Page 1

CONTESTED PERIPHERIES

Bryn Lee

A report on:

The production of peripheries involving rigorous mapping methodologies to reveal conditions and social experience...


Extract

“This atelier aims to capture how design, architectural practices and material interventions are involved in the production of peripheries in today’s metropolises. It seeks to critically assess how the notion of periphery has shifted in the last 20 years, shaping a new kind of research agenda for architecture. We will explore how peripheries are produced, examining the process of innovation, addressing the modes of articulation that enable new forms of socio-material expressions to emerge. This atelier, thus, intends to read and understand the periphery through its multiple meanings and across conceptual, political and material registers. It will do so through theoretical readings and seminars and material master classes that approach the periphery from a variety of angles, as well as through the confrontation with concrete cases: Stockport/Cheshire and Brussels. These sites serve

�

as vehicles for understanding and testing peripheral tactics.


Stages of Investigation First Impression

2

Beginning Vs End 8

Is there an end? 10

Stockport Vs Cheshire 12 How do we define Urban and Rural?

14

Evolution of investigation 16 Establishing Pole to Pole 18 Revealing Continuity

20

Evolution of Understanding | Overlaying

22

A tool for analysis

24


Brussels Master Class - RE:Work 26

Extract 26 Introduction 26 Methodology 28

A CDU in the city 30

The site: Batelage 32 Process 32 CDU in the city

34

System Strategy 38 Function of the CDU centre

40

Summary - Stockport/Cheshire Vs Brussels 42 Bibliography 44


First Impression


“What is experienced negatively as fragmentation and incoherence through the inhability to perceive the whole can also be perceived as a high degree of complexity through richness in discontinuities of social and physical niches.� Myers, Tracy, Lebbeus Woods, and Karsten Harries. Lebbeus Woods: Experimental Architecture. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Museum of Art, the Heinz Architectural Center, 2004. Print.

CONTESTED PERIPHERIES | 2


First Impression

Neighbourhood

A group of urban tourists on a waste deposit

Image Source: Sieverts, Thomas. Cities without Cities: Between Place and World, Space and Time, Town and Country. London: Routledge, 2002. Print.

Neighbourhood

Small Woodland


“The centre radiates and the periphery absorbs its energy”* It is clear that areas along the periphery are confusing and the dissection of the periphery by motorways and railway enables

spatial sequences which form ‘surprises’ that are more interest-

A new form of city: an increasingly fractured form of boundaries between urban fabric and open space and nature; the gradual disappearance of the transitional hierarchical pattern; and the mutual penetration of built forms and landscapes.**

ing than the event in the form of retail park on its own.

Collection of the fractured points of a periphery [RIGHT] “ ...fragmented in political and administrative terms, which means that they cannot fulfil their major potential (e.g. Regional burdensharing, privatisation, joint development of regional parks and industrial estates, etc.)”**

Notes: * Myers, Tracy, Lebbeus Woods, and Karsten Harries. Lebbeus Woods: Experimental Architecture. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Museum of Art, the Heinz Architectural Center, 2004. Print. ** Sieverts, Thomas. Cities without Cities: Between Place and World, Space and Time, Town and Country. London: Routledge, 2002. Print. P 6.

CONTESTED PERIPHERIES | 4


First Impression A

B

Experienced/ Actual [personal]

A

B

Preconceived idea [personal]

A

B River Mersey

The social experience during transition from one point to another is unclear and almost impossible

Where one element ends and another begins

to determine

A

B


Where does Stockport end and Cheshire Begin? As mentioned in the extract, Stockport/ Cheshire and Brussels have been selected to act as a vehicle to develop an understanding of changing peripheral conditions. Initially the focus will be concerned with Stockport and Cheshire as in depth ethnographic research can be carried out. These two contexts will provide a test bed for analysing and exploring peripheries, taking into account the political, economical, spatial, cultural and social conditions. The variety of conditions found in the above contexts offer a fruitful base for testing and questioning different manifestations of the periphery

Manchester

Warrington

Trafford

[RIGHT] An ethnographic investigation focusing on the first

Stockport

impressions portrayed when moving from one place to another.

A

Initial arbitrary route taken Cheshire boundary set by the LBCE

In particular, attempting to identify where one situation ends and another begins... or not. This exercise simply involved driving/ walking from the centre of Stockport into the defined Cheshire county along an arbitrary route. As it appears in plan view, the fringes of each Local Au-

B

Cheshire West

thority (LA) are clear and prominent and suggests a clear divide between one place and another; where one place ends and another begins. However, the actual social experience proves almost impossible to determine the beginning and end. In sum-

Cheshire East

mary, this initial study highlights that the fringes of one place and another are somewhat blurred and reveals an opportunity to reveal and explore the conditions found along the fringes, in

Note: Boundaries only shown for readers reference. At this stage of investigation NO boundary lines were ‘mentally’ stored

particular edges of Local Authorities.

Map: Local Authority Boundaries set by Local Government Boundary Commission for England (LBCE). Notes: CONTESTED PERIPHERIES | 6


Beginning

vs

End


“ A boundary is a lie that reveals truths. Sharp edges -- distinctions are indispensable to clear thinking. On a map, the UGB looks perfectly clear. It says we are separate. But in fact we are connected.” Peterson, Paul E. City Limits. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1981. Print.

CONTESTED PERIPHERIES | 8


Beginning

Vs

End

Urban

A

B Rural

?

How do we define Urban & Rural River Mersey

1

Representation of experience (Scale 1:1)

Cheshire?

Greater Manchester


Map: Initial red route tracked through GPS device

Is there an end? The previous pages of this document highlight a somewhat broad understanding of peripheries in a wider context. However, In order to obtain further in depth understanding of the ‘periphery’ it was understood that by using the context of Stockport and Cheshire it would be possible to map in detail and un pack the conditions of the periphery. In order to cover a large area in detail a group was formed containing 2 MArch Year 1 students, Alice Taylor, Mariam Iqbal and myself.

Manchester

Warrington

A

Trafford

Stockport

Route taken following the LBCE* boundary line. From A to B (East to West)

Firstly, a relatively direct route was taken from Stockport centre (East) to Preston Brook (West). This route was in close proximity to the Cheshire boarder and allowed us to establish an overall view of the peripheral areas along this route. At this point it was intended that the route be taken with no previous research

Cheshire boundary set by the LBCE

on the route. This allowed the initial analysis of the route to be mapped purely on personal perception of place from point A to B. We were looking for significant signs where one place ends and another begins, again this proved to be un-achievable.

Cheshire West

B

As a result we called the area mapped a ‘peripheral zone’ and decided to re track the route, breaking it down into fragments to

Cheshire East

1

(Scale 1:25,000)

0

assess each area in more detail. [see next page] 0

Notes: CONTESTED PERIPHERIES | 10


Stockport

vs

Cheshire


“Instead of looking to the physical, measurable world around us, we must turn to the social reality: how do people perceive the site they live on? Two issues are relevant to this question: the direct question whether the identity they constructed is rural or not, and whether the social environment they act in has characteristics different from urban social settings.� Terry Van Dijk, 2007, Shades of Urbanity. Available online at http://www.enhr2007rotterdam.nl/documents/W20_ paper_VanDijk_VanderValk.pdf

CONTESTED PERIPHERIES | 12


Kingston upon Hull

Leeds

nchester

Stockport

Sheffield

Vs

The Rural/Urban Local Authority Classification (England)

Cheshire

Major Urban Large Urban Other Urban Significant Rural

Lincoln

?

Rural-50 Rural-80

Newcastle upon Tyne

Carlisle

Stockton-on-Tees

Lancaster Blackpool

Nottingham

Manchester

Liverpool

Kingston upon Hull

Leeds

Sheffield

Lincoln

Nottingham

Stoke-on-Trent

Leicester

Norwich

Birmingham Northampton

Section B

Leicester

Ipswich

Oxford

Section A

Birmingham

Cambridge

Reading Bristol

Norwich

London

Guildford Taunton

Folkestone

Southampton

Exeter Bournemouth Portsmouth

Southend-on-Sea

Brighton and Hove

Plymouth

Source: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/hub/population/migration/international-migration>.

Northampton Section B

Section A Scale 1:10,000

Oxford

Cambridge

Ipswich


How do we define Urban & Rural? In order to fully understand the hidden conditions of the peripheral zone a rigorous mapping, re mapping and overlaying of all sources of information was adopted. At this point arose the question of: is a place urban or rural? Based on sectional drawings and photos it was decided that the continuous patches of urban fabric were neither urban nor rural. This is in contrast to data taken from the Office for National Statistics [LEFT] which defines the area between stockport and Altrincham as ‘major urban’. As illustrated this is the same ‘blanket’ title that has been given to the centre of London and raises questions as to whether the data is misleading. At this stage, it seems that the ‘peri-urban’ Image: Working at macro, meso and micro scales in search for clues and questions

environment is made up of a series of moments, who themselves oscillate little in scale and density in relation to each other, yet alter in tone and social construct. Terry van Dijk discusses that when assessing the environment around us we should address the social reality: how do we perceive the site we/ they live on?

Frey and Zimmer (2001) a state of "peri-urbanity".

Frey, W.H., Zimmer, Z. (2001), Defining the City, in: Paddison, R., Handboek of Urban Studies, Sage Publications: London, 14-35.

We began to question whether the notion of urban and rural can be accurately applied to the peripheral zone based purely on quantitative data represented in plan and in turn began to search for a method to incorporate social perception, qualitative, as well as quantitative data.

Scale 1:10,000 Notes: CONTESTED PERIPHERIES | 14


06/10/2012 Previous Route + Manchester to Shrewbury via Cheshire

Stockport Vs Cheshire Evolution of Investigation

Datum Point (Stockport Centre)

20/09/2012 Arbitrary route from Stockport to Cheshire

30/09/2012 Previous Route + Preston to Manchester via Warrington 64 Miles

24/09/2012 Stockport to Preston Brook | 40 Miles


08/10/2012 Previous Route + Manchester to Warrington

Summary of Route Stockport to Preston Brook, 24/09/12, 40miles Preston to Manchester via Warrington, 30/09/12, 64 miles Manchester to Shrewsbury via Cheshire, 06/10/12, 153 miles Manchester to Warrington, 08/10/12, 52 miles The GPS maps to the left highlight the routes taken in order to build a library of images and recordings. A series of journeys in and around the area of focus contributed to further understanding fabric. As a group we felt his type of methodology was key to enable us to construct, analyse and draw conclusions regarding the nature of this new typology of land/ space.

River Mersey

Cheshire West Cheshire East

Map: Red route tracked through GPS device across a 3 week period Notes: CONTESTED PERIPHERIES | 16


Stockport Vs Cheshire Establishing Pole to Pole


A tool for understanding & relaying of information

Zone criteria and research tool establishment

Establish a tool for analysis at a specific point Ability to layer over policy/ limitations (quantitative data) for immediate side by side analysis Build up a record of social interpretation vs prescribed quantitative data Enable ability to map with specific reference to any point from East to West

At this stage in the research process it must be understood that the research carried out was intentionally predominantly qualitative, and it was our intent to relay and diagram based on rigorous ethnographic recordings and representations of the peripheral zone. This has allowed us to build up a knowledge

Can a place be accurately understood with one piece of data be read in isolation?

based on perceptual opinions which we can now begin to overlay and dissect information. As a group of three we understood that it was possible for us to further map along the Cheshire boarder yet within a strategic refined zone of interest. Based through on-site research and simple maps [previous pages] a strong sense of horizontality emerged. The East/ West

C

area between Stockport and Warrington was highlighted as a

Social experience as a series of moments recorded

natural axis for further investigation as Stockport in contained by Derbyshire to the East (largely hilly and un developed) and Warrington which is bound by estuaries and wetlands to the West. In addition the zone is bounded substantially by the M62 to the North and the M56 to the south accentuated by the

B

Manchester Ship canal following a near identical route.

Massing leads to misinterpretation (loss of detail) Ship Canal

M56

A

Literal representation

Sketch based on highlighting horizontality and containment of the zone by various natural and man made 窶話oundaNotes: CONTESTED PERIPHERIES | 18


CHESHIRE

Stockport Vs Cheshire Revealing Continuity

Repetition (and difference) “No rhythm without repetition in time and space, without reprises, without returns ... But there is no identical absolute repetition, indefinitely. Whence the relation between repetition and difference ... Not only does repetition not exclude differences, it also gives birth to them; it produces them� Lefebvre 2004: 6-7


GREATER MANCHESTER

Why is the code appropriate? Although it was our intention to relay the experience of the peripheral zone, we also wanted to represent the notion of duration, made famous by Bergson:

“never as unitary and cohesive as Bergson (2004) suggested, but fragmented and made up of disparate elements”* The code [ABOVE] begins to highlight the fragmented nature of the peripheral zone based in the rules set on the previous page. The code avoids the rigid boundaries so obvious in a map and in turn relays instances of an actual experience in space and time.

“The stress on the mode of analysis is what is meant by the rhythmalanlysis, rather than an analysis of rhythms.”*

Notes: * Elden, S., 2004. 1st ed. Translation, Rhythmnalysis. pp. xii CONTESTED PERIPHERIES | 20


I N F O R M AT I O N O V E R L AY

Stockport Vs Cheshire Evolution of Understanding | Overlaying

CHESHIRE

Dotted lines highlight boundaries set by the LBCE.

Qualitative Data (Social experience) Data B Conservation restrictions (CR)

Quantitative Data (ONS)

Hybrid Understanding

Warrington

Green Belt (GB)

Data C

CR

CR

CR GB

CR

20,000 18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8000

Lymm Warrington (centre)

6000 4000 2000 0 POPULATION DENSITY

“An aspect of this indicator that receives suprisingly little attention is the issue of scale: how large should a grid-cel be of which population density is measured? On what scale are we measuring? The more we zoom out the less rurality is measured in a urbanised country. The larger the gridcel, the less geographical variation is measured. For instance: a gridcel containing one whole country would probably calculate a population density that will be classified as rural, although several cities may be included. The other extreme would be a

!"#$"%#&"'&()*+

3m*

1 mi*

3 mi*

Bridging the analysis of types for information extraction

CR


Conservation restrictions (CR) Green Belt (GB)

20,000 18,000

Code: The change in rhythm, pace, or magnitude indicates alterations in the environment: socially, spatially, or in tone. A translations of our observations and encounters.

Conservation restrictions (CR) Green Belt (GB)

20,000 18,000 16,000 14,000

Conservation area Green Development New tram link

16,000

Population density people/mi2

Unitary development plan 20,000

Green Belt (GB)

CR

12,000

CR

10,000 Warrington (centre) 8000 6000 4000 2000

18,000

0

16,000 CR

Method of deducing population density

14,000 Conservation restrictions (CR)

POPULATION DENSITY

14,000

-

!"#$"%#&"'&()*+

CR

12,000

CR

GB

CR

GB

CR

GB

10,000 Warrington (centre) 8000 6000 4000 2000 0

3 mi*

POPULATION DENSITY

-

!"#$"%#&"'&()*+

12,000 Lymm

10,000 Warrington (centre) 8000 6000 4000 2000 0

3 mi*

POPULATION DENSITY

-

!"#$"%#&"'&()*+ 3m*

1 mi*

3 mi*

CR

CR

GREATER MANCHESTER

CR GB

CR

GB

CR

GB GB

GB

Altrincham

Trafford

Manchester

Lymm

Stockport

Bowdon Timperley

Population Density of LA (

Baguley

Warringto Gatley

Tra ord 3m* 3m*

3m*

Manchest

1 mi*

1 mi*

Stockport

1.5 mi * 2 mi*

GB

GB

CR

GB

GB

CR

Altrincham

Bowdon Stockport

Timperley Baguley

Cheadle

Gatley

3m* 3m*

1 mi*

1 mi*

1.5 mi* 2 mi*

3 mi*

Notes: CONTESTED PERIPHERIES | 22


Dotted lines highlight boundaries set by the LBCE.

CHESHIRE Warrington

Stockport Vs Cheshire A Tool for Analysis Swatch 2

“A tool for analysis rather than just an object of it...”

10%

90%

Elden, S., 2004. 1st ed. Translation, Rhythmnalysis. pp. xii

Economic activity

Context responsive programme In contrast to An Urban Portrait’s methodological approach of random ‘drills’, it was our intention to use the poles of Stockport and Warrington as a tool to identify changing conditions and shifts from urban to rural in a pragmatic way. The above code allows us to isolate varying gradients in context an contributes to graphically representing fragmented yet continuous nature of the fabric between each pole. The “notion of duration is never as unitary and cohesive [...] but fragmentary and made up of disparate elements.

Condition 2: Lymm

Residential activity


GREATER MANCHESTER Trafford

Manchester

Stockport Population Density of LA (Local

Warrington Tra ord Manchester Stockport

Swatch 3

Swatch 1

50%

Looking beyond physical conditions

50%

Zoomed in view/ isolated analysis

Previously the code above acted as a representation of social experience from East to West across the peripheral zones of Cheshire and Greater Manchester . However with further layering of qualitative and quantitate data

Criteria A Economic/ Industrial activity

Condition 1: Baguley

Criteria B Residential activity

the code begins to evolve into a tool which can allow for accurate ‘de fragging’ of precise areas in between the highlighted poles of Stockport and Warrington. For example Swatch 1 which is on

12

the border of Manchester, Trafford and Cheshire [LEFT]. From what was an initial macro scale study now facilitates rigorous meso and micro analysis at any point and is but by any means

Conflict in scale

Programme time scales depending on activity

12

6

inconclusive. This is in contrast to the methodology undertaken in the study ‘Switzerland - An Urban Portrait’* where the maps

12

12

12

Morning/ Evening

Morning

Evening

6

6

6

highlight peripheral zones yet struggle to deduce usable data at which we can begin to understand the periphery, fringe, edge in greater detail.

12

Notes: CONTESTED PERIPHERIES | 24 6

6


Brussels Master Class/ RE:Work

MAKING PLACE FOR INDUSTRY, LOGISTICS AND WHOLESALE IN BRUSSELS

Extract: “Organized by the ULB and VUB (Erasmushogeschool Brussel), the RE:WORK International Master Class will work on creating favorable conditions in Brussels for the reintroduction of strong relations between the city and its employment centres, and for the creation of new hybrid typologies and efficient functional mixing where needed. By extension, as the main challenges faced by 21st century European cities converge in Brussels, the developed reflections and strategies will serve to inspire European cities in their reflection on how the next urban economy could take form on their own soil.”

Source: GRAU

“Economy and City on the Periphery of Brussels, in the centre of logistical economic activity”


WORK

MAST E R C LAS S S IT E PAC KAG E BATE L AG E

Introduction

This necessary coexistence has been the source of many debates in Brussels planning. Already the first strategic planning document focusing on Brussels (Regional Spatial Plan 1, 1995) stated the need for new forms of hybridity between housing and economic activity. This prescription however was not a priority:

Brussels, like many other European cities, is engaging a thorough reflection to develop ambitious policies for a better future. The stakes are high, as five major challenges define the conditions for an augmented metropolis: the creation of new, affordable housing to accommodate demographic growth; the development of a more diverse economy to offer prospects to all members of society; an integrated and efficient mobility policy; the design of new public facilities to improve quality of life and cohesion in the city, and the redevelopment of Brownfield areas into vibrant parts of the city. The Brussels Master Classes aim at involving students and young professionals in the prospective debates on the pending transformations of the capital of Europe, each Master Class taking as a starting point one of these five major challenges. As such, the 2012 Brussels Master Class will focus on how architecture and urbanism can contribute to the development of a new urban economy. Recent evolutions in industrial activity as well as in Brussels’ urban condition are calling for a new, more

planning documents of the last two decades have focused mainly on the protection and promotion of housing in the city, which had long been threatened by the rush towards tertiary activity. As the pressure on the city from demographic growth keeps increasing, the balance has now shifted: new zoning regulations, allowing for mixed use in formerly industrial zones, are risking to wipe up economic activity due to more lucrative real estate operations in the housing sector. Aware of this risk, planners are struggling to find a concrete balance between these essential urban functions. Nurturing a diverse economy means thinking beyond zoning or a mere tertiary economy. It means bringing manufacture and industry into the urban debate. How did industry evolve in recent decades? How can it coexist with, or even reinforce, other urban functions and commodities? This question is highly architectural. For policy makers to develop accurate visions and strategies, concrete proposals are needed to feed their imagination and ambition.

diversified economic model, a model in which industry will need to find new ways of coexisting with the city and the metropolitan condition.

CONTESTED PERIPHERIES | 26


Brussels Master Class/ RE:Work Methodology

CHALLENGE

TO START

Manage to think both space (m3) and economy (m2) city (red) and economic activity (blue)

Separate Architecture and Urbanism

DATA

Architecture and Urbanism cannot function without each other but need to push their own boundaries in order to better unite for the project and the city.

Each group receives a site-specific package, containing all the information needed to start designing and economic activity (blue)


WEEK 2

The Architect stays in his parcel, understanding and challenging architectural programs.

The Architects and the Urbanists unite, confronting their ideas. Together, they define the scale of the project and its objective – they have to discuss the relationship between each other. On some sites one may win over the other, on other sites, there may be a perfect balance.

50 m

WEEK 1

300 m

WOR K IN P RO GR ES S Each day ends with a small pinup (5 A5) explaining the current state of work.

The Urbanist plays around the parcel, understanding and challenging the city, drawing the urban situation in a speculative way

WORK IN PROGRESS 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Each day ends with a small pinup (5 A5) explaining the current state of work.

At the end of the masterclass there will be 50 A5 of process

Notes: *Diagrams above provided by GRAU. They acted as an representation example which was to be adopted throughout the 2 week Master Class for each site.

CONTESTED PERIPHERIES | 28


The Situation (Brussels) Brussels Master Class/ RE:Work The Situation - Batelage

Challenge: How can City support Economic activity? It is important to maintain zones of economic activity within the city. With the possibility of a new CDU (Central Distribution Centre) being implemented at Batelage the site will be further strengthened as an activity zone. The city needs to adapt to the economy and find ways to offer urban conditions in favour of economic activity.

Red = City Blue = Economy


How can the city support economic activity? SITES

1. How dense in economic activity could Batelage become ? 2. How could the canal locally act as an infrastructure for economy

5 . BAT E L AGE

? 3. Could the implementation of a CDU at Batelage strengthen its position?

SITES

as a major central activity zone ? 4. What would be the impact of a new CDU on the large urban

5 . BAT E L AGE

environment ? The question of large-scale retail and of urban logistics is crucial to the development of any prosperous metropolis. As such, vivid debates are ongoing as to the creation of an Urban Distribution Centre in Brussels. Where and how can such a large- scale infrastructure be implemented in a city-region of limited size? It is important to maintain zones of economic activity within the city. With the possibility of a new CDU being implemented at Batelage the site will be further strengthened as an activity zone. The city needs to adapt to the economy and find ways to offer urban

C h al le n ge : How can City support Economic activity? It is important to maintain zones of economic activity within the city. With the possibility of a new CDU being implemented at Batelage the site will be further strengthened as an activity zone. The city needs to adapt to the economy and find ways to offer urban conditions in favor of Scale: 1:10,000 economic activity.

conditions in favour of economic activity. Architects: Could a CDU produce urbanity ? Urbanists: What could be the role of urban logistics for the city of tomorrow ?

C h al le n ge : How can City support Economic activity? It is important to maintain zones of economic activity within the city. With the possibility a new CDUand being implemented at Batelage the Exiting situation:ofEconomy City existing side by side site will be further strengthened as an activity zone. The city needs to adapt to the economy and find ways to offer urban conditions in favor of economic activity.

Notes: * Site map provided by GRAU CONTESTED PERIPHERIES | 30


2 SHIFTING CENTERS

?

TYPES OF URBANITY

?

?

300M

COMPACT CITY

It is important to maintain zones of economic activity within the city. With the possibility of a new CDU being implemented at Batelage the site will be further strengthened as an activity zone. The city needs to adapt to the economy and find ways to offer urban conditions in favor of economic activity.

OLD NATO = NEW URBANITY ? two shifting centers

135 000 m2 110 000 m2

0 1

P

55 000 m2

C hallenge: How can City support Economic activity?

2

3

4

5

6

1350 dwellings 4 000 cars

7

8

9

THE CANAL AS A SPINE

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

ACCOMODATION

P

55 000 m2

?

FACILITIES RETAIL Tomorrow

LOGISTICS ENTRETAIMENT

OFFICES

HOUSING the canal as a spine THE TYPOLOGY PLAYGROUND

UE

EN

AV

S

LE

JU

ET

RD

BO

AN

LA

A

ME

IS

NN

IO

SS

RE

XP

E V.

LN

the typology playground

135 000 m2 110 000 m2

P

55 000 m2

Batelage a central periphery (Urban Machine) 1350 dwellings 5 000 cars

The site of Batelage can be understood as peripheral environment located within a central urban context, a site in which both residential dwellings and the logistics of industry exist.

P

55 000 m2

150 000 m2

0 1 2

3

4

5 6

7

8

FACILITIES RETAIL

P/S = 0,8

3

While in a normal situation the economics of industry and the necessities of residential housing would struggle to co-exist, the presence of the waterway acts as a tool to mediate between the two typologies, creating an interrelationship between the environments of both.

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

ACCOMODATION

5. BATEL AGE

LOGISTICS ENTRETAIMENT

Through careful architectural design the canal can find a place in both the processes of living and in the operation of economic activity, creating place for living working and urbanity. Working together the site manifests itself into a metaphorical ‘urban machine’ a unique genius loci.

OFFICES HOUSING

WHAT KIND OF ACTIVITY IN THE "WEAK CITY" ? WHAT KIND OF URBANITY ?

URBAN MECHANISM

S I T ES

Brussels Master Class/ RE:Work Process

BIGNESS

WEAK CITY

Big warehouses around a small commons facilities

Medium warehouses with own medium facilities

urban mechanism

urban machine

Small office around a big common space


= CDU

(Centre de Distribution Urbaine) C

N

B

10ha

980

URBAN MACHINE INTERSECTION

URBAN MACHINE INTERSECTION

BLACK ACTIVITY LINK

BLACK ACTIVITY LINK

process was imperative. This methodology formed the outcome.

560

GRIDDED GRADIENT

30ha

180

80

2000

70

= 50ha

RAIL

CANAL

N

D

Across the 2 weeks a rigorous recording of ALL drawings and

GRIDDED GRADIENT

W C

= 50ha

RAIL

CANAL

180

E

PROPOSED (Blau)

B

30ha

1000

15% 5% 80%

60 50

+

E

30 20

+

+

A

40

+

750 The images to the left form a collection of sketches and diagrams 7.5ha

10

CURRENT (Grau)

W

aimed at explaining a process or idea. The purpose was for all

D

A

E

CDU EXISTING

E

CDU EXISTING

= CDU

= CDU (Centre de Distribution Urbaine)

S

15% 5% 80%

(Centre de Distribution Urbaine)

S

CDU POTENTIAL

PROPOSED (Blau)

CDU POTENTIAL

URBAN MACHINE INTERSECTION

BLACK ACTIVITY LINK

range of academics, government officials and statisticians to take part 30ha in discussion.

12. CDU is an urban machine

8. CDU in the city

1000

10ha drawings to be relatively simple yet descriptive. This allowed for a 980

560 180

GRIDDED GRADIENT

C

N

B C

+

+

CANAL

N

B

RAIL

CANAL RAIL

= 50ha

E

E

W W

CURRENT (Grau)

D

D

A

A

= CDU

(Centre de Distribution Urbaine)

CDU EXISTING

E

15% 5% 80%

S

CDU POTENTIAL

CDU EXISTING

E

S

CDU POTENTIAL

@

PROPOSED

95%

C

N

B

10. CDU is a campus

E

During the 2 week period I was positioned on the side of the Urbanists within a group of 4. It was our intention to establish the role of the CDU within the city and to establish the ‘bigger picture’. It was our understanding that the CDU acted as a facilitator for further activity within the city (RED) of Brussels, enabling further economic activity (BLUE) and introducing a new activity (BLACK). The black activity was considered to be a bridging element between economy and city which would avoid introducing mixed use programmes which would conflict with large scale economic activity.

13. CDU is an urban machine

W D

A

2000 750

7.5ha UN BUILTCDU SPACE EXISTING

E

S

CDU POTENTIAL

BLACK ACTIVITY LINK

1000

CDU as a system

INTERSECTIONS

10ha

980

30ha

180

ACTIVITY GRADIENT

560 URBAN MACHINE INTERSECTION

BLACK ACTIVITY LINK

GRIDDED GRADIENT

CURRENT (Grau)

= 50ha

Parking

Self storage

Restaurant

+

+

PROPOSED (Blau)

15% 5% 80%

14. CDU campus

11. CDU is an urban machine

CURRENT (Grau) loading

CDU recycles Self storage

mani pula tion

= CDU

office

Leisure facilities

stockage

15% 5% 80%

off loading 5 ha 45 ha

(Centre de Distribution Urbaine)

PROPOSED

95%

Park & ride

Car Wash

95% C

N

B

URBAN MACHINE INTERSECTION

BLACK ACTIVITY LINK

15. Numbers

7. CDU Related Program

E

GRIDDED GRADIENT

@

Enterprise

Parking

80

CDU economics

W

Self storage

70 60

URBAN MACHINE INTERSECTION

50

BLACK ACTIVITY LINK

GRIDDED GRADIENT

Restaurant

40 30

D

+

A

20

+

10

2000 +

+

7.5ha

loading

1712

7.5ha CDU EXISTING

E

2000

642 2 ha

750

mani pula tion

Self storage

S

office

= CDU (Centre de Distribution Urbaine)

5 ha

CDU POTENTIAL

636

45 ha

1000

272

10ha

= CDU

15% 5% 80%

(Centre de Distribution Urbaine)

43 ha Park & ride

Enterprise

N

30ha

180

Car Wash

CANAL

E

980

560

980

C

C

1000 10ha

PROPOSED (Blau)

N

B

B

750

CURRENT (Grau)

Leisure facilities

stockage

off loading

RAIL

560

W D

CANAL

E

RAIL

= 50ha

CONTESTED PERIPHERIES | 32


Brussels Master Class/ RE:Work CDU in The City C B

W

CDU’s are designed to serve only a CBD or central areas well inside the city, the D

facilities can be sited either in inner city or outer locations. A typical example

A

of the first case is La Rochelle, France, with the UDC located by the train station and next to the historic centre (Gerardin, 2007, p.13). An opposite example is Bristol where the CDU is close to a strategic road network (M4 and M32)

E

and deliveries to its client base require a

CDU EXISTING CDU POTENTIAL

25-minute drive to the commercial district of Broadmead.

Proposed Strategy for Brussels

S


How can the city support economic activity? The contributions of the urban freight transport system to the economic vitality of a city are significant, spanning from the its role in connecting nodes (e.g. Suppliers, retailers, endusers, etc.) in various supply chains, to retaining industrial and commercial activities and associated jobs, to strengthening the overall competitiveness of a region. However, urban freight

What is a CDU? “An urban distribution centre is a facility involving the trans-shipment of goods directed to urban areas, aiming to consolidate deliveries, and thus provide greater efficiency in the distribution process by increasing the truck load factor and decreasing the number of trucks used, which help mitigate urban congestion and air pollution.”*

movement does not come without costs, including externalities

scale diminish from the point the vehicle has left the road network (Lewis, et al, 2010). This inefficiency refers to the “small order problem” with urban deliveries and collections often involving only a small number of parcels and hence vehicles operate below their maximum carrying capacity or less than full truckloads (LTL). UDCs are seen as one way to solve this inefficiency by bringing together different parties engaged in “small orders” distribution to collaborate in joint-deliveries from a common urban freight platform.

such as traffic congestion and/or noise and air pollution as well as private losses such as additional fuel and labour costs during stop-and-go traffic and fees or penalties accrued during legal or double-parking). Minimizing the negative impacts of delivery trips in congested urban areas while achieving seamless and reliable goods distribution is arguably a daunting task. With the increasing density of residential and economic activity typical of large cities, the distribution of goods to retailers and final consumers enters the realm of paradox, becoming both something essential as well as a growing nuisance for urban dwellers (Anderson et al., 2005). In an effort to achieve greater efficiency in urban logistics, a number of cities in Europe and Japan have implemented Urban Distribution Centres (UDCs) and Urban Consolidation Centres (UCCs) schemes, which enable the cooperation among shippers, carriers, and retailers to consolidate deliveries, thus requiring a lower number of delivery trips by trucks between a distribution centre and final delivery destinations, while achieving the same throughput (BESTUFS, 2007; Browne, et al, 2005). Such schemes can address the “last mile” or “final mile” problem – often the most expensive leg of a delivery journey since economies of

Notes: * http://wagner.nyu.edu/rudincenter/publications/URBAN DISTRIBUTION CENTERSA MEANS TO REDUCING FREIGHT VEHICLE MILES TRAVELED.pdf CONTESTED PERIPHERIES | 34


CDU economics 642 2 ha

Brussels Master Class/ RE:Work CDU in The City

1712 636

43 ha

272

The sketch to the right discusses the potential for the CDU in the city in relation to connections with the wider context. We began to discuss the role of the CDU as a facility or system which serves Brussels centre through import of goods from the south: Charleroi (Airport) Lille Paris The connections with the above areas would be by rail, road, water and air which all concentrate at the intersection, Batelage

CDU and Nearby Surroundings, establishing relationships with the existing context


Why in the city centre of Brussels? Although the brief provided by the Master Class specified that the site was to include a CDU, we wanted to understand why. It may be criticised that the location within the city centre could be used for an alternate ‘Urban’ activity, however part of our process was to highlight and identify the potential based on existing programme and location. The industrial area of Batelage is currently an isolated island in-between two neighbourhoods of the city of Brussels. By introducing a large-scale Urban Distribution Centre within the industrial site, a new identity and urban role is defined for the site establishing it’s importance in the context of the city of Brussels. As highlighted on page 30 there is a significant amount of economic activity which functions on a day to day cycle supplying the city independently. The overall size of the site is 1000m x 4000m (approx), with a residual land area of 50%. Our strategy was to work with existing buildings within the area of focus and to establish a programme or ‘campus’ which would minimise impact and also highlight the ability to work with existing and proposed transport networks to supply the city sustainably through consolidation of the distribution process.

CDU and Nearby Surroundings, establishing relationships with the exisitng context

Notes: * Numbers based on statistics provided within the package CONTESTED PERIPHERIES | 36


Brussels Master Class/ RE:Work System Strategy The image to the right highlights the areas of suggested intervention with Blue and Black activity whilst working with the Red activity. As previously explained before, the site is economically active and we have proposed to work with this existing activity. The heavy blue indicates new introductions of economic activity, forming the centre of the manipulation and distribution activity within the campus. This new blue activity is bridged with Black activity enabling a transition from economic activity to city activity (Blue/ Red gradient). The Black activity programme consists of large scale programmes, such like, concert venues and outlet shopping centres which require large space which is not commonly available within the city. Altogether these activities sit within the intersection of all modes of existing transport (grey) maintaining a connection with the wider city.


Strategy Summary The CDU is not a building but a campus, which will organise and stimulate the singular buildings of the area and convert former borders such as the canal, boulevard and railways into arteries, which reach out into the city. With a new organisation of the area, each use of the city has its controlled place and role. An urban machine rises, combining logistics, production, transport, sales and services into one as a whole. Developing in time and space and by opening borders paradoxically the CDU or ‘urban machine’ goes towards defining the site, creating its own genius loci. The CDU runs in parallel with new infrastructure that is required for the ‘system’ to operate as a whole. The insertion of a tramline creates an inner spine that connects three distinct CDU-zones as well as second tramline leading the traveler from Anderlecht along a sequence of small-scale industrial initiatives to the centre of Vorst. Instead of giving a solution for a logistics centre within the city, here we understand logistics as a way of making new urban relationships both for the site of Batelage, and the wider Brussels region.

CONTESTED PERIPHERIES | 38


Brussels Master Class/ RE:Work Function of The CDU Centre

urban machine

Original concept: Urban Machine intersection

Plan: Strategy Axo


Detail Strategy - CDU Centre As a group we took the stance of establishing a strategy which would contribute to future proofing Brussels through logistics in a wider context, using the CDU as a facilitator for further activity. However, it was important that we began to discuss the interaction the CDU would have within the local context of the site. Due to existing canal infrastructure we utilised the ability to import container goods from the south into our campus plan. The image to the left explores the manipulation of goods and discusses how shipments can be re distributed into other transport networks which serve the city. The proposal takes into account the phenomenon of internet shopping and incorporates city activity (people) through collection of parcels which have been manipulated within the CDU (see diagram on page 34) to be managed at a human scale.

@

Plan: Canal level

Instead of giving a solution for a logistics centre within the city, here we understand logistics as a way of making new urban relationships both for the site of Batelage, and the wider Brussels region.

CONTESTED PERIPHERIES | 40


Summary - Stockport/ Cheshire Economy and City within the periphery

vs

Brussels

There is currently a shift occurring within the peripheries of our cities as social constructs and physical realities collide. The re-development of suburbia holds enormous promise both as an adaptation to changing sociology and in the potential for a more sustainable approach to existing forms of development. Multidisciplinary approaches to architecture and urban design will be critical in how this transformation takes shape...


In order to interpret and understand peripheries in the

utilising the code and explore the cycle of rhythms and

context of Stockport and Cheshire we undertook a rigorous

breaks in the periphery, in particular the connections

investigation through ethnographic studies and recordings

between industrial and nonindustrial - Economy and City.

in the ‘periphery’. As a group we addressed the following themes of:

I aim to continue to work with Alice as a duo to maintain the analytical input of the code. At the same time I wish to

Urban and Rural | Qualitative & Quantitative | Continuity

begin to use the code as a way to potentially revel potential

These themes fed into the development of a tool which

of an ‘intervention’. I believe that the code should act as

is enabling us to re-represent social perception in a form that can initiate further understanding of the periphery through layering of data, both qualitative and quantitative. Through research of policy documents we became aware

ideal types and characteristics and test these in the form a bridging of conditions and types (not literal) to reveal a hybrid condition in the same way as the black element, from the Master Class, bridges economy and city.

of the overuse of statistics and questioned whether data of this type, in isolation, could be misleading without a qualitative element. The tool/ code has enabled us to visually detect conditions at a point and allows us to identify types and characteristics at a specific place along the code, maintaining the experimental element. In short we understood the code to be a process rather than a form, revealing ruptures along the way. The Brussels Master Class contributed in two ways: Methodology | Bridging Economy and City through strategy The element of economy and city is an interesting subject to compare to our existing research on Stockport and Cheshire and begins to highlight the ways in which both economy and city function through cycles of varying scales in programme and activity. I aim to continue the ethnographic and scientific analysis

CONTESTED PERIPHERIES | 42


Bibliography


Terry Van Dijk, 2007, Shades of Urbanity. Available online at http://www.enhr2007rotterdam.nl/documents/W20_paper_VanDijk_VanderValk.pdf Frey, W.H., Zimmer, Z. (2001), Defining the City, in: Paddison, R., Handboek of Urban Studies, Sage Publications: London, 14-35. Myers, Tracy, Lebbeus Woods, and Karsten Harries. Lebbeus Woods: Experimental Architecture. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Museum of Art, the Heinz Architectural Center, 2004. Print. Sieverts, Thomas. Cities without Cities: Between Place and World, Space and Time, Town and Country. London: Routledge, 2002. Print. P 6. Peterson, Paul E. City Limits. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1981. Print. Elden, S., 2004. 1st ed. Translation, Rhythmnalysis. pp. xii BESTUFS project database; Project Description - Joint Distribution Center; Accessed online on Novermber 10 2012 Toshinori Nemoto (1997); Area-Wide Inter-carrier Consolidation of Freight in Urban Areas; Transport Logistics, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 87-101 Stuart, Keri (2010) Sustainable Urban Distribution – Draft Report. Prepared by Colin Buchanan and Partners, Limited for SEStran (July, 2010). Accessed online on August 18, 2010:http://www.sestran.gov.uk/uploads/Sustainable%20Urban%20Distribution%20draft%2 0Report.pdf

INCOMPLETE

CONTESTED PERIPHERIES | 44


Contested Peripheries - Bryn Lee  

Portfolio part 1

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