Issuu on Google+


discovering the filthiest product in your bathroom.


brightness scale


contents.

introduction

3-16 function

17-23 history

24-29 redesign

30-52


brightness scale


global plaque.

the introduction of plaque

11 dirty mouth

50,000,000 in the USA alone a year


brightness scale


your tossed toothbrush just won’t go away. Think about it. The product in your bathroom which cleans the most, is really the dirtiest. How many times do you throw a toothbrush away a year. The toothbrush is mainly made of unrecycleable plastic which will never decompose. Ever.

13 dirty mouth

where do they go when they get thrown away?

the introduction of plaque

The toothbrush seems like a simple enough product. Many see it as an essential object designed to keep our mouth clean, and nothing more than that. The age old adage of throwing away your toothbrush 3 times a year resonates across the globe and is promoted by all dentists world round, and why not? The brushes wear and out and accumulate germs which deteriorate the effectiveness of the product. So imagine human after human, year after year, encouraging each other and their children to properly dispose of their toothbrush to promote proper dental hygine and good brushing habits.


brightness scale

your brushing habit is creating cavities. as millions of toothbrushes accumulate on the earths surface, the reality sinks in. much like plaque developing between teeth, without a good flossing, these toothbrushes will stay with us forever. the earth is developing gingivitis.

Modern medical research has shown that brushing teeth properly can prevent cavities, gingivitis, and periodontal, or gum, disease, which causes at least one-third of adult tooth loss. Gum disease occurs when plaque builds up, forming a gelatinous film that coats the teeth and gums. Plaque consists of about 75% bacteria, and it grows quickly. If teeth are not brushed correctly and frequently, it could lead to the calcification of saliva minerals, forming tartar. All the more reason having a toothbrush is essential to every persons life. Yet when we are done with this product, it will never go away. And though we all desire clean teeth, none of us want to be knee deep in dirty toothbrushes. Plastic will never completely disintigrate. This is something we will be stuck with for the rest of our lives. Basically, we are giving the earth cavities so huge, no dentist will ever be able to repair them. why is something meant for good so bad?

the of

toothbrush a

teeth

small

is

brush

through

an

on

tooth

a

instrument handle

brushing .

used

consisting to

clean

toothpaste

is

commonly added to a toothbrush to aid in cleaning . toothbrushes are offered with varying textures of bristles , and come in many different sizes and forms .


x 500 years

still here.


brightness scale

with non-slip rubber grips and durable plastic bristles.

The head of the toothbrush

The toothbrush handle is made

is generally built of soft nylon.

from plastics, the non-recycleable

Earlier versions have used

kind. Earlier in its life the handle

hair, fur, and pig bristles.

ranged from bone to wood to bird feathers and porqupine quills


the basic fundamentals have not changed since the times of the egyptians and babylonians : a han dle to grip , and a bristle like feature with which to clean the teeth . yet the toothbrush has only become more harmful to the environment and has morphed from biodegradeable products to plastics .

Older cultures used twigs and branches to clean their teeth and

By the 1990s, countless styles of toothbrushes filled the shelves of supermarkets and drug stores, many claiming their superiority over other brands. Consumers could choose from toothbrushes with soft or hard bristles, with natural or synthetic bristles, and in a variety of sizes, colors, and configurations. Today, both manual and electric toothbrushes come in many shapes and sizes and are typically made of plastic molded handles and nylon bristles. The most recent toothbrush models include handles that are straight, angled, curved, and contoured with grips and soft rubber areas to make them easier to hold and use. Toothbrush bristles are usually synthetic and range from very soft to soft in texture, although harder bristle versions are available. Toothbrush heads range from very small for young children to larger sizes for older children and adults and come in a variety of shapes such as rectangular, oblong, oval and almost round. Yet the toothbrush stays the same, i’ts general anatomy has generally staid the same. how many toothbrushes start to become a problem?

19 dirty mouth

no part of the modern day toothbrush will ever biodegrade.

the function of our demise

handles were made of bamboo.


brightness scale


god is in the details. brushing surface is 1-1.25 inches long 5/16 - 3/8 inches wide 2 - 4 rows of bristles 5 -12 tufts per row 80-86 bristles per tuft

21 dirty mouth

Soft = 0.007 inch Medium = 0.012 inch Hard = 0.014 inch

the function of our demise

Diameter of commonly used bristles:


brightness scale


how many toothbrushes you will use in your lifetime?


brightness scale


the rich history of decay

a year

dirty mouth

136

25


brightness scale

180 a year


dirty mouth

27

the rich history of decay


brightness scale


the rich history of decay

a year

dirty mouth

217

29


brightness scale


on

average

purchases eve n

each

three

though

person

in

the

toothbrushes

the

american

united

every

dental

two

states years ,

a s s o c i at i o n

recommends that brushes be changed every three to four months . on average that is

456,059,586

the rich history of decay

toothbrushes tossed each year in the us alone .

dirty mouth

31


brightness scale

the evolution to a dirtier toothbrush.


dirty mouth

33

the rich history of decay


brightness scale

1948.

the mass produced plastic toothbrush appeared on the market in

1948 , but has been produced in other 1700’ s . the electric toothbrush 1961 . but after all these years of

forms since the appeared

in

production , the toothbrush has only gotten worse

and become even more hamful to the environment .


2009.

the material has morphed from wood to bone to plastic . bristles have changed from hair to nylon . yet the overall anatomy of the toothbrush has not changed .

the only change in the toothbrush has

been the shift from natural materials , to man made , toxic materials which will stick around forever.


brightness scale


the basic fundamentals have not changed since the times of the egyptians and babylonians : a han dle to grip , and a bristle like feature with which to clean the teeth . yet the toothbrush has only become more harmful to the environment and has

often referred to as a chew stick, the wooden brush kept human’s teeth sparkling, from the beginning of time.

The Toothbrush first appeared around 3500 BC and was used by Egyptians and Babylonians. People often chewed on one end of the stick until the fibers of the wood formed a brush which was then used to clean the teeth. These chewing sticks were the ancestors of the Miswak toothbrushes which are used the same way as the primitive chewing sticks but are made from the a of the Salvadora persica tree. The Salvadora persica branches have healing and antiseptic qualities. The Miswak is still used today and is considered by many to be superior to modern tooth brushes (study comparing miswak and toothbrushes). The use of Miswak is especially popular amongst Muslim communities and can be purchased at most Indian, Pakistani or Arab stores.

37 dirty mouth

the original, made by planet earth.

the rich history of decay

morphed from biodegradeable products to plastics .


brightness scale

bones and pigs biodegrade nicely. animal parts were the main ingredients in toothbrushes after wood fell out of style. these natural product were easy on the environment and provided a double life to animal waste.

During the period 1498-1600, Chinese dentists would pluck the hairs off of cold climate pigs and paste them on bamboo sticks or animal bones. These were then used just like a modern manual toothbrush to clean their teeth. Meanwhile, Europeans were still using the ancient Greek way of brushing their teeth; They were dipping linen cloth or sponges dipped in sulfur oils and salt solutions and rubbing away all the tooth grime. Then came William Addis, who introduced the Chinese way of brushing to England in 1780. The idea of the bristle bone tooth brush came to William Addis while in prison. Boredom and necessity drove Addis to take a bone left behind from his dinner and bristles that he borrowed from a guard and combine them to create a tool to clean his teeth. It was a far better alternate to a dirty cloth with soot and salt. After his release, William Addis became the first person to mass produce modern toothbrushes. The Addis version of the toothbrush used cow tail hair drilled and tied on to cow bones. what came next was the beginning of the problem.


dirty mouth

39

the rich history of decay


brightness scale

the plastic toothbrush downgrade. the creation of mass market tootbrushes was lead by america, and today many countries have followed suit. toothbrushes today need a factory, energy, and oil to be created.

Patent number 18,653 marked the first toothbrush patent in the United States of America. It was registered by an entrepreneur, H. N. Wadsworth, in 1857. Mass production of tooth brushes began in 1885. When first world war began, the need for soup bones far outweighed the need for brush handles. Once again, necessity was a catalyst that helped create Celluloid handles. Molds were created in the shape of brush handles and celluloid was poured in and cooled. At this point, brush makers either dipped bristles into liquid celluloid or drilled holes into solid celluloid handles and then stapled them in. The next evolution of the toothbrush took place in 1938 when nylon bristles were used instead of animal hair. A company called DuPont de Nemours introduced the first toothbrushes with nylon bristles. These were much more comfortable than boar hair. The first such toothbrush was called Dr. West’s Miracle-Tuft Toothbrush. DuPont de Nemours used the World Wars to their advantage and used a support-the-troops war marketing campaign. Your American Duty is to brush your teeth so you can win the war. Brushing teeth regularly became popular in the United States after US soldiers returned home and brought with them their strict habits of brushing their teeth. People were influenced by the actions of these US soldiers and brushing teeth finally became mainstream. An electric toothbrush was invented in 1939 in Switzerland and it came out for public consumption in the 1960s. Broxodent, the electric toothbrush by Squibb, came out and was marketed for the “overly-vigorous type of toothbrushers”. Dr.Scott was also another early pioneer of the electric toothbrush.


an estimated

700

million toothbrushes are

a year. imagine this number times the

time

we

have

been

making

50

made

years , about

plastic

tooth -

brushes . then imaging the amount of that number of which are sitting in a landfill . for all those our planet is accumulating plaque .

There exist over 3000 toothbrush patents today. A majority of them are made from 100% plastic, a material that unlike bone or wood, will never decompose or disappear from the earth’s surface. Our toothbrushes will be with us forever. Contemporary toothbrushes are produced mechanically. Plastic is mixed and shaped into pellet which are then placed in an injection molding machine, which heats the plastic until it is melted. A rotating screw or plunger forces the liquid plastic into the handle molds. The molds form the entire handle, including the small holes, called cores, into which the bristles are inserted. The molds are securely clamped, and pressure is applied to the molds while the plastic cools. Once the molds have cooled, the clamps are removed, and small pins push the handles out of the molds. The bristles are positioned into the core of the handle automatically. The bristles are then stapled into the core with tiny metal staples. Next, the toothbrush passes through a trimming machine which slices the bristles to the correct length and shape. The average toothbrush contains about 2,5000 bristles grouped into about 40 tufts per toothbrush. The tufts are folded over a metal staple and forced onto pre-cored holes in the head and fused into the head with heat. The handle is made of at least two materials, usually plastic and rubber. The grips used for the handle is: precision, power, spoon, oblique and distal oblique. The toothbrushes are packaged into cardboard and/or plastic containers. Labels are attached to the package, providing product information such as bristle hardness. Finally, the packaged toothbrushes are bundled into larger shipping boxes or crates and transported to distributors.

the rich history of decay

toothbrushes

how many brushes have accumulated today?

dirty mouth

41


brightness scale


weighing in at 80,000 times the statue of liberty

gingivitis of the earth.


brightness scale

these are a few of our favorite things. toothbrush

automobile

personal computer

microwave oven

cell phone

american’s rated the toothbrush their most valued item, with the cell phone, microwave oven, automobile, and personal computer following closely behind.


dirty mouth

45

the function of our demise


brightness scale


each toothbrush weighs about 16.5 grams, every person on the planet throws away approximately 11 pounds of toothbrushes in a lifetime. we’re stuck with

something

around

72,624,465,925

pounds

of

non-biodegradable waste. that’s 36,312,233 tons, a pile

the rich history of decay

80,000 statues of liberty.

47 dirty mouth

the weight of


brightness scale

plastic is the planet’s tartar. animal parts were the main ingredients in toothbrushes after wood fell out of style. these natural product were easy on the environment and provided a double life to animal waste.

Biodegrading, the breaking down of organic substances by natural means, happens all the time in nature. We live, we die, we rot and so we feed the next generation – that’s life. Even if you are a rock. All plant-based, animal-based, or natural mineral-based substances will over time biodegrade. In its natural state raw crude oil will biodegrade but man made petrochemical compounds made from oil, such as plastic, will not. Why not – because plastic is a combination of elements extracted form rude oil then re mixed up by men in white coats. Because these combinations are man made they are unknown to nature. Consequently there is no natural system to break them down. The enzymes and the micro organisms responsible for breaking down organic materials that occur naturally such as plants, dead animals, rocks and minerals, don’t recognise them. This means that plastic products are pretty much indestructible in a biodegradable sense at least. Which is in many ways fantastic and plastic is indeed a wonder product. But there is a downside. What happens to plastic in the environment? As time passes plastic will eventually break down into smaller and smaller pieces. This is a mechanical process involving mechanical actions such as ripping splitting and falling apart. Plastic merely breaks up. No matter how small the pieces they are still and always will be plastic. they are not absorbed into or changed by natural processes. Dr Richard Thompson of the University of Plymouth has identified plastic particles thinner than the diameter of a human hair. But while they cant be seen those pieces are still there and are still plastic. They are not be absorbed into the natural system they just float around within it. He estimates that there are 100,000 particles of plastic per sq km of sea bed and 300,000 items of plastic per sq km of sea surface. Barnacle, lugworm and amphipods hoover up the tiny plastic particles as they feed. Who eats the amphipods – the little fishes and who eats the little fishes? That’s you that is with your fish, chips and microscopic plastic particles. how greatly does this plastic effect the animals?


brightness scale

one bird’s belly.

This bird died from starvation, it’s belly was so full of plastic it wasn’t able to eat enough to feed itself. The plastic in his stomach will never biodegrade. Biodegrading, the breaking down of organic substances by natural means, happens all the time in nature. In its natural state raw crude oil will biodegrade but manmade petrochemical compounds made from oil, such as plastic, will not. Why not – because plastic is a combination of elements extracted form rude oil then re mixed up by men in white coats. Because these combinations are man made they are unknown to nature. Consequently there is no natural system to break them down. The enzymes and the micro organisms responsible for breaking down organic materials that occur naturally such as plants, dead animals, rocks and minerals, don’t recognise them. This means that plastic products are pretty much indestructible in a biodegradable sense at least. your toothbrush could be living in his stomach.


dirty mouth

51

the function of our demise


brightness scale


all this plastic lived in the belly of one bird . and it will never go away. if this lives in one

toothbrushes

much

lives

in

make

two? up

or

this

three? plastic

how pile?

the function of our demise

how

many

53 dirty mouth

bird ,


brightness scale


environmental halitosis.

the rich history of decay

55 dirty mouth

yearly, about 100 million pounds of plastic waste


brightness scale

introducing the miswak. before man had even thought of plastic, nature had provided the perfect toothbrush that grew on trees.

The miswak is a natural toothbrush. It is composed of a compact group of minute natural fibers that perform exactly the same job as a normal toothbrush except that it is made of natural fibers and not plastic ones. For this reason it may well be gentler on the gums. It is taken from the roots and branches of particular desert trees. It differs from one region to another, but in Arabia and Asia it is taken from the Arak tree, also known as the Neem Tree. This is the most well known variety. It’s scientific name is Salvadora Persica. It is a tree that grows in hot equatorial countries, especially in desert valleys. It is widespread in the South of Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Sudan, Egypt and elsewhere. Salvador Persica is an upright evergreen small tree or shrub, seldom more than one foot in diameter reaching maximum height of three meters. The leaves are small, oval, thick and succulent with a strong smell cress or mustard. the neem tree can grow almost anywhere.


dirty mouth

59

redesigning our smiles


brightness scale


dirty mouth

61

redesigning our smiles


brightness scale

toothbrushes really do grow on trees. toothbrushes were originally designed by nature, the miswak provides things a toothbrush and toothpaste cannot. if all of these things are true, then why did we ever leave it behind?

A study has revealed that the miswak or teeth cleaning sticks used in Arab and Asian countries have greater value than toothbrush and toothpaste. A group of dentists at King Saud University (KSU) has done a study revealing the medicinal properties of miswak, while miswak sales have gone up considerably in Ramadan this year. The study suggests that the beneficial effects for oral hygiene and dental health for those who have been using miswak are equal to, if not greater than, those of a toothbrush and toothpaste. “Miswak has many medicinal properties and can fight plaque, recession of gums, tooth wear, bleeding gums and periodontal pocket depths,” said the study, adding that the repeated process of using them releases fresh sap and silica (a hard glossy mineral), which acts as an abrasive material for the removal stains. The study was conducted by a group of dentists led by Dr. Khaled Almas. The study explains that the miswak also releases a substance that soothes toothache. “It is also used to prevent smoking in adults and thumb sucking in children. It may also improve appetite and regulate peristaltic movements of the gastro-intestinal tract”, said the study. It’s natural antiseptics have a bactericidal action, killing harmful micro-organisms in the mouth, the tannic acid it contains has astringent qualities which protect the gums from disease, and its aromatic oils increase salivation (which helps in digestion). Because of its built-in antiseptics, the miswak needs no cleaning, and because its bristles are parallel to the hand rather than perpendicular, its can reach more easily between the teeth, where are conventional toothbrush often misses. it is time to introduce nature back into our lives.


dirty mouth

63

redesigning our smiles


brightness scale

grow a toothbrush in your backyard. imagine growing your own toothbrushes. providing oxygen for carbon dioxide, and the pleasing shade and beauty of a tree. a toothbrush tree you can call your own.

The neem tree is noted for its drought resistance. Normally it thrives in areas with sub-arid to sub-humid conditions, with an annual rainfall between 400 and 1200 mm. It can grow in regions with an annual rainfall below 400 mm, but in such cases it depends largely on ground water levels. Neem can grow in many different types of soil, but it thrives best on well drained deep and sandy soils. It is a typical tropical to subtropical tree and exists at annual mean temperatures between 21-32 °C. It can tolerate high to very high temperatures and does not tolerate temperature below 4 °C . Neem is a life-giving tree, especially for the dry coastal, southern districts. It is one of the very few shade-giving trees that thrive in the drought-prone areas. The trees are not at all delicate about the water quality and thrive on the merest trickle of water, whatever the quality. In Tamil Nadu it is very common to see neem trees used for shade lining the streets or in most people’s back yards. In very dry areas, like Sivakasi, the trees are planted in large tracts of land, in whose shade fireworks factories function. The twig of this tree is largely used as a tooth brush in different regions of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. It is an oldest tradition used effectively in dental care. The oil extracted from the seeds and kernel of the Neem tree is used in the manufacturing of cosmetics such as soaps, shampoos, balms, and creams. It has the potentiality to use as a great carbon dioxide sink. Traditionally it has been recognized as a great resource for anti-desertification property. It offers great solution to acne and provides good support for skin elasticity. Ayurveda and traditional herbal medicine suggest chicken pox patients to sleep on neem leaves to get rid off the problem. The neem gum prepared from bark is typically used as a bulking agent and for the production of medicinal foods for diabetic patients. where can the neem tree grow miswak sticks?


x 500 years

long gone.


brightness scale


handmade by nature. chewing surface is 1–1/2 inches long about 1/2 inch wide naturally developing bristles bristles usually 1/4 inch in length should be trimmed ever 24 hours

67 dirty mouth

after using end should be stored in rose water to ensure freshness

redesigning our smiles

Diameter should be less than 1/4 inch to maintain stregth and flexibility


brightness scale

with wood grip and strong fiberous bristles.

The head of the miswak is

Mother Nature created her own

developed by chewing on the

grip with wood texture and

end of the stick from the arak tree

porous skin. You won’t see this bad

until fiberous bristles develop.

boy sliping out of your hand.


fresh

miswak

is

brown

in

color,

with

a

hot ,

pleasant taste . people usually strip off some of the miswak ’ s thin bark from one end , then chew that end a little to separate the fibers so that they become like the fibers of a normal tooth brush .

they

then

use

it

to

brush

their

teeth .

Miswak should be freshly cut so that it is supple, easily chewed, and still rich in active constituents. The root

Miswak wicks clean between the teeth and do not break under any amount of pressure, rather they are flexible and strong. The small wicks bend to the appropriate shape to clear the plaque and left over food in between the teeth avoiding any damage to gums.The chemical analysis of Miswak shows that it contains trimethylamine, salvadorine, chlorides, fluorides in large amounts, silica, sulphur, vitamin C and small quantities of tannins, saponins, flavenoids and sterols. The techniques employed for removing plaque mechanically are similar to that for the toothbrush and the chewing stick like vertical and horizontal brushing. The cleaning movement should always be directed away from the gingival margin of the teeth (away from the gums) on both the outer cheek and lingual inner cheek surfaces. Care should be taken to avoid damaging the soft tissues of the mouth. miswak is similar to the modern day toothbrush

69 dirty mouth

completely biodegradable and grown on trees.

redesigning our smiles

should be whitish-brown in color.


brightness scale


dirty mouth

71

redesigning our smiles


brightness scale

miswak Miswak has been used for centuries as a chewstick used to clean th e teeth. Now you can grow this toothbrush t ree in your own home.

$0.99 per seed package

$12.99 per potted plant


The miswak is a natural toothbrush. It is composed of a compact group of minute natural fibers that perform exactly the same job as a normal toothbrush except that it is made of natural fibers and not plastic ones. For this reason it may well be gentler on the gums. It is taken from the roots and branches of particular desert trees. It differs from one region to another, but in Arabia and Asia it is taken from the Arak tree, also known as the Neem Tree. This is the most well known variety. It’s scientific name is Salvadora Persica. It is a tree that grows in hot equatorial countries, especially in desert valleys. It is widespread in the South of Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Sudan, Egypt and elsewhere. Salvador Persica is an upright evergreen small tree or shrub, seldom more than one foot in diameter reaching maximum height of three meters. The leaves are small, oval, thick and succulent with a strong smell cress or mustard. the neem tree can grow almost anywhere.

73 dirty mouth

before man had even thought of plastic, nature had provided the perfect toothbrush that grew on trees.

redesigning our smiles

introducing the miswak.


brightness scale

front.

the

logo

is

an

organic

shape

communicating

the idea behind the miswak . nature has given us knowledge and tools to reach for. the green color

is

familiar

to

the

consumer

in

dental

packaging . colors are also to be adjusted for

additional flavors such as mint , basil , or natural .


back.

the entire cover is embossed into the pulp and reflects the simplicity of the product . the color filling the logo is made of

100%

soy based inks .

the back of the carton contains material that can be changed and is composed of non toxic soy based inks . the packaging feels biodegradable and rough .


brightness scale

Printed on 100% recycled paper

Labels are affixed using a soy

with soy based inks, the inserts

based glue which is non toxic

are information on how to use the

to the environment and quickly

miswak, but also raise awareness

biodegradable in composting

about environmental issues.

an planted situations.


the packaging of the miswak needs to clearly reflect the product itself. the packaging should seek to encourage knowledge of sustainability while still being attractive and useful . just like the miswak .

All Miswak boxes are made from the same recycled unbleached molded pulp that is used for egg cartons and for shipping padding.

All Miswak boxes are made from the same recycled unbleached molded pulp that is used for egg

redesigning our smiles

cartons and for shipping padding.

dirty mouth

77


brightness scale


the miswak keeps giving and giving . think about how many miswaks one neem tree could provide for a community and how many plastic toothbrushes

redesigning our smiles

it will keep from sitting in a landfill forever.

dirty mouth

79


brightness scale

easy to use, easy to grow another. the miswak is often referred to as a chew stick, and that is it’s function in the simplest form, a stick you chew on that cleans.

The miswak is relatively simple to use. Initually some bark must be trimmed off the edge of the stick, then the end is gently chewed until the fibers become brush like. Start brushing horizontally, pushing the brush up and down over the teeth, then brush vertically being sure to touch all surfaces of the teeth. After brushing wash the tip and store in a clean place. If stick becomes dry or brittle, soak in water overnight to soften. After the miswak looses flavor, cut off brush end and start again. When finished the miswak can be composted or tossed, as it will biodegrade and go back into the earth, feeding the soil and growing more plants. The miswak sustains itself, forever and ever. how simple is that?


brightness scale


Kristen Haff Academy of Art University 79 New Montgomery San Francisco 94108 Bindery: The Key Bindery Typefaces: Gotham, Gotham Rounded Software: Adobe Creative Suite OS: Mac OSX Printer: H&H Imagine Instructior: Tom Sieu Class: Print 2 R3 (Rethink/Reimagine/Redesign) is a collaborative effort by the graphic design students at the Academy of Art University to promote sustainable design. Our creative process not only focuses on redesigning better things, but on better experiences as well. This latest collection of R3 projects demonstrates each student's careful consideration, unique abilities, innovative solutions and earnest desire to create better experiences through products.



Dirty Mouth