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Ten Key Energy System Dynamics – And the Implications for Global Energy Company Communications

In this article we explore ten important dynamics of the global energy system, as it is currently evolving, and the implications for communications and positioning for global energy companies.

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The dynamics are:

Burson-Marsteller Global Energy Practice

April 2013

Increasing role of natural gas

Natural gas is the one fossil fuel that is expected to grow as a proportion of the overall energy mix in the coming decades. The International Energy Agency (IEA) has predicted it could replace coal as the second-largest energy source and that by 2035 it could account for 25 percent of the global energy mix. This is based on realistic assumptions that, if proven correct, would see a 50 percent rise in global natural gas demand. Natural gas would then be within reach of oil, which would have a predicted 27 percent share of global energy in the same scenario – down from around 31 percent today.

1. More challenging energy 2. Globalization of energy 3. Technology and innovation imperative 4. Increasing role of natural gas 5. Integration 6. Efficiency equation 7. Doubts about the alternatives

World Primary Energy Demand by Fuel in the Gas Scenario

8. Growing focus on energy access 9. Green and carbon agenda 10. Energy jobs Parts 1-3 can be found at the following link: http://issuu.com/bursonmarsteller. In this installment we address the fourth key dynamic: Increasing role of natural gas. Note: This is the fourth part of a 10-part series on key energy system dynamics and the implications for global energy company communications.

Source: IEA

Bullishness about the increasing role of natural gas is founded on new technologies that have 1


made it easier and more efficient to find, produce, transport and use – and its status as the “cleanest of the fossil fuels”. These factors make it an attractive option for countries looking to diversify the energy mix and increase energy security, while limiting impacts to the environment and human health.

Further unlocking the potential to transform our global transportation options with natural gas relies on solving the chicken and egg problem of refueling infrastructure and vehicle deployment through a combination of market forces and governmental policies. Natural gas is also increasingly being used to mitigate the inconsistency of renewables – in other words, turning on the gas straight away when the sun isn’t shining or the wind isn’t blowing. Natural gas thus enables renewable energies to be better integrated into the energy system on a larger scale – in the absence of largescale storage technologies that one day may do the same job.

Technologies that are unlocking the potential of natural gas include hydraulic fracturing (a.k.a. “fracking”), horizontal drilling, 4D seismic imaging, and a host of innovations that are making it possible to produce gas trapped in rocks thousands of meters below the sea bed, in some of the most extreme climatic conditions on the planet. Some of these technologies and associated techniques raise environmental concerns including about the impact on air quality, groundwater, and the possibility of triggering seismic activity. Despite these concerns, most of the additional growth in gas production over the coming decades is expected to come from these more challenging areas by using such technologies.

Natural gas is attractive for regions of the world that are expecting rapid urbanization such as the Middle East, China and India – in part because it involves the emission of far less airborne pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) than coal or oil – when used for power generation or transportation. Indeed, predictions of falling pollution levels in such countries are linked directly to an increased use of gas instead of coal or oil. Beijing’s “airpocalypse” – when PM 2.5 levels were at a very hazardous level for weeks on end in January 2013, leading to acute public health problems (not to mention the chronic impact on those resident in China for extended periods) – strengthened the case for natural gas in China in a very visible and tangible way. The public outrage in response to this pollution was met with government assurances that it would take a range of actions including the strengthening of environmental and emission regulations. China’s status as the world’s largest energy producer and consumer – and one of the most important countries in the world in shaping the global energy system – makes this globally significant, especially considering that today natural gas only accounts for around 3 percent of total energy demand in China compared to around 21 percent globally. China’s 12th Five-year Plan targets 8.5 percent gas use by 2015 – underpinning global expectations of a rise in natural gas demand.

For power generation – one of the fastest growing types of gas use – natural gas-fired combinedcycle technology is driving increased utilization of gas and is underpinning expectations of rising global gas demand. It is increasingly being selected for new power facilities – over competing technologies that utilize other types of energy such as coal. It is being chosen because it is fuelefficient, provides significant flexibility, and can be built quickly and more cost-effectively than new coal or nuclear plants (which also have a more uncertain future because of environmental and safety concerns). The flexibility advantages are evident when we consider it can be activated in minutes as opposed to the hours it can take for coal-fired plants and some other options to be ready. Because gas emits 40 percent less CO2 than coal and 20 percent less CO2 than oil, some consider natural gas a kind of bridging solution to enable us to get to a place where low-carbon renewables are deployed on a sufficient scale to supply all our needs. This is relevant for transportation, where there is very significant potential for the expanded use of natural gas. Benefits of gas use in transportation are already being seen in some countries with compressed natural gas (CNG) buses in urban areas, long-haul trucks and commercial and residential vehicles. There are currently around 15.2 million natural gas vehicles in use worldwide, an increase from just 1.3 million vehicles in 2000.

Meanwhile, countries in the Middle East want to use natural gas locally (instead of oil) so they have more oil that can be exported globally at higher prices and to fuel industrial development (that can address challenges such as highunemployment). Doubts about nuclear following the Fukushima disaster have also favored natural gas. 2


this situation is that affordable U.S. natural gas is now competing much more aggressively with coal at home – leading to growing exports of U.S. coal to Europe (with exports of coal permitted and relevant infrastructure in place). It is questionable, however, how long this dynamic can continue given European commitments to increasing the role of renewable energies and to limiting carbon emissions. From a number of perspectives, this situation illustrates the interconnectedness of the global energy system.

Ten Largest Unconventional Gas Producers in the Golden Rules Case, 2035

Revenues from natural gas are also empowering producing countries in myriad ways. Think of Qatar and its growing role in the Middle East and on the global stage (a country of nearly 250,000 citizens, with among the highest per capita GDP in the world). Think also of the impact of unconventional gas developments in the United States – which have in a single decade made a massive contribution to enhanced energy and economic security, to the point where there is serious talk of the U.S. once again achieving “energy independence” and of a revival of U.S. manufacturing based on expected supplies of cheap, domestically produced gas in the coming decades. This transformation is striking when we consider that it was only a few years back that additional gas import terminals had been built in the U.S. in anticipation of rising demand for gas imports. Now the discussion is about how they could be adapted for export purposes (with opponents saying exports will undermine U.S. economic competiveness). It is predicted the U.S. can become the world’s largest natural gas producer in the decades to come – replacing Russia, which is largely reliant on conventional gas supplies.

Source: IEA

Unconventional gas, which is more widely dispersed around the world than conventional resources (including in major energy-consuming countries such as the United States and China), and liquefied natural gas (LNG) are two key areas that are reshaping the geopolitics of energy by enabling new sources and new markets for natural gas on a global basis. For example, gas imports to China from countries such as Qatar, Yemen, Indonesia, Russia and Australia can serve to mitigate the country’s heavy reliance on coal and imported oil – while the country is also gearing up to exploit what are considered massive unconventional natural gas resources of its own (China is thought to have the largest unconventional gas resources of any country). An increasing number of energy options provided by LNG and new pipeline gas gives more leverage to energy consumers – who can shop around rather than rely on single suppliers with significant power in setting prices. This is leading to a more truly global marketplace – which also involves greater efficiencies and flexibility to address factors such as seasonal shifts in demand in different parts of the world (e.g., hot summers in the Middle East requiring more gas to power air conditioning, cold winters in Europe requiring more gas for heating).

Qatar: A Leading Player in LNG There are few areas of the world where natural gas plays a more important role than in Qatar. With only a quarter of a million citizens (plus more than 1.5 million foreign nationals) and among the world’s highest per capita GDP, gas production has contributed greatly to the country’s strong economic development. While Qatar has the world’s third-largest natural gas reserves, it stands alone as the leading exporter of LNG – supplying countries all across the globe. Developments in the massive North Field, which spans nearly the same area as the country itself, include the world’s largest LNG project, Qatargas 2 – which produces 2.9 billion cubic feet of gas each day.

The potential for additional international trade in gas is evident when we consider, for example, the significant price differences for gas in different parts of the world. The price of natural gas in the U.S. is now three to four times lower than in Europe. However there are currently significant constraints preventing exports from the U.S. to markets where prices are higher (with gas prices in Asia even higher than Europe). Foremost among these are a lack of enabling legislation and government approvals that would make such exports possible – and the current limitations of relevant infrastructure. An interesting aspect of

Qatar continues to advance the LNG industry with innovation and visionary leadership that have 3


– based on factors such as public acceptance, the regulatory environment and market access (rather than, for example, the technical challenges of extracting and producing gas).

helped increase production rates and strengthen global energy security. Qatar’s decision to develop relevant infrastructure and technology (such as massive gas tankers that doubled the amount of gas that can be shipped on a single journey) and to actively develop global markets has had a profound impact on the global energy landscape.

Following is an overview of some of the key dynamics that could limit the role of gas to varying degrees. 

LNG Exports by Country, 2011

Certain countries may be unable to replicate the success of the U.S. in developing unconventional gas in the coming decades

The geology and economics / market dynamics differ significantly in key regions of the world with identified unconventional resources. In many respects the U.S. is an ideal scenario – and we should not make predictions for the rest of the world assuming that other countries can easily replicate its success. China for example has much deeper and more complex shale gas reservoirs than the U.S. (making them potentially much harder and more expensive to develop) and has a very different market situation with oil, gas and land rights held by government (not private land owners as in many parts of the U.S.) and a less favorable market and regulatory environment for small- and medium-sized players (which created the unconventional gas revolution in the U.S.). China also faces water shortages in key areas where unconventional gas is believed to be present (shale gas development requires a significant amount of water) – while much unconventional gas is thought to be in mountainous regions (lacking critical infrastructure such as roads). Chinese companies also lack the experience and expertise that foreign players have accumulated or acquired (they are now busy making up for this through foreign partnerships / acquisitions and initial unconventional gas developments in China). Intellectual property rights protection is another important factor – in that where it is weak, it can deter global companies from bringing technology to bear and investing in such regions. It is far from certain that the success of the U.S. will be replicated in other countries. And it is important to remember that there is a big difference between identified reserves and those that can be extracted at a profit (and usually, thus, at all).

Source: International Gas Union

Meanwhile, gas from Central Asia will open up more and more options for both Europe and East Asia in the decades to come. This has implications for Russia, which has dominated certain natural gas markets and has had geostrategic leverage because many countries had no other option than to purchase Russian gas. It is important to note also that natural gas has quickly become much more important for what are often referred to simply as “oil companies”. Some of them now hold even more gas reserves than oil, with an expectation that the proportion of gas is only going to increase. With global gas consumption expected to increase by 1.6 percent per year until 2035 according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), gas is certainly a key growth opportunity. And given that the most rapid expansion of gas use is expected for power generation and industrial uses – as opposed to transportation, for example – it will enable them to tell new energy enablement stories.

U.S. Energy Independence The shale gas boom in the last decade has helped revive the idea of “energy independence” in the United States. This is due, in part, to technologies like horizontal drilling and “fracking” that have made shale gas easier to produce, as well as financial incentives for smaller,

Challenges for Natural Gas While there is ample cause to be bullish on gas – there are a variety of constraints that could see gas falling well short of its potential and playing a much more limited role in the global energy system. Many of these fall into a category that energy companies refer to as “above ground risks” 4


That said, given the way prices are set for oil – “energy independence” is in certain aspects a myth. Less oil from the Middle East, for example, could still make oil more expensive for people and companies in the U.S. – based on the current market system. So isolationism from this perspective may not really be an option.

specialized energy companies to invest in unconventional gas production. Success in developing shale oil – another area where technology is unlocking a massive amount of additional energy – has also in recent years raised expectations that the U.S. can become much more self-reliant. This is contributing to a boom in local oil production.

Becoming less reliant on imported energy is certainly a priority for the U.S. government. In his 2013 State of the Union address, President Barack Obama pledged to “keep cutting red tape and speeding up new oil and gas permits” – and also to promote research and technology for cleaner-burning natural gas and renewable energies. It is important to note also the view of the Republican opposition that, while the president says he is for an “all of the above” energy policy, his actions reflect a “but not from below” approach that has created obstacles to federal approval of projects on federal lands and created at least the specter of greater federal involvement in projects on private lands.

Unconventional gas is much more risky from a public acceptance or outrage perspective than traditional oil and gas in certain key aspects

While contributing to the economy, cumulatively unconventional gas development can be much more disruptive to local communities than conventional projects. It is more complex and requires many more wells to develop (often by a factor of 10-to-1) with many more stages to the drilling process. It also has greater potential to negatively impact local water supplies and air quality (if not managed effectively). Developing shale gas reservoirs involves hundreds more truck trips than for a conventional natural gas installation and a landscape that can become dotted with gas wells (which can cause opposition on the basis of impacts to tourism and heritage). It also involves the injection of thousands of liters of water below the ground with a mix of chemicals (raising concerns about pollution and competition with farmers for water). Coalbed methane on the other hand results in thousands of liters of water coming to the surface – which may be damaging to the surface soil (due to high salt content, for example) if not collected and treated properly. Due to a geographic coincidence, the population density around unconventional deposits is often much greater than for conventional oil and gas – with many more people close by to say “not in my backyard – especially if there is no profit in it for me”.

Greater energy independence would arguably bolster the United States’ geostrategic position and have broader political and economic implications. According to a recent report by Citigroup, the country could soon become a net exporter of energy rather than one of the world’s biggest energy importers. Inexpensive gas could also lead to a revival of domestic manufacturing, bringing jobs back to the United States from overseas (some say this has already begun, others argue that the numbers involved so far are very limited viewed in the context of reductions in U.S. manufacturing over recent decades). With even more oil and gas being produced locally, the U.S. arguably would not have as big a need to ensure oil and gas keep flowing from regions such as the Middle East – while in contrast, countries like China, with growing energy imports, will need to be much more concerned about geopolitical issues that might impact energy supplies from other parts of the world.

Unconventional Gas Defined Unconventional gas refers to gas resources that were previously considered too difficult or costly to produce. There are three main categories of unconventional natural gas – shale gas, coalbed methane and tight gas:

It is conceivable that the U.S. will expect energy import-reliant countries in Europe and Asia to take on more of the financial and other burdens associated with ensuring a continuing flow of energy to their markets from various regions of the world – when the U.S. itself has a much reduced need for imports. 5

Shale gas is natural gas contained within shale rock. Shale rock formations are characterized by their low permeability, which results in more restricted gas flow through the rock than with conventional reservoirs.

Coalbed methane (or coal seam gas) is natural gas found in coalbeds. Coalbed


It is important to consider also that conventional gas development is of course not immune to such concerns. Indeed, the recent situation in the Netherlands provides a fresh reminder. Earthquakes believed to have been triggered by the development of depleted conventional gas fields have damaged buildings in local communities. This has led to growing opposition to further development – and poses a significant challenge to a country heavily reliant on the relevant gas fields for energy for various uses.

methane is typically produced from unmineable coal seams. 

Tight gas is a wide-ranging term for natural gas found in formations with low permeability. Tight gas is commonly classified as gas reservoirs requiring the use of technologies (often hydraulic fracturing) to stimulate gas flow for economic production. There is no clear distinction between tight gas, shale gas and unconventional gas.

 A key obstacle arises when there is perceived to be very limited (and not sustainable) direct economic benefit to local communities – with indirect benefits of improved national energy security or lower gas prices being too remote and too widely shared to justify more direct negative impacts to individuals and communities. In many cases, unconventional gas development also involves techniques that have proven easy to demonize – especially where industry has not been transparent about them. Indeed, it is not hard to understand why people would be concerned about and opposed to techniques that involve injecting chemicals into the ground – when the companies involved have sometimes refused to disclose exactly what chemicals they are using and there is limited understanding of how the techniques have evolved over decades in the conventional oil and gas sector (and are not radically new experimental practices). When it comes to managing risk perceptions, the fact that such techniques have been linked to earthquakes in some areas obviously does not help the industry reassure stakeholders – even if the impacts have been very minor.

Natural gas is a fossil fuel with significant carbon impacts – and the global movement to limit climate change may be successful in curbing it and other fossils fuels to a greater degree than currently anticipated

While gas is better than coal and oil from the perspective of CO2 emissions – it is still not as good as renewables and nuclear energy, which have significantly lower lifecycle emissions. According to the IEA, greater reliance on gas will almost certainly mean that the world fails to meet key goals for limiting climate change (limiting temperature rise to 2 degrees centigrade from pre-industrial levels). Not only does gas emit CO2, it also displaces renewable energies such as wind and solar in some cases – especially when the resolve of regulators to support renewables is undermined by financial malaise, such as that which the global economy has experienced in recent years. The lackluster progress of carbon capture and storage technologies globally – with only a few large-scale projects – mean that a viable solution to the carbon impact of gas is a very long way off. Rising global temperatures and catastrophic weather events linked to climate change in the decade ahead could contribute to more strident calls for a faster shift away from fossil fuels – including natural gas.

Moratoriums and bans on unconventional natural gas development around the world have resulted when governments have responded to concerns raised by a coalition of various opponents with differing interests and motivations. Even in China, where the potential for community opposition is typically discounted – public acceptance is becoming a bigger factor for energy companies. Individuals and groups concerned about developments based on economic, environmental and safety grounds are becoming more active and have greater leverage – with social media being increasingly used to get the message out, put pressure on and mobilize. There are thousands of protests each year in China linked to environmental grievances, and Chinese citizens have rising expectations that their voices will be heard on such matters.

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Capturing CO2 waste from the burning of conventional energy sources and storing it in underground reservoirs is one promising method of addressing the carbon impact of natural gas and other fossil fuels. CCS technologies have been particularly successful in enhanced oil recovery, where captured CO2 is injected into an oil reservoir to increase the amount of oil that can be extracted and then sequestered in the reservoir. However, CCS still looks to be years away from being widely deployed – and therefore offers little in terms of significant potential impact to climate change in the near future. The IEA has attributed 6


cubic feet of natural gas reserves, has faced numerous development issues resulting from international sanctions passed in response to the nation’s controversial nuclear program. Iran, lacking foreign support, enlisted the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) for domestic development. Phase 13 of the project encountered a setback, when in January 2013 the USD 40 billion gas and oil rig sank to the bottom of the sea.

delays in many CCS projects to two main factors: high costs and lack of incentive policies. Low natural gas prices have also hindered CCS implementation to some extent, with some CCS projects put on hold until they are economically feasible to pursue. 

Technology breakthroughs could impact the focus on gas production

The Arctic – Although an estimated 22 percent of the world’s undiscovered conventional gas and oil reserves are located in the region, development of Arctic gas resources faces significant hurdles including high costs, geographic, political and environmental constraints and infrastructure limitations. Due to insufficient infrastructure, approximately 35.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas resources in the Alaska North Slope alone remain unexploited – representing only a fraction of the region’s resources. Transporting natural gas from Arctic reserves to consumers remains another challenge, as the long-distance transportation of natural gas and LNG is considerably more expensive than oil transportation given the significantly lower energy density. The harsh winter weather and tough conditions in the region, including ice shelves, also limit the viability of Arctic gas development, especially when considering the costly maintenance of equipment and limited hours of potential rig operation. Global warming represents another challenge, as thawing ice results in drifting icebergs and unpredictable weather patterns. Unresolved sovereignty claims in the region add another layer of complexity and difficulty.

While there do not seem to be any world-altering energy breakthroughs on the immediate horizon, many technological advancements could impact the demand for gas. Breakthroughs in energy efficiency can impact global demand for gas in a number of ways. More countries could become more self-reliant on their own domestic energy resources, decreasing the need to import gas and other energies. Renewables could also take a larger share of the global energy mix through increased efficiency and other improvements in technology. If they were more cost-effective in certain situations, the lower environmental impacts of renewable energies would make them preferable over gas and other fossil fuels in terms of carbon emissions. Also, improved storage capabilities and increased capacity would make power generated by renewable energy resources easier to store and transport. (That said, development and implementation of fuel cell technologies could also open up opportunities for use of natural gas as a bridge fuel in both stationary and mobile source uses.) 

More challenging conventional natural gas developments may not go ahead as planned or may be slowed due to a mixture of uncertain economic returns for global energy companies, market access restrictions and other constraints

Shtokman – In 2012, Russia’s state-owned gas producer Gazprom abandoned development of the Shtokman project in the Barent Sea, citing soaring costs, falling European demand and inexpensive American shale gas as the reasons behind the USD 15 billion project’s abandonment. The Shtokman field reportedly contains 130 trillion cubic feet of natural gas reserves.

The following examples illustrate some of the challenges facing conventional gas development. North Field – The Qatari government issued a moratorium on development of the North Field gas reservoir. The five-year moratorium originally imposed in 2005, and extended in 2009, is designed to allow full study of the world’s largest single gas deposit of reportedly 1,300 trillion cubic feet. The moratorium is expected to end in 2014 after studies can ensure that gas extraction will not damage the reservoir.

Communications Implications While communications and public affairs efforts can only meet some of the challenges associated with developing and utilizing natural gas – there is no doubt they are becoming more important to overall success.

South Pars – In 2012, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) pulled out of a USD 4.7 billion project in Iran’s South Pars gas field. South Pars, with an estimated 500 trillion

Global energy companies with a role in natural gas have an opportunity to position themselves as being part of a solution to many of the current 7


and future challenges facing the energy system. Emphasis can be placed on the way technology, expertise and partnerships are being brought to bear to secure our global / local energy future and on the myriad benefits that flow to societies from gas developments.

accountability for both industry and government. Gas companies need to actively utilize lobbying, public affairs and public policy capabilities to promote science-based regulation and supervision of the industry. Industry also needs to act collectively on many issues – recognizing that the weakest link in terms of performance can have a disproportional impact on stakeholder perceptions. Global energy companies need to promote sharing of information and experiences across borders to maximize efficiencies and global understanding (for example, so regulators can understand how issues have been addressed in another country).

Energy companies also need to address the significant concerns that exist around the carbon impact of natural gas and the many other environmental and political impacts associated with developing it. This is vital if they are to be permitted and able to develop the gas resources that would enable a scenario in which natural gas plays a larger role in the global energy system. Targeted communications to and with key decision-makers, for example, is essential in shaping policies that enable natural gas development.

Gas companies also need to be able to engage in public discussions and debates that are in many cases being driven by highly motivated and sophisticated opponents. As we have discussed in an earlier installment of this series, NGOs and other opponents now have much greater leverage and capabilities thanks to the Internet and social media – which make it much easier to disseminate information, raise funds, form coalitions and draw attention to issues and concerns. Gas companies need communications capabilities and support that are just as sophisticated – while recognizing that the rules of the game are different for companies than they are for individuals and NGOs.

Companies involved in natural gas developments need to proceed based on an understanding of how stakeholder confidence and acceptance can be achieved in practical terms – and of what motivates stakeholder opposition and concerns. This requires public affairs and public policy expertise and skill sets not always possessed by the engineers, geologists and geophysicists that predominate in many gas companies. Trust and acceptance is not built based on scientific arguments and data alone – especially when those delivering the arguments have a vested interest and are perceived to be motivated above all by profit (fairly or not).

Companies should also develop operations with a view to maximizing public acceptance. This can mean minimizing the disruption to local communities (designing operations so less wells and truck trips are needed, for example), ensuring that visible and tangible benefits flow into the local community (community investment and revenue sharing, for example – especially where state ownership of oil and gas rights reduces local incentives), and taking a range of measures to minimize environmental, health and safety risks (water treatment and emergency response measures, for example). These measures should be communicated so that stakeholders realize the efforts being made and can provide input and suggestions for how to improve.

With what may be perceived as risky developments, there needs to be adequate stakeholder engagement and education and an emphasis on transparency and accountability – all while a case is made for win-win benefits for local communities and more broadly. This can mean, for instance, committing to fully disclose the chemicals used in “fracking”; submitting to third-party assessments of risks; providing opportunities for public input on plans; agreeing to minimum performance standards in terms of water usage, venting and flaring of gas; and actively listening to stakeholders and modifying conduct to better meet their expectations.

Being good communicators and sophisticated in engaging in public affairs is no guarantee of success – but it will greatly increase a company’s or industry’s chances – assuming various risks can be managed adequately and there are clear benefits to relevant stakeholders.

In some cases the companies involved would benefit if the regulations and laws were better defined or altered – and if government had independent data that could be a source of 8


Douglas Dew, Chair, Burson-Marsteller Global Energy Practice – with Ryan Fenwick, Senior Associate

About Burson-Marsteller Burson-Marsteller (www.burson-marsteller.com), established in 1953, is a leading global public relations and communications firm. It provides clients with strategic thinking and program execution across a full range of public relations, public affairs, reputation and crisis management, advertising and web-related strategies. The firm’s seamless worldwide network consists of 74 offices and 81 affiliate offices, together operating in 108 countries across six continents. Burson-Marsteller is a part of Young & Rubicam Brands, a subsidiary of WPP (NASDAQ: WPPGY), one of the world’s leading communications services networks and includes direct lobbying and grass roots capabilities through subsidiary companies that are the leaders in their area of expertise.

About Burson-Marsteller’s Global Energy Practice Burson-Marsteller’s Global Energy Practice is an unrivalled global network of communications professionals focused on the energy industry and energy issues. Drawing on our worldwide Practice network of more than 100 communications and public affairs professionals with expertise and experience in the energy sector, the Global Energy Practice helps clients: • • • • • • • • • •

Build compelling narratives that articulate value propositions and positions of energy sector players Develop and implement communications programs that impact energy sector stakeholders Map and identify energy sector stakeholders Develop common-cause partnerships Foster markets for new products and services Protect and extend licenses to operate Win public acceptance of needed energy infrastructure development Manage critical relationships with decision / policy makers Advocate directly with legislators and regulators Anticipate what’s coming next – and be prepared

Website: www.burson-marsteller.com Twitter: @BMGlobalEnergy Contacts: Asia-Pacific Douglas Dew (douglas.dew@bm.com) Danny Phan (danny.phan@bm.com) Vandana Sandhir (vandana.sandhir@bm.com) Carrie Cousins (carrie.cousins@bm.com)

North America Jim Cunningham (jim.cunningham@bm.com) John Kyte (john.kyte@bm.com) Laura Sheehan (laura.sheehan@bm.com) Beth Diamond (bdiamond@national.ca) Gabe Rozsa (gabe.rozsa@prime-policy.com) Michael Fleischer (michael.fleischer@directimpact.com)

Middle East Stephen Worsley (stephen.worsley@bm.com)

Latin America Ramiro Prudencio (ramiro.prudencio@bm.com)

Europe Diederik Peereboom (diederik.peereboom@bm.com) Roland Bilang (roland.bilang@bm.com)

Africa Hemant Lala (hemant.l@arcaybm.com)

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Ten Key Energy System Dynamics & the Implications for Global Energy Company Communications: Part 4  

In this thought leadership series, Burson-Marsteller’s Global Energy Practice explores 10 important dynamics of the global energy system, as...

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