Working with People : Keywords

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Working with People Keywords

Curricular Frameworks 2014 Gabrielle Bendiner-Viani Shana Agid

Contents 3 Introduction to the Working with People: Keywords Project Two Modes of Curricular Structure Working with People: Keywords Resources Working with People Website Working with People Bibliography Intended Learning Outcomes Contributing to a Larger Whole Project Creators 7 General Use of the Working with People : Keywords Project Reading & Discussions Strategies Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Reading & Making 8 Using the Keywords Approach: 1. Add-On Framework 10 Using the Keywords Approach: 2. Stand-Alone Module 12 Sample Making Exercises 15 Bibliography Community, Democracy and Citizenship, Difference, Economy, Empathy, Ethnography, Human, Participation and Collaboration, Politics, Power and Resistance, Public, Representation, Sustainability

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Introduction “Working with People” creates a critical pedagogical framework for the increasing interest in higher education, in particular, in working with people beyond the academy in collaborative and generative practices. “Civic engagement,” “design for social change,” and other types of “engaged” pedagogical practice create both opportunities and responsibilities for developing new curricula that explicitly focus on teaching and learning about collaborative practices and contexts. This project seeks to bring questions of power and difference, as well as position and practice, into the development of “engaged” curricula and courses. This is especially critical when, as is often the case, the people and groups who make up the “partners” in communityuniversity partnerships are regarded as societal “others” and issues of sensitivity and translation across cultures or other real or perceived divides become a challenge. When we talk about community-university collaborations, some powerful words are ill-defined; other critical words are conspicuously absent. Hence, this project and its curricular framework hopes to foster challenging collisions between different understandings of crucial keywords to build a more nuanced way of working with people. Of course, the keywords approach, while drawing on the legacy of Raymond Williams and Cultural Studies, has its limitations - there could always be more or different words and words alone do not make up our tools for creating meaning. In that sense, the Working with People keywords are in some ways representational and in some ways provisional, and are as much meant to start a conversation as are the resources and videos themselves. We also chose this framework because, as Williams’ work suggests, the use of terms that describe and enable structural and systemic relationships of all kinds is always contingent, historically constructed, and contextual. These are the kinds of themes we see as fundamental to working with people. The keywords fall into two groups: those we found to be over-used and undertheorized in this kind of work, and others that are under-used and yet critical. Collaboration / Community / Difference / Empathy / Ethnography / Human / Participation / Politics / Power / Public / Representation / Sustainability The Working with People : Keywords curricular framework seeks to build a foundation for establishing reciprocal relationship-building through student and faculty interactions with community-based groups and non-profit organizations by exploring the complex and contradictory contexts in which users, collaborators, and organizations live and work. The curricular framework can be used in two ways : 1 Framework: To complement classes that in some way collaborate with community partners, or address real-world concerns, presented here as a

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framework format. 2 Stand-Alone: As a stand-alone short-course, potentially in preparation for later partnerships.

Two Modes Of Curricular Structure 1 Framework (For more, see Page 8) If used as a framework keywords can be connected to class units, acting as scaffolding for addressing the basic issues at the heart of any class’ more specific content. A selection of keywords can be picked that best apply to the course content, to help frame discussions. The curricular framework here is based on textual engagement, discussion and applied or “making” work. In the context of an existing course, this applied element would be woven into standing course outcomes / projects (i.e. final and mid-term projects such as oral histories, built environment designs, video projects etc.) 2 Stand-Alone (For more, see Page 10) If used as a stand-alone module, the Keywords project can take different forms of self-contained short courses (i.e. 3-week, weekend intensive, “just-in-time” workshops to complement another class’ or public event’s timeline). In this context, the modules are self-contained units, including word / word pairings, discussions, and applied or “making” exercises. WWP : Keywords Resources The Working with People : Keywords project has developed this curricular structure, along with two collections of resources to help teach with these words. The first is the Working with People website, and the second is an interdisciplinary bibliography of readings and resources organized by keyword. WWP Website : The WWP website consists of an ever-growing collection of short videos in which people from across all disciplines, and soon to be from both within the academy and a range of communities, define one of the 13 keywords from their perspective and the way they understand it in their own work. Inherent in this site is the dialogue between these sometimes-conflicting definitions of these complex words, underscoring that complexity and the resulting use of and need for discussion to fully engage their possible meanings. Through close analysis of what we mean when we use these words, working with the videos on the site also helps to shape conversations about what values we mean to have underpin our “work with people.” The first videos on this site come from a series of interviews done with New School faculty members across the different schools and divisions of the university. We asked them to choose two of the keywords we had identified as being under-defined, or under-used, and to define what these two words meant to them in the context of their

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own work. More videos will be added on an ongoing basis from individuals inside and outside the New School, and from students who take part in the WWP curriculum. WWP Bibliography This collection of readings and resources was developed by the WWP researchers from our own practice, and in conversation with many individuals across many disciplines to create a list of readings and resources that may sometimes be the iconic ones you might expect, while at other times are pithy, perhaps unexpected readings that help students compare and contrast differing definitions of these words, and how these words are used in distinct and often political ways, and for distinct and often political ends in different contexts. Intended Learning Outcomes Students in classes using the Keywords framework, or in workshops using the Keywords module curriculum (either in the 3 week or weekend variation) will have an opportunity to work with key terms that impact their work in class. This approach aims to a) deepen their understanding of those terms, and b) create possibilities for making new descriptions and definitions of these terms, especially in relationship to their coursework or research. Both of these outcomes are tied to the goal of deepening critical engagement with the ideas that inform the terms themselves as well as their use in the context of project-based collaborative or partner-based projects. In this sense, grappling with the keywords is a lens through which to address the larger dynamics and elements of working with people in a range of contexts. Students will practice working between interpreting and discussing readings and other resources and engaging in making practices, taking risks to apply critical thinking skills to those making practices, and using making as an outcome or articulation of doing critical thinking. Students will gain a facility with using theory and critical thinking to articulate arguments in multiple forms: text, conversation, and imagery/ space generation. Contributing to a Larger Whole In each format, outcomes of classes using the Keywords model should in some way feed back into the Working with People website, which acts as a resource for all of these courses. As more students and faculty engage with the keywords and contribute to the Working with People site, more perspectives and disciplines are represented in the video definitions, more resources for future classes are available, and more examples are given for faculty and others of the myriad ways to use and interpret this approach. Project Creators For four years, the research and curriculum-development project “Working with People,� led by Gabrielle Bendiner-Viani and Shana Agid, has been investigating and developing innovative pedagogical approaches to the growing field of community engaged design and liberal arts practice at the New School. The project has identified

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that there is often a gap in resources and critical engagement for both faculty and students doing projects “with communities,” and has developed the WWP curricular framework, hosted public events and created an online resource to investigate the keywords in these contexts. Please get in touch to let us know how you use this curriculum and resource, and if you’d like to contribute to WWP online. Gabrielle Bendiner-Viani : Shana Agid :

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General Use Reading & Discussion Strategies During class time, a group may watch 2-3 videos on a given keyword from the WWP site to start off discussion. Activity 1 A Brainstorming session around each word to come up with a co-produced definition. The keywords being discussed are written up on the board and then students suggest elements that fall under those words. (either by individually writing post-it notes of these elements that they then paste on the board, or one student is chosen to write ideas from the class on the blackboard - which can sometimes lead to a more lively discussion) Activity 2 A three-part brainstorm. Ask students to shout out words and ideas that they associate with the idea of the chosen keyword (for example : community) from three different perspectives and/or discourses: 1 What we think of in our lives 2 What we think of as people in our field 3 What we think is meant by it in the discourse in the field in which a project is taking place (e.g., in disaster preparedness, public housing etc.) Activity 3 A small, student-led group facilitation. Small groups of students can facilitate a class discussion on one of the keywords from the Working With People Curriculum and contextualize that keyword within that week’s readings. Groups will have 45 minutes for their facilitated class discussion. To prepare the class, groups must provide a list of five discussion questions to the entire class through a platform like Blackboard the day prior to the class session the students lead. Reading & Making The Keywords project curricular framework intertwines critical analysis of readings and other resources with “making” projects, with the idea that the act of making something in response to these abstract concepts helps to make what is at stake more concrete. The making projects outlined in this document are examples of those that can be used with this approach; these can be modified to suit the context and questions of a particular class or partnership, or a variety of other exercises can accompany the keywords approach.

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Using the Keywords Approach: 1. Add-On Framework (For more on Add-On Framework, see page 4) Example Case : Public + Difference In the example here, the words Public + Difference might be used in a class addressing community and public housing. These words might be discussed at the beginning of a unit on social factors. Public and difference in this context would be discussed at the beginning of the unit, with the class together coming up with their own definitions. Structure The Working with People Keywords are introduced at the beginning of a unit or module - choosing words that would best inform the upcoming module. The WWP readings frame the discussions that will later come from more specific readings on the course’s subject matter. At the beginning of a unit, 2-3 selected short WWP readings and 1-2 WWP videos are read / watched for that unit’s 1-2 keywords. In a class at the beginning of the unit, the unit’s keywords are discussed, based on the differing definitions presented in the readings and the videos. In this first class of the unit, the class can create their own definitions for the words, using the brainstorming strategies above, and at the end of the unit, once the classspecific readings, projects and community visits had been done, the class can hone and modify this definition. Sample Resources: Word Pairings : Public + Difference Pairing A • One video each from the WWP website : definitions of Public + Difference • Public: Delaney, Samuel. 1999. “Three, Two, One, Contact : Times Square Red,” Pp.109-200 in Times Square Red, Times Square Blue. New York, NY: New York University Press. • Difference: Conan Doyle, Arthur. 2012 [1891]. The Man with the Twisted Lip: The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes. New York, NY: Gramercy Park Press. Pairing B • One video each from the WWP website : definitions of Public + Difference • Public: Sennett, Richard. 1987. “The Public Domain.” Pp. 26-47 in The Public Face of Architecture. Nathan Glazer and Mark Lilla, Eds. New York, NY: The FreePress. • Difference: Toilet Training - A film by Tara Mateik and the Sylvia Rivera Law Project.

Working with People: Keywords 8 Pairing C • One video each from the WWP website : definitions of Public + Difference • Public: Davis, Mike. 1990. “Fortress L.A.” Pp. 221-264 in City of Quartz. New York, NY: Verso. • Difference: Anzaldua,Gloria. 1987. “How to Tame a Wild Tongue.” Pp. 3345 in Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. Available from class4/course_materials/files/anzaldua-wild-tongue.pdf Sample Resources : Single Words : Public, Difference Public • Two videos from the WWP website : definitions of “public” • Habermas, Jürgen. “Introduction.” From The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. • Delaney, Samuel “Three, Two, One, Contact : Times Square Red”, Times Square Red, Times Square Blue • Kristine Miller, “Condemning the Public in the New Times Square”. Designs on the Public: The Private Lives of New York’s Public Spaces Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 2007. Difference • Two videos from the WWP website : definitions of “difference” • Fanon, Frantz. “Introduction” and “The Fact of Blackness.” Black Skin White Masks. New York: Grove Press, 1967. • Rich, Adrienne. “Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence.” • Cisneros, Sandra. The House on Mango Street, excerpts Sample Discussion Questions : Public + Difference • • •

What is public? What is “the public”? How are these different? Are public spaces and public documents different? How? What is difference? Does it have a value - is it a good thing? A bad thing? How might it be interpreted as either in different circumstances What does difference have to do with public-ness? Does “public” always encompass some kind of difference? How or how not?

Integrating ‘Making’ Exercises In the framework model, making exercises are integrated with the course’s community partnership, so that the keywords are “applied” in the context of the course. You can see a list of possible “Making” exercises outlined at the end of this document. These can all be used and adapted to suit the subject matter / partnership of a specific course.

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Using the Keywords Approach: 2. Stand-Alone Module (For more on Stand-Alone Module, see page 4) Example Case : Representation + Ethnography The Stand-Alone Module may be applied in the form of a: • 3-Week Intensive • Weekend Workshop 3-Week Intensive Sample Resources : Representation + Ethnography Week 1 • • • • •

Representation: Roland Barthes, “Preface” and “The Great Family of Man,” from Mythologies, trans. Annette Lavers, New York: Hill and Wang, 1986 pp. 11-12, 100-102 Representation: 2 WWP videos of “Representation” Ethnography: James Clifford, “Partial Truths,” Writing Culture Ethnography: Hurston, Zora Neale. “Introduction” and any selections from Mules and Men Ethnography: Two Working With People videos of “Ethnography”

Week 2 • •

Representation: Corner, James. “The Agency of Mapping.” OR Something from Exhibiting Cultures (1991) (e.g., Ivan Karp, “Culture and Representation” pp. 1124) Ethnography: Zeisel, John, “Observing Physical Traces” in Inquiry by Design: Tools for environment-behavior research. New York: Cambridge, pp. 89-110

Week 3 • • •

Representation: Hall, Stuart. “The Work of Representation.” From Representation Representation: Davis, Angela Y. “Afro Images: Politics, Fashion, and Nostalgia.” Picturing Us : African American Identity in Photography. Ed. Deborah WillisThomas. New York: New Press : Distributed by W.W. Norton & Co., 1994. 170-79. Ethnography: David Valentine, Imagining Transgender, introduction

Weekend Workshop Sample Resources : Representation

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• • • •

Two WWP videos of “Representation” Hall, Stuart. “The Work of Representation.” From Representation Roland Barthes, “Preface” and “The Great Family of Man,” from Mythologies, trans. Annette Lavers, New York: Hill and Wang, 1986 pp. 11-12, 100-102 Wainaina, Binyavanga. “How to Write about Africa.” Granta 92 Winter 2005 and “How to Write about Africa II: The Revenge.” Bidoun #21 OR Davis, Angela Y. “Afro Images: Politics, Fashion, and Nostalgia.” Picturing Us : African American Identity in Photography. Ed. Deborah Willis-Thomas. New York: New Press : Distributed by W.W. Norton & Co., 1994. 170-79.

Sample Resources : Ethnography • • •

Two WWP videos of “Ethnography” Hurston, Zora Neale. “Introduction” and any selections from Mules and Men OR David Valentine, Imagining Transgender, introduction Zeisel, John, “Observing Physical Traces” in Inquiry by Design: Tools for environment-behavior research. New York: Cambridge, pp. 89-110

Sample Discussion Questions & Exercises : Representation + Ethnography These sample discussion questions are for both 3-week intensive or weekend workshop. • •

• • •

What is the role of representation in creating and sustaining meaning? What kinds of meanings (social, political, historical, other)? How do observations become representations? What is the role of the observer and reporter or image-maker in this process? Can you think of examples? [EXERCISE: using a contemporary advertising campaign relevant and/or familiar to the class, read one or more images in the campaign using Hall’s discussion of semiotics (signifier, signified, sign) and take the group from identification of visual components to cumulative and cultural meaning of the campaign - engage the question: how do images “mean” and mean differently in different contexts?] What is ethnography? Who uses it? (This can also be a moment to introduce some history of the field/practice that may not appear in readings directly.) What is ethnography’s role as a practice? What is the relationship of ethnography to representation? Historically? Now? What are some of the characteristics of observing? As a researcher, as a designer, as a member or participant? Does observation have effects on the people and things being observed?

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Sample ‘Making’ Exercises Exercise 1 : Listen / Interpret / Tell Two people acting out a story told by a third. (For example, could be used in conjunction w/ week 1 readings for 3-week representation and ethnography sample intensive above) Writing for 10 minutes (or less). Pick a good topic that people will be motivated to talk about in some detail and with some investment, e.g., a time they felt like an outsider, a time they felt misunderstood, a time they felt scared, nervous, triumphant. If there is a topic that pertains to the class, this can be a place to build a sense of relationship to the topic (e.g., a time you broke the rules is a good one for my course where we’re working on issues of prisons and policing, and most of my students tend not to have experience with these systems - this can build some connection to the idea of “wrongdoing” that they otherwise use to distance themselves from people with whom we’re working) Let students know that some of the stories will be shared with the group, but no one has to share theirs. Breaking up into groups of three or four. In that group, the students choose who is willing to share their story for the exercise. That students tells their story to the group and then, without answering any questions except simple clarifying ones, they leave the room (you can instruct students to take notes, if you like, or just let them know that they’ll get to hear the story once and then will not be able to ask questions of the teller after). Retelling the story. The remaining 2 or 3 students in the group then work together to retell the story, getting at its key elements, using themselves to do so. They can draw, use props, signs, each other, anything that seems appropriate, but they cannot ask questions of the teller. (The times this has worked best, I’ve told students that it doesn’t have to be a full on skit, but they should try to go beyond just reading the story how - think about how to represent key elements, using themselves.) Give them 10 minutes to get their story together, and when everyone is ready, ask the tellers to come back and ask for a volunteer group (not everyone will necessarily get to go). The re-tellers tell the story. Guide the students in the room to discuss what they’ve seen: I usually ask students to say what the story was, to talk about any tension points or key moments of importance or meaning. I then ask the teller to talk about how closely their group got to their original story, noting places of divergence and anything that struck them. I close this exercise by asking what students in all the

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role noticed, felt, struggled with, etc. and what to make of differences between the tellers story, the story acted out by the group, and the meaning taken by the rest of the class. Exercise 2 : Contextual Observation (for example, could be used in conjunction w/ week 2 readings for 3-week representation and ethnography sample intensive above) Finding a Public Space and Observe Find a public place in the city and do two sets of observations, using Zeizel’s twocolumn observation method. First, walk around making visual observations (record these with sketches or photographs) for ten minutes. Second, sit in one place and use all of your senses to observe. Sit for 15 minutes, writing down what you see, hear, smell, etc. When you reflect (fill out the second column of the observation, look at and analyze the drawings or photos), what do you see? What can you propose about the space? Anything surprising? Confusing? Expected? Doing Some Research Leave the space and do some research. Find an article, a photograph, a book, a song about your space. What kinds of observations / information / assumptions do you draw about your space from this representation? Are they different or similar to those observations you made being in the space yourself? Returning to the Site Finally, return to your site and have a short conversation with a person there, building on an observation that you have made about this site. Use this conversation as a preliminary way to ground your research and observations in other people’s lived experience of the site. Exercise 3 : Representing an Idea in a Museum : Making an Object (for example, could be used in conjunction w/ week 3 readings for 3-week representation and ethnography sample intensive above) Creating an exhibition. The class will imagine that they are creating an exhibition centered on the two keywords. Small groups of students will work together to create an object for this exhibition. This object could be an artwork, or an installation, a game, a map, a film, a photographic montage, an experiment, a combination of all of these or something entirely different. It simply needs to be something that a member of the public could interact with, and walk away with some new thoughts on one or both keywords. It can address a realworld example of the keyword in action, or illustrate a more abstract idea.

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Posing central questions. The group can start by brainstorming an outline / idea for the object, then developing a central question for the object (as though it were a thesis question for a paper), defining the methods to be used in creating this object, finding images of other work that inspires the project, and then developing a series of preliminary visual sketches (inspirations, actual plans, diagrams or photos) to present the ideas to the class. Iterating. If there is time, in a second session, these initial ideas can be worked out and developed into a more fully-created object. Exercise 4 : Interviewing One Another (for example, could be used in a partnership class as a way of building definitions together) Creating joint definiton of Keywords. It is particularly useful to have students, or students and community partners, jointly create a definition of one of these words, through video interview, collaborative art practice, or other methods. This version uses reciprocal interviewing as a method for developing a joint definition. Conducting reciprocal interviewing. Groups of students, or students and community partners together, can engage in a “StoryCorps� type interview framework, in which they each grapple with one or two of the keywords that have been central to the class, and/or which are central to the work of a community partner. This reciprocal interviewing process helps ground the engagement with the keywords and uses language as a bridge between the shared and differing perspectives that may be held by individual students, or students and community partners (or other pairings of people coming to the project from different perspectives). These videos can be screened in class, and potentially at a community site, for the other students and partners, to promote further dialogue. These joint definitions can also be contributed to the Working with People : Keywords website, and these negotiations will prove greatly useful for future classes using and responding to the WWP : Keywords project. Course professors can also provide context for these videos on the website, explaining the partnerships they emerged from, or specific challenges encountered in class or the partnership to which these videos may be responding. A variation of this exercise is being used in Judy Mejia’s class (which is piloting the Working with People framework), Youth Mentoring in the City at Eugene Lang the New School for Liberal Arts, Fall 2012.

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Duranti, Alessandro. Linguistic Anthropology. New York: Cambridge UP, 1997. Geertz, Clifford. “Thick Description.” The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. New York: Basic, 1973. Hurston, Zora Neale. Mules and Men. New York: Perennial Library, 1990. Valentine, David. “Introduction.” Imagining Transgender: An Ethnography of a Category. Durham: Duke UP, 2007. Zeisel, John. “Observing Physical Traces.” Inquiry by Design: Tools for Environment behavior Research. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole Pub., 1981. pp 89-110. Human Bonvillain, Nancy, and Frank W. Porter. The Zuni. New York: Chelsea House, 1995. Bulgakov, Mikhail, and Michael Glenny. The Heart of a Dog. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1968. Jones, Kellie, and Amiri Baraka. “On Diaspora, and In Visioning.” Eyeminded: Living and Writing Contemporary Art. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2011. “Genesis 1.” The Holy Bible: New International Version, Containing the Old Testament and the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Bible, 1978. Gonzalez, Jennifer. “Morphologies: Race as a Visual Technology.” Only Skin Deep : Changing Visions of the American Self. Eds. Coco Fusco and Brian Wallis. New York: International Center of Photography : Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 2003. 379-93. Gordon, Avery. “Complex Personhood.” Ghostly Matters: Haunting and the Sociological Imagination. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota, 1997. The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey. Dir. Clive Maltby. Perf. William H. Calvin, Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Nina Jablonski. PBS, 2003. Documentary Film. Kafka, Franz. “Investigations of a Dog.” Franz Kafka: The Writings and Diaries. London: Heinemann Octopus, 1976. LeBlanc, Adrian Nicole. Random Family: Love, Drugs, Trouble, and Coming of Age in the Bronx. New York: Scribner, 2003. Maritain, Jacques, and John J. Fitzgerald. The Person and the Common Good. New York: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1947. Mitchell, William J. “Cyborg Citizens.” City of Bits: Space, Place, and the Infobahn. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1995.

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“The New Face of America.” Time Magazine 18 Nov. 1993 Paul Deussen, Alfred Shenington Geden. “Hiranyagarbha.” The Philosophy of the Upanishads. T. & T. Clark, 1906. Rosenblueth, Arturo, Julian Bigelow, and Norbert Wiener. Behavior, Purpose and Teleology. Quickborn: Schnelle, 1967 Vernant, Jean-Pierre. “The Cosmos.” The Origins of Greek Thought. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1982. Whitman, Walt. “Weave In, Weave In, My Hardy Life.” Selected Poems of Walt Whitman. Franklin Center, PA: Franklin Library, 1983. Zolbrod, Paul G. Diné Bahaneʻ: The Navajo Creation Story. Albuquerque: U of New Mexico, 1984. Participation and Collaboration Bellah, Robert N. “Getting Involved.” Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. Berkeley: U of California, 1985. Bierria, Alisa, and Mayaba Liebenthal. “To Render Ourselves Visible: Women of Color Organizing & Hurricane Katrina.” < ourselves-visible-women-color-organizing-hurricane-katrina>. Bourriaud, Nicolas. “Relational Form.” Relational Aesthetics. Dijon: Leses Du Réel, 2002. Bruce, Perens. “The Open Source Definition.” Perens Open Source Definition LG #26. Web. 12 Aug. 2014. De Tocqueville, Alexis. “Political Associations in the United States.” Democracy in America. Vol. 1. 1840. Duranti, Alessandro. A Companion to Linguistic Anthropology. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub., 2004. Finkelpearl, Tom, and Vito Acconci. Dialogues in Public Art: Interviews with Vito Acconci, John Ahearn ... Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2000. Huelguera, Pablo. “Education for Socially Engaged Art.” <http://pablohelguera. net/2011/11/education-for-socially-engaged-art-2011/>. Politics Alinsky, Saul David. “Tactics.” Rules for Radicals; a Practical Primer for Realistic Radicals. New York: Random House, 1971.

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Duggan, Lisa. The Twilight of Equality: Neoliberalism, Cultural Politics, and the Attack on Democracy. Boston: Beacon, 2003. Goldman, Emma. Anarchism: What It Really Stands for. New York: Mother Earth Pub. Association, 1916. Hamilton, Alexander, James Madison, and John Jay. The Federalist a Collection of Essays, Written in Favour of the New Constitution, as Agreed upon by the Federal Convention, September 17, 1787.: In Two Volumes. Vol. I. New York: Printed and Sold by J. and A. M’Lean, No. 41, Hanover-Square., 1788. Hooks, Bell. “Homeplace: A Site of Resistance.” Yearning: Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics. Boston, MA: South End, 1990. Kobena Mercer, “Reading Racial Fetishism.” Welcome to the Jungle. New York: Routledge, 1994 pp.171-219 Weber, Max. “Political Communities.” Economy and Society; an Outline of Interpretive Sociology. New York: Bedminster, 1968. Power and Resistance Arendt, Hannah. On Violence. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1970. Chamoiseau, Patrick, Rose-Myriam Réjouis, and Val Vinokur. Texaco. New York: Pantheon, 1997. Fanon, Frantz, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Constance Farrington. “Violence.” The Wretched of the Earth. New York: Grove, 1965. Freire, Paulo. “Chapter 1.” Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum, 2000. Foucault, Michel, and Colin Gordon. “The Eye of Power.” Power/knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972-1977. New York: Pantheon, 1980. Freeman, Jo. The Tyranny of Structurelessness. London (c/o 5 Caledonian Rd., N1 9DX): Dark Star, 1982. Gecan, Michael. Going Public. Boston: Beacon, 2002. Goldman, Emma, and Richard Drinnon. Anarchism: And Other Essays. New York: Dover Publications, 1969. Marx, Karl, Friedrich Engels, and Frederic L. Bender. The Communist Manifesto: Annotated Text. New York: W.W. Norton, 1988. Melville, Herman. Bertleby the Scrivener. Melville House, 2011.

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Rosler, Martha, and Brian Wallis. “Planning: Power, Politics, People.” If You Lived Here: The City in Art, Theory, and Social Activism. Seattle, WA: Bay, 1991. Self, Robert O. “Introduction.” American Babylon: Race and the Struggle for Postwar Oakland. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2003. Public “596 Acres: Home.” 596 Acres: Home. Web. 12 Aug. 2014. “BLOG | Public Interest Design.” BLOG | Public Interest Design. Web. 13 Aug. 2014. Creative Disruption of Everyday Life. North Adams, MA: MASS MoCA, 2004. Davis, Mike. “Fortress L.A.” City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles. London: Verso, 1990. Delany, Samuel R. Times Square Red, Times Square Blue. New York: New York UP, 1999. Habermas, Jürgen. Introduction. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1989. Jackson, Shannon. Lines of Activity: Performance, Historiography, Hull-House Domesticity. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan, 2000. Jackson, Shannon. Social Works: Performing Art, Supporting Publics. New York: Routledge, 2011. Jacobs, Jane. “The Uses of Sidewalks: Contact.” The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Kristine Miller, “Condemning the Public in the New Times Square”. Designs on the Public: The Private Lives of New York’s Public Spaces Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 2007. Massey, Doreen. “Space-Time and the Politics of Location”. Architecturally Speaking: Practices of Art, Architecture and the Everyday. ed Alan Read. New York: Routledge, 2000. Thompson, Nato, and Arjen Noordeman. Interventionists: Users’ Manual for the Creative Disruption of Everyday Life. North Adams, MA: MASS MoCA, 2004. Public Architecture 1% Solution. <>. Sennett, Richard. The Public Face of Architecture: Civic Culture and Public Spaces. Simon and Schuster, 1987. Wirth, Louis. Urbanism as a Way of Life. Chicago. 1938.

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Whyte, William Hollingsworth. “Design of Space.” The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces. Washington, D.C.: Conservation Foundation, 1980. Representation AREA Chicago, and Daniel Tucker. Notes for a People’s Atlas: People Making Maps of Their Cities. Chicago, Ill.: AREA Chicago, 2011. <http://peoplesatlas. com/>. Barthes, Roland, and Stephen Heath. “Rhetoric of the Image.” Image, Music, Text. New York: Hill and Wang, 1977. Corner, James. “The Agency of Mapping.” < ahgsa/Corner_Agency-of-Mapping1.pdf>. Davis, Angela Y. “Afro Images: Politics, Fashion, and Nostalgia.” Picturing Us : African American Identity in Photography. Ed. Deborah Willis-Thomas. New York: New Press : Distributed by W.W. Norton & Co., 1994. 170-79. Debord, Guy. “Commodity as Spectacle.” Society of the Spectacle. Detroit: Black and Red, 1977. Hall, Stuart. Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices. London: Sage in Association with the Open U, 1997. “Make The Road New York | Se Hace Camino Nueva York.” Make The Road New York | Se Hace Camino Nueva York. Roland, Barthes. “Preface,” “Soap-Powders and Detergents,” and “The Great Family of Man,” Mythologies, trans. Annette Lavers, New York: Hill and Wang, 1986 pp. 11-12, 36-38, 100-102. Stuart Hall, “Encoding / Decoding,” in Simon During, ed., The Cultural Studies Reader, New York: Routledge, 1993, 1999 pp. 507-517. Wainaina, Binyavanga. How to Write about Africa. Nairobi, Kenya: Kwani Trust, 2008. Wainaina, Binyavanga. “How to Write about Africa II: The Revenge.” Bidoun #21 < the-revenge-by-binyavanga-wainaina/>. Sustainability Berry, Wendell. “Getting Along With Nature.” Home Economics: Fourteen Essays. San Francisco: North Point, 1987.

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Carson, Rachel, Lois Darling, and Louis Darling. “Fable for Tomorrow.” Silent Spring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1962. Merchant, Carolyn. The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology, and the Scientific Revolution. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1980. Waininga, Benyavinga. “The Ethics of Aid,” < programs/2009/ethicsofaid-kenya>. The Whole Earth Catalogue. Issues from 1969 - 1972. < http://www.wholeearth. com/>.

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