : beg-`kg KwgwU‡Z c`we AvnevqK

m`m¨

m`m¨

6. mvwe©K mgš^q KwgwU µg bvg I c`we 1. Rbve †gvnv¤§` RvwKi †nv‡mb KvwiKzjvg we‡klÁ I GmBGmwWwc †dvKvj c‡q›U KvwiKzjvg †W‡fjc‡g›U BDwbU RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW©, XvKv| 2. Rbve †gvkZvK Avn‡g` fu~Bqv weZiY wbqš¿K RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW©, XvKv|

KwgwU‡Z c`we mvwe©K mgš^qKvix mvwe©K mgš^qKvix

m`m¨

m`m¨ m`m¨ mgš^qKvix

22


wkÿvµg MwYZ

lô-Aóg †kÖwY

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

23


1. f~wgKv MwYZ wPšÍviv‡R¨ wePiYKvix Kíbvwejvmx‡`i †Kej Avb›` †`Iqvi MwÐ †cwi‡q Aaybv me©Rbxb MÖnY‡hvM¨Zv jvf K‡i‡Q| Ávb weÁvb Ges Z_¨ cÖhyw³i e¨vcK Dbœq‡b MwY‡Zi e¨envi I cÖ‡qvM GLb me©Rbxb I me©Î| weg~Z© aviYv‡K ev¯Í‡ei mv‡_ m¤ú„³ K‡i cÖZ¨ÿxKi‡Yi kw³kvjx nvwZqvi I gva¨g n‡”Q MwYZ| gvby‡li wPšÍvkw³ weKv‡ki gva¨‡g †hŠw³K wePvi I we‡kølY Dbœq‡bi Rb¨ MwYZ ¸iyZ¡c~Y© f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| ˆeÁvwbK I cÖhyw³MZ Kg©Kv‡Ð wkÿv_x©‡`i m¤ú„³ Ges GKzk kZ‡Ki P¨v‡jÄ †gvKv‡ejv Kivi j‡ÿ¨ MwYZ wkÿvi Dci we‡kl ¸iæZ¡ Av‡ivc Kiv n‡q‡Q| MwY‡Zi wbR¯^ bv›`wbKZv Dc‡fvM Kiv hvq m„Rbkxj Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g| MvwYwZK mgm¨vi mgvav‡bi gv‡S _v‡K Acvi Avb›`| wbZ¨ bZzb RbKj¨vYg~jK MvwYwZK mgm¨v ˆZwi Ges mgvavb Kivi g‡a¨B AšÍwb©wnZ Av‡Q MwYZ wccvmy‡`i Rb¨ MvwYwZK †mŠ›`h© Ges Avb›`| GB Avb›`‡eva wkÿv_©x‡`i MwYZgb¯‹ K‡i †Zv‡j| hyw³i AeZviYv, we‡kølY I gvbwmK DrKl© mva‡b cvwUMwYZ‡K mymsnZ K‡i lô, mßg I Aóg †kÖwY‡Z web¨¯Í Kiv n‡q‡Q| MvwYwZK mgm¨v ˆZwi Ges mgvav‡bi Dci ¸iæZ¡ Av‡ivc Kiv n‡q‡Q| AwaKš‘ MwY‡Zi A‡bK mgm¨v mn‡RB †m‡Ui aviYv e¨envi K‡i mgvavb Kiv hvq| ZvB GB ¯Í‡i †m‡Ui aviYv I cÖ‡qvM ms‡hvRb Kiv n‡q‡Q| AvaywbK MwY‡Zi Pvwn`vi Av‡jv‡K exRMwYZ‡K Dc¯’vcb Kiv n‡q‡Q| hyw³g~jK R¨vwgwZ lô †kªwY‡ZB ïiæ Kiv n‡q‡Q Ges bZzb Avw½‡K ((new approach)Gi Dc¯’vcbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| Gi mv‡_ m½wZ †i‡L e¨envwiK R¨vwgwZi Dci †Rvi †`Iqv n‡q‡Q| wk¶v_©x‡`i MwYZ fxwZ `~i K‡i AvMÖnx I Drmvnx Kivi AwfcÖv‡q c¨vUv‡b©i AvIZvq †Mg I cvRj ms‡hvRb Kiv n‡q‡Q| cvwUMwYZ, exRMwYZ I R¨vwgwZ mgš^q K‡i cwi‡ekb Kiv n‡q‡Q| d‡j mgm¨v mgvav‡b cvwUMwYZ, exRMwYZ ev R¨vwgwZ e¨env‡ii my‡hvM _vK‡e| G‡Z wkÿv_©xi MvwYwZK hyw³i AeZviYv Kivi †hvM¨Zv Ges wPšÍvi cwiwai we¯Í…wZ NU‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

24


2. D‡Ïk¨ 1.

MwYZ wkÿvq Drmvnx I AvMÖnx n‡q †hŠw³K Ges MVbg~jK wPšÍvq DØy× nIqv |

2.

wewfbœ cÖKvi msL¨vi ˆewkó¨ m¤ú‡K© aviYv jvf K‡i MvwYwZK mgm¨v MVb Ki‡Z DØy× n‡q Zv mgvav‡b mÿg nIqv|

3.

HwKK, AbycvZ I kZKiv msµvšÍ mgm¨v mgvav‡b `¶Zv AR©b Kiv|

4.

cwigvc m¤úwK©Z Ávb I e¨envwiK `¶Zv AR©b Kiv|

5.

exRMwYZxq m~Îvewj AvqË Kiv Ges m~Îvewj cÖ‡qv‡Mi gva¨‡g mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cviv|

6.

c¨vUvb© I †jLwPÎ m¤ú‡K© aviYv jvf K‡i mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cviv|

7.

exRMwYZxq mgxKi‡Yi aviYv jvf, mgxKiY MVb I mgvav‡b mÿg nIqv|

8.

R¨vwgwZK mgm¨v mgvav‡bi wewfbœ cš’v n‡Z m‡e©vrK…ówU wbe©vP‡b mg_© nIqv|

9.

MvwYwZK Dw³i mZ¨Zv hvPvB Kivi `ÿZv AR©b Kiv|

10.

R¨vwgwZK wPÎ A¼‡bi mvnv‡h¨ wkÿv I Kg©Rxe‡b nvZ I †PvL e¨env‡ii †KŠkj iß Kiv|

11.

†mU I †m‡Ui Kvh©wewa †R‡b MvwYwZK mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cviv|

12.

Z_¨-Dcv‡Ëi cÖwµqvKiY I †jLwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ Dc¯’vcb Ges †K›`ªxq cÖeYZv wbY©‡q `¶Zv jvf Kiv|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

25


3. cÖvwšÍK wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

¯^vfvweK msL¨v , g~j` I Ag~j` msL¨v, eM©g~j, c¨vUvb© I †jLwPÎ eY©bv Ki‡Z Ges wewfbœ ai‡bi c¨vUvb© wjL‡Z I GZ`&msµvšÍ wewfbœ mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b AbycvZ-mgvbycvZ, HwKK wbqg, kZKiv, jvf-¶wZ I gybvdv m¤úwK©Z mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| cwigv‡ci wewfbœ c×wZ eY©bv Ges ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b Gi e¨envi m¤úwK©Z mgm¨vewji mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| c~Y©msL¨v I wPýhy³ msL¨vi ˆewkó¨ e¨vL¨v K‡i cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e| exRMwYZxq ivwk eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges cÖZxK, PjK, mnM, m~PK, wPýhy³ msL¨v BZ¨vw`i gva¨‡g Zv cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvi‡e| exRMwYZxq ivwk †hvM, we‡qvM, ¸Y I fvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges GZ`&msµvšÍ mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| exRMwY‡Zi cÖ_g PviwU e‡M©i m~Î I Nbd‡ji m~Î eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges G¸‡jv cÖ‡qv‡M exRMwYZxq ivwk gvb wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e|| exRMwYZxq ivwk Drcv`‡K we‡kølY Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges M.mv.¸ I j.mv.¸ wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| exRMwYZxq ivwk fMœvs‡ki aviYv e¨vL¨v K‡i G‡`i †hvM, we‡qvM, ¸Y I fvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges GZ`&msµvšÍ mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| mij mgxKiY I mij mnmgxKiY MVb Ges mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| D`vniY I cÖZx‡Ki mvnv‡h¨ †mU e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges †mU cÖwµqv e¨env‡ii gva¨‡g wewfbœ mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| R¨vwgwZi †gŠwjK welq¸‡jv e¨vL¨v K‡i mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| mgvšÍivj mij‡iLv I †Q`K Øviv Drcbœ †Kv‡Yi ˆewkó¨ eY©bv I cª‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e| wÎfz‡Ri ˆewkó¨ e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges wÎfzRmsµvšÍ †gŠwjK Dccv`¨ cÖgvY K‡i cª‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e| me©mgZv I m`„kZvi ˆewkó¨ e¨vL¨v K‡i †gŠwjK Dccv`¨ cªgvY Ges mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| PZzf©y‡Ri ag©vewj e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges MvwYwZK Dw³i mZ¨Zv hvPvB, cÖgvY I cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e| cvB(π )Gi aviYv e¨vL¨v K‡i e„‡Ëi †ÿÎdj I cwimxgv wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| e„Ë msµvšÍ †gŠwjK Dccv`¨ cÖgvY Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges GZ`&m¤úwK©Z mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| Z_¨ I DcvË n‡Z Mo, ga¨K, cÖPziK wbY©q K‡i G m¤úwK©Z mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

26


Av‡eMxq 1.

msL¨v wb‡q †Ljvi gva¨‡g wewfbœ msL¨vwfwËK †Ljv ˆZwi‡Z m‡Pó n‡e|

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡bi mnR MvwYwZK wnmve wbKv‡k HwKK wbqg, kZKiv I Abycv‡Zi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Dcjw× K‡i wnmve Ki‡Z Drmvnx n‡e| exRMwY‡Zi mv‡_ cwiwPZ n‡q exRMwYZxq mgm¨v mgvav‡b AvMÖnx n‡e| exRMwYZxq mgxKiY MVb K‡i mnR mgm¨v mgvav‡b AvMÖnx n‡e| †m‡Ui mvnv‡h¨ Z_¨‡K bv›`wbKfv‡e Dc¯’vc‡b m‡Pó n‡e| MvwYwZK mgm¨v mgvav‡b †hŠw³K wPšÍvq DØy× n‡e|

g‡bv‡cwkR 1.

h_vh_fv‡e QK KvMR e¨envi K‡i †jLwPÎ A¼b Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

mij mgxKiY I mijmn mgxKi‡Yi mgvavb †jLwP‡Î †`Lv‡Z cvi‡e| †jLwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ mij mnmgxKi‡Yi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b wewfbœ c×wZ‡Z cwigvc Abygvb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| h_vh_ (appropriate) cwigvcK e¨envi K‡i AvqZvKvi Nbe¯‘, NbK, †KvYK, †ejb I e„ËvK…wZ e¯‘i †ÿÎdj cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e| cÖ`Ë Z‡_¨i wfwˇZ DcKiY e¨envi K‡i R¨vwgwZK wPÎ A¼b Ki‡Z cvi‡e| Z_¨-DcvˇK †jLwP‡Î cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

27


4. cÖvwšÍK wkLbd‡ji †kÖwYwfwËK wefvRb lô †kÖwY

cÖ_g Aa¨vq

cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. ¯^vfvweK msL¨vi A¼cvZb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. †`kxq I AvšÍ©RvwZK ixwZ‡Z A¼cvZb K‡i co‡Z cvi‡e| 3. wefvR¨Zv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. 2, 3, 4, 5, 9 Øviv wefvR¨Zv hvPvB Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. mvaviY fMœvsk I `kwgK fMœvs‡ki M.mv.¸ I j.mv.¸ wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 6. mvaviY fMœvsk I `kwgK fMœvs‡ki mijxKiY K‡i MvwYwZK mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| Av‡eMxq 7. msL¨v m¤ú©‡K †KŠZ~njx n‡q wewfbœ ai‡bi msL¨vwfwËK gRvi gRvi †Ljvq Drmvnx n‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

mßg †kÖwY

cÖ_g Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Aóg †kÖwY

cÖ_g Aa¨vq

cÖvwšÍK wkLbdj

cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq

cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, ¯Íi †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. ¯^vfvweK msL¨v, g~j` I Ag~j` g~j` I Ag~j` msL¨v kbv³ Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 1. c¨vUvb© Kx Zv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| msL¨v, eM©g~j, c¨vUvb© I †jLwPÎ msL¨v‡iLvq g~j` I Ag~j` msL¨vi Ae¯’vb 2. wewfbœ ai‡bi c¨vUvb© wjL‡Z I eY©bv eY©bv Ki‡Z Ges wewfbœ ai‡bi †`Lv‡Z cvi‡e| Ki‡Z cvi‡e| c¨vUvb© wjL‡Z I GZ`&msµvšÍ msL¨vi eM© I eM©g~j e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. Av‡ivwcZ kZ©vbyhvqx mnR c¨vUvb© wjL‡Z I wewfbœ mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z Drcv`K I fvM cÖwµqvi gva¨‡g eM©g~j wbY©q eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e| cvi‡e| Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. c¨vUv‡b©i wbw`©óZg msL¨v †ei Ki‡Z msL¨vi eM©g~j c×wZ¸‡jv cÖ‡qvM K‡i ev¯Íe cvi‡e| Rxe‡bi mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. c¨vUvb©‡K Pj‡Ki gva¨‡g exRMwYZxq ivwkgvjvq cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

Av‡eMxq Av‡eMxq 2. msL¨v wb‡q †Ljvi gva¨‡g wewfbœ 6. msL¨v wb‡q †Ljvi gva¨‡g msL¨vi cÖwZ msL¨vwfwËK †Ljv ˆZwi‡Z m‡Pó AvMÖnx n‡q DV‡e| n‡e| 7. wewfbœ msL¨vwfwËK †Ljv ˆZwi‡Z m‡Pó n‡e|

28


lô †kÖwY wØZxq Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. AbycvZ Kx Zv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. mij AbycvZ msµvšÍ mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. kZKiv‡K mvaviY fMœvs‡k Ges fMœvsk‡K kZKivq cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. HwKK wbqg I kZKiv wnmv‡ei c×wZ eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. HwKK wbqg I kZKiv wnmv‡ei mvnv‡h¨  mgq I KvR  mgq I Lv`¨  mgq I `~iZ¡ welqK MvwYwZK mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

mßg †kÖwY wØZxq Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq

Aóg †kÖwY wØZxq Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq

cÖvwšÍK wkLbdj cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, ¯Íi †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq

1. eûivwkK I avivevwnK AbycvZ e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z 1. gybvdv Kx Zv ej‡Z cvi‡e| Rxe‡b AbycvZ2. mij I Pµe„w× gybvdvi nvi e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z 1. ˆ`bw›`b cvi‡e| mgvby c vZ, HwKK wbqg, kZKiv, cvi‡e Ges G msµvšÍ mgm¨vi mgvavb 2. mgvbycv‡Zi aviYv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| jvf-¶wZ I gybvdv m¤úwK©Z Ki‡Z cvi‡e | 3. mgvbycvZ msµvšÍ mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| cvi‡e| 4. HwKK I AbycvZ e¨envi K‡i ev¯Íe Rxe‡b  mgq I KvR  bj I †PŠev”Pv  mgq I `~iZ¡  †bŠKv I †mªvZ welqK mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. jvf-¶wZ Kx Zv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 6. jvf-¶wZ msK&ªvšÍ mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 7. Ki, f¨vU, Kwgkb I gy`ªvwewbgq msµvšÍ ‰`bw›`b Rxe‡bi mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| Av‡eMxq Av‡eMxq Av‡eMxq 3. e¨vs‡Ki wnmve weeiYx eyS‡Z AvMÖnx n‡e| 2. ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡bi mnR MvwYwZK 6. ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡bi mnR MvwYwZK wnmve Av‡eMxq wnmve wbKv‡k HwKK wbqg, wbKv‡k MwY‡Zi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Dcjw× kZKiv I Abycv‡Zi 8. ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡bi mnR MvwYwZK wnmve wbKvk Ki‡Z cvi‡e| cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Dcjw× K‡i wnmve Ki‡Z Drmvnx n‡e| Ki‡Z Drmvnx n‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

29


lô †kÖwY

mßg †kÖwY Z„Zxq Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. ˆ`N¨© cwigv‡ci AvšÍtm¤úK© e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges G msµvšÍ mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

Aóg †kÖwY Z„Zxq Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. †`kxq, weªwUk I AvšÍR©vwZK cwigvc c×wZ e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges mswkøó c×wZi mvnv‡h¨ ˆ`N©¨, †ÿÎdj, IRb I Zij c`v‡_©i AvqZb msewjZ mgm¨vi mgvavb 2. IRb I Zij c`v‡_©i AvqZb cwigvc wKfv‡e Ki‡Z cvi‡e| Kiv nq Zv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges G m¤úwK©Z mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

g‡bv‡cwkR 3. wewfbœ †¯‹j e¨envi K‡i AvqZvKvi I eM©vKvi †ÿ‡Îi ˆ`N¨© I cÖ¯’ cwigvc K‡i †ÿÎdj wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. IRb cwigv‡ci wewfbœ cwigvcK e¨envi K‡i cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. Zij c`v‡_©i AvqZb cwigv‡ci wewfbœ cwigvcK e¨envi K‡i cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 6. ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b AvbygvvwbK cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

cÖvwšÍK wkLbdj cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, ¯Íi †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. cwigv‡ci wewfbœ c×wZ eY©bv Ges ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b Gi e¨envi m¤úwK©Z mgm¨vewji mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

g‡bv‡cwkR 2. †`kxq, weªwUk I AvšÍR©vwZK c×wZ‡Z g‡bv‡cwkR ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b cÖPwjZ cwigvc‡Ki mvnv‡h¨ 2. ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b wewfbœ c×wZ‡Z cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e| cwigvc Abygvb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

30


lô †kÖwY Z…Zxq Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. c~Y©msL¨vi ag© e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. c~Y©msL¨v kbv³ Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. msL¨v‡iLvq c~Y©msL¨vi Ae¯’vb †`Lv‡Z cvi‡e Ges †QvU-eo msL¨v Zzjbv Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. wPýhy³ msL¨vi †hvM I we‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. msL¨v‡iLvi mvnv‡h¨ †hvM I we‡qvM †`Lv‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

mßg †kÖwY

Aóg †kÖwY

cÖvwšÍK wkLbdj cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, ¯Íi †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. c~Y©msL¨v I wPýhy³ msL¨vi ˆewkó¨ e¨vL¨v K‡i cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

31


lô †kÖwY PZz_© Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. exRMwYZxq cÖZxK, PjK, mnM, m~PK e¨envi K‡i MvwYwZK mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. exRMwYZxq ivwki m`„k I wem`„k c` kbv³ Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. GK ev GKvwaK c` wewkó exRMwYZxq ivwk eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. exRMwYZxq ivwki †hvM I we‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e| Av‡eMxq 5. exRMwY‡Zi cÖwZ AvMÖnx n‡e|

lô †kÖwY

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

mßg †kÖwY PZz_© Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. exRMwYZxq ivwki ¸Y I fvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. eÜbx e¨env‡ii gva¨‡g exRMwYZxq ivwki †hvM, we‡qvM, ¸Y I fvM msµvšÍ ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡bi mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

Aóg †kÖwY

cÖvwšÍK wkLbdj cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h,¯Íi †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. exRMwYZxq ivwk eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges exRMwYZxq cÖZxK, PjK, mnM, m~PK, wPýhy³ msL¨v BZ¨vw`i gva¨‡g Zv cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. exRMwYZxq ivwki †hvM, we‡qvM, ¸Y I fvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges GZ`&msµvšÍ mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| Av‡eMxq 3. exRMwY‡Zi mv‡_ cwiwPZ n‡q exRMwYZxq mgm¨v mgvav‡b AvMÖnx n‡e

Aóg †kÖwY PZz_© Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. exRMwYZxq m~Î cÖ‡qvM K‡i wØc`x I wÎc`x ivwki eM© wbiƒcY, mijxKiY I gvb wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. exRMwYZxq m~Î cÖ‡qvM K‡i wØc`x I wÎc`x ivwki Nb wbY©q, mijxKiY I gvb wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. ga¨c` we‡køl‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ ivwkgvjvi Drcv`K we‡kølY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. exRMwYZxq ivwkgvjvi M.mv.¸ I j.mv.¸ wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

cÖvwšÍK wkLbdj cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, ¯Íi †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. exRMwY‡Zi cÖ_g PviwU e‡M©i m~Î I Nbd‡ji m~Î eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges G¸‡jv cÖ‡qv‡M exRMwYZxq ivwki gvb wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. exRMwYZxq ivwki Drcv`‡K we‡kølY Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges M.mv.¸ I j.mv.¸ wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

Av‡eMxq 3. exRMwYZxq mgm¨v mgvav‡b AvMÖnx n‡e|

mßg †kÖwY cÂg Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. eM© wbY©‡q exRMwYZxq m~‡Îi eY©bv I cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. exRMwYZxq m~Î I Abywm×všÍ cÖ‡qvM K‡i ivwki gvb wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. exRMwYZxq m~Î cÖ‡qvM K‡i Drcv`‡K we‡kølY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. ¸YbxqK I ¸wYZK Kx Zv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. Ab~aŸ© wZbwU exRMwYZxq ivwki mvswLK mnMmn M.mv.¸ I j.mv.¸ wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

32


lô †kÖwY

mßg †kÖwY lô Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. exRMwYZxq fMœvsk Kx Zv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. exRMwYZxq fMœvsk‡K jNyKiY I mvaviY niwewkó Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. exRMwYZxq fMœvs‡ki †hvM, we‡qvM Ges mij Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

Aóg †kÖwY cÂg Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. exRMwYZxq fMœvs‡ki †hvM we‡qvM, ¸Y I fvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges GZ`msµvšÍ mij I mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

cÖvwšÍK wkLbdj cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, ¯Íi †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. exRMwYZxq ivwki fMœvs‡ki aviYv e¨vL¨v K‡i G‡`i †hvM, we‡qvM, ¸Y I fvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges GZ`&msµvšÍ mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

[

lô †kÖwY cÂg Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. mgxKiY I mij mgxKiY e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. ev¯Íe mgm¨vi wfwˇZ mgxKiY MVb K‡i mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

mßg †kÖwY mßg Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. mgxKi‡Yi cÿvšÍi wewa, eR©b wewa, Avo¸Yb wewa , cÖwZmvg¨ wewa e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. wewamg~n cÖ‡qvM K‡i mgxKi‡Yi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. mij mgxKiY MVb I mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. †jLwPÎ Kx Zv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| g‡bv‡cwkR 5. †jLwP‡Î A¶ I myweavRbK GKK wb‡q we›`ycvZb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 6. †jLwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ mgxKi‡Yi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

Aóg †kÖwY lô Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. mgxKi‡Yi cªwZ¯’vcb c×wZ I Acbqb c×wZ e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. `yB PjKwewkó mij mnmgxKiY mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. MvwYwZK mgm¨vi mij mnmgxKiY MVb K‡i mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| g‡bv‡cwkR 4. mij mnmgxKi‡Yi mgvavb †jLwP‡Î †`Lv‡Z cvi‡e| 5. †jLwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ mij mnmgxKi‡Yi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| Av‡eMxq 6. mnR mgm¨v mgvav‡bi Rb¨ mgxKiY MV‡b AvMÖnx n‡e|

cÖvwšÍK wkLbdj cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, ¯Íi †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. mij mgxKiY I mij mnmgxKiY MVb Ges mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| g‡bv‡cwkR 2. h_vh_fv‡e QK KvMR e¨envi K‡i †jLwPÎ A¼b Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. mij mgxKiY I mij mnmgxKi‡Yi mgvavb †jLwP‡Î †`Lv‡Z cvi‡e| 4. †jLwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ mij mnmgxKi‡Yi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| Av‡eMxq 5. exRMwYZxq mgxKiY MVb K‡i mnR mgm¨v mgvav‡b AvMÖnx n‡e|

33


lô †kÖwY

mßg †kÖwY

Aóg †kÖwY mßg Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. †mU I †mU MVb cÖwµqv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. mmxg †mU, mvwe©K †mU, c~iK †mU,dvuKv †mU, wb‡ñ` †mU eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges Zv‡`i MVb cÖZx‡Ki mvnv‡h¨ cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. GKvwaK †m‡Ui ms‡hvM †mU I †Q` †mU MVb I e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. †fbwPÎ I D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ †mU cÖwµqvi mnR agv©ewj hvPvB I cÖgvY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. †m‡Ui ag©vewj cÖ‡qvM K‡i mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

cÖvwšÍK wkLbdj cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, ¯Íi †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. D`vniY I cÖZx‡Ki mvnv‡h¨ †mU e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges †mU cÖwµqv e¨env‡ii gva¨‡g wewfbœ mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

Av‡eMxq 2. †m‡Ui mvnv‡h¨ Z_¨‡K bv›`wbKfv‡e Dc¯’vc‡b m‡Pó n‡e|

Av‡eMxq 6. †fbwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ MvwYwZK mgm¨v‡K bv›`wbKfv‡e Dc¯’vc‡b m‡Pó n‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

34


lô †kÖwY lô Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. ¯’vb, Zj, †iLv I we›`y e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. mij‡iLv, †iLvsk I iwk¥i g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. mwbœwnZ †KvY¸‡jvi m¤ú©K e¨vL¨v I cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. wecÖZxc †KvY¸‡jvi m¤úK© eY©bv I cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. mgvšÍivj †iLvsk eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 6. `yBwU mgvšÍivj mij‡iLv I GKwU †Q`K Øviv Drcbœ †KvYmg~n eY©bv I cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 7. evû‡f‡` I †KvY‡f‡` wÎfzR e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 8. eM©, AvqZ, i¤^m I mvgvšÍwiK wPwýZ Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

mßg †kÖwY

Aóg †kÖwY

cÖvwšÍK wkLbdj cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h,¯Íi †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. R¨vwgwZi †gŠwjK welq¸‡jv e¨vL¨v K‡i mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

35


lô †kÖwY mßg Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. GKwU wbw`©ó †iLvsk‡K cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. cÖ`Ë Z_¨ e¨envi K‡i †iLvsk A¼b Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. wewfbœ gv‡ci †Kv‡Yi wPÎ A¼b Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

lô †kÖwY

mßg †kÖwY

mßg †kÖwY

Aóg Aa¨vq

cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. mgvšÍivj mij‡iLv I †Q`K Øviv Drcbœ †Kv‡Yi ˆewkó¨ e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. `yBwU mij‡iLv mgvšÍivj nIqvq kZ© eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

beg Aa¨vq

cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. wÎfz‡Ri AšÍt¯’ I ewnt¯’ †KvY eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. wÎfy‡Ri †gŠwjK Dccv`¨¸‡jv cÖgvY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. wÎfz‡Ri evû I †Kv‡Yi cvi¯úwiK m¤úK© e¨envi K‡i RxebwfwËK mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| g‡bv‡cwkR 4. wewfbœ kZ©mv‡c‡ÿ wÎfzR AvuK‡Z cvi‡e| 5. wÎfzR †ÿ‡Îi f~wg I D”PZv †g‡c †ÿÎdj cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

Aóg †kÖwY

cÖvwšÍK wkLbdj cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, ¯Íi †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. mgvšÍivj mij‡iLv I †Q`K Øviv Drcbœ †Kv‡Yi ˆewkó¨ eY©bv I cª‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

Aóg †kÖwY beg Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. wc_v‡Mviv‡mi Dccv`¨ hvPvB K‡i e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. wÎfz‡Ri wZbwU evûi ‰`N©¨ †`Iqv _vK‡j wÎfzRwU mg‡KvYx wKbv-hvPvB Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. wc_v‡Mviv‡mi Dccv`¨ cÖgvY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. wc_v‡Mviv‡mi m~Î e¨envi K‡i mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

cÖvwšÍK wkLbdj cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, ¯Íi †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. wÎfz‡Ri ˆewkó¨ e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges wÎfzRmsµvšÍ †gŠwjK Dccv`¨ cÖgvY K‡i cª‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e| g‡bv‡cwkR 2. cÖ`Ë Z‡_¨i wfwˇZ wÎfzR A¼b Ki‡Z cvi‡e| Av‡eMxq 3. wÎfzR msµvšÍ mgm¨v mgvav‡bi gva¨‡g †hŠw³K wPšÍvq DØy× n‡e|

36


lô †kÖwY

lô †kÖwY

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

mßg †kÖwY `kg Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. wewfbœ R¨vwgwZK AvKvi I AvK„wZ n‡Z me©mg Ges m`„k AvKvi I AvK…wZ wPwýZ Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. me©mg I m`„kZvi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. wbw`©ó ˆewk‡ó¨i Av‡jv‡K wÎfzR I PZyf©z‡Ri m`„kZv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e | 4. wbw`©ó ˆewk‡ó¨i wfwˇZ wÎfz‡Ri me©mgZv cÖgvY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. me©mgZv I m`„kZvi ˆewk‡ó¨i wfwˇZ mnR MvwYwZK I ev¯Íe mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

mßg †kÖwY

Aóg †kÖwY

cÖvwšÍK wkLbdj cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, ¯Íi †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. me©mgZv I m`„kZvi ˆewkó¨ e¨vL¨v K‡i †gŠwjK Dccv`¨ cªgvY Ges mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

Aóg †kÖwY Aóg Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. PZyf©z‡Ri ag©vewj hvPvB Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. PZz„f©z‡Ri ag©vewji hyw³g~jK cÖgvY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| g‡bv‡cwkR 3. cÖ`Ë DcvË n‡Z iæjvi I K¤úvm e¨envi K‡i PZzf©zR AvKu‡Z cvi‡e| 4. wÎfzR m~‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ PZyf„©zR †ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎdj cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. PZyfy©R †ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎdj cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 6. AvqZvKvi Nbe¯‘ I Nb‡Ki †ÿÎdj cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

cÖvwšÍK wkLbdj cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, ¯Íi †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. PZzf©y‡Ri ag©vewj e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges MvwYwZK Dw³i mZ¨Zv hvPvB, cÖgvY I cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e| g‡bv‡cwkR 2. h_vh_ cwigvcK e¨envi K‡i AvqZvKvi Nbe¯‘ I Nb‡Ki †ÿÎdj cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

37


lô †kÖwY

mßg †kÖwY

lô †kÖwY Aóg Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. Z_¨ I DcvË Kx Zv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. †kÖwY e¨eavb bv K‡i Aweb¨¯Í Dcv‡Ëi Mo, ga¨K I cÖPziK wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. Aw¼Z †iLvwP‡Îi eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e| g‡bv‡cwkR 4. †iLvwPÎ A¼b Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

Aóg †kÖwY `kg Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. e„‡Ëi aviYv jvf Ki‡e| 2. cvB(π ) Gi aviYv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. e„ËvKvi ‡ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎdj I cwimxgv wbY©q K‡i mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. e„Ë msµvšÍ Dccv`¨ cÖgvY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. e„Ë msµvšÍ Dccv`¨ cÖ‡qvM K‡i mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| g‡bv‡cwkR 6. cwigvcK wdZv e¨envi K‡i e„ËvKvi †ÿ‡Îi cwimxgv I †ÿÎdj cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 7. †ej‡bi c„‡ôi ‡ÿÎdj cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

mßg †kÖwY GKv`k Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. MYmsL¨v mviwY Kx Zv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. †kªwY e¨eav‡bi gva¨‡g Aweb¨¯Í DcvË web¨¯Í AvKv‡i cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. Aw¼Z AvqZ‡jL n‡Z DcvË m¤ú‡K© e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. AvqZ‡jL n‡Z cÖPziK wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

g‡bv‡cwkR 5. AvqZ‡jL A¼b Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

cÖvwšÍK wkLbdj cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, ¯Íi †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. e„Ë msµvšÍ †gŠwjK Dccv`¨ cÖgvY Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges GZ`&m¤úwK©Z mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| g‡bv‡cwkR 2. h_vh_ cwigvcK e¨envi K‡i †KvYK I †ej‡bi c„‡ôi †ÿÎdj cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

Aóg †kÖwY GKv`k Aa¨vq cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, Aa¨vq †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. †Kw›`ªq cÖeYZv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. MvwYwZK m~‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ Mo, ga¨K I cÖPziK wbY©q K‡i mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

cÖvwšÍK wkLbdj cÖZ¨vkv Kiv hvq †h, ¯Íi †k‡l wkÿv_x©iveyw×e„Ëxq 1. Z_¨ I DcvË n‡Z Mo, ga¨K, cÖPziK wbY©q K‡i G m¤úwK©Z mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. Aw¼Z †jLwP·K e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

g‡bv‡cwkR 3. cvBwPÎ A¼b Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

g‡bv‡cwkR 3. Z_¨-DcvˇK †jLwP‡Î cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

38


5. Aa¨vq web¨vm I wcwiqW eÈb

Aa¨vq cÖ_g Aa¨vq wØZxq Aa¨vq Z…Zxq Aa¨vq PZz_© Aa¨vq cÂg Aa¨vq lô Aa¨vq mßg Aa¨vq Aóg Aa¨vq beg Aa¨vq `kg Aa¨vq GKv`k Aa¨vq

lô †kÖwY Aa¨v‡qi bvg ¯^vfvweK msL¨v I fMœvsk AbycvZ I kZKiv c~Y©msL¨v exRMwYZxq ivwk mij mgxKiY R¨vwgwZi †gŠwjK aviYv e¨envwiK R¨vwgwZ Z_¨ I DcvË ---------------

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

wcwiqW msL¨v 15 25 15 15 15 20 25 10 ----------------

mßg †kÖwY Aa¨v‡qi bvg wcwiqW msL¨v g~j`- Ag~j` msL¨v mgvbycvZ I jvf-¶wZ cwigvc exRMwYZxq ivwki ¸Y I fvM exRMwYZxq m~Îvewj I cÖ‡qvM exRMwYZxq fMœvsk mij mgxKiY mgvšÍivj mij‡iLv wÎfzR m`„kZv I me©mgZv Z_¨ I DcvË

15 15 10 10 12 8 10 15 20 15 10

Aóg †kªwY Aa¨v‡qi bvg c¨vUvb© gybvdv cwigvc exRMwYZxq m~Îvewj I cÖ‡qvM exRMwYZxq fMœvsk mij mnmgxKiY †mU PZzf©zR wc_v‡Mviv‡mi Dccv`¨ e„Ë Z_¨ I DcvË

wcwiqW msL¨v 10 15 10 12 8 10 10 12 23 15 15

39


6. wkÿvµg QK lô †kÖwY

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

40


cÖ_g Aa¨vq : ¯^vfvweK msL¨v I fMœvsk wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. ¯^vfvweK msL¨vi A¼cvZb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. †`kxq I AvšÍ©RvwZK ixwZ‡Z A¼cvZb K‡i co‡Z cvi‡e| 3. †gŠwjK msL¨v, †hŠwMK msL¨v I mn‡gŠwjK msL¨v wPwýZ Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

(15 wcwiqW) welqe¯‘

¯^vfvweK msL¨v

†`kxq I AvšÍR©vwZK ixwZ‡Z A¼cvZb †gŠwjK msL¨v, †hŠwMK msL¨v, mn‡gŠwjK msL¨v

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv   

4. wefvR¨Zv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. 2, 3, 4, 5, 9 Øviv wefvR¨Zv hvPvB Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

wefvR¨Zv

6. mvaviY fMœvsk I `kwgK fMœvs‡ki M.mv.¸ I j.mv.¸, wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

M.mv.¸ I j.mv.¸

7. mvaviY fMœvsk I `kwgK fMœvs‡ki mijxKiY K‡i MvwYwZK mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

fMœvsk I `kwgK msL¨vi mij

Av‡eMxq 8. msL¨v m¤ú©‡K †KŠZ~njx n‡q

wewfbœ ai‡bi msL¨vwfwËK gRvi gRvi †Ljvq Drmvnx n‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

wkÿK D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ ¯^vfvweK msL¨v I k~‡b¨i aviYv †`‡eb| D`vniY I cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g A‡¼i ¯’vbxqgv‡bi c~e©Ávb hvPvB Ki‡eb| wkÿv_x©iv †ev‡W© K‡qKwU msL¨v wj‡L Zv †_‡K †gŠwjK msL¨v I †hŠwMK msL¨v kbv³ Ki‡e| †Kvb †Kvb msL¨v ci¯úi mn‡gŠwjK Zv wbY©q Ki‡Z wkÿK mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡eb| cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g wkÿv_x©‡`i aviYv cwi®‹vi Ki‡eb| wkÿK 2, 3, 5 Øviv wefvR¨Zvi c~e©Ávb cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g hvPvB Ki‡eb| 4 I 9 Øviv wefvR¨ msL¨v¸‡jv D`vniY I cÖ‡kœvˇii mvnv‡h¨ e¨vL¨v Ki‡eb Ges wewfbœ msL¨v w`‡q wefvR¨Zv hvPvB Ki‡Z ej‡eb| wkÿv_©xiv `jxqfv‡e 2, 3, 4, 5, 9 Gi wefvR¨Zvi wbqg¸‡jv QK AvKv‡i Dc¯’vcb Ki‡e| wkÿK ¯^vfvweK msL¨vi M.mv.¸. I j.mv.¸. wbY©‡qi c×wZ cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g hvPvB Ki‡eb| mvaviY fMœvsk I `kwgK fMœvs‡ki M.mv.¸. I j.mv.¸. wbY©q c×wZ D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ †evSv‡eb Ges wkÿv_x©‡`i M.mv.¸. I j.mv.¸. wbY©q Ki‡Z †`‡eb| wkÿK wewfbœ cÖKvi eÜbxi bvg wPýmn LvZvq wjL‡Z ej‡eb| mijxKi‡Y eÜbxi e¨envi cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g hvPvB Ki‡eb| mvaviY fMœvsk I `kwgK fMœvs‡ki mijxKi‡Y †hvM, we‡qvM, ¸Y, fvM, Gi I eÜbxi KvR ch©vqµ‡g eY©bv K‡i GKRb wkÿv_©x‡K †ev‡W© GKwU mnR mij Ki‡Z †`‡eb Ges cvV¨cy¯Í‡Ki Abykxjbxi mgm¨v `jMZfv‡e mgvavb Ki‡Z ej‡eb| wkÿK wkÿv_x©‡`i `jMZfv‡e 3, 4, 5, 6 A‡¼i msL¨v e¨envi K‡i 2, 3, 5 Øviv wefvR¨ msL¨v wbY©q Kivi cÖwZ‡hvwMZvi e¨e¯’v Ki‡eb| Gfv‡e wkÿv_x©iv †Ljvi gva¨‡g wefvR¨Zv hvPvB Ki‡e|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv 

‡ev‡W© A¼cvZb Ki‡Z w`‡q ch©‡eÿ‡Yi gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

wkÿK evwoi KvR I †kÖwYi Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

QK Dc¯’vcb Kivi mgq wkÿv_x©‡`i Dc¯’vcb †KŠkj g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

†kÖwY Awfÿvi gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

wba©vwiZ gvb`‡Ði mvnv‡h¨ `jMZ KvR g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

wkÿv_x©‡`i †Ljvi gva¨‡g msL¨vi wefvR¨Zv wbY©‡qi cÖwZ †KŠZ~nj I `‡j KvR Kivi gvbwmKZv g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

41


wØZxq Aa¨vq : AbycvZ I kZKiv (25 wcwiqW) wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. AbycvZ Kx Zv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. mij AbycvZ msµvšÍ mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

welqe¯‘  Abycv‡Zi aviYv  wewfbœ cÖKvi AbycvZ (mij AbycvZ, e¨¯Í AbycvZ, wgkÖ AbycvZ)

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv 

 3.

kZKiv‡K mvaviY fMœvs‡k  AbycvZ I kZKiv Ges fMœvsk‡K kZKivq wnmv‡ei m¤úK© cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. HwKK wbqg I kZKiv  AbycvZ, kZKiv I HwKK wnmv‡ei c×wZ eY©bv Ki‡Z wbqg msµvšÍ mgm¨v cvi‡e| 5. HwKK wbqg I kZKiv wnmv‡ei mvnv‡h¨ mgq I KvR, mgq I Lv`¨, mgq I `~iZ¡ welqK MvwYwZK mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

wkÿK GKRb wkÿv_©x‡K GKB RvZxq `yBwU ivwk †ev‡W© wjL‡Z  ej‡eb Ges ivwk `yBwUi Zzjbv K‡i Abycv‡Zi aviYv †`‡eb| Gi gva¨‡g Abycv‡Zi c~e ©ivwk I DËi ivwki Ae¯’vb eY©bv Ki‡eb| wkÿv_©xiv K‡qKwU AbycvZ †ev‡W© wj‡L Zv †_‡K c~e© ivwk I DËi ivwk wPwýZ Ki‡e| wkÿK wkÿv_©x‡`i‡K †Kv‡bv cixÿvq evsjv I MwY‡Z cÖvß b¤^‡ii AbycvZ wjL‡Z ej‡eb| AbycvZwUi c~e© ivwk I DËi ivwk †_‡K ¸iæ AbycvZ ev jNy AbycvZ ev GKvbycvZ Gi aviYv †`‡eb|  wkÿK GKwU mij Abycv‡Zi mvnv‡h¨ e¨¯Í AbycvZ Ges wgkÖ Abycv‡Zi aviYv †`‡eb| wkÿv_x©iv wkÿ‡Ki mnvqZvq AbycvZ, kZKiv I HwKK wbqg  msµvšÍ mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡e|

†gŠwLK cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

wkÿv_x©‡`i †ev‡W© †W‡K mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z w`‡q g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb| evwoi Kv‡Ri mvnv‡h¨ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

†kÖwYi KvR I †kÖwY Awfÿvi gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

Av‡eMxq 6. ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡bi mnR MvwYwZK wnmve wbKv‡k MwY‡Zi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Dcjw× Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

42


Z„Zxq Aa¨vq : c~Y©msL¨v (15 wcwiqW) wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. c~Y©msL¨vi ag© e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z  cvi‡e|

welqe¯‘

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

c~Y©msL¨v I Zvi ag©vewj

wkÿK †Kv‡bv wKQz avi ev F‡Yi gva¨‡g FYvZ¥K msL¨vi aviYv ¯úó Ki‡eb| Avgv‡`i ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b G ai‡bi msL¨vi e¨envi †Kv_vq nq Zv wkÿv_©x‡`i Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Z ej‡eb| wkÿK cÖ‡qvR‡b mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡eb|

†gŠwLK Dc¯’vcbvi mgq wkÿv_x©‡`i †gŠwLK †hvMv‡hvM `ÿZv g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

msL¨v‡iLvq c~Y©msL¨vi Ae¯’vb I Zzjbv

wkÿK GKRb wkÿv_©x‡K wewfbœ ai‡bi msL¨v †ev‡W© wjL‡Z ej‡eb| G †_‡K wkÿv_©xiv c~Y©msL¨v, abvZ¥K I FYvZ¥K msL¨v kbv³ Ki‡e| wkÿK Av‡jvPbvi gva¨‡g c~Y©msL¨vi aviYv ¯úó Ki‡eb| wkÿv_x©iv †ev‡W© †iLv Gu‡K Gi gvSvgvwS GKwU we›`y‡K wPwýZ Ki‡e| wkÿK H we›`y‡K k~b¨ a‡i mg`~i‡Z¡ k~‡b¨i Wvb I evgcv‡k h_vµ‡g abvZ¥K I FYvZ¥K msL¨vi Ae¯’vb e¨vL¨v Ki‡eb| Gfv‡e wkÿK msL¨v‡iLvi aviYv †`‡eb| wkÿK ciggvb, wPýhy³ msL¨v A_©vr abvZ¥K I FYvZ¥K msL¨vi †hvM, we‡qv‡Mi wbqg e¨vL¨v Ki‡eb| wkÿ‡Ki wb‡`©‡k K‡qKwU mgm¨v wkÿv_©xiv mgvavb K‡i †kÖwYK‡ÿ Dc¯’vcb Ki‡e Ges cÖ‡qvR‡b wkÿK mvnvh¨ Ki‡eb| wkÿK wPýhy³ msL¨vi †hvM ev we‡qvM cÖwµqv msL¨v‡iLvi gva¨‡g †ev‡W© K‡i †`Lv‡eb| wkÿv_©xiv K‡qKwU mgm¨vi mgvavb K‡i wkÿK‡K †`Lv‡e ev `jxqfv‡e Av‡jvPbv Ki‡e| wkÿK cÖ‡qvR‡b Av‡jvPbvi gva¨‡g AviI mn‡hvwMZv †`‡eb|

wkÿv_x©‡`i †ev‡W© †W‡K msL¨v kbv³ Ki‡Z w`‡q cÖ‡kœvˇii mvnv‡h¨ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

msL¨v‡iLvq abvZ¥K I FYvZ¥K msL¨v ¯’vcb Ki‡Z w`‡q g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

mgm¨v mgvavb Kivi mg‡q wkÿK ch©‡eÿ‡Yi gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

†kÖwYi KvR I †kÖwY Awfÿvi gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

2. c~Y©msL¨v kbv³ Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. msL¨v‡iLvq c~Y©msL¨vi Ae¯’vb  †`Lv‡Z cvi‡e Ges †QvU-eo msL¨v Zzjbv Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. wPýhy³ msL¨vi †hvM I we‡qvM  Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

wPýhy³ msL¨vi †hvM, we‡qvM

 5. msL¨v‡iLvi mvnv‡h¨ †hvM-  we‡qvM †`Lv‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

msL¨v‡iLvi mvnv‡h¨ †hvM I we‡qvM

43


PZz_© Aa¨vq : exRMwYZxq ivwk

(15 wcwiqW)

wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. exRMwYZxq cÖZxK, PjK, mnM,  m~PK e¨envi K‡i MvwYwZK mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

2. exRMwYZxq ivwki m`„k I  wem`„k c` kbv³ Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. GK ev GKvwaK c` wewkó exRMwYZxq ivwk eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. exRMwYZxq ivwki †hvM I  we‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

welqe¯‘

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

exRMwYZxq cÖZxK, PjK, mnM I m~P‡Ki e¨envi

exRMwYZxq ivwki m`„k I wem`„k c`, GK ev GKvwaK c`wewkó exRMwYZxq ivwki eY©bv

exRMwYZxq ivwki †hvM I we‡qvM

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

ARvbv msL¨v wbY©q Ki‡Z we‡kl cÖZxK () ev Aÿi cÖZxK (K,L,....) e¨envi m¤ú‡K© wkÿv_©x‡`i c~e© aviYvi Dci wfwË K‡i wkÿK Aÿi cÖZx‡Ki gvb †h Pjgvb Zv e¨vL¨vi gva¨‡g exRMwYZxq Pj‡Ki aviYv ¯úó Ki‡eb| wkÿK exRMwYZxq mnM I m~P‡Ki aviYv D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v Ki‡eb| wkÿv_©xiv G m¤úwK©Z mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡e Ges cÖ‡qvR‡b wkÿK mnvqZv Ki‡eb| wkÿv_©xiv `jMZfv‡e GKB RvZxq wewfbœ AvKv‡ii DcKiY †_‡K m`„k I wem`„k DcKiY Avjv`v K‡i m`„k e¯‘i ag© m¤ú‡K© Rvb‡e| GKBfv‡e exRMwYZxq m`„k I wem`„k c` Avjv`v Ki‡Z wkL‡e| cÖ‡qvR‡b wkÿK mnvqZv Ki‡eb|

cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

mgm¨v mgvavb Kivi mg‡q wkÿK ch©‡eÿY K‡i g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

†kÖwYi KvR I †kÖwY Awfÿvi gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb| evwoi Kv‡Ri mvnv‡h¨ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

wkÿv_©x‡`i mnvqZvq wkÿK exRMwYZxq ivwkgvjvi †hvM I we‡qvM †ev‡W© K‡i †`Lv‡eb| wkÿv_©xiv GZ`msµvšÍ cÖ`Ë †hvM I we‡qv‡Mi Abykxjb Ki‡e| cÖ‡qvR‡b wkÿK mnvqZv Ki‡eb|

`jMZ Kv‡Ri mgq ch©‡eÿ‡Yi gva¨‡g wkÿv_x©iv exRMwY‡Zi cÖwZ AvMÖnx wKbv-Zv g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

Av‡eMxq 5. exRMwY‡Zi cÖwZ AvMÖnx n‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

44


cÂg Aa¨vq : mij mgxKiY wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. mgxKiY I mij mgxKiY e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. ev¯Íe mgm¨vi wfwˇZ mgxKiY MVb K‡i mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

(15 wcwiqW) welqe¯‘ 

mgxKiY I mij mgxKi‡Yi eY©bv

mij mgxKiY MVb I mgvavb

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv 

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

wkÿK mgxKiY I mij mgxKi‡Yi aviYv D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v Ki‡eb| wkÿv_©x‡`i mnvqZvq mij mgxKi‡Yi mgvavb †ev‡W© K‡i †`Lv‡eb| wkÿ‡Ki wb‡`©‡k wkÿv_©x GKwU mgm¨vi mgvavb †ev‡W© Ki‡e| Abykxjbxi Ab¨vb¨ mgm¨v wkÿv_x©iv `jMZfv‡e mgvavb Ki‡e| wkÿK cÖ‡qvR‡b mnvqZv Ki‡eb| wkÿK ev¯Íe mgm¨vi GKwU mgxKiY MVb K‡i †`Lv‡eb| wkÿ‡Ki mnvqZvq wkÿv_©xiv mgxKiY MVb I mgvavb Kivi Abykxjb Ki‡e|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv   

wkÿv_x©‡`i †ev‡W© †W‡K mij mgxKi‡Yi mgvavb Ki‡Z w`‡q cÖ‡kœvˇii mvnv‡h¨ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb| wba©vwiZ gvb`‡Ði mvnv‡h¨ `jMZ KvR g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb| †kÖwYi KvR I evwoi Kv‡Ri mvnv‡h¨ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

45


lô Aa¨vq : R¨vwgwZi †gŠwjK aviYv wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. ¯’vb, Zj, †iLv I we›`y e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. mij‡iLv, †iLvsk I iwk¥i g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

welqe¯‘ 

¯’vb, Zj, †iLv I we›`y

†iLvsk I iwk¥, mij‡iLv, eµ†iLv we›`y, †iLv, Zj m¤úwK©Z K‡qKwU cÖ‡qvRbxq m¦Ztwm× mij †KvY, mwbœwnZ †KvY, m¤ú~iK †KvY , wecÖZxc †KvY †iLv I †KvY m¤úwK©Z Dccv`¨ e¨vL¨v I hvPvB Dccv`¨ GKwU †iLvs‡ki cÖvšÍwe›`y‡Z Aci GKwU †iLvsk wgwjZ n‡j †h `yBwU mwbœwnZ †KvY Drcbœ nq,G‡`i mgwó `yB mg‡KvY| `yBwU mij‡iLv ci¯úi †Q` Ki‡j Drcbœ wecÖZxc †KvY¸‡jv ci¯úi mgvb|

 3. mwbœwnZ †KvY¸‡jvi m¤ú©K  e¨vL¨v I cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. wecÖZxc †KvY¸‡jvi m¤ú©K eY©bv I cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

 

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

(20 wcwiqW) wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

 ev¯Íe D`vniY †hgb- †Uwej, †eÂ, eB, e·, BU, BZ¨vw`i mvnv‡h¨ wkÿv_x©iv ¯’vb,Zj, †iLv I we›`y m¤ú©‡K Zv‡`i c~e© aviYv e¨vL¨v Ki‡e| wkÿK cÖ‡qvR‡b mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡eb|  †ev‡W© wPÎ Gu‡K Ges cÖkœ- Dˇii mvnv‡h¨ wkÿv_©xiv †iLv, †iLvsk I iwk¥ e¨vL¨v Ki‡e| wkÿv_x©iv `jMZfv‡e †iLv, †iLvsk I iwk¥i cv_©K¨ QKvKv‡i Dc¯’vcb Ki‡e|

 wkÿv_x©iv ev¯Íe D`vniY †hgb†Uwej, †eÂ, eB, e·, BU BZ¨vw`i mvnv‡h¨ ¯’vb, Zj, †iLv I we›`y m¤ú©‡K Zv‡`i c~e© aviYv e¨vL¨v Kivi mgq wkÿK ch©‡eÿY K‡i g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  †iLv, †iLvsk I iwk¥i cv_©K¨ QKvKv‡i Dc¯’vcb Kivi mgq †gŠwLK †hvMv‡hvM `ÿZv g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  wba©vwiZ gvb`‡Ði mvnv‡h¨ `jMZ KvR g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

 wkÿv_x©iv KvMR fvuR K‡i wKsev kjvKvi mvnv‡h¨ mij †KvY, m¤ú~iK †KvY, mwbœwnZ †KvY ˆZwi K‡i e¨vL¨v Ki‡e| wkÿK †KvY ˆZwi I e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z mnvqZv Ki‡eb|  wkÿv_x©iv wewfbœ ai‡bi mwbœwnZ †KvY A¼b K‡i cwigvc Ki‡e Ges Zv †_‡K Dccv`¨wU m¤ú©‡K wm×v‡šÍ DcbxZ n‡e| cÖ‡qvR‡b wkÿK mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡eb|

 wkÿv_x©iv wewfbœ ai‡bi wecÖZxc †KvY A¼b K‡i cwigvc Ki‡e Ges  wecÖZxc †KvY¸‡jv †h ci¯úi mgvb Zv hvPvB Ki‡e|  †¯‹j,eB,LvZv, †e ev †Uwe‡ji gy‡LvgywL `yBavi I †ijjvB‡bi Qwei mvnv‡h¨ wkÿK mgvšÍivj mij‡iLv, †Q`K Ges Drcbœ †KvYmg~‡ni aviYv ¯úó Ki‡eb| cvkvcvwk `yBRb wkÿv_x© mgvšÍivj mij‡iLv I †Q`‡Ki wewfbœ wPÎ A¼b Ki‡e| wkÿv_x©iv ci¯ú‡ii mv‡_ Av‡jvPbv K‡i GKvšÍi †KvY I Abyi~c †KvY wPwýZ K‡i e¨vL¨v  Ki‡e|wkÿK cÖ‡qvR‡b mnvqZv Ki‡eb|

wkÿv_x©iv †Rvovq KvR Kivi mgq wkÿK ch©‡eÿY Ki‡eb Ges wkÿv_x©‡`i mn‡hvwMZv g~jK g‡bvfve g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb| †kÖwYi KvR I †kÖwY Awfÿvi gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

46


lô Aa¨vq : R¨vwgwZi ‡gŠwjK aviYv wkLbdj 5. mgvšÍivj †iLv eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 6. `yBwU mgvšÍivj mij‡iLv I GKwU †Q`K Øviv Drcbœ †KvYmg~n eY©bv I cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 7. evû‡f‡` I †KvY‡f‡` wÎfzR e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

8. eM©, AvqZ, i¤^m I mvgvšÍwiK wPwýZ Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

(20 wcwiqW) welqe¯‘  mgvšÍivj mij‡iLv

evû‡f‡` I †KvY‡f‡` wÎfzR ( mgevû wÎfzR,mgwØevû wÎfzR, welgevû wÎfzR, m~ÿ¥‡KvYx wÎfzR, ¯’zj‡KvYx wÎfzR, mg‡KvYx wÎfzR m¤úwK©Z e¨vL¨v Ges G¸‡jv‡K wPwýZ Ki‡Z cvivi Rb¨ mnR mgm¨v|) eM©,AvqZ, i¤^m I mvgvšÍwiK

Pjgvb 2 wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv 

wkÿK wewfbœ ai‡bi wÎfz‡Ri wPÎ I GKwU QK cÖwZwU `‡j mieivn Ki‡eb| wkÿv_x©iv wÎfz‡Ri evû I †KvY¸‡jv cwigvc K‡i `jMZfv‡e QKwU c~iY Ki‡e| wkÿK c~iYK„Z Q‡Ki gva¨‡g wkÿv_x©‡`i evû‡f‡` I †KvY‡f‡` wÎfz‡Ri aviYv cwi®‹vi Ki‡eb|

wkÿv_x©iv †Rvovq †Rvovq Zv‡`i R¨vwgwZ e‡· _vKv 300-600-900 gv‡ci `yBwU †mU ¯‹qvi mvwR‡q GKwU AvqZ ˆZwi Ki‡e| wkÿK AvqZwUi †KvY I evûi ˆewkó¨ wkÿv_x©‡`i ej‡Z ej‡eb| cÖ‡qvR‡b wkÿK mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡eb| Abyiƒcfv‡e, 300-600-900 I 450-450-900 gv‡ci †mU ¯‹qv‡ii mvnv‡h¨ eM©, i¤^m I mvgvšÍwiK ˆZwi Ki‡e Ges Zv‡`i ˆewk󨸇jv ej‡e| cÖ‡qvR‡b wkÿK mnvqZv Ki‡eb|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

47


mßg Aa¨vq : e¨envwiK R¨vwgwZ (25 wcwiqW) wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. GKwU wbw`©ó †iLvsk‡K cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. cÖ`Ë Z_¨ e¨envi K‡i †iLvsk A¼b Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

3. wewfbœ gv‡ci †Kv‡Yi wPÎ A¼b Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

welqe¯‘  

†iLvs‡ki cwigvc †iLvsk m¤úwK©Z A¼b  GKwU wbw`©ó cwigv‡ci †iLvsk  GKwU wbw`©ó †iLvs‡ki mgwØLÐK  GKwU wbw`©ó †iLvs‡ki AšÍt¯’ †Kv‡bv we›`y‡Z j¤^  GKwU wbw`©ó †iLvs‡ki ewnt¯’ †Kv‡bv we›`y n‡Z j¤^  †KvY m¤úwK©Z A¼b  m~²‡KvY, ¯’~j‡KvY, mg‡KvY, mwbœwnZ ‡KvY, c~iK †KvY, m¤ú~iK ‡KvY, mij‡KvY  K¤úvm e¨envi K‡i wbw`©ó cwigv‡ci †KvY  cÖ`Ë †Kv‡Yi mgvb K‡i †KvY  GKwU wbw`©ó †Kv‡Yi mgwØLÐK

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv  wkÿK wb‡`©kbv cÖ`vb K‡i wkÿv_x©‡`i †ev‡W© †W‡K wewfbœ R¨vwgwZK A¼b Kiv‡eb| Gfv‡e K‡qKRb wkÿv_x©‡`i w`‡q †ev‡W© Kiv‡bvi ci cÖ‡Z¨K wkÿv_x© cÖ`Ë wb‡`©kbv Abyhvqx LvZvq A¼b Ki‡e| wkÿK cÖ‡qvRbxq mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡eb|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv  wkÿv_x©‡`i †ev‡W© †W‡K R¨vwgwZ e· e¨envi K‡i AuvK‡Z w`‡q g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  

†kÖwYi KvR w`‡q wbw`©ó gvb`‡Ði wfwˇZ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb| evwoi Kv‡Ri mvnv‡h¨ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

48


Aóg Aa¨vq : Z_¨ I DcvË wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. Z_¨ I DcvË Kx Zv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

(10 wcwiqW) welqe¯‘  Z_¨ I DcvË

2. †kÖwY e¨eavb bv K‡i Aweb¨¯Í Dcv‡Ëi Mo, ga¨K I cÖPziK wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

 Aweb¨¯Í DcvË †_‡K Mo, ga¨K I cÖPziK wbY©q

3. Aw¼Z †iLvwP‡Îi eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

 DcvˇK †iLvwP‡Î cÖKvk

g‡bv‡cwkR 4. †iLvwPÎ A¼b Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv  wkÿK K‡qKRb wkÿv_©xi Kjg msMÖn K‡i G‡`i µqg~j¨ †ev‡W© wj‡L cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g Z_¨ I Dcv‡Ëi aviYv †`‡eb|  Kj‡gi †gvU g~j¨‡K Kj‡gi msL¨v w`‡q fvM Ki‡Z ej‡eb Ges µqg~j¨ µg Abymv‡i mvwR‡q ga¨K I cÖPzi‡Ki aviYv e¨vL¨v Ki‡eb|  Aweb¨¯Í Dcv‡Ëi Mo, ga¨K I cÖPziK wbY©‡qi c×wZ eY©bv Ki‡eb Ges MvwYwZKfv‡e Mo, ga¨K, cÖPziK wbY©q Ki‡Z ej‡eb| wkÿv_©x‡`i eqm ev D”PZvi Z_¨ msMÖn K‡i Mo, ga¨K, cÖPziK wbY©q Kivi wb‡`©kbv †`‡eb|  wkÿK cuvPRb wkÿv_©x‡K †ev‡W©i mvg‡b mvwie×fv‡e `uvo Kwi‡q Zv‡`i D”PZv eivei we›`y¸‡jv wPwýZ Ki‡eb Ges ch©vqµ‡g †hvM K‡i †iLvwP‡Îi aviYv †`‡eb| wkÿK †iLvwPÎ A¼‡bi eY©bv Ki‡eb| wkÿv_©xiv †iLvwPÎ A¼‡bi Abykxjb Ki‡e|  wkÿv_©xiv †Kv‡bv cixÿvq cÖvß b¤^‡ii †iLvwPÎ A¼b K‡i e¨vL¨v Ki‡e |

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv 

†kÖwYi KvR w`‡q wbw`©ó gvb`‡Ûi wfwˇZ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

wkÿv_x©‡`i GKKfv‡e LvZvq mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z w`‡q g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

wkÿv_x©‡`i †ev‡W© †W‡K †iLvwPÎ AuvK‡Z w`‡q g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb| †kÖwY Awfÿvi gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

 

evwoi Kv‡Ri mvnv‡h¨ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

49


7. †jLK wb‡`©kbv cÖ_g Aa¨vq : ¯^vfvweK msL¨v I fMœvsk 1. A¼ cvZb Ges †`kxq I AvšÍ©RvwZK MYbv ixwZi Av‡jvPbv _vK‡e| 2. †gŠwjK msL¨v, †hŠwMK msL¨v I mn‡gŠwjK msL¨vi eY©bvi cybiv‡jvPbv _vK‡e| 3. 2, 3 I 5 Øviv wefvR¨Zv cybiv‡jvPbv cvRj I †Mg‡mi gva¨‡g _vK‡e | 4. 4 I 9 Øviv wefvR¨Zv wkÿv_x©‡Kw›`ªK Kvh©µ‡gi gva¨‡g D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v _vK‡e | 5. ¯^vfvweK msL¨vi M.mv.¸. I j.mv.¸. wbY©q c×wZi cybiv‡jvPbv _vK‡e| 6. mvaviY fMœvsk I `kwgK fMœvs‡ki D`vniY I e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| 7. fMœvsk I `kwgK msL¨vi eÜbx e¨envi K‡i mi‡ji wbqg D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ eY©bv _vK‡e| 8. fMœvsk I `kwgK fMœvsk Gi M.mv.¸. I j.mv.¸., mijxKiY Ges MvwYwZK mgm¨vi D`vniY I Abykxjbx _vK‡e| wØZxq Aa¨vq : AbycvZ I kZKiv 1. Abycv‡Zi e¨vL¨v w`‡Z n‡e| 2. mij AbycvZ, e¨¯Í AbycvZ, wgkÖ AbycvZ D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| 3. kZKiv‡K mvaviY fMœvs‡k Ges fMœvsk‡K kZKivq cÖKvk Kivi c×wZi cybiv‡jvPbv _vK‡e| 4. HwKK wbqg I kZKiv wnmv‡ei eY©bv D`vniYmn _vK‡e| 5. HwKK wbqg I kZKiv wnmv‡ei mvnv‡h¨ mgq I KvR, mgq I Lv`¨, mgq I `~iZ¡ welqK MvwYwZK mgm¨vi D`vniY I Abykxjbx _vK‡e| Z„Zxq Aa¨vq : c~Y©msL¨v 1. c~Y©msL¨vi aviYv I ˆewkó¨ msL¨vKvW© (Number Card) I msL¨v ‡iLvi (Number Line) mvnv‡h¨ e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| 2. †Ljvi gva¨‡g c~Y©msL¨v kbv³Ki‡Yi eY©bv _vK‡e| 3. msL¨v‡iLvq wKfv‡e c~Y©msL¨v emv‡Z nq Ges †QvU-eo Zzjbv Ki‡Z nq Zvi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| 4. wPýhy³ msL¨vi †hvM I we‡qv‡Mi wbqg D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| 5. msL¨v‡iLvq msL¨vi Ae¯’vb Ges msL¨v‡iLvi mvnv‡h¨ †hvM I we‡qvM cÖwµqvi eY©bv _vK‡e| 6. Abykxjbx _vK‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

50


PZz_© Aa¨vq : exRMwYZxq ivwk 1. msL¨vi cwie‡Z© exRMwYZxq cÖZxK, PjK e¨envi Kivi c×wZi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| 2. exRMwYZxq ivwk, mnM, m~PK, m`„k I wem`„k c` D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| 3. exRMwYZxq ivwki †hvM, we‡qv‡Mi wbq‡gi D`vniYmn eY©bv Ges Abykxjbx _vK‡e| cÂg Aa¨vq : mij mgxKiY 1. GKwU AÁvZ ivwk wewkó mij mgxKi‡Yi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| 2. mij mgxKi‡Yi mgvav‡bi wbqg D`vniYmn eY©bv _vK‡e| 3. ev¯Íe mgm¨vi wfwˇZ mgxKiY MVb Ges mgvav‡bi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| 4. Abykxjbx _vK‡e| lô Aa¨vq : R¨vwgwZi †gŠwjK aviYv 1. ev¯Íe D`vniY I wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ ¯’vb, Zj, †iLv, I we›`yi cybiv‡jvPbv _vK‡e| 2. we›`y , †iLv, Zj m¤úwK©Z ¯^Ztwm׸‡jv D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| 3. †iLv, †iLvsk , iwk¥ Ges †KvY m¤úwK©Z Dccv`¨mg~n hvPvB Kivi Rb¨ wkÿv_x©‡Kw›`ªK Kvh©µg ms‡hvRb Ki‡Z n‡e| 4. mgvšÍivj mij‡iLv I Drcbœ †KvY¸‡jvi e¨vL¨v wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ _vK‡e| 5. evû‡f‡` I †KvY‡f‡` wÎfz‡Ri e¨vL¨v Ges eM©, AvqZ, i¤^m I mvgvšÍwiK wPwýZKiY welq¸‡jv Kvh©µgwfwËK (activity based) n‡Z n‡e| 6. Abykxjbx _vK‡e| mßg Aa¨vq : e¨envwiK R¨vwgwZ 1. †iLvsk cwigv‡ci Rb¨ nv‡Z-Kj‡g KvR Kivi Dc‡hvMx †kÖwYKvh©µ‡gi D‡jøL _vK‡Z n‡e| 2. †iLvsk m¤úwK©Z A¼b, †KvY m¤úwK©Z A¼b¸‡jv wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ mnRfv‡e Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Z n‡e| 3. wkLbdj AR©b Dc‡hvMx Abykxjbx _vK‡e| Aóg Aa¨vq : Z_¨ I DcvË 1. Z_¨ I Dcv‡Ëi D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| 2. Aweb¨¯Í Dcv‡Ëi Mo, ga¨K I cÖPziK wbY©‡qi eY©bv Ges G msµvšÍ D`vniY _vK‡e | 3. wewfbœ DcvË †_‡K wKfv‡e †iLvwPÎ A¼b Kiv hvq Zvi eY©bv D`vniY _vK‡e| 4. Abykxjbx _vK‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

51


8.wkÿvµg QK mßg †kÖwY

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

52


cÖ_g Aa¨vq : g~j` -Ag~j` msL¨v (15 wcwiqW) wkLbdj

welqe¯‘

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

eyw×e„Ëxq 1. g~j` I Ag~j` msL¨v kbv³ Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. msL¨v‡iLvq g~j` I Ag~j` msL¨vi Ae¯’vb †`Lv‡Z cvi‡e| 3. msL¨vi eM© I eM©g~j e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. Drcv`K I fvM cÖwµqvi gva¨‡g eM©g~j wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. msL¨vi eM©g~j c×wZ¸‡jv cÖ‡qvM K‡i ev¯Íe Rxe‡bi mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

 g~j`-Ag~j` msL¨v

 wkÿK K‡qKwU msL¨v †ev‡W© wj‡L g~j` I Ag~j` msL¨vi eY©bv Ki‡eb Ges wkÿv_©x‡`i wewfbœ msL¨v wjL‡Z w`‡q g~j` I Ag~j` msL¨v kbv³ Ki‡Z ej‡eb|  wkÿ‡Ki wb‡`©‡k wkÿv_©x †ev‡W© msL¨v‡iLv A¼b Ki‡e Ges wewfbœ g~j` I Ag~j` msL¨vi Ae¯’vb msL¨v†iLvq †Kv_vq n‡e Zv wb‡`©k Ki‡e|  wkÿK D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ msL¨vi eM© I eM©g~j e¨vL¨v Ki‡eb Ges  eM©g~‡ji aviYv msL¨vi eM©g~j wbY©‡q Drcv`K I fvM cÖwµqv eY©bv Ki‡eb| wkÿv_©xiv  wewfbœ cÖKvi msL¨vi wewfbœ msL¨vi eM©g~j †ei Ki‡e | cÖ‡qvR‡b wkÿK mnvqZv Ki‡eb| eM©g~j wbY©q  eM©g~‡ji e¨envwiK cÖ‡qvM  wkÿ‡Ki wb‡`©kbvq wkÿv_x© eM©g~‡ji c×wZ¸‡jv cÖ‡qvM K‡i MvwYwZK mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡e| K‡i mgm¨v mgvavb

 wkÿK wkÿv_x©‡`i KvR Ny‡i Ny‡i ch©‡eÿY Ki‡eb|  †gŠwLK cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  †kÖwYi Kv‡Ri mvnv‡h¨ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  wkÿv_x©‡`i †ev‡W© †W‡K mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z w`‡q g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  †kÖwY Awfÿvi mvnv‡h¨ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

53


wØZxq Aa¨vq : mgvbycvZ I jvf-¶wZ wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. eûivwkK I avivevwnK AbycvZ e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. mgvbycv‡Zi aviYv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Zcvi‡e| 3. mgvbycvZ msµvšÍ mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. kZKiv msµvšÍ mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

(15 wcwiqW) welqe¯‘

 eûivwkK I avivevwnK AbycvZ  mgvbycv‡Zi aviYv  µwgK mgvbycvZ, ˆÎivwkK I mgvbycvwZK fvM  fMœvsk‡K kZKivq cÖKvk Ges kZKiv‡K fMœvs‡k cÖKvk 5. HwKK I AbycvZ e¨envi K‡i  HwKK I AbycvZ e¨envi K‡i mgq I KvR, bj I ev¯Íe Rxe‡b †PŠev”Pv, mgq I `~iZ¡,  mgq I KvR †bŠKv I †mªvZ welqK  bj I †PŠev”Pv mgm¨v  mgq I `~iZ¡  †bŠKv I †mªvZ welqK mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 6. jvf-¶wZ Kx Zv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z  jvf-¶wZi aviYv cvi‡e|  jvf-¶wZ msµvšÍ mgm¨v 7. jvf-¶wZ msµvšÍ mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|  Ki, f¨vU, Kwgkb I 8. Ki, f¨vU, Kwgkb I gy`ªvwewbgq gy`ªvwewbgq msµvšÍ mgm¨v msµvšÍ ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡bi mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

 wkÿK K‡qKwU AbycvZ †ev‡W© wjL‡eb Ges G †_‡K mgvbycvZ, µwgK mgvbycv‡Zi aviYv †`‡eb| wkÿv_©xiv mgvbycvZ I µwgK mgvbycv‡Zi MvwYwZK wbqg¸‡jv `jxqfv‡e †cv÷vi †ccv‡i wj‡L cÖ`k©b Ki‡e|  wkÿK HwKK wbqg I AbycvZ m¤úwK©Z c~e©Ávb hvPvB Ki‡eb|  wkÿv_x©iv wkÿ‡Ki mnvqZvq HwKK I Abycv‡Zi wbqg e¨envi K‡i mgq I KvR; bj I †PŠev”Pv; mgq I `~iZ¡; †bŠKv I †m&ªvZ m¤úwK©Z mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡e|

 †kÖwYi KvR w`‡q wbw`©ó gvb`‡Ði wfwˇZ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

 GKwU `ª‡e¨i µqg~j¨ I weµqg~j¨ †_‡K wkÿK jvf-ÿwZi aviYv †`‡eb| wkÿv_©xiv jvf- ÿwZ, µqg~j¨ I weµqg~‡j¨i ga¨Kvi m¤úK© wjL‡e |

 evwoi KvR w`‡q wbw`©ó gvb`‡Ði wfwˇZ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

 ev¯ÍewfwËK mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z w`‡q g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

 wkÿK wkÿv_©x‡`i ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b mnR MvwYwZK wnmve wbKvk Ki‡Z Drmvnx Ki‡eb Ges jvf-ÿwZ, Ki, f¨vU,Kwgkb I gy`ªvwewbgq msµvšÍ mgm¨v mgvav‡bi Rb¨ `jxq KvR †`‡eb|  †kÖwY Awfÿvi mvnv‡h¨ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

Av‡eMxq 9. ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡bi mnR MvwYwZK wnmve wbKvk Ki‡Z Drmvnx n‡e| RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

54


Z„Zxq Aa¨vq : cwigvc wkLbdj

(10 wcwiqW) welqe¯‘

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

eyw×e„Ëxq 1.

ˆ`N¨© cwigv‡ci  ˆ`N¨© cwigvc AvšÍtm¤úK© e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges G msµvšÍ mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|  IRb cwigvc I Zij 2. IRb I Zij c`v‡_©i c`v‡_©i AvqZb cwigv‡ci AvqZb cwigvc wKfv‡e Kiv GKKvewj nq Zv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges G m¤úwK©Z mgm¨v  IRb I Zij c`v‡_©i mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| AvqZb cwigv‡ci GKK e¨envi msµvšÍ mgm¨v g‡bv‡cwkR 3. wewfbœ †¯‹j e¨envi K‡i AvqZvKvi I eM©vKvi †ÿ‡Îi ˆ`N¨© I cÖ¯’ cwigvc K‡i †ÿÎdj wbY©q Ki‡Z  AvqZvKvi I eM©vKvi cvi‡e| †ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎdj cwigvc 4. IRb cwigv‡ci wewfbœ cwigvcK e¨envi K‡i cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. Zij c`v‡_©i AvqZb cwigv‡ci wewfbœ cwigvcK e¨envi K‡i cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 6. ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b AvbygvvwbK cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e| RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

wkÿK `yB c×wZi cwigvcK †¯‹j mieivn Ki‡eb| wkÿv_x©iv wewfbœ cwigv‡ci wZbwU iwk ev KvwV ev wdZv wb‡q Dfq cÖKvi †¯‹‡ji mvnv‡h¨ cwigvc Ki‡e| Gfv‡e wkÿv_x©iv cwigvcK `yBwUi AvšÍtm¤ú©K wbY©q Ki‡e| wkÿK cÖ‡hvR¨ ‡ÿ‡Î mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡eb|  wkÿK DcKi‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ IRb cwigvc I Zij c`v‡_©i AvqZ‡bi cwigvc e¨vL¨v Ki‡eb Ges wkÿv_©x‡`i cwigv‡ci GKK¸‡jvi g‡a¨ m¤úK© QK AvKv‡i wj‡L cÖ`k©b Ki‡Z ej‡eb|

 wkÿv_x©‡`i †ev‡W© cwigv‡ci GKK¸‡jvi g‡a¨ m¤úK© QK AvKv‡i wjL‡Z w`‡q g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

 cÖ‡kœvˇii mvnv‡h¨ wkÿv_x©‡`i KvR g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

 wkÿv_x©iv `jMZfv‡e Zv‡`i †eÂ, †Uwej, `iRv, Rvbvjv BZ¨vw`i ˆ`N©¨ I cÖ¯’ †¯‹‡ji mvnv‡h¨ †g‡c †ÿÎdj wbY©q Ki‡e|

 wkÿv_©xiv `jxqfv‡e wewfbœ cwigvc‡Ki mvnv‡h¨ Zij c`v‡_©i IRb I AvqZb wbY©q Ki‡e|  wkÿK cwigvc msµvšÍ Abykxjbxi mgm¨v mgvav‡bi Rb¨ wkÿv_©x‡`i ej‡eb Ges cÖ‡qvRbxq mnvqZv †`‡eb|  e¨envwiKfv‡e wkÿv_©xiv IRb I Zij c`v‡_©i AvqZb cwigvc Abygvb Ki‡e Ges cwigvc‡Ki mvnv‡h¨ †g‡c Zv hvPvB Ki‡e|

 †kÖwYi KvR I †kÖwY Awfÿvi mvnv‡h¨ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  wkÿv_x©‡`i‡K nv‡Z Kj‡g †eÂ, †Uwej, `iRv, Rvbvjv cwigvc Ki‡Z w`‡q ch©‡eÿ‡Yi gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  nv‡Z Kj‡g Zij c`v‡_©i IRb I AvqZb cwigvc Ki‡Z w`‡q ch©‡eÿ‡Yi gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

55


PZz_© Aa¨vq : exRMwYZxq ivwki ¸Y I fvM wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. exRMwYZxq ivwki ¸Y Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. eÜbx e¨env‡ii exRMwYZxq ivwki we‡qvM, ¸Y I fvM ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡bi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

(10 wcwiqW) welqe¯‘

I fvM gva¨‡g †hvM, msµvšÍ mgm¨vi

 exRMwYZxq ivwki ¸Y I fvM  eÜbx e¨env‡ii gva¨‡g †hvM, we‡qvM, ¸Y I fvM msµvšÍ mgm¨v

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv  wkÿK D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ exRMwYZxq ivwki ¸Y I fvM †ev‡W© K‡i †`Lv‡eb | wkÿv_©xiv Zv Abykxjb Ki‡e|  wkÿv_©xiv exRMwYZxq ivwki †hvM, we‡qvM, ¸Y I fvM eÜbxi gva¨‡g mijxKiY K‡i mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡e| cÖ‡qvR‡b wkÿK mnvqZv Ki‡eb|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv  †kÖwYi KvR I †kÖwY Awfÿvi mvnv‡h¨ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  †gŠwLK cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

Av‡eMxq 3. exRMwYZxq mgm¨v mgvav‡b AvMÖnx n‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

56


cÂg Aa¨vq : exRMwYZxq m~Îvewj I cÖ‡qvM

(12 wcwiqW)

wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. eM© wbY©‡q exRMwYZxq m~‡Îi eY©bv I cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. exRMwYZxq m~Î I Abywm×všÍ cÖ‡qvM K‡i ivwki gvb wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. exRMwYZxq m~Î cÖ‡qvM K‡i Drcv`‡K we‡kølY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. ¸YbxqK I ¸wYZK Kx Zv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. Ab~aŸ© wZbwU exRMwYZxq ivwki mvswL¨K mnMmn M.mv.¸. I j.mv.¸. wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

welqe¯‘

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

exRMwYZxq m~Îvewj I cÖ‡qvM ( (

2

+ ) = − )2= 2 -2ab+

 2(

2 +2ab+ 2

2

=(a+b)(a-b)

+ )( + ) =

Abywm×všÍmg~n Ges cÖ‡qvM  2  2 ( (

( ( 

+ + + − + +

2

=( 2 =( 2 ) =( )2 = ( 2 ) +( 2 ) −(

+ − − + − −

2

2

+( + ) +

)2 − 2 )2 + 2 )2 + 4 )2 − 4 2 ) =2( 2 + )2 = 4

 wkÿv_©x‡`i mwµq AskMÖn‡Yi gva¨‡g wkÿK ¸Y cÖwµqvq exRMvwYwZK e‡M©i m~Î cÖwZcv`b Kiv‡eb|  wkÿK exRMwYZxq m~Î( + )2 Gi R¨vwgwZK e¨vL¨v †`‡eb|  Av‡jvPbvi gva¨‡g wkÿv_©xiv eM© msµvšÍ Abywm×všÍmg~n `jxqfv‡e wj‡L Dc¯’vcb Ki‡e|  wkÿv_x©iv e‡M©i m~Î I Abywm×všÍ e¨envi K‡i Drcv`‡K we‡kølY Ki‡e|

2

 exRMwYZxq ivwki Drcv`‡K we‡kølY  fvR¨, fvRK, ¸wYZK I ¸YbxqK  M.mv.¸. I j.mv.¸.

)

 wkÿK exRMwYZxq wÎc`x ivwki M.mv.¸. I j.mv.¸. D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ †evSv‡eb Ges G¸‡jv wbY©q Ki‡Z †`‡eb|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv  m~Î Av‡jvPbvi mgq †gŠwLK cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g wkÿK wkÿv_x©‡`i c~e©Ávb hvPvB Ki‡e|

 wkÿv_x©‡`i †ev‡W© †W‡K mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z w`‡q g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  †Rvovq I `jMZ KvR w`‡q g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  †kÖwYi KvR I †kÖwY Awfÿvi mvnv‡h¨ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

57


lô Aa¨vq : exRMwYZxq fMœvsk (8 wcwiqW) wkLbdj welqe¯‘ eyw×e„Ëxq  fMœvs‡ki aviYv I fMœvs‡ki jNyKiY 1. exRMwYZxq fMœvsk Kx Zv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e|  Ab~a© wZbwU fMœvsk‡K mvaviY niwewkóKiY 2. exRMwYZxq fMœvsk‡K jNyKiY  fMœvs‡ki †hvM, we‡qvM I mijxKiY I mvaviY ni wewkó Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. exRMwYZxq fMœvs‡ki †hvM, we‡qvM Ges mij Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

 wkÿK cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g fMœvs‡ki aviYv hvPvB K‡i  wkÿv_x©‡`i †ev‡W© †W‡K mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z w`‡q g~j¨vqb exRMwYZxq fMœvs‡ki eY©bv †`‡eb| Ki‡eb|  wkÿK D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ exRMwYZxq fMœvs‡ki †hvM I we‡qvM Kiv‡eb | wkÿv_©xiv cvV¨cy¯Í‡Ki  †kÖwYi KvR I †kÖwY Awfÿvi Abykxjbxi mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡e| mvnv‡h¨ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

58


mßg Aa¨vq : mij mgxKiY wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. mgxKi‡Yi cÿvšÍi wewa, eR©b wewa, Avo¸Yb wewa, cÖwZmvg¨ wewa e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. wewamg~n cÖ‡qvM K‡i mgxKi‡Yi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. mij mgxKiY MVb I mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. †jLwPÎ Kx Zv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

(10 wcwiqW) welqe¯‘  mij mgxKiY  mij mgxKi‡Yi aviYv  †jLwPÎ A¼b  mij mgxKiY MVb, mgvavb (cÖwZmvg¨ wewa, cÿvšÍi wewa, †hv‡Mi I ¸‡Yi eR©b wewa e¨envi K‡i) Ges Zv †jLwP‡Î cÖ`k©b|

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv  wkÿK D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ mgxKiY mgvav‡bi wewamg~n e¨vL¨v Ki‡eb| wkÿv_©xiv wewamg~n `jxqfv‡e wj‡L Dc¯’vcb Ki‡e|  wkÿv_©xiv mgxKi‡Yi wewamg~n e¨envi K‡i mij mgxKiY MVb I mgvavb K‡i wkÿK‡K †`Lv‡e|  †ev‡W© QK †K‡U Aÿ wPwýZ K‡i †jL A¼‡bi cÖwµqv e¨vL¨v Ki‡eb|  wkÿv_©xiv myweavRbK GKK wb‡q mij mgxKi‡Yi †jLwPÎ A¼b Ki‡e| cÖ‡qvR‡b wkÿK mnvqZv Ki‡eb|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv  wba©vwiZ gvb`‡Ûi mvnv‡h¨ `jMZ KvR g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  wba©vwiZ gvb`‡Ûi gva¨‡g †kÖwYi KvR I evwoi KvR g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  wkÿv_x©iv QKKvMR e¨envi K‡i mwVKfv‡e mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡Q wKbv-Zv hvPvB Ki‡eb|

g‡bv‡cwkR 5. †jLwP‡Î A¶ I myweavRbK GKK wb‡q we›`ycvZb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 6. †jLwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ mgxKi‡Yi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

59


Aóg Aa¨vq : mgvšÍivj mij‡iLv (15 wcwiqW) wkLbdj

welqe¯‘

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

eyw×e„Ëxq mgvšÍivj mij‡iLv 1. mgvšÍivj mij‡iLv I †Q`K  mgvšÍivj mij‡iLv, GKvšÍi †KvY,Abyi~c  wkÿK mgvšÍivj mij‡iLv I †Q`‡Ki wPÎ †ev‡W© Øviv Drcbœ †Kv‡Yi ˆewkó¨ †KvY, †Q`‡Ki GKB cvk¦©¯’ AšÍt¯’ †KvY| Gu‡K wkÿv_©x‡`i GKvšÍi †KvY I Abyiƒc †Kv‡Yi e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| aviYv ¯úó Ki‡eb|  `yBwU mij‡iLv‡K Aci GKwU mij‡iLv †Q` 2. `yBwU mij‡iLv mgvšÍivj Ki‡j hw` GKvšÍi †KvY¸‡jv ci¯úi mgvb nq  wkÿv_©xiv †iLv I †KvY m¤úwK©Z cÖ`Ë Z_¨ †_‡K nIqvi kZ© eY©bv Ki‡Z A_ev Abyic ~ †KvY¸‡jv mgvb nq A_ev nv‡Z Kj‡g †g‡c †iLv¸‡jv mgvšÍivj wKbv hvPvB I cvi‡e| †Q`‡Ki GKB cv‡ki AšÍt¯’ †KvY `yBwUi mgwó cÖgvY Ki‡e| 3. `yBwU mij‡iLv mgvšÍivj `yB mg‡Kv‡Yi mgvb nq Z‡e H †iLv `yBwU nIqvi kZ© cÖgvY Ki‡Z mgvšÍivj -Zv hvPvB Ges Gi wecixZ MvwYwZK cvi‡e| evK¨wU hvPvB I cÖgvY Ki‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv  wkÿv_©xiv †iLv I †KvY m¤úwK©Z cÖ`Ë Z_¨ †_‡K nv‡Z Kj‡g cwigvc Kivi mgq wkÿK g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

60


beg Aa¨vq : wÎfzR

(20 wcwiqW)

wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. wÎfz‡Ri AšÍt¯’ I ewnt¯’ †KvY eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. wÎfy‡Ri †gŠwjK Dccv`¨¸‡jv cÖgvY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. wÎfz‡Ri evû I †Kv‡Yi cvi¯úwiK m¤úK© e¨envi K‡i RxebwfwËK mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| g‡bv‡cwkR 4. wewfbœ kZ©mv‡c‡ÿ wÎfzR AvuK‡Z cvi‡e| 5. wÎfzR †ÿ‡Îi f~wg I D”PZv †g‡c †ÿÎdj cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

welqe¯‘  wÎfz‡Ri AšÍt¯’ I ewnt¯’ †Kv‡Yi aviYv| wÎfzR msµvšÍ Dcvcv`¨ I cÖgvY  wÎfz‡Ri wZb †Kv‡Yi mgwó `yB mg‡Kv‡Yi mgvb|  wÎfz‡Ri †h †Kv‡bv `yBwU evûi mgwó Gi Z…Zxq evû A‡cÿv e„nËi|  wÎfz‡Ri GKwU evû Aci GKwU evû A‡cÿv e„nËi n‡j, e„nËi evûi wecixZ †KvY ÿz`ªZi evûi wecixZ †KvY A‡cÿv e„nËi n‡e| wÎfzR msµvšÍ m¤úv`¨  wÎfz‡Ri wZbwU evû †`Iqv Av‡Q, wÎfzRwU AuvK‡Z n‡e|  wÎfz‡Ri `yBwU evû I G‡`i AšÍf©y³ †KvY †`Iqv Av‡Q, wÎfzRwU AuvK‡Z n‡e |  †Kv‡bv wÎfz‡Ri GKwU evû I Gi msjMœ `yBwU †KvY †`Iqv Av‡Q, wÎfzRwU AuvK‡Z n‡e|  wÎfz‡Ri `yBwU †KvY I G‡`i GKwUi wecixZ evû †`Iqv Av‡Q, wÎfzRwU AuvK‡Z n‡e |  †Kv‡bv wÎfz‡Ri `yBwU evû Ges G‡`i GKwUi wecixZ †KvY †`Iqv Av‡Q, wÎfzRwU AvuK‡Z n‡e|  mg‡KvYx wÎfz‡Ri AwZfzR I Aci GKwU evû †`Iqv Av‡Q, wÎfzRwU AuvK‡Z n‡e|  †Kv‡bv wÎfz‡Ri `yBwU evû Ges G‡`i GKwUi wecixZ †KvY †`Iqv Av‡Q, wÎfzRwU AvuK‡Z n‡e|

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

 wkÿv_©xiv †ev‡W© wÎfz‡Ri GKwU evû ewa©Z K‡i  wkÿK ch©‡eÿY I cÖ‡kœvˇii wÎfz‡Ri AšÍt¯’ I ewnt¯’ †KvY wPwýZ Ki‡e| gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb| wkÿK cÖ‡qvRbxq mnvqZv †`‡eb|  wkÿv_©xiv `jxqfv‡e wÎfzR A¼b K‡i evû I †Kv‡Yi cwigvc Ki‡e Ges wÎfzR msµvšÍ Dccv`¨¸‡jv hvPvB Ki‡e| G †ÿ‡Î wkÿK cÖ‡qvRbxq mnvqZv †`‡eb|  †ev‡W© ch©vqµ‡g wkÿv_x©‡`i †W‡K  wkÿv_©xiv wÎfzR msµvšÍ Dccv`¨¸‡jv cÖgvY Ki‡e| Dccv`¨¸‡jv cÖgvY Kivi gva¨‡g hvPvB Ki‡eb|  wkÿK wb‡`©kbv cÖ`vb K‡i wkÿv_x©‡`i †ev‡W© †W‡K wewfbœ R¨vwgwZK wPÎ A¼b Kiv‡eb| Gfv‡e K‡qKRb wkÿv_x©‡`i w`‡q †ev‡W© Kiv‡bvi ci  wkÿv_x©‡`i LvZvq wewfbœ ai‡bi cÖ‡Z¨K wkÿv_x© LvZvq A¼b Ki‡e| wkÿK A¼b Ki‡Z w`‡q hvPvB Ki‡eb| cÖ‡qvRbxq mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡eb|  wkÿv_©xiv wÎfzR †ÿ‡Îi f~wg I D”PZvi cwigvc K‡i wÎfzR‡ÿÎwUi †ÿÎdj †ei Ki‡e Ges Gi mvnv‡h¨ PZyf„©zR †ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎdj cwigvc Ki‡e|  nv‡Z Kj‡g wewfbœ wÎfzR‡ÿ‡Îi f~wg I D”PZv cwigvc Ki‡Z w`‡q ch©‡eÿ‡Yi gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  †kÖwYi KvR I †kÖwY Awfÿvi mvnv‡h¨ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

61


`kg Aa¨vq: m`„kZv I me©mgZv wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. wewfbœ R¨vwgwZK AvKvi I AvK„wZ n‡Z me©mg Ges m`„k AvKvi I AvK…wZ wPwýZ Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. me©mg I m`„kZvi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. wbw`©ó ˆewk‡ó¨i Av‡jv‡K wÎfzR I PZyf©z‡Ri m`„kZv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. wbw`©ó ˆewk‡ó¨i wfwˇZ wÎfz‡Ri me©mgZv cÖgvY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. me©mgZv I m`„kZvi ˆewk‡ó¨i wfwˇZ mnR MvwYwZK I ev¯Íe mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

(15 wcwiqW) welqe¯‘ me©mgZv I m`„kZv  me©mgZv I m`„kZvi aviYv (wewfbœ e¯‘ †hgb c„ôv, cÖwZwe¤^, Qvqv BZ¨vw`i mvnv‡h¨) m`„kZv  wÎfzR I PZyf©y‡Ri †ÿ‡Î m`„kZv  wÎfzR I PZyfz©‡Ri †ÿ‡Î m`„kZvi KwZcq Dccv`¨ hvPvBKiY:  `yBwU wÎfz‡Ri Abyiƒc evûMy‡jv mgvbycvwZK n‡j wÎfzR `yBwU m`„k n‡e|  `yBwU wÎfz‡Ri GKwUi †KvY¸‡jv hw` avivevwnKfv‡e AciwUi †KvY¸‡jvi mgvb nq Z‡e wÎfzR `yBwU m`„k‡KvYx n‡e|  `yBwU PZzf©z‡Ri Abyiƒc evûMy‡jv mgvbycvwZK n‡j PZzf©zR `yBwU m`„k n‡e|  `yBwU PZzf©z‡Ri GKwUi †KvY¸‡jv hw` avivevwnKfv‡e AciwUi †KvY¸‡jvi mgvb nq Z‡e PZzfz©R `yBwU m`„k‡KvYx n‡e| wÎfz‡Ri me©mgZv Dccv`¨ I cÖgvY  hw` `yBwU wÎfz‡Ri GKwUi `yB evû AciwUi `yB evûi mgvb nq Ges evû `yBwUi AšÍfz©³ †KvY `y&BwU ci¯úúi mgvb nq, Z‡e wÎfzR `yBwU me©mg|  hw` †Kv‡bv wÎfz‡Ri `yBwU †KvY I GKwU evû h_vK&ª‡g Aci GKwU wÎfz‡Ri `yBwU †KvY I Abyiƒc evûi mgvb nq Z‡e wÎfzR `yBwU me©mg|  hw` †Kv‡bv wÎfz‡Ri wZb evû Aci GKwU wÎfz‡Ri wZb evûi mgvb nq Z‡e wÎfzR `yBwU me©mg|  GKwU mg‡KvYx wÎfz‡Ri AwZfyR I GK evû Ab¨ GKwU mg‡KvYx wÎfz‡Ri AwZfzR I GKevûi mgvb n‡j wÎfzR `yBwU me©mg n‡e|  me©mgZv, m`„kZvi ˆewk‡ó¨i wfwˇZ mnR mgm¨v

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv  wkÿv_©xiv eB, LvZv I e· BZ¨vw`i mvnv‡h¨ me©mg I m`„k AvKvi Ges AvK…wZi aviYv jvf Ki‡e| GB †ÿ‡Î wkÿK cÖ‡qvRbxq mnvqZv cÖ`vb Ki‡eb|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv  †kÖwYi KvR w`‡q wbw`©ó gvb`‡Ði wfwˇZ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

 wkÿv_©xiv †Rvovq Av‡jvPbv K‡i me©mgZv I m`„kZvi cv_©K¨ wjL‡e|  wkÿv_x©iv wÎfzR I PZzfz©R A¼b Ki‡e Ges `jxqfv‡e wÎfzR I PZzfz©‡Ri evû I †KvY cwigvc K‡i m`„kZvi Dccv`¨¸‡jv hvPvB Ki‡e|

 wkÿK wewfbœ ai‡bi wÎfzR Aw¼Z GKwU Kg©cÎ wkÿv_x©‡`i mieivn Ki‡eb| Kg©c‡Îi wb‡`©kbv Abymv‡i wkÿv_x©iv evû I †KvY¸‡jv cwigvc K‡i wÎfy‡Ri me©mgZv.hvPvB Ki‡e|  wkÿv_x©iv wkÿ‡Ki mn‡hvwMZvq me©mgZvi Dccv`¨¸‡jv cÖgvY Ki‡e| Dccv`¨¸‡jv cÖ‡qvM K‡i mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡e| cÖ‡qvR‡b wkÿK mnvqZv Ki‡eb|

 ev¯ÍewfwËK mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z w`‡q g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  evwoi KvR w`‡q wbw`©ó gvb`‡Ði wfwˇZ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  †ev‡W© ch©vqµ‡g wkÿv_x©‡`i †W‡K ev GKKfv‡e LvZvq Dccv`¨¸‡jv cÖgvY Ki‡Z w`‡q hvPvB Ki‡eb|

 †kÖwY Awfÿvi mvnv‡h¨ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

62


GKv`k Aa¨vq: Z_¨ I DcvË wkLbdj

(10 wcwiqW) welqe¯‘

eyw×e„Ëxq 1. MYmsL¨v mviwY Kx Zv e¨vL¨v  MYmsL¨v mviwY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. †kªwY e¨eav‡bi gva¨‡g Aweb¨¯Í  †kªwY e¨eav‡bi gva¨‡g MYmsL¨v mviwY MVb DcvË web¨¯Í AvKv‡i cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. Aw¼Z AvqZ‡jL n‡Z DcvË  Z_¨ I Dcv‡Ëi AvqZ‡jL m¤ú‡K© e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. AvqZ‡jL n‡Z cÖPziK wbY©q  AvqZ‡jL n‡Z cÖPziK wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv  wKQz msL¨K wkÿv_©xi MwY‡Z cÖvß b¤^i wb‡q wkÿK MYmsL¨v mviwY I †kÖwY e¨eavb Gi e¨vL¨v †`‡eb Ges wkÿv_©x‡`i cÖvß DcvË †_‡K wbw`©ó †kÖwY e¨eav‡bi gva¨‡g MYmsL¨v mviwY ˆZwi Ki‡Z ej‡eb|  wkÿK MYmsL¨v mviwY †_‡K AvqZ‡jL A¼‡bi aviYv †`‡eb Ges wkÿv_©x‡`i AvqZ‡jL A¼b Ki‡Z ej‡eb| cÖ‡qvR‡b wkÿK mnvqZv Ki‡eb|  wkÿv_©xiv e¨envwiKfv‡e Aweb¨¯Í DcvˇK web¨¯Í AvKv‡i cÖKvk K‡i AvqZ‡jL n‡Z cÖPziK wbY©q Ki‡e Ges wkÿK cÖ‡qvR‡b mnvqZv Ki‡eb|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv  †gŠwLK cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

 wba©vwiZ gvb`‡Ûi mvnv‡h¨ `jMZ KvR g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  †kÖwYi KvR I †kÖwY Awfÿvi mvnv‡h¨ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  wba©vwiZ Kv‡Ri gvb`‡Ûi mvnv‡h¨ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

g‡bv‡cwkR 5. AvqZ‡jL A¼b Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

63


10. mßg †kªwYi MwYZ eB‡qi Rb¨ †jLK wb‡`©kbv cÖ_g Aa¨vq : g~j`-Ag~j` msL¨v 1. g~j` I Ag~j` msL¨vi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| 2. msL¨vi eM©g~j wbY©‡q Drcv`K I fvM cÖwµqvi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| 3. eM©g~j wbY©‡qi c×wZ cÖ‡qv‡Mi Rb¨ MvwYwZK mgm¨vi D`vniY _vK‡e| 4. eM©g~j wbY©‡qi c×wZ cÖ‡qv‡Mi Rb¨ ch©vß Abykxjbx _vK‡e| 5. wewfbœ ai‡bi eøK, iwOb UvBjm, KvW©, Aÿi msL¨v, msL¨v‡iLv, R¨vwgwZK wPÎ BZ¨vw`i gva¨‡g c¨vUv‡b©i aviYv e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| 6. †hvM, we‡qvM, ¸Y I fvM cÖwµqvi gva¨‡g mvswL¨K c¨vUv‡b©i aviYv I MVb e¨vL¨vmn D`vniY I Abykxjbx _vK‡e| 7. msL¨vi aviv, msL¨v†iLv, ¯Í¤¢ †jL, R¨vwgwZK wPÎ, WvqvMÖvg BZ¨vw`i gva¨‡g R¨vwgwZK c¨vUv‡b©i aviYv I MVb e¨vL¨vmn D`vniY I Abykxjbx _vK‡e| wØZxq Aa¨vq : mgvbycvZ I jvf-¶wZ 1. eûivwkK I avivevwnK AbycvZ 2. D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ fMœvsk I kZKivi ga¨Kvi m¤ú‡K©i cybiv‡jvPbv ms‡hvRb Ki‡Z n‡e| 3. µwgK mgvbycv‡Zi e¨vL¨v Ges mgvbycvZ I µwgK mgvbycv‡Zi MvwYwZK wbqgvewji eY©bv _vK‡e| 4. cÖvZ¨wnK Rxe‡b e¨en„Z D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ jvf ÿwZi e¨vL¨v | 5. jvf ÿwZ, Kwgkb, gy`ªvwewbgq, f¨vU I Ki wbY©q D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ e¨vL¨v w`‡Z n‡e| 6. HwKK I AbycvZ e¨envi K‡i mgq I KvR, bj I †PŠev”Pv, mgq I `~iZ¡ Ges †bŠKv I †¯ªvZ welqK MvwYwZK mgm¨vi D`vniY w`‡Z n‡e| 7. Abykxjbx _vK‡e| Z…Zxq Aa¨vq : cwigvc 1. D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ ˆ`N¨© cwigv‡ci eY©bv _vK‡e| 2. D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ IRb I Zij c`v‡_©i AvqZb cwigvc e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| 3. IRb cwigvc I Zij c`v‡_©i AvqZb cwigv‡ci GK‡Ki PvU© _vK‡e| 4. wkÿv_x©iv †hb nv‡Z Kj‡g ev¯Íe DcKiY cwigvc K‡i ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b AvbygvwbK cwigvc Ki‡Z Af¨¯Í nq-G j‡ÿ¨ wkÿv_x©‡Kw›`ªK Kvh©µg _vK‡e| 5. cwigv‡ci e¨envi m¤úwK©Z mgm¨v msewjZ Abykxjbx _vK‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

64


PZz_© Aa¨vq : exRMwYZxq ivwki ¸Y I fvM 1. exRMwYZxq ivwki ¸Y I fvM c×wZi e¨vL¨vmn D`vniY I Abykxjbx _vK‡e| 2. exRMwYZxq ivwki †hvM, we‡qvM, ¸Y I fvM msµvšÍ ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡bi mgm¨v, mgm¨vi mgvavb I Abykxjbx _vK‡e| cÂg Aa¨vq :exRMwYZxq m~Îvewj I cÖ‡qvM 1. eM ©wbY©‡q exRMwYZxq m~Î I Abywm×v‡šÍi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e (m¤¢ve¨ †ÿ‡Î R¨vwgwZK e¨vL¨v _vK‡e)| 2. exRMwYZxq m~Î I Abywm×všÍ cÖ‡qvM K‡i ivwki gvb wbY©‡qi e¨vL¨vmn D`vniY I Abykxjbx _vK‡e| 3. m~‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ Drcv`‡K we‡kølY wbY©‡qi e¨vL¨vmn D`vniY I Abykxjbx _vK‡e| 4. ¸YbxqK I ¸wYZ‡Ki D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| 5. AbyaŸ© wZbwU exRMwYZxq ivwki mvswL¨KmnM M.mv.¸ I j.mv.¸ wbY©q D`vniY I Abykxjbx _vK‡e| lô 1. 2. 3.

Aa¨vq : exRMwYZxq fMœvsk exRMwYZxq fMœvs‡ki aviYv e¨vL¨vmn D`vniY _vK‡e (m¤¢ve¨ †ÿ‡Î wPÎ I Qwei gva¨‡g)| Ab~aŸ© wZbwU fMœvsk‡K mvaviY ni wewkóKi‡Yi wbq‡gi eY©bvmn D`vniY I Abykxjbx _vK‡e| fMœvs‡ki †hvM, we‡qvM I mijxKi‡Yi wbq‡gi e¨vL¨vmn D`vniY I Abykxjbx _vK‡e|

mßg Aa¨vq: mij mgxKiY 1. mgxKi‡Yi wewamg~‡ni (cÿvšÍi, eR©b, Avo¸Yb I cÖwZmvg¨) e¨vL¨vmn D`vniY _vK‡e| 2. wewamg~n cÖ‡qvM K‡i mij mgxKiY mgvav‡bi †KŠkj eY©bvmn D`vniY I Abykxjbx _vK‡e| 3. mij mgxKi‡Yi MVb cÖwµqv e¨vL¨vmn D`vniY _vK‡e| 4. mij mgxKi‡Yi mgvavb †jLwP‡Î cÖ`k©‡bi e¨vL¨vmn D`vniY I Abykxjbx _vK‡e| 5. mgxKi‡Yi wewamg~‡ni (cÿvšÍi, eR©b, Avo¸Yb I cÖwZmvg¨) e¨vL¨vmn D`vniY _vK‡e| 6. wewamg~n cÖ‡qvM K‡i mij mgxKiY mgvav‡bi †KŠkj eY©bvmn D`vniY I Abykxjbx _vK‡e| 7. mij mgxKi‡Yi MVb cÖwµqv e¨vL¨vmn D`vniY _vK‡e| 8. mij mgxKi‡Yi mgvavb †jLwP‡Î cÖ`k©‡bi e¨vL¨vmn D`vniY I Abykxjbx _vK‡e| Aóg Aa¨vq : mgvšÍivj mij‡iLv 1. cvwicvwk¦©K D`vniY I wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ mgvšÍivj mij‡iLvi aviYv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z n‡e| 2. `yBwU mij‡iLv mgvšÍivj nIqvi kZ© I cÖgvY _vK‡e| 3. mgvšÍivj mij‡iLv I †Q`K Øviv Drcbœ †Kv‡Yi ˆewk‡ó¨i e¨vL¨v _vK‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

65


beg Aa¨vq : wÎfzR 1. wP‡Îi gva¨‡g wÎfz‡Ri AšÍt¯’ I ewnt¯’ †KvY eY©bv Ki‡Z n‡e| 2. wÎfzR msµvšÍ †gŠwjK Dccv`¨¸‡jvi cÖgvY hvPvBKiYmn mnR I mvejxj cÖgvY _vK‡e| 3. wÎfz‡Ri evû I †KvY m¤úwK©Z mgm¨v mgvav‡bi mnR I AvKl©Yxq D`vniY _vK‡e| 4. cÖ`Ë Z‡_¨i wfwˇZ wÎfzR A¼‡bi mnR c×wZ Av‡jvPbv _vK‡e| 5. wÎfz‡Ri f~wg I D”PZvi cwigvc Øviv wÎfz‡Ri †ÿÎdj wbY©‡qi c×wZ D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Z n‡e Ges G msµvšÍ mgm¨v msewjZ Abykxjbx _vK‡e| `kg Aa¨vq : m`„kZv I me©mgZv 1. eB, LvZv, e· BZ¨vw`i mvnv‡h¨ me©mg I m`„kZvi aviYv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z n‡e Ges me©mg I m`„kZvi cv_©K¨ wPwýZ Ki‡Z n‡e| 2. wbw`©ó ˆewk‡ó¨i wfwˇZ wÎfzR I PZzfz©‡Ri m`„kZvi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| 3. wbw`©ó ˆewk‡ó¨i wfwˇZ wÎfz‡Ri me©mgZvi cÖgvY _vK‡e| 4. wPÎ I D`vniY Øviv me©mgZv I m`„kZv msµvšÍ mgm¨vi mgvavb Ges Abykxjbx _vK‡e| GKv`k Aa¨vq : Z_¨ I DcvË 1. MYmsL¨v mviwY I †kÖwY e¨eav‡bi D`vniYmn eY©bv w`‡Z n‡e| 2. MYmsL¨v mviwY ˆZwii e¨vL¨v w`‡Z n‡e| 3. MYmsL¨v mviwY ˆZwi , AvqZ‡jL A¼b Ges AvqZ‡jL n‡Z cÖPziK wbY©q msµvšÍ mgm¨vi D`vniY I Abykxjbx w`‡Z n‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

66


10.wkÿvµg QK Aóg †kÖwY

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

67


cÖ_g Aa¨vq: c¨vUvb©

(10 wcwiqW)

wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. c¨vUv‡b©i aviYv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. wewfbœ ai‡bi c¨vU©vb wjL‡Z I eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. Av‡ivwcZ kZ©vbyhvqx mnR c¨vUvb© wjL‡Z I eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. c¨vUv‡b©i wbw`©óZg msL¨v †ei Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

5.

c¨vUvb©‡K Pj‡Ki gva¨‡g exRMwYZxq ivwkgvjvq cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

Av‡eMxq 6. msL¨v wb‡q †Ljvi gva¨‡g msL¨vi cÖwZ AvMªnx n‡q DV‡e| 7. wewfbœ msL¨vwfwËK †Ljv ˆZwi‡Z m‡Pó n‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

welqe¯‘  c¨vUvb© Gi aviYv  wewfbœ ai‡bi c¨vUv‡b©i MVb I mgm¨v mgvavb  cvRj I †Mgm (msL¨v I Aÿi msewjZ)  wefvR¨Zv ( 3 I 4 A‡¼i msL¨v)  R¨vwgwZK c¨vUvb©  ‰iwLK c¨vUvb©  c¨vUvb©‡K Pj‡Ki gva¨‡g exRMwYZxq ivwkgvjvq cÖKvk|  c¨vUv‡b©i wbw`©óZg msL¨v †ei Kiv|

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

11. wkÿK D`vniY I wP‡Îi gva¨‡g c¨vUv‡b©i aviYv †`‡eb| wkÿv_©xiv msL¨v I R¨vwgwZK wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ wewfbœ c¨vUvb© wjL‡e| 12. wkÿv_©xiv cvRj, †Mgm, wefvR¨Zv BZ¨vw`i gva¨‡g wewfbœ ai‡bi c¨vUvb© `jxqfv‡e †cv÷vi †ccv‡i wj‡L Dc¯’vcb Ki‡e| wkÿK cÖ‡qvR‡b mnvqZv Ki‡eb|

wewfbœ ai‡bi c¨vUvb© wj‡L I wPÎ A¼‡bi gva¨‡g wkÿv_©xiv c¨vUvb© m¤ú‡K© Zv‡`i c~e© aviYv eY©bv Ki‡e| Gi g‡a¨ †Kvb¸‡jv ˆiwLK c¨vUvb© Zv Dc¯’vcb Ki‡e| wkÿK Av‡jvPbvi gva¨‡g ˆiwLK c¨vUv‡b©i aviYv ¯úó Ki‡eb|

wkÿv_©xiv cvRj, †Mgm, wefvR¨Zv BZ¨vw`i gva¨‡g ˆiwLK c¨vUvb© `jxqfv‡e †cv÷vi †ccv‡i wj‡L Dc¯’vcb Ki‡e| wkÿK wewfbœ msL¨vwfwËK †Ljv ˆZwi‡Z DrmvwnZ Ki‡eb Ges cÖ‡qvR‡b mnvqZv Ki‡eb|

wkÿK Ny‡i Ny‡i ch©‡eÿ‡Yi gva¨‡g wkÿv_x©‡`i KvR n‡Z Zv‡`i c~e©Ávb g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb| wkÿv_x©‡`i †ev‡W© †W‡K mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z w`‡q g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb| †kÖwYi KvR, evwoi Kv‡Ri mvnv‡h¨ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

cvRj, †Mgm Gi cÖwZ‡hvwMZvi gva¨‡g msL¨vwfwËK †Ljv ˆZwi‡Z wkÿv_x©‡`i AvMÖn g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

68


wØZxq Aa¨vq: gybvdv

(15 wcwiqW)

wkLbdj

welqe¯‘

eyw×e„Ëxq 1. gybvdv Kx Zv ej‡Z cvi‡e|  mij gybvdv I Pµe„w× 2. mij I Pµe„w× gybvdvi nvi gybvdv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges G msµvšÍ mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z  gybvdv msµvšÍ mgm¨v cvi‡e | Av‡eMxq 3. e¨vs‡Ki wnmve weeiYx eyS‡Z AvMÖnx n‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv  

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

 wkÿK wkÿv_x©‡`i mwµq AskMÖn‡Yi gva¨‡g jvf-ÿwZ I e¨vs‡Ki wnmve weeiYx †_‡K gybvdv I Pµe„w× gybvdvi aviYv Dc¯’vcb Ki‡eb| wkÿv_©xiv wkÿ‡Ki mnvqZvq mij gybvdv I Pµe„w× gybvdvi m~Î Pv‡U© cÖ`k©b Ki‡e|  wkÿv_©xiv mij gybvdv I Pµe„w× gybvdvi m~Î e¨envi K‡i ev¯Íe Rxe‡b gybvdv m¤úwK©Z MvwYwZK mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡e| cÖ‡qvR‡b wkÿK mnvqZv Ki‡eb|

jvf-ÿwZ I e¨vs‡Ki wnmve weeiYx †_‡K gybvdv I Pµe„w× gybvdvi aviYv Dc¯’vcb Kivi mgq †gŠwLK cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb| gybvdv I Pµe„w× gybvdvi m~Î Pv‡U© cÖ`k©b Kivi gva¨‡g wkÿv_x©‡`i †hvMv‡hvM `ÿZv g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  wbw`©ó gvb`‡Ði wfwˇZ †kÖwYi KvR g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  ev¯ÍewfwËK mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z w`‡q g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  evwoi KvR w`‡q g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

69


Z„Zxq Aa¨vq : cwigvc wkLbdj

(10 wcwiqW) welqe¯‘

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

eyw×e„Ëxq  cwigv‡ci †`kxq, weªwUk I  wkÿv_©xiv †kÖwYK‡ÿi wewfbœ e¯‘ †hgb †Uwej, †eÂ, †`qvj BZ¨vw`i ˆ`N©¨ 1. †`kxq, weªwUk I AvšÍR©vwZK AvšÍR©vwZK c×wZi m¤ú©K †g‡c cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g Zv †R‡b LvZvq wjL‡e| wkÿK G¸‡jv †_‡K cwigvc c×wZ e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z ˆiwLK cwigv‡ci aviYv my¯úó Ki‡eb Ges G msµvšÍ mgm¨vewji mgvavb cvi‡e Ges mswkøó c×wZi  †`kxq, weªwUk I Kiv‡eb| mvnv‡h¨ ˆ`N©¨, †ÿÎdj, IRb I AvšÍR©vwZK c×wZ‡Z ˆ`N©¨, Zij c`v‡_©i AvqZb wbY©q †ÿÎdj, IRb I Zij  wkÿK †kÖwYK‡ÿ (m¤¢e n‡j) wkÿv_©x‡`i IRb cwigvc K‡i Zv‡`i IRb msewjZ mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z c`v‡_©i AvqZb wbY©q †R‡b †b‡eb| G †_‡K IRb cwigv‡ci aviYv †`‡eb| wewfbœ Pv‡U©i cvi‡e| m¤úwK©Zmgm¨v gva¨‡g AvšÍtm¤úK©¸‡jvi aviYv wb‡q MvwYwZK mgm¨v mgvav‡b mnvqZv Ki‡eb| g‡bv‡cwkR  wkÿK Zij c`v‡_©i AvqZb cwigv‡ci Rb¨ †kÖwYK‡ÿ wewfbœ AvK…wZi 2. †`kxq, weªwUk I AvšÍR©vwZK e¯‘i mvnv‡h¨ AvqZb cwigv‡ci aviYv †`‡eb| wkÿv_©xiv wkÿ‡Ki c×wZ‡Z ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡b mnvqZvq G msµvšÍ MvwYwZK mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡e| cÖPwjZ cwigvc‡Ki mvnv‡h¨ cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv  wkÿv_x©iv ˆ`N¨© cwigv‡ci mgq wkÿK Ny‡i Ny‡i ch©‡eÿY Ki‡eb Ges †gŠwLK cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  ev¯Íe wfwËK mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z w`‡q g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  nv‡Z Kj‡g KvR w`‡q g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

70


PZz_© Aa¨vq: exRMwYZxq m~Îvewj I cÖ‡qvM (12 wcwiqW) wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. exRMwYZxq m~Î cÖ‡qvM K‡i wØc`x I wÎc`x ivwki eM© wbiƒcY, mijxKiY I gvb wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. exRMwYZxq m~Î cÖ‡qvM K‡i wØc`x I wÎc`x ivwki Nb wbY©q, mijxKiY I gvb wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. ga¨c` we‡køl‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ ivwkgvjvi Drcv`K we‡kølY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. exRMwYZxq ivwkgvjvi M.mv.¸ I j.mv.¸. wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

welqe¯‘ 

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

mßg †kÖwY‡Z cwVZ m~Î I Abywm×všÍ cÖ‡qvM K‡i eM© I gvb wbY©q (wØc`x/wÎc`x)  †hgb-

o ab=( ) -( ) o ( + + ) = + + +2 +2 +2  Nbd‡ji m~Î I cÖ‡qvM o ( + ) = +3 +3 + = + + 3 ( + ) o ( − ) = −3 +3 − = − − 3 ( − ) o + =( + )( − + ) )( o − =( − + + )  Nbd‡ji Abywm×všÍ I cÖ‡qvM o + =( + ) − 3 ( + ) o − =( − ) + 3 ( − ) o + + Ges + + AvKv‡ii ivwki Drcv`‡K we‡kølY  M.mv.¸. I j. mv. ¸. wbY©q

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

wkÿv_©x‡`i mnvqZvq wkÿK  m~Î Av‡jvPbvi mgq exRMwYZxq ivwki eM© I Nb †gŠwLK cÖ‡kœvˇii wbY©‡qi m~Îvewj I gva¨‡g wkÿK Abywm×všÍmg~n m¤¢ve¨ †ÿ‡Î wkÿv_x©‡`i c~e©Ávb RvwgwZK e¨vL¨vi gva¨‡g hvPvB Ki‡eb| Av‡jvPbv Ki‡eb| wkÿv_©xiv G msµvšÍ mgm¨vi mgvavb †ev‡W© Ki‡e| Abykxjbxi mgm¨vi mgvavb wkÿv_©xiv wbR wbR LvZvq Ki‡e| cÖ‡qvR‡b wkÿK mnvqZv Ki‡eb|  wkÿv_x©‡`i †ev‡W© †W‡K wkÿK ga¨c` we‡køl‡Yi mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z mvnv‡h¨ Drcv`‡K we‡kølY w`‡q g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb| †ev‡W© K‡i †`Lv‡eb| wkÿv_©x‡`i †ev‡W© G‡b G ai‡bi mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z ej‡eb Ges cÖ‡qvR‡b mnvqZv  †Rvovq I `jMZ KvR w`‡q g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb| Ki‡eb| wkÿK Ab~aŸ© wÎc`x exRMwYZxq ivwki M.mv.¸. I j.mv.¸. wbY©‡qi c~e©Ávb hvPvB Ki‡eb| wkÿK wewfbœ ai‡bi exRMwYZxq ivwki M.mv.¸. I j.mv.¸. wbY©©q c×wZ D`vniYmn eY©bv Ki‡eb| wkÿv_©xiv `jxqfv‡e K‡qKwU mgm¨vi mgvavb K‡i †`Lv‡e Ges cÖ‡qvR‡b wkÿK mnvqZv Ki‡eb|

71


cÂg Aa¨vq : exRMwYZxq fMœvsk (8 wcwiqW) wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. exRMwYZxq fMœvs‡ki †hvM, we‡qvM, ¸Y I fvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges GZ`msµvšÍ mij I mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

welqe¯‘ exRMwYZxq fMœvsk  fMœvs‡ki †hvM, we‡qvM, ¸Y , fvM I mijxKiY

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv  wkÿv_©xiv exRMwYZxq fMœvs‡ki †hvM I we‡qv‡Mi mgm¨vi mgvav‡bi gva¨‡g Zv‡`i c~e© aviYv e¨vL¨v Ki‡e| wkÿK exRMwYZxq fMœvs‡ki ¸Y I fvM cÖwµqv D`vniYmn eY©bv Ki‡eb| wkÿv_©xiv wbR wbR LvZvq †hvM, we‡qvM, ¸Y I fvM msµvšÍ mgm¨vi Abykxjb Ki‡e| cÖ‡qvR‡b wkÿK mnvqZv Ki‡eb|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv  wkÿv_x©‡`i wbR LvZvq mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z w`‡q g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  evwoi KvR w`‡q wbw`©ó gvb`‡Ði wfwˇZ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

72


lô Aa¨vq : mij mnmgxKiY wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. mgxKi‡Yi cªwZ¯’vcb c×wZ I Acbqb c×wZ e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. `yB PjK wewkó mij mnmgxKi‡Yi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. MvwYwZK mgm¨vi mij mnmgxKiY MVb K‡i mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| g‡bv‡cwkR 4. mij mnmgxKi‡Yi mgvavb †jLwP‡Î †`Lv‡Z cvi‡e| 5. †jLwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ mij mnmgxKi‡Yi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

(10 wcwiqW) welqe¯‘

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

 mij mnmgxKi‡Yi aviYv  wkÿK cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g wkÿv_©x‡`i mij mgxKi‡Yi c~e©Ávb hvPvB Ki‡eb| wkÿK D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ mij mnmgxKiY Kx Zv eY©bv  cÖwZ¯’vcb I Acbqb Ki‡eb| c×wZ‡Z mij  wkÿK cÖwZ¯’vcb I Acbqb c×wZ‡Z mij mnmgxKi‡Yi mgvav‡bi mnmgxKi‡Yi (wØPjK) †KŠkj I MVb cÖwµqv D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v Ki‡eb| wkÿv_©x‡`i G c×wZ‡Z mgvavb, MVb I Zv mgm¨v mgvav‡bi Abykxjb Ki‡Z ej‡eb| cÖ‡qvR‡b wkÿK mnvqZv †jLwP‡Î cÖ`k©b Ki‡eb|

 †jLwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ mij mnmgxKi‡Yi mgvavb

 wkÿv_©xiv QK KvM‡R we›`ycvZb K‡i †iLv A¼b Ki‡e| wkÿK QK KvM‡R mij mgxKi‡Yi wPÎ A¼b K‡i mgvav‡bi †KŠkj nv‡Z Kj‡g K‡i †`Lv‡e| cÖ‡Z¨K wkÿv_©x QK KvM‡R mij mnmgxKi‡Yi mgvavb Abykxjb Ki‡e| cÖ‡qvR‡b wkÿK mnvqZv Ki‡eb|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv  †kÖwYi KvR w`‡q wbw`©ó gvb`‡Ði wfwˇZ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  evwoi KvR w`‡q wbw`©ó gvb`‡Ði wfwˇZ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  ev¯ÍewfwËK mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z w`‡q g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

 nv‡Z Kj‡g KvR w`‡q QK KvM‡R we›`ycvZb g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

Av‡eMxq 6. mnR mgm¨v mgvav‡bi Rb¨ mgxKiY MV‡b AvMÖnx n‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

73


mßg Aa¨vq : †mU

(10 wcwiqW)

wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. †mU I †mU MVb cÖwµqv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. mmxg †mU, mvwe©K †mU, c~iK †mU, dvuKv †mU, wb‡ñ` †mU eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges Zv‡`i MVb cÖZx‡Ki mvnv‡h¨ cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. GKvwaK †m‡Ui ms‡hvM †mU, †Q` †mU MVb I e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. †fbwPÎ I D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ †mU cÖwµqvi mnR agv©ewj hvPvB I cÖgvY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. †m‡Ui ag©vewj cÖ‡qvM K‡i mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

welqe¯‘  †mU  wewfbœ cÖKvi †mU (mmxg †mU, mvwe©K †mU, c~iK †mU, duvKv †mU, wb‡ñ` †mU Gi eY©bv I MVb)  †m‡Ui ms‡hvM I †Q`  †fbwPÎ

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv  wkÿK wewfbœ e¯‘ A_ev wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ †mU I Dc‡m‡Ui aviYv D`vniYmn †ev‡W© e¨vL¨v Ki‡eb|  wkÿv_©x‡`i mnvqZvq wkÿK †mU cÖKv‡ki wewfbœ Dcvq I MVb cÖwµqv †ev‡W© K‡i †`Lv‡eb| wkÿv_©xiv wewfbœ Dcv‡q †mU MVb K‡i wkÿK‡K †`Lv‡e| cÖ‡qvR‡b wkÿK mnvqZv Ki‡eb|

 wkÿK †fbwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ †m‡Ui ms‡hvM I †Q` cÖwµqv †ev‡W© eY©bv Ki‡eb| cÖ‡Z¨K wkÿv_©x †fbwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ †m‡Ui ms‡hvM I †Q` LvZvq wbY©q Ki‡e| cÖ‡qvR‡b wkÿK mnvqZv Ki‡eb|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv  wkÿv_x©‡`i †ev‡W© †W‡K †fbwPÎ AuvK‡Z w`‡q g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  †kÖwYi KvR w`‡q wbw`©ó gvb`‡Ði wfwˇZ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

 ev¯ÍewfwËK mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z w`‡q g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

 †m‡Ui ag©vewj (c~iK, ms‡hvM I †Q`)

Av‡eMxq 6. †fbwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ MvwYwZK mgm¨v‡K bv›`wbKfv‡e Dc¯’vc‡b m‡Pó n‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

74


Aóg Aa¨vq: PZzf©zR wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. PZyf©z‡Ri ag©vewj hvPvB Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

2. PZz„f©z‡Ri ag©vewji hyw³g~jK cÖgvY Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

(23 wcwiqW) welqe¯‘  PZzf©y‡Ri ag©vewj|

PZzf©zR msµvšÍ Dcvcv`¨ I cÖgvY  PZzf©y‡Ri Pvi †Kv‡Yi mgwó Pvi mg‡Kv‡Yi mgvb|  mvgvšÍwi‡Ki wecixZ evû I †KvY¸‡jv ci¯úi mgvb|  mvgvšÍwi‡Ki KY©`¦q ci¯úi‡K mgwØLwÐZ K‡i|  AvqZ‡ÿ‡Îi KY©Øq ci¯úi mgvb Ges mgwØLwÛZ K‡i|  i¤^‡mi KY©Øq ci¯úi‡K mg‡Kv‡Y mgwØLwÐZ K‡i| PZzf©zR msµvšÍ m¤úv`¨  †Kv‡bv PZzf©y‡Ri PviwU evûi ˆ`N©¨ I GKwU K‡Y©i ˆ`N©¨ †`Iqv _vK‡j PZzf©yRwU AvuK‡Z n‡e|  †Kv‡bv PZzf©y‡Ri wZbwU evûi ˆ`N©¨ I `yBwU K‡Y©i ˆ`N©¨ †`Iqv _vK‡j PZzf©yRwU AvuK‡Z n‡e|  †Kv‡bv PZzf©y‡Ri PviwU evû GKwU ‡KvY ‡`Iqv _vK‡j PZzf©yRwU AvuK‡Z n‡e|

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv  wkÿv_x©iv wewfbœ ai‡bi wÎfzRvK„wZi KvMR ev w·KvYx mvwR‡q Ges kjvKvi mvnv‡h¨ PZzfz©‡Ri aviYv e¨vL¨v Ki‡e| wkÿK cÖ‡qvR‡b mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡eb|  wkÿv_x©iv cÖ‡Z¨‡K LvZvq wewfbœ ai‡bi PZyfz©R †hgb eM©, AvqZ, mvgvšÍwiK, i¤^m, U&ªvwcwRqvg AuvK‡e| Aw¼Z PZzfz©‡Ri †KvY¸‡jv cwigvc K‡i G‡`i mgwó †h Pvi mg‡Kv‡Yi mgvb Zv hvPvB Ki‡e| wkÿK Dccv`¨wU cÖgvY Ki‡Z mvnvh¨ Ki‡eb|  wkÿv_x©iv LvZvq mvgvšÍwiK Gu‡K Gi wecixZ evû I †KvY¸‡jv cwigvc K‡i Dccv`¨wU hvPvB Ki‡e| wkÿK wkÿv_x©‡`i mn‡hvwMZvq Dccv`¨wU cÖgvY Ki‡eb|  wkÿv_x©iv wkÿ‡Ki wb‡`©‡k †ev‡W© wM‡q mvgvšÍwiK, AvqZ,e M© I i¤^m AuvK‡e| G‡`i KY©Øq wPwýZ Ki‡e Ges Giv ci¯úi mgvb I mg‡Kv‡Y mgwØLwÐZ wKbv Zv hvPvB K‡i cÖgvY Ki‡e| cÖ‡qvR‡b wkÿK mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡eb|

 wkÿK wb‡`©kbv cÖ`vb K‡i wkÿv_x©‡`i †ev‡W© †W‡K wewfbœ R¨vwgwZK wPÎ A¼b Kiv‡eb| Gfv‡e K‡qKRb wkÿv_x©‡`i w`‡q †ev‡W© Kiv‡bvi ci cÖ‡Z¨K wkÿv_x© LvZvq A¼b Ki‡e| wkÿK cÖ‡qvRbxq mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡eb|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv  wkÿv_x©iv wewfbœ ai‡bi PZzfz©R ˆZwii mgq wkÿK Ny‡i Ny‡i ch©‡eÿY Ki‡eb Ges †gŠwLK cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

 Dccv`¨ hvPvB I cÖgv‡Yi mgq †gŠwLK cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

 †kÖwYi KvR Ki‡Z w`‡q g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  †kÖwY Awfÿvi mvnv‡h¨ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

75


Aóg Aa¨vq: PZzf©zR wkLbdj

g‡bv‡cwkR 3. cÖ`Ë DcvË n‡Z iæjvi I K¤úvm e¨envi K‡i PZz©fzR AuvK‡Z cvi‡e|

4. AvqZvKvi Nbe¯‘i wPÎ AuvK‡Z cvi‡e| 5. wÎfzR m~‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ PZyf„©zR †ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎdj cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 6. AvqZvKvi Nbe¯‘ I Nb‡Ki c„‡ôi †ÿÎdj cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

(23 wcwiqW) welqe¯‘  †Kv‡bv PZzf©y‡Ri wZbwU evûi ˆ`N©¨ I AšÍf©z³ `yBwU †KvY †`Iqv _vK‡j PZzf©yRwU AvuK‡Z n‡e|  †Kv‡bv PZzf©y‡Ri `yBwU evû Ges wZbwU ‡KvY ‡`Iqv _vK‡j PZzf©yRwU AvuK‡Z n‡e|  AvqZvKvi Nbe¯‘ I NbK|  PZyf„©zR †ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎdj cwigvc|

Pjgvb 2 wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv  †ev‡W© wkÿv_x©‡`i †W‡K wewfbœ ai‡bi A¼b Ki‡Z w`‡q hvPvB Ki‡eb|

 wkÿK Wv÷vi, BU, eB, PK ev· BZ¨vw`i gva¨‡g Nbe¯‘ Ges jyWzi Q°v I iæweK-wKD‡ei mvnv‡h¨ Nb‡Ki aviYv e¨vL¨v Ki‡eb| Gfv‡e wZb gvÎvi R¨vwgwZK e¯‘i mv‡_ cwiwPZ Kiv‡eb| wkÿv_x©iv wkÿ‡Ki mn‡hvwMZvq Nbe¯‘¸‡jv cwigvc Ki‡e|

 nv‡Z Kj‡g wewfbœ Nbe¯‘ cwigvc Ki‡Z w`‡q ch©‡eÿ‡Yi gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

76


beg Aa¨vq : wc_v‡Mviv‡mi Dccv`¨ wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. wc_v‡Mviv‡mi Dccv`¨ hvPvB K‡i e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. wÎfz‡Ri wZbwU evûi ˆ`N©¨ †`Iqv _vK‡j wÎfzRwU mg‡KvYx wKbv-hvPvB Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. wc_v‡Mviv‡mi Dccv`¨ cÖgvY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. wc_v‡Mviv‡mi m~Î e¨envi K‡i mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

(12 wcwiqW) welqe¯‘

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

 wc_v‡Mviv‡mi Dccv‡`¨i hvPvB, cÖgvY I cÖ‡qvM

 wkÿv_x©iv wewfbœ gv‡ci wZbwU mg‡KvYx wÎfzR Gu‡K evû¸‡jvi ˆ`N©¨ cwigvc Ki‡e| wÎfz‡Ri cÖwZwU evûi ˆ`N©¨‡K eM©‡ÿ‡Îi GKwU evû a‡i †ÿÎdj wbY©q Ki‡e| G †_‡K wkÿK wc_v‡Mviv‡mi Dccv`¨ hvPvB Ki‡Z mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡eb|  wkÿK wPÎ, g‡Wj BZ¨vw`i mvnv‡h¨ wkÿv_x©‡`i mn‡hvwMZvq wc_v‡Mviv‡mi Dccv`¨wU cÖgvY Ki‡eb|  wkÿK ev¯ÍewfwËK D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ wc_v‡Mviv‡mi Dccv`¨wUi cÖ‡qvM Av‡jvPbv Ki‡eb| wkÿv_x©iv cÖ`Ë mgm¨v `‡j mgvavb Ki‡e|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv  wkÿK ch©‡eÿY I cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

 †ev‡W© wkÿv_x©‡`i †W‡K Dccv`¨wU cÖgvY Ki‡Z w`‡q hvPvB Ki‡eb|  †kÖwYi KvR I †kÖwY Awfÿvi mvnv‡h¨ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

77


`kg Aa¨vq: e„Ë

(15 wcwiqW)

wkLbdj

welqe¯‘

eyw×e„Ëxq 1. e„‡Ëi aviYv jvf Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. cvB( ) Gi aviYv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. 4. 5.

e„Ë  e„‡Ëi aviYv( †K›`ª, R¨v, e¨vm, e¨vmva©, cwiwa)  cvB(π) Kx, cvB(π) Gi cwiwPwZ I cvB(π) Gi gvb e„ËvKvi †ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎdj I  e„ËvKvi †ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎdj cwimxgv wbY©q K‡i mgm¨v I cwimxgvi cwigvc mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| Dccv`¨ cÖgvY I cÖ‡qvM e„Ë msµvšÍ Dccv`¨ cÖgvY  e„‡Ëi †K›`ª Ges †h Ki‡Z cvi‡e| †Kv‡bv R¨v Gi ga¨we›`yi e„Ë msµvšÍ Dccv`¨ ms‡hvRK mij‡iLv H cÖ‡qvM K‡i mgm¨v mgvavb R¨v Gi Dci j¤e Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

g‡bv‡cwkR 6. cwigvcK wdZv e¨envi K‡i e„ËvKvi †ÿ‡Îi cwimxgv I †ÿÎdj cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 7. PZzfz©R I e„‡Ëi †ÿÎd‡ji mvnv‡h¨ †ej‡bi c„‡ôi †ÿÎdj cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

 wkÿv_©xiv †h †Kv‡bv e„Ë Gu‡K Zvi cwimxgv I e¨v‡mi AbycvZ wbY©q Ki‡e| cÖwZwU e„‡Ëi †ÿ‡Î GB Abycv‡Zi gvb †h mgvb Zv ej‡e| Gi gva¨‡g wkÿK cvB(π)-Gi aviYv †`‡eb|  wkÿv_©xiv e„‡Ëi e¨vmva© †g‡c wewfbœ AvKv‡ii e„‡Ëi †ÿÎdj †ei Ki‡e|

 wkÿv_x©iv e„Ë msK&ªvšÍ Dccv`¨¸‡jv wPÎ Gu‡K hvPvB Ki‡e| wkÿv_x©iv wkÿ‡Ki mn‡hvwMZvq Dccv`¨¸‡jv cÖgvY Ki‡e|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

e„Ë Gu‡K cwigvc Kivi mgq wkÿK wkÿv_x©‡`i KvR Ny‡i Ny‡i ch©‡eÿY Ki‡eb Ges †gŠwLK cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

 wkÿv_x©‡`i GKKfv‡e LvZvq AuvK‡Z w`‡q g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  †kÖwYi KvR I †kÖwY Awfÿvi mvnv‡h¨ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

 wkÿv_x©iv Dccv`¨ cÖ‡qvM K‡i mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡e|

 e„‡Ëi mKj mgvb R¨v †K›`ª †_‡K mg`~ieZx©  e„Ë msµvšÍ mgm¨v

 †ejb

 wkÿv_x©iv nv‡Z-Kj‡g ‡ej‡bi †ÿÎdj wbY©q Ki‡e| wkÿK cÖ‡qvR‡b mnvqZv Ki‡e|

 cwigvc K‡i †ÿGdj wbY©q Kivi mgq wkÿK ch©‡eÿY Ki‡eb Ges cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g wkÿv_x©‡`i‡K g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

78


GKv`k Aa¨vq : Z_¨ I DcvË (15 wcwiqW) wkLbdj welqe¯‘ eyw×e„Ëxq 1. †K›`ªxq cÖeYZv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z  †K›`ªxq cÖeYZv cvi‡e| 2. MvwYwZK m~‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ Mo,  Mo, ga¨K I cÖPziK ga¨K I cÖPziK wbY©q K‡i mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|  cvBwPÎ 3. cvBwPÎ e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| g‡bv‡cwkR 4. cvBwPÎ A¼b Ki‡Z cvi‡e |

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv  wkÿv_©xiv AwR©Z c~e©Áv‡bi gva¨‡g †K›`ªxq cÖeYZvi aviYv e¨vL¨v Ki‡e| wkÿK wewfbœ D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ wkÿv_x©‡`i aviYv my¯úó Ki‡eb|  wkÿv_©xiv Mo, ga¨K I cÖPzi‡Ki m~θ‡jv wkÿ‡Ki mnvqZvq `jMZfv‡e PvU© AvKv‡i cÖ`k©b Ki‡e| m~θ‡jv AvqË K‡i wkÿ‡Ki mnvqZvq MvwYwZK mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡e | wkÿK cÖ‡qvR‡b mnvqZv Ki‡eb|  wkÿv_©xiv e¨envwiKfv‡e Aweb¨¯Í DcvˇK web¨¯Í AvKv‡i cÖKvk K‡i cvBwPÎ A¼b Ki‡e Ges wkÿK cÖ‡qvR‡b mnvqZv Ki‡eb|  wkÿK †ccvi ev wewfbœ Drm n‡Z cvBwP‡Î Dc¯’vwcZ Z_¨ mieivn Ki‡eb| wkÿv_x©iv wPÎwU e¨vL¨v Ki‡e| cÖ‡hvR¨ †ÿ‡Î wkÿK mn‡hvwMZv Ki‡eb|  wkÿK weMZ `yB-wZb eQ‡ii we`¨vj‡qi cv‡mi DcvËmg~n wkÿv_x©‡`i mieivn Ki‡eb| wkÿv_x©iv `jMZfv‡e weMZ eQi¸‡jvi Mo cv‡ki nvi wbY©q Ki‡e| cÖvß DcvË n‡Z MwYZ, Bs‡iwR I weÁvb wel‡qi cÖvß b¤^‡ii wfwˇZ Mo ,ga¨K I cÖPziK wbY©q Ki‡e Ges cÖwZ‡e`b AvKv‡i Dc¯’vcb Ki‡e|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv  †K›`ªxq cÖeYZvi aviYv e¨vL¨v Kivi mgq †gŠwLK cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  wba©vwiZ gvb`‡Ði mvnv‡h¨ `jMZ KvR g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  †kÖwYi KvR I †kÖwY Awfÿvi mvnv‡h¨ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|  wba©vwiZ Kv‡Ri gvb`‡Ði mvnv‡h¨ g~j¨vqb Ki‡eb|

79


13. Aóg †kªwYi MwYZ eB‡qi Rb¨ †jLK wb‡`©kbv cÖ_g Aa¨vq : c¨vUvb© 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

wewfbœ ai‡bi msL¨v, Aÿi, msL¨v‡iLv, ¯Í¤¢‡jL, R¨vwgwZK wPÎ BZ¨vw`i gva¨‡g c¨vUv‡b©i aviYv e¨vL¨v w`‡Z n‡e | †hvM, we‡qvM, ¸Y I fvM cÖwµqvi gva¨‡g c¨vUv‡b©i aviYv I MVb D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ e¨vL¨v w`‡Z n‡e| c¨vUv‡b©i gva¨‡g msL¨v I Aÿi msewjZ cvRj , †Mgm Ges wefvR¨Zv wewfbœ D`vniY w`‡q Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Z n‡e| ˆiwLK c¨vUvb©‡K †jLwP‡Î cÖ`k©‡bi †KŠkj ev wbqg e¨vL¨vmn _vK‡e| msL¨vwfwËK †Ljv ˆZwii Rb¨ wkÿv_x©‡Kw›`ªK KvR Kivi my‡hvM _vK‡Z n‡e| ch©vß Abykxjbx _vK‡e|

wØZxq Aa¨vq : gybvdv 1. 2. 3. 4.

mij gybvdv I Pµe„w× gybvdvi ev¯ÍewfwËK D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g Av‡jvPbv _vK‡e| mij gybvdv I Pµe„w× gybvdv wbY©‡qi m~‡Îi e¨vL¨v w`‡Z n‡e| mij gybvdv I Pµe„w× gybvdvi ev¯Íe wfwËK mnR †_‡K RwUjZi D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ m~‡Îi cÖ‡qvM †`Lv‡Z n‡e| mij gybvdv I Pµe„w× gybvdvi Rxeb Nwbô MvwYwZK mgm¨v msewjZ Abykxjbx w`‡Z n‡e|

Z„Zxq Aa¨vq : cwigvc 1. 2. 3. 4.

wPÎ I D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ †`kxq , weªwUk I AvšÍR©vwZK c×wZ†Z ˆ`N©¨, †ÿÎdj, IRb Ges Zij c`v‡_©i AvqZb cwigv‡ci e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z n‡e| †`kxq, weªwUk I AvšÍR©vwZK c×wZ†Z ˆ`N©¨, †ÿÎdj, IRb Ges AvqZb cwigv‡ci QK w`‡Z n‡e| D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ †`kxq , weªwUk I AvšÍR©vwZK c×wZi AvšÍtm¤ú‡K©i e¨vL¨v w`‡Z n‡e| Rxeb Nwbô MvwYwZK mgm¨v msewjZ Abykxjbx w`‡Z n‡e|

PZz_© Aa¨vq : exRMwYZxq m~Îvewj I cÖ‡qvM 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

wØc`x I wÎc`x ivwki eM© I Nb wbY©‡qi m~Îvewj I Abywm×v‡šÍi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e | m¤¢ve¨ †ÿ‡Î R¨vwgwZK e¨vL¨v w`‡Z n‡e| eM© I N‡bi m~‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ wØc`x I wÎc`x ivwki Nb wbY©q †KŠk‡ji D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| ga¨c` we‡køl‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ Drcv`‡K we‡kølY wbY©‡qi c×wZ D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g e¨vL¨v w`‡Z n‡e| exRMwYZxq ivwki M.mv.¸ I j.mv.¸ wbY©‡qi e¨vL¨vmn D`vniY _vK‡e| ch©vß I wkLbdj AR©b Dc‡hvMx mgm¨v msewjZ Abykxjbx _vK‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

80


cÂg Aa¨vq : exRMwYZxq fMœvsk 1. exRMwYZxq ivwkgvjvi †hvM, we‡qvM, ¸Y I fvM cÖwµqvi eY©bvmn D`vniY _vK‡e| 2. †hvM, we‡qvM, ¸Y I fvM msewjZ mijxKi‡Yi e¨vL¨vmn D`vniY I Abykxjbx _vK‡e|

lô Aa¨vq : mij mnmgxKiY 1. 2. 3. 4.

mij mnmgxKi‡Yi aviYv e¨vL¨vmn D`vniY _vK‡e| cÖwZ¯’vcb I Acbqb c×wZ‡Z wØPjK wewkó mij mnmgxKi‡Yi mgvav‡bi †KŠkj I MVb cÖwµqv D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| mij mnmgxKi‡Yi mgvavb †jLwP‡Î cÖ`k©‡bi †KŠkj I †jLwPÎ †_‡K mij mnmgxKi‡Yi mgvav‡bi †KŠk‡ji eY©bv _vK‡e| ch©vß D`vniY I Abykxjbx _vK‡e|

mßg Aa¨vq : †mU 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ev¯Íe RM‡Zi e¯yÍi A_ev wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ †mU I Dc‡m‡Ui e¨vL¨v w`‡Z n‡e| †mU cÖKv‡ki Dcvq, wewfbœ cÖKvi †m‡Ui eY©bv I MVb cÖwµqv D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z n‡e| ev¯Íe D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ †m‡Ui ms‡hvM I †Q` cÖwµqvi e¨vL¨v w`‡Z n‡e| †fbwPÎ I D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ †m‡Ui agv©ewj hvPvB I cÖgvY cÖwµqvi eY©bv w`‡Z n‡e| †m‡Ui agv©ewj cÖ‡qvM K‡i mgm¨vi mgvav†bi Rb¨ ch©vß D`vniY I Abykxjbx _vK‡e|

Aóg Aa¨vq : PZzf©yR 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

wewfbœfv‡e ev¯Íe wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ PZzfz©R ˆZwii e¨e¯’v _vK‡e| PZzfy©‡Ri ag©vewj _vK‡e| PZzfz©R msµvšÍ m¤úv`¨ mwVKfv‡e wP‡Îi gva¨‡g eY©bv _vK‡e| wPÎ A¼‡bi †KŠkj I A¼‡bi h_v_©Zvi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| Abykxjbx _vK‡e| wewfbœ cÖKvi ev¯ÍewfwËK Nbe¯‘i wPÎ _vK‡e Ges G †_‡K wZb gvÎvi R¨vwgwZK aviYvi Dc¯’vcb _vK‡e| Nbe¯‘mg~‡ni †ÿÎdj cwigv‡ci wPÎmn eY©bv _vK‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

81


beg Aa¨vq : wc_v‡Mviv‡mi Dccv`¨ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

c~e©cv‡Vi cybiv‡jvPbv _vK‡e| wewfbœ gv‡ci mg‡KvYx wÎfz‡Ri wPÎ _vK‡e| mg‡KvYx wÎfz‡Ri cÖwZwU evûi Dci eM©‡ÿÎ A¼‡bi wb‡`©kbvmn wPÎ I e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| wZbwU evû †`Iqv _vK‡j wÎfzRwU mg‡KvYx wKbv Zv hvPvB Kivi wb‡`©kbv _vK‡e| wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ wc_v‡Mviv‡mi Dccv‡`¨i cÖgvY _vK‡e| D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ wc_v‡Mviv‡mi m~‡Îi cÖ‡qvM _vK‡e| Abykxjbx _vK‡e, wc_v‡Mviv‡mi m~Î e¨envi K‡i mgvavb Kiv hvq Giƒc wewfbœ mgm¨v _vK‡e|

`kg Aa¨vq : e„Ë 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

ev¯Íe wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ e„‡Ëi Pvc, R¨v, e¨vm, e¨vmva© wPwýZ Kiv _vK‡e| e„‡Ëi e¨vm, R¨v, e¨vmva©, cwiwa, †K›`ª eY©bv _vK‡e| e„Ë msµvšÍ Dccv`¨ I Zv‡`i wPÎmn hyw³g~jK cÖgvY _vK‡e| e„Ë msµvšÍ Dccv`¨ cÖ‡qvM K‡i ev¯ÍewfwËK mgm¨vi mgvavb msµvšÍ D`vniY _vK‡e| ev¯Íe D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g †ej‡bi c„‡ôi †ÿÎdj cwigv‡ci eY©bv _vK‡e| Abykxjbx _vK‡e|

GKv`k Aa¨vq : Z_¨ I DcvË 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

ev¯Íe wfwËK D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ †K›`ªxq cÖeYZvi e¨vL¨v w`‡Z n‡e| Mo, ga¨K I cÖPziK wbY©‡qi m~Î D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ e¨vL¨v w`‡Z n‡e| cvBwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ Z_¨ I DcvË wKfv‡e mn‡R Dc¯’vwcZ nq Zv D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z n‡e| cvBwPÎ A¼‡bi wbqg e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z n‡e| Mo, ga¨K I cÖPziK wbY©‡qi m~Î cÖ‡qvM Kivi Rb¨ cÖvZ¨wnK Rxe‡b wewfbœ †ÿ‡Îi DcvË e¨envi K‡i D`vniY Ges Abykxjbx w`‡Z n‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

82


wkÿvµg MwYZ

beg I `kg †kÖwY

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

83


1. f~wgKv mgvR I RvZxq Pvwn`vi †cªÿvc‡U wkÿv_x©i cÖ‡qvRb †gUv‡bvi AwfcÖv‡q wkÿvµg cwigvR©b I bevqb Kiv Acwinvh©| eZ©gv‡b cÖPwjZ wkÿvµg 1995 mv‡j cÖYqb Kiv nq| B‡Zvg‡a¨ cwieZ©bkxj we‡k¦ Ávb weÁv‡bi e¨vcK Dbœqb mvwaZ n‡q‡Q| GQvovI eûj cÖZ¨vwkZ RvZxq wkÿvbxwZ Aby‡gvw`Z n‡q‡Q| RvZxq wkÿvbxwZi Av‡jv‡K gvbm¤§Z I mg‡qvc‡hvMx wkÿv cÖ`v‡bi Rb¨ gva¨wgK ¯Í‡ii wkÿvi jÿ¨ I D‡Ïk¨ cybtwba©viY Kiv nq| ˆ`bw›`b bvbv mgm¨v mgvav‡b mÿg Kivi cvkvcvwk G wkÿvµ‡gi D‡jøL‡hvM¨ ˆewkó¨ n‡”Q, wkÿv †k‡l wkÿv_x©‡`i wewfbœ †ckvq wb‡qvwRZ nIqv A_ev cieZx© ch©v‡qi wkÿvi c_ myMg Kiv| GB mKj Pvwn`v †gUv‡bvi j‡ÿ¨ MwY‡Zi D‡Ïk¨ I wkLbdj ˆZwi Kiv n‡q‡Q| me©‡ÿ‡Î MwY‡Zi Ae`vb ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Ges weMZ K‡qK `kK a‡i Avgv‡`i †`‡k MwYZ wkÿvi weKvk N‡U‡Q| ZvB MwYZ wkÿvq bZzb a¨vb-aviYv cÖeZ©b K‡i MwYZ‡K AwaKZi cÖv‡qvwMK Kivi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq I ¸iyZ¡c~Y© wkLbdj mwbœ‡ek Kiv n‡q‡Q| Ávb-weÁv‡bi wewfbœ kvLvq MwY‡Zi e¨envi QvovI Gi Av‡Q wbR¯^ bv›`wbKZv| MvwYwZK mgm¨v Dc¯’vcb I cÖKv‡ki FRyZv Ges mgm¨v mgvav‡b m„RbkxjZv wkÿv_x©i gvbweK ¸Yvewj I g~j¨‡eva weKv‡k mnvqK f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| GQvovI MvwYwZK mgm¨v mgvav‡bi Acvi Avb›` wkÿv_x©‡K MwY‡Zi cÖwZ AvMÖnx K‡i †Zv‡j| G mKj w`K we‡ePbv K‡i MwYZ wel‡qi wkÿvµg cÖYqb Kiv n‡q‡Q|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

84


2. D‡Ïk¨ 1.

MvwYwZK Ávb I ˆbcyY¨ AR©b Kivi gva¨‡g †hŠw³K I MVbg~jK wPšÍvq DØy× nIqv|

2.

MvwYwZK hyw³ e¨envi K‡i e¯‘wbô cÖgv‡Y DcbxZ nIqvi `ÿZv AR©b Kiv|

3.

†mU I †m‡Ui Kvh©wewa m¤ú‡K© Rvbv Ges mgm¨v mgvav‡b †mU e¨env‡ii `ÿZv AR©b Kiv|

4.

dvsk‡bi aviYv jvf K‡i †jLwPÎ A¼b Ges Zv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z mÿg nIqv|

5.

ev¯Íe msL¨vi †kÖwYweb¨vm m¤ú©‡K Rvbv I cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv|

6.

ev¯Íe mgm¨v mgvav‡b exRMvwYwZK m~‡Îi MVb I e¨envi Kivi `ÿZv AR©b Kiv|

7.

m~PK I jMvwi`g m¤ú‡©K aviYv jvf I cÖ‡qv‡M mÿg nIqv|

8.

exRMwYZxq AbycvZ I mgvbycv‡Zi aviYv jvf I cÖ‡qv‡M mÿg nIqv|

9.

GK PjKwewkó mgxKiY Ges `yB PjKwewkó mij mnmgxKiY mgvavb I cÖ‡qv‡M `ÿZv AR©b Kiv|

10. Abyµg I avivi aviYv jvf, mmxg mgvšÍi I ¸‡YvËi avivi wbw`©ó c` Ges wbw`©ó msL¨K c‡`i mgwó wbY©q Ki‡Z cviv| 11. R¨vwgwZK cÖgvY I R¨vwgwZK A¼b m¤ú‡K© Ávb m¤úªmviY I Zv cÖ‡qv‡Mi `ÿZv e„w× Kiv| 12. cÖwZmgZv I m`„kZv m¤ú‡K© Ávb jvf K‡i Zv e¨envi Ki‡Z mÿg nIqv| 13. w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZ m¤ú‡K© Ávb jvf K‡i cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv| 14. mgZjxq †ÿÎ I Nbe¯‘ msµvšÍ cwigvc Ki‡Z mÿg nIqv | 15. Z_¨ I DcvË web¨v‡mi gva¨‡g cwimsL¨v‡bi †gŠwjK welqvw` Rvbv I cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv| 16. MvwYwZK mgm¨v mgvav‡bi Dcvq D™¢ve‡b ˆbcyY¨ jvf Kiv|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

85


`kg †kÖwY-1g †mwg÷vi

beg †kÖwY-2q †mwg÷vi

beg †kÖwY-1g †mwg÷vi

3. Aa¨vq wfwËK wcwiqW eÈb Aa¨v‡qi wk‡ivbvg 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

ev¯Íe msL¨v †mU I dvskb exRMvwYwZK ivwk †iLv, †KvY I wÎfzR e¨envwiK R¨vwgwZ w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZ cwiwgwZ

wcwiqW

cybiv‡jvPbvi Rb¨ eivÏK…Z wcwiqW

15 15 10 10 6 8 8

5 5 3 3 2 3 3

72

24

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

m~PK I jMvwi`g exRMwYZxq AbycvZ I mgvbycvZ GK PjKwewkó mgxKiY e„Ë †ÿÎdj m¤úwK©Z Dccv`¨ I m¤úv`¨ w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZ

10 12 10 14 12 8

3 4 3 5 4 2

7.

cwiwgwZ

6

3

72

24

10 12 20 10 8 12

3 4 7 3 3 4

1 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

`yB PjKwewkó mij mnmgxKiY mmxg aviv AbycvZ,m`„kZv I cÖwZmgZv `~iZ¡ I D”PZv cwiwgwZ cwimsL¨vb

72 24 `kg †kÖwYi 2q †mwg÷v‡i m¤ú~Y© wm‡jev‡mi Ici wbe©vPwb cixÿv AbywôZ nq| ZvB `kg †kªwYi 2q †mwg÷v‡i eivÏK…Z 72 wcwiqW mKj Aa¨v‡qi cybiv‡jvPbvi Rb¨ eivÏ ivLv n‡q‡Q| RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

86


4. wkÿvµg QK beg-`kg †kÖwY

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

87


cÖ_g Aa¨vq : ev¯Íe msL¨v

(15 wcwiqW )

wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. ev¯Íe msL¨vi †kªwYweb¨vm Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

welqe¯‘ 

ev¯Íe msL¨vi †kªwYweb¨vm

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv  

2. ev¯Íe msL¨v‡K `kwg‡K cÖKvk K‡i Avmbœ gvb wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. `kwgK fMœvs‡ki †kªwYweb¨vm e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

msL¨vi Avmbœ gvb

`kwgK fMœvs‡ki †kªwYweb¨vm

 4. Ave„Ë `kwgK fMœvsk e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges fMœvsk‡K Ave„Ë `kwg‡K cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. Ave„Ë `kwgK fMœvsk‡K mvaviY fMœvs‡k iƒcvšÍi Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

Ave…Ë `kwgK fMœvsk

Ave„Ë `kwgK fMœvsk‡K mvaviY fMœvs‡k iƒcvšÍi

6. Amxg Abve„Ë `kwgK fMœvsk e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 7. m`„k I wem`„k `kwgK fMœvsk e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e |

Amxg Abve„Ë `kwgK fMœvsk m`„k I wem`„k `kwgK fMœvsk

8. Ave„Ë `kwgK fMœvs‡ki †hvM, we‡qvM, ¸Y I fvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges GZ`msµvšÍ wewfbœ mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

Ave„Ë `kwgK fMœvs‡ki †hvM, we‡qvM, ¸Y I fvM

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

cÖ‡kœvˇii gva‡g ev¯Íe msL¨vi †kÖwYweb¨vm Av‡jvPbv| ev¯Íe msL¨vi †kÖwYweb¨vm wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ Av‡jvPbv| cvV¨cy¯Í‡K Dc¯’vwcZ Avmbœ gvb wbY©‡qi wel‡q cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g Av‡jvPbv| D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g `kwgK fMœvs‡ki †kÖwYweb¨vm I Ave„Ë `kwgK fMœvs‡ki e¨vL¨v|

Ave„Ë `kwgK fMœvsk‡K mvaviY fMœvs‡k iƒcvšÍi welq Av‡jvPbv Ges iƒcvšÍi wbqg ˆZwi|

D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g Ave„Ë `kwgK fMœvs‡ki †hvM, we‡qvM, ¸Y I fv‡Mi wbq‡gi Av‡jvPbv I mgm¨v mgvavb|

ev¯Íe msL¨vi †kÖwYweb¨vm D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v _vK‡e|

msL¨vi Avmbœgvb wbY©‡qi D`vniYmn eY©bv _vK‡e| `kwgK fMœvs‡ki †kÖwYweb¨vm D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v _vK‡e|

D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g Amxg Abve„Ë `kwgK fMœvs‡ki e¨vL¨v (†hgb- )|  m`„k I wem`„k fMœvsk D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v GKK KvR : cÖ`Ë msL¨v¸‡jv‡K wb‡Pi †Uwe‡j mvRv‡bv: m`„k wem`„k

evwoi KvR ev¯Íe msL¨vi †kÖwYweb¨vm Q‡K Dc¯’vcb cÖ`Ë ev¯Íe msL¨vi Avmbœ gvb wbY©q

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv

mvaviY fMœvsk‡K `kwgK fMœvs‡k iƒcvšÍi K‡i Ave„Ë fMœvsk kbv³KiY

cÖ`Ë Ave„Ë `kwgK fMœvsk‡K mvaviY fMœvs‡k iƒcvšÍi

Ave„Ë `kwgK fMœvs‡ki †hvM, we‡qvM, ¸Y I fvM msµvšÍ mgm¨vi mgvavb

Ave„Ë `kwgK fMœvs‡ki D`vniYmn eY©bv _vK‡e| fMœvsk‡K Ave„Ë `kwg‡K cÖKv‡ki D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| Ave„Ë `kwgK fMœvsk‡K mvaviY fMœvs‡k iƒcvšÍ‡ii D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| Amxg Abve„Ë, m`„k I wem`„k `kwgK fMœvs‡ki D`vniYmn eY©bv _vK‡e|

Ave„Ë `kwgK fMœvs‡ki †hvM, we‡qvM, ¸Y I fv‡Mi D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v I Abykxjbx _vK‡e|

88


wØZxq Aa¨vq : †mU I dvskb

(15 wcwiqW )

wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. †mU I Dc‡m‡Ui aviYv e¨vL¨v K‡i cÖZx‡Ki mvnv‡h¨ cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. †mU cÖKv‡ki c×wZ eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. Amxg †mU e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges mmxg I Amxg †m‡Ui cv_©K¨ wbiƒcY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. †m‡Ui ms‡hvM I †Q` e¨vL¨v Ges hvPvB Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. kw³ †mU e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges `yB I wZb m`m¨wewkó †m‡Ui kw³ †mU MVb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 6. µg‡Rvo I Kv‡Z©mxq ¸YR e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 7. D`vniY I †fbwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ †mU cÖwµqvi mnR wewa¸‡jv cÖgvY Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges wewa¸‡jv cÖ‡qvM K‡i wewfbœ mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 8. Aš^q I dvskb e¨vL¨v I MVb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

welqe¯‘ 

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

†mU I Dc‡m‡Ui ev¯Íe D`vniYmn eY©bv _vK‡e|

†mU‡K wewfbœ c×wZ‡Z cÖKvk

ZvwjKv I †mU MVb c×wZi mvnv‡h¨ †mU cÖKv‡ki c×wZi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e|

mmxg I Amxg †m‡Ui cv_©K¨ kbv³KiY

mmxg I Amxg †m‡Ui D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v _vK‡e|

wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ †m‡Ui ms‡hvM I †Q` Gi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e Ges hvPvB Ki‡Yi eY©bv _vK‡e| kw³ †mU Ges `yB I wZb m`m¨wewkó †m‡Ui kw³ †mU MVb cÖwµqv D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| µg‡Rvo I Kv‡Z©mxq ¸Y‡Ri D`vniYmn eY©bv _vK‡e| D`vniY I †fbwP‡Îi gva¨‡g D‡jøwLZ †m‡Ui mnR wewamg~‡ni cÖgvY _vK‡e Ges G m¤úwK©Z wewfbœ mgm¨vi Abykxjbx _vK‡e|

ev¯Íe DcKiY I D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ †mU  I Dc‡m‡Ui aviYv Dc¯’vcb|

†ev‡W© I †cvóvi †ccv‡ii mvnv‡h¨ †mU cÖKv‡ki c×wZi Dc¯’vcb|

mmxg I Amxg †mU

cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g Amxg †m‡Ui eY©bv Ges mmxg I Amxg †m‡Ui cv_©K¨ Dc¯’vcb|

†m‡Ui ms‡hvM I †Q`

kw³ †mU

µg‡Rvo I Kv‡Z©mxq ¸YR †mU

†m‡Ui wewamg~n o (A∪B)´=A´∩B´ o (B∩C)´=B´∪C´ o (A∪B)∩C=(A∩C)∪(B∩C) o (A∩B)∪C=(A∪C)∩(B∪C)

dvskb

 

   

wPÎ I DcKi‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ †m‡Ui ms‡hvM I †Q` e¨vL¨v| D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ Dc‡m‡Ui aviYv †_‡K kw³‡mU e¨vL¨v I MVb|

D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ µg‡Rvo I Kv‡Z©mxq ¸YR †mU Dc¯’vcb| cÖ`Ë †m‡Ui wewamg~n D`vniY I †fbwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ cÖgvY Dc¯’vcb| cÖ`Ë wewamg~n cÖ‡qvM K‡i wewfbœ mgm¨v mgvav‡bi †KŠkj Av‡jvPbv| ev¯Íe D`vniY I wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ Aš^q I dvsk‡bi e¨vL¨v I MVb Dc¯’vcb| D`vni‡Yi mvnvh¨ †Wv‡gb I †i‡Äi eY©bv|

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv

†mU I Dc‡m‡Ui kbv³KiY

†mU I Dc‡mU o ev¯Íe msL¨vi †mU I Dc‡mU  †mU cÖKv‡ki c×wZ (ZvwjKv I †mU MVb c×wZ)

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

†m‡Ui ms‡hvM I †Q` MVb `yB I wZb m`m¨wewkó †m‡Ui kw³ †mU MVb

  

¸YR †mU MVb

 

ev¯Íe D`vniY I wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ Aš^q I dvsk‡bi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| †Wv‡gb I †i‡Äi D`vnviYmn eY©bv _vK‡e Ges Zv wbY©‡qi Abykxjbx _vK‡e| 89


wØZxq Aa¨vq : †mU I dvskb

(15 wcwiqW )

wkLbdj 9. †Wv‡gb I †iÄ Kx e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 10. dvsk‡bi †Wv‡gb I †iÄ wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| g‡bv‡cwkR 11. dvsk‡bi †jLwPÎ A¼b Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

welqe¯‘ 

dvsk‡bi †jLwPÎ (x=a,

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv 

wewfbœ ai‡bi dvsk‡bi †Wv‡gb I †iÄ wbY©‡qi †KŠkj Av‡jvPbv|

wewfbœ ai‡bi dvsk‡bi †jLwPÎ A¼‡bi †KŠkj Dc¯’vcb|

y=b, y = mx+c)

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv   

wi‡jkb I dvsk‡bi MVb I wPwýZKiY †Wv‡gb I †iÄ wbY©q wewfbœ ai‡bi dvsk‡bi †jLwPÎ A¼b

Pjgvb 2 we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv  dvsk‡bi †jLwPÎ A¼‡bi

†KŠkj _vK‡e|

90


Z…Zxq Aa¨vq : exRMvwYwZK ivwk (10 wcwiqW ) wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. exRMvwYwZK m~Î cÖ‡qvM K‡i eM© I N‡bi m¤úÖmviY Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

welqe¯‘ 

eM© I N‡bi m¤úÖmviY

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv    

2. fvM‡kl Dccv`¨ Kx e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges Zv cÖ‡qvM K‡i Drcv`‡K we‡kølY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. ev¯Íe mgm¨v mgvav‡bi Rb¨ exRMvwYwZK m~Î MVb Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges m~Î cÖ‡qvM K‡i mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

fvM‡kl Dccv`¨ cÖ‡qvM K‡i Drcv`‡K we‡kølY

 

ev¯Íe mgm¨v mgvav‡b exRMvwYwZK m~‡Îi MVb I cÖ‡qvM

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

exRMwYZxq ivwki eM© I Nb wbY©‡qi m~Îvewj I G msµvšÍ AbywmÜv‡šÍi Dc¯’vcb I Av‡jvPbv| m~Îvewji R¨vwgwZK e¨vL¨v Dc¯’vcb| exRMwYZxq PjK cwieZ©b K‡i eM© I N‡bi m¤úªmviY I Drcv`‡K we‡kølY Kiv welqK Av‡jvPbv| wØNvZ AvKv‡ii †h‡Kv‡bv ivwki Drcv`‡K we‡kølY Kivi †KŠkj eY©bv|

D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g fvM‡kl Dccv‡`¨i e¨vL¨v| fvM‡kl Dccv`¨ e¨envi K‡i Drcv`K we‡køl‡Y mnvqZv cÖ`vb|

ev¯Íe mgm¨vi exRMwYZxq m~Î MVb msµvšÍ Av‡jvPbv Ges m~Î cÖ‡qv‡Mi gva¨‡g mgm¨v mgvav‡b mnvqZv cÖ`vb|

 

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv

exRMwYZxq ivwk cwieZ©b  K‡i eM© I N‡bi m~‡Îi c~e©Ávb hvPvB| m~Î cÖ‡qvM K‡i Drcv`‡K  we‡kølY| Drcv`‡K we‡kølY welqK evwoi KvR Ges †kÖwY Afxÿv|

fvM‡kl Dccv`¨ cÖ‡qvM K‡i Drcv`‡K we‡kølY| 

m~Î MVb I mgvav‡bi `ÿZv hvPvB|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

eM© I N‡bi m¤úªmviY K‡i Drcv`‡K we‡kølY D`vniYmn eY©bv _vK‡e| ( + + 2,( + )3,( − ) 3, 3+ 3, 3− 3

m~‡Îi cÖ‡qvM _vK‡e| + + AvKv‡ii ivwki Drcv`‡K we‡kølY _vK‡e|

fvM‡kl Dccv`¨ D`vniYmn eY©bv _vK‡e Ges Zv cÖ‡qvM K‡i Drcv`‡K we‡kølY Kivi c×wZi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| ev¯Íe mgm¨v mgvav‡bi Rb¨ exRMvwYwZK m~Î MV‡bi c×wZi eY©bv Ges mgm¨v mgvav‡bi Abykxjbx _vK‡e|

91


PZz_© Aa¨vq : m~PK I jMvwi`g

(10 wcwiqW )

wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. g~j` m~PK e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. abvZ¥K c~Y© mvswL¨K m~PK, k~b¨ I FYvZ¥K c~Y© mvswL¨K m~PK e¨vL¨v I cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. m~P‡Ki wbqgvewj eY©bv Ges Zv cÖ‡qvM K‡i mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

welqe¯‘  

g~j` m~PK m~P‡Ki wbqgvewj o o o o

am  a mn an

4. n-Zg g~j (n N) Ges g~j` fMœvsk  m~PK e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. n-Zg g~j‡K m~PK AvKv‡i cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvi‡e|  jMvwi`g 6. jMvwi`g e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 7. jMvwi`‡gi m~Îvewj cÖgvY I cÖ‡qvM  jMvwi`‡gi m~Îvewj Ki‡Z cvi‡e| o logaa = 1 Ges loga1 = 0 o loga (MN) = loga M+logaN o loga ( ) = loga M logaN o logaMr=rlogaM 8. mvaviY jMvwi`g I ¯^vfvweK jMvwi`g  mvaviY I ¯^vfvweK jMvwi`g e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 9. msL¨vi ˆeÁvwbK iƒc Ges mvaviY  msL¨vi ˆeÁvwbK iƒc, jMvwi`‡gi c~Y©K I AskK e¨vL¨v jMvwi`‡gi c~Y©K I AskK Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

abvZœK c~Y©mvswL¨K, k~b¨ I  FYvZœK c~Y©mvswL¨K m~PK msewjZ PvU© Dc¯’vcb I e¨vL¨v|

m~P‡Ki †gŠwjK wbqgvewj cÖgvY, e¨vL¨v I cÖ‡qvM K‡i mgm¨v mgvavb| k~b¨ m~P‡Ki e¨vL¨v|

(am)n = amn (ab)n = an bn

a an ( )n  n b b n-Zg g~j I g~j` fMœvsk m~PK

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

am an = am+n

o

g‡bv‡cwkR 10. K¨vjKz‡jU‡ii mvnv‡h¨ mvaviY I ¯^vfvweK jMvwi`g wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

 

 

abvZœK I FbvZœK c~Y©mvswL¨K m~P‡Ki kbv³KiY| m~P‡Ki †gŠwjK wbqgvewj cÖgvY Kiv| m~P‡Ki †gŠwjK wbqgvewji mvnv‡h¨ mgm¨v mgvavb Kiv|

D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g n-Zg g~j‡K m~PK AvKv‡i cÖKvk I e¨vL¨v|

jMvwi`‡gi (†gŠwjK m~Îvewj) cÖgvY, e¨vL¨v I cÖ‡qvM K‡i mgm¨v mgvavb|

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv 

 

jMvwi`‡gi †gŠwjK m~Îvewj cÖgvY, e¨vL¨v I cÖ‡qvM K‡i mgm¨v mgvavb|

 

mvaviY I ¯^vfvweK jMvwi`‡gi m¤ú‡K©i e¨vL¨v| D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g msL¨vi ˆeÁvwbK iƒc Ges mvaviY jMvwi`‡gi c~Y©K I Ask‡Ki Av‡jvPbv|

 

K¨vjKz‡jU‡ii mvnv‡h¨ mvaviY I ¯^vfvweK jMvwi`g msµvšÍ mgm¨vi Abykxjb|

g~j` m~PK D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| [ abvZœK c~Y© mvswL¨K m~PK, k~b¨ I FYvZœK c~Y©mvswL¨K m~P‡Ki eY©bv _vK‡e ] m~P‡Ki wbqgvewji eY©bv Ges Zv cÖ‡qv‡M mgm¨vi mgvavb _vK‡e| n Zg g~j I g~j` fMœvsk m~PK D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| jMvwi`‡gi D`vniYmn eY©bv _vK‡e| jMvwi`‡gi m~Îvewji Ges Zv cÖ‡qvM msµvšÍ mgm¨vi mgvavb _vK‡e|

mvaviY I ¯^vfvweK jMvwi`‡gi D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| msL¨vi ˆeÁvwbK iƒc, mvaviY jMvwi`‡gi c~Y©K I AskK D`vniYmn eY©bv _vK‡e Ges Zv wbY©‡qi Abykxjbx _vK‡e| K¨vjKz‡jU‡ii mvnv‡h¨ mvaviY I ¯^vfvweK jMvwi`g wbY©‡qi c×wZi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e Ges mgm¨v mgvav‡bi Abykxjbx _vK‡e|

92


cÂg Aa¨vq : GK PjKwewkó mgxKiY

(10 wcwiqW )

wkLbdj welqe¯‘ eyw×e„Ëxq 1. mgxKiY I A‡f‡`i cv_©K¨ e¨vL¨v  mgxKiY I A‡f` Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv 

2. GKNvZ mgxKi‡Yi mgvavb Ki‡Z  GKNvZ mgxKi‡Yi mgvavb  cvi‡e| 3. ev¯ÍewfwËK mgm¨vi mgxKiY MVb K‡i mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. wØNvZ mgxKi‡Yi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges mgvavb †mU wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. ev¯ÍewfwËK mgm¨vi wØNvZ mgxKiY MVb K‡i mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| Av‡eMxq 6. mgxKiY MVb K‡i mgm¨vi mgvav‡b AvMÖnx n‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

 wØNvZ mgxKiY  wØNvZ mgxKi‡Yi mgvavb I mgvavb †mU  ev¯ÍewfwËK mgm¨vi mgvavb

 

mgxKiY I A‡f‡`i cv_©K¨ Dc¯’vcb|

GKNvZ mgxKi‡Yi mgvavb I ev¯ÍewfwËK mgm¨vi mgxKiY MVb|

wØNvZ mgxKi‡Yi mgvavb I mgvavb †mU wbY©‡qi welq Dc¯’vcb| ev¯Íe mgm¨vi wfwˇZ wØNvZ mgxKiY MVb †KŠkj Dc¯’vcb|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv 

ˆewkó¨vewj eY©bv mgxKiY

A‡f`

1. 2. 3.

1. 2. 3.

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv   

mgxKiY MVb I mgvavb 

evwoi KvR : wØNvZ mgxKi‡Yi mgvavb I mgvavb †mU wbY©q  wØNvZ mgxKiY MVb I mgvavb

 

Pj‡Ki D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| D`vniYmn mgxKiY I A‡f‡`i e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| GKPjKwewkó GKNvZ mgxKiY mgvav‡bi D`vniY I Abykxjbx _vK‡e| ev¯Íe mgm¨v mgvav‡b GKPjKwewkó GKNvZ mgxKiY MVb I mgvav‡bi cÖ‡qvM _vK‡e| wØNvZ mgxKi‡Yi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| wØNvZ mgxKi‡Yi mgvavb I mgvavb‡m‡Ui D`vniY I Abykxjbx _vK‡e| ev¯Íe mgm¨v mgvav‡b wØNvZ mgxKi‡Yi MVb I e¨envwiK cÖ‡qvM _vK‡e|

93


lô Aa¨vq : †iLv, †KvY I wÎfzR wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. mgZjxq R¨vwgwZi †gŠwjK ¯^xKvh©¸‡jv eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. mgvšÍivj mij‡iLv msµvšÍ Dccv`¨¸‡jv cÖgvY Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

3. wÎfzR msµvšÍ Dccv`¨¸‡jv cÖgvY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. wÎfzR msµvšÍ Dccv`¨ I Abywm×všÍ¸‡jv cÖ‡qvM e¨envi K‡i mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

(10 wcwiqW ) welqe¯‘ 

mgZjxq R¨vwgwZi †gŠwjK ¯^xKvh© o mgvšÍivj mij‡iLvi Dccv`¨ o GKwU mij‡iLv Aci `y&BwU mgvšÍivj mij‡iLv‡K †Q` msµvšÍ Dccv`¨ I Zvi wecixZ Dccv‡`¨i cÖgvY

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

R¨vwgwZK wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ BDK¬xW cÖ`Ë †gŠwjK ¯^xKvh©mg~n Av‡jvPbv|

¯^xKvh©mg~n eY©bv

`yBwU mgvšÍivj mij‡iLv I GKwU †Q`K A¼b K‡i GKvšÍi †KvY I Abyiƒc †Kv‡Yi Dc¯’vcb| R¨vwgwZK wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ mgvšÍivj mij‡iLv msµvšÍ Dccv`¨ I Zvi wecixZ Dccv‡`¨i cÖgvY Dc¯’vcb| R¨vwgwZK wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ wÎfzR msµvšÍ Dccv‡`¨i cÖgvY Dc¯’vcb|

mgvšÍivj mij‡iLv msµvšÍ Dccv`¨ I Zvi wecixZ Dccv‡`¨i cÖgv‡Yi eY©bv|

wÎfzR msµvšÍ Abywm×všÍ¸‡jv Av‡jvPbv|

 wÎfzR msµvšÍ Dccv`¨ o wÎfz‡Ri `yBwU †KvY mgvb n‡j G‡`i wecixZ evûØq  ci¯úi mgvb n‡e| o wÎfz‡Ri `yBwU †KvY Amgvb n‡j, e„nËi †Kv‡Yi wecixZ evû ÿz`ªZi †Kv‡Yi wecixZ evû A‡cÿv e„nËi n‡e| o wÎfy‡Ri `yB evûi ga¨we›`yi ms‡hvRK †iLvsk Z…Zxq evûi mgvšÍivj Ges ˆ`‡N©¨ Zvi A‡a©K|

wÎfzR msµvšÍ Dccv`¨¸‡jvi cÖgvY eY©bv| Dccv`¨ I Abywm×všÍ¸‡jv cÖ‡qvM K‡i mgm¨vi mgvavb|

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv 

mgZjxq R¨vwgwZi †gŠwjK ¯^xKvh©¸‡jvi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e|

cÖwZhyw³i mvnv‡h¨ cÖgvY /weiy×fv‡ei mvnv‡h¨ cÖgvY ( proof by

contradiction) Gi aviYv e¨vL¨v K‡i mgvšÍivj mij‡iLv I wÎfzR msµvšÍ Dccv`¨¸‡jvi cÖgv‡Yi eY©bv _vK‡e| Dccv‡`¨i mv‡_ mswkøó Abywm×všÍ ms‡hvRb Ki‡Z n‡e|

wÎfzR msµvšÍ Dccv`¨ I Abywm×všÍ¸‡jv cÖ‡qvM K‡i mgm¨v mgvavb _vK‡e|

94


mßg Aa¨vq : e¨envwiK R¨vwgwZ wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. cÖ`Ë DcvË I Z_¨ e¨envi K‡i wÎfzR A¼b Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

(06 wcwiqW ) welqe¯‘ 

wewfbœ cÖKvi wÎfzR I PZzfz©R

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv 

2. cÖ`Ë DcvË I Z_¨ e¨envi K‡i mvgvšÍwiK A¼b Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

wÎfzR msKªvšÍ m¤úv`¨ o wÎfz‡Ri f~wg, f~wg msjMœ GKwU †KvY I Aci `yB evûi mgwó †`Iqv Av‡Q, wÎfzRwU AvuK‡Z n‡e| o wÎfz‡Ri f~wg, f~wg msjMœ GKwU m~²‡KvY I Aci `yB evûi AšÍi †`Iqv Av‡Q, wÎfzRwU AvuK‡Z n‡e| o wÎfz‡Ri f~wg msjMœ `yBwU †KvY I cwimxgv †`Iqv Av‡Q, wÎfzRwU AvuK‡Z n‡e|  mvgvšÍwiK msKªvšÍ m¤úv`¨ o mvgvšÍwi‡Ki `yBwU KY© I Zv‡`i AšÍfz©³ †KvY †`Iqv Av‡Q| mvgvšÍwiKwU AuvK‡Z n‡e| o mvgvšÍwi‡Ki `yBwU KY© I GKvU evû †`Iqv Av‡Q| mvgvšÍwiKwU AuvK‡Z n‡e

cÖ`Ë DcvË I Z_¨ e¨envi K‡i wewfbœ ai‡bi wÎfzR A¼b I A¼‡bi eY©bv Dc¯’vcb|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv 

wewfbœ ai‡bi wÎfzR A¼b

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv  

cÖ`Ë DcvË I Z_¨ e¨envi K‡i wewfbœ ai‡bi mvgvšÍwiK A¼b I A¼‡bi eY©bv Dc¯’vcb|

wewfbœ ai‡bi mvgvšÍwiK A¼b

evû I †Kv‡Yi ˆewk‡ó¨i gva¨‡g wÎfzR I PZzfz©‡Ri aviYvi cybiv‡jvPbv _vK‡e| wÎfz‡Ri evû I †KvY m¤úwK©Z †Kvb †Kvb Z_¨ †`Iqv _vK‡j wÎfzR AuvKv m¤¢e Zv Kvh©µ‡gi mvnv‡h¨ Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Z n‡e| cÖ`Ë DcvË I Z_¨ e¨envi K‡i wÎfzR A¼b _vK‡e|

mvgvšÍwi‡Ki evû I †KvY m¤úwK©Z †Kvb †Kvb Z_¨ †`Iqv _vK‡j mvgvšÍwiK AuvKv m¤¢e Zv Kvh©µ‡gi mvnv‡h¨ Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Z n‡e| cÖ`Ë DcvË I Z_¨ e¨envi K‡i mvgvšÍwiK A¼b _vK‡e|

95


Aóg Aa¨vq : e„Ë

(14 wcwiqW )

wkLbdj

welqe¯‘

eyw×e„Ëxq 1. e„ËPvc , †K›`ª¯’ †KvY,  e„ËPvc, †K›`ª¯’ †KvY, e„˯’ †KvY, e„‡Ë e„˯’ †KvY, e„‡Ë AšÍwj©wLZ AšÍwj©wLZ PZzfz©R PZzfz©R e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. e„Ë m¤úwK©Z Dccv`¨ cÖgvY Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

 e„Ë m¤úwK©Z Dccv`¨ o e„‡Ëi GKB Pv‡ci Dci `Ðvqgvb e„Ëv¯’ †KvY †K›`ª¯’ †Kv‡Yi A‡a©K| o e„‡Ëi GKB Pv‡ci Dci `Ðvqgvb e„Ëv¯’ †KvY¸‡jv ci¯úi mgvb o Aa©e„˯’ †KvY GK mg‡KvY| o e„‡Ë AšÍwj©wLZ PZzfz©‡Ri †h‡Kv‡bv `yBwU wecixZ †Kv‡Yi mgwó `yB mg‡KvY| o †Kv‡bv PZzfz©‡Ri `yBwU wecixZ †KvY m¤ú~iK n‡j Zvi kxl©we›`y PviwU mge„Ë n‡e| o e„‡Ëi †h‡Kv‡bv we›`y‡Z Aw¼Z ¯úk©K ¯úk©we›`yMvgx e¨vmv‡a©i Dci j¤^| o e„‡Ëi ewnt¯’ †Kv‡bv we›`y †_‡K e„‡Ë `yBwU ¯úk©K Uvb‡j, H we›`y †_‡K ¯úk© we›`y؇qi `~iZ¡ mgvb n‡e|

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv

D

e„Ë I e„˯’ PZzfz©R A¼‡bi gva¨‡g e„ËPvc, e„ËPvc Øviv Drcbœ e„˯’ †KvY I †K›`ª¯’ †KvY Dc¯’vcb|

R¨vwgwZK wP‡Îi gva¨‡g e„Ë m¤úwK©Z cÖ`Ë Dccv`¨¸‡jvi cÖgvY Dc¯’vcb|

cÖ`Ë wP‡Î e„ËPvc, †K›`ª¯’ †KvY, e„˯’ †KvY I e„‡Ë AšÍwj©wLZ PZzfz©R kbv³KiY|  Dccv`¨¸‡jvi cÖgv‡Y mwVKZv|

wPÎ I e¨vL¨vi gva¨‡g e„ËPvc, †K›`ª¯’ †KvY, e„˯’ †KvY, e„‡Ë AšÍwj©wLZ PZzfz©R e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

e„Ë m¤úwK©Z Dccv`¨¸‡jvi cÖgvY _vK‡e|

O A

C B

96


Aóg Aa¨vq : e„Ë

(14 wcwiqW )

wkLbdj 3. e„Ë m¤úwK©Z m¤úv`¨ eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

welqe¯‘ o `yBwU e„Ë ci¯úi ¯úk© Ki‡j, Zv‡`i †K›`ªØq I ¯úk©we›`y mg‡iL n‡e|  e„Ë m¤úwK©Z m¤úv`¨ o GKwU e„Ë ev e„ËPvc †`Iqv Av‡Q, †K›`ª wbY©q Ki‡Z n‡e| o e„‡Ëi †Kv‡bv we›`y‡Z GKwU ¯úk©K AuvK‡Z n‡e| o e„‡Ëi ewnt¯’ †Kv‡bv we›`y †_‡K e„ËwU‡Z ¯úk©K AuvK‡Z n‡e| o †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó wÎfz‡Ri cwie„Ë AuvK‡Z n‡e| o †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó wÎfz‡Ri AšÍe©„Ë AuvK‡Z n‡e| o †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó wÎfz‡Ri ewne„©Ë AuvK‡Z n‡e|

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv 

cÖ`Ë Z_¨ I Dcv‡Ëi wfwˇZ e„Ë m¤úwK©Z m¤úv`¨¸‡jvi A¼b I A¼‡bi eY©bv|

Pjgvb we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv 

m¤úv`¨¸‡jvi A¼‡b mwVK avc AbymiY I A¼‡bi h_©v_ weeiY|

e„Ë m¤úwK©Z m¤úv`¨¸‡jvi A¼‡bi eY©bv _vK‡e|

97


beg Aa¨vq : w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZ

(16 wcwiqW )

wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. m~²‡Kv‡Yi w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZ eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. m~²‡Kv‡Yi w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZ¸‡jvi g‡a¨ cvi¯úwiK m¤úK© wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

welqe¯‘ 

m~²‡Kv‡Yi w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZ I G‡`i m¤úK©

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv 

wPÎ Gu‡K mg‡KvYx wÎfz‡Ri wewfbœ evûi AbycvZ †_‡K w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZ wbY©q welqK Av‡jvPbv|

wkÿv_x©‡`i GKKfv‡e wb‡Pi QKwU c~iY

w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZ

w·KvYwgwZK Abycv‡Zi mswkøó evû c~e© ivwk (evû)

DËi ivwk(evû)

sine cosine tangent sec cosec cot

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv 

QKc~i‡Yi mgq welqe¯‘i mwVKZv ch©‡eÿY

 

m~²‡Kv‡Yi w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZ mg‡KvYx wÎfz‡Ri mvnv‡h¨ msÁvwqZ n‡Z n‡e| m`„k wÎfz‡Ri mvnv‡h¨ AbycvZ¸‡jvi aªyeZv hvPvB _vK‡e| R¨vwgwZK c×wZ‡Z AbycvZ¸‡jvi cvi¯úwiK m¤ú©K †`Lv‡Z n‡e|

Ges Gi gva¨‡g w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZ ¸‡jvi cvi¯úwiK m¤ú©K wbY©q|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

98


beg Aa¨vq : w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZ

(16 wcwiqW )

wkLbdj

welqe¯‘

3. m~²‡Kv‡Yi w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZ¸‡jvi ayªeZv hvPvB K‡i cÖgvY I MvwYwZK mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

 30⁰, 45⁰, 60⁰ †Kv‡Yi w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZ

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv GKB †Kv‡Yi Rb¨ mg‡KvYx wÎfz‡Ri wewfbœ cwigv‡ci evû wb‡q AbycvZ¸‡jvi aªæeZv hvPvB msµv¯Í Av‡jvPbv| †Rvovq KvR

†mwg

†mwg

†mwg

†Rvovq Kv‡Ri mgq ch©‡eÿY I cªkœ-DËi MvwYwZK mgm¨vi ‡kªwY Awfÿv

evwoi KvR (QK c~iY)

sine, cosine I tangent Gi EaŸ© I wb¤œmxgv wbY©q _vK‡e|

R¨vwgwZK c×wZ‡Z 30⁰,45⁰, 60⁰ †Kv‡Yi w·KvYwgwZK Abycv‡Zi gvb wbY©q _vK‡e| R¨vwgwZK c×wZ‡Z 0⁰I 90⁰ †Kv‡Yi A_©c~Y© AbycvZ¸‡jvi gvb wbY©q _vK‡e| gvb¸‡jv ZvwjKv AvKv‡i I mn‡R g‡b ivLvi †KŠk‡ji eY©bv _vK‡e|

f~wg †mwg

†mwg

†mwg

0⁰

30⁰

45⁰

60⁰

sin

90⁰

cos tan cosec sec cot

 0⁰ I 90⁰ †Kv‡Yi w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZ

sin cos tan

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

AwZfzR

sine 45⁰ cos 45⁰ tan 45⁰

4. R¨vwgwZK c×wZ‡Z 30⁰, 45⁰, 60⁰ †Kv‡Yi w·KvYwgwZK Abycv‡Zi gvb wbY©q I cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. 0⁰I 90⁰ †Kv‡Yi A_©c~Y© w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZ¸‡jvi gvb wbY©q K‡i cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

j¤^

Pjgvb 2 we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv

R¨vwgwZK c×wZ‡Z 30 ,45 , 60 †Kv‡Yi w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZ wbY©q msµvšÍ Av‡jvPbv GKK KvR:(QK c~iY) 0⁰ 0 0 4

30⁰ 1 1 4

45⁰ 2 2 4

60⁰ 3 3 4

90⁰ 4 4 4

 

†kÖwYi KvR ch©‡eÿY 

99


beg Aa¨vq : w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZ wkLbdj 6. w·KvYwgwZK A‡f`vewj cÖgvY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 7. w·KvYwgwZK A‡f`vewji cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

(16 wcwiqW ) welqe¯‘  w·KvYwgwZK A‡f`vewj

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv 

D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ w·KvYwgwZK A‡f`vewji Av‡jvPbv I Abykxjb|

Pjgvb 3 we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv 

evwoi KvR: A‡f`vewj msµvšÍ mgm¨vewj|

 

w·KvYwgwZK A‡f`vewji cÖgvY I cÖ‡qvM _vK‡e| D`vniY I Abykxjbx _vK‡e|

100


`kg Aa¨vq : `~iZ¡ I D”PZv wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. f~‡iLv, EaŸ©‡iLv, Ejø¤^Zj, EbœwZ †KvY I AebwZ †KvY e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

(10 wcwiqW ) welqe¯‘  f~-‡iLv, EaŸ©‡iLv, Djø¤^Zj, DbœwZ †KvY I AebwZ †KvY

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv 

wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ f~-†iLv, Djø¤^Zj, DbœwZ †KvY I AebwZ †Kv‡Yi e¨vL¨v|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv 

wb‡Pi wPÎ †_‡K f~-†iLv, Djø¤^Zj, DbœwZ †KvY, AebwZ †KvY wPwýZKiY

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv 

2. w·KvYwgwZi mvnv‡h¨ `~iZ¡ I D”PZv welqK MvwYwZK mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| g‡bv‡cwkR 3. w·KvYwgwZi mvnv‡h¨ nv‡Z-Kj‡g `~iZ¡ I D”PZv welqK wewfbœ cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

 `~iZ¡ I D”PZv welqK mgm¨v

D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ `~iZ¡ I D”PZv welqK MvwYwZK mgm¨vi mgvavb|

cÖ`Ë mgm¨v mgvavb

ev¯ÍewfwËK `~iZ¡, D”PZv I DbœwZ †KvY wbY©q|

`jxq KvR : `~iZ¡, D”PZv I DbœwZ †KvY wbY©q

gB †`qvj

wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ f~-‡iLv, EaŸ©‡iLv, Djø¤^Zj, DbœwZ †KvY I AebwZ †KvY e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| ev¯Íe D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ wkÿv_x©iv †hb f~-‡iLv, EaŸ©‡iLv, Djø¤^Zj, DbœwZ †KvY I AebwZ †KvY e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cv‡i †mRb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq I ch©vß Kvh©µg AšÍfz©³ Ki‡Z n‡e|

`~iZ¡ I D”PZv welqK MvwYwZK mgm¨vi cvkvcvwk ev¯ÍewfwËK mgm¨v nv‡ZKj‡g Kivi Dc‡hvMx cÖ‡qvRbxq Kvh©µg AšÍf©z³ Ki‡Z n‡e |

f~wg

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

101


GKv`k Aa¨vq : exRMwYZxq AbycvZ I mgvbycvZ (12 wcwiqW ) wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. exRMwYZxq AbycvZ I mgvbycvZ e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

welqe¯‘ 

exRMwYZxq AbycvZ I mgvbycvZ

2. mgvbycvZ msµvšÍ wewfbœ iƒcvšÍi wewa cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

3. avivevwnK AbycvZ eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

avivevwnK AbycvZ

4. ev¯Íe mgm¨v mgvav‡b AbycvZ, mgvbycvZ I avivevwnK AbycvZ e¨envi Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

ev¯Íe mgm¨v

mgvbycv‡Zi iƒcvšÍi wewa

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv  D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ ewRMwYZxq AbycvZ I mgvbycv‡Zi e¨vL¨v

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv 

exRMwYZxq AbycvZ I mgvbycvZ wbY©q mgvbycvZ =

 mgvbycv‡Zi wewfbœ iƒcvšÍi wewa D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ Dc¯’vcb

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv

iƒcvšÍi i.) ii.) iii.)

+

=

+

 D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g avivevwnK Abycv‡Zi e¨vL¨v

avivevwnK AbycvZ wbY©q

 AbycvZ, mgvbycvZ I avivevwnK Abycv‡Zi mvnv‡h¨ ev¯Íe mgm¨v mgvavb

AbycvZ msµvšÍ ev¯Íe mgm¨v mgvavb

  

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

ev¯ÍewfwËK D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g AbycvZ I mgvbycv‡Zi Av‡jvPbv _vK‡e| cÖ‡hvR¨ †ÿ‡Î e¨vL¨vg~jK wPÎ ms‡hvRb Ki‡Z n‡e| mgvbycv‡Zi iƒcvšÍi wewa¸‡jvi cÖgvY _vK‡e| mnR †_‡K RwUjZi D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g iƒcvšÍi wewa¸‡jvi cÖ‡qvM _vK‡e| ev¯Íe D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g avivevwnK Abycv‡Zi Av‡jvPbv _vK‡e| cÖ‡hvR¨ †ÿ‡Î e¨vL¨vg~jK wPÎ ms‡hvRb Ki‡Z n‡e| MvwYwZK mgm¨v msewjZ Abykxjbx _vK‡e|

102


Øv`k Aa¨vq : `yB PjKwewkó mij mnmgxKiY wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. `yB PjKwewkó mij mnmgxKi‡Yi m½wZ hvPvB Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. `yB PjKwewkó `yBwU mgxKi‡Yi ci¯úi wbf©ikxjZv hvPvB Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. Avo¸Yb c×wZ e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. ev¯ÍewfwËK mgm¨v‡K mgxKi‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| g‡bv‡cwkR 5. mij mnmgxKi‡Yi mgvavb †jLwP‡Î †`Lv‡Z cvi‡e| 6. †jLwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ `yB PjKwewkó `yBwU mij mnmgxKiY mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| Av‡eMxq 7. MvwYwZK mgm¨vi mij mnmgxKiY MVb I mgvav‡b AvMÖnx n‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

(20 wcwiqW )

welqe¯‘ 

`yB PjKwewkó mij mn mgxKiY

Avo¸Yb c×wZ

mgvavb

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv 

D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ `yB PjKwewkó mij mnmgxKi‡Yi m½wZi kZ©vewj Dc¯’vcb|

`yB PjKwewkó `yBwU mgxKi‡Yi ci¯úi wbf©ikxjZv D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g Dc¯’vcb|

 

  

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

†jLwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ mgvavb ev¯ÍewfwËK mgm¨v  

D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g Avo¸Yb c×wZi e¨vL¨v Dc¯’vcb|

`yB PjKwewkó mij mnmgxKi‡Yi m½wZi kZ©vewj wjLb| `yB PjKwewkó `yBwU mij mnmgxKiY ci¯úi wbf©ikxjZv hvPvB| Avo¸Y‡bi gva¨‡g mij mnmgxKi‡Yi mgvavb|

   

mij mnmgxKiY MVb I mgvavb|

D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g ev¯ÍewfwËK mgm¨vi mij mnmgxKiY MVb I mgvavb Dc¯’vcb|

mij mnmgxKi‡Yi mgvavb †jLwP‡Î Dc¯’vcb †jLwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ `yB PjKwewkó `yBwU mij mnmgxKi‡Yi mgvavb †KŠkj Dc¯’vcb

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv

mij mnmgxKi‡Yi †jLwPÎ A¼b

†jLwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ mgvavb

 

`yB PjKwewkó mij mnmgxKi‡Yi aviYv e¨vL¨vmn D`vniY _vK‡e| `yB PjKwewkó mij mnmgxKiY m½wZi kZ©vewj D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| `yB PjKwewkó mij mnmgxKiY ci¯úi wbf©ikxjZv D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ hvPvB _vK‡e| Avo¸Yb c×wZi mvnv‡h¨ mij mnmgxKi‡Yi mgvav‡bi †KŠkj I MVb cÖwµqv D`vniYmn _vK‡e| ev¯ÍewfwËK mgm¨v mij mnmgxKi‡Yi MVb I mgvav‡bi D`vniY _vK‡e|

†jLwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ `yB PjKwewkó mij mnmgxKi‡Yi mgvavb †KŠk‡ji eY©bv _vK‡e| ch©vß D`vniY I Abykxjbx _vK‡e|

103


·qv`k Aa¨vq : mmxg aviv wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. Abyµg I aviv eY©bv Ki‡Z I Zv‡`i cv_©K¨ wbiƒcY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. mgvšÍi aviv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. mgvšÍi avivi wbw`©óZg c` I wbw`©ó msL¨K c‡`i mgwó wbY©‡qi m~Î MVb Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges m~Î cÖ‡qvM K‡i MvwYwZK mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. ¯^vfvweK msL¨vi e‡M©i I N‡bi mgwó wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. avivi wewfbœ m~Î cÖ‡qvM K‡i MvwYwZK mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 6. ¸‡YvËi avivi wbw`©óZg c` I wbw`©ó msL¨K c‡`i mgwó wbY©‡qi m~Î MVb Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges m~Î cÖ‡qvM K‡i MvwYwZK mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| Av‡eMxq 7. mgm¨v mgvav‡bi Rb¨ mgvšÍi I ¸‡YvËi aviv MV‡b AvMÖnx n‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

(12 wcwiqW ) welqe¯‘  Abyµg I aviv  mgvšÍi aviv o mgvšÍi avivi wbw`©óZg c` o wbw`©ó msL¨K c‡`i mgwó

 mmxg ¯^vfvweK msL¨vi mgwó o we‡kl msL¨vi mgwó o †Rvo msL¨vi mgwó o e‡M©i mgwó o ¸‡Yi mgwó 

¸‡YvËi aviv

MvwYwZK mgm¨v

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv  

D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ Abyµg I avivi e¨vL¨v| mmxg I Amxg avivi aviYv|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv  QK c~iY : Abyµg/mmxg aviv /Amxg aviv

 

D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ mmxg mgvšÍi avivi e¨vL¨v Ges wbw`©ó c` I c‡`i mgwó wbY©‡qi m~Î| cÖ_g n msL¨K we‡Rvo Ges †Rvo msL¨vi mgwó wbY©‡qi m~Î cÖwZcv`b|

 

wbw`©ó c` I c‡`i mgwó wbY©q ¯^vfvweK msL¨vi eM© I N‡bi mgwó wbY©q|

we‡kølY cÖwµqvq cÖ_g n msL¨K ¯^vfvweK msL¨vi eM© Ges N‡bi mgwó wbY©‡qi m~Î|

D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ mmxg ¸‡YvËi avivi e¨vL¨v Ges wbw`©ó c` I wbw`©ó msL¨K c‡`i mgwó wb‡Y©q m~Î|

1+4+6+......+50 5,10,15....... 3+6+9........

BZ¨vw`

 

¸‡YvËi avivi wbw`©ó c` I wbw`©ó msL¨K c‡`i mgwó wbY©q| 

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv Abyµg I avivi eY©bv I cv_©K¨ _vK‡e| D`vniYmn mmxg avivi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e|

mgvšÍi avivi wbw`©óZg c` I wbw`©ó msL¨K c‡`i mgwó wbY©‡qi m~‡Îi e¨vL¨v I D`vniY _vK‡e| mgvšÍi avivi mgwói m~‡Îi mvn‡h¨ cÖ_g n msL¨K ¯^vfvweK msL¨vi mgwó, we‡Rvo ¯^vfvweK msL¨vi mgwó I †Rvo ¯^vfvweK msL¨vi mgwó wbY©‡qi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| cÖ_g n msL¨K ¯^vfvweK msL¨vi e‡M©i mgwó I N‡bi mgwó wbY©‡qi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e Ges eM© I N‡bi mgwói m~‡Îi cÖ‡qv‡Mi D`vniY _vK‡e| ¸‡YvËi avivi wbw`©óZg I wbw`©ó msL¨K c‡`i mgwó wbY©‡qi m~‡Îi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e I D`vniY _vK‡e| ch©vß D`vniY I Abykxjbx _vK‡e|

104


PZz`©k Aa¨vq : AbycvZ,m`„kZv I cÖwZmgZv wkLbdj

(20 wcwiqW ) welqe¯‘

eyw×e„Ëxq 1. R¨vwgwZK AbycvZ m¤ú‡K©  AbycvZ  e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. †iLvs‡ki AšÍwe©fw³ e¨vL¨v  †iLvs‡ki AšÍwe©fw³ Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. AbycvZ m¤úwK©Z  AbycvZ m¤úwK©Z Dccv`¨ Dccv`¨¸‡jv hvPvB I cÖgvY o wÎfz‡Ri †h‡Kv‡bv evûi mgvšÍivj  Ki‡Z cvi‡e| mij‡iLv H wÎfz‡Ri Aci evûØq‡K ev 4. m`„kZvi AbycvZ msµvšÍ Zv‡`i ewa©ZvskØq‡K mgvb Abycv‡Z wef³ Dccv`¨¸‡jv hvPvB I cÖgvY K‡i| Ki‡Z cvi‡e| o †Kv‡bv mij‡iLv GKwU wÎfz‡Ri `yBevû‡K ev Zv‡`i ewa©ZvskØq‡K mgvb Abycv‡Z wef³ Ki‡j,D³ †iLv wÎfzRwUi Z…Zxq evûi mgvšÍivj| o wÎfz‡Ri †h‡Kv‡bv †Kv‡Yi AšÍwØ©LÐK wecixZ evû‡K D³ †KvY msjMœ evû؇qi Abycv‡Z AšÍwe©f³ K‡i| o `yBwU wÎfzR m`„k‡KvYx n‡j Zv‡`i Abyiƒc evû¸‡jv mgvbycvwZK n‡e| o `yBwU wÎfz‡Ri evû¸‡jv mgvbycvwZK n‡j Abyiƒc evûi wecixZ †KvY¸‡jv ci¯úi mgvb n‡e| o `yBwU wÎfz‡Ri GKwUi GK †KvY Aci GKwU wÎfz‡Ri GK †Kv‡Yi mgvb n‡j Ges Zv‡`i †KvYmsjMœ evû¸‡jv mgvbycvwZK n‡j, wÎfzRØq m`„k n‡e| o `yBwU m`„k wÎfzR‡ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎdj؇qi AbycvZ Zv‡`i †h‡Kv‡bv `yB Abyiƒc evûi Dci Aw¼Z eM©‡ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎdj؇qi Abycv‡Zi mgvb| RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv R¨vwgwZK wP‡Îi gva¨‡g R¨vwgwZK AbycvZ I †iLvs‡ki AšÍwe©fw³i e¨vL¨v|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv 

wP‡Îi gva¨‡g AbycvZ I  m`„kZvi AbycvZ m¤úwK©Z Dccv`¨ hvPvB I cÖgvY Dc¯’vcb|

wPÎ †_‡K R¨vwgwZK AbycvZ I AšÍwe©fw³i wbY©q|

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv   

cÖ`Ë Dccv`¨¸‡jv cÖgvY|

R¨vwgwZK AbycvZ m¤ú‡K© mwPÎ e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| †iLvs‡ki AšÍwe©fw³ wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ _vK‡e| AbycvZ m¤úwK©Z Dccv`¨¸‡jv hvPvB Kivi cÖ‡qvRbxq Kvh©µg I cÖgvY _vK‡e|

?

105


PZz`©k Aa¨vq : AbycvZ,m`„kZv I cÖwZmgZv wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 5. cÖwZmgZvi aviYv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 6. nv‡Z-Kj‡g ev¯Íe DcKi‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ †iLv I N~Y©b cÖwZmgZv hvPvB Ki‡Z cvi‡e| g‡bv‡cwkR 7. AbycvZ I m`„kZvi aviYv e¨envi K‡i ˆ`N¨© cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

(20 wcwiqW )

Pjgvb 2

welqe¯‘  cÖwZmgZv

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv 

 †iLv I N~Y©b cÖwZmgZv  AbycvZ I m`„kZvi aviYv e¨envi K‡i cwigvc

ev¯Íe DcKi‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ cÖwZmgZv I N~Y©b cÖwZmgZv hvPvB‡qi Av‡jvPbv|

AbycvZ I m`„kZvi aviYv e¨envi K‡i ˆ`N©¨ cwigv‡ci e¨vL¨v

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv 

ev¯Íe DcKi‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ cÖwZmgZv I N~Y©b cÖwZmgZv hvPvB

 

cÖ`Ë wÎfz‡Ri ARvbv evûi ˆ`N©¨ wbY©q

2cm

? 4 cm

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv

3 cm

?

ev¯Íe D`vniY I wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ cÖwZmgZvi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| nv‡Z-Kj‡g ev¯Íe DcKi‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ †iLv I N~Y©b cÖwZmgZv hvPvB Kivi cÖ‡qvRbxq Kvh©µg AšÍfz©³| AbycvZ I m`„kZvi aviYv e¨envi K‡i ˆ`N¨© cwigv‡ci Kvh©µg _vK‡e|

4cm

106


cÂ`k Aa¨vq : †ÿÎdj m¤úwK©Z Dccv`¨ I m¤úv`¨ wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. eûfzR‡ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎd‡ji aviYv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. †ÿÎdj msµvšÍ Dccv`¨ hvPvB I cÖgvY Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

welqe¯‘ 

eûfzR‡ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎdj

†ÿÎdj msµvšÍ Dccv`¨ hvPvB I cÖgvY o GKB f~wgi Dci Ges GKB mgvšÍivj †iLv؇qi g‡a¨ Aew¯’Z mKj wÎfzR‡ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎdj mgvb | o GKB f~wgi Dci Ges GKB mgvšÍivj †iLv؇qi g‡a¨ Aew¯’Z mvgvšÍwiK‡ÿÎmg~‡ni †ÿÎdj mgvb|

3. cª`Ë DcvË e¨envi K‡i eûfzR †ÿÎ A¼b I A¼‡bi h_©v_Zv hvPvB Ki‡Z cvi‡e|  g‡bv‡cwkR 4. wÎfzR‡ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎd‡ji mgvb PZzf©yR‡ÿÎ A¼b Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. PZzfz©R‡ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎd‡ji mgvb wÎfzR‡ÿÎ A¼b Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 6. wewfbœ cÖKvi R¨vwgwZKKvwiMwi wPÎ A¼b Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

(12 wcwiqW )

†ÿÎdj msµvšÍ m¤úv`¨ o Ggb GKwU wÎfzR AvKu‡Z n‡e hv Øviv mxgve× †ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎdj GKwU wbw`©ó PZzfz©R‡ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎd‡ji mgvb nq| o GKwU wÎfzR‡ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎd‡ji mgvb †ÿÎdjwewkó GKwU mvgvšÍwiK AvuK‡Z n‡e, hvi GKwU †KvY GKwU wbw`©ó †Kv‡Yi mgvb nq| o GKwU PZzf©zR‡ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎd‡ji mgvb †ÿÎdjwewkó GKwU mvgvšÍwiK AvuK‡Z n‡e, hvi GKwU †KvY GKwU wbw`©ó †Kv‡Yi mgvb nq|  wewfbœ cÖKvi R¨vwgwZK-KvwiMwi wPÎ A¼b|

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv

eûfzR †ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎdj  eY©bv|

cÖ`Ë Dccv`¨¸‡jvi mwVK hvPvBKiY I cÖgvY|

cÖ`Ë Z_¨ I DcvË e¨envi K‡i eûfzR †ÿÎ A¼b I A¼‡bi weeiY Dc¯’vcb|

mwVKfv‡e eûfzR †ÿÎ A¼b|

cª`Ë Z_¨ I DcvË e¨envi K‡i †ÿÎdj msµvšÍ A¼b _vK‡e|

cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g wewfbœ cÖKvi R¨vwgwZK KvwiMwi wPÎ A¼‡bi weeiY Dc¯’vcb|

wewfbœ cÖKvi DcvË e¨envi K‡i R¨vwgwZK KvwiMwi wPÎ A¼b|

wewfbœ cÖKvi DcvË e¨envi K‡i R¨vwgwZKKvwiMwi wPÎ A¼b Dc‡hvMx Kvh©µg AšÍfz©³ _vK‡e|

R¨vwgwZK wPÎ I ev¯Íe D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g eûfzR †ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎd‡ji aviYv Dc¯’vcb|

R¨vwgwZK wP‡Îi gva¨‡g †ÿÎdj msµvšÍ cÖ`Ë Dccv‡`¨i hvPvB I cÖgvY Dc¯’vcb|

wPÎ I ev¯Íe D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ eûfzR‡ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎd‡ji aviYvi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| †ÿÎdj msµvšÍ Dccv`¨¸‡jv hvPvB Kivi cÖ‡qvRbxq Kvh©µg I Dccv`¨ cÖgvY _vK‡e|

107


lô`k Aa¨vq : cwiwgwZ

(22 wcwiqW )

wkLbdj

welqe¯‘

eyw×e„Ëxq 1. wÎfzR‡ÿÎ I PZzfz©R‡ÿ‡Îi  †ÿÎdj wbY©q †ÿÎd‡ji m~Î cÖ‡qvM K‡i o wÎfzR‡ÿÎ, AvqZ‡ÿÎ, eûfzR‡ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎdj wbY©q eM©‡ÿÎ I i¤^m‡ÿÎ, Ges GZ`&m¤úwK©Z mgm¨v mvgvšÍwiK‡ÿÎ, mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| UªvwcwRqvg‡ÿÎ I eûfzR‡ÿÎ  e„Ë msµvšÍ cwigvc o e„‡Ëi cwiwa I e„Ëvs‡ki 2. e„‡Ëi cwiwa I e„Ëvs‡ki ˆ`N©¨ ˆ`N©¨, e„ˇÿÎ I Zvi wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| Askwe‡k‡li †ÿÎdj 3. e„‡Ëi †ÿÎdj wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. e„ˇÿÎ I Zvi Askwe‡k‡li †ÿÎdj wbY©q K‡i GZ`m¤úwK©Z mgm¨v mgvavb  wewfbœ Nbe¯‘i AvqZb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| o AvqZvKvi Nbe¯‘ , NbK I †ejb 5. AvqZvKvi Nbe¯‘, NbK I †ej‡bi †ÿÎdj cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges G m¤úwK©Z mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|  g‡bv‡cwkR 6. mylg I Amg AvKv‡ii eûfzR‡ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎdj cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e| RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

mylg I Amg AvKv‡ii eûfzR‡ÿÎ

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv  cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g wÎfzR‡ÿÎ I PZzfz©R‡ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎdj wbY©‡qi m~Î eY©bv|  m~Î cÖ‡qvM K‡i eûfzR †ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎdj wbY©‡qi weeiY Av‡jvPbv|  DcKi‡Yi gva¨‡g e„‡Ëi cwiwa I e„Ëvs‡ki ˆ`N©¨ wbY©‡qi Av‡jvPbv|  e„‡Ëi †ÿÎdj wbY©‡qi m~‡Îi eY©bv Dc¯’vcb|  m~Î cÖ‡qvM K‡i e„‡Ëi †ÿÎdj wbY©‡qi eY©bv|  R¨vwgwZK wP‡Îi gva¨‡g e„‡Ëi Ask we‡k‡li †ÿÎdj wbY©‡qi eY©bv Dc¯’vcb|  e„‡Ëi Ask we‡k‡li †ÿÎdj wbY©q m¤úwK©Z mgm¨v mgvavb Dc¯’vcb|  ev¯Íe DcKi‡Yi gva¨‡g AvqZvKvi Nbe¯yÍ ,NbK I †ej‡bi †ÿÎdj wbY©‡qi m~‡Îi eY©bv Dc¯’vcb|  m~Î cÖ‡qv‡Mi gva¨‡g cÖ`Ë DcKi‡Yi †ÿÎdj wbY©q Ges G msµvšÍ mgm¨vi mgvavb Dc¯’vcb|  mylg I Amg AvKv‡ii eûfzR †ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎdj wbY©q Dc¯’vcb|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv

QK c~iY : (evwoi KvR)  cÖ`Ë †ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎdj wbY©q †ÿÎ

wPÎ

†ÿÎdj

wÎfzR PZzfz©R

  

cÖ`Ë e„‡Ëi cwiwa I e„Ëvs‡ki ˆ`N©¨ wbY©q| e„‡Ëi †ÿÎdj wbY©q| cÖ`Ë e„‡Ëi Ask we‡k‡li †ÿÎdj wbY©q|

  

O

A

B

cÖ`Ë Amg AvKv‡ii eûfzR †ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎdj wbY©q 

wÎfzR‡ÿÎ I PZzfz©R‡ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎd‡ji m~Î cÖ‡qvM K‡i eûfzR‡ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎdj wbY©‡qi eY©bv _vK‡e Ges GZ`m¤úwK©Z mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvivi Dchy³ Kvh©µg _vK‡e| e„‡Ëi cwiwa I e„Ëvs‡ki ˆ`N©¨ wbY©‡qi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| e„‡Ëi †ÿÎdj wbY‡©qi Kvh©µg _vK‡e| e„ˇÿÎ I Zvi Askwe‡k‡li †ÿÎdj wbY©q K‡i GZ`&m¤úwK©Z mgm¨v mgvav‡bi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq Kvh©µg _vK‡e| AvqZvKvi Nbe¯‘, NbK I †ej‡bi †ÿÎdj cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges G m¤úwK©Z mgm¨v mgvavb Kivi Dc‡hvMx KvR _vK‡e| mylg I Amg AvKv‡ii eûfzR‡ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎdj cwigv‡ci eY©bv _vK‡e Ges cÖ‡qvRbxq Kvh©µg _vK‡e| 108


mß`k Aa¨vq : cwimsL¨vb wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. †K›`ªxq cÖeYZvi cwigvc c×wZ e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. †K›`ªxq cÖeYZv cwigv‡c mswÿß c×wZi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. mswÿß c×wZi mvnv‡h¨ Mo, ga¨K I cÖPziK wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. µg‡hvwRZ MYmsL¨v, MYmsL¨v eûfzR I AwRf †iLv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. MYmsL¨v eûfzR I AwRf †iLv †jLwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ DcvË e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| g‡bv‡cwkR 6. µg‡hvwRZ MYmsL¨v e¨envi K‡i MYmsL¨v eûfzR I AwRf †iLv A¼b Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 7. Z_¨ msMÖn I we‡kølY K‡i †jLwP‡Î Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

(12 wcwiqW ) welqe¯‘

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

†K›`ªxq cÖeYZv o †K›`ªxq cÖeYZvi cwigvc o †K›`ªxq cÖeYZv cwigv‡c mswÿß c×wZi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv o mswÿß c×wZ‡Z Mo, ga¨K I cÖPziK wbY©q

 wewfbœ ai‡bi Z_¨ we‡kølY, †jLwP‡Î Dc¯’vcb I e¨vL¨v  MYmsL¨v eûfzR I AwRf †iLv A¼b

D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ †K›`ªxq cwigv‡ci e¨vL¨v Ges Mo, ga¨K I cÖPziK wbY©q c×wZ eY©bv|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv 

cÖ`Ë Z_¨ DcvË †_‡K Mo, ga¨K I cÖPziK wbY©q|

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv

 †K›`ªxq cÖeYZvi  

D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g µg‡hvwRZ MYmsL¨v, MYmsL¨v eûfz‡Ri e¨vL¨v Ges †jLwPÎ †_‡K DcvË we‡kølY|

Z_¨ msMÖ‡ni gva¨‡g MYmsL¨v eûfzR I AwRf †iLv A¼‡bi e¨vL¨v|

cÖ`Ë Z_¨ DcvË †_‡K MYmsL¨v eûfzR I AwRf †iLv A¼b I Z_¨ we‡kølY|

cwigvc¸‡jvi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| †K›`ªxq cÖeYZv cwigv‡c mswÿß c×wZi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g mswÿß c×wZ‡Z Mo, ga¨K I cÖPziK wbY©q c×wZi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e|

 MYmsL¨v wb‡ek‡bi mvnv‡h¨ µg‡hvwRZ MYmsL¨v, MYmsL¨v eûfzR I AwRf †iLvi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e|

 wewfbœ D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨

MYmsL¨v eûfzR I AwRf †iLv wKfv‡e DcvˇK e¨vL¨v K‡i Zv _vK‡e|

109


5. †jLK wb‡`©kbv beg-`kg †kÖwYi MwYZ welqwUi Rb¨ 100 b¤^i eivÏ ivLv n‡q‡Q| mßv‡n 4 wU K‡i 2 eQ‡i †gvU 288 wU wcwiqW eivÏ ivLv n‡q‡Q| cÖwZwU wcwiq‡Wi mgq 50 wgwbU| MwYZ wel‡qi wkÿvµ‡g wkLbdj Ges welqe¯‘ Ggbfv‡e cÖYqb Kiv n‡q‡Q †hb eivÏK…Z 288 wcwiq‡W wkÿv_x©iv me¸‡jv wkLbdj AR©b Ki‡Z cv‡i| MwYZ welqwU beg- `kg †kÖwYi mKj kvLvi wkÿv_©x‡`i Rb¨ GKwU Avewk¨K welq| MwYZ wel‡q GKwU cvV¨cy¯Í‡Ki mycvwik Kiv n‡q‡Q| cvV¨cy¯Í‡Ki mycvwikK…Z c„ôvmsL¨v n‡jv (300±20)c„ôv| cvV¨cy¯ÍK iPbvi †ÿ‡Î wb¤œwjwLZ welqmg~‡ni cÖwZ mwe‡kl ¸iæZ¡ w`‡Z n‡e1. wkÿvKª‡g ewY©Z mywbw`©ó wkLbdj Ges wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv we‡ePbvq †i‡L welqe¯‘ Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Z n‡e| 2. cÖ‡hvR¨ †ÿ‡Î Aa©ev¯Íe ch©v‡q welqe¯‘ Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Z n‡e| Dc¯’vc‡bi ixwZ n‡e mnR †_‡K KwVb, Rvbv †_‡K ARvbv I g~Z© †_‡K weg~Z©| welqe¯‘ Dc¯’vc‡b avivevwnKZv eRvq ivL‡Z n‡e Ges wkÿv_x©‡`i eqm, gvbwmK cwicK¡Zv I aviY ÿgZv Dc‡hvMx K‡i mnR I PwjZ fvlvq wjL‡Z n‡e| 3. welqe¯‘ Dc¯’vc‡b cÖ‡hvR¨ D`vniY e¨envi Ki‡Z n‡e| cÖwZ Aa¨v‡q cÖvmw½K I RxebwfwËK D`vniY cvV¨cy¯Í‡K ms‡hvRb Ki‡Z n‡e| Abykxjbx‡Z Dc¯’vwcZ mgm¨vmg~n PP©v QvovI wkÿv_x©i wPšÍv I aviYvi †hb weKvk N‡U †mw`‡K †Lqvj ivL‡Z n‡e| Dc¯’vwcZ D`vniY I Abykxjbxi KvRmg~n wkÿv_x©‡`i ˆ`bw›`b Rxe‡bi Ges AwR©Z AwfÁZvi mv‡_ Aek¨B m¤úK©hy³ n‡Z n‡e| 4. Av‡eMxq wkLbdj AR©‡bi Rb¨ welqe¯‘ Dc¯’vc‡b ev¯ÍewfwËK mgm¨v I Kg©KvÛ ms‡hvRb Ki‡Z n‡e| 5. welqe¯‘i Dc¯’vcb Kg©KvÐ wfwËK n‡Z n‡e| Dc¯’vwcZ welqe¯‘ AvKl©Yxq I Avb›``vqK Kivi Dci ¸iæZ¡ cÖ`vb Ki‡Z n‡e, hv‡Z MwYZ wkÿvi cÖwZ wkÿv_x©‡`i Awbnv I fxwZ `~i nq| 6. wkLbdj AR©‡bi Rb¨ ch©vß Abykxjbx w`‡Z n‡e Ges Abykxjbx‡Z m„Rbkxj cÖ‡kœi ms‡hvRb Ki‡Z n‡e| 7. wkÿv_©xi eyw×e„Ëxq weKvk mnvqK mgm¨v ms‡hvRb Ki‡Z n‡e| wkÿ‡Ki b~¨bZg mnvqZvq hv‡Z wkÿv_©xiv welqe¯‘ AvqË Ki‡Z cv‡i †h w`‡K Zxÿè `„wó w`‡Z n‡e| 8. we`¨vjqwfwËK g~j¨vq‡bi Dc‡hvMx Kg©KvÐwfwËK welqe¯‘ (activity based content) cvV¨cy¯Í‡K ms‡hvRb Ki‡Z n‡e| 9. welqe¯‘ Dc¯’vc‡b †RÛvi mgZv (gender equity) iÿv Ki‡Z n‡e| 10. welqe¯‘ Dc¯’vcb ˆbwZK g~j¨‡ev‡ai cwicš’x I agx©q Abyf~wZ‡Z AvNvZ nv‡b Ggb welq cwinvi Ki‡Z n‡e| RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

110


wkÿvµg

D”PZi MwYZ beg-`kg †kÖwY

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

111


1.

f~wgKv

gvbe mf¨Zvi AMÖMwZ mva‡b weÁv‡bi Ae`vb Acwimxg| Avi weÁv‡bi PvwjKv kw³ MwYZ| ZvB RvZxq wkÿvµ‡g mKj wkÿv_x©i Rb¨ MwYZ‡K Avek¨Kxq cvV¨ Kiv n‡q‡Q| Z‡e †h †Kvb weÁvb I cÖhyw³ wkÿvi Rb¨ MwY‡Zi AwaKZi gReyZ Áv‡bi cÖ‡qvRb| Avi GB D‡Ïk¨ wb‡qB D”PZi MwY‡Zi hvÎv| wkÿv_x©‡`i‡K MwYZ wkÿvq AvMÖnx Kivi j‡ÿ¨ D”PZi MwYZ‡K mnR mij I my›`ifv‡e Dc¯’vcb Kivi cÖqvm †bIqv n‡q‡Q| we‡k¦i mf¨Zv, weÁvb-cÖhyw³ GwM‡q P‡j‡Q weavq MwYZ‡KI Zvj †i‡L Pj‡Z n‡e| ZvB †ek wKQz bZzb welqe¯‘ †hgb: ¯’vbv¼ R¨vwgwZ, wØc`x we¯Í„wZ I m¤fvebvi AeZviYv Kiv n‡q‡Q| D”PZi MwY‡Z hyw³g~jK R¨vwgwZi fvi jvNe K‡i e¨envwiK R¨vwgwZ‡K cÖvavb¨ †`Iqv n‡q‡Q| cÖvq cÖwZ‡ÿ‡Î cÖv‡qvwMK MwY‡Zi Dci †Rvi †`Iqv n‡q‡Q| wkÿv_x©iv hv‡Z ev¯ÍewfwËK mgm¨v mgvav‡b exRMwYZ I R¨vwgwZ‡K e¨envi Ki‡Z cv‡i †mw`‡K we‡kl ¸iZ¡ Av‡ivc Kiv n‡q‡Q| wkÿv_x©‡`i MvwYwZK hyw³ e¨envi Kivi †hvM¨Zv Ges wPšÍvi cwiwa weKv‡ki my‡hvM m„wói gva¨‡g D”PZi ch©v‡q wkÿv MÖn‡Yi wfZ gReyZ Kiv-D”PZi MwY‡Zi Ab¨Zg D‡Ïk¨|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

112


2. D‡Ïk¨ 1. †mU I dvsk‡bi m¤úªmvwiZ Ávb jvf K‡i cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cviv| 2. `yB PjKwewkó mgxKiY †Rv‡Ui mgvavb wbY©q I cÖ‡qv‡M mÿg nIqv| 3. AmgZvi aviYv jvf K‡i GK I `yB PjKwewkó AmgZvi mgvavb Kiv Ges ev¯Íe ‡ÿ‡Î Zv cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z mÿg nIqv| 4. m~PKxq I jMvwi`gxq dvskb m¤ú‡K© aviYv jvf Kiv Ges †jLwPÎ A¼‡b mÿg nIqv| 5. Amxg avivi Ávb jvf Kiv I Zv e¨env‡i mÿg nIqv| 6. wØc`x we¯Í…wZi aviYv jvf Kiv I MvwYwZK mgm¨v mgvav‡b mÿg nIqv | 7. R¨vwgwZK A¼b I Dccv`¨ cÖgv‡Y `ÿZv AR©b Kiv| 8. ¯’vbv¼ R¨vwgwZi †gŠwjK aviYv jvf Kiv I mij‡iLvi mgxKiY MVb Ki‡Z mÿg nIqv| 9. mgZjxq †f±‡ii aviYv I cÖ‡qvM m¤ú‡K© AeMZ nIqv| 10. wÎgvwÎK e¯‘i cwigvc Ki‡Z mÿg nIqv| 11. w·KvYwgwZK Abycv‡Zi Ávb m¤cªmviY Kiv I cÖ‡qv‡M `ÿ nIqv| 12. m¤¢vebvi cÖv_wgK aviYv jvf K‡i cÖ‡qv‡M mÿg nIqv| 13. MwY‡Zi AvaywbK a¨vb-aviYv m¤ú©wKZ Ávb jvf K‡i Ab¨vb¨ wel‡qi mv‡_ MwY‡Zi m¤úK© ¯’vcb Kiv|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

113


beg †kÖwY-1g †mwg÷vi

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Aa¨v‡qi wk‡ivbvg †mU I dvskb exRMvwYwZK ivwk mgxKiY R¨vwgwZ w·KvYwgwZ

wcwiqW 12 12 14 10 6 54

cybiv‡jvPbvi Rb¨ eivÏK…Z wcwiqW 4 4 5 3 2 18

beg †kÖwY-2q †mwg÷vi

3. Aa¨vq web¨vm I wcwiqW eÈb

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

AmgZv m~PKxq I jMvwi`gxq dvskb Amxg aviv wØc`x we¯Í…wZ R¨vwgwZK A¼b w·KvYwgwZ

10 12 7 7 12 6

3 4 3 2 4 2

54

18

`kg †kÖwY1g †mwg÷vi

12 4 10 3 14 5 10 3 8 3 54 18 `kg †kÖwYi 2q †mwg÷v‡i m¤ú~Y© wm‡jev‡mi Ici wbe©vPwb cixÿv AbywôZ nq| ZvB `kg †kªwYi 2q †mwg÷v‡i eivÏK…Z 54 wcwiqW m¤ú~Y© eB‡qi cybiv‡jvPbvi Rb¨ eivÏ ivLv n‡q‡Q|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

1. 2 3. 4. 5.

¯’vbv¼ R¨vwgwZ †f±i Nb R¨vwgwZ w·KvYwgwZ m¤¢vebv

114


4.wkÿvµg QK beg-`kg †kÖwY

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

115


cÖ_g Aa¨vq : †mU I dvskb

(12 wcwiqW )

wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. mvwe©K †mU, Dc‡mU, c~iK †mU I kw³ †mU MVb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. wewfbœ †m‡Ui ms‡hvM, †Q` I AšÍi wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. †mU cÖwKªqvi ag©vewji †hŠw³K cÖgvY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. mgZzj †mU eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges Gi gva¨‡g Amxg †m‡Ui aviYv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

5. †m‡Ui ms‡hv‡Mi kw³ †mU wbY©‡qi m~Î e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges †fbwPÎ I D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ Zv hvPvB Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 6. †mU cÖwµqv cÖ‡qvM K‡i RxebwfwËK mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

welqe¯‘ 

mvwe©K †mU, Dc‡mU, c~iK †mU I kw³ †mU

 

†m‡Ui ms‡hvM, †Q` I AšÍi †mU cÖwKªqvi ag©vewj

mgZzj †mU I Amxg †mU

†m‡Ui ms‡hv‡Mi kw³ †mU

ev¯Íe mgm¨v mgvav‡b †mU

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv 

GKK I `jMZ Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g mvwe©K †mU, Dc‡mU, c~iK †mU I kw³ †mU MVb|  D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ ‡m‡Ui ms‡hvM wewa, wewbgq wewa, `¨v giM¨v‡bi m~‡Îi e¨vL¨v I e¨envi|  D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g mgvb msL¨K Dcv`vb wewkó `yBwU †m‡Ui mvnv‡h¨ mgZyj †mU e¨vL¨v|  ¯^vfvweK msL¨vi †m‡Ui mvnv‡h¨ Amxg †m‡Ui e¨vL¨v Ges D³ †m‡Ui wewfbœ Dc‡mU I 1, 1 2 , 2 3 , 3 4 , … … … … … … … . Gi gva¨‡g Amxg mgZzj †m‡Ui D`vniY|  D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ kw³ †m‡Ui e¨envi Dc¯’vcb|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

    

†mU MV‡bi mwVKZv| ‡mU cÖKv‡k mwVK wP†ýi e¨envi| cÖ‡hvR¨ †ÿ‡Î mwVK m~Î wbe©vPb|

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv

†m‡Ui ms‡hvM wewa, wewbgq wewa, `¨v giM¨v‡bi m~Î

m~‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ h_v_©fv‡e mgvavb| ¯^vfvweK msL¨vi †mU †_‡K wewfbœ Amxg Dc‡mU ˆZwi Kiv Ges G‡`i mgZyj¨Zv hvPvB| kw³ †mU MV‡bi mÿgZv hvPvB|

116


cÖ_g Aa¨vq : †mU I dvskb wkLbdj 7. †m‡Ui mvnv‡h¨ Aš^q I dvskb Gi aviYv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 8. dvsk‡bi †Wv‡gb I †iÄ wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e

(12 wcwiqW ) 

 

9. GK-GK dvskb, mvwe©K dvskb I GK-GK mvwe©K dvskb D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 10. wecixZ dvskb e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| g‡bv‡cwkR 11. †jLwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ †Kv‡bv Aš^q dvskb wKbv Zv hvPvB Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 12. Aš^q I dvsk‡bi †jLwPÎ A¼b Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

welqe¯‘ Aš^q Ges dvskb Gi aviYv

dvskb Gi †Wv‡gb I †iÄ GK-GK dvskb, mvwe©K dvskb I GK-GK mvwe©K dvskb|

Pjgvb 2 

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv ev¯Íe D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g Aš^q I dvskb‡K e¨vL¨v Kiv , †hgbfwZ©i cÖvK †hvM¨Zv B A MM

MwYZ

c`v_© e¨e¯’vcbv

   

Kw¤úDUvi wnmveweÁvb

wecixZ dvskb Aš^q I dvsk‡bi †jLwPÎ|

†Wv‡gb

imvqb cwimsL¨vb

GLv‡b †mU A I †mU B Gi ga¨ Aš^q we`¨gvb| wKš‘ †Wv‡gb I †Kv‡Wv‡gb ci¯úi cwieZ©b Ki‡j dvskb I Aš^q `yBwUB nq-G aviYvi gva¨‡g Dc¯’vcb|  MvwYwZK D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ GK GK mvwe©K dvsk‡bi Av‡jvPbv| †hgb( ) = + 1 †hLv‡b †Rvo msL¨v| dvskbwU GK-GK I mvwe©K Ges GBiƒc dvsk‡bi wecixZ dvskb we`¨gvb|  cÖ`Ë dvsk‡bi †jLwPÎ Djø¤^ †iLv‡K GKwUgvÎ we›`y‡Z †Q` Ki‡j dvskb Ges GKvwaK we›`y‡Z †Q` Ki‡j Aš^q Gi e¨vL¨vi gva¨‡g Dc¯’vcbv

 

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv Aš^q I dvskb kbv³Ki‡Yi mwVKZv| †Wv‡gb I †iÄ wbY©‡qi mwVKZv |

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv 

GK-GK dvskb mvwe©K I GK-GK dvskb kbv³Ki‡Yi mwVKZv| wecixZ dvskb| wbY©qKi‡Yi mwVKZv †jLwPÎ A¼‡bi h_v_©Zv| dvskb I Aš^q kbv³Ki‡Yi mwVKZv|

cwiwPZ D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g Aš^q I dvsk‡bi aviYv Dc¯’vcb Kiv Ges mv‡_ mv‡_ †Wv‡gb, †KvчWv‡gb, †i‡Äi aviYv Ges †fbwP‡Î Gi Dc¯’vcb _vK‡e|

dvsk‡bi mvaviY msÁv I wewfbœ dvskb :GK-GK dvskb, mvwe©K dvskb, GK GK mvwe©K I wecixZ dvsk‡bi D`vniYmn Dc¯’vcbv _vK‡e|

= ( )= + , ( )= + + Øviv ewY©Z dvskb Ges + = Øviv cÖKvwkZ Aš^‡qi †jLwPÎ _vK‡e|

117


wØZxq Aa¨vq : exRMvwYwZK ivwk (12 wcwiqW ) wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. eûc`xi aviYv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ GK PjKwewkó eûc`x e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. eûc`xi ¸Y I fvM e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. fvM‡kl Dccv`¨ I Drcv`K Dccv`¨ e¨vL¨v Ges Zv cÖ‡qvM K‡i eûc`xi Drcv`K we‡kølY Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. mggvwÎK ivwk, cÖwZmg ivwk Ges Pµ-µwgK ivwk e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 6. mggvwÎK ivwk, cÖwZmg ivwk Ges Pµ-µwgK ivwki Drcv`K wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 7. g~j` fMœvsk†K AvswkK fMœvs‡k cÖKvk Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

welqe¯‘  eûc`x o o o

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv 

GK PjKwewkó eûc`x eûc`xi ¸Y I fvM eûc`xi Drcv`K we‡kølY (fvM‡kl Dccv`¨ I Drcv`K Dccv`¨)

mggvwÎK , cÖwZmg I PµµwgK ivwk (AbyaŸ© wZb PjK)

g~j` fMœvsk‡K AvswkK fMœvs‡k cÖKvk (mij g~j` fMœvsk)

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv 

†ev‡W© GKwU eûc`x †hgb( )=

+

+

+

wj‡L Gi gyL¨c`, mnM (g~L¨ mnM), PjK, aªæeK I eûc`xi gvÎv Gi Av‡jvPbv|

gyL¨c`, mnM, PjK aªæeK I eûc`xi gvÎv wbY©qKi‡Yi mwVKZv|

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv 

 

fvRK, fvR¨, fvMdj I fvM‡kl e¨envi K‡i ( ) = ( ) ( ) + ( ) Gi e¨vL¨v cÖ`vb K‡i eûc`x Drcv`‡K we‡kølY| D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ mggvwÎK, cÖwZmg, PµµwgK ivwki e¨vL¨v I Drcv`K wbY©q|

†kÖwY Afxÿv

 

mggvwÎK, cÖwZmg I PµµwgK ivwk wPwýZKi‡Yi mwVKZv| 

 

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

exRMvwYwZK ivwk,c`, PjK I aªæe‡Ki aviYvi mswÿß cybiv‡jvPbvi gva¨‡g eûc`x, GKPj‡Ki eûc`x, eûc`xi gvÎv, gyL¨c`, aªæeK I eûc`xi Av`k©iƒ‡ci Dc¯’vcbv _vK‡e| `yB I wZb Pj‡Ki eûc`x ivwki D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ fvMm~Î, mgZvm~Î, A‡f`, fvM‡kl I Drcv`K Dccv‡`¨i e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| Drcv`K Dccv‡`¨i mvnv‡h¨ eûc`xi Drcv`K wbY©q Kivi †KŠk‡ji eY©bv _vK‡e| D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ mggvwÎK cÖwZmg ivwk I PµµwgK ivwki aviYv Ges PµµwgK ivwki Drcv`K wbY©‡qi †KŠkj _vK‡e|

D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ g~j` fMœvsk I AvswkK fMœvs‡ki e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| mij g~j` fMœvsk‡K AvswkK fMœvs‡k cÖKv‡ki †KŠkj _vK‡e|

118


Z…Zxq Aa¨vq : mgxKiY (14 wcwiqW ) wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. wØNvZ mgxKiY ( + 0 mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

welqe¯‘ + =

wØNvZ + mgxKiY ( + =0 mgvavb

2. eM©g~jwewkó mgxKiY wPwýZ Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. eM©g~jwewkó mgxKiY mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. m~PKxq mgxKiY e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. m~PKxq mgxKiY mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

 eM©g~jwewkó mgxKiY

6. `yB Pj‡Ki GKNvZ I wØNvZ mgxKi‡Yi ‡RvU mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 7. ev¯ÍewfwËK mgm¨v‡K `yB Pj‡Ki GKNvZ I wØNvZ mgxKi‡Y cÖKvk K‡i mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 8. `yB PjKwewkó m~PKxq mgxKiY ‡RvU mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

 `yB PjK GKNvZ I wØNvZ mgxKi‡Yi ‡RvU

g‡bv‡cwkR 9. †jLwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ wØNvZ mgxKiY ( + + = 0) mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

 m~PKxq mgxKiY

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv 

eMx©Ki‡Yi gva¨‡g wØNvZ mgxKi‡Yi mgvavb ch©vß D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ Dc¯’vcb|

wØNvZ mgxKiY mgvav‡bi mvaviY m~‡Îi D‡jøLc~e©K e¨vL¨v Ges †h‡ÿ‡Î ev¯Íe g~j †bB ZviI e¨vL¨v|

eM©g~jwewkó I m~PKxq mgxKi‡Yi mgvavb cÖwZ †ÿ‡Î ïw× cixÿvi gva¨‡g hvPvB|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv 

mgvavb I mgvav‡bi ïw× cixÿv|

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv 

  

ïw×Ki‡Yi mgÿZv|

 

ev¯ÍewfwËK mgm¨vq `yB Pj‡Ki GKNvZ I wØNvZ mgxKiY †RvU MVb I mgvav‡bi e¨vL¨v|

mgxKiY MVb I mgvav‡bi h_v_©Zv| 

 `yB PjKwewkó m~PKxq mgxKiY ‡RvU  †jLwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ wØNvZ mgxKiY mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

 

(≠ ), , Gi †h‡Kv‡bv ev¯Íe gv‡bi Rb¨ †jLwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ wØNvZ mgxKiY mgvav‡bi e¨vL¨v

†jLwPÎ A¼‡bi h_v_©Zv I mgvav‡bi mwVKZv

AÁvZ ev Pj ivwki cybiv‡jvPbv _vK‡e| wØNvZ mgxKiY( + + =0 mgvav‡bi †KŠk‡ji eY©bv _vK‡e| eM©g~j msewjZ mgxKiY †RvU wPwýZ Kivi Dcv‡qi eY©bv _vK‡e| D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ eM©g~j msewjZ mgxKi‡Yi mgvav‡bi †KŠkj I ïw× cixÿvi _vK‡e| m~PK msewjZ mgxKiY‡RvU mgvav‡bi †KŠkj D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| `yB PjKwewkó GKNvZ mgxKiY ‡RvU I wØNvZ mgxKiY †RvU mgvav‡bi D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| ev¯ÍewfwËK mgm¨v‡K `yB Pj‡Ki GKNvZ I wØNvZ mgxKi‡Y cÖKv‡ki ‡KŠkj _vK‡e|

†jLwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ wØNvZ mgxKiY( + + = 0) mgvav‡bi †KŠk‡ji eY©bv _vK‡e|

119


PZz_© Aa¨vq : R¨vwgwZ

(10 wcwiqW )

wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. j¤^ Awf‡ÿ‡ci aviYv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. wc_v‡Mviv‡mi Dccv‡`¨i Dci wfwË K‡i cÖ`Ë Dccv`¨¸‡jv cÖgvY I cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

3. wÎfz‡Ri cwi‡K›`ª, fi‡K›`ª I j¤^we›`y m¤ú©wKZ Dccv`¨¸‡jv cÖgvY I cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

welqe¯‘  

j¤^ Awf‡ÿc wc_v‡Mviv‡mi Dccv‡`¨i we¯Í„wZ o ¯’~j‡KvYx wÎfz‡Ri ¯’~j‡Kv‡Yi wecixZ evûi Dci Aw¼Z eM©‡ÿÎ H †Kv‡Yi mwbœwnZ Ab¨ `yB evûi Ici Aw¼Z eM©‡ÿÎ؇qi Ges H `yBevûi †h‡Kv‡bv GKwU I Zvi Ici Aci evûi j¤^ Awf‡ÿ‡ci AšÍM©Z AvqZ‡ÿ‡Îi wظ‡Yi mgw÷i mgvb| o †h‡Kv‡bv wÎfz‡R m~² †Kv‡Yi wecixZ evûi Ici Aw¼Z eM©‡ÿÎ Aci `yB evûi Ici Aw¼Z eM©‡ÿÎ؇qi mgwó A‡cÿv H `yB evûi †h‡Kv‡bv GKwU I Zvi Ici AciwUi j¤^ Awf‡ÿ‡ci AšÍM©Z AvqZ‡ÿ‡Îi wظY cwigvY Kg|

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

 Av‡jvQvqvi D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ j¤^ Awf‡ÿ‡ci ev¯Íe aviYv cÖ`vb| Dccv`¨ `yBwU †_‡K we‡kl †ÿ‡Î wc_v‡Mviv‡mi m~Î cÖwZcv`b|  wÎfz‡Ri evû I j¤^ Awf‡ÿ‡ci ˆ`N©¨ †g‡c Dccv‡`¨i welqe¯‘ hvPvB|  Dccv`¨¸‡jvi e¨envwiK cÖ‡qvM D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g Dc¯’vcb|

 wPÎ Gu‡K cwi‡K›`ª, fi‡K›`ª I j¤^we›`y e¨vL¨v| GKK KvR : o mg‡iL we›`y wZbwU KLb GKB we›`y‡Z wgwjZ nq Zv wba©viY|

 

 

wP‡Î mwVKfv‡e j¤^ Awf‡ÿc wPwýZKiY| mwVKfv‡e m~Î cÖwZcv`b welqe¯‘i mwVKZv hvPvB|

cÖ‡kœ&vˇii gva¨‡g cwi‡K›`ª, fi‡K›`ª I j¤^we›`yi mwVKZv hvPvB| welqe¯‘i mwVKZv| Dccv`¨ cÖ‡qv‡M h_v_©Zv †kÖwY Awfÿv|

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv  

j¤^ Awf‡ÿ‡ci aviYv _vK‡e| wc_v‡Mviv‡mi Dccv‡`¨i Dci wfwË K‡i cÖ`Ë Dccv`¨¸‡jv hvPvB Kivi cÖ‡hvRbxq Kvh©µg I Dccv`¨¸‡jvi cÖgvY _vK‡e|

Dccv`¨¸‡jvi e¨envwiK cÖ‡qv‡Mi D`vniY _vK‡e| Dccv`¨¸‡jv hvPvB Kivi cÖ‡hvRbxq Kvh©µg I Dccv`¨¸‡jvi cÖgvY _vK‡e| Dccv`¨¸‡jvi e¨envwiK cÖ‡qv‡Mi D`vniY _vK‡e|

 

120


PZz_© Aa¨vq : R¨vwgwZ

(10 wcwiqW )

wkLbdj

4. eªþ¸‡ßi Dccv`¨ cÖgvY I cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

5. U‡jwgi Dccv`¨ cÖgvY I cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

welqe¯‘ o wÎfz‡Ri †h‡Kv‡bv `yB evûi Ici Aw¼Z eM©‡ÿÎ؇qi mgwó, Z…Zxq evûi A‡a©‡Ki Ici eM©‡ÿÎ Ges H evûi mgwØLÐK ga¨gvi Ici eM©‡ÿ‡Îi mgw÷i wظY| o wÎfz‡Ri cwi‡K›`ª, fi‡K›`ª I j¤^we›`y mg‡iL| eªþ¸‡ßi Dccv`¨ o †Kv‡bv wÎfz‡Ri †h‡Kv‡bv `yB evûi AšÍ©MZ AvqZ‡ÿÎ H wÎfz‡Ri cwie„‡Ëi e¨vm Ges H evû؇qi mvaviY we›`y †_‡K f~wgi Ici Aw¼Z j‡¤^i AšÍM©Z AvqZ‡ÿ‡Îi mgvb| U‡jwgi Dccv`¨ o e„‡Ë AšÍwj©wLZ †K‡bv PZzfz©‡Ri KY©Ø‡qi AšÍM©Z AvqZ‡ÿÎ H PZzfy©‡Ri wecixZ evû؇qi AšÍM©Z AvqZ‡ÿ‡Îi mgwói mgvb|

Pjgvb 2 wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

 eªþ¸‡ßi Dccv`¨ I U‡jwgi Dccv‡`¨i cÖ‡qvM ev¯Íe D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g Dc¯’vcb|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv 

Dccv`¨¸‡jvi e¨envwiK cÖ‡qv‡Mi D`vniY _vK‡e|

Dccv`¨¸‡jv hvPvB Kivi cÖ‡hvRbxq Kvh©µg I Dccv`¨¸‡jvi cÖgvY _vK‡e|

Dccv`¨¸‡jvi e¨envwiK cÖ‡qv‡Mi D`vniY _vK‡e|

121


cÂg Aa¨vq : R¨vwgwZK A¼b (12 wcwiqW ) wkLbdj welqe¯‘ eyw×e„Ëxq  wewea R¨vwgwZK A¼b 1. cÖ`Ë Z_¨ I Dcv‡Ëi wfwˇZ  wÎfzR msµvšÍ wÎfzR A¼b Ges A¼‡bi o wÎfz‡Ri f~wg, f~wg msjMœ h_v_©Zv hvPvB Ki‡Z cvi‡e| GKwU †KvY I D”PZv †`Iqv Av‡Q, wÎfzRwU A¼b Ki‡Z n‡e| o wÎfz‡Ri f~wg , wkit‡KvY I Acievû؇qi mgwó †`Iqv Av‡Q, wÎfzRwU A¼b Ki‡Z n‡e | o wÎfz‡Ri f~wg, wkit‡KvY Ges Aci `yBevûi AšÍi †`Iqv Av‡Q, wÎfzRwU A¼b Ki‡Z n‡e | o wÎfz‡Ri D”PZv, f~wgi Dci ga¨gv Ges f~wg msjMœ GKwU †KvY †`Iqv Av‡Q wÎfzRwU A¼b Ki‡Z n‡e| 2. cÖ`Ë Z_¨ I Dcv‡Ëi wfwˇZ  e„Ë msµvšÍ e„Ë A¼b Ges A¼‡bi o Ggb GKwU e„Ë A¼b Ki‡Z h_v_©Zv hvPvB Ki‡Z cvi‡e| n‡e hv `yBwU wbw`©ó we›`y w`‡q hvq Ges hvi †K›`ª GKwU wbw`©ó mij‡iLvq Aew¯’Z _v‡K|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv  R¨vwgwZK hš¿cvwZi gva¨‡g ‡ev‡W© wÎfzR A¼b| `jMZ KvR : wÎfz‡Ri wZbwU wewfbœ cwigvc †`Iqv _vK‡j wÎfzRwU A¼b m¤¢e wKbv-Zv hvPvB Ges Av‡jvPbv gva¨‡g wm×v‡šÍ DcbxZ nIqv|

 e„Ë A¼b msµvšÍ Abykxjb|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv   

A¼‡bi mwVKZv| A¼‡bi h_v_©Zv| wm×v‡šÍi mwVKZv|

†kÖwY Awfÿvi gva¨‡g A¼‡bi mwVKZv I h_v_©Zv|

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv 

cÖ`Ë Z_¨ I Dcv‡Ëi wfwˇZ wÎfzR A¼b Ges A¼‡bi h_©v_Zv hvPvB Gi eY©bv _vK‡e|

cÖ`Ë Z_¨ I Dcv‡Ëi wfwˇZ e„Ë A¼b Ges A¼‡bi h_©v_Zv hvPvB Gi eY©bv _vK‡e|

122


cÂg Aa¨vq : R¨vwgwZK A¼b (12 wcwiqW ) wkLbdj

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

welqe¯‘ o GKwU wbw`©ó †iLvs‡ki mgvb e¨vmva©wewkó GKwU e„Ë A¼b Ki‡Z n‡e hv `yBwU wbw`©ó we›`y w`‡q hvq| o Giƒc GKwU e„Ë A¼b Ki‡Z n‡e hv GKwU wbw`©ó e„ˇK wbw`©ó we›`y‡Z ¯úk© K‡i Ges e„‡Ëi ewnt¯’ †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó we›`y w`‡q hvq| o Giƒc GKwU e„Ë A¼b Ki‡Z n‡e hv GKwU wbw`©ó mij‡iLv‡K GKwU wbw`©ó we›`y‡Z ¯úk© K‡i Ges ‡iLvi ewnt¯’ †Kv‡bv we›`y w`‡q hvq|

Pjgvb 2 wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv

123


lô Aa¨vq : AmgZv

(10 wcwiqW )

wkLbdj

welqe¯‘

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

eyw×e„Ëxq 1. GK I `yB Pj‡Ki GK  GK I `yB Pj‡Ki GK NvZwewkó AmgZv e¨vL¨v NvZwewkó AmgZv| Ki‡Z cvi‡e| o mij AmgZvi mgvavb 2. GK I `yB PjKwewkó mij o mij AmgZvi ‡jLwPÎ AmgZv MVb I mgvavb o ev¯ÍewfwËK MvwYwZK Ki‡Z cvi‡e| mgm¨vq AmgZv e¨envi 3. ev¯ÍewfwËK MvwYwZK mgm¨vq AmgZv e¨envi K‡i mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

g‡bv‡cwkR 4. GK I `yB PjKwewkó AmgZv‡K †jLwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

 | − | ≤ ,| − | ≥ ,

RvZxq AmgZvi mgvavb c×wZ Dc¯’vcb| ev¯ÍewfwËK mgm¨vq AmgZvi e¨vL¨v MVb I mgvav‡bi Dc¯’vcb|

GK I `yB PjKwewkó AmgZv‡K †jLwP‡Î Dc¯’vcb I mgvav‡bi e¨vL¨v|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

 AmgZv MV‡b mÿgZv I mgvav‡bi mwVKZv|

 †jLwPÎ A¼‡bi h_v_©Zv I mgvav‡bi mwVKZv|

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv  

AmgZv I mgxKi‡Yi cv_©K¨ D`vniYmn eY©bv _vK‡e| RxebNwbó mgm¨vq AmgZv e¨envi Kivi †KŠk‡ji D`vniYmn e¨vL¨v _vK‡e|

GK I `yB PjKwewkó AmgZv‡K †jLwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ mgvavb Kivi †KŠkj e¨vL¨v _vK‡e|

124


mßg Aa¨vq : Amxg aviv (7 wcwiqW ) wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. AbyK&ª‡gi aviYv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. Amxg aviv wPwýZ Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. Amxg ¸‡YvËi avivi mgwó _vKvi kZ© e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. Amxg ¸‡YvËi avivi mgwó wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

5. Ave„Ë `kwgK msL¨v‡K AbšÍ ¸‡YvËi avivq cÖKvk Ges mvaviY fMœvs‡k iƒcvšÍi Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

welqe¯‘ 

AbyK&ªg

Amxg aviv

Amxg ¸‡YvËi aviv

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

 †Kv‡bv K¬v‡k wkÿv_x©‡`i Avmb

 Ave„Ë `kwgK msL¨v‡K AbšÍ ¸‡YvËi avivq cÖKvk Ges mvaviY fMœvs‡k iƒcvšÍi

Abyhvqx †ivj b¤^i¸‡jvi µgvš^‡q mvRv‡j GKwU Abyµg cvIqv hvq| GQvov †Kv‡bv †kÖwYi wkÿv_x©‡`i D”PZv µgvš^‡q mvRv‡j GKwU Abyµg cvIqv hvq| GB ai‡Yi Av‡iv D`vniY w`‡q Abyµ‡gi Av‡jvPbv| Abyµg I avivi g‡a¨ wgj I Awgj Dc¯’vcb| Amxg ¸‡YvËi aviv e¨vL¨v I mgwó wbY©‡qi Av‡jvPbv| D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g Ave„Ë `kwgK msL¨vK AbšÍ avivq cÖKvk Ges mvaviY fMœvs‡k iƒcvšÍi|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv 

cÖ‡kœvˇii gva¨‡g welqe¯‘i mwVKZv|

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv   

 

Abyµg I avivi cv_©K¨ Kivi mÿgZv| mgwó wbY©‡qi mwVKZv| †kÖwY Awfÿvi gva¨‡g welqe¯‘i mwVKZv

 

Abyµg I avivi cv_©K¨ D`nviYmn eY©bv _vK‡e| Abyµg I avivi wbw`©ó c` †ei Kivi †KŠkj D`vniYmn eY©bv _vK‡e| Amxg ¸‡YvËi avivi mgwó wbY©q Kivi c×wZmn eY©bv _vK‡e|

Ave„Ë `kwg‡Ki e¨vL¨vmn eY©bv _vK‡e| D`vniYmn Ave„Ë `kwgK msL¨v‡K iƒcvšÍi Kivi †KŠk‡ji eY©bv _vK‡e|

125


Aóg Aa¨vq : w·KvYwgwZ wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. †iwWqvb cwigv‡ci aviYv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. †iwWqvb cwigvc I wWwMª cwigv‡ci cvi¯úwiK m¤úK© wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. PviwU PZzf©v‡M w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZmg~‡ni wPý wb‡`©k Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. Ab~aŸ© 2 †Kv‡Yi w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZ wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. −θ †Kv‡Yi w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZ wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 6. c~Y©msL¨v n (n≤4)Gi Rb¨ ( ± ) ‡Kv‡Yi w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZ wbY©q I cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

(22 wcwiqW ) welqe¯‘      

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

 †h‡Kv‡bv e¨vmv‡a©i e„Ë A¼b K‡i myZvi mvnv‡h¨ e¨vmv‡a©i mgvb e„ËPvc wb‡q †iwWqvb cwigvc I wWwMª †iwWqvb ‡KvY cwigv‡ci aviYv | cwigv‡ci cvi¯úwiK m¤úK©  QK c~i‡Yi gva¨‡g †iwWqvb †Kv‡Yi aªyeZv hvPvB PviwU PZy©fv‡M w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZmg~‡ni wPý †iwWqvb cwigvc

Ab~aŸ© 2 †Kv‡Yi w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZ −θ †Kv‡Yi w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZ c~Y©msL¨v n (n≤4)Gi Rb¨ ( ± ) ‡Kv‡Yi w·KvYwgwZK AbycvZ wbY©q I cÖ‡qvM

s1

s2

s3

mnR w·KvYwgwZK mgxKi‡Yi mgvavb

QK c~i‡Yi mwVKZv

†iwWqvb cwigvc I wWwMª cwigv‡ci cvi¯úwiK m¤úK © D`vniYmn eY©bv _vK‡e|

w·Kv‡bvwgwZK mgxKiY mgvav‡b jÿ ivL‡Z n‡e †hb mgvav‡b †Kv‡Yi gvb ( ) †hb mviwY e¨envi bv Ki‡Z nq, A_©vr θ Gi gvb 0, , , I hv Zv‡`i †Kvb ¸wYZK wKš‘ 2 Gi g‡a¨ _v‡K| K¨vjKz‡jUi e¨envi Ki‡Z nq, Ggb mgm¨v = n‡j †hgb KZ ?

r1 r2 r3 r4 e¨vmva© (r)

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv

s4

QK c~iY :

7. mnR w·KvYwgwZK mgxKi‡Yi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

Pvc (s)

(†iwWqvb)

[wkÿv_x©iv r I S cwigvc K‡i QKwU c~iY Ki‡e|]

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

mgvavb¸‡jvi Ae¯’vb PZzf©v‡M Dc¯’vcb

 

mgvav‡b mwVKZv PZzf©v‡M we›`ycvZ‡b mwVKZv 

126


beg Aa¨vq : m~PKxq I jMvwi`gxq dvskb (12 wcwiqW ) wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. g~j` m~PK I Ag~j` m~PK e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. g~j` I Ag~j` m~P‡Ki Rb¨ wewfbœ m~Î cÖgvY I cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. m~PK I jMvwi`‡gi cvi¯úwiK m¤ú©K e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. jMvwi`‡gi wewfbœ m~Î cÖgvY I cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

welqe¯‘  g~j` I Ag~j` m~PK

 m~PK m¤úwK©Z wewfbœ m~Î (g~j` I Ag~j` m~P‡Ki Rb¨)  jMvwi`g o y=ax, x=logay o jMvwi`‡gi m~Îvewj ‘

5. jMvwi`‡gi wfwË cwieZ©b Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 6. m~PKxq , jMvwi`gxq I ciggvb dvsk‡bi aviYv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e Ges mnR MvwYwZK mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| g‡bv‡cwkR 7. m~PKxq, jMvwi`gxq I ciggvb dvskb mgyn‡K †jLwP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 8. K¨vjKz‡jU‡ii mvnv‡h¨ jM I cÖwZjM wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| Av‡eMxq 9. dvskbmg~‡ni ‡jLwPÎ A¼‡b AvMÖnx n‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

 m~PKxq , jMvwi`gxq I ciggvb dvskb

dvskbmg~‡ni †jLwPÎ

K¨vjKz‡jU‡ii mvnv‡h¨ jM I cÖwZjM wbY©q

2 = 2,

2 = 8,

log 2 = 1

GBfv‡e = Dc¯’vcb|

log 8 = 3

 

Ges = log

3 =9

( log

), ln , log

log 3 log 9

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv   

Gi 

m~PKxq, jMvwi`gxq I cigvb dvsk‡bi e¨vL¨v Ges MvwYwZK mgm¨v mgvav‡b G‡`i e¨env‡ii Av‡jvPbv|

, log

g~j` I Ag~j` m~PK wPwýZKiY QK c~iY : 3 =3

D`vni‡Yi gva¨‡g jMvwi`‡gi wfwË cwieZ©‡bi Av‡jvPbv | = = log 4 × log 10 †hgb-

2 ,

log 4 = 2

2 = 16 , log 16 = 4

 

D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ g~j` m~PK I Ag~j` m~P‡Ki e¨vL¨v, cÖgvY I cÖ‡qv‡Mi Dc¯’vcb| 2 =4,

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

,| |

Ges | − 1| RvZxq dvsk‡bi †jLwPÎ A¼b †cv÷vi/gvwëwgwWqv BZ¨vw`‡Z Dch©y³ wel‡q Dc¯’vcb| wkÿK nv‡Z Kj‡g K¨vjKz‡jU‡ii e¨envi wewa ‡`Lv‡eb| GKK KvR K¨vjKy‡jU‡ii mvnv‡h¨ jM I cÖwZjM wbY©q Kiv|

†kÖwY Awfÿv

GZ`m¤úwK©Z MvwYwZK mgm¨v mgvav‡bi mwVKZv

†jLwPÎ A¼‡bi h_v_©Zv|

g~j Gi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| g~j` fMœvsk m~PK Ges Ag~j` m~PK D`vniYmn eY©bv _vK‡e| g~j` m~PK, abvZ¥K c~Y© mvswL¨K m~PK, ïb¨ I abvZœK c~Y© mswL¨K m~PK Gi D`vniYmn eY©bv _vK‡e| cÖwZj‡Mi(antilog)we¯Ívw iZ e¨vL¨v _vK‡e|

j‡Mi wfwË cwieZ©‡bi m~‡Îi cÖgvY I D`vniY _vK‡e|

‡Wv‡gb I †iÄmn m~PKxq, jMvwi`gxq I ciggvb dvsk‡bi msÁv, ‡jLwPÎ, D`vniY I cÖ‡qvM _vK‡e| K¨vjKz‡iU‡ii mvnv‡h¨ jM I cÖwZjM wbY©q Kivi Kvh©µg AšÍfz©³ _vK‡e|

127


`kg Aa¨vq : wØc`x we¯Í…wZ

(07 wcwiqW )

wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. wØc`x we¯Í…wZ eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. c¨vm‡Kj wÎfzR MVb Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. ¯^vfvweK msL¨vi Nv‡Zi Rb¨ wØc`x we¯Í…wZ eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

welqe¯‘  wØc`x we¯Í…wZ  c¨vm‡Kj wÎfzR MVb

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv 

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv

( + ) , ( + ) , ( + ) Ges ( + ) Gi we¯Í…wZi K‡i mnM¸‡jvi

c¨vm‡K‡ji wÎfzR m~‡Îi  mvnv‡h¨ wØc`x we¯Ív‡ii  mnM wbY©‡qi mÿgZv|

gvb wbY©‡qi mwVKZv|

mgvav‡bi mwVKZv|

gva¨‡g c¨vm‡Kj wÎfzR MVb| GKBfv‡e cieZx© gvÎvi we¯Ív‡ii Av‡jvPbv|

mvaviY Nv‡Zi Rb¨ wØc`x we¯Í…wZ

4. n! I nCr Gi gvb wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

n! I nCr Gi gvb

D`vn‡Yi gva¨‡g n! I nCr Gi gvb wbY©‡qi e¨vL¨v

5. wØc`x we¯Í„wZ e¨envi K‡i MvwYwZK mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

MvwYwZK mgm¨v mgvavb

MvwYwZK mgm¨v mgvav‡b wØc`x we¯Í…wZ e¨env‡ii Av‡jvPbv

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

wØc`x we¯Í…wZi eY©bv _vK‡e| c¨vm‡Kj wÎfzR MV‡bi e¨vL¨v _vK‡e|

mvaviY Nv‡Zi Rb¨ wØc`x we¯Í…wZ eY©bv _vK‡e| (n≤8)

n! I nCr Gi gvb wbY©q _vK‡e| n ¯^vfvweK msL¨v ( n≤8)

128


GKv`k Aa¨vq : ¯’vbv¼ R¨vwgwZ wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. mgZ‡j Kv‡Z©mxq ¯’vbv‡¼i aviYv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

2. `yBwU we›`yi ga¨eZx© `~iZ¡ wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

(12 wcwiqW ) welqe¯‘ 

mgZ‡j Kv‡Z©mxq ¯’vbv¼

`yBwU we›`yi ga¨eZx© `~iZ¡

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv 

D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ mgZ‡j †hgb ‡Uwej, eø¨vK‡evW© I KvM‡Ri Dci ci®úi `yBwU j¤^vjw¤^ †iLv †U‡b Aÿ I PZz©fv‡Mi aviYv Ges wewfbœ PZz©fv‡M we›`ycvZb| MÖvd‡ccv‡i/MÖvd‡ev‡W©i mvnv‡h¨ mgZ‡j †h‡Kv‡bv `yBwU we›`yi `~iZ¡‡K GKwU mg‡KvYx wÎfz‡Ri AwZfzR wnmv‡e we‡ePbv K‡i Gi ‰`N©¨ wbY©q| GKK KvR: QK c~iY

(x1,y1)

(2,1)

3. mij‡iLvi Xv‡ji aviYv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

mij‡iLvi Xvj I mgxKiY

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

(x2,y2)

(x2-x1)

(y2-y1)

we›`y `yBwUi `~iZ¡

(2,3)

ev¯Íe‡ÿ‡Î Xv‡ji aviYv- †hgb iv¯Ívi Xvj, wU‡bi Pv‡ji Xvj,cyKzi cv‡oi Xvj, w¯øcv‡ii Xvj, wmuwoi Xvj BZ¨vw`i mvnv‡h¨ Xv‡ji aviYv e¨vL¨v| Xvj wbY©q o Djw¤ ^K `~iZ¡ I Avbyf~wgK `~i‡Z¡i gva¨‡g Xvj= DVv(rise)/nuvUv(run) o Xvj= tan =

    

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv

MÖv‡d cvwZZ we›`y †_‡K  Aÿmn fzR I †KvwU wPwýZ Kivi mÿgZv| wewfbœ PZz©fv‡M| we›`ycvZ‡bi mwVKZv| we›`y cvZ‡bi h_v_©Zv| MÖvd‡ccv‡i mg‡KvYx wÎfzR A¼‡bi  h_v_©Zv| we›`y `yBwUi `yiZ¡ wbY©‡qi mwVKZv|

mgZ‡j we›`yi Ae¯’vb wbY©‡qi †KŠk‡ji eY©bv _vK‡e|

`yBwU we›`yi ga¨eZx© `~iZ¡ wbY©‡qi m~Î _vK‡e|

QK wbY©q : (x1, y1 )

(x2, y2 )

(1,1)

(2,2)

(-1,2)

(-2,3)

(-2,-3)

(-3,-4)

(2,-3)

(3,-4)

Xvj

 

`yBwU we›`yi ms‡hvM †iLvi Xvj wbY©‡qi m~Î _vK‡e| `yBwU we›`yi ms‡hv‡M MwVZ mij †iLvi mgxKiY I mgxKiY †_‡K Xvj I †Q`K wbY©q _vK‡e|

129


GKv`k Aa¨vq : ¯’vbv¼ R¨vwgwZ wkLbdj

(12 wcwiqW )

Pjgvb 2

welqe¯‘

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

4. mij‡iLvi mgxKiY wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

g~jwe›`yMvgx mij‡iLvi mgxKiY y = mx AvKv‡i cÖKvk Ges y = mx + c mgxKiY wbY©‡qi Av‡jvPbv|

Xvj wbY©‡qi h_v_©Zv

5. ¯’vbv‡¼i gva¨‡g wÎfz‡Ri †ÿÎdj wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

wÎfzR‡ÿ‡Îi ‡ÿÎd‡ji mvnv‡h¨ eûfz‡Ri †ÿÎdj (2,2),(4,3),(5,5),(3,7) I (-1,5) we›`y¸‡jv‡K mgZ‡j cvZb K‡i Drcbœ R¨vwgwZK ‡ÿÎwUi †ÿÎdj| wewfbœ PZzf©v‡M we›`ycvZb K‡i wÎfzR I PZzfz©R‡ÿ‡Îi †ÿÎdj| mgxKi‡Y y=0 ewm‡q x A‡ÿi Dci ‡Kv‡bv we›`y wb‡q Ges X=0 ewm‡q Y A‡ÿi Dci we›`y wb‡q Ges we›`yØq †hvM K‡i †jLwP‡Î mij †iLvwU‡K †`Lv‡bv|

A¼‡bi h_v_©Zv Ges †ÿÎdj wbY©‡qi mwVKZv A¼‡bi h_v_©Zv

6. evûi ˆ`N©¨ wbY©‡qi gva¨‡g wÎfzR I PZzf©z‡Ri †ÿÎdj wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

g‡bv‡cwkR 7. we›`ycvZ‡bi gva¨‡g wÎfzR I PZzf©zR msµvšÍ R¨vwgwZK A¼b Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 8. mij‡iLvi mgxKiY †jLwP‡Î Dc¯’vcb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

wÎfzR I PZzf©zR A¼b

mij‡iLvi †jLwPÎ

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

wÎfzR I PZzf©z‡Ri †ÿÎdj

 

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv 

wZbwU we›`yi mvnv‡h¨ MwVZ wÎfz‡Ri †ÿÎdj wbY©‡qi Rb¨, †ÿÎdj= ( − )( − )( − )

m~Î Øviv gvb wbY©q _vK‡e|

130


Øv`k Aa¨vq : †f±i

(10 wcwiqW )

wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. †¯‹jvi ivwk I †f±i ivwk eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. †¯‹jvi ivwk I †f±i ivwk cÖZx‡Ki mvnv‡h¨ e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

3. mgvb †f±i, wecixZ †f±i I Ae¯’vb †f±i e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

welqe¯‘ 

†¯‹jvi ivwk I †f±i ivwk

mgvb †f±i, wecixZ †f±i I Ae¯’vb †f±i

4. †f±‡ii †hvM I †hvMwewa e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. †f±‡ii we‡qvM e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

6. †f±‡ii †¯‹jvi ¸wYZK I GKK †f±i e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 7. †f±‡ii †¯‹jvi ¸wYZK I e›Ubwewa e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 8. †f±‡ii mvnv‡h¨ wewfbœ R¨vwgwZK mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

†f±‡ii †¯‹jvi ¸wYZK I GKK †f±i

wewfbœ R¨vwgwZK mgm¨v

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

†f±i †hvM I †hvMwewa

  

ch©vß D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨, †hgb-K¬v‡k Qv·`i msL¨v MYbv K‡i †h mKj ivwk¸‡jv cvIqv †Mj Zv †¯‹jvi Ges K¬vk iæg †_‡K cÖavb wkÿ‡Ki iyg ch©šÍ `~i‡Z¡i mv‡_ w`K hy³ _vKvq H `~iZ¡ wb‡`©kK ivwk n‡jv miY hv GKwU †fKUi| GKBfv‡e ZvcgvÎv, mgq, fi BZ¨vw` †¯‹jvi ivwk Ges †eM, Z¡iY, IRb BZ¨vw` †f±i ivwk wnmv‡e Dc¯’vcb| wPÎ I D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ mgvb †f±i, wecixZ †f±i I Ae¯’vb †f±‡ii e¨vL¨v †Kv‡bv †f±i ⃗ †K ⃗Ges ⃗Gi gva¨‡g cÖKvk †hgb- ⃗= +⃗ ⃗ mvgvšÍwiK I wÎfzR m~‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ †hvM I †hvMwewai e¨vL¨v Ges D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ Av‡jvPbv| †¯‹jvi ¸wYZ‡K g~j` msL¨v (k~b¨, aYvZœK, FYvZœK I fMœvsk) Øviv ¸Ymg~n wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ Dc¯’vcb|

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv

†¯‹jvi I †f±i wPwýZKiY|

†¯‹jvi ivwk I †f±i ivwk eY©bv I cÖZx‡Ki mvnv‡h¨ e¨vL¨v _vK‡e|

wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ mgvb †f±i, wecixZ †f±i I Ae¯’vb †f±i| Ae¯’vb †f±i wbY©‡qi mÿgZv|

wPÎ I D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ mgvb †f±i , wecixZ †f±i I Ae¯’vb †f±‡ii e¨vL¨v _vK‡e| wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ †f±i †hvM I †hvMwewamg~‡ni (wewbgq wewa, ms‡hvM wewa) e¨vL¨v _vK‡e|

 

†hvMwewa cÖ‡qv‡Mi mÿgZv|

†¯‹jvi ¸Y‡K wP‡Î Dc¯’vcb Kivi mÿgZv|

†f±‡ii †¯‹jvi ¸wYZK, eÈbwewa I GKK †f±‡ii e¨vL¨v _vK‡e|

†f±‡ii mvnv‡h¨ †hb wewfbœ R¨vwgwZK mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cv‡i †mRb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq Kvh©µg _vK‡e|

131


·qv`k Aa¨vq : Nb R¨vwgwZ wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. Nbe¯‘i cÖZxKxq wPÎ A¼b Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

(14 wcwiqW ) welqe¯‘

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

 Nb R¨vwgwZi †gŠwjK aviYv  AvqZKvi Nbe¯‘ I NbK|

wewfbœ Nbe¯‘i bgybv cÖ`k©b K‡i wkÿv_x©‡`i  ¸Ye¯‘i mv‡_ cwiwPZ Kiv Ges Zv‡`i cÖZxwK wPÎ A¼‡bi mvnv‡h¨ Av‡jvPbv|

Nbe¯‘ wPwýZKiY I bgybv wPÎ A¼‡b mÿgZv|

2. wcÖRg, wcivwgW AvK…wZi e¯Íy,  wcÖRg, wcivwgW, †MvjK, I †MvjK I mge„Ëf~wgK mge„Ëf~wgK ‡KvY‡Ki ‡KvY‡Ki AvqZb Ges AvqZb Ges c„ôZ‡ji c„ôZ‡ji †ÿÎdj wbY©q †ÿÎdj | Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. Nb R¨vwgwZi aviYv cÖ‡qvM  ev¯Íe mgm¨v K‡i mgm¨v mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

KvMR I KKkx‡Ui mvnv‡h¨ Nbe¯‘ ˆZwi K‡i †m¸‡jvi †ÿÎdj I AvqZb wbY©‡qi Av‡jvPbv|

Nbe¯‘i †ÿÎdj AvqZb wbY©qKi‡Yi mwVKZv|

ev¯Íe †ÿ‡Î Nb R¨vwgwZi cÖ‡qvM K‡i wewfbœ mgm¨v mgvav‡bi Av‡jvPbv|

mgm¨v mgvav‡bi mwVKZv|

`yBwU e¯‘i mvnv‡h¨ Aci GKwU Nbe¯‘i ˆZwi K‡i Gi AvqZb I c„ôZ‡ji †ÿÎdj wbY©‡qi Av‡jvPbv: †hgb- `iRvi Dc‡ii Ask Aa© †MvjvKvi Ges evwK Ask AvqZKvi|

†hŠwMK Nbe¯‘i AvqZb I c„ôZ‡ji †ÿÎdj wbY©q Ki‡Yi mwVKZv|

o †cbwmj, †gvgevwZ, †Kvb AvK…wZi Nbe¯‘i c„ôZ‡ji †ÿÎdj I AvqZb cwigvc| o mylg Kuv‡Pi †evZj hvi wb‡Pi fvM wmwjÛvivK…wZ I Dc‡ii fvM †KvYvK…wZ Gi AvqZb cwigvc| o GKwU KvUy©‡bi Dci GKwU dyUej †i‡L Gi duvKv As‡ki AvqZb cwigvc|

g‡bv‡cwkR 4. †hŠwMK Nbe¯‘i AvqZb Ges c„ôZ‡ji †ÿÎdj cwigvc Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 5. Nb R¨vwgwZi aviYv e¨envwiK †ÿ‡Î cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

 †hŠwMK Nbe¯‘i AvqZb Ges c„ôZ‡ji †ÿÎdj cwigvc

GKK KvR/†Rvovq KvR

AvqZb wbY©q Ki‡Yi mwVKZv|

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv 

Nbe¯‘i cÖZxKxq wPÎ A¼‡bi ‡KŠkj _vK‡e|

ev¯Íe D`vniY I wP‡Îi mvnv‡h¨ wcÖRg , wcivwgW AvK…wZi e¯Zzi, mge„Ëf~wgK †KvYK I †Mvj‡Ki †ÿÎdj Ges AvqZb wbY©‡qi ‡KŠkj _vK‡e| wkÿv_x©iv †hb nv‡Z-Kj‡g wcÖRg, wcivwgW AvK…wZi e¯Zzi mge„Ëf~wgK †KvYK I †Mvj‡Ki †ÿÎdj Ges AvqZb wbY©q Ki‡Z cv‡i Zvi cÖ‡qvRbxq Kvh©µg AšÍf©y³ _vK‡e|

132


PZz`©k Aa¨vq : m¤¢vebv

(08 wcwiqW )

wkLbdj eyw×e„Ëxq 1. m¤¢vebvi aviYv e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 2. ˆ`bw›`b wewfbœ D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ wbwðZ NUbv, Am¤¢e NUbv I m¤¢ve¨ NUbv eY©bv Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 3. GKB NUbvi cybive„wË NU‡j m¤¢ve¨ djvdj wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e| 4. GKB NUbvi cybive„wË NU‡j m¤¢vebv wbY©q Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

welqe¯‘ 

m¤¢vebvi I Gi e¨envi o m¤¢vebvi aviYv o wbwðZ NUbv,Am¤¢e NUbv, m¤¢ve¨ NUbv o GKB NUbv Ab~aŸ© wZbevi cybive„wË NU‡j djvdj wbY©q (gy`ªv I Q°vi mvnv‡h¨) o mnR I ev¯ÍewfwËK mgm¨vi mgvavb

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv

 cÖwZw`‡bi AvenvIqv evZ©v, ‡Ljvq nviwR‡Zi  m¤¢vebv BZ¨vw`i mvnv‡h¨ m¤¢vebvi aviYv Dcövcb  m~‡h©v`q, m~h©v¯Í, w`bivwÎ BZ¨vw`i mvnv‡h¨  wbwðZ NUbv I Am¤¢e NUbvi e¨vL¨v cÖ`vb  jyWzi Q°vi mvnv‡h¨ m¤¢ve¨ NUbv Dc¯’vcb  GKB NUbvi Ab~aŸ© wZbevi cybive„wË NU‡j m¤¢ve¨ djvdj| gy`ªv wb‡ÿ‡ci mvnv‡h¨ Probability Tree MV‡bi gva¨‡g Dc¯’vcb Probability Tree H H H

‡gŠwLKfv‡e e¨vL¨v cÖ`v‡bi mwVKZv

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv 

mwVKfv‡e wewfbœ NUbv mbv³KiY 

D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ m¤¢vebvi aviYvi eY©bv _vK‡e| ‰`bw›`b wewfbœ D`vni‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ wbwðZ NUbv, Am¤¢e NUbv I m¤¢ve¨ NUbv eY©bv _vK‡e| gy`ªv I Q°vi mvnv‡h¨ GKB NUbvi Ab~aŸ© wZbevi cybive„wË NU‡j m¤¢ve¨ djvdj I m¤¢vebv wbY©‡qi eY©bv _vK‡e|

T H

T T

gy`ªvi wcV

H H T

T H

T T

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

133


PZz`©k Aa¨vq : m¤¢vebv

(08 wcwiqW )

Pjgvb 2

wkLbdj

welqe¯‘

wkLb-†kLv‡bv wb‡`©kbv

5. m¤¢vebvi mnR I ev¯ÍewfwËK mgm¨vi mgvavb Ki‡Z cvi‡e|

o mnR I ev¯ÍewfwËK mgm¨vi mgvavb

GKK KvR Dc‡ii Probability Tree Gi mvnv‡h¨ wb‡Pi QKwU

c~iY

gy`ªv wb‡ÿc GKevi gy`ªv wb‡ÿc `yBevi gy`ªv wb‡ÿc wZbevi gy`ªv wb‡ÿc

g~j¨vqb wb‡`©kbv  

mKj m¤¢ve¨ djvdj

m¤¢vebv

we‡kl †jLK wb‡`©kbv

m¤¢ve¨ djvdj wbY©‡qi mwVKZv m¤¢vebv wbY©‡qi wbfy©jZv

P[T ] = P[HT] = P[HHT] =

gy`ªv I Q°vi mvnv‡h¨ GKB NUbvi Ab~aŸ© wZbevi cybive„wË NU‡j m¤¢ve¨ djvdj I m¤¢vebv wbY©q Ki‡e Ges G‡K Ac‡ii LvZv g~j¨vqb Ki‡e

RvZxq wkÿvµg 2012

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RvZxq wkÿvµg I cvV¨cy¯ÍK †evW©, 69-70, 69 gwZwSj evwYwR¨K GjvKv, XvKvÑ1000

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